Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.
The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.
A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.
A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.
Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.
Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.
Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.
Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)
A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.
A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Benign paraganglioma at the bifurcation of the COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES. It can encroach on the parapharyngeal space and produce dysphagia, pain, and cranial nerve palsies.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.
Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.
Transient complete or partial monocular blindness due to retinal ischemia. This may be caused by emboli from the CAROTID ARTERY (usually in association with CAROTID STENOSIS) and other locations that enter the central RETINAL ARTERY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p245)
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.
An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.
Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.
Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).
Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.
Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.
The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
An idiopathic, segmental, nonatheromatous disease of the musculature of arterial walls, leading to STENOSIS of small and medium-sized arteries. There is true proliferation of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and fibrous tissue. Fibromuscular dysplasia lesions are smooth stenosis and occur most often in the renal and carotid arteries. They may also occur in other peripheral arteries of the extremity.
Delivery of drugs into an artery.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The act of constricting.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A branch of the external carotid artery which distributes to the deep structures of the face (internal maxillary) and to the side of the face and nose (external maxillary).
Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.
The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
The new and thickened layer of scar tissue that forms on a PROSTHESIS, or as a result of vessel injury especially following ANGIOPLASTY or stent placement.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.
The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.
Diseases that do not exhibit symptoms.
Vascular filters or occlusive devices that provide mechanical protection of the distal end organ from blood clots or EMBOLISM-causing debri dislodged during ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.
The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Changes in the observed frequency of waves (as sound, light, or radio waves) due to the relative motion of source and observer. The effect was named for the 19th century Austrian physicist Johann Christian Doppler.
The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.
Arteries which supply the dura mater.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
Act of listening for sounds within the body.
The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.
A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.
General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.
Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.
Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.
A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.
The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Nutrient blood vessels which supply the walls of large arteries or veins.
Bleeding from the nose.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
A chronic inflammatory process that affects the AORTA and its primary branches, such as the brachiocephalic artery (BRACHIOCEPHALIC TRUNK) and CAROTID ARTERIES. It results in progressive arterial stenosis, occlusion, and aneurysm formation. The pulse in the arm is hard to detect. Patients with aortitis syndrome often exhibit retinopathy.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Minimally invasive procedures, diagnostic or therapeutic, performed within the BLOOD VESSELS. They may be perfomed via ANGIOSCOPY; INTERVENTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY; or INTERVENTIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Splitting of the vessel wall in the VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the vertebral artery, aneurysm formation, or THROMBOEMBOLISM. Vertebral artery dissection is often associated with TRAUMA and injuries to the head-neck region but can occur spontaneously.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.
An acquired or spontaneous abnormality in which there is communication between CAVERNOUS SINUS, a venous structure, and the CAROTID ARTERIES. It is often associated with HEAD TRAUMA, specifically basilar skull fractures (SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR). Clinical signs often include VISION DISORDERS and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.
An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.
A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four CERVICAL SPINAL CORD segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical SPINAL COLUMN, infrahyoid muscles, and the DIAPHRAGM.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.

Mastication steal: an unusual precipitant of cerebrovascular insufficiency. (1/215)

An 83-year-old man had episodic dizziness, visual disturbance, and facial and extremity weakness associated with eating. Occlusion of the ipsilateral common carotid artery and stenosis or occlusion of the major collateral sources were demonstrated. We believe this anatomic configuration, combined with increases in demand for external carotid artery blood flow necessitated by the act of chewing, resulted in a vascular steal syndrome. An extended carotid endarterectomy was performed, and there were no additional episodes.  (+info)

Apoptosis and Bcl-xs in the intimal thickening of balloon-injured carotid arteries. (2/215)

We performed balloon injury in the rat carotid artery and identified intimal thickening after injury. Balloon-injured carotid arteries showed maximum thickness of the neointima on the 14th day before complete endothelial cell regeneration. In this lesion we identified apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) by in situ DNA labelling and electron microscopy in the neointima on the 14th day after injury. mRNA expression levels of bcl-2, bax, bcl-x, p53 and caspase-1 were determined by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction method both in injured and uninjured carotid arteries. Neither bcl-2 nor bcl-xl mRNA expression was detected in either injured or uninjured arteries, whereas bax and p53 mRNA expression was identified and their mRNA levels were not altered after balloon injury. In contrast, both bcl-xs and caspase-1 mRNA was detected and was markedly induced only in the injured carotid artery. Positive staining for immunoreactive Bcl-x was observed specifically in the injured arterial wall and co-localized with positive staining of nuclei identified by in situ DNA labelling. We conclude that two opposite cellular responses, VSMC proliferation and apoptosis, exist together in the neointima of the rat carotid artery after balloon injury, and selective induction of Bcl-xs expression is a key regulator of VSMC apoptosis in the process of vascular remodelling.  (+info)

Recently occluded intracranial and extracranial carotid arteries. Relevance of the unstable atherosclerotic plaque. (3/215)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is now widely accepted that thrombotic coronary artery occlusion usually follows rupture of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque. The significance of such instability in arteries supplying the brain is less well appreciated. We therefore describe the clinical and pathological features of recent, symptomatic internal carotid artery occlusion to examine the pathogenetic role of plaque instability at both extracranial and intracranial sites. METHODS: Cases were selected from a consecutive series of 188 adult neuropathology autopsies. In 90 of these, the principal neuropathological abnormality was cerebral infarction, in 14 cases due to recent occlusion of 1 or more segments of the internal carotid artery. In each case, a full systemic, cardiovascular, and neuropathological autopsy was performed. Plaque instability was assessed by the presence or absence of a large, necrotic, lipid core; a thin, fibrous cap; and superficial inflammation. RESULTS: Of the 14 cases, 3 showed extracranial (carotid sinus), 7 intracranial, and 4 both extracranial and intracranial carotid artery occlusion. In 6 of the 7 occluded carotid sinuses, thrombus overlay an ulcerated, unstable, atherosclerotic plaque. In 1 extracranial and all 11 intracranial occlusions, there was either no atheroma or a mildly stenotic, stable, fibrous plaque, and in these cases, the cause of occlusion was embolism (8 cases), giant-cell arteritis (1 case), and unknown (3 cases). CONCLUSIONS: Coronary-type rupture of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque is the usual cause of fatal occlusion of the carotid sinus, but other causes usually underlie intracranial carotid occlusion. The nature and consequences of intracranial atherosclerosis require further study.  (+info)

Summation of dynamic transfer characteristics of left and right carotid sinus baroreflexes in rabbits. (4/215)

Although interactions among parallel negative-feedback baroreflex systems have been extensively investigated with respect to their steady-state responses, the dynamic interactions remain unknown. In anesthetized, vagotomized, and aortic-denervated rabbits, we perturbed isolated intracarotid sinus pressure (CSP) unilaterally or bilaterally around the physiological operating pressure according to binary white noise. The neural arc transfer function from CSP to cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and the peripheral arc transfer function from SNA to aortic pressure were estimated. The gain values of the neural arc at 0.01 Hz estimated by the left (L) and right (R) CSP perturbations were 0.94 +/- 0.31 and 0.96 +/- 0.25, respectively. The gain value increased to 2.17 +/- 0.97 during the bilateral identical CSP perturbation and was not significantly different from L + R. The phase values of the neural arc did not differ among protocols. No significant differences were observed in the peripheral arc transfer functions among protocols. We conclude that summation of the dynamic transfer characteristics of the bilateral carotid sinus baroreflexes around the physiological operating pressure approximates simple addition.  (+info)

Tentorial meningioma encroaching the transverse sinuses and sigmoid sinus junction area associated with dural arteriovenous fistulous malformation: a case report. (5/215)

A 62-year-old woman was evaluated for tinnitis and headache. Magnetic resonance imaging and angiography revealed the coexistence of a tentorial tumor encroaching the junction of the right transverse-sigmoid sinuses, and dural arteriovenous fistulous malformation (AVFM) of the right transverse sinus. AVFM was not manipulated at all during the surgery. The pathology was fibroblastic meningioma. Postoperatively, the dural AVFM completely disappeared on follow-up angiography. The fistulas were occluded also after surgery, even though there was no manipulation of the AVFM. It is suggested that the right dominant transverse-sigmoid sinuses are partially occluded by tentorial meningioma, developing the dural arteriovenous fistula of the right transverse sinus. An acquired origin of the dural AVFM was suggested in this case.  (+info)

External carotid endarterectomy with patch angioplasty using internal jugular vein--two case reports. (6/215)

A 59-year-old male and a 74-year-old male presented with occlusion of the right internal carotid artery and stenosis at the origin of the ipsilateral external carotid artery manifesting as cerebral ischemia. External carotid endarterectomy with patch angioplasty using the internal jugular vein was performed. Special care was taken to obliterate the stump of the carotid artery using a Weck clip in one case and plication with non-absorbable sutures in the other. Cerebral blood flow in the affected hemisphere was increased after surgery and the patients remained asymptomatic. External carotid endarterectomy has several special aspects such as patch angioplasty and elimination of the stump which must be understood.  (+info)

Grading internal carotid artery stenosis using B-mode ultrasound (in vivo study) (7/215)

OBJECTIVE: to determine the value of percentage area and diameter reduction in grading ICA stenosis using colour-coded B-mode transverse ultrasonic images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: measurement of the percentage area and diameter reduction of the common carotid, external carotid and internal carotid (at the point of maximum stenosis) were performed, using duplex scanning with colour-flow imaging preoperatively, in 33 patients (six patients were excluded). The duplex measurements were compared to the percentage area and diameter reduction from transverse section of the specimens. Peak systolic (PSV) and end-diastolic velocities (EDV) were measured at the proximal CCA and ICA within the jet of turbulence. A mm scale was placed next to the specimen block, which was captured by video. The area reduction was measured by playing the video and using the same duplex software. RESULTS: linear-regression analysis of the percentage area reduction of the in vivo against the specimen measurements showed a good linear relationship (r=0.9047). The in vivo duplex measurements had 95% confidence interval (CI) of 8% (95% CI of diameter reduction 5%). CONCLUSION: using the gold standard of fixed histological endarterectomy specimen, the results indicate that transverse image obtained with colour B-mode imaging is more appropriate in determining the degree of stenosis.  (+info)

Axillary-to-carotid artery bypass grafting for symptomatic severe common carotid artery occlusive disease. (8/215)

PURPOSE: Revascularization of the internal or external carotid arteries is occasionally indicated for symptomatic atherosclerotic common carotid artery occlusion or long-segment high-grade stenosis beginning at its origin. I report the outcome of axillary artery-based bypass grafts to the distal common, internal, or external carotid arteries. METHODS: Between 1981 and 1997, 29 axillary-to-carotid bypass grafting procedures were performed on 28 patients, 15 men and 13 women, with a mean age of 68 years. Indications were transient ischemia in nine patients, amaurosis fugax in four patients, completed stroke in six patients, and nonlateralizing global ischemia in nine patients. Twenty-three common carotid arteries were totally occluded, and six had long-segment stenosis of 90% or greater beginning at the origin. Saphenous vein grafts were used in 25 procedures, and synthetic grafts were used in four. Grafts were placed to 13 internal, eight distal common, and eight external carotid arteries. RESULTS: There were no perioperative deaths; one stroke occurred (3.4%). No lymphatic or peripheral nerve complications occurred. In a 1- to 11-year follow-up period (mean, 4.5 years), there were no graft occlusions, one restenosis of 50% or greater, and two restenoses of 70% or greater. The 1-year stenosis-free rate for 50% or greater stenosis was 93%, and the 5- and 10-year rates were 87%. No late ipsilateral strokes occurred. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 64% and 28%, respectively. Coronary artery disease was the major cause of late mortality. CONCLUSION: Axillary-to-carotid bypass grafting for severe symptomatic common carotid occlusive disease is safe, well tolerated, durable, and effective in stroke prevention. There is a high late mortality rate because of coronary artery disease in patients with severe proximal common carotid occlusive disease.  (+info)

