Carotid Artery Injuries
Carotid Artery, Internal
Carotid Artery Thrombosis
Carotid Artery, Common
Carotid Artery Diseases
Carotid Artery, External
Vascular System Injuries
Wounds and Injuries
Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex
Arterial Occlusive Diseases
Ischemic Attack, Transient
Magnetic Resonance Angiography
Spinal Cord Injuries
Disease Models, Animal
Angiography, Digital Subtraction
Coronary Artery Bypass
Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation
Middle Cerebral Artery
Myocytes, Smooth Muscle
Blood Flow Velocity
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
Injury Severity Score
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial
Circle of Willis
Carotid Body Tumor
Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis
Predictive Value of Tests
Retinal Artery Occlusion
Severity of Illness Index
Acute Lung Injury
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Mesenteric Artery, Superior
Cranial Nerve Injuries
Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery
Endothelial implants inhibit intimal hyperplasia after porcine angioplasty. (1/784)The perivascular implantation of tissue-engineered endothelial cells around injured arteries offers an opportunity to study fundamental vascular physiology as well as restore and improve tissue function. Cell source is an important issue because the ability to implant either xenogeneic or allogeneic cells would greatly enhance the clinical applications of tissue-engineered grafts. We investigated the biological and immunological responses to endothelial cell xenografts and allografts in pigs 4 weeks after angioplasty of the carotid arteries. Porcine or bovine aortic endothelial cells were cultured within Gelfoam matrices and implanted in the perivascular space of 42 injured arteries. Both porcine and bovine endothelial cell grafts reduced the restenosis index compared with control by 54% and 46%, respectively. Perivascular heparin release devices, formulated to release heparin at twice the rate of release of heparan sulfate proteoglycan from endothelial cell implants, produced no significant reduction in the restenosis index. Endothelial cell implants also reduced occlusive thrombosis compared with control and heparin release devices. Host immune responses to endothelial implants were investigated by immunohistochemical examination of explanted devices and by immunocytochemistry of serum samples. The bovine cell grafts displayed infiltration of leukocytes, consisting primarily of lymphocytes, and caused an increase in antibodies detected in serum samples. Reduced cellular infiltration and no humoral response were detected in animals that received allografts. Despite the difference in immune response, the biological effects of xenografts or allografts did not differ significantly. (+info)
Prostacyclin synthase gene transfer accelerates reendothelialization and inhibits neointimal formation in rat carotid arteries after balloon injury. (2/784)Prostacyclin (PGI2), a metabolite of arachidonic acid, has the vasoprotective effects of vasodilation, anti-platelet aggregation, and inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation. We hypothesized that an overexpression of endogenous PGI2 may accelerate the recovery from endothelial damage and inhibit neointimal formation in the injured artery. To test this hypothesis, we investigated in vivo transfer of the PGI2 synthase (PCS) gene into balloon-injured rat carotid arteries by a nonviral lipotransfection method. Seven days after transfection, a significant regeneration of endothelium was observed in the arteries transfected with a plasmid carrying the rat PCS gene (pCMV-PCS), but little regeneration was seen in those with the control plasmid carrying the lacZ gene (pCMV-lacZ) (percent luminal circumference lined by newly regenerated endothelium: 87. 1+/-6.9% in pCMV-PCS-transfected vessels and 6.9+/-0.2% in pCMV-lacZ vessels, P<0.001). BrdU staining of arterial segments demonstrated a significantly lower incorporation in pCMV-PCS-transfected vessels (7. 5+/-0.3% positive nuclei in vessel cells) than in pCMV-lacZ (50. 7+/-9.6%, P<0.01). Moreover, 2 weeks after transfection, the PCS gene transfer resulted in a significant inhibition of neointimal formation (88% reduction in ratio of intima/media areas), whereas medial area was similar among the groups. Arterial segments transfected with pCMV-PCS produced significantly higher levels of 6-keto-PGF1alpha, the main metabolite of PGI2, compared with the segments transfected with pCMV-lacZ (10.2+/-0.55 and 2.1+/-0.32 ng/mg tissue for pCMV-PCS and pCMV-placZ, P<0.001). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that an in vivo PCS gene transfer increased the production of PGI2 and markedly inhibited neointimal formation with accelerated reendothelialization in rat carotid arteries after balloon injury. (+info)
Continuous perivascular L-arginine delivery increases total vessel area and reduces neointimal thickening after experimental balloon dilatation. (3/784)The aim of this study was to evaluate whether vascular remodeling and neointimal thickening occur after balloon dilatation of the nonatherosclerotic rabbit carotid artery, and whether both processes are influenced by continuous perivascular delivery of L-arginine or the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). In the first experiment, histological and morphometric evaluation of arteries was performed at different time points after balloon dilatation: 10 minutes (n=7), and 1 (n=7), 2 (n=9), 3 (n=20), or 10 (n=5) weeks. Neointimal thickening progressively contributed to luminal narrowing for at least 10 weeks after angioplasty. During the first 2 weeks after dilatation, a significant decrease of the total vessel area was measured. Ten weeks after dilatation, both the neointimal and total vessel area were increased without further changing of the luminal area. In the second experiment, endothelial injured rabbits were randomly assigned to receive 2 weeks of continuous local perivascular physiological salt solution (n=6), L-arginine (n=8), or L-NAME (n=7), starting immediately after balloon dilatation (ie, local drug delivery during the first phase of the biphasic vascular remodeling process). Perivascular L-arginine delivery significantly reduced the neointimal area, despite an increased number of neointimal Ki-67-positive smooth muscle cells. Both the luminal area and total vessel area were significantly increased. Serum L-arginine levels remained unchanged. L-NAME administration had no effect on the neointimal area, nor on the luminal and total vessel area. Neointimal formation and biphasic vascular remodeling occur after experimental balloon dilatation of the nonatherosclerotic rabbit carotid artery, and can be influenced by continuous local perivascular delivery of L-arginine. (+info)
TIMP-4 is regulated by vascular injury in rats. (4/784)The role of basement membrane-degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in enabling vascular smooth muscle cell migration after vascular injury has been established in several animal models. In contrast, the role of their native inhibitors, the tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), has remained unproven despite frequent coregulation of MMPs and TIMPs in other disease states. We have investigated the time course of expression and localization of TIMP-4 in rat carotid arteries 6 hours, 24 hours, 3 days, 7 days, and 14 days after balloon injury by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis. TIMP-4 protein was present in the adventitia of injured carotid arteries from 24 hours after injury. At 7 and 14 days after injury, widespread immunostaining for TIMP-4 was observed throughout the neointima, media, and adventitia of injured arteries. Western blot analysis confirmed the quantitative increase in TIMP-4 protein at 7 and 14 days. In situ hybridization detected increased expression of TIMP-4 as early as 24 hours after injury and a marked induction in neointimal cells 7 days after injury. We then studied the effect of TIMP-4 protein on the migration of smooth muscle cells through a matrix-coated membrane in vitro and demonstrated a 53% reduction in invasion of rat vascular smooth muscle cells. These data and the temporal relationship between the upregulation of TIMP-4, its accumulation, and the onset of collagen deposition suggest an important role for TIMP-4 in the proteolytic balance of the vasculature controlling both smooth muscle migration and collagen accumulation in the injured arterial wall. (+info)
The role of alpha and beta platelet-derived growth factor receptor in the vascular response to injury in nonhuman primates. (5/784)Restenosis remains a significant clinical problem associated with mechanical interventional procedures for arterial revascularization or repair, including coronary angioplasty and stenting. Studies with rodents have established that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), a potent chemotactic and mitogenic agent for vascular smooth muscle cells, is a key mediator of lesion formation after vascular injury. To further explore this hypothesis in a more clinically relevant model, neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were used to examine the effect of selective inhibition of alpha or beta PDGF receptor (PDGFR) on neointima formation in nonhuman primates. Carotid arteries were injured by surgical endarterectomy and femoral arteries by balloon catheter dilatation. Immunostaining revealed that both injuries induced cell proliferation and the upregulation of beta PDGFR but not alpha PDGFR. By 7 days after injury, beta PDGFR staining was limited to the luminal region of the media, the small areas of neointima, and the adventitia. Nearly all bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells were found in these regions as well. After 30 days, a concentric neointima that stained strongly for beta PDGFR had formed in the carotid and femoral arteries. Treatment of baboons with anti-beta PDGFR mAb 2A1E2 for 6 days after injury reduced the carotid artery and femoral artery lesion sizes by 37% (P<0.05) and 48% (P<0.005), respectively, when measured at 30 days. Under the same conditions, treatment with anti-alpha PDGFR mAb 2H7C5 had no effect. These findings suggest that PDGF mediates neointima formation through the beta PDGFR, and that antagonism of this pathway may be a promising therapeutic strategy for reducing clinical restenosis. (+info)
Glucocorticoid resistance caused by reduced expression of the glucocorticoid receptor in cells from human vascular lesions. (6/784)Mechanisms that control the balance between cell proliferation and death are important in the development of vascular lesions. Rat primary smooth muscle cells were 80% inhibited by low microgram doses of hydrocortisone (HC) and 50% inhibited by nanogram concentrations of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), although some lines acquired resistance in late passage. However, comparable doses of HC, or TGF-beta1, failed to inhibit most human lesion-derived cell (LDC) lines. In sensitive LDC, HC (10 microg/mL) inhibited proliferation by up to 50%, with obvious apoptosis in some lines, and TGF-beta1 inhibited proliferation by more than 90%. Collagen production, as measured by [3H]proline incorporation or RIA for type III pro-collagen, was either unaffected or increased in the LDCs by HC. These divergent responses between LDC lines were partially explained by the absence of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and heat shock protein 90 mRNA in 10 of 12 LDC lines, but the presence of the mineralocorticoid receptor and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II. Western blot analysis confirmed the absence of the GR protein in cells lacking GR mRNA. Immunohistochemistry of human carotid lesions showed high levels of GR in the tunica media, but large areas lacking GR in the fibrous lesion. Considering the absence of the GR in most lines, the effects of HC may be elicited through the mineralocorticoid receptor. Functional resistance to the antiproliferative and antifibrotic effects of HC may contribute to excessive wound repair in atherosclerosis and restenosis. (+info)
Apoptosis and Bcl-xs in the intimal thickening of balloon-injured carotid arteries. (7/784)We performed balloon injury in the rat carotid artery and identified intimal thickening after injury. Balloon-injured carotid arteries showed maximum thickness of the neointima on the 14th day before complete endothelial cell regeneration. In this lesion we identified apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) by in situ DNA labelling and electron microscopy in the neointima on the 14th day after injury. mRNA expression levels of bcl-2, bax, bcl-x, p53 and caspase-1 were determined by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction method both in injured and uninjured carotid arteries. Neither bcl-2 nor bcl-xl mRNA expression was detected in either injured or uninjured arteries, whereas bax and p53 mRNA expression was identified and their mRNA levels were not altered after balloon injury. In contrast, both bcl-xs and caspase-1 mRNA was detected and was markedly induced only in the injured carotid artery. Positive staining for immunoreactive Bcl-x was observed specifically in the injured arterial wall and co-localized with positive staining of nuclei identified by in situ DNA labelling. We conclude that two opposite cellular responses, VSMC proliferation and apoptosis, exist together in the neointima of the rat carotid artery after balloon injury, and selective induction of Bcl-xs expression is a key regulator of VSMC apoptosis in the process of vascular remodelling. (+info)
Soluble transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor inhibits negative remodeling, fibroblast transdifferentiation, and intimal lesion formation but not endothelial growth. (8/784)Using the rat balloon catheter denudation model, we examined the role of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) isoforms in vascular repair processes. By en face in situ hybridization, proliferating and quiescent smooth muscle cells in denuded vessels expressed high levels of mRNA for TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, and lower levels of TGF-beta receptor II (TGF-betaRII) mRNA. Compared with normal endothelium, TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2, as well as TGF-betaRII, mRNA were upregulated in endothelium at the wound edge. Injected recombinant soluble TGF-betaRII (TGF-betaR:Fc) localized preferentially to the adventitia and developing neointima in the injured carotid artery, causing a reduction in intimal lesion formation (up to 65%) and an increase in lumen area (up to 88%). The gain in lumen area was largely due to inhibition of negative remodeling, which coincided with reduced adventitial fibrosis and collagen deposition. Four days after injury, TGF-betaR:Fc treatment almost completely inhibited the induction of smooth muscle alpha-actin expression in adventitial cells. In the vessel wall, TGF-betaR:Fc caused a marked reduction in mRNA levels for collagens type I and III. TGF-betaR:Fc had no effect on endothelial proliferation as determined by reendothelialization of the denuded rat aorta. Together, these findings identify the TGF-beta isoforms as major factors mediating adventitial fibrosis and negative remodeling after vascular injury, a major cause of restenosis after angioplasty. (+info)
There are several types of carotid artery injuries, including:
1. Carotid artery dissection: This is a tear in the inner lining of the artery that can lead to bleeding and inflammation.
