Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection: The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.Carotid Body: A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Endarterectomy: Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Carotid Body Tumor: Benign paraganglioma at the bifurcation of the COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES. It can encroach on the parapharyngeal space and produce dysphagia, pain, and cranial nerve palsies.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Amaurosis Fugax: Transient complete or partial monocular blindness due to retinal ischemia. This may be caused by emboli from the CAROTID ARTERY (usually in association with CAROTID STENOSIS) and other locations that enter the central RETINAL ARTERY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p245)Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Celiac Artery: The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Mesenteric Artery, Superior: A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Balloon Occlusion: Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Aneurysm, False: Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.Brachiocephalic Trunk: The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Fibromuscular Dysplasia: An idiopathic, segmental, nonatheromatous disease of the musculature of arterial walls, leading to STENOSIS of small and medium-sized arteries. There is true proliferation of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and fibrous tissue. Fibromuscular dysplasia lesions are smooth stenosis and occur most often in the renal and carotid arteries. They may also occur in other peripheral arteries of the extremity.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Thoracic Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Constriction: The act of constricting.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Maxillary Artery: A branch of the external carotid artery which distributes to the deep structures of the face (internal maxillary) and to the side of the face and nose (external maxillary).Bronchial Arteries: Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Neointima: The new and thickened layer of scar tissue that forms on a PROSTHESIS, or as a result of vessel injury especially following ANGIOPLASTY or stent placement.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.Ulnar Artery: The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.Asymptomatic Diseases: Diseases that do not exhibit symptoms.Embolic Protection Devices: Vascular filters or occlusive devices that provide mechanical protection of the distal end organ from blood clots or EMBOLISM-causing debri dislodged during ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Uterine Artery: A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Doppler Effect: Changes in the observed frequency of waves (as sound, light, or radio waves) due to the relative motion of source and observer. The effect was named for the 19th century Austrian physicist Johann Christian Doppler.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Meningeal Arteries: Arteries which supply the dura mater.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Auscultation: Act of listening for sounds within the body.Axillary Artery: The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.Horner Syndrome: A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Polytetrafluoroethylene: Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.Rupture, Spontaneous: Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.Moyamoya Disease: A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Hemorheology: The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.Aorta, Abdominal: The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Vasa Vasorum: Nutrient blood vessels which supply the walls of large arteries or veins.Epistaxis: Bleeding from the nose.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Polyethylene Terephthalates: Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Takayasu Arteritis: A chronic inflammatory process that affects the AORTA and its primary branches, such as the brachiocephalic artery (BRACHIOCEPHALIC TRUNK) and CAROTID ARTERIES. It results in progressive arterial stenosis, occlusion, and aneurysm formation. The pulse in the arm is hard to detect. Patients with aortitis syndrome often exhibit retinopathy.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Endovascular Procedures: Minimally invasive procedures, diagnostic or therapeutic, performed within the BLOOD VESSELS. They may be perfomed via ANGIOSCOPY; INTERVENTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY; or INTERVENTIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Vertebral Artery Dissection: Splitting of the vessel wall in the VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the vertebral artery, aneurysm formation, or THROMBOEMBOLISM. Vertebral artery dissection is often associated with TRAUMA and injuries to the head-neck region but can occur spontaneously.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula: An acquired or spontaneous abnormality in which there is communication between CAVERNOUS SINUS, a venous structure, and the CAROTID ARTERIES. It is often associated with HEAD TRAUMA, specifically basilar skull fractures (SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR). Clinical signs often include VISION DISORDERS and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Arteriovenous Fistula: An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Pulse: The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.Cervical Plexus: A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four CERVICAL SPINAL CORD segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical SPINAL COLUMN, infrahyoid muscles, and the DIAPHRAGM.