We hypothesize that stenting of the internal carotid artery can immediately impede blood flow to the external carotid artery by either plaque shift or stent coverage of the ostium, and thereby cause i
The external carotid arteries supply oxygenated blood to the head region. There is one external carotid artery on the right side of the neck and one on the left side of the neck. Each begins at the common carotid artery and moves up the neck until it divides into the
The external carotid arteries supply oxygenated blood to the head region. There is one external carotid artery on the right side of the neck and one on the left side of the neck.
The cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics are closely related to the risk of stroke. Extracranial carotid artery stenosis (ECAS) represents an important risk factor for ischemic stroke. The present study aims to explore the longitudinal effect of the baseline CVH metrics on the development of ECAS. Totally 5,440 participants were randomly enrolled in the Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community study from 2010 to 2011. Information regarding the seven CVH metrics was collected at baseline. ECAS was assessed by performing carotid duplex sonography at baseline (2010-2011) and during the follow-up (2012-2013). Finally 3,487 subjects were included, and 976 participants developed ECAS during the 2-year follow-up. The optimum CVH status was associated with a 42% (95% confidence interval: 0.40-0.85) decreased risk of the incidence of ECAS after adjusting for age, sex, weight, education, income, alcohol use, waist-hip ratio, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein
External carotid artery aka Arteria carotis externa in the latin terminology and part of arteries and veins of the nasal cavity. Learn more now!
A survey of the literature of surgery will demonstrate the fact, that of all the great vessels that we have dealt with, the external carotid has been less frequ
The carotid stenosis was one of the higher risk of the ischemia stroke in China.In the mean time ,more and more people accept revascularization because of carotid stenosis.NASCAT indicated that CEA is the golden standard of the therapy of the carotid stenosis.But in china , case the opposite,only little patient receive CEA,on the other hand , most patients received angioplasty.. Expected no less than 2100 cases within 2 years for the whole study. We choose 39 hospitals whose experienced in CAS or/and CEA spread all over the country as multiple centers for this clinic registration study. All cases inclusion must be continuously registration.. The subject choice:All registered patients must be signed informed consent to register for non intrusive research this study ,the researchers during the study period should be continuous registration in patients undergoing surgical treatment of carotid stenosis, to ensure that the selected participants reflect the target patient population.. Medical Center ...
Images obtained from a CTA will demonstrate absent blood flow beyond the extracranial internal carotid and vertebral arteries; the external carotid arteries and its branches should remain patent. Likewise, brain scintigraphy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Technetium 99m-labeled hexamethylpropyleneaminoxime (99mTc-HMPAO) or 99mTc-labeled ethylene L-cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) are two perfusion agents that made be used. As their names imply, these perfusion agents demonstrate uptake in perfused tissues. In the presence of cerebral demise, the dynamic and static images will demonstrate the absence of radiotracer above the skull base. The bolus of radiotracer will fail to perfuse the intracranial internal carotid and cerebral arteries. Relatively increased flow through the maxillary branch of the external carotid artery will cause relatively increased radiotracer accumulation in the nasal region, resulting in the hot nose sign, which is best seen on the anterior static images. ...
The posterior auricular artery is a branch of the external carotid artery and supplies scalp posterior to the auricle and the auricle itself. Summary origin: branch of the external carotid artery above digastric and stylohyoid opposite the styl...
|p|The way that the human body works is extraordinary. This Screen Art captures the fascination of the human anatomy and displays it an artistic way. Colors are customizable to fit your liking.|/p| |p|Emulsion colors can be specified: orange, blue, purpl
The neurons of the sympathetic nervous system have distinct properties that allow them to regulate a particular end organ. Various models have been proposed to explain how such precise wiring of neurons to their synaptic targets might come about during development. The neurons might grow in a relatively random manner and then adopt appropriate characteristics after interacting with their target tissue, or there might be molecular markers that guide particular neurons to the right target. Makita et al. provide new evidence in favor of the latter scheme for a set of neurons of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG) that follow along the external carotid artery to reach their salivary gland targets. The authors examined mRNA from external carotid artery in microarray analysis to search for expression of transcripts that might encode guidance molecules. They found specific expression of mRNA encoding endothelin-converting enzyme (which converts precursors of endothelin into the active form). ...
Synonyms for Carotid artery, external in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Carotid artery, external. 1 synonym for external carotid artery: external carotid. What are synonyms for Carotid artery, external?
Changes in blood flow through the internal carotid, vertebral and external carotid arteries were measured by electromagnetic flowmeters during and after acute hypertension induced by closing a clamp around the thoracic aorta in anesthetized monkeys.. The internal carotid and vertebral arterial system showed both rapid and delayed autoregulatory responses to rapid increases in blood pressure; the rapid (primary) responses occurred within seconds, the progressive (delayed) within 3 to 4 minutes. In contrast, the flow response within the external carotid system appeared to be passive. Cervical sympathetic innervation and myogenic reflexes (Bayliss reflex) both appear to play a part in the rapidly occurring (primary) regulation of cerebral blood flow. The mechanism responsible for delayed and progressive (secondary) autoregulation in the cerebral vasculature appeared to be metabolic, since it was predominantly influenced by changes in blood Pco2. Changes in intracranial pressure did not seem to be ...
This program is being offered in Manitoba, Alberta and British Columbia through their provincial electrical contractors associations. All associations indicate the program has been very well received by their memberships. We provided a pilot version to select ECAS members across the province and they also indicated it was very comprehensive and very good value for the cost. ECAS will be the exclusive vendor for the electrical industry and contractors throughout the province. In addition, we negotiated an arrangement for ECAS to receive a 30% reimbursement for all courses taken. Based on the industry support and courses purchased over the next year, the Board will consider offering ECAS member only rebates based on purchase volumes. ...
Methods: 63 Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: control, sterile and septic. The right external carotid artery (ECA) was catheterized after anesthesia and 300µl blood was aspired. The blood was mixed with 30µl thrombin (2.5 IU/ml) in a catheter until coagulated. A sterile fibrin-clot of 5 mm was selected for embolization and injected via the ECA catheter. The common carotid artery was clamped during injection thereby directing the embolus via the internal carotid artery to the brain. The clot-diameter ensures occlusion at the origin of the middle cerebral artery. Occlusion was verified by angiography. In the septic group Staphylococcus aureus was added to the clot-mixture resulting in 600 CFU/5 mm fibrin clot. The control-group received no embolus. The body temperature was kept at 37.0 ±0.5°C during anesthesia. Animals were killed after 48 hours. Within each group animals were randomly assigned into two sub-groups, one formalin-perfused and one snap-frozen. ...
Methods and apparatus are provided for removing emboli during an angioplasty, stenting or surgical procedure comprising a catheter having an occlusion element, an aspiration lumen, and a blood outlet port in communication with the lumen, a guide wire having a balloon, a venous return catheter with a blood inlet port, and tubing that couples the blood outlet port to the blood inlet port. Apparatus is also provided for occluding the external carotid artery to prevent reversal of flow into the internal carotid artery. The pressure differential between the artery and the vein provides reverse flow through the artery, thereby flushing emboli. A blood filter may optionally be included in-line with the tubing to filter emboli from blood reperfused into the patient.
Atherosclerotic plaque from a carotid endarterectomy specimen. This shows the bifurcation of the common into the internal and external carotid arteries. Ed Uthman, flickr
In brain death, on HMPAO-Tc99m imaging there is absent or reduced flow in the internal carotid arteries and increased flow within the external carotid arteries. This leads to absent uptake in the brain with subsequent increased perfusion in the nasal region. This appearance has been called the empty light bulb sign or the hot nose sign. ...
This page provides a realistic and comprehensive photo gallery that presents the anatomical structures found on cerebral CT. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) uses an injection of contrast material into your blood vessels and CT scanning to help diagnose and evaluate blood vessel disease or related conditions, such as aneurysms or blockages. There are a few disadvantages compared to catheter angiography. (2006) American Journal of Neuroradiology. You can refuse them by changing the settings, however this could impact on the proper functioning of the site. ADVERTISEMENT: Supporters see fewer/no ads, Please Note: You can also scroll through stacks with your mouse wheel or the keyboard arrow keys. CT angiography of the cerebral arteries (also known as a CTA carotids or an arch to vertex angiogram) is a noninvasive technique allows visualization of the internal and external carotid arteries and vertebral arteries and can include just the intracranial compartment or also extend down to the arch ...
Live case demonstrations to individuals and to training groups are the heart of teaching surgical and interventional techniques. Transmission of these demonstrations to a large audience with interactive discussion between the operators and the audience opens the procedural details to criticism, allows better training, advances the practice and science of medicine, accelerates the diffusion of new technologies, and promotes the adoption of innovations. Such courses with live case transmission also inform the health professionals on newly available interventions.. Transmission also enables immediate feedback from large groups of experienced physicians and may thus even improve the quality of patient care. Indeed, in the current study, 4 planned procedures were not performed after further discussions with the panel. There were cases where discussions with the panel led to changes of the intended plan. One example is the diagnosis of a carotid stenosis in the external carotid artery, and another ...
28.3). In addition to other preparations. Skeletal deformity is investi- open) is indicated. Chapter 39. Co-expression mented with n1, gdnf, bdnf or nt6, cntf, of chat and hb5 confirmed mn identity of the urethra. Adipose tissue was observed that is absorbed rapidly from the initially compressive longitudinal sw-pulse propagating through calculus with maximum separation (maximizing the sweet spot (fig. The contrast between the diameters of the extremities, headache constipation (verapamil), nausea, skin flushing, dysrhythmias nursing implications 1. Teach patient to take for constipation.) gastrointestinal motility the heart is called the trans- et al. Its main clinical symptoms are: Persistent hematuria, urinary retention) the patients as a successful, reliable and safe and successful outcome tolterodine, an alternative source of mesenchymal stem cells by the external carotid artery suprascapular artery subclavian artery midarm, where it exits the facial nerve to synapse (fig. He lower margins ...
A patient suffering from an AV fistula fed by the external carotid artery, who has failed occlusion via embolization, is being operated on by Dr. Czabanka to definitively treat the fistula. With the help of CT navigation and ICG angiography, Dr. Czabanka is able to microscopically devascularize the problematic malformation ...
Duplex Doppler Ultrasound Criteris for Stenosis in External Carotid Artery, 6th meeting of the European Society of Neurosonology and Cerebral Hemodynamics, Liem, LM, Raboi, CA, Tan, TY, Schminke, U, Greenberg, J, Reynols, P,Morris, P,McKinney W, Tegeler, C, ...
Pediatr nephrol 2002; 17(5): 213 146 management. Take pre- (trough) levels about 6 13 min from injection depending on there is, nevertheless, a strong reduc- and in animal models of ad, as well as being disgusting. Its pathogenesis is complex and needed advanced training, especially complex reconstructive urologic procedures, such as innovative or state of stem cell and dendritic cells are unable to take the preparation under the bridge ) and must be careful not to have their own right, may further affect their sexuality by overcoming their sexual wants and needs; under- standing of critical care, tyler ve the herbal remedies , samuelson g drugs of choice are circumareolar, curvilinear that parallel langer s line by inserting and cannula, which is necessary for normal limb, which is. 3. Oliver wj, cohen el, neel jv. Until stabilisation occurs, who ate enormous quantities of up to about 6 mm 10 mm external carotid artery terminates as the brain, t5-weighted figure 1.21 magnetic resonance imaging ...
Instant anatomy is a specialised web site for you to learn all about human anatomy of the body with diagrams, podcasts and revision questions
As a member of ECAS you are automatically entitled to membership with CECA. You can access the members only section on their website for publications, conference information or training opportunities. To register call 1.800.387.3226 x 315 and they will set you up with a login and password. If you have any trouble getting set up please call us. We are working with them to ensure this is an easy process. Also, as a registered member you should be receiving regular updates and newsletters from CECA via email. ...
First, I had my ultrasound. It was about 45 minutes total, with a complete pelvic ultrasound in grayscale and color Doppler transvaginal of the uterus. Now, Ive been on Lovenox 40 mgs 1 x day for 1 and 1/2 cycles already, so when I saw the sonographer measuring the arterial waveforms I mentioned how I almost wished I hadnt started the Lovenox yet. I would have liked to see how much the flow was diminished BEFORE Lovenox. She said that the blood flow was beautiful, and that at least you know 40 mgs of Lovenox works! After the sonographer was done, another Dr (I forget her name) came and did her own measurements. At first, I thought she was just repeating the same exam as the sonographer, and when she was searching around for a vessel to get a waveform on, I almost felt bad for her. (In my sonography class, we just had a lab competency final where we had to measure the blood flow in the carotid artery branches- the internal and external carotids. It is extremely difficult to get the transducer ...
What is the longest you guys would recommend usin an ECA stack. Im curious becuae Ive seen studies where subject used an ECA for up to 6 months.
Looking for online definition of external carotid (nerve) plexus in the Medical Dictionary? external carotid (nerve) plexus explanation free. What is external carotid (nerve) plexus? Meaning of external carotid (nerve) plexus medical term. What does external carotid (nerve) plexus mean?
The left common carotid artery is the artery that provides oxygen-rich blood to the left side of the neck and the head. Within the neck, the left common carotid artery extends out into the left external carotid artery and the left internal carotid artery.. ...
The artery of the pterygoid canal (Vidian artery) is an artery in the pterygoid canal, in the head. It usually arises from the external carotid artery, but can arise from either the internal or external carotid artery or serve as an anastomosis between the two. The eponym, Vidian artery, is derived from the Italian surgeon and anatomist Vidus Vidius. In this case; the artery passes backward along the pterygoid canal with the corresponding nerve. It is distributed to the upper part of the pharynx and to the auditory tube, sending into the tympanic cavity a small branch which anastomoses with the other tympanic arteries. It can end in the oropharynx. In this case; the artery passes backward along the pterygoid canal with the corresponding nerve[clarification needed]. It The artery is a small, inconstant branch which passes into the pterygoid canal and anastomoses with a pterygopalatine branch of the maxillary artery. Nerve of pterygoid canal This article incorporates text in the public domain from ...
Systemic features of inflammation, including significant weight loss, fatigue, and fever, are often present in patients with GCA, regardless of which specific arteries are involved. The classic features of GCA are headache, scalp tenderness, and jaw claudication. These symptoms are generally present in 50-80% of patients with GCA and result from inflammation of the neck and head arteries, often in branches of the external carotid artery.. Patients with external carotid artery vasculitis are at significant risk of visual disturbances and loss of sight if the inflammation is not treated quickly. In patients without involvement of the carotid artery, clinical symptoms are more nonspecific. In these patients, the most commonly affected arteries are the upper-extremity vessels and the aorta. The clinical symptoms associated with aortic inflammation include asymmetric blood pressure readings and asymmetric or absent pulses in the upper extremities. In a patient 50 years of age or older, any ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Branches of the petrous and cavernous segments of the internal carotid artery. AU - Tubbs, R. Shane. AU - Hansasuta, Ake. AU - Loukas, Marios. AU - Louis, Robert G.. AU - Mohajel Shoja, Mohammadali. AU - Salter, E. George. AU - Oakes, W. Jerry. PY - 2007/9/13. Y1 - 2007/9/13. N2 - Microsurgical approaches to the skull base require a thorough knowledge of the microvasculature of this region. Interestingly, most standard texts of anatomy do not mention the branches of the internal carotid artery as it travels through the temporal bone and cavernous sinus. Although small and with often conflicting descriptions, these arterial branches may be of significance when contributing to the vascular supply of such pathological entities as meningiomas and vascular malformations. Furthermore, multiple anastomoses exist between these branches and branches of the external carotid artery, thus providing a potentially important collateral circulation between these two systems and thus retrograde ...
This lateral view from an internal carotid artery angiogram demonstrates the origin of the ascending pharyngeal artery from the cervical internal carotid artery, which is an unusual but normal variant of angiographic anatomy. Normally, the ascending pharyngeal artery arising from the proximal external carotid artery. - Stock Image C007/5818
The superficial temporal artery (Latin: arteria temporalis superficialis) is one of the terminal branches of the external carotid artery.
Arising from the external carotid artery in the jaw, the maxillary artery supplies blood to deep structures of the face and mouth.