2. Carotid artery thrombosis: This is the formation of a blood clot within the artery that can block blood flow to the brain.
3. Carotid artery occlusion: This is the complete blockage of the artery, which can cause a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).
4. Carotid artery injury due to trauma: This type of injury can occur as a result of a blow to the neck or head.
5. Carotid artery injury due to surgery: This type of injury can occur during surgical procedures that involve the carotid arteries, such as endarterectomy or stenting.
The symptoms of carotid artery injuries can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the damage. Some common symptoms include:
* Sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
* Sudden confusion or trouble speaking
* Sudden vision loss or double vision
* Sudden difficulty walking or maintaining balance
* Sudden severe headache
The diagnosis of carotid artery injuries is typically made using imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scans, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options for carotid artery injuries depend on the severity and location of the injury, and may include medications, endovascular procedures, or surgery.
Prevention of carotid artery injuries is key to reducing the risk of complications. This can be achieved through:
* Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise and a balanced diet
* Avoiding smoking and limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing underlying medical conditions such as high blood pressure or diabetes
* Properly managing medications that may increase the risk of bleeding or injury
* Using appropriate precautions during surgical procedures, such as using sterile equipment and monitoring for signs of bleeding or injury.
In conclusion, carotid artery injuries can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options for these injuries in order to provide appropriate care and prevent complications. Proper precautions during surgical procedures and a healthy lifestyle can also help reduce the risk of carotid artery injuries.
Carotid artery thrombosis is often caused by atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque in the arteries that can lead to the formation of blood clots. Other risk factors for carotid artery thrombosis include high blood pressure, smoking, high cholesterol, diabetes, and obesity.
Diagnosis of carotid artery thrombosis typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT or MRI scans, and Doppler studies to visualize the blood flow in the neck and brain. Treatment options for carotid artery thrombosis include anticoagulation medications to prevent further clotting, medications to dissolve the clot, and surgery to remove the clot or repair the affected artery.
In severe cases, carotid artery thrombosis can lead to stroke or brain damage if not treated promptly. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
There are several types of neck injuries that can occur, including:
1. Whiplash: This is a common type of neck injury caused by sudden movement or force, such as in a car accident or a fall. It can cause strain or sprain of the muscles and ligaments in the neck, leading to pain and stiffness.
2. Herniated discs: A herniated disc occurs when the soft tissue between the vertebrae bulges out due to injury or wear and tear. This can put pressure on the nerves and cause pain and numbness in the neck and arms.
3. Fractures: A fracture is a break in one of the bones of the neck, which can be caused by trauma such as a fall or a car accident.
4. Sprains and strains: These are common injuries that occur when the muscles or ligaments in the neck are stretched or torn due to sudden movement or overuse.
5. Cervical spine injuries: The cervical spine is the upper part of the spine, which can be injured due to trauma or compression. This can cause pain and numbness in the neck, arms, and hands.
Neck injuries can cause a range of symptoms, including:
1. Pain and stiffness in the neck
2. Limited mobility and range of motion
3. Numbness or tingling sensations in the arms and hands
4. Weakness or fatigue in the muscles of the neck and shoulders
5. Headaches and dizziness
Treatment for neck injuries depends on the severity of the injury and can range from conservative methods such as physical therapy, medication, and rest to surgical interventions in severe cases. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated neck injuries can lead to long-term complications and disability.
The most common carotid artery disease is atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque in the inner lining of the arteries. This buildup can lead to a narrowing or blockage of the arteries, reducing blood flow to the brain and increasing the risk of stroke. Other conditions that can affect the carotid arteries include:
1. Carotid artery stenosis: A narrowing of the carotid arteries caused by atherosclerosis or other factors.
2. Carotid artery dissection: A tear in the inner lining of the arteries that can cause bleeding and blockage.
3. Carotid artery aneurysm: A bulge in the wall of the arteries that can lead to rupture and stroke.
4. Temporal bone fracture: A break in the bones of the skull that can cause damage to the carotid arteries and result in stroke or other complications.
Carotid artery diseases are typically diagnosed using imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Treatment options for carotid artery diseases depend on the underlying condition and its severity, but may include lifestyle changes, medications, surgery, or endovascular procedures.
Prevention of carotid artery diseases is key to reducing the risk of stroke and other complications. This includes managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes, as well as maintaining a healthy lifestyle and getting regular check-ups with your doctor.
Contusions are bruises that occur when blood collects in the tissue due to trauma. They can be painful and may discolor the skin, but they do not involve a break in the skin. Hematomas are similar to contusions, but they are caused by bleeding under the skin.
Non-penetrating wounds are typically less severe than penetrating wounds, which involve a break in the skin and can be more difficult to treat. However, non-penetrating wounds can still cause significant pain and discomfort, and may require medical attention to ensure proper healing and minimize the risk of complications.
Examples of Non-Penetrating Wounds
* Contusions: A contusion is a bruise that occurs when blood collects in the tissue due to trauma. This can happen when someone is hit with an object or falls and strikes a hard surface.
* Hematomas: A hematoma is a collection of blood under the skin that can cause swelling and discoloration. It is often caused by blunt trauma, such as a blow to the head or body.
* Ecchymoses: An ecchymosis is a bruise that occurs when blood leaks into the tissue from damaged blood vessels. This can happen due to blunt trauma or other causes, such as injury or surgery.
Types of Non-Penetrating Wounds
* Closed wounds: These are injuries that do not involve a break in the skin. They can be caused by blunt trauma or other forms of injury, and may result in bruising, swelling, or discoloration of the skin.
* Open wounds: These are injuries that do involve a break in the skin. They can be caused by penetrating objects, such as knives or gunshots, or by blunt trauma.
Treatment for Contusions and Hematomas
* Rest: It is important to get plenty of rest after suffering a contusion or hematoma. This will help your body recover from the injury and reduce inflammation.
* Ice: Applying ice to the affected area can help reduce swelling and pain. Wrap an ice pack in a towel or cloth to protect your skin.
* Compression: Using compression bandages or wraps can help reduce swelling and promote healing.
* Elevation: Elevating the affected limb above the level of your heart can help reduce swelling and improve circulation.
* Medication: Over-the-counter pain medications, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, can help manage pain and inflammation.
* Wear protective gear: When engaging in activities that may cause injury, wear appropriate protective gear, such as helmets, pads, and gloves.
* Use proper technique: Proper technique when engaging in physical activity can help reduce the risk of injury.
* Stay fit: Being in good physical condition can help improve your ability to withstand injuries.
* Stretch and warm up: Before engaging in physical activity, stretch and warm up to increase blood flow and reduce muscle stiffness.
* Avoid excessive alcohol consumption: Excessive alcohol consumption can increase the risk of injury.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following symptoms:
* Increasing pain or swelling
* Difficulty moving the affected limb
* Fever or chills
* Redness or discharge around the wound
* Deformity of the affected limb.
There are two main types of carotid stenosis:
1. Internal carotid artery stenosis: This type of stenosis occurs when the internal carotid artery, which supplies blood to the brain, becomes narrowed or blocked.
2. Common carotid artery stenosis: This type of stenosis occurs when the common carotid artery, which supplies blood to the head and neck, becomes narrowed or blocked.
The symptoms of carotid stenosis can vary depending on the severity of the blockage and the extent of the affected area. Some common symptoms include:
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Vertigo (a feeling of spinning)
* Blurred vision or double vision
* Memory loss or confusion
* Slurred speech
* Weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body
If left untreated, carotid stenosis can lead to a stroke or other serious complications. Treatment options for carotid stenosis include medications to lower cholesterol and blood pressure, as well as surgical procedures such as endarterectomy (removing plaque from the artery) or stenting (placing a small mesh tube in the artery to keep it open).
In conclusion, carotid stenosis is a serious medical condition that can lead to stroke and other complications if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Neointima can be observed in various cardiovascular conditions such as atherosclerosis, stenosis, and graft stenosis. The thickness of the neointima is an important predictor of cardiovascular events such as restenosis after angioplasty or stenting.
Neointima can be characterized using various imaging techniques such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT), which provide detailed information on the morphology and composition of the neointima.
Understanding the mechanisms of neointima formation and its role in cardiovascular disease can help to develop new therapeutic strategies for preventing or treating these conditions.
There are different types of hyperplasia, depending on the location and cause of the condition. Some examples include:
1. Benign hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is non-cancerous and does not spread to other parts of the body. It can occur in various tissues and organs, such as the uterus (fibroids), breast tissue (fibrocystic changes), or prostate gland (benign prostatic hyperplasia).
2. Malignant hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is cancerous and can invade nearby tissues and organs, leading to serious health problems. Examples include skin cancer, breast cancer, and colon cancer.
3. Hyperplastic polyps: These are abnormal growths that occur in the gastrointestinal tract and can be precancerous.
4. Adenomatous hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is characterized by an increase in the number of glandular cells in a specific organ, such as the colon or breast. It can be a precursor to cancer.
The symptoms of hyperplasia depend on the location and severity of the condition. In general, they may include:
* Enlargement or swelling of the affected tissue or organ
* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Abnormal bleeding or discharge
* Changes in bowel or bladder habits
* Unexplained weight loss or gain
Hyperplasia is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include medication, surgery, or other interventions.