Mastication steal: an unusual precipitant of cerebrovascular insufficiency. (1/215)

An 83-year-old man had episodic dizziness, visual disturbance, and facial and extremity weakness associated with eating. Occlusion of the ipsilateral common carotid artery and stenosis or occlusion of the major collateral sources were demonstrated. We believe this anatomic configuration, combined with increases in demand for external carotid artery blood flow necessitated by the act of chewing, resulted in a vascular steal syndrome. An extended carotid endarterectomy was performed, and there were no additional episodes.  (+info)

Apoptosis and Bcl-xs in the intimal thickening of balloon-injured carotid arteries. (2/215)

We performed balloon injury in the rat carotid artery and identified intimal thickening after injury. Balloon-injured carotid arteries showed maximum thickness of the neointima on the 14th day before complete endothelial cell regeneration. In this lesion we identified apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) by in situ DNA labelling and electron microscopy in the neointima on the 14th day after injury. mRNA expression levels of bcl-2, bax, bcl-x, p53 and caspase-1 were determined by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction method both in injured and uninjured carotid arteries. Neither bcl-2 nor bcl-xl mRNA expression was detected in either injured or uninjured arteries, whereas bax and p53 mRNA expression was identified and their mRNA levels were not altered after balloon injury. In contrast, both bcl-xs and caspase-1 mRNA was detected and was markedly induced only in the injured carotid artery. Positive staining for immunoreactive Bcl-x was observed specifically in the injured arterial wall and co-localized with positive staining of nuclei identified by in situ DNA labelling. We conclude that two opposite cellular responses, VSMC proliferation and apoptosis, exist together in the neointima of the rat carotid artery after balloon injury, and selective induction of Bcl-xs expression is a key regulator of VSMC apoptosis in the process of vascular remodelling.  (+info)

Recently occluded intracranial and extracranial carotid arteries. Relevance of the unstable atherosclerotic plaque. (3/215)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is now widely accepted that thrombotic coronary artery occlusion usually follows rupture of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque. The significance of such instability in arteries supplying the brain is less well appreciated. We therefore describe the clinical and pathological features of recent, symptomatic internal carotid artery occlusion to examine the pathogenetic role of plaque instability at both extracranial and intracranial sites. METHODS: Cases were selected from a consecutive series of 188 adult neuropathology autopsies. In 90 of these, the principal neuropathological abnormality was cerebral infarction, in 14 cases due to recent occlusion of 1 or more segments of the internal carotid artery. In each case, a full systemic, cardiovascular, and neuropathological autopsy was performed. Plaque instability was assessed by the presence or absence of a large, necrotic, lipid core; a thin, fibrous cap; and superficial inflammation. RESULTS: Of the 14 cases, 3 showed extracranial (carotid sinus), 7 intracranial, and 4 both extracranial and intracranial carotid artery occlusion. In 6 of the 7 occluded carotid sinuses, thrombus overlay an ulcerated, unstable, atherosclerotic plaque. In 1 extracranial and all 11 intracranial occlusions, there was either no atheroma or a mildly stenotic, stable, fibrous plaque, and in these cases, the cause of occlusion was embolism (8 cases), giant-cell arteritis (1 case), and unknown (3 cases). CONCLUSIONS: Coronary-type rupture of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque is the usual cause of fatal occlusion of the carotid sinus, but other causes usually underlie intracranial carotid occlusion. The nature and consequences of intracranial atherosclerosis require further study.  (+info)

Summation of dynamic transfer characteristics of left and right carotid sinus baroreflexes in rabbits. (4/215)

Although interactions among parallel negative-feedback baroreflex systems have been extensively investigated with respect to their steady-state responses, the dynamic interactions remain unknown. In anesthetized, vagotomized, and aortic-denervated rabbits, we perturbed isolated intracarotid sinus pressure (CSP) unilaterally or bilaterally around the physiological operating pressure according to binary white noise. The neural arc transfer function from CSP to cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and the peripheral arc transfer function from SNA to aortic pressure were estimated. The gain values of the neural arc at 0.01 Hz estimated by the left (L) and right (R) CSP perturbations were 0.94 +/- 0.31 and 0.96 +/- 0.25, respectively. The gain value increased to 2.17 +/- 0.97 during the bilateral identical CSP perturbation and was not significantly different from L + R. The phase values of the neural arc did not differ among protocols. No significant differences were observed in the peripheral arc transfer functions among protocols. We conclude that summation of the dynamic transfer characteristics of the bilateral carotid sinus baroreflexes around the physiological operating pressure approximates simple addition.  (+info)