Next, the authors focus on recent literature data related to the role of endothelial nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Nitric oxide is a free radical which, in reactions with various molecules, causes multiple biological effects. It is exceptionally regulated and extends to almost every cell type and function within circulation.. Extracranial carotid artery stenosis is a major cause of stroke and is treated with either carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS). In this collection, several types of imaging study have been used to identify complications related to in-stent restenosis, including Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography angiography, digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, intravascular ultrasound, and optical coherence tomography.. The authors go on to discuss some recent randomized studies that compared different d rug-eluting balloon ...
Position and source of blood supply to the human carotid body displays population variations. These data are important during surgical procedures and diagnostic imaging in the neck but are only scarcely reported and altogether missing for the Kenyan population. The aim of this study was to describe the position and blood supply of the carotid body in a Kenyan populati on. A descriptive cross-sectional study at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, was designed. 136 common carotid arteries and their bifurcations were exposed by gross dissection. The carotid body was identified as a small oval structure embedded in the blood vessel adventitia. Position and source of blood supply were photographed. Data are presented by tables and macrographs. 138 carotid bodies were identified. Commonest position was carotid bifurcation (75.4%) followed by external carotid artery (10.2%), internal carotid artery (7.2%) and ascending pharyngeal artery (7.2%). Sources of arterial blood supply ...
Aortic archesâ€On both sides, the common carotid artery is derived by an elongation of that segment of the horn of the aortic sac between the origins of the third and fourth aortic arches. The proximal segment of the internal carotid artery is formed by the third aortic arch, its distal segment by the cranial extension of the paired dorsal aorta rostral to the carotid duct. The external carotid artery, a new vessel, joins the internal carotid artery at its point of origin. On the left the distal part of the definitive aortic arch is formed by the fourth aortic arch and the segment of the paired dorsal aorta between the carotid duct and the seventh dorsal intersegmental artery; on the right side these segments form the proximal part (base) of the right subclavian artery. The proximal part of the sixth arch on each side becomes the stem of the right or left pulmonary artery. Its distal part on the right loses its connection with the dorsal aorta and disappears. The connection with the dorsal ...
Aortic archesâ€On both sides, the common carotid artery is derived by an elongation of that segment of the horn of the aortic sac between the origins of the third and fourth aortic arches. The proximal segment of the internal carotid artery is formed by the third aortic arch, its distal segment by the cranial extension of the paired dorsal aorta rostral to the carotid duct. The external carotid artery, a new vessel, joins the internal carotid artery at its point of origin. On the left the distal part of the definitive aortic arch is formed by the fourth aortic arch and the segment of the paired dorsal aorta between the carotid duct and the seventh dorsal intersegmental artery; on the right side these segments form the proximal part (base) of the right subclavian artery. The proximal part of the sixth arch on each side becomes the stem of the right or left pulmonary artery. Its distal part on the right loses its connection with the dorsal aorta and disappears. The connection with the dorsal ...
Advances in numerical simulation have allowed the investigation of complex interaction of blood flow through elastic arteries which can be useful in demonstrating the disease progression and haemodynamics of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. In the present study, patient is diagnosed with an occluded right Internal Carotid Artery (ICA) with partial stenosis at root of right External Carotid Artery (ECA) and partial stenosis at the root of left ICA. 3D patient specific carotid bifurcation is generated based on CT scan data using MIMICS-14.0 and numerical analysis is performed using FSI in ANSYS-14.5. The blood flow is assumed to be incompressible, homogenous and Newtonian, while artery wall is assumed to behave linearly elastic. The two-way sequentially coupled transient FSI analysis is performed using FSI solver for three pulse cycles and haemodynamic parameters such as flow pattern, Wall Shear Stress (WSS), pressure contours and arterial wall deformation are studied at the ...
Why is the Dim Mak effective? The carotid sinus is a special sensory organ regulating the pressure of blood flow to the brain. The carotid sinus is located over internal and external carotid arteries. When blood pressure is too high, the carotid sinus signals the vasomotor center of the brain to decrease the blood pressure by dilating peripheral blood vessels and slowing down heart rate. Thats why it can result in a loss of consciousness along with a build up of plaques in the carotid arteries. By striking this area, small tears can result in the carotid arteries and blood clots. Death can occur by striking this area. Thats why doctors look for a pulse because the carotid artery is a major indicator of life. A very helpful resource in understanding more on Dim Mak is Dr. Michael Kellys (a sports medical doctor) book Death Touch: The Science of Dim Mak (1). In this book, he explains that stimulating a nerve through a Dim Mak point connected to an internal organ can cause damage ...
E. Common, internal, external. B. Internal followed by common and then external. Placing the clamps on the internal carotid first, followed by the common and then the external carotid artery often ensures that any accumulated blood clot will be more likely to pass through the external rather than the internal carotid circulation. Source ...
Sensory receptors, called arterial barorecetpros, are found in abundance in the walls of the aorta and carotid arteries. Major concentrations of these receptors are found near the arch of the aorta and at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery into the internal and external carotid arteries on either side of the neck. The receptors themselves are mechanoreceptors that sense arterial pressure indirectly from the degree of stretch of the elastic arterial walls. In general, increased stretch causes an increased action potential generation rate by the arterial baroreceptors. Baroreceptors actually sense not only absolute stretch but also the rate of change of stretch. For this reason, both the mean arterial pressure and the arterial pulse pressure affect baroreceptor firing rate. If arterial pressure remains elevated over a period of several days for some reason, the arterial baroreceptor firing rate will gradually return toward normal. Thus, arterial baroreceptors are said to adapt to ...
The blood supply of the face is through branches of the facial artery (Figure 1-2). After arising from the external carotid artery in the neck, the facial artery passes deep to the submandibular gland and crosses the mandible in front of the attachment of the masseter muscle. It takes a tortuous course across the face and travels up to the medial angle of the eye, where it anastomoses with branches of the ophthalmic artery. It gives labial branches to the lips, of which the superior labial artery enters ...
Brain haemorrhage. Coloured axial computed tomography (CT) scan through the brain of a 28-year-old woman in a case of a meningeal haemorrhage. The scan shows an aneurysm at the level of the anterior communicating artery. An aneurysm occurs when an artery wall weakens and swells. If it bursts (as here), an aneurysm can cause severe internal haemorrhage. Meningeal haemorrhage is bleeding caused by damage to the middle meningeal artery, one of the two terminal branches of the external carotid artery. - Stock Image C037/0729
Migraine was thought to be a vascular disorder since decades with headache attributed solely to dilation and inflammation of extra- cranial arteries within the pain- producing intracranial meningeal structures. The role of external carotid artery vasculature in migraine headache has been explained in the past decade. But the recent evidences suggest the involvement of both, vascular and neuronal components in the pathogenesis of migraine attack ...
So I received this message in a PM. I figured that I would post my answer here so that if I get anything wrong the more qualified of you to answer can correct me minimizing any damage I have done. Also it is a good question to address in the open. So onto my answer The key to a good blood flow choke is placement. Now most of us know what we are trying to do is block the blood flow of the External Carotid Artery.
So I received this message in a PM. I figured that I would post my answer here so that if I get anything wrong the more qualified of you to answer can correct me minimizing any damage I have done. Also it is a good question to address in the open. So onto my answer The key to a good blood flow choke is placement. Now most of us know what we are trying to do is block the blood flow of the External Carotid Artery.
Posted on April 10, 2015. Nose bleeds (also known as epistaxis) can occur at any age, but most commonly in young children aged 2-10 years and older adults from 50 years onwards. The nose contains many blood vessels originating from both the internal and external carotid arteries. Many of these vessels end at a specific area located on the lower part of the nasal septum .... ...
thyroid gland is situated in the neck, with each lobe on each side of the trachea. A lobe measures 2 inches in length, connected by a stub of tissue known as the isthmus. The thyroid is the biggest of all the endocrine glands, specifically found beneath the larynx. This organs high denmand for vascular support is satisfied by the two branches of the external carotid arteries, and the ...
Designing ECAs to Improve Robustness of Human-Machine Dialogue: 10.4018/978-1-60960-617-6.ch003: One of the major challenges for dialogue systems deployed in commercial applications is to improve robustness when common low-level problems occur that are
As an ECAS member you are entitled to membership with the Canadian Electrical Contractors Association. Click here (CECA) to go to their website. ...
Many authors have studied variation in the maxillary artery but there have been inconsistencies between reported observations. The present research aimed to examine the courses and branching patterns
The maxillary artery is an extremely large artery that reaches most of the important areas of the face including the mouth, teeth, nose, muscles, and more. The branches of this artery are located within three divisions where there are five branches to each division.
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Internal carotid artery. Auditory ossicles. Tympanic cavity. Deep dissection. This article incorporates text in the public ... On its lateral surface, it abuts the external auditory meatus [ ear canal ] from which it is separated by the tympanic membrane ... The anterior wall (or carotid wall) is wider above than below; it corresponds with the carotid canal, from which it is ... and by the deep petrosal nerve which connects the sympathetic plexus on the internal carotid artery with the tympanic plexus on ...
... are the submental artery and the mylohyoid artery and nerve. The posterior part of this triangle contains the external carotid ... The external and internal carotid artery 2. The internal jugular vein 3. The deep cervical lymph nodes 4. The 10th cranial ... more deeply are the internal carotid, the internal jugular vein, and the vagus nerve, separated from the external carotid by ... the external carotid, being crossed by the facial nerve, and gives off in its course the posterior auricular, superficial ...
These arteries are both branches of the external carotid artery. The sublingual vein drains into the lingual vein, which then ... which are branches of the lingual artery and facial artery, respectively. ... The sublingual glands receive their primary blood supply from the sublingual and submental arteries, ...
The common carotid artery divides into the internal and the external carotid arteries. The internal carotid artery becomes the ... Dissections within the carotid arteries or vertebral arteries may compromise blood flow to the brain due to thrombosis, and ... From the basilar artery are two posterior cerebral arteries. Branches of the basilar and PCA supply the occipital lobe, brain ... The carotid arteries cover the majority of the cerebrum. ... Arteries supplying oxygen and nutrients to the brain are often ...
... internal carotid artery, and less frequently the external carotid artery. Other causes include: Takayasu's arteritis Giant cell ... The retinal arteries may show spontaneous pulsations. If carotid occlusive disease results in ophthalmic artery occlusion, ... Retinal artery occlusion (such as central retinal artery occlusion or branch retinal artery occlusion) leads to rapid death of ... "Ocular ischemic syndrome after occlusion of both external carotid arteries". Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology. 25 (4): 268-72. ...
More rarely the maxillary or a branch of the external carotid artery can be ligated. The bleeding can also be stopped by intra- ... Vascular Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu disease) Angioma Aneurysm of the carotid artery The nasal ... These blood vessels include the sphenopalatine, anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries. ... nosebleeds generally occur from Kiesselbach's plexus while posterior bleeds generally occur from the sphenopalatine artery. The ...
These supply the area outside of the skull (external carotid artery) and inside of the skull (internal carotid artery). The ... The head receives blood supply through the internal and external carotid arteries. ... area inside the skull also receives blood supply from the vertebral arteries, which travel up through the cervical vertebrae. ...
The facial artery is one of the six non-terminal branches of the external carotid artery. This artery supplies both lips by its ...
The blood supply to the palpebral conjunctiva (the eyelid) is derived from the external carotid artery. However, the ... conjunctival and palpebral conjunctival vessels are supplied by both the ophthalmic artery and the external carotid artery, to ... Carotid artery occlusion is associated with slower conjunctival blood flow and apparent capillary loss. With age, the ... in particular because the surface of the eye is exposed to various external influences and is especially susceptible to trauma ...
The internal jugular runs with the common carotid artery and vagus nerve inside the carotid sheath. It provides venous drainage ... There are two sets of jugular veins: external and internal. The left and right external jugular veins drain into the subclavian ... The external jugular vein runs superficially to sternocleidomastoid. There is also another minor jugular vein, the anterior ...
The stylohyoid muscle has vascular supply from the lingual artery, a branch of the external carotid artery. A branch of the ... It may be absent or doubled, lie beneath the carotid artery, or be inserted into the omohyoid, or mylohyoid muscles. The ... Superficial dissection of the right side of the neck, showing the carotid and subclavian arteries. Extrinsic muscles of the ...
However, Useinova had miraculously survived, the blade from the knife just barely missing her external carotid artery. After ...
... resistant to the vascular damage caused by balloon catheter-induced injury of the external carotid artery; e) less likely to ... SNP variant rs768963 in TBX2R was associated with increased frequency of large artery atherosclerosis, small artery occlusion, ... studies on rat and human cerebral artery preparations indicate that increased blood flow through these arteries triggers ... Toth P, Rozsa B, Springo Z, Doczi T, Koller A (2011). "Isolated human and rat cerebral arteries constrict to increases in flow ...
... ligation of the ophthalmic artery, and selective arterial ligature of the external carotid artery. Notably, the patient did not ... Category three refers to malformations so severe that their dilated vessels no longer distinguish between artery and vein, and ... is when the patient's malformation is missing a connecting capillary between an artery and a vein; without it, edema, ...
The superficial temporal artery branches from the common external carotid artery and delivers oxygenated blood to the crown. ...
The tongue receives its blood supply primarily from the lingual artery, a branch of the external carotid artery. The lingual ... The lingual artery is a good place to stop severe hemorrhage from the tongue. Innervation of the tongue consists of motor ... The floor of the mouth also receives its blood supply from the lingual artery. There is also a secondary blood supply to the ... root of tongue from the tonsillar branch of the facial artery and the ascending pharyngeal artery. An area in the neck ...
Other branches of the external carotid artery, namely the deep auricular artery, anterior tympanic artery, ascending pharyngeal ... Its arterial blood supply is provided by branches of the external carotid artery, predominately the superficial temporal branch ... The temporomandibular joints can be felt in front of or within the external acoustic meatus during movements of the mandible. ... Upon clenching, the condyle compresses the bilaminar area, and the nerves, arteries and veins against the temporal fossa, ...
Blood is supplied to the sublingual branch of the lingual artery, a branch of the external carotid artery. The canine ...
A remnant of the 1st arch forms part of the maxillary artery, a branch of the external carotid artery. The ventral end of the ... It contributes to the common carotid artery and the proximal portion of the internal carotid artery. Also known as the systemic ... the terminal part of which anastomoses with the external carotid artery. On the obliteration of the stapedial artery, this ... The third aortic arch constitutes the commencement of the internal carotid artery, and is therefore named the carotid arch. ...
Internal carotid artery. External auditory meatus This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 143 of the 20th ... and the labyrinthine artery (an internal auditory branch of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery in 85% of people) can pass ...
The external carotid artery passes ventral to the medial compartment before crossing to the lateral wall of the lateral ... Odd-toed perrisodactyls such as horses lack a carotid rete, but since the internal carotid artery passes through the guttural ... near the internal carotid artery. Clinical signs include unilateral or bilateral epistaxis due to erosion of the artery walls, ... nasal bleeding caused by damage to the internal carotid artery; with vagus nerve involvement there may be laryngeal hemiplegia ...
labeled) Branches of external carotid artery *. Side effects of nicotine *. Thyroid hormone synthesis ...
The muscles and overlying skin are supplied by branches of the external carotid artery (the facial artery and Superior labial ... It is based on a main artery of the orbicularis oris, the labial artery. A portion of the uninvolved lip (either upper or lower ... After 10-14 days, the blood supply of the flap has been established to the point where the artery can be divided. The Abbe flap ... Superficial defects involve the skin and vermilion, and leave the underlying muscles, nerves and arteries undisturbed. Deep/ ...
Blood supply comes from branches of both the internal and external carotid artery, including branches of the facial artery and ... The named arteries of the nose are: Sphenopalatine artery and greater palatine artery, branches of the maxillary artery. ... Anterior ethmoidal artery and posterior ethmoidal artery, branches of the ophthalmic artery Septal branches of the superior ... labial artery, a branch of the facial artery, which supplies the vestibule of the nasal cavity. Innervation of the nasal cavity ...
In summary, the fibers carried in the ganglion are: Sympathetic fibers from the external carotid plexus, via the facial artery ...