The vascular system is responsible for circulating blood throughout the body, supplying oxygen and nutrients to tissues and organs, and removing waste products. Any damage to the blood vessels can disrupt this function, leading to serious health complications.
There are several types of vascular system injuries, including:
1. Arterial injuries: These occur when an artery is damaged or torn, either due to trauma or a medical condition such as aneurysm or atherosclerosis.
2. Venous injuries: These occur when a vein is damaged or blocked, causing blood to pool in the affected area.
3. Lymphatic injuries: These occur when the lymphatic system is damaged or obstructed, leading to swelling and other complications.
4. Capillary injuries: These occur when the tiny blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to tissues are damaged or torn.
Vascular system injuries can have serious consequences if left untreated, including loss of limb, organ failure, and even death. Treatment for these injuries depends on the severity and location of the damage, and may involve medication, surgery, or other interventions to repair or replace damaged blood vessels.
Stab wounds are often accompanied by other injuries, such as lacerations or broken bones, and may require immediate medical attention. Treatment for a stab wound typically involves cleaning and closing the wound with sutures or staples, and may also involve surgery to repair any internal injuries.
It is important to seek medical attention right away if you have been stabbed, as delayed treatment can lead to serious complications, such as infection or organ failure. Additionally, if the wound is deep or large, it may require specialized care in a hospital setting.
There are several types of thrombosis, including:
1. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, which can cause swelling, pain, and skin discoloration.
2. Pulmonary embolism (PE): A clot breaks loose from another location in the body and travels to the lungs, where it can cause shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing up blood.
3. Cerebral thrombosis: A clot forms in the brain, which can cause stroke or mini-stroke symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking.
4. Coronary thrombosis: A clot forms in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, leading to a heart attack.
5. Renal thrombosis: A clot forms in the kidneys, which can cause kidney damage or failure.
The symptoms of thrombosis can vary depending on the location and size of the clot. Some common symptoms include:
1. Swelling or redness in the affected limb
2. Pain or tenderness in the affected area
3. Warmth or discoloration of the skin
4. Shortness of breath or chest pain if the clot has traveled to the lungs
5. Weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking if the clot has formed in the brain
6. Rapid heart rate or irregular heartbeat
7. Feeling of anxiety or panic
Treatment for thrombosis usually involves medications to dissolve the clot and prevent new ones from forming. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair the damaged blood vessel. Prevention measures include maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, avoiding long periods of immobility, and managing chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes.
Acute wounds and injuries are those that occur suddenly and heal within a relatively short period of time, usually within a few days or weeks. Examples of acute wounds include cuts, scrapes, and burns. Chronic wounds and injuries, on the other hand, are those that persist over a longer period of time and may not heal properly, leading to long-term complications. Examples of chronic wounds include diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and chronic back pain.
Wounds and injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, sports injuries, violence, and medical conditions such as diabetes or circulatory problems. Treatment for wounds and injuries depends on the severity of the injury and may include cleaning and dressing the wound, applying antibiotics, immobilizing broken bones, and providing pain management. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or restore function.
Preventive measures for wounds and injuries include wearing appropriate protective gear during activities such as sports or work, following safety protocols to avoid accidents, maintaining proper hygiene and nutrition to prevent infection, and seeking medical attention promptly if an injury occurs.
Overall, wounds and injuries can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper treatment and management of wounds and injuries can help to promote healing, reduce the risk of complications, and improve long-term outcomes.
Examples of penetrating wounds include:
1. Gunshot wounds: These are caused by a bullet entering the body and can be very serious, potentially causing severe bleeding, organ damage, and even death.
2. Stab wounds: These are caused by a sharp object such as a knife or broken glass being inserted into the skin and can also be very dangerous, depending on the location and depth of the wound.
3. Puncture wounds: These are similar to stab wounds but are typically caused by a sharp point rather than a cutting edge, such as a nail or an ice pick.
4. Impaling injuries: These are caused by an object being pushed or thrust into the body, such as a broken bone or a piece of wood.
Penetrating wounds can be classified based on their severity and location. Some common classifications include:
1. Superficial wounds: These are wounds that only penetrate the skin and do not involve any underlying tissue or organs.
2. Deep wounds: These are wounds that penetrate deeper into the body and may involve underlying tissue or organs.
3. Critical wounds: These are wounds that are potentially life-threatening, such as gunshot wounds to the head or chest.
4. Non-critical wounds: These are wounds that are not immediately life-threatening but may still require medical attention to prevent infection or other complications.
The treatment of penetrating wounds depends on the severity and location of the injury, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments for penetrating wounds include:
1. Wound cleaning and irrigation: The wound is cleaned and irrigated to remove any debris or bacteria that may be present.
2. Debridement: Dead tissue is removed from the wound to promote healing and prevent infection.
3. Stitches or staples: The wound is closed with stitches or staples to bring the edges of the skin together and promote healing.
4. Antibiotics: Antibiotics may be prescribed to prevent or treat infection.
5. Tetanus shot: If the patient has not had a tetanus shot in the past 10 years, they may receive one to prevent tetanus infection.
6. Pain management: Pain medication may be prescribed to manage any discomfort or pain associated with the wound.
7. Wound dressing: The wound is covered with a dressing to protect it from further injury and promote healing.
It is important to seek medical attention if you have sustained a penetrating wound, as these types of injuries can be serious and potentially life-threatening. A healthcare professional will be able to assess the severity of the wound and provide appropriate treatment.
Symptoms of CAID may include sudden weakness or numbness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking, dizziness, and loss of vision in one eye. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and Doppler ultrasound.
Treatment for CAID usually involves medications to dissolve blood clots and prevent further complications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the damaged artery. Preventive measures include avoiding trauma to the neck and head, controlling high blood pressure, and managing underlying medical conditions that increase the risk of CAID.
The carotid arteries are located on either side of the neck and supply oxygen-rich blood to the brain, making them a critical part of the vascular system. Internal dissection of the carotid artery can lead to serious complications if left untreated, so prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for preventing long-term damage.
1. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs): These are side effects caused by medications, such as allergic reactions, liver damage, or other systemic problems. ADRs can be a significant cause of iatrogenic disease and can result from taking the wrong medication, taking too much medication, or taking medication for too long.
2. Infections acquired during medical procedures: Patients who undergo invasive medical procedures, such as surgeries or insertion of catheters, are at risk of developing infections. These infections can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms that enter the body through the surgical site or the catheter.
3. Surgical complications: Complications from surgery can range from minor issues, such as bruising and swelling, to more serious problems, such as infection, organ damage, or nerve injury. These complications can be caused by errors during the procedure, poor post-operative care, or other factors.
4. Medication overuse or underuse: Medications that are prescribed inappropriately or in excess can cause iatrogenic disease. For example, taking too much medication can lead to adverse drug reactions, while taking too little medication may not effectively treat the underlying condition.
5. Medical imaging complications: Medical imaging procedures, such as X-rays and CT scans, can sometimes cause iatrogenic disease. For example, excessive radiation exposure from these procedures can increase the risk of cancer.
6. Psychiatric iatrogenesis: This refers to harm caused by psychiatric treatment, such as medication side effects or inappropriate use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).
7. Overdiagnosis: Overdiagnosis occurs when a condition is diagnosed that would not have caused symptoms or required treatment during the person's lifetime. This can lead to unnecessary testing, treatment, and other iatrogenic harms.
8. Unnecessary surgery: Surgical procedures that are not necessary can cause harm and increase healthcare costs.
9. Inappropriate referrals: Referring patients for unnecessary tests or procedures can lead to iatrogenic disease and increased healthcare costs.
10. Healthcare provider burnout: Burnout among healthcare providers can lead to errors, adverse events, and other forms of iatrogenic disease.
It is important to note that these are just a few examples of iatrogenic disease, and there may be other factors that contribute to this phenomenon as well. Additionally, while many of the factors listed above are unintentional, some may be due to negligence or other forms of misconduct. In all cases, it is important for healthcare providers to take steps to prevent iatrogenic disease and promote high-quality, patient-centered care.
The severity of a gunshot wound is determined by the location, size, and depth of the wound, as well as the type and caliber of the weapon used. Treatment for gunshot wounds usually involves immediate medical attention, including surgery to repair damaged tissues and organs, and antibiotics to prevent infection. In some cases, these wounds may require lengthy hospital stays and rehabilitation to recover fully.
Gunshot wounds can be classified into several types, including:
1. Entry wound: The point of entry where the bullet enters the body.
2. Exit wound: The point where the bullet exits the body.
3. Penetrating wound: A wound that penetrates through the skin and underlying tissues, causing damage to organs and other structures.
4. Perforating wound: A wound that creates a hole in the body but does not penetrate as deeply as a penetrating wound.
5. Grazing wound: A superficial wound that only scratches the surface of the skin, without penetrating to deeper tissues.
6. Fracture wound: A wound that causes a fracture or break in a bone.
7. Soft tissue injury: A wound that affects the soft tissues of the body, such as muscles, tendons, and ligaments.
8. Nerve damage: A wound that damages nerves, causing numbness, weakness, or paralysis.
9. Infection: A wound that becomes infected, leading to symptoms such as redness, swelling, and pain.
10. Sepsis: A severe infection that can spread throughout the body, leading to organ failure and death if left untreated.
There are several different types of brain injuries that can occur, including:
1. Concussions: A concussion is a type of mild traumatic brain injury that occurs when the brain is jolted or shaken, often due to a blow to the head.
2. Contusions: A contusion is a bruise on the brain that can occur when the brain is struck by an object, such as during a car accident.
3. Coup-contrecoup injuries: This type of injury occurs when the brain is injured as a result of the force of the body striking another object, such as during a fall.
4. Penetrating injuries: A penetrating injury occurs when an object pierces the brain, such as during a gunshot wound or stab injury.
5. Blast injuries: This type of injury occurs when the brain is exposed to a sudden and explosive force, such as during a bombing.
The symptoms of brain injuries can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the damage in the brain. Some common symptoms include:
* Dizziness or loss of balance
* Confusion or disorientation
* Memory loss or difficulty with concentration
* Slurred speech or difficulty with communication
* Vision problems, such as blurred vision or double vision
* Sleep disturbances
* Mood changes, such as irritability or depression
* Personality changes
* Difficulty with coordination and balance
In some cases, brain injuries can be treated with medication, physical therapy, and other forms of rehabilitation. However, in more severe cases, the damage may be permanent and long-lasting. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Example sentences for 'Aneurysm, False'
The patient was diagnosed with a false aneurysm after experiencing sudden severe pain in his leg following a fall.
The surgeon treated the false aneurysm by inserting a catheter into the affected blood vessel and using it to deliver a special coil that would seal off the dilated area.
Types of Arterial Occlusive Diseases:
1. Atherosclerosis: Atherosclerosis is a condition where plaque builds up inside the arteries, leading to narrowing or blockages that can restrict blood flow to certain areas of the body.
2. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD): PAD is a condition where the blood vessels in the legs and arms become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain or cramping in the affected limbs.
3. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): CAD is a condition where the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart, become narrowed or blocked, leading to chest pain or a heart attack.