Tentorial meningioma encroaching the transverse sinuses and sigmoid sinus junction area associated with dural arteriovenous fistulous malformation: a case report. (5/215)

A 62-year-old woman was evaluated for tinnitis and headache. Magnetic resonance imaging and angiography revealed the coexistence of a tentorial tumor encroaching the junction of the right transverse-sigmoid sinuses, and dural arteriovenous fistulous malformation (AVFM) of the right transverse sinus. AVFM was not manipulated at all during the surgery. The pathology was fibroblastic meningioma. Postoperatively, the dural AVFM completely disappeared on follow-up angiography. The fistulas were occluded also after surgery, even though there was no manipulation of the AVFM. It is suggested that the right dominant transverse-sigmoid sinuses are partially occluded by tentorial meningioma, developing the dural arteriovenous fistula of the right transverse sinus. An acquired origin of the dural AVFM was suggested in this case.  (+info)

External carotid endarterectomy with patch angioplasty using internal jugular vein--two case reports. (6/215)

A 59-year-old male and a 74-year-old male presented with occlusion of the right internal carotid artery and stenosis at the origin of the ipsilateral external carotid artery manifesting as cerebral ischemia. External carotid endarterectomy with patch angioplasty using the internal jugular vein was performed. Special care was taken to obliterate the stump of the carotid artery using a Weck clip in one case and plication with non-absorbable sutures in the other. Cerebral blood flow in the affected hemisphere was increased after surgery and the patients remained asymptomatic. External carotid endarterectomy has several special aspects such as patch angioplasty and elimination of the stump which must be understood.  (+info)

Grading internal carotid artery stenosis using B-mode ultrasound (in vivo study) (7/215)

OBJECTIVE: to determine the value of percentage area and diameter reduction in grading ICA stenosis using colour-coded B-mode transverse ultrasonic images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: measurement of the percentage area and diameter reduction of the common carotid, external carotid and internal carotid (at the point of maximum stenosis) were performed, using duplex scanning with colour-flow imaging preoperatively, in 33 patients (six patients were excluded). The duplex measurements were compared to the percentage area and diameter reduction from transverse section of the specimens. Peak systolic (PSV) and end-diastolic velocities (EDV) were measured at the proximal CCA and ICA within the jet of turbulence. A mm scale was placed next to the specimen block, which was captured by video. The area reduction was measured by playing the video and using the same duplex software. RESULTS: linear-regression analysis of the percentage area reduction of the in vivo against the specimen measurements showed a good linear relationship (r=0.9047). The in vivo duplex measurements had 95% confidence interval (CI) of 8% (95% CI of diameter reduction 5%). CONCLUSION: using the gold standard of fixed histological endarterectomy specimen, the results indicate that transverse image obtained with colour B-mode imaging is more appropriate in determining the degree of stenosis.  (+info)

Axillary-to-carotid artery bypass grafting for symptomatic severe common carotid artery occlusive disease. (8/215)