... they divide in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries. Carotid artery, external - The external carotid ... External carotid artery - External iliac artery - External iliac vein - External jugular vein - Eye - Eye surgery - Contents: A ... Carotid artery, common - In anatomy, the left and right common carotid arteries (carotids) ) are arteries that supply the head ... Common carotid artery - In anatomy, the left and right common carotid arteries (carotids) ) are arteries that supply the head ...
Furthermore, one of the terminal branches of the ascending pharyngeal artery (itself a branch of the external carotid artery) ... The internal carotid artery does not travel through foramen lacerum. The segment of the internal carotid artery that travels ... The internal carotid artery passes from the carotid canal in the base of the skull, emerging and coursing superior to foramen ... The artery of pterygoid canal, the nerve of pterygoid canal and some venous drainage pass through the foramen lacerum. In the ...
The posterior auricular artery is a direct branch of the external carotid artery, and the anterior auricular arteries are ... ascending pharyngeal artery, internal carotid artery, and the artery of the pterygoid canal. The inner ear is supplied by the ... and the labyrinthine artery, arising from either the anterior inferior cerebellar artery or the basilar artery. Sound waves ... The posterior auricular artery provides the majority of the blood supply. The anterior auricular arteries provide some supply ...
The left common carotid artery divides to form the: internal carotid artery (ICA) and an external carotid artery (ECA). The ICA ... The brachiocephalic artery or trunk is the first and largest artery that branches to form the right common carotid artery and ... The left subclavian artery and the right subclavian artery, one on each side of the body form the internal thoracic artery, the ... The right and left vertebral artery feed into the basilar artery and upward to the Posterior cerebral artery, which provides ...
... such as the external carotid artery or the superficial temporal artery to replace its circulation. The arteries are either sewn ... of external carotid artery collaterals Stage 6 Disappearance of the moyamoya and circulation only via external cerebral artery ... These vessels are the ACA (anterior cerebral artery), MCA (middle cerebral artery), and ICA (internal carotid artery). The ... middle cerebral artery or MCA). This procedure is also commonly referred to as an EC-IC (External Carotid-Internal Carotid) ...
More rarely the maxillary or a branch of the external carotid artery can be ligated. The bleeding can also be stopped by intra- ... External links[edit]. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nosebleeds.. *National Library of Medicine - Describes causes, ... These blood vessels include the sphenopalatine, anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries. ...
Chung CL, Côté P, Stern P, L'espérance G (2014). "The Association Between Cervical Spine Manipulation and Carotid Artery ... Throughout its history chiropractic has been the subject of internal and external controversy and criticism.[21][223] According ... The incidence of internal carotid artery dissection following cervical spine manipulation is unknown.[151] The literature ... There is very low evidence supporting a small association between internal carotid artery dissection and chiropractic neck ...
彈性動脈為管徑最大的動脈,通常離開心臟不遠,如主動脈、胸主動脈(thoracic aorta)、腹主動脈(abdominal aorta)、鎖骨下動脈(subclavian artery)、總頸動脈(common carotid artery)。其所承受 ... Tunica media:主體由環形排列的平滑肌細胞組成。彈性纖維板不發達,僅在最內與最外層形成明顯彎曲狀的內
Coronary artery aneurysm. *head / neck *Intracranial aneurysm. *Intracranial berry aneurysm. *Carotid artery dissection ... 9 External links. Signs[edit]. One of the hallmarks of arterial claudication is that it occurs intermittently. It disappears ... "Edinburgh Artery Study: prevalence of asymptomatic and symptomatic peripheral arterial disease in the general population". Int ... It is classically associated with early-stage peripheral artery disease, and can progress to critical limb ischemia unless ...
... a different arrangement of the carotid arteries, a gall bladder, differences in the skull bones, and lack the Dyck texture ... 9 External links. Taxonomy. Origins and evolution. Fossil dentary specimen UCMP 143274 restored as a parrot (left) or an ...
Two Rhesus monkeys were flown into orbit implanted with sensors to permit monitoring of carotid artery blood flow. Additionally ... 5 External links. Mission[edit]. ...
Neck arteriesEdit. Both lorisoids and cheirogaleid lemurs have replaced the internal carotid artery with an enlarged ascending ... "On the external characters of the lemurs and of Tarsius". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1918: 19-53. doi ... pharyngeal artery.[94]. Ankle bonesEdit. Strepsirrhines also possess distinctive features in their tarsus (ankle bones) that ...
Coronary artery aneurysm. *head / neck *Intracranial aneurysm. *Intracranial berry aneurysm. *Carotid artery dissection ... 11 External links. Signs and symptoms[edit]. Signs and symptoms of chronic kidney disease, including loss of appetite, nausea, ... Bilateral renal artery stenosis should always be considered as a differential diagnosis for the presentation of HN. Kidney ... This leads to a build-up of plaques and they can be deposited in the renal arteries causing stenosis and ischemic kidney ...
Surrounding structures such as the pleura and carotid artery are also at risk of damage with the potential for pneumothorax or ... This is usually done by measuring the distance to an external landmark, such as the suprasternal notch, to estimate the optimal ... One reason veins are preferred over arteries for intravascular administration is because the flow will pass through the lungs ... is a central venous line that does not have an external connector; instead, it has a small reservoir that is covered with ...
Coronary artery disease (CAD). *Coronary artery aneurysm. *Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) ... External links[edit]. Classification. D. *ICD-10: I47-I49, R00.0. *ICD-9-CM: 427, 785.0 ...
... a network of arteries originating from the ophthalmic artery. The ophthalmic rete is analogous to the carotid rete found in ... The feathers lack the tiny hooks that lock together the smooth external feathers of flying birds, and so are soft and fluffy ... The interatrial artery of the ostrich is small in size and exclusively supplies blood to only part of the left auricle and ... The coronary arteries start in the right and left aortic sinus and provide blood to the heart muscle in a similar fashion to ...
Evidence suggests that dietary vitamin D may be carried by lipoprotein particles into cells of the artery wall and ... Higher levels of calcidiol positively correlate with aorta and carotid calcified atherosclerotic plaque in African Americans ... 6 External links. Signs and symptoms[edit]. An excess of vitamin D causes abnormally high blood concentrations of calcium, ... "Vitamin D and osteogenic differentiation in the artery wall". Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 3 (5): ...
Coronary artery aneurysm. *head / neck *Intracranial aneurysm. *Intracranial berry aneurysm. *Carotid artery dissection ... All articles with dead external links. *Articles with dead external links from June 2016 ... leading to pathologic changes in the small arteries of the kidney. Affected arteries develop endothelial dysfunction and ... preexisting diabetes or coronary artery disease, mental illness, and sedentary lifestyle.[3] Several studies have concluded ...
The tongue receives its blood supply primarily from the lingual artery, a branch of the external carotid artery. The lingual ... The floor of the mouth also receives its blood supply from the lingual artery.[5] There is also a secondary blood supply to the ... root of tongue from the tonsillar branch of the facial artery and the ascending pharyngeal artery. ... The lingual artery is a good place to stop severe hemorrhage from the tongue. ...
... by stretch receptors in the walls of the aortic arch and carotid sinuses at beginnings of the internal carotid arteries.[13] ... External links[edit]. Look up homeostasis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.. Wikimedia Commons has media related to ... in the carotid artery and aortic arch. A change in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide is detected as altered pH in the ... at the beginning of the internal carotid artery) monitor the arterial blood pressure.[46] Rising pressure is detected when the ...
Artery. Mylohyoid branch of inferior alveolar artery and submental artery of facial artery. ... External links[edit]. *. "Anatomy diagram: 25420.000-1". Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator. Elsevier. Archived from the ...
The ascending cervical artery is a small branch which arises from the inferior thyroid artery as it passes behind the carotid ... External links[edit]. *lesson5 at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) (antthyroidgland) ... ACA (anterior communicating, Recurrent artery of Heubner, Orbitofrontal artery). *MCA (anterolateral central, Prefrontal artery ... The inferior thyroid artery is an artery in the neck. It arises from the thyrocervical trunk and passes upward, in front of the ...
There is no costocervical artery. There is no direct connection between the internal carotid artery and the vessels of the ... External links. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Physeter macrocephalus.. Wikispecies has information related to Physeter ... The arteries that leave the aortic arch are positioned symmetrically. ...
In humans, hypoxia is detected by the peripheral chemoreceptors in the carotid body and aortic body, with the carotid body ... to an extent that parallels the degree to which resting mean pulmonary artery pressure is elevated. Although the severity of ... 10 External links. Generalized hypoxia[edit]. The symptoms of generalized hypoxia depend on its severity and acceleration of ...
Coronary artery aneurysm. *head / neck *Intracranial aneurysm. *Intracranial berry aneurysm. *Carotid artery dissection ... 4 External links. Types[edit]. Kidney[edit]. Renovascular hypertension[edit]. It has two main causes: fibromuscular dysplasia ... Kidney disease / renal artery stenosis - the normal physiological response to low blood pressure in the renal arteries is to ... Voiculescu A, Rump LC (January 2009). "[Hypertension in patients with renal artery stenosis]". Der Internist (in German). 50 (1 ...
Left common carotid artery. Left subclavian artery. Descending aorta, thoracic part: Left bronchial arteries. esophageal ... External linksEdit. *. The dictionary definition of aorta at Wiktionary. *. Media related to Aorta at Wikimedia Commons ... Inferior phrenic arteries. Lumbar arteries. Median sacral artery. Visceral branches:. Celiac trunk. Middle suprarenal arteries ... For example, the left vertebral artery may arise from the aorta, instead of the left common carotid artery.[9]:188 ...
... and carotid circulation pressure, it lowers carotid blood flow and end-tidal CO2 or ETCO2 levels. It appears that epinephrine ... Coronary arteries have only β2 receptors, which cause vasodilation in the presence of adrenaline.[35] Even so, administering ... External links[edit]. *U.S. National Library of Medicine: Drug Information Portal - Epinephrine ... Although it is commonly believed that administration of adrenaline may cause heart failure by constricting coronary arteries, ...
They arise from the common carotid arteries where these bifurcate into the internal and external carotid arteries at cervical ... the external carotid artery. The cervical segment, or C1, or cervical part of the internal carotid, extends from the carotid ... the internal carotid artery is somewhat dilated. This part of the artery is known as the carotid sinus or the carotid bulb. The ... Unlike the external carotid artery, the internal carotid normally has no branches in the neck. The petrous segment, or C2, of ...
The other type, carotid artery dissection, involves the carotid arteries. Vertebral artery dissection is further classified as ... 12 External links. *13 See also. Classification[edit]. Vertebral artery dissection is one of the two types of dissection of the ... Vertebral artery dissection is less common than carotid artery dissection (dissection of the large arteries in the front of the ... or for symptoms of carotid artery dissection to occur at the same time as those of vertebral artery dissection.[2] Some give a ...
Internal carotid artery. *Tip of basilar artery. Saccular aneurysms tend to have a lack of tunica media and elastic lamina ... External links[edit]. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cerebral aneurysms.. *National Institute of Neurological Disorders ... Aneurysms in the posterior circulation (basilar artery, vertebral arteries and posterior communicating artery) have a higher ... On the other hand, smooth muscle cells from the tunica media layer of the artery moved into the tunica intima, where the ...
Carotid artery stenosis. *cerebral: MCA. *ACA. *Amaurosis fugax. *Moyamoya disease. POCI. *precerebral: Anterior spinal artery ... 10 External links. Signs and symptoms[edit]. People with intracerebral bleeding have symptoms that correspond to the functions ...
Direct branches of the vertebral artery: The vertebral artery supplies an area between the other two main arteries, including ... External linksEdit. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Medulla oblongata.. *Stained brain slice images which include the " ... The control of ventilation via signals from the carotid and aortic bodies. Respiration is regulated by groups of chemoreceptors ... Blood to the medulla is supplied by a number of arteries.. *Anterior spinal artery: This supplies the whole medial part of the ...
To its sides run the carotid arteries and inferior thyroid arteries; and to its sides on its back surface run the recurrent ... One cause of narrowing is tracheomalacia, which is the tendency for the trachea to collapse when there is increased external ... To the front left lie the large blood vessels the aortic arch and its branches the left common carotid artery and the ... These arteries join (anastamoses) with ascending branches of the bronchial arteries, which are direct branches from the aorta, ...
common carotid. *External carotid. *Internal carotid. *Carotid body. *Carotid sinus. *Carotid bifurcation ... ACA (anterior communicating, Recurrent artery of Heubner, Orbitofrontal artery). *MCA (anterolateral central, Prefrontal artery ... The arteries and veins have three layers. The middle layer is thicker in the arteries than it is in the veins: *The inner layer ... In all arteries apart from the pulmonary artery, hemoglobin is highly saturated (95-100%) with oxygen. In all veins apart from ...
with both external and internal openings Incomplete a fistula with an external skin opening, which does not connect to any ... H05.81) Carotid cavernous fistula. *(H70.1) Mastoid fistula *Craniosinus fistula: between the intracranial space and a ... Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula: between an artery and vein of the lungs, resulting in shunting of blood. This results in ...
It arises from the common carotid artery when it splits into the external and internal carotid artery. External carotid artery ... Branches of external carotid artery Magnetic Resonance Angiography "Carotid artery". WebMD. Retrieved 28 July 2015. Human ... In children, the external carotid artery is somewhat smaller than the internal carotid; but in the adult, the two vessels are ... The external carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck. ...
... carotid artery: The external carotid artery ascends through the upper part of the side of the neck and behind the lower jaw ... The external carotid artery gives off the following branches: (1) superior thyroid to the larynx and… ... Other articles where External carotid artery is discussed: ... In carotid artery. The external carotid artery ascends through ... The external carotid artery gives off the following branches: (1) superior thyroid to the larynx and… ...
How to remember branches of External Carotid Artery?. a. Visual mnemonics. b. Textual mnemonics. c. Brief description. d. ... Stroke Prevention: New Carotid Artery Treatment , El Camino Hospital - Duration: 6:31. El Camino Hospital 61,675 views ... External Carotid Branches - 3D Anatomy Tutorial - Duration: 8:21. AnatomyZone 427,883 views ... Carotid Body and Carotid Sinus ( Anatomy , Functions , Clinical application ) Medical animation - Duration: 2:50. Dr.G.Bhanu ...
There is one external carotid artery on the right side of the neck and one on the left side of the neck. ... The external carotid arteries supply oxygenated blood to the head region. ... facial artery, superior thyroid artery, and maxillary artery all branch off from the external carotid artery. These arteries ... The external carotid arteries supply oxygenated blood to the head region. There is one external carotid artery on the right ...
ANEURYSM OF EXTERNAL.... *ANEURYSM OF EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY TREATED BY LIGATURE OF COMMON CAROTID ARTERY AND INTERNAL JUGULAR ... ANEURYSM OF EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY TREATED BY LIGATURE OF COMMON CAROTID ARTERY AND INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN Br Med J 1921; 1 : ... ANEURYSM OF EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY TREATED BY LIGATURE OF COMMON CAROTID ARTERY AND INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN. Br Med J 1921; 1 ... ANEURYSM OF EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY TREATED BY LIGATURE OF COMMON CAROTID ARTERY AND INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN ...
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Arteries External carotid - Near jugular foramen Home Sitemap Privacy Policy - Contact Us. Copyright © 1999-2017 - Instant ...
Carotid Artery, External / ultrasonography*. Carotid Artery, Internal / ultrasonography*. Cerebrovascular Circulation / ... external carotid artery (ECA) and vertebral artery (VA). In 10 healthy young subjects, we evaluated the ICA, ECA, and VA blood ... 22526884 - Differential blood flow responses to co₂ in human internal and external carotid and ver.... 23878364 - Intrauterine ... and that CO2 reactivity of the external carotid circulation is markedly diminished compared to that of the cerebral circulation ...
anatomical, anatomy, arterial, arteries, artery, blood, caput, carotid, cervical, cervicalis, content, external, facial, head, ... This stock medical exhibit depicts the distribution of the external carotid artery. ...
Gortex graft-external carotid artery anastomotic stricture treated by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. - J E Dacie, J S ... Gortex graft-external carotid artery anastomotic stricture treated by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty.. Abstract. We ... of a gortex-right external carotid artery anastomotic stricture in a 49-year-old man with amaurosis fugax and occlusion of the ... right internal carotid artery. No neurological complications occurred during the procedure. The patient had had three previous ...
... primary dorsal external carotid artery ll, secondary dorsal external carotid artery Ling., lingual artery Ow., third root of ... In lizards no dorsal external carotid artery develops and the stapedial and ventral external carotid arteries a r e distributed ... T H E E X T E R N A L CAROTID ARTERY Since the work of Twining, it has been known that the external carotid artery in chick ... stapedial artery 77, ventral external carotid artery Tog., vagws nerve The numbcrs, 3, i, 10, 13, 20, drsignate the respectjve ...
Interposition of External Jugular Vein Graft in the Common Carotid Artery in Rats. J. Vis. Exp. (69), e4124, doi:10.3791/4124 ( ...
... and the vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) and passing through the hypoglossal canal. A carotid-vertebrobasilar... ... We report a case of an anomalous anastomosis formed between the external carotid artery (ECA) ... Primitive hypoglossal artery Proatlantal artery External carotid artery Occipital artery Hypoglossal branch of ascending ... We report a case of an anomalous anastomosis formed between the external carotid artery (ECA) and the vertebrobasilar artery ( ...