4. Carotid Artery Disease: Carotid artery disease is a condition where the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain, become narrowed or blocked, leading to stroke or mini-stroke.
5. Renal Artery Stenosis: Renal artery stenosis is a condition where the blood vessels that supply the kidneys become narrowed or blocked, leading to high blood pressure and decreased kidney function.
Symptoms of Arterial Occlusive Diseases:
1. Pain or cramping in the affected limbs
2. Weakness or fatigue
3. Difficulty walking or standing
4. Chest pain or discomfort
5. Shortness of breath
6. Dizziness or lightheadedness
7. Stroke or mini-stroke
Treatment for Arterial Occlusive Diseases:
1. Medications: Medications such as blood thinners, cholesterol-lowering drugs, and blood pressure medications may be prescribed to treat arterial occlusive diseases.
2. Lifestyle Changes: Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
3. Endovascular Procedures: Endovascular procedures such as angioplasty and stenting may be performed to open up narrowed or blocked blood vessels.
4. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat arterial occlusive diseases, such as bypass surgery or carotid endarterectomy.
Prevention of Arterial Occlusive Diseases:
1. Maintain a healthy diet and lifestyle
2. Quit smoking and avoid exposure to secondhand smoke
3. Exercise regularly
4. Manage high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes
5. Avoid excessive alcohol consumption
6. Get regular check-ups with your healthcare provider
Early detection and treatment of arterial occlusive diseases can help manage symptoms, slow the progression of the disease, and prevent complications such as heart attack or stroke.
Reperfusion injury can cause inflammation, cell death, and impaired function in the affected tissue or organ. The severity of reperfusion injury can vary depending on the duration and severity of the initial ischemic event, as well as the promptness and effectiveness of treatment to restore blood flow.
Reperfusion injury can be a complicating factor in various medical conditions, including:
1. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to the heart muscle after a heart attack, leading to inflammation and cell death.
2. Stroke: Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to the brain after an ischemic stroke, leading to inflammation and damage to brain tissue.
3. Organ transplantation: Reperfusion injury can occur when a transplanted organ is subjected to ischemia during harvesting or preservation, and then reperfused with blood.
4. Peripheral arterial disease: Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to a previously occluded peripheral artery, leading to inflammation and damage to the affected tissue.
Treatment of reperfusion injury often involves medications to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent further complications. In some cases, experimental therapies such as stem cell transplantation or gene therapy may be used to promote tissue repair and regeneration.
Example sentence: "The patient experienced a transient ischemic attack, which was caused by a temporary blockage in one of the blood vessels in their brain."
Synonyms: TIA, mini-stroke.
The AVF is created by joining a radial or brachial artery to a vein in the forearm or upper arm. The vein is typically a radiocephalic vein, which is a vein that drains blood from the hand and forearm. The fistula is formed by sewing the artery and vein together with a specialized suture material.
Once the AVF is created, it needs time to mature before it can be used for hemodialysis. This process can take several weeks or months, depending on the size of the fistula and the individual patient's healing response. During this time, the patient may need to undergo regular monitoring and testing to ensure that the fistula is functioning properly.
The advantages of an AVF over other types of hemodialysis access include:
1. Improved blood flow: The high-flow path created by the AVF allows for more efficient removal of waste products from the blood.
2. Reduced risk of infection: The connection between the artery and vein is less likely to become infected than other types of hemodialysis access.
3. Longer duration: AVFs can last for several years, providing a reliable and consistent source of hemodialysis access.
4. Improved patient comfort: The fistula is typically located in the arm or forearm, which is less invasive and more comfortable for the patient than other types of hemodialysis access.
However, there are also potential risks and complications associated with AVFs, including:
1. Access failure: The fistula may not mature properly or may become blocked, requiring alternative access methods.
2. Infection: As with any surgical procedure, there is a risk of infection with AVF creation.
3. Steal syndrome: This is a rare complication that occurs when the flow of blood through the fistula interferes with the normal flow of blood through the arm.
4. Thrombosis: The fistula may become occluded due to clotting, which can be treated with thrombolysis or surgical intervention.
In summary, an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a type of hemodialysis access that is created by connecting an artery and a vein, providing a high-flow path for hemodialysis. AVFs offer several advantages over other types of hemodialysis access, including improved blood flow, reduced risk of infection, longer duration, and improved patient comfort. However, there are also potential risks and complications associated with AVFs, including access failure, infection, steal syndrome, and thrombosis. Regular monitoring and testing are necessary to ensure that the fistula is functioning properly and to minimize the risk of these complications.
1. The star quarterback suffered a serious athletic injury during last night's game and is out for the season.
2. The athlete underwent surgery to repair a torn ACL, one of the most common athletic injuries in high-impact sports.
3. The coach emphasized the importance of proper technique to prevent athletic injuries among his team members.
4. After suffering a minor sprain, the runner was advised to follow the RICE method to recover and return to competition as soon as possible.
Arteriosclerosis can affect any artery in the body, but it is most commonly seen in the arteries of the heart, brain, and legs. It is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide and is often associated with aging and other factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and smoking.
There are several types of arteriosclerosis, including:
1. Atherosclerosis: This is the most common type of arteriosclerosis and occurs when plaque builds up inside the arteries.
2. Arteriolosclerosis: This type affects the small arteries in the body and can cause decreased blood flow to organs such as the kidneys and brain.
3. Medial sclerosis: This type affects the middle layer of the artery wall and can cause stiffness and narrowing of the arteries.
4. Intimal sclerosis: This type occurs when plaque builds up inside the innermost layer of the artery wall, causing it to become thick and less flexible.
Symptoms of arteriosclerosis can include chest pain, shortness of breath, leg pain or cramping during exercise, and numbness or weakness in the limbs. Treatment for arteriosclerosis may include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, as well as medications to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to open up or bypass blocked arteries.
There are several different types of spinal cord injuries that can occur, depending on the location and severity of the damage. These include:
1. Complete spinal cord injuries: In these cases, the spinal cord is completely severed, resulting in a loss of all sensation and function below the level of the injury.
2. Incomplete spinal cord injuries: In these cases, the spinal cord is only partially damaged, resulting in some remaining sensation and function below the level of the injury.
3. Brown-Sequard syndrome: This is a specific type of incomplete spinal cord injury that affects one side of the spinal cord, resulting in weakness or paralysis on one side of the body.
4. Conus medullaris syndrome: This is a type of incomplete spinal cord injury that affects the lower part of the spinal cord, resulting in weakness or paralysis in the legs and bladder dysfunction.
The symptoms of spinal cord injuries can vary depending on the location and severity of the injury. They may include:
* Loss of sensation in the arms, legs, or other parts of the body
* Weakness or paralysis in the arms, legs, or other parts of the body
* Difficulty walking or standing
* Difficulty with bowel and bladder function
* Numbness or tingling sensations
* Pain or pressure in the neck or back
Treatment for spinal cord injuries typically involves a combination of medical and rehabilitative therapies. Medical treatments may include:
* Immobilization of the spine to prevent further injury
* Medications to manage pain and inflammation
* Surgery to relieve compression or stabilize the spine
Rehabilitative therapies may include:
* Physical therapy to improve strength and mobility
* Occupational therapy to learn new ways of performing daily activities
* Speech therapy to improve communication skills
* Psychological counseling to cope with the emotional effects of the injury.
Overall, the prognosis for spinal cord injuries depends on the severity and location of the injury, as well as the age and overall health of the individual. While some individuals may experience significant recovery, others may experience long-term or permanent impairment. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms of a spinal cord injury are present.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
Some common examples of intraoperative complications include:
1. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding during surgery can lead to hypovolemia (low blood volume), anemia (low red blood cell count), and even death.
2. Infection: Surgical wounds can become infected, leading to sepsis or bacteremia (bacterial infection of the bloodstream).
3. Nerve damage: Surgery can sometimes result in nerve damage, leading to numbness, weakness, or paralysis.
4. Organ injury: Injury to organs such as the liver, lung, or bowel can occur during surgery, leading to complications such as bleeding, infection, or organ failure.
5. Anesthesia-related complications: Problems with anesthesia can include respiratory or cardiac depression, allergic reactions, or awareness during anesthesia (a rare but potentially devastating complication).
6. Hypotension: Low blood pressure during surgery can lead to inadequate perfusion of vital organs and tissues, resulting in organ damage or death.
7. Thromboembolism: Blood clots can form during surgery and travel to other parts of the body, causing complications such as stroke, pulmonary embolism, or deep vein thrombosis.
8. Postoperative respiratory failure: Respiratory complications can occur after surgery, leading to respiratory failure, pneumonia, or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
9. Wound dehiscence: The incision site can separate or come open after surgery, leading to infection, fluid accumulation, or hernia.
10. Seroma: A collection of serous fluid that can develop at the surgical site, which can become infected and cause complications.
11. Nerve damage: Injury to nerves during surgery can result in numbness, weakness, or paralysis, sometimes permanently.
12. Urinary retention or incontinence: Surgery can damage the bladder or urinary sphincter, leading to urinary retention or incontinence.
13. Hematoma: A collection of blood that can develop at the surgical site, which can become infected and cause complications.
14. Pneumonia: Inflammation of the lungs after surgery can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi and can lead to serious complications.
15. Sepsis: A systemic inflammatory response to infection that can occur after surgery, leading to organ dysfunction and death if not treated promptly.
It is important to note that these are potential complications, and not all patients will experience them. Additionally, many of these complications are rare, and the vast majority of surgeries are successful with minimal or no complications. However, it is important for patients to be aware of the potential risks before undergoing surgery so they can make an informed decision about their care.
The term ischemia refers to the reduction of blood flow, and it is often used interchangeably with the term stroke. However, not all strokes are caused by ischemia, as some can be caused by other factors such as bleeding in the brain. Ischemic stroke accounts for about 87% of all strokes.
There are different types of brain ischemia, including:
1. Cerebral ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the cerebrum, which is the largest part of the brain and responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thought, emotion, and voluntary movement.
2. Cerebellar ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the cerebellum, which is responsible for coordinating and regulating movement, balance, and posture.
3. Brainstem ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the brainstem, which is responsible for controlling many of the body's automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.
4. Territorial ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to a specific area of the brain, often caused by a blockage in a blood vessel.
5. Global ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the entire brain, which can be caused by a cardiac arrest or other systemic conditions.
The symptoms of brain ischemia can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition, but may include:
1. Weakness or paralysis of the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body
2. Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
3. Sudden vision loss or double vision
4. Dizziness or loss of balance
5. Confusion or difficulty with memory
7. Slurred speech or inability to speak
8. Numbness or tingling sensations in the face, arm, or leg
9. Vision changes, such as blurred vision or loss of peripheral vision
10. Difficulty with coordination and balance.
It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you experience any of these symptoms, as brain ischemia can cause permanent damage or death if left untreated.
Cerebrovascular Trauma is often caused by external factors such as traffic accidents, falls, sports injuries, or assaults. It can also be caused by internal factors such as blood clots or atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the arteries).
There are several types of cerebrovascular trauma, including:
1. Cerebral contusions: These are bruises that occur when the brain is jolted or shaken, often as a result of a head injury.