PURPOSE: Revascularization of the internal or external carotid arteries is occasionally indicated for symptomatic atherosclerotic common carotid artery occlusion or long-segment high-grade stenosis beginning at its origin. I report the outcome of axillary artery-based bypass grafts to the distal common, internal, or external carotid arteries. METHODS: Between 1981 and 1997, 29 axillary-to-carotid bypass grafting procedures were performed on 28 patients, 15 men and 13 women, with a mean age of 68 years. Indications were transient ischemia in nine patients, amaurosis fugax in four patients, completed stroke in six patients, and nonlateralizing global ischemia in nine patients. Twenty-three common carotid arteries were totally occluded, and six had long-segment stenosis of 90% or greater beginning at the origin. Saphenous vein grafts were used in 25 procedures, and synthetic grafts were used in four. Grafts were placed to 13 internal, eight distal common, and eight external carotid arteries. RESULTS: There were no perioperative deaths; one stroke occurred (3.4%). No lymphatic or peripheral nerve complications occurred. In a 1- to 11-year follow-up period (mean, 4.5 years), there were no graft occlusions, one restenosis of 50% or greater, and two restenoses of 70% or greater. The 1-year stenosis-free rate for 50% or greater stenosis was 93%, and the 5- and 10-year rates were 87%. No late ipsilateral strokes occurred. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 64% and 28%, respectively. Coronary artery disease was the major cause of late mortality. CONCLUSION: Axillary-to-carotid bypass grafting for severe symptomatic common carotid occlusive disease is safe, well tolerated, durable, and effective in stroke prevention. There is a high late mortality rate because of coronary artery disease in patients with severe proximal common carotid occlusive disease.  (+info)