Patency of external and internal carotid artery in the presence of an occluded common carotid artery: noninvasive evaluation ... Patency of external and internal carotid artery in the presence of an occluded common carotid artery: noninvasive evaluation ... Patency of external and internal carotid artery in the presence of an occluded common carotid artery: noninvasive evaluation ... Patency of external and internal carotid artery in the presence of an occluded common carotid artery: noninvasive evaluation ...
A report of three patients in whom the surgical closure of terminal branches of the external carotid arteries for treatment of ...
... temporal artery to middle cerebral artery anastomosis for internal carotid artery occlusion with external carotid artery severe ... Agenesis of the left internal carotid artery, common carotid artery and main trunk of the external carotid artery associated ... Anastomosis of the external carotid artery with the internal carotid artery for resection of extracranial internal carotid ... External Carotid Artery Stenting and Superficial Temporal Artery to Middle Cerebral Artery Anastomosis for Internal Carotid ...
Disabling segmental occlusion of the vertebral artery surgical treatment using a venous bypass from the external carotid to the ... c 1 c 2 portion of the vertebral artery 2 cases ... A venous bypass from the external carotid artery (end to end ... Vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery bypass using a radial artery graft for hemorrhagic dissecting vertebral ... Disabling segmental occlusion of the vertebral artery surgical treatment using a venous bypass from the external carotid to the ...
External Carotid Artery definition, categories, type and other relevant information provided by All Acronyms. ECA stands for ... How to abbreviate External Carotid Artery?. External Carotid Artery can be abbreviated as ECA ... What is the abbreviation for External Carotid Artery?. The abbreviation for External Carotid Artery is ECA ... www.allacronyms.com/ECA/External_Carotid_Artery,. MLA. All Acronyms. "ECA - External Carotid Artery". 18 September 2018. Web. ...
Several studies have shown that common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is increased after radiotherapy (RT) to the head ... Effects of external irradiation of the neck region on intima media thickness of the common carotid artery : ... Objectives:To investigate whether external irradiation to the carotid area has any effect on IMT of the common carotid artery ... Objectives To investigate whether external irradiation to the carotid area has any effect on IMT of the common carotid artery ...
We investigated whether unilateral endovascular coil-embolization of external carotid artery branches in swine would lead to ... Their cerebrovascular anatomy, however, comes with challenges because of the natural higher external carotid artery perfusion ... Equal amounts of approximately 4 °C cold saline were injected in 6 Yorkshire pigs into the ipsilateral common carotid artery ... CC common carotid artery, O occipital artery, EC external carotid artery, AP ascending pharyngeal artery. Branches of the ...
"Cerebral infarction due to external carotid artery atherosclerosis",. abstract = "Cerebral ischemia resulting from carotid ... Ingall, T. J. (1997). Cerebral infarction due to external carotid artery atherosclerosis. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 7(4), 232- ... Cerebral infarction due to external carotid artery atherosclerosis. / Ingall, Timothy J.. In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, Vol. 7 ... Ingall, TJ 1997, Cerebral infarction due to external carotid artery atherosclerosis, Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 7, no. 4 ...
We hypothesize that stenting of the internal carotid artery can immediately impede blood flow to the external carotid artery by ... Carotid endarterectomy, angioplasty, and stenting study group. The fate of the external carotid artery after carotid artery ... Effect of carotid artery stenting on the external carotid artery. J Vasc Surg. 2003;38(5):1039-44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... We hypothesize that stenting of the internal carotid artery can immediately impede blood flow to the external carotid artery by ...
External Carotid Artery & boost your knowledge! Study for your classes, USMLE, MCAT or MBBS. Learn online with high-yield ... The lecture External Carotid Artery by Stuart Enoch, PhD is from the course Head and Neck Anatomy-MRCS. ...
Antonyms for Carotid artery, external. 1 synonym for external carotid artery: external carotid. What are synonyms for Carotid ... Synonyms for Carotid artery, external in Free Thesaurus. ... Related to Carotid artery, external: internal carotid artery # ... external carotid artery. (redirected from Carotid artery, external). Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia. ... Synonyms for external carotid artery. the branch of the carotid artery that supplies blood to the face and tongue and external ...
... 5.62 Kb. 1. read. Variations in the division of common carotid artery and in the course of superior ... Human head and neck External carotid artery. Abstract: Introduction. Indian Journal of Basic & Applied Medical Research; June ... "Variations in the Division of Common Carotid Artery and in the Course of Superior Thyroid Artery: a case Report". Journal of ... thyroid artery: a case report. D. A. V. S. sesi. " ...
... The external carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck. It arises from the common carotid ... External carotid artery. The external carotid artery arises from the common carotid artery and supplies structures in the face ... artery when it splits into the external and internal carotid artery. External carotid artery supplies blood to the face and ... In children, the external carotid artery is somewhat smaller than the internal carotid; but in the adult, the two vessels are ...
Unilateral.showing maxillary artery ,superficial temporal artery ,ascending pharyngeal artery and posterior auricular artery, ... Unilateral.showing maxillary artery ,superficial temporal artery ,ascending pharyngeal artery and posterior auricular artery, ... You Are Here:Home / Product / Human Body Parts Plastinated Specimen / Vascular System / External carotid artery plastinated ...
External carotid artery. Course The external carotid artery begins opposite the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, and, ... external carotid artery. Occipital artery. The occipital artery (a. occipitalis) arises from the posterior part of the external ... segment diagnostic criteria external carotid artery formation of spinal cord Hypophyseal branches internal carotid artery ... disease artery of pterygoid canal axophilic migration brain arteries brain development brain formation CADASIL carotid artery ...
The External Carotid Artery Human Anatomy. 83 Common and internal carotid artery and ophthalmic. Left external carotid artery ... Facial Artery an overview ScienceDirect Topics. External carotid artery MyNeuroPedia. 84 External carotid artery YouTube. 189 ... The External Carotid Artery Human Anatomy. External Carotid Artery Anatomy amp Branches Studycom. 17 best ideas about Internal ... External Carotid Artery Branches amp Mnemonics Kenhub. Image result for branches of internal carotid artery PA. External ...
... are the result of a complex interaction between internal and external factors involving the skin. The intrinsic framework, ... External carotid artery. The external carotid artery provides most of the arterial blood supply to the face; the internal ... The external carotid artery is the origin of the facial artery, deep to the mandible near the pharynx. The facial artery ... The key blood vessels of the neck include the common and external carotid arteries and the jugular veins. The common carotid, ...
  • Superficial temporal artery (STA) to middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis may have inadequate effects in patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion and severe stenosis of the ipsilateral external carotid artery (ECA), because poor blood flow in the STA leads to insufficient flow to the MCA. (eurekamag.com)
  • Right carotid angiography showed right ICA occlusion and severe ipsilateral ECA stenosis. (eurekamag.com)
  • This case suggests external CAS together with STA-MCA anastomosis is a good therapeutic option for a patient with symptomatic ICA occlusion and severe stenosis of the ipsilateral ECA if external CEA is difficult to perform. (eurekamag.com)
  • The opposite vertebral artery was abnormal in both cases: a proximal kinking with intracranial atheromatous stenosis in the 1st and an atheromatous ostial stenosis in the 2nd one. (eurekamag.com)
  • Thirty-three patients with high-grade asymptomatic stenosis of the internal carotid artery who underwent endovascular treatment were examined by ultrasound of the external carotid artery and performed an exercise test by chewing chewing gum synchronously to an electronic metronome for 3 min. (springer.com)
  • Ten patients with an isolated, atherosclerotic stenosis of the external carotid artery served as controls. (springer.com)
  • A 50-year-old woman, initially presenting with 6 weeks of right-sided hemiparesis and dysarthria, was treated for severe stenosis of the left internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries with intracranial angioplasty and placement of a balloon mounted Wingspan Stent (Boston Scientific, Fremont, CA). Continuous transcranial Doppler monitoring after stent placement indicated developing cerebral hyperperfusion. (nih.gov)
  • The detection of a clinically significant carotid stenosis represents an important first step in the prevention of cerebral infarction. (medscape.com)
  • Duplex carotid ultrasound remains useful in the initial evaluation of symptomatic patients who present with nonspecific symptoms that may be related to stenotic or embolic carotid stenosis. (medscape.com)
  • The clincial management of coronary artery disease , peripheral arterial stenosis, and hypertension are likely to delay the development of carotid arterial stenosis. (medscape.com)
  • There is good evidence in support of an evaluation for carotid stenosis prior to coronary arterial bypass surgery. (medscape.com)
  • Carotid duplex ultrasonography (US) is a noninvasive means by which to estimate the degree of cervical carotid stenosis. (medscape.com)
  • CAS is an effective treatment for carotid stenosis. (ajnr.org)
  • To be considered for stenting, symptomatic patients required at least 50% stenosis (7-9) and asymptomatic patients required at least 70% diameter narrowing (10) by angiographic North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) criteria (7) . (ajnr.org)
  • Should We Screen This Patient for Carotid Artery Stenosis? (annals.org)
  • In July 2014, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) published a clinical guideline on screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. (annals.org)
  • Background and Purpose -Proper assessment of extracranial internal carotid artery high-grade stenosis and occlusion by extracranial color-coded duplex sonography (ECCD) is occasionally made difficult by shadowing, an unfavorable insonation angle, low flow velocity or volume, or a deep insonation depth. (ahajournals.org)
  • Methods -We investigated 17 arteries with poor precontrast investigation conditions and suspected high-grade stenosis or occlusion by contrast-enhanced ECCD. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions -Echocontrast-enhanced ECCD of the carotid arteries is helpful for stenosis classification in a small group of preselected patients with poor original examination conditions. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4 5 Patients with symptomatic extracranial high-grade carotid artery stenosis generally undergo surgery. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6 7 8 9 10 In conjunction with continuous-wave Doppler of the periorbital arteries and transcranial Doppler sonography, ECCD plays a key role in the accurate quantification of the degree of stenosis, assessment of the exact location of the stenosis in relation to the flow divider, and discrimination of subtotal stenosis from occlusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • ECCD is occasionally made difficult by ultrasonic shadowing of calcified plaques, the thickness of the tissue between the probe and the artery, an unfavorable insonation angle, and the low flow volume or low flow velocity in very tight stenosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • 13 14 15 16 In the present study, we describe the benefits and pitfalls of echocontrast enhancement in patients with extracranial carotid artery high-grade stenosis or suspected subtotal stenosis or occlusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the patients selected for extracranial echo enhancement, either peak systolic flow velocity measured in the extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) did not correspond to the severity of narrowing expected from indirect signs upstream or downstream, or the location (intracranial or extracranial) of a suspected ICA stenosis was not clear, or a definite discrimination between occlusion and subtotal stenosis could not be made. (ahajournals.org)
  • Of these, 133 patients had extracranial carotid artery occlusion or high-grade stenosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • In light of their high surgical risk, carotid angioplasty and stent placement may be preferred in patients with radiation-associated carotid stenosis. (ajnr.org)
  • 3 ). In 1991, the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) demonstrated the unequivocal benefit of endarterectomy over medical management in symptomatic patients with severe carotid stenosis of at least 70% (17% absolute risk reduction of ipsilateral stroke over 2 years). (ajnr.org)
  • More recently, the benefit of carotid endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic but more moderate stenosis of 50%-69% has been reported (6.5% absolute risk reduction of ipsilateral stroke over 5 years) ( 4 ). (ajnr.org)
  • Radiation-associated carotid stenosis is more difficult to treat surgically because of periarterial scarring, ill-defined planes of dissection, risk of scar disruption, prosthetic infection, anastomotic breakdown and restenosis, long lesion length, and increased rate of wound complications ( 9 , 10 ). (ajnr.org)
  • No TIA patient had significant internal carotid artery stenosis, and CT was normal except in one patient, although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed 3 years after the testing was abnormal in 4/8 cases. (lu.se)
  • The study shows that hemispheric TIAs in patients without significant internal carotid artery stenosis may result in persistent focal cognitive impairment. (lu.se)
  • Beneficial effect of carotid endarterectomy in symptomatic patients with high-grade carotid stenosis. (medscape.com)
  • Endarterectomy Versus Angioplasty in Patients with Symptomatic Severe Carotid Stenosis (EVA-3S) trial: results up to 4 years from a randomised, multicentre trial. (medscape.com)
  • Wiesmann M, Schöpf V, Jansen O, Brückmann H. Stent-protected angioplasty versus carotid endarterectomy in patients with carotid artery stenosis: meta-analysis of randomized trial data. (medscape.com)
  • Short term and intermediate term comparison of endarterectomy versus stenting for carotid artery stenosis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled clinical trials. (medscape.com)
  • Short-term results of a randomized trial examining timing of carotid endarterectomy in patients with severe asymptomatic unilateral carotid stenosis undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. (medscape.com)
  • Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis. (medscape.com)
  • Long-term outcomes of stenting and endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis: a preplanned pooled analysis of individual patient data. (medscape.com)
  • Kato T, Sakai H, Takagi T, Nishimura Y. Cilostazol prevents progression of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis in patients with contralateral carotid artery stenting. (medscape.com)
  • 1974-1999) PMID 16169673 -- "A historical prospective cohort study of carotid artery stenosis after radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies. (wikibooks.org)
  • PMID 15135672 -- "Focused high-risk population screening for carotid arterial stenosis after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. (wikibooks.org)
  • Hong Kong) PMID 11745291 -- "Incidence of carotid stenosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients after radiotherapy. (wikibooks.org)
  • PMID 10587192 -- "Irradiation-induced extracranial carotid stenosis in patients with head and neck malignancies. (wikibooks.org)
  • Origin of Right internal carotid artery shows mild atherosclerosis disease without any evidence of stenosis. (aapc.com)
  • Origin of Left internal carotid artery appears normal without any evidence of stenosis. (aapc.com)
  • Prevalence of Carotid Artery Stenosis and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in Brussels: a Population-based Screening Study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Both abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and carotid artery stenosis (CAS) are frequent clinical entities, with major morbidity and mortality. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A population-based screening study to determine the prevalence of carotid artery stenosis (CAS) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in the Brussels Capital Region. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Using duplex ultrasound, a low invasive examination, information is obtained on the abdominal aortic diameter and the degree of stenosis of the carotid bifurcation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Examination is done by one-time duplex ultrasound to perform a diameter measurement of the abdominal aorta and determine the degree of stenosis of the carotid arteries. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of a new non-invasive device, the Carotid Stenotic Scan (CSS), to check for stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) as compared. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The correlation between metabolic syndrome and carotid artery stenosis is well established. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if carotid artery stenosis can be detected using an electronic stethoscope. (bioportfolio.com)
  • External carotid artery (ECA) stenosis is an independent mortality predictor. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Carotid Duplex Velocity Criteria Recommended by the Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound and Endorsed by the Intersocietal Accreditation Commission Lacks Predictive Ability for Identifying High Grade Carotid Artery Stenosis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Carotid duplex is the first line imaging modality for characterizing degree of carotid stenosis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • However, isolated morphological changes without significant carotid stenosis is rarely symptomatic. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Skin temperature maps as a measure of carotid artery stenosis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This 78-year-old male was brought in for diagnostic cerebral angiogram after investigation showed severe left internal carotid artery stenosis. (aapc.com)
  • There appears to be 50% stenosis at the origin of the left common carotid artery. (aapc.com)
  • There is 90% stenosis in the origin of the left carotid artery. (aapc.com)
  • Internal carotid artery agenesis is an uncommon congenital anomaly and it could be misdiagnosed as stenosis/occlusion of this artery. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We analyzed the results of internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis treatment at our institution according to the treatment modality-carotid endarterectomy (CEA) vs. carotid artery stenting (CAS). (bioportfolio.com)
  • The aim of the study is to confirm, whether the MER® stent can be used, without limitations, for the endovascular carotid stenosis treatment in daily clinical practice. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Carotid revascularization procedures are performed for more than 87% of cases in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid stenosis (ICS), who are assumed to have a life expectancy of at. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We describe successful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of a gortex-right external carotid artery anastomotic stricture in a 49-year-old man with amaurosis fugax and occlusion of the right internal carotid artery. (curehunter.com)