2. Cerebral lacerations: These are cuts or tears in the brain tissue caused by a sharp object, such as a knife or a broken glass.
3. Cerebral hemorrhages: These occur when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures and bleeds into the surrounding tissue.
4. Cerebral infarctions: These are areas of dead brain tissue caused by a lack of blood flow, often as a result of a blood clot or atherosclerosis.
Diagnosis of cerebrovascular trauma typically involves imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and may also involve lumbar puncture (spinal tap) to collect cerebrospinal fluid for further analysis. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the injury, and may include medication, surgery, or rehabilitation therapy.
In summary, Cerebrovascular Trauma is a serious medical condition that can result in long-term cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes. It is important to seek immediate medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of stroke, accounting for about 87% of all strokes. It occurs when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked, reducing blood flow to the brain.
2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding in the brain. High blood pressure, aneurysms, and blood vessel malformations can all cause hemorrhagic strokes.
3. Transient ischemic attack (TIA): Also known as a "mini-stroke," a TIA is a temporary interruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts for a short period of time, usually less than 24 hours. TIAs are often a warning sign for a future stroke and should be taken seriously.
Stroke can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the location and severity of the damage to the brain. Some common symptoms include:
* Weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
* Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
* Sudden vision loss or double vision
* Dizziness, loss of balance, or sudden falls
* Severe headache
* Confusion, disorientation, or difficulty with memory
Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and can have a significant impact on the quality of life for survivors. However, with prompt medical treatment and rehabilitation, many people are able to recover some or all of their lost functions and lead active lives.
The medical community has made significant progress in understanding stroke and developing effective treatments. Some of the most important advances include:
* Development of clot-busting drugs and mechanical thrombectomy devices to treat ischemic strokes
* Improved imaging techniques, such as CT and MRI scans, to diagnose stroke and determine its cause
* Advances in surgical techniques for hemorrhagic stroke
* Development of new medications to prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of stroke
Despite these advances, stroke remains a significant public health problem. According to the American Heart Association, stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States and the leading cause of long-term disability. In 2017, there were over 795,000 strokes in the United States alone.
There are several risk factors for stroke that can be controlled or modified. These include:
* High blood pressure
* Diabetes mellitus
* High cholesterol levels
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet
In addition to these modifiable risk factors, there are also several non-modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as age (stroke risk increases with age), family history of stroke, and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).
The medical community has made significant progress in understanding the causes and risk factors for stroke, as well as developing effective treatments and prevention strategies. However, more research is needed to improve outcomes for stroke survivors and reduce the overall burden of this disease.
1. Stroke: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to the brain is interrupted, either due to a blockage or a rupture of the blood vessels. This can lead to cell death and permanent brain damage.
2. Cerebral vasospasm: Vasospasm is a temporary constriction of the blood vessels in the brain, which can occur after a subarachnoid hemorrhage (bleeding in the space surrounding the brain).
3. Moyamoya disease: This is a rare condition caused by narrowing or blockage of the internal carotid artery and its branches. It can lead to recurrent transient ischemic attacks (TIs) or stroke.
4. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: This is a condition where abnormal protein deposits accumulate in the blood vessels of the brain, leading to inflammation and bleeding.
5. Cavernous malformations: These are abnormal collections of blood vessels in the brain that can cause seizures, headaches, and other symptoms.
6. Carotid artery disease: Atherosclerosis (hardening) of the carotid arteries can lead to a stroke or TIAs.
7. Vertebrobasilar insufficiency: This is a condition where the blood flow to the brain is reduced due to narrowing or blockage of the vertebral and basilar arteries.
8. Temporal lobe dementia: This is a type of dementia that affects the temporal lobe of the brain, leading to memory loss and other cognitive symptoms.
9. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the blood vessels in the brain, leading to recurrent stroke-like events.
10. Moyamoya disease: This is a rare condition caused by narrowing or blockage of the internal carotid artery and its branches, leading to decreased blood flow to the brain and increased risk of stroke.
It's important to note that this list is not exhaustive and there may be other causes of stroke and TIAs that are not included here. A proper diagnosis can only be made by a qualified medical professional after conducting a thorough examination and reviewing the individual's medical history.
Multiple trauma can involve various types of injuries, including:
1. Blunt trauma: This refers to injuries caused by a blow or impact, such as those sustained in a car accident or fall.
2. Penetrating trauma: This refers to injuries caused by a sharp object, such as a gunshot wound or stab wound.
3. Burns: This refers to injuries caused by heat or chemicals that can cause tissue damage and scarring.
4. Neurological trauma: This refers to injuries affecting the brain and spinal cord, such as concussions or herniated discs.
5. Orthopedic trauma: This refers to injuries affecting the musculoskeletal system, such as fractures or dislocations.
6. Soft tissue trauma: This refers to injuries affecting the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues, such as lacerations or contusions.
7. Visceral trauma: This refers to injuries affecting the internal organs, such as internal bleeding or organ damage.
The severity of multiple trauma can vary widely, ranging from mild to life-threatening. In some cases, multiple trauma may be caused by a single incident, while in other cases, it may result from a series of events over time.
Treatment for multiple trauma typically involves a comprehensive approach that addresses all of the injuries and takes into account the patient's overall health and well-being. This may include surgery, medication, physical therapy, and other forms of rehabilitation. In severe cases, multiple trauma can result in long-term disability or even death, making prompt and appropriate treatment essential for optimal outcomes.
There are several types of aneurysms, including:
1. Thoracic aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs in the chest cavity and is usually caused by atherosclerosis or other conditions that affect the aorta.
2. Abdominal aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs in the abdomen and is usually caused by high blood pressure or atherosclerosis.
3. Cerebral aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs in the brain and can cause symptoms such as headaches, seizures, and stroke.
4. Peripheral aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs in the peripheral arteries, which are the blood vessels that carry blood to the arms and legs.
Symptoms of an aneurysm can include:
1. Pain or discomfort in the affected area
2. Swelling or bulging of the affected area
3. Weakness or numbness in the affected limb
4. Shortness of breath or chest pain (in the case of a thoracic aneurysm)
5. Headaches, seizures, or stroke (in the case of a cerebral aneurysm)
If an aneurysm is not treated, it can lead to serious complications such as:
1. Rupture: This is the most serious complication of an aneurysm and occurs when the aneurysm sac bursts, leading to severe bleeding and potentially life-threatening consequences.
2. Stroke or brain damage: If a cerebral aneurysm ruptures, it can cause a stroke or brain damage.
3. Infection: An aneurysm can become infected, which can lead to serious health problems.
4. Blood clots: An aneurysm can form blood clots, which can break loose and travel to other parts of the body, causing blockages or further complications.
5. Kidney failure: If an aneurysm is not treated, it can cause kidney failure due to the pressure on the renal arteries.
6. Heart problems: An aneurysm in the aorta can lead to heart problems such as heart failure or cardiac arrest.
7. Sepsis: If an aneurysm becomes infected, it can lead to sepsis, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause organ failure and death.
Treatment options for an aneurysm include:
1. Observation: Small aneurysms that are not causing any symptoms may not require immediate treatment and can be monitored with regular check-ups to see if they are growing or changing.
2. Surgery: Open surgery or endovascular repair are two common methods for treating aneurysms. In open surgery, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to repair the aneurysm. In endovascular repair, a small tube is inserted into the affected blood vessel through an incision in the groin, and then guided to the site of the aneurysm where it is expanded to fill the aneurysm sac and seal off the aneurysm.
3. Embolization: This is a minimally invasive procedure where a small catheter is inserted into the affected blood vessel through an incision in the groin, and then guided to the site of the aneurysm where it releases tiny particles or coils that fill the aneurysm sac and seal off the aneurysm.
4. Medications: Certain medications such as antibiotics and blood thinners may be prescribed to treat related complications such as infection or blood clots.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of an aneurysm, such as sudden severe headache, vision changes, difficulty speaking, weakness or numbness in the face or limbs, as prompt treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
There are several types of intracranial embolism, including:
1. Cerebral embolism: This occurs when a blood clot or other foreign matter becomes lodged in the brain, blocking the flow of blood and oxygen to brain tissue.
2. Pulmonary embolism: This occurs when a blood clot forms in the lungs and travels to the brain, causing blockage of blood vessels.
3. Aortic embolism: This occurs when a blood clot or other foreign matter becomes lodged in the aorta, the main artery that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
4. Atrial myxoma embolism: This occurs when a tumor in the heart, known as an atrial myxoma, breaks loose and travels to the brain, causing blockage of blood vessels.
Intracranial embolism can be diagnosed through various imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, angiography, and Doppler ultrasound. Treatment options for intracranial embolism depend on the underlying cause and may include medications to dissolve blood clots, surgery to remove the blockage, or endovascular procedures such as stenting or coiling.
Preventive measures for intracranial embolism include managing risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking cessation, as well as avoiding long periods of immobility during long-distance travel. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical in preventing long-term cognitive and neurological damage.
The disease begins with endothelial dysfunction, which allows lipid accumulation in the artery wall. Macrophages take up oxidized lipids and become foam cells, which die and release their contents, including inflammatory cytokines, leading to further inflammation and recruitment of more immune cells.
The atherosclerotic plaque can rupture or ulcerate, leading to the formation of a thrombus that can occlude the blood vessel, causing ischemia or infarction of downstream tissues. This can lead to various cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), stroke, and peripheral artery disease.
Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease that is influenced by genetic and environmental factors such as smoking, hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, and obesity. It is diagnosed by imaging techniques such as angiography, ultrasound, or computed tomography (CT) scans.
Treatment options for atherosclerosis include lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, dietary changes, and exercise, as well as medications such as statins, beta blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. In severe cases, surgical interventions such as bypass surgery or angioplasty may be necessary.
In conclusion, atherosclerosis is a complex and multifactorial disease that affects the arteries and can lead to various cardiovascular diseases. Early detection and treatment can help prevent or slow down its progression, reducing the risk of complications and improving patient outcomes.
Cerebral infarction can result in a range of symptoms, including sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, sudden vision loss, dizziness, and confusion. Depending on the location and severity of the infarction, it can lead to long-term disability or even death.
There are several types of cerebral infarction, including:
1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of cerebral infarction, accounting for around 87% of all cases. It occurs when a blood clot blocks the flow of blood to the brain, leading to cell death and tissue damage.
2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of cerebral infarction occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, leading to bleeding and cell death.
3. Lacunar infarction: This type of cerebral infarction affects the deep structures of the brain, particularly the basal ganglia, and is often caused by small blockages or stenosis (narrowing) in the blood vessels.
4. Territorial infarction: This type of cerebral infarction occurs when there is a complete blockage of a blood vessel that supplies a specific area of the brain, leading to cell death and tissue damage in that area.
Diagnosis of cerebral infarction typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment options vary depending on the cause and location of the infarction, but may include medication to dissolve blood clots, surgery to remove blockages, or supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Intracranial arteriosclerosis is often caused by high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and smoking, as well as other factors such as age, family history, and diabetes. The condition can be diagnosed using imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and may be treated with medications to manage underlying risk factors, or surgery to open up narrowed arteries.