We hypothesize that stenting of the internal carotid artery can immediately impede blood flow to the external carotid artery by either plaque shift or stent coverage of the ostium, and thereby cause i
The external carotid arteries supply oxygenated blood to the head region. There is one external carotid artery on the right side of the neck and one on the left side of the neck. Each begins at the common carotid artery and moves up the neck until it divides into the
The external carotid arteries supply oxygenated blood to the head region. There is one external carotid artery on the right side of the neck and one on the left side of the neck.
External carotid artery aka Arteria carotis externa in the latin terminology and part of arteries and veins of the nasal cavity. Learn more now!
The carotid stenosis was one of the higher risk of the ischemia stroke in China.In the mean time ,more and more people accept revascularization because of carotid stenosis.NASCAT indicated that CEA is the golden standard of the therapy of the carotid stenosis.But in china , case the opposite,only little patient receive CEA,on the other hand , most patients received angioplasty.. Expected no less than 2100 cases within 2 years for the whole study. We choose 39 hospitals whose experienced in CAS or/and CEA spread all over the country as multiple centers for this clinic registration study. All cases inclusion must be continuously registration.. The subject choice:All registered patients must be signed informed consent to register for non intrusive research this study ,the researchers during the study period should be continuous registration in patients undergoing surgical treatment of carotid stenosis, to ensure that the selected participants reflect the target patient population.. Medical Center ...
Images obtained from a CTA will demonstrate absent blood flow beyond the extracranial internal carotid and vertebral arteries; the external carotid arteries and its branches should remain patent. Likewise, brain scintigraphy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Technetium 99m-labeled hexamethylpropyleneaminoxime (99mTc-HMPAO) or 99mTc-labeled ethylene L-cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) are two perfusion agents that made be used. As their names imply, these perfusion agents demonstrate uptake in perfused tissues. In the presence of cerebral demise, the dynamic and static images will demonstrate the absence of radiotracer above the skull base. The bolus of radiotracer will fail to perfuse the intracranial internal carotid and cerebral arteries. Relatively increased flow through the maxillary branch of the external carotid artery will cause relatively increased radiotracer accumulation in the nasal region, resulting in the "hot nose" sign, which is best seen on the anterior static images. ...
The posterior auricular artery is a branch of the external carotid artery and supplies scalp posterior to the auricle and the auricle itself. Summary origin: branch of the external carotid artery above digastric and stylohyoid opposite the styl...
|p|The way that the human body works is extraordinary. This Screen Art captures the fascination of the human anatomy and displays it an artistic way. Colors are customizable to fit your liking.|/p| |p|Emulsion colors can be specified: orange, blue, purpl
The neurons of the sympathetic nervous system have distinct properties that allow them to regulate a particular end organ. Various models have been proposed to explain how such precise wiring of neurons to their synaptic targets might come about during development. The neurons might grow in a relatively random manner and then adopt appropriate characteristics after interacting with their target tissue, or there might be molecular markers that guide particular neurons to the right target. Makita et al. provide new evidence in favor of the latter scheme for a set of neurons of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG) that follow along the external carotid artery to reach their salivary gland targets. The authors examined mRNA from external carotid artery in microarray analysis to search for expression of transcripts that might encode guidance molecules. They found specific expression of mRNA encoding endothelin-converting enzyme (which converts precursors of endothelin into the active form). ...
Synonyms for Carotid artery, external in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Carotid artery, external. 1 synonym for external carotid artery: external carotid. What are synonyms for Carotid artery, external?
Changes in blood flow through the internal carotid, vertebral and external carotid arteries were measured by electromagnetic flowmeters during and after acute hypertension induced by closing a clamp around the thoracic aorta in anesthetized monkeys.. The internal carotid and vertebral arterial system showed both rapid and delayed autoregulatory responses to rapid increases in blood pressure; the rapid (primary) responses occurred within seconds, the progressive (delayed) within 3 to 4 minutes. In contrast, the flow response within the external carotid system appeared to be passive. Cervical sympathetic innervation and myogenic reflexes (Bayliss reflex) both appear to play a part in the rapidly occurring (primary) regulation of cerebral blood flow. The mechanism responsible for delayed and progressive (secondary) autoregulation in the cerebral vasculature appeared to be metabolic, since it was predominantly influenced by changes in blood Pco2. Changes in intracranial pressure did not seem to be ...
This program is being offered in Manitoba, Alberta and British Columbia through their provincial electrical contractors associations. All associations indicate the program has been very well received by their memberships. We provided a pilot version to select ECAS members across the province and they also indicated it was very comprehensive and very good value for the cost. ECAS will be the exclusive vendor for the electrical industry and contractors throughout the province. In addition, we negotiated an arrangement for ECAS to receive a 30% reimbursement for all courses taken. Based on the industry support and courses purchased over the next year, the Board will consider offering ECAS member only rebates based on purchase volumes. ...