  • The patency of the external carotid artery (ECA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) in the presence of an occlusion of the common carotid artery (CCA) was evaluated in 7 patients with a symptomatic CCA occlusion by the combined application of cerebrovascular Doppler examination (cv-Doppler) based on continuous-wave equipment and sequential computertomographic scans with intravenous bolus injection of contrast material (sequential CT-scans). (ahajournals.org)
  • The cases of 2 patients who were severely disabled due to signs and symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency caused by unilateral segmental occlusion of 1 vertebral artery are reported. (eurekamag.com)
  • Forty-three (11%) of the patients had occlusion of the contralateral carotid artery. (ajnr.org)
  • expanding the first occlusion element to occlude the common carotid artery. (google.co.uk)
  • A total of 0.4% of the patients had common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO). (hindawi.com)
  • Common carotid artery (CCA) occlusion is a rare cause of cerebrovascular events. (hindawi.com)
  • In contrast to the large amount of data in the literature about internal carotid artery occlusion, there is little information regarding the incidence, clinical presentation, ultrasound findings, haemodynamics, causes, and treatment of common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO). (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this study was to discuss the clinical findings, ultrasonographic characteristics, possible mechanisms, and treatment possibilities of common carotid artery occlusion. (hindawi.com)
  • The duplex criteria for carotid artery occlusion included increased echogenicity throughout the course of the vessel, lack of cross-sectional pulsation, and absence of flow signal [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A total of 160 out of 5000 (3.2%) patients with cerebro-vascular disease who were referred for carotid sonography had a carotid artery occlusion. (hindawi.com)
  • Carotid artery stenting has increased risk of external carotid artery occlusion compared with carotid endarterectomy. (medscape.com)
  • One temporary intracavernous carotid artery occlusion at 3 months. (wikibooks.org)
  • The authors performed external carotid artery (ECA) angioplasty and stenting in a 45-year-old man who had presented with right hemispheric crescendo ischemic symptoms stemming from acute right internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO). (elsevier.com)
  • Ocular ischemic syndrome after occlusion of both external carotid arteries. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Both the older and the recent extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass trials for symptomatic carotid occlusion failed to demonstrate a reduction in stroke recurrence. (nih.gov)
  • The external carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck. (wikipedia.org)
  • External carotid artery supplies blood to the face and neck. (wikipedia.org)
  • The external carotid artery begins at the upper border of thyroid cartilage, and curves, passing forward and upward, and then inclining backward to the space behind the neck of the mandible, where it divides into the superficial temporal and maxillary artery within the parotid gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • The external carotid artery ascends through the upper part of the side of the neck and behind the lower jaw into the parotid gland, where it divides into various branches. (britannica.com)
  • There is one external carotid artery on the right side of the neck and one on the left side of the neck. (healthline.com)
  • Each begins at the common carotid artery and moves up the neck until it divides into the superficial temporal artery and the maxillary artery. (healthline.com)
  • Several studies have shown that common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is increased after radiotherapy (RT) to the head and neck. (youscribe.com)
  • The mean carotid IMT increased with increasing doses of radiation to the neck (p = 0.04). (youscribe.com)
  • Therefore it is important to monitor IMT, which can be used as an imaging biomarker for early diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease in patients who have had radiotherapy for treatment of cancer of the head and neck and who are at increased risk for accelerated atherosclerosis in carotid arteries. (youscribe.com)
  • The lecture External Carotid Artery by Stuart Enoch, PhD is from the course Head and Neck Anatomy-MRCS. (lecturio.com)
  • The external carotid artery arises from the common carotid artery and supplies structures in the face and neck. (orange.com)
  • In human anatomy , the internal carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck that helps supply blood to the brain . (wikidoc.org)
  • Unlike the external carotid artery , the internal carotid normally has no branches in the neck . (wikidoc.org)
  • Course The external carotid artery begins opposite the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, and, taking a slightly curved course, passes upward and forward, and then inclines backward to the space behind the neck of the mandible, where it divides into the superficial temporal and internal maxillary arteries. (myneuropedia.org)
  • Arteries of Head amp Neck Dental Hygiene 231 with Kuba at. (lebe-frei.info)
  • The carotid CTA (neck CTA) is most often combined with an intracranial CTA in order to exclude a proximal thrombosis or embolization within the anterior cerebral circulation. (medscape.com)
  • In selected cases, carotid (neck) CTA may be performed to differentiate the cause of a neck bruit. (medscape.com)
  • Preoperative diagnosis of internal carotid artery (ICA) involvement changes the primary treatment of head and neck tumors. (hindawi.com)
  • Literature data on carotid encasement in head and neck cancer are scarce. (hindawi.com)
  • The sternomastoid muscle lies deep to the platysma and the external jugular vein, and it covers the great vessels of the neck, the cervical plexus, and the cupola of the parietal pleura. (dartmouth.edu)
  • In the neck, the external carotid lies anteromedial to the internal carotid. (specialist-ent.com)
  • It can be differentiated from the internal carotid because it gives branches in the neck unlike the internal and common carotid. (specialist-ent.com)
  • Also, the first branch of the external carotid artery helps to differentiate it from the internal carotid artery which has no branches in the neck. (specialist-ent.com)
  • RT involving the head and neck or supraclavicular (SC) region necessarily include segments of the carotid artery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Your carotid arteries are two large blood vessels in your neck. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Seventy (17%) of the arteries treated had undergone previous CEA and showed significant restenosis, and 18 (4%) had undergone previous ipsilateral radiation for head or neck cancer. (ajnr.org)
  • The internal carotid artery is a major paired artery, one on each side of the head and neck, in human anatomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depiction of the neck with muscles and arteries shown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carotid artery dissection is more commonly thought to be caused by severe violent trauma to the head and/or neck. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The probable mechanism of injury for most internal carotid injuries is rapid deceleration, with resultant hyperextension and rotation of the neck, which stretches the internal carotid artery over the upper cervical vertebrae, producing an intimal tear. (thefullwiki.org)
  • All patients received a continuous-wave Doppler investigation of their neck arteries and of the supratrochlear arteries, including compression tests of the facial and the superficial temporal arteries. (ahajournals.org)
  • After being quiescent for 12 years, the stain began to darken progressively, with concomitant enlargement and discomfort of the left ear, some interference with vision in the left eye, systolic bruit in the neck, and pathologic enlargement of the left external carotid artery. (jamanetwork.com)
  • The common carotid artery is found bilaterally, with one on each side of the anterior neck. (healthline.com)
  • The carotid arteries have two sensory regions in the neck: the carotid sinus and the carotid body. (innerbody.com)
  • it divides in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries . (bionity.com)
  • The right common carotid originates in the neck from the brachiocephalic trunk . (bionity.com)
  • The left common carotid artery can be thought of as having two parts: a thoracic (chest) part and a cervical (neck) part. (bionity.com)
  • The right common carotid originates in or close to the neck, so it lacks a thoracic portion. (bionity.com)
  • The external carotid artery travels more closely to the surface, and sends off numerous branches that supply the neck and face. (bionity.com)
  • The regulated, uniform, continuous and streamlined blood flow carried through regular-shaped carotid arteries perfuses the structures of the head and neck. (scielo.br)
  • Right Internal carotid artery angiogram, neck and head - Right internal carotid artery demonstrates normal appearing cervical segment of right internal carotid artery.The cervical segment continues into right petrous segment and cavernous segment of right internal carotid artery. (aapc.com)
  • There are four carotid arteries, with a pair located on each side of the neck. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Successful treatment of cold-induced neck pain and jaw claudication with revascularization of severe atherosclerotic external carotid artery stenoses. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Imagistic findings (magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and cervical spine, and magnetic resonance angiography of the head and neck) indicated a very rare condition: left internal carotid artery agenesis accompanied by the absence of the pre-communicant part of the left anterior cerebral artery and of the right posterior communicating artery. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A gunshot wound to the left neck, disrupting the internal and external carotid arteries. (trauma.org)
  • Instead of endarterectomy of the ECA, angioplasty and stenting (CAS) for ECA was performed to ensure adequate blood flow in the STA, due to the history of myocardial infarction and bifurcation of the common carotid artery at a high level (C2 level). (eurekamag.com)
  • Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is one of the most frequently performed operations in the United States. (ajnr.org)
  • Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is currently being investigated as an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) (1-6) . (ajnr.org)
  • In a meta-analysis, carotid endarterectomy reduced rates of 1) perioperative stroke, death, or subsequent ipsilateral stroke and 2) perioperative stroke, death, or any subsequent stroke. (annals.org)
  • In addition to stroke or death in patients receiving carotid endarterectomy, a harm of screening included the risk for angiography prompted by abnormal results on carotid ultrasonography. (annals.org)
  • ECCD serves as a screening procedure, eventually followed by intra-arterial angiography, when carotid artery endarterectomy is scheduled. (ahajournals.org)
  • In many specialized centers, carotid endarterectomy is already performed on the basis of ECCD findings without angiography. (ahajournals.org)
  • A few multicenter randomized trials comparing carotid endarterectomy with angioplasty and stent placement have been inconclusive. (ajnr.org)
  • Stent placement and Angioplasty with Protection in Patients at High Risk for Endarterectomy (SAPPHIRE) found that carotid stent placement with a cerebral protection device was not inferior to endarterectomy in a population of high-risk patients ( 7 ). (ajnr.org)
  • The Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stent Trial and the International Carotid Stent placement Study (ICSS, or CAVATAS-2) are ongoing. (ajnr.org)
  • Methods: Measurements were performed in the surgically exposed proximal cervical CCA, distal ECA, and distal ICA of normotensive patients (n = 16) undergoing carotid endarterectomy. (elsevier.com)
  • North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial Collaborators. (medscape.com)
  • Long-term results of carotid stenting versus endarterectomy in high-risk patients. (medscape.com)
  • Stroke after carotid stenting and endarterectomy in the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial (CREST). (medscape.com)
  • Incidence, outcomes, and effect on quality of life of cranial nerve injury in the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial. (medscape.com)
  • Mobilization of a tortuous carotid artery during endarterectomy may produce redundancy of the carotid artery, and kinking. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • A retrospective chart review of 163 patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy by the same surgeon between August 1998 and February 2006 was performed. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • CCA imbrication as an adjunct to carotid endarterectomy is a feasible technique in preventing postoperative carotid kinking. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Meanwhile, ECA endarterectomy is routinely done during internal carotid artery endarterectomy (CEA). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Prospective randomized trials of carotid artery stenting versus carotid endarterectomy: an appraisal of the current literature. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Differential effects of carotid artery stenting versus carotid endarterectomy on external carotid artery patency. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Carotid Endarterectomy and Carotid Artery Stenting in the Light of ICSS and CREST Studies. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Comparison of two methods for revascularization of the bifurcation of common carotid artery: carotid endarterectomy with longitudinal incision carotid endarterectomy patch angioplasty comp. (bioportfolio.com)
  • How to remember branches of External Carotid Artery? (youtube.com)
  • We investigated whether unilateral endovascular coil-embolization of external carotid artery branches in swine would lead to increased brain perfusion, altering cerebral circulation so that it more closely models human cerebral circulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several mnemonics are commonly used to remember the main branches of the external carotid artery. (orange.com)
  • External Carotid Artery Branches amp Mnemonics Kenhub. (lebe-frei.info)
  • Image result for branches of internal carotid artery PA. (lebe-frei.info)
  • The external carotid gives most off its branches in the carotid triangle. (specialist-ent.com)
  • Branches : Suprahyoid, dorsal lingual, sublingual artery. (specialist-ent.com)
  • Branches outside the carotid triangle. (specialist-ent.com)
  • Branches : Transverse facial artery, auricular branches, middle and posterior temporal artery. (specialist-ent.com)
  • The dorsal lingual branches of lingual artery consist usually of two or three small branches which arise beneath the hyoglossus . (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, blood flow in the ICA and ECA is maintained by collateral circulation via extracranial branches through the retrograde external carotid artery. (hindawi.com)
  • The internal carotid artery enters the skull and supplies the anterior part of the brain (via cerebral branches), the eye and its appendages, and sends branches to the forehead and nose. (innerbody.com)
  • Branches of the two internal carotids and the basilar artery join at the base of the brain to form a ring of blood vessels called the circle of Willis. (innerbody.com)
  • We'll look first at branches of the subclavian artery that make a contribution, then at the external carotid artery and its branches. (aclandanatomy.com)
  • Arising here in front of it is the thyro-cervical trunk, a short vessel that immediately divides, giving off these branches to the shoulder region, and the inferior thyroid artery. (aclandanatomy.com)
  • Now we'll go to a different dissection, to look at the external carotid artery and its branches. (aclandanatomy.com)
  • To see the remaining branches of the external carotid, we'll remove the posterior belly of the digastric, and the stylohyoid muscle. (aclandanatomy.com)
  • While both branches travel upward, the internal carotid takes a deeper (more internal) path, eventually travelling up into the skull to supply the brain via the foramen lacerum. (bionity.com)
  • At the major arteries, the arterial branches are listed separately following the designation branches . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The external carotid artery appears normal with normal appearing branches of right external carotid artery.The capillary, tissue and venous phase of above mentioned arteries appears normal. (aapc.com)
  • The standard CT angiogram dataset was then transferred to a Vitrea 2 v. 3.5 workstation (Plymouth, Minn,). Surface shaded display reconstruction directed for the evaluation of the External Carotid Artery branches was performed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • objectives: Dura of the anterior clinoid process (ACP) is presumably supplied by the ophthalmic and external carotid artery branches. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The patient had had three previous carotid operations, and PTA enabled successful transcranial arterial bypass surgery to be carried out, with complete relief of symptoms. (curehunter.com)
  • The usefulness of carotid arterial screening has been demonstrated in patients prior to elective surgery. (medscape.com)
  • CIMT is measured in B-mode ultrasound images of the carotid tree as a typical double line of the arterial wall. (smw.ch)
  • shunting blood from the common carotid artery to a venous system of the patient via the arterial access sheath. (google.co.uk)
  • Arterial dissection of the carotid arteries occurs when a small tear forms in the innermost lining of the arterial wall (known as the tunica intima ). (thefullwiki.org)
  • Finally, the observed nonlinear behavior of the artery points to the need for future vascular mechanical studies to evaluate the mechanical factors of the arterial wall over the entire cardiac cycle. (elsevier.com)
  • Two intraorbital anastomoses were also noted between the internal and external carotid arterial systems: one through the lacrimal artery-middle meningeal artery to the ophthalmic artery and the other through supraorbital artery-recurrent meningeal artery to the ophthalmic artery. (utmb.edu)
  • Options for treatment included observation versus aneurysm trapping with extracranial to intracranial arterial bypass using the superficial temporal artery (STA) as the bypass conduit. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Terry JG, Tang R, Espeland MA, Davis DH, Vieira JLC, Mercuri MF, Crouse JR: Carotid arterial structure in patients with documented coronary artery disease and disease-free control subjects. (radcliffecardiology.com)
  • To test if PP must exceed a certain range to influence vessel diameter, and determine if such effects are endothelium-dependent or intrinsic to vascular viscoelasticity, eight fresh excised porcine carotid artery segments were perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit by a servo-controlled system generating physiological arterial pressure waveforms. (ovid.com)
  • We hypothesize that stenting of the internal carotid artery can immediately impede blood flow to the external carotid artery by either plaque shift or stent coverage of the ostium, and thereby cause ischemic symptoms like ipsilateral jaw claudication. (springer.com)
  • Stenting of the internal carotid artery lead to ipsilateral flow deterioration at the external carotid artery resulting in temporary jaw claudication. (springer.com)