Intracranial aneurysms are relatively rare but can have serious consequences if they rupture and cause bleeding in the brain.
The symptoms of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm may include headaches, seizures, and visual disturbances.
If an intracranial aneurysm ruptures, it can lead to a subarachnoid hemorrhage (bleeding in the space around the brain), which is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.
Diagnosis of an intracranial aneurysm typically involves imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and may also involve catheter angiography.
Treatment for intracranial aneurysms usually involves surgical clipping or endovascular coiling, depending on the size, location, and severity of the aneurysm.
Preventing rupture of intracranial aneurysms is important, as they can be difficult to treat once they have ruptured.
Endovascular coiling is a minimally invasive procedure in which a catheter is inserted into the affected artery and a small coil is inserted into the aneurysm, causing it to clot and preventing further bleeding.
Surgical clipping involves placing a small metal clip across the base of the aneurysm to prevent further bleeding.
In addition to these treatments, medications such as anticonvulsants and antihypertensives may be used to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Intracranial hematoma occurs within the skull and is often caused by head injuries, such as falls or car accidents. It can lead to severe neurological symptoms, including confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness. Extracranial hematomas occur outside the skull and are commonly seen in injuries from sports, accidents, or surgery.
The signs and symptoms of hematoma may vary depending on its location and size. Common symptoms include pain, swelling, bruising, and limited mobility. Diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI scans, along with physical examination and medical history.
Treatment for hematoma depends on its severity and location. In some cases, conservative management with rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) may be sufficient. However, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain the collection of blood or remove any clots that have formed.
In severe cases, hematoma can lead to life-threatening complications such as infection, neurological damage, and organ failure. Therefore, prompt medical attention is crucial for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Some common types of leg injuries include:
1. Sprains and strains: These are common injuries that occur when the ligaments or muscles in the legs are stretched or torn.
2. Fractures: These are breaks in the bones of the legs, which can be caused by falls, sports injuries, or other traumatic events.
3. Tendinitis: This is inflammation of the tendons, which connect muscles to bones.
4. Bursitis: This is inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion the joints and reduce friction between the bones, muscles, and tendons.
5. Contusions: These are bruises that occur when the blood vessels in the legs are damaged as a result of trauma or overuse.
6. Shin splints: This is a common overuse injury that occurs in the front of the lower leg, causing pain and inflammation.
7. Compartment syndrome: This is a serious condition that occurs when pressure builds up within a compartment of the leg, cutting off blood flow to the muscles and nerves.
8. Stress fractures: These are small cracks in the bones of the legs that occur as a result of overuse or repetitive stress.
9. Osteochondritis dissecans: This is a condition in which a piece of cartilage and bone in the joint becomes detached, causing pain and stiffness.
10. Peroneal tendinitis: This is inflammation of the tendons on the outside of the ankle, which can cause pain and swelling.
Treatment for leg injuries depends on the severity and type of injury. Some common treatments include rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE), physical therapy, bracing, medications, and surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, or if there is a loss of function or mobility in the affected leg.
The exact cause of CBTs is not fully understood, but they are thought to be associated with genetic mutations and may be more common in people with a family history of similar tumors. The diagnosis of a carotid body tumor is typically made using imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT or MRI scans, and a biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment for CBTs usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, and in some cases, radiation therapy may also be recommended to reduce the risk of recurrence. The prognosis for patients with CBTs is generally good, but the tumors can recur in some cases.
Preventive measures: There are no specific preventive measures known to prevent carotid body tumors, but early detection and treatment can improve outcomes. Regular neck checks and imaging tests may be recommended for individuals with a family history of these tumors or those who experience symptoms.
Current research: Researchers are working to better understand the causes of CBTs and to develop new treatments that can improve outcomes for patients with these tumors. Studies are ongoing to investigate the genetic mutations that contribute to the development of CBTs and to identify potential targets for therapy. Additionally, researchers are exploring the use of minimally invasive surgical techniques and radiotherapy to treat CBTs.
In summary, carotid body tumors are rare but potentially symptomatic vascular tumors that can be diagnosed and treated with surgery and/or radiation therapy. Early detection and treatment can improve outcomes, and ongoing research is focused on understanding the causes of these tumors and developing new treatments.
1. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): This is a severe and life-threatening condition that occurs when the lungs become inflamed and fill with fluid, making it difficult to breathe.
2. Pneumonia: This is an infection of the lungs that can cause inflammation and damage to the air sacs and lung tissue.
3. Aspiration pneumonitis: This occurs when food, liquid, or other foreign substances are inhaled into the lungs, causing inflammation and damage.
4. Chemical pneumonitis: This is caused by exposure to harmful chemicals or toxins that can damage the lungs and cause inflammation.
5. Radiation pneumonitis: This occurs when the lungs are exposed to high levels of radiation, causing damage and inflammation.
6. Lung fibrosis: This is a chronic condition in which the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
7. Pulmonary embolism: This occurs when a blood clot forms in the lungs, blocking the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart and other organs.
Symptoms of lung injury can include:
* Shortness of breath
* Chest pain or tightness
* Coughing up blood or pus
* Confusion or disorientation
Treatment for lung injury depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include oxygen therapy, medications to reduce inflammation, antibiotics for infections, and mechanical ventilation in severe cases. In some cases, lung injury can be a life-threatening condition and may require hospitalization and intensive care.
1. Atrial fibrillation (a type of irregular heartbeat)
2. Heart disease or valve problems
3. Blood clots in the legs or lungs
4. Infective endocarditis (an infection of the heart valves)
5. Cancer and its treatment
6. Trauma to the head or neck
7. High blood pressure
8. Atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the arteries)
When a blockage occurs in one of the blood vessels of the brain, it can deprive the brain of oxygen and nutrients, leading to cell death and potentially causing a range of symptoms including:
1. Sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
2. Sudden confusion or trouble speaking or understanding speech
3. Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes
4. Sudden severe headache
5. Dizziness or loss of balance
6. Fainting or falling
Intracranial embolism and thrombosis can be diagnosed through a variety of imaging tests, including:
1. Computed tomography (CT) scan
2. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
3. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
4. Cerebral angiography
5. Doppler ultrasound
Treatment options for intracranial embolism and thrombosis depend on the underlying cause of the blockage, but may include:
1. Medications to dissolve blood clots or prevent further clotting
2. Surgery to remove the blockage or repair the affected blood vessel
3. Endovascular procedures, such as angioplasty and stenting, to open up narrowed or blocked blood vessels
4. Supportive care, such as oxygen therapy and pain management, to help manage symptoms and prevent complications.
* Sudden loss of vision in one eye
* Blind spot or dark area in the visual field
* No pain or discomfort
Diagnosis is typically made through a comprehensive eye exam, including visual acuity testing, dilated eye exam, and imaging tests such as fluorescein angiography.
Treatment for amaurosis fugax depends on the underlying cause, but may include:
* Medications to improve blood flow and reduce inflammation
* Laser or surgical procedures to improve blood flow or remove blockages
* Monitoring of blood pressure and cholesterol levels to prevent future episodes
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience a sudden loss of vision, as prompt treatment can help to prevent long-term damage and improve the chance of recovery.
Some examples of pathologic constrictions include:
1. Stenosis: A narrowing or constriction of a blood vessel or other tubular structure, often caused by the buildup of plaque or scar tissue.
2. Asthma: A condition characterized by inflammation and constriction of the airways, which can make breathing difficult.
3. Esophageal stricture: A narrowing of the esophagus that can cause difficulty swallowing.
4. Gastric ring constriction: A narrowing of the stomach caused by a band of tissue that forms in the upper part of the stomach.
5. Anal fissure: A tear in the lining of the anus that can cause pain and difficulty passing stools.
Pathologic constrictions can be caused by a variety of factors, including inflammation, infection, injury, or genetic disorders. They can be diagnosed through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or endoscopies, and may require surgical treatment to relieve symptoms and improve function.
1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.
It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.
There are two main types of retinal artery occlusion: central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). Central retinal artery occlusion occurs when the central retinal artery, which supplies blood to the macula, becomes blocked. This can cause sudden vision loss in one eye, often with a painless, blinding effect. Branch retinal artery occlusion, on the other hand, occurs when one of the smaller retinal arteries that branch off from the central retinal artery becomes blocked. This can cause vision loss in a specific part of the visual field, often with some preserved peripheral vision.
Retinal artery occlusion is often caused by a blood clot or other debris that blocks the flow of blood through the retinal arteries. It can also be caused by other conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the arteries).
Retinal artery occlusion is a medical emergency that requires prompt treatment. Treatment options may include intravenous injection of medications to dissolve the clot or other debris, laser surgery to repair damaged retinal tissue, and/or vitrectomy (surgical removal of the vitreous gel) to remove any blood or debris that has accumulated in the eye.
In summary, retinal artery occlusion is a serious condition that can cause sudden vision loss and potentially lead to permanent blindness. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you experience any symptoms of retinal artery occlusion, such as sudden vision loss or blurred vision in one eye, flashes of light, floaters, or pain in the eye.
Types of Eye Injuries:
1. Corneal abrasion: A scratch on the cornea, the clear outer layer of the eye.
2. Conjunctival bleeding: Bleeding in the conjunctiva, the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye.
3. Hyphema: Blood in the space between the iris and the cornea.
4. Hemorrhage: Bleeding in the eyelid or under the retina.
5. Retinal detachment: Separation of the retina from the underlying tissue, which can cause vision loss if not treated promptly.
6. Optic nerve damage: Damage to the nerve that carries visual information from the eye to the brain, which can cause vision loss or blindness.
7. Orbital injury: Injury to the bones and tissues surrounding the eye, which can cause double vision, swelling, or vision loss.
Symptoms of Eye Injuries:
1. Pain in the eye or around the eye
2. Redness and swelling of the eye or eyelid
3. Difficulty seeing or blurred vision
4. Sensitivity to light
5. Double vision or loss of vision
6. Discharge or crusting around the eye
7. Swelling of the eyelids or face
Treatment of Eye Injuries:
1. Depending on the severity and nature of the injury, treatment may include antibiotics, pain relief medication, or surgery.
2. In some cases, a tube may be inserted into the eye to help drain fluid or prevent pressure from building up.
3. In severe cases, vision may not return completely, but there are many options for corrective glasses and contact lenses to improve remaining vision.
4. It is essential to seek medical attention immediately if there is a foreign object in the eye, as this can cause further damage if left untreated.
5. In cases of penetrating trauma, such as a blow to the eye, it is important to seek medical attention right away, even if there are no immediate signs of injury.
6. Follow-up appointments with an ophthalmologist are essential to monitor healing and address any complications that may arise.
The symptoms of ALI can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:
* Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
* Chest pain or tightness (pleurisy)
* Cough, which may produce mucus or pus
* Fatigue, confusion, or disorientation
* Low oxygen levels in the blood (hypoxia)
If left untreated, ALI can progress to a more severe condition called acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which can be fatal. Treatment for ALI typically involves supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation, medications to manage inflammation and fluid buildup in the lungs, and management of underlying causes. In severe cases, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or lung transplantation may be necessary.