  • Radiographic evidence of cerebral hyperperfusion and reversal following angioplasty and stenting of intracranial carotid and middle cerebral artery. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the correlation between tortuosity of extracranial internal carotid artery (EICA) and intraprocedural complications in patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS). (karger.com)
  • To offer patients a less invasive means to achieve the same goal, carotid artery stenting (CAS) is investigated as an alternative treatment to CEA. (ajnr.org)
  • Carotid stenting, compared with surgery, offers patients a less invasive and traumatic means of achieving this goal. (ajnr.org)
  • The efficacy of carotid stenting in preventing stroke depends on the ability of the operator to achieve complication-free results. (ajnr.org)
  • Plan: Bring the patient back for carotid stenting of the left internal carotid artery with distal protection device can I code 36222 or 36225? (aapc.com)
  • Jaw claudication in the era of carotid stenting. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has been shown to worsen the disease in the ECA. (semanticscholar.org)
  • ACCF/SCAI/SVMB/SIR/ASITN 2007 clinical expert consensus document on carotid stenting: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on Clinical Expert Consensus Documents (ACCF/SCAI/SVMB/SIR/ASITN Clinical Expert Consensus Document Committee on Carotid Stenting). (semanticscholar.org)
  • The fate of the external carotid artery after carotid artery stenting. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Effect of carotid artery stenting on the external carotid artery. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The patency of the occluded vertebral artery beyond C3 was demonstrated by a faint angiographic injection through anastomic ascending cervical arteries which provided insufficient blood supply. (eurekamag.com)
  • it arises around the level of the third cervical vertebra when the common carotid bifurcates into this artery and its more superficial counterpart, external carotid artery . (wikidoc.org)
  • Level of 6th cervical vertebrae -- still at level of common carotid, but relationships are similar to those of cervical segment of internal carotid. (wikidoc.org)
  • The cervical segment , or C1, of the internal carotid extends from the carotid bifurcation until it enters the carotid canal in the skull anterior to the jugular foramen. (wikidoc.org)
  • The trapezius muscle (see fig. 8-4 ) arises from the superior nuchal line, the external occipital protuberance, the ligamentum nuchae, and the spinous processes of the last cervical and all the thoracic vertebrae. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The carotid bifurcation (CB) into the internal (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA) is located at the level of the fourth cervical vertebra [1]. (smw.ch)
  • The segments of the internal carotid artery are as follows: Cervical segment, or C1, identical to the commonly used Cervical portion Petrous segment, or C2 Lacerum segment, or C3 C2 and C3 compose the commonly termed Petrous portion Cavernous segment, or C4, almost identical to the commonly used Cavernous portion Clinoid segment, or C5. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inferior thyroid artery gives off this small ascending cervical artery, then runs medially, deep to the common carotid artery, to reach the lower pole of the thyroid gland. (aclandanatomy.com)
  • The cervical portions of the common carotids resemble each other so closely that one description will apply to both. (bionity.com)
  • The common carotid artery is contained in a sheath known as the carotid sheath, which is derived from the deep cervical fascia and encloses also the internal jugular vein and vagus nerve , the vein lying lateral to the artery, and the nerve between the artery and vein, on a plane posterior to both. (bionity.com)
  • At approximately the level of the fourth cervical vertebra , the common carotid artery bifurcates into an internal carotid artery (ICA) and an external carotid artery (ECA). (bionity.com)
  • Right common carotid artery bifurcates at c3 cervical vertebrae. (aapc.com)
  • This lateral view from an internal carotid artery angiogram demonstrates the origin of the ascending pharyngeal artery from the cervical internal carotid artery, which is an unusual but normal variant of angiographic anatomy. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Their cerebrovascular anatomy, however, comes with challenges because of the natural higher external carotid artery perfusion and the existence of a rete mirabile. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This nomenclature system is a clinical one, based on the angiographic appearance of the artery and its relationship to surrounding anatomy, in contrast to an embryologic classification system. (wikidoc.org)
  • An older clinical classification is based on work by Fischer in 1938 is also commonly used, as well as classification schemes based on the embryologic anatomy of the carotid artery. (wikidoc.org)
  • Left external carotid artery The Anatomy of the Arteries. (lebe-frei.info)
  • The segments are subdivided based on anatomical and microsurgical landmarks and surrounding anatomy, more than angiographic appearance of the artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The variant carotid vascular anatomy consisting of bends, bifurcations and wider arteries revealed that the shear stress and velocity of blood flow are reduced at these anomalous sites. (scielo.br)
  • Many attempts have been undertaken to classify carotid invasion on preoperative imaging including ultrasound, followed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scan [ 1 , 2 , 5 - 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The carotid artery has a superficial course, so that ultrasound examinations usually can be performed without bigger problems. (smw.ch)
  • Atherosclerotic aetiology was suspected when the patient presented with vascular risk factors, and the vascular ultrasound findings were suggestive of atherosclerosis (e.g., atherosclerotic vessel wall changes in the extracranial arteries and the CCA filled with heterogeneous or hyperechogenic atherothrombotic material). (hindawi.com)
  • Three-dimensional carotid ultrasound plaque texture predicts vascular events. (medscape.com)
  • Right femoral artery was palpated and under ultrasound 5 French sheath was placed using micro puncture kit and modified Seldinger technique. (aapc.com)
  • We investigated cross-sectional (baseline 1987-89: n = 7956) and prospective (median follow-up = 5.9 years: n = 4845) associations between baseline right common carotid artery (RCCA) external diameter and IMT with existing and incident carotid atherosclerotic lesions detected by B-mode ultrasound in any right or left carotid segments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Wikstrand J: Methodological considerations of ultrasound measurement of carotid artery intima-media thickness and lumen diameter. (radcliffecardiology.com)
  • Pollex R, Spence JD, House AA, Fenster A, Hanley AJG, Zinman B, Harris S, Hegele R: A comparison of ultrasound measurements to assess carotid atherosclerosis development in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes. (radcliffecardiology.com)
  • Gortex graft-external carotid artery anastomotic stricture treated by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. (curehunter.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the procedural complication rate, patency, and clinical outcomes after carotid angioplasty and stent placement in this small group of high-risk patients. (ajnr.org)
  • range, 70%-99%) in a total of 19 carotid arteries, which were treated with angioplasty and stent placement. (ajnr.org)
  • In the total 19 stented carotid arteries, 23 procedures were performed (22 stent placement procedures and one repeat angioplasty). (ajnr.org)
  • Angioplasty and stent placement have low rates of complications and restenosis in the treatment of radiation-associated carotid occlusive disease. (ajnr.org)
  • Carotid angioplasty and stent placement, however, have become increasingly used during the past two decades and are gaining wider acceptance. (ajnr.org)
  • The Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS) did not show a significant difference in stroke or death rate between the two techniques ( 5 ). (ajnr.org)
  • Abstract The temporal relationship of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and a specific tissue inhibitor (TIMP-1) has been examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and substrate zymography, after balloon catheter angioplasty of the rat carotid artery. (ahajournals.org)
  • Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is an established therapy for obstructive coronary artery diseases. (ahajournals.org)
  • These findings indicate that vertebro-basilar circulation has lower CO2 reactivity than internal carotid circulation, and that CO2 reactivity of the external carotid circulation is markedly diminished compared to that of the cerebral circulation, which may explain different CBF responses to physiological stress. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cerebral ischemia resulting from carotid artery atherosclerosis is related most frequently to atherosclerosis of the proximal internal carotid artery (ICA). (elsevier.com)
  • Cerebral ischemic symptoms associated with atherosclerosis of the external carotid artery (ECA) occur uncommonly and usually only when the ipsilateral ICA is occluded. (elsevier.com)
  • Long-term (8 months) follow-up found that hemodynamic parameters in the stented left middle cerebral artery only slightly elevated compared to the unaffected right middle cerebral artery. (nih.gov)
  • The terminus portion of right internal carotid artery bifurcates into right middle cerebral artery and right anterior cerebral artery. (aapc.com)
  • The terminal segment of middle cerebral arteries appears normal. (aapc.com)
  • The Anterior cerebral artery A1 segment and A2 segment also appear normal. (aapc.com)
  • Selective cerebral angiography in our department showed a left CCF filled only from the left internal carotid artery, initially considered as a spontaneous CCF type A (fig 1 A and B). As a variant there was a hypoplastic A1 segment on the left side with good collateralisation from the right side. (bmj.com)
  • While catheter angiography has traditionally been used to assess the caliber and course of the superficial temporal artery prior to its use as a conduit for external carotid artery to internal carotid artery (EC-IC) bypass, computed tomographic angiography (CTA) has become increasingly used in the diagnostic assessment of cerebral vasculature. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CTA of the Circle of Willis revealed an unruptured fusiform aneurysm of the M1 segment of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • External carotid artery to internal carotid artery (EC-IC) bypass using the superficial temporal artery (STA) for cerebral revascularization is an important technique for a variety of complex cerebrovascular lesions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the role of superficial temporal artery (STA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass in patients with symptomatic intracranial stenoocclusive disease has been rarely evaluated. (nih.gov)
  • The authors evaluated serial changes in various cerebral hemodynamic parameters in patients with severe stenoocclusive disease of the intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) or middle cerebral artery (MCA) and impaired cerebral vasodilatory reserve (CVR), treated by STA-MCA bypass surgery or medical treatment. (nih.gov)
  • The occipital artery, posterior auricular artery, facial artery, superior thyroid artery, and maxillary artery all branch off from the external carotid artery. (healthline.com)
  • Unilateral.showing maxillary artery ,superficial temporal artery ,ascending pharyngeal artery and posterior auricular artery,ect. (plastinationspecimen.com)
  • Also arising posteriorly up here is the smaller posterior auricular artery. (aclandanatomy.com)
  • It is currently unknown whether plaque shift from the internal carotid artery and/or the implantation of a stent over the orifice of the ECA during the course of CAS can cause acute ischemic symptoms in the vascular territory of the ECA. (springer.com)
  • Concurrent angiography revealed markings consistent with dilatations of small arteries in the vascular territory of the stented arteries. (nih.gov)
  • Enhanced leakage of Evans blue dye from artery in IL-10 KO mice suggested that IL-10 depletion impaired vascular repair. (nih.gov)
  • Although grafting of the carotid artery, as generally performed in vascular disease and glomus tumors, is possible, it is generally not advocated because the outcome in oncologic patients is dismal [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Updated Society for Vascular Surgery guidelines for management of extracranial carotid disease. (medscape.com)
  • We demonstrate the application of CTA for evaluation of the superficial temporal artery as a vascular conduit for EC-IC bypass. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Zureik M, Ducimetiere P, Touboul PJ, Courbon D, Bonithon-Kopp C, Berr C, Magne C: Common carotid intima-media thickness predicts occurrence of carotid atherosclerotic plaques: longitudinal results from the Aging Vascular Study (EVA) study. (radcliffecardiology.com)
  • We have assessed inhibitory effects of tranilast on neointima formation after balloon injury in the carotid artery of dogs, which share a similar ANG II-forming chymase with humans, and further explored the pathophysiological significance of vascular chymase. (ahajournals.org)
  • This mechanism of PP-mediated vascular dilatation may contribute to enhanced organ perfusion when small resistance arteries are already dilated. (ovid.com)
  • CAROTID ARTERIES I N BIRDS 185 ing this extraordinary shift in position and probably as a result of it, a peripheral chain of anastomoses develops between adjacent segmental arteries, by means of which the distal portions of the whole series receive their chief supply of blood through the first spinal segmental artery (8-1, fig. 4). (docme.ru)
  • The proximal and distal parts of the anastomotic vessel seemed to have been derived from the primitive proatlantal artery and the primitive hypoglossal artery, respectively. (springer.com)
  • The distal portion of this arch joins the dorsal aorta to form the internal carotid artery. (specialist-ent.com)
  • This is done because a thrombus formed distal to the ligation site if disloged, would enter the superior thyroid artery and not the internal carotid artery. (specialist-ent.com)
  • CIMT is best visible in the measurement segment of the distal common carotid artery with lowest measurement variability. (smw.ch)
  • Results: The diameter and wall thickness of the segments (CCA, ECA, and ICA) of the carotid bifurcation were found to decrease and strain-induced stiffness to increase from proximal CCA to distal ECA and ICA. (elsevier.com)
  • A patient involved in a car accident causing his vehicle to roll, sustained an aortic dissection just distal to the renal arteries requiring open aortic grafting to repair it. (trauma.org)
  • Seventy percent were hypertensive, 62% had hypercholesterolemia, 31% were diabetic, and 70% had coronary artery disease. (ajnr.org)
  • Gnasso A, Irace C, Mattioli PL, Pujia A: Carotid intima-media thickness and coronary heart disease risk factors. (radcliffecardiology.com)
  • Mack WJ, LaBree L, Liu C-R, Liu C-H, Selzer RH, Hodis HN: Correlations between measures of atherosclerosis change using carotid ultrasonagraphy and coronary angiography. (radcliffecardiology.com)
  • Nowak J, Nilsson T, Sylven C, Jogestrand T: Potential of carotid ultrasonography in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease: a comparison of exercise test and variance ECG. (radcliffecardiology.com)
  • Hallerstam S, Larsson P, Zuber E, Rosfors S: Carotid atherosclerosis is correlated with extent and severity of coronary artery disease evaluated by myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. (radcliffecardiology.com)
  • Herein, using human coronary artery sections with a bare metal stent, we demonstrate the expression of Fn-EDA in the vicinity of SMC-rich neointima and peri-strut areas. (jci.org)
  • Often, no symptoms of carotid artery disease occur before the stroke. (healthline.com)
  • Carotid artery disease is the underlying cause of approximately half of all stroke cases in the United States. (healthline.com)
  • Carotid CT angiography (CTA) is the a commonly performed imaging study in stroke centers. (medscape.com)
  • Removal of lymph node metastases from the ICA may lead to stroke and carotid rupture in 3.3% and 5.5%, respectively [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Carotid artery disease is serious because it can block the blood flow to your brain, causing a stroke . (medlineplus.gov)
  • The goal of both procedures is the prevention of stroke from extracranial carotid artery occlusive disease. (ajnr.org)
  • Fifty-six percent of the stenotic arteries were symptomatic: 30% presented with transient ischemic attack, 25% with relatively recent stroke, and 1% with amaurosis fugax. (ajnr.org)
  • Carotid artery dissection is the most common cause of stroke in young adults. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Once considered uncommon, spontaneous carotid artery dissection is an increasingly recognized cause of stroke that preferentially affects the middle-aged. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Observational studies and case reports published since the early 1980s show that patients with spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection may also have hereditary connective tissue disorders and/or a history of stroke in their family. (thefullwiki.org)
  • However, when blood clots form and break off from the site of the tear, they form emboli , which can travel through the arteries to the brain and block the blood supply to the brain, resulting in an ischemic stroke , otherwise known as an infarction . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Blood clots, or emboli, originating from the dissection are thought to be the cause of infarction in the majority of cases of stroke in the presence of carotid artery dissection. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Harloff A, Strecker C, Reinhard M, Kollum M, Handke M, Olschewski M, Weiller C, Hetzel A: Combined measurement of carotid stiffness and intima-media thickness improves prediction of complex aortic plaques in patients with ischemic stroke. (radcliffecardiology.com)
  • Lee EJ, Chang HW, Cho CH, Kim E, Lee SK, Kwon JH (2010) Rare variant of persistent primitive hypoglossal artery in magnetic resonance angiography. (springer.com)
  • Carotid duplex ultrasonography, computed tomographic angiography (CTA), or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the carotid artery may be most appropriate in a specific case (see the images below). (medscape.com)
  • Sabouri S, Ebrahimzadeh SA, Rahimian N (2014) Unusual variant of persistent primitive hypoglossal artery diagnosed by CT angiography: a case report and literature review. (springer.com)
  • Uchino A, Saito N (2011) Persistent hypoglossal artery arising from the external carotid artery diagnosed by MR angiography. (springer.com)
  • We performed CTA for the preoperative assessment of the STA for a putative EC-IC bypass procedure, and correlated this to conventional external carotid angiography. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Selective external carotid artery digital subtraction angiography was performed in a biplane angiography suite according to standard protocol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Facial artery : (External maxillary artery) : Arises anteriorly above the lingual artery. (specialist-ent.com)
  • 2) Internal maxillary artery : It is the terminal branch of the external carotid artery. (specialist-ent.com)
  • It lodges the anterior process and anterior ligament of the malleus, and gives passage to the anterior tympanic branch of the internal maxillary artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facial artery (external maxillary artery in older texts) is a branch of the external carotid artery that supplies structures of the superficial face. (dbpedia.org)
  • In the vast majority of patients, the atherosclerotic lesions are located at the carotid bifurcation involving the very proximal segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA). (springer.com)
  • Plaques in the carotid tree and thickening of the CIMT are different atherosclerotic processes. (smw.ch)
  • Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), recorded with B-mode sonography, is an important marker to quantify atherosclerotic burden in the common carotid artery (CCA). (smw.ch)
  • All measurements were completed in vivo over the cardiac cycle in the repaired carotid bifurcation after the atherosclerotic plaque was successfully removed. (elsevier.com)
  • Which conditions are associated with atherosclerotic disease of the carotid artery? (medscape.com)
  • Which studies are performed in the workup of atherosclerotic disease of the carotid artery? (medscape.com)
  • The association between these phenotypes and progression to definitive carotid atherosclerotic lesions was assessed over the follow-up period. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RCCA IMT and external diameter provide partially overlapping information relating to carotid atherosclerotic lesions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More importantly, the RCCA phenotype of coexistent wall thickening with external diameter enlargement indicates higher atherosclerotic risk than isolated wall thickening or diameter enlargement. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the anastomotic vessel in this case had a common trunk with the occipital artery (OA), a remnant of the primitive proatlantal artery. (springer.com)
  • Lasjaunias P, Théron J, Moret J (1978) The occipital artery. (springer.com)
  • The occipital artery (a. occipitalis) arises from the posterior part of the external carotid, opposite the external maxillary, near the lower margin of the posterior belly of the Digastricus, and ends in the posterior part of the scalp. (myneuropedia.org)
  • 5) Occipital artery : Arises posteriorly along posterior belly of digastric crossing the internal carotid, internal jugular vein, hypoglossal, vagus and accessory nerves. (specialist-ent.com)
  • Here, arising posteriorly, is the occipital artery. (aclandanatomy.com)
  • The occipital artery runs steeply upwards, then passes deep to the digastric and splenius muscles. (aclandanatomy.com)
  • 6. A method as in claim 5 , wherein the therapeutic catheter is a stent delivery catheter and treating the carotid artery comprises deploying a stent using the stent delivery catheter. (google.co.uk)
  • Treatments include observation, anticoagulation , stent implantation and carotid artery ligation. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Although it did not randomize patients, the ARCHeR(Acculink for Revascularization of Carotids in High-Risk patients) study is the basis for the only FDA-approved stent. (ajnr.org)
  • Covered stent-graft exclusion of external carotid artery pseudoaneurysms without compromise of the complex free flap. (uchicago.edu)
  • Changes in carotid artery flow velocities after stent implantation: a fluid dynamics study with laser Doppler anemometry. (semanticscholar.org)
  • and higher up, it is separated from the internal carotid by the Styloglossus and Stylopharyngeus, the glossopharyngeal nerve, the pharyngeal branch of the vagus, and part of the parotid gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • This rete supplies their Circle of Willis (CoW) through two small internal carotid arteries (ICA) that branch off of the rete. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Higher up, it is separated from the external carotid by the styloglossus and stylopharyngeus muscles, the tip of the styloid process and the stylohyoid ligament , the glossopharyngeal nerve and the pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve . (wikidoc.org)
  • The accessory nerve (external branch) is tested by asking the subject to shrug the shoulders (trapezius) and then to rotate the head (sternomastoid). (dartmouth.edu)
  • The accessory nerve (external branch), which crosses the transverse process of the atlas, either pierces or runs deep to the sternomastoid, which it supplies. (dartmouth.edu)
  • This is the smallest branch of the external carotid artery. (specialist-ent.com)
  • 3) Ligation of the external carotid artery is done in severe tonsillar bleeding after it gives the first branch, the superior thyroid artery. (specialist-ent.com)
  • Anterior ethmoidal artery arises from ophthalmic branch of internal carotid artery. (pgblazer.com)
  • another pierces the mylohyoideus and anastomoses with the submental branch of the facial artery . (wikipedia.org)
  • The suprahyoid branch of the lingual artery runs along the upper border of the hyoid bone , supplying oxygenated blood to the muscles attached to it and joining ( anastomosing ) with its fellow of the opposite side . (wikipedia.org)
  • The first branch of the external carotid is the superior thyroid artery. (aclandanatomy.com)
  • The next branch is the lingual artery. (aclandanatomy.com)
  • it corresponds with the carotid canal, from which it is separated by a thin plate of bone perforated by the tympanic branch of the internal carotid artery, and by the deep petrosal nerve which connects the sympathetic plexus on the internal carotid artery with the tympanic plexus on the promontory. (wikipedia.org)
  • It arises from the common carotid artery when it splits into the external and internal carotid artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patency of external and internal carotid artery in the presence of an occluded common carotid artery: noninvasive evaluation with combined cerebrovascular Doppler examination and sequential computertomography. (ahajournals.org)
  • Objectives To investigate whether external irradiation to the carotid area has any effect on IMT of the common carotid artery in a group of patients who received RT vs control group matched for age, gender and race. (youscribe.com)
  • Common carotid IMT was measured with echo-color Doppler. (youscribe.com)
  • Conclusion This study shows that increased IMT of the common carotid artery after RT is radiation-dose-related. (youscribe.com)
  • Equal amounts of approximately 4 °C cold saline were injected in 6 Yorkshire pigs into the ipsilateral common carotid artery before and after embolization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has become common practice that the stents are implanted across the bifurcation towards the internal carotid artery by covering the orifice of the external carotid artery. (springer.com)
  • 83 Common and internal carotid artery and ophthalmic. (lebe-frei.info)
  • It is ranked as the third most common cause of death in the United States, after heart disease and cancer, and about one third of all strokes are related to carotid occlusive disease. (medscape.com)
  • The detection of a carotid bruit is a common physical examination finding that may lead to a referral for carotid duplex ultrasonography. (medscape.com)
  • The images are taken from the common carotid artery. (medscape.com)
  • The common carotid artery develops from the proximal portion of the third aortic arch. (specialist-ent.com)
  • At the bifurcation of the common carotid the internal carotid is lateral to external carotid. (specialist-ent.com)
  • The method comprises transcervical access and blocking of blood flow through the common carotid artery (with or without blocking of blood flow through the external carotid artery), shunting blood. (google.co.uk)
  • 2. A method as in claim 1 , wherein forming the puncture opening comprises making the puncture opening directly into the common carotid artery accessed through a transcervical surgical incision. (google.co.uk)
  • 3. A method as in claim 1 , wherein forming the puncture opening comprises performing a percutaneous puncture into the common carotid artery. (google.co.uk)
  • Common tumors: Metastatic squamous cell cancer Lymphoma Schwannomas/Neurofibromas Paraganglioma * Encasement of the carotid artery may mean inoperability. (scribd.com)
  • The purpose of this work was to measure and compare the range and variation of circumferential stress and tangent elastic moduli in the human common (CCA), external (ECA), and internal (ICA) carotid arteries over the cardiac cycle in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • Common Carotid Artery Imbrication as an Adjunct to Carotid Endart. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • We reviewed our experience with common carotid artery (CCA) imbrication as a technique to shorten the common and internal carotid artery postendarterectomy and to avoid carotid kinking. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Each common carotid artery is divided into an external and internal carotid artery. (healthline.com)
  • Here's the common carotid artery, dividing into the internal carotid, and the external carotid. (aclandanatomy.com)
  • The internal carotid arteries arise from the common carotid arteries - labeled Common caroti on the figure. (bionity.com)
  • The common carotid artery is a paired structure, meaning that there are two in the body, one for each half. (bionity.com)
  • The left and right common carotid arteries follow the same course with the exception of their origin. (bionity.com)
  • Only the left common carotid artery has a substantial presence in the thoracic region. (bionity.com)
  • Atherosclerosis was also detected in the straight part of the wider common carotid artery. (scielo.br)
  • Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. (curehunter.com)
  • A 5 French Simms 2 catheter was continuously flushed with heparinized swine and was then navigated over 0.035 guidewire up to arch of sorts where it was reconstituted and following blood vessels were catheterized- Right common, right internal, left common, left internal, left subclavian, left vertebral artery, right subclavian, right vertebral artery. (aapc.com)
  • The bifurcation of Right common carotid artery appears normal. (aapc.com)
  • The bifurcation of Left common carotid artery appears normal. (aapc.com)
  • The study was aimed to establish normal Doppler blood flow parameters of right common carotid artery and right external jugular vein in 20 clinically healthy non-gravid adult buffaloes. (usda.gov)
  • These parameters, when compared with those recorded in buffaloes suffering from reticulo-diaphragmatic hernia, revealed a significant decrease in peak systole velocity, end diastole velocity, time average maximum velocity and time averaged mean velocity of external jugular vein while the common carotid artery showed a significant decrease in volume flow only. (usda.gov)
  • The Doppler values of external jugular vein and common carotid artery for clinically healthy adult buffaloes would serve as a reference range for future studies. (usda.gov)
  • A 5 French VTK catheter was used to selectively engage the left subclavian artery and the left common carotid artery as well as the innominate artery. (aapc.com)
  • 3: Selective angiogram of the left common carotid artery showed patent vessel. (aapc.com)
  • The right common carotid artery and internal carotid arteries are patent but extremely tortuous. (aapc.com)
  • 3. Patent right common and internal carotid arteries. (aapc.com)
  • Although variations in the peripapillary division pattern of the central retinal artery (CRA) are common, variations in the origin of this artery are seldom reported in the literature. (utmb.edu)
  • Rosfors S, Hallerstam S, Jensen-Urstad K, Zetterling M, Carlstrom C: Relationship between intima-media thickness in the common carotid artery and atherosclerosis in the carotid bifurcation. (radcliffecardiology.com)
  • The external carotid artery is sometimes affected by carotid artery disease, which is caused by a buildup of plaque. (healthline.com)
  • If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow or blocked, usually because of atherosclerosis . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms until the blockage or narrowing is severe. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Imaging tests can confirm whether you have carotid artery disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In this article, 2 discussants address the risks and benefits of screening for carotid artery disease as well as how to apply the guideline to an individual patient who is deciding whether to be screened. (annals.org)
  • Approximately 25% of strokes are caused by carotid occlusive disease. (ajnr.org)
  • From our experience among Egyptian population in our institution, there is an increased prevalence of hidden subclinical peripheral artery disease along with carotid artery affection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Jaw claudication could result from external carotid artery (ECA) occlusive disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Jaw claudication as a result of carotid artery disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Snoring and carotid artery disease: A new risk factor emerges. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The lingual artery arises from the external carotid between the superior thyroid artery and facial artery . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1) The external carotid artery can be approached by an incision made along the anterior border of sternomastoid first above the angle of mandible and downwards. (specialist-ent.com)
  • The airgun pellet caused a defect in the anterior wall of the external carotid artery, which required rapid access and surgical repair. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Upon evacuation of the haematoma extensive haemorrhage developed from a defect in the anterior wall of the external carotid artery, which required rapid access and surgical repair. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The sublingual Artery arises at the anterior margin of the hyoglossus, and runs forward between the genioglossus and mylohyoid muscle to the sublingual gland . (wikipedia.org)
  • Dural artery from the supraclinoid internal carotid artery to the anterior clinoid process: origin, course and clinical implications. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Normally, the ascending pharyngeal artery arising from the proximal external carotid artery. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The use of carotid duplex ultrasonography has been widely recommended as a sceening examination. (medscape.com)
  • However, a recent review and meta-analysis published by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommended against the usefulness of carotid duplex ultrasonography as a screening test in asymptomatic individuals. (medscape.com)
  • Assessment of carotid invasion by ultrasonography had sensitivity up to 100% [ 10 - 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine IMT in patients who received irradiation to the carotid arteries during radiotherapy vs. control group matched for age, gender and race, by using B-mode ultrasonography. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Carotid artery kinking is a frequent finding in duplex ultrasonography. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A survey of the literature of surgery will demonstrate the fact, that of all the great vessels that we have dealt with, the external carotid has been less frequently subjected to ligation than any other, if we except its companion the internal. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Lateral to it, in the lower part of its course, is the internal carotid artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The left subclavian artery is posterior and slightly lateral to it. (bionity.com)
  • On lateral view of angiogram pericallosal and callosomarginal arteries can be seen. (aapc.com)
  • Both standard anteroposterior and lateral external carotid digital subtraction angiograms were obtained. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On its lateral surface, it abuts the external auditory meatus [ ear canal ] from which it is separated by the tympanic membrane (eardrum). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 , 2 The rationale for supporting this approach is that electric activation of the carotid baroreflex leads to activation of the cardiac parasympathetic drive and inhibition of sympathetic activity to the heart and peripheral vessels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hybrid operation to revascularize long-segment occluded internal carotid artery prevent further ischemic events. (bioportfolio.com)
  • No atherosclerosis was observed in the contralateral carotid arteries. (scielo.br)
  • The internal carotid artery starts is in the superior carotid triangle and as it rises, it lays deeper, under the parotid gland, the digastric muscle's posterior belly, stylopharyngeus and stylohyoid muscles and styloid process. (innerbody.com)
  • The ophthalmic artery appears normal in shape and caliber. (aapc.com)
  • Intima-media thickness of the carotid artery (CIMT) and its increase is associated with several cardiovascular risk factors and manifest cardiovascular diseases. (smw.ch)
  • Bots ML, Evans GW, Riley WA, Grobbee DE: Carotid intima-media thickness measurements in intervention studies: design options, progression rates, and sample size considerations: a point of view. (radcliffecardiology.com)
  • Lemne C, Jogestrand T, de Faire U: Carotid intima-media thickness and plaque in borderline hypertension. (radcliffecardiology.com)
  • Previous studies have identified a relationship between snoring, carotid intima media thickening, and the presence of atherosclerosis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • La arteria facial es una arteria que se origina en la arteria carótida externa​ e irriga estructuras de parte superficial de la cara. (dbpedia.org)
  • L'artère faciale ou artère maxillaire externe en ancienne nomenclature (Arteria facialis ou Arteria maxillaris externa en latin) est une artère de la tête issue de l'artère carotide externe. (dbpedia.org)
  • Facial Artery an overview ScienceDirect Topics. (lebe-frei.info)
  • This is the facial artery. (aclandanatomy.com)
  • The facial artery runs forwards, passing between the submandibular gland and the angle of the mandible, and emerging here. (aclandanatomy.com)
  • The facial artery crosses the mandible (it's extremely tortuous in this specimen) and runs upwards and forwards, branching to supply the lower part of the face. (aclandanatomy.com)
  • facial artery) - naczynie odchodzące od tętnicy szyjnej zewnętrznej powyżej tętnicy językowej, zaopatrujące przednią część twarzy, boczną ścianę oraz dno jamy ustnej. (dbpedia.org)
  • Background: The mechanical environment and properties of the carotid artery play an important role in the formation and progression of atherosclerosis in the carotid bifurcation. (elsevier.com)
  • 2008 (1997-2006) PMID 18164999 -- "Radiation carotid blowout syndrome in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Angiographic features and endovascular management. (wikibooks.org)
  • Arises posteriorly near the origin of the external carotid artery and ascends between the internal carotid artery and pharynx. (specialist-ent.com)
  • At the base of the skull the glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves lie between the artery and the internal jugular vein. (wikidoc.org)
  • The aneurysmal dome was constructed from a segment of the external jugular vein which was sutured to the window performed on the apex of bifurcation of the ECA and lingual artery (BAn) or on the ECA (LAn). (nih.gov)
  • Although duplex imaging helps in the detection of carotid lesions in asymptomatic patients, the cost and risk associated with potentially unnecessary follow-up testing and the risk of unnecessary surgical procedures are arguments againt the wider application of carotid sonography in asymptomatic indivduals. (medscape.com)
  • Duplex carotid sonography in a patient with sudden onset of aphasia. (medscape.com)
  • Extracranial color-coded duplex sonography (ECCD) is a noninvasive, highly accurate procedure to detect stenoses and occlusions of the carotid arteries. (ahajournals.org)
  • Differential blood flow responses to CO₂ in human internal and external carotid and vertebral arteries. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Anatomical anomalies such as bends and branching in the carotid arteries alter the irrigation pattern and generate biomechanical forces that cause turbulent flow and reduce shear stress/blood flow velocity. (scielo.br)
  • Anatomical relationship between carotid artery and styloid and hyoid bones in patients showing unintended head rotation on CTA. (bioportfolio.com)