It's important to note that ALI can occur in people of all ages and can be caused by a variety of factors, so it's important to seek medical attention right away if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of the condition.
Early detection and management of atherosclerosis through regular health check-ups, healthy lifestyle choices, and medications can help prevent or delay the progression of the disease and reduce the risk of complications.
Types of Cranial Nerve Injuries:
1. Traumatic brain injury (TBI): TBI can cause damage to the cranial nerves, leading to a range of symptoms such as double vision, facial weakness or paralysis, difficulty with swallowing, and cognitive impairment.
2. Stroke: A stroke can cause damage to the cranial nerves, leading to symptoms such as a drooping eyelid, facial weakness or paralysis, and difficulty with swallowing.
3. Brain tumors: Tumors in the brain can compress or damage the cranial nerves, causing a range of symptoms such as double vision, facial weakness or paralysis, and cognitive impairment.
4. Cerebral vasospasm: This is a condition where the blood vessels in the brain constrict, reducing blood flow and oxygen supply to the brain, which can cause damage to the cranial nerves.
5. Infections such as meningitis or encephalitis: These infections can cause inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord, leading to damage to the cranial nerves.
6. Neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): These conditions can cause progressive damage to the cranial nerves leading to a range of symptoms such as tremors, weakness, and difficulty with movement and balance.
Symptoms of Cranial Nerve Injuries:
1. Double vision or loss of vision
2. Facial weakness or paralysis
3. Difficulty with swallowing
4. Slurred speech
5. Weakness or paralysis of the limbs on one side of the body
6. Difficulty with balance and coordination
7. Numbness or tingling in the face, arms, or legs
9. Vision problems such as blurred vision, loss of peripheral vision, or loss of color vision
10. Cognitive impairment such as difficulty with concentration, memory loss, or difficulty with problem-solving.
Diagnosis of Cranial Nerve Injuries:
1. Physical examination and medical history: A doctor will perform a physical examination to check for signs of cranial nerve damage such as weakness or paralysis of the facial muscles, difficulty with swallowing, or abnormal reflexes.
2. Imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans: These tests can help doctors identify any structural problems in the brain or spinal cord that may be causing cranial nerve damage.
3. Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS): These tests can help doctors determine the extent of nerve damage by measuring the electrical activity of muscles and nerves.
4. Lumbar puncture: This test involves inserting a needle into the spinal canal to collect cerebrospinal fluid for laboratory testing.
5. Blood tests: These can help doctors rule out other conditions that may be causing symptoms such as infections or autoimmune disorders.
Treatment of Cranial Nerve Injuries:
1. Conservative management: Mild cases of cranial nerve injuries may not require surgical intervention and can be treated with conservative measures such as physical therapy, pain management, and monitoring.
2. Surgery: In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve compression on the nerves or repair any structural damage.
3. Rehabilitation: After surgery or conservative treatment, rehabilitation is crucial to regain lost function and prevent further complications. This may include physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy.
Prognosis of Cranial Nerve Injuries:
The prognosis for cranial nerve injuries depends on the severity and location of the injury, as well as the promptness and effectiveness of treatment. In general, the sooner treatment is received, the better the outcome. Some people may experience a full recovery, while others may have persistent symptoms or long-term deficits.
Complications of Cranial Nerve Injuries:
1. Permanent nerve damage: In some cases, cranial nerve injuries can result in permanent nerve damage, leading to chronic symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or paralysis.
2. Seizures: Cranial nerve injuries can increase the risk of seizures, particularly if they involve the seizure-regulating nerves.
3. Infection: Any injury that penetrates the skull can increase the risk of infection, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.
4. Hydrocephalus: This is a condition in which cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the brain, leading to increased intracranial pressure and potentially life-threatening complications.
5. Cerebral edema: This is swelling of the brain tissue due to injury or inflammation, which can lead to increased intracranial pressure and potentially life-threatening complications.
6. Brain herniation: This is a condition in which the brain is pushed out of its normal position in the skull, leading to potentially life-threatening complications.
7. Vision loss: Cranial nerve injuries can cause vision loss or blindness, particularly if they involve the optic nerves.
8. Facial paralysis: Cranial nerve injuries can cause facial paralysis or weakness, which can be temporary or permanent.
9. Hearing loss: Cranial nerve injuries can cause hearing loss or deafness, particularly if they involve the auditory nerves.
10. Cognitive and behavioral changes: Depending on the location and severity of the injury, cranial nerve injuries can lead to cognitive and behavioral changes, such as difficulty with concentration, memory problems, or personality changes.
In summary, cranial nerve injuries can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Infarction Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) is a type of ischemic stroke that occurs when there is an obstruction in the middle cerebral artery. This artery supplies blood to the temporal lobe of the brain, which controls many important functions such as memory, language, and spatial reasoning. When this artery becomes blocked or ruptured, it can cause a lack of blood supply to the affected areas resulting in tissue death (infarction).
The symptoms of an MCA infarction can vary depending on the location and severity of the blockage. Some common symptoms include weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, difficulty with speech and language, memory loss, confusion, vision problems, and difficulty with coordination and balance. Patients may also experience sudden severe headache, nausea, vomiting, and fever.
The diagnosis of MCA infarction is based on a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests. Imaging studies can help to identify the location and severity of the blockage, while laboratory tests may be used to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
Treatment for MCA infarction depends on the underlying cause of the blockage or rupture. In some cases, medications such as thrombolytics may be given to dissolve blood clots and restore blood flow to the affected areas. Surgery may also be required to remove any blockages or repair damaged blood vessels. Other interventions such as endovascular procedures or brain bypass surgery may also be used to restore blood flow.
In summary, middle cerebral artery infarction is a type of stroke that occurs when the blood supply to the brain is blocked or interrupted, leading to damage to the brain tissue. It can cause a range of symptoms including weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, difficulty with speech and language, memory loss, confusion, vision problems, and difficulty with coordination and balance. The diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. Treatment options include medications, surgery, endovascular procedures, or brain bypass surgery.
There are several different types of calcinosis, each with its own unique causes and symptoms. Some common forms of calcinosis include:
1. Dystrophic calcinosis: This type of calcinosis occurs in people with muscular dystrophy, a group of genetic disorders that affect muscle strength and function. Dystrophic calcinosis can cause calcium deposits to form in the muscles, leading to muscle weakness and wasting.
2. Metastatic calcinosis: This type of calcinosis occurs when cancer cells spread to other parts of the body and cause calcium deposits to form. Metastatic calcinosis can occur in people with a variety of different types of cancer, including breast, lung, and prostate cancer.
3. Idiopathic calcinosis: This type of calcinosis occurs for no apparent reason, and the exact cause is not known. Idiopathic calcinosis can affect people of all ages and can cause calcium deposits to form in a variety of different tissues.
4. Secondary calcinosis: This type of calcidosis occurs as a result of an underlying medical condition or injury. For example, secondary calcinosis can occur in people with kidney disease, hyperparathyroidism (a condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormone), or traumatic injuries.
Treatment for calcinosis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, treatment may involve managing the underlying disease or condition that is causing the calcium deposits to form. Other treatments may include medications to reduce inflammation and pain, physical therapy to improve mobility and strength, and surgery to remove the calcium deposits.
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- On the day of the surgery, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of the neck was performed in a hybrid operating room, followed by surgical exploration to separate the common carotid artery at the proximal end of the pseudoaneurysm with the internal and external carotid artery at the distal end of the pseudoaneurysm, and a carotid artery shunt was applied and the external carotid artery was blocked. (biomedcentral.com)
- The pseudoaneurysm was then resected and the foreign object was removed and the artery is spasmadic (Fig. 3b ). (biomedcentral.com)
- No pseudoaneurysm was detected upon reexamination of the carotid artery 3 months after operation (Fig. 2b ), and the follow-up was made in 3 years, and the carotid ultrasound doppler shows no relapse occurred and common carotid artery (Fig. 5a ), external carotid artery (Fig. 5b ) and internal carotid artery (Fig. 5c ) keep vsssels open. (biomedcentral.com)
- 12. Pipeline embolization for an iatrogenic intracranial internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm after transsphenoidal pituitary tumor surgery: Case report and review of the literature. (nih.gov)
- A large, calcified distal right internal carotid artery (ICA) pseudoaneurysm was diagnosed and successfully excluded with a 7 x 30 mm covered stent. (umn.edu)
- Fusonie, GE, Edwards, JD & Reed, AB 2004, ' Covered stent exclusion of blunt traumatic carotid artery pseudoaneurysm: Case report and review of the literature ', Annals of Vascular Surgery , vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 376-379. (umn.edu)
- In 1552, Ambrose Pare ligated both common carotid arteries and the jugular vein of a soldier with a traumatic neck injury. (medscape.com)
- After the patient was stabilized, CT angiography (CTA) of the neck showed two cystic bumps anterior and posterior to the starting point of the left internal carotid artery that were diagnosed as multiple traumatic pseudoaneurysms (Fig. 2a ). (biomedcentral.com)
- Pri-mary brain injury is defined by the direct mechanical forces which occur at the time of the traumatic impact to the brain tissue. (noiwatdan.com)
- The term 'head injury' covers cuts and bruises to the scalp as well as injury to the brain, which is known as Traumatic Brain Injury or TBI. (noiwatdan.com)
- STN E-Library 2012 14 5_Traumatic Brain Injury. (noiwatdan.com)
- Explosive blasts are a common cause of traumatic brain injury in active-duty military personnel. (noiwatdan.com)
Morbidity and morta2
- Many departments jointly and positive and effective surgical intervention are the key to reduce morbidity and mortality of carotid artery penetrating injury. (biomedcentral.com)
- Intraoperative injuries of the internal carotid artery (ICA) have a high morbidity and mortality when they occur during trans-sphenoidal surgery. (bmj.com)
Management of intraoperative1
- 17. The surgical management of intraoperative intracranial internal carotid artery injury in open skull base surgery-a systematic review. (nih.gov)
- A missed diagnosis of cervical artery dissection can result in devastating neurologic sequelae, and emergency clinicians must act quickly to recognize this diagnosis and begin treatment as soon as possible. (ebmedicine.net)
- For centuries, carotid ligation was the only reliable treatment of severe penetrating neck injury. (medscape.com)
- The most commonly used procedures to induce arterial injury in mice are carotid artery ligation with cessation of blood flow, and mechanically induced denudation of endothelium in the carotid or femoral arteries. (nih.gov)
- Here, we show that bortezomib prolongs thrombosis times in the carotid artery photochemical injury assay in normal mice. (nih.gov)
- Blunt cerebrovascular injuries include cervical carotid dissections and vertebral artery dissections that are due to blunt trauma. (ebmedicine.net)
- Severed carotid artery, severed jugular and "crushing" injuries to the spinal cord and cervical spine commonly occur in fatal pit bull maulings . (dogsbite.org)
- 15. Emergency endovascular stent graft and coil placement for internal carotid artery injury during transsphenoidal surgery. (nih.gov)
- In three patients, covered stent placement achieved hemostasis at the site of injury within the ICA. (bmj.com)
- One patient developed delayed bleeding 6 h after covered stent placement and underwent successful endovascular occlusion of the ICA but died 6 days after the injury. (bmj.com)
- Your healthcare provider may recommend a stent to provide support inside a narrowed artery or airway. (nih.gov)
- Stent grafts can also help to treat injuries that have weakened the aorta. (nih.gov)
- A stent may be used as treatment for narrowed arteries caused by peripheral artery disease (PAD) , a condition when plaque builds up in the arteries that carry blood to your legs, arms, or abdomen. (nih.gov)
- An artery stent may not be recommended in some circumstances. (nih.gov)
- Age or other risk factors may lead your provider to recommend another procedure instead of a carotid stent, especially if you are over age 70. (nih.gov)
- 1972. Myocardial fibrosis and smooth muscle cell hyperplasia in coronary arteries of allylamine-fed rats. (nih.gov)
- Stents are often used to treat narrowed coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart. (nih.gov)
- If you have other medical conditions such as multiple narrowed coronary arteries, kidney disease that is long-lasting, or diabetes, stents may not be recommended. (nih.gov)
- The severity grade should be based on the extent of the lesion (e.g., number of arteries affected, length of vessel affected) and severity of the lesion (e.g., degree of thickening, percentage of luminal occlusion). (nih.gov)
- 4 Because of these complications, endovascular occlusion has become the preferred treatment for ICA injuries. (bmj.com)
- In penetrating neck injuries, computed tomography (CT) angiography of the neck is the preferred imaging procedure to evaluate the extent of injury. (medscape.com)
- The CT angiography (CTA) of the neck showed two pseudoaneurysms: one on the anterior wall and one on the posterior wall of the carotid artery. (biomedcentral.com)
- The patient underwent The stricture of the right CCA and tor- In 15 of 36 cadavers (48%) the level carotid angiography (Figures 1 and 2). (who.int)
- Intimal proliferation may also be induced through mechanical injury to the endothelium. (nih.gov)
- Zinc reduces intimal hyperplasia in the rat carotid injury model. (nih.gov)
- Understanding the role of transforming growth factor-beta1 in intimal thickening after vascular injury. (nih.gov)
- 2013. A simplified murine intimal hyperplasia model founded on a focal carotid stenosis. (nih.gov)
- Heart, Artery - Proliferation, Intimal in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
- When labeled platelets were injected into dogs with experimentally induced intimal injury of on carotid artery, the area of injury was clearly visualized 40 min after tracer injection. (wustl.edu)
- 2. Adenosine-induced transient hypotension for carotid artery injury during endoscopic skull-base surgery: case report and review of the literature. (nih.gov)
- Methods A retrospective review was conducted of patients with an ICA injury related to trans-sphenoidal surgery from 2000 to 2012. (bmj.com)
- 16. Managing Arterial Injury in Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery: Case Series and Review of the Literature. (nih.gov)
- 18. Urgent cerebral revascularization bypass surgery for iatrogenic skull base internal carotid artery injury. (nih.gov)
Side of the neck3
- A computed tomography (CT) scan of the neck showed the shadow of flaky foreign objects with metal density at the carotid sheath space on the left side of the neck next to the parapharyngeal space. (biomedcentral.com)
- The carotid artery travels up each side of the neck and branches into smaller vessels that supply blood to the brain. (stlukesonline.org)
- Blood flowing through the carotid arteries (carotid pulses) can be felt on each side of the neck next to the windpipe (trachea). (stlukesonline.org)
- 11. Controlling the surgical field during a large endoscopic vascular injury. (nih.gov)
- 14. Management of Major Vascular Injury During Endoscopic Endonasal Skull Base Surgery. (nih.gov)
- These are manifest by contusions and lacerations of the brain, and diffuse vascular injuries with petechial haemorrhages. (noiwatdan.com)
- The primary objective of this study was to quantify the strains applied to the internal carotid artery (ICA) during neck spinal manipulative treatments and range of motion (ROM)/diagnostic testing of the head and neck. (nih.gov)
- 1. Use of Adenosine to Facilitate Localization and Repair of Internal Carotid Artery Injury during Skull Base Surgery: A Case Report and Literature Review. (nih.gov)
- 3. Endovascular management of internal carotid artery injuries secondary to endonasal surgery: case series and review of the literature. (nih.gov)
- 4. Internal carotid artery injury in endoscopic endonasal surgery: A systematic review. (nih.gov)
- 5. Major Internal Carotid Artery Injury During Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery: Case Report. (nih.gov)
- 6. Role of Intraoperative Neurophysiologic Monitoring in Internal Carotid Artery Injury During Endoscopic Endonasal Skull Base Surgery. (nih.gov)
- 7. Training model for control of an internal carotid artery injury during transsphenoidal surgery. (nih.gov)
- 9. A modified endovascular treatment protocol for iatrogenic internal carotid artery injuries following endoscopic endonasal surgery. (nih.gov)
- 10. Assessment of Factors Associated With Internal Carotid Injury in Expanded Endoscopic Endonasal Skull Base Surgery. (nih.gov)
- 19. Injury of the Internal Carotid Artery During Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery: Prevention and Management Protocol. (nih.gov)
- Purpose To report our experience with intraoperative complications involving the internal carotid artery (ICA) during trans-sphenoidal surgery and their outcome with reconstructive endovascular management. (bmj.com)
- Herein we describe the surgical details for performing and histologically analyzing the modified, pressure-controlled rat carotid artery balloon injury model. (nih.gov)
- Injury to the carotid artery from blunt trauma, when not lethal, will often go unrecognized. (umn.edu)
Spinal cord i2
- inflammation reduction, nerve recovery in addition to alleviated hemostasis and vessels function after compression (spinal cord injury therapy). (lww.com)
- Carotid artery stiffness and development of hypertension in chronic spinal cord injury subjects with no overt cardiovascular disease: a 7-year follow-up study. (escardio.org)
- Firstly, given in the reperfusion, BPC 157 counteracted bilateral clamping of the common carotid arteries-induced stroke, sustained brain neuronal damages were resolved in rats as well as disturbed memory, locomotion, and coordination. (lww.com)
- A Rat Carotid Artery Pressure-Controlled Segmental Balloon Injury with Periadventitial Therapeutic Application. (nih.gov)
- Balloon or wire injury are the two commonly accepted injury modalities used in murine models. (nih.gov)
- Balloon injury models in particular mimic the clinical angioplasty procedure and cause adequate damage to the artery for the development of restenosis. (nih.gov)
- The majority of these injuries occur secondary to penetrating trauma. (bvsalud.org)
- Mechanism of injury (MOI), diagnosis, involved vessels, management and outcomes of patients with AVFs secondary to penetrating trauma were recorded. (bvsalud.org)
- RESULTS: There were a total of 291 patients with AVFs secondary to penetrating injuries. (bvsalud.org)
- CONCLUSION: Most AVFs occur secondary to penetrating injuries. (bvsalud.org)
- matic brain injury (TBI), several factors must be given focus, such as primary and secondary brain injuries. (noiwatdan.com)
- Recognize the importance of limiting secondary brain injury. (noiwatdan.com)
- Large arteries and veins were easily visualized and avoided in the trajectory to the foramen ovale. (thieme-connect.com)
- An acquired abnormality resulting from leaked blood from damaged CAROTID ARTERIES , often due to TRAUMA or INFECTION . (nih.gov)
- Breakages of both anterior and posterior walls of the carotid artery were stitched (Fig. 4c , d ). (biomedcentral.com)
- The CCA is close to many vital structures in the neck, including the trachea, oesophagus, inferior thyroid and vertebral arteries, and recurrent la- ryngeal nerves. (who.int)
- If a chiropractor fails to properly diagnose or neglects to make the adequate medical decision, he/she could be held liable for the patient's injuries. (faylawpa.com)
- 8. Carotid artery injury after endonasal surgery. (nih.gov)
- Risk factors for ICA rupture included two patients with carotid dehiscence, one with sphenoid septal attachment to the ICA, two with revision surgery, one with prior radiation to the tumor, one with bromocriptine treatment and two with acromegaly. (bmj.com)
- Conclusions Endovascular management with arterial reconstruction is helpful in the treatment of ICA injuries during trans-sphenoidal surgery. (bmj.com)
- Your provider may recommend coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) instead. (nih.gov)
- of the CCA and its importance in neck carotid artery surgery. (who.int)
- The organ(s) in which it occurs should be included in the diagnosis as the site, and the type of blood vessel affected (e.g., artery or vein) should be included as a site modifier. (nih.gov)
- The carotid arteries are found in the neck and supply oxygen-rich blood to the brain. (nih.gov)
- Mild head injury, also known as concussion, means that the brain has had a mild injury and will need time to recover. (noiwatdan.com)
- Head Injury - helping your child recover Each brain injury is different and so is the recovery. (noiwatdan.com)
- Closed head injuries can also result in severe brain injury. (noiwatdan.com)
- Most head injuries are not serious but occasionally they can be and may result in trauma or damage to the brain. (noiwatdan.com)
- This includes gunshot wounds, stab or puncture wounds, and impalement injuries. (medscape.com)
- Due to its high blood flow, ruptures caused by accidents such as stab wounds, gunshot wounds, car accident injuries can cause rapid and massive blood loss in a short period, which can be lethal cases without timely treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
- The carotid artery is an important blood vessel in the human body. (biomedcentral.com)
- The changes associated with improved imaging modalities and nonmilitary injuries have resulted in a dramatic change in the treatment paradigm for penetrating neck injury. (medscape.com)
- This supplement reviews the application of advanced screening criteria, imaging options, and antithrombotic treatment for patients with blunt cerebrovascular injuries, with a focus on reducing the occurrence of ischemic stroke. (ebmedicine.net)
- If a chiropractor's medical treatment results in injury, the injured patients can file a medical malpractice lawsuit. (faylawpa.com)
- To file a medical malpractice lawsuit against a chiropractor, the plaintiff must show that the treating healthcare provider didn't exercise the usual standard of care that reasonable chiropractor-in the same situation-would have exercised during treatment, and that failure to exercise reasonable care resulted in injury. (faylawpa.com)
- There is no specific treatment for mild head injury other than plenty of rest and not overdoing things. (noiwatdan.com)
- Purpose of this study was to evaluate the population characteristics of patients with both head injury and facial fractures in rural centre. (who.int)
- All patients who sustained both cranial and facial injuries were included in this study. (who.int)
- Most patients with upper facial fractures or combination of it had associated injuries. (who.int)
- He was bleeding from multiple dog bite injuries when deputies arrived. (dogsbite.org)
- Stab wounds account for the majority of these injuries. (bvsalud.org)
- Two factors in the mechanism of injury or kinematics in penetrating neck trauma determine the extent of damage to the tissue: (1) weapon characteristics and (2) the location of injury and human tissues involved. (medscape.com)
- Type of fracture, mechanism, clinical features and pattern of injuries were noted. (who.int)
Types of injuries1
- The types of injuries seen on the battlefields of World War II and the then available diagnostic armamentarium are significantly different from those in the modern civilian trauma center. (medscape.com)