Methods: 63 Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: control, sterile and septic. The right external carotid artery (ECA) was catheterized after anesthesia and 300µl blood was aspired. The blood was mixed with 30µl thrombin (2.5 IU/ml) in a catheter until coagulated. A sterile fibrin-clot of 5 mm was selected for embolization and injected via the ECA catheter. The common carotid artery was clamped during injection thereby directing the embolus via the internal carotid artery to the brain. The clot-diameter ensures occlusion at the origin of the middle cerebral artery. Occlusion was verified by angiography. In the septic group Staphylococcus aureus was added to the clot-mixture resulting in 600 CFU/5 mm fibrin clot. The control-group received no embolus. The body temperature was kept at 37.0 ±0.5°C during anesthesia. Animals were killed after 48 hours. Within each group animals were randomly assigned into two sub-groups, one formalin-perfused and one snap-frozen. ...
Methods and apparatus are provided for removing emboli during an angioplasty, stenting or surgical procedure comprising a catheter having an occlusion element, an aspiration lumen, and a blood outlet port in communication with the lumen, a guide wire having a balloon, a venous return catheter with a blood inlet port, and tubing that couples the blood outlet port to the blood inlet port. Apparatus is also provided for occluding the external carotid artery to prevent reversal of flow into the internal carotid artery. The pressure differential between the artery and the vein provides reverse flow through the artery, thereby flushing emboli. A blood filter may optionally be included in-line with the tubing to filter emboli from blood reperfused into the patient.
Atherosclerotic plaque from a carotid endarterectomy specimen. This shows the bifurcation of the common into the internal and external carotid arteries. Ed Uthman, flickr
Live case demonstrations to individuals and to training groups are the heart of teaching surgical and interventional techniques. Transmission of these demonstrations to a large audience with interactive discussion between the operators and the audience opens the procedural details to criticism, allows better training, advances the practice and science of medicine, accelerates the diffusion of new technologies, and promotes the adoption of innovations. Such courses with live case transmission also inform the health professionals on newly available interventions.. Transmission also enables immediate feedback from large groups of experienced physicians and may thus even improve the quality of patient care. Indeed, in the current study, 4 planned procedures were not performed after further discussions with the panel. There were cases where discussions with the panel led to changes of the intended plan. One example is the diagnosis of a carotid stenosis in the external carotid artery, and another ...
A patient suffering from an AV fistula fed by the external carotid artery, who has failed occlusion via embolization, is being operated on by Dr. Czabanka to definitively treat the fistula. With the help of CT navigation and ICG angiography, Dr. Czabanka is able to microscopically devascularize the problematic malformation ...
Duplex Doppler Ultrasound Criteris for Stenosis in External Carotid Artery, 6th meeting of the European Society of Neurosonology and Cerebral Hemodynamics, Liem, LM, Raboi, CA, Tan, TY, Schminke, U, Greenberg, J, Reynols, P,Morris, P,McKinney W, Tegeler, C, ...
Instant anatomy is a specialised web site for you to learn all about human anatomy of the body with diagrams, podcasts and revision questions
As a member of ECAS you are automatically entitled to membership with CECA. You can access the members only section on their website for publications, conference information or training opportunities. To register call 1.800.387.3226 x 315 and they will set you up with a login and password. If you have any trouble getting set up please call us. We are working with them to ensure this is an easy process. Also, as a registered member you should be receiving regular updates and newsletters from CECA via email. ...
First, I had my ultrasound. It was about 45 minutes total, with a complete pelvic ultrasound in grayscale and color Doppler transvaginal of the uterus. Now, Ive been on Lovenox 40 mgs 1 x day for 1 and 1/2 cycles already, so when I saw the sonographer measuring the arterial waveforms I mentioned how I almost wished I hadnt started the Lovenox yet. I would have liked to see how much the flow was diminished BEFORE Lovenox. She said that the blood flow was beautiful, and that "at least you know 40 mgs of Lovenox works!" After the sonographer was done, another Dr (I forget her name) came and did her own measurements. At first, I thought she was just repeating the same exam as the sonographer, and when she was searching around for a vessel to get a waveform on, I almost felt bad for her. (In my sonography class, we just had a lab competency final where we had to measure the blood flow in the carotid artery branches- the internal and external carotids. It is extremely difficult to get the transducer ...
What is the longest you guys would recommend usin an ECA stack. Im curious becuae Ive seen studies where subject used an ECA for up to 6 months.
Looking for online definition of external carotid (nerve) plexus in the Medical Dictionary? external carotid (nerve) plexus explanation free. What is external carotid (nerve) plexus? Meaning of external carotid (nerve) plexus medical term. What does external carotid (nerve) plexus mean?
The left common carotid artery is the artery that provides oxygen-rich blood to the left side of the neck and the head. Within the neck, the left common carotid artery extends out into the left external carotid artery and the left internal carotid artery.. ...
The artery of the pterygoid canal (Vidian artery) is an artery in the pterygoid canal, in the head. It usually arises from the external carotid artery, but can arise from either the internal or external carotid artery or serve as an anastomosis between the two. The eponym, Vidian artery, is derived from the Italian surgeon and anatomist Vidus Vidius. In this case; the artery passes backward along the pterygoid canal with the corresponding nerve. It is distributed to the upper part of the pharynx and to the auditory tube, sending into the tympanic cavity a small branch which anastomoses with the other tympanic arteries. It can end in the oropharynx. In this case; the artery passes backward along the pterygoid canal with the corresponding nerve[clarification needed]. It The artery is a small, inconstant branch which passes into the pterygoid canal and anastomoses with a pterygopalatine branch of the maxillary artery. Nerve of pterygoid canal This article incorporates text in the public domain from ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Branches of the petrous and cavernous segments of the internal carotid artery. AU - Tubbs, R. Shane. AU - Hansasuta, Ake. AU - Loukas, Marios. AU - Louis, Robert G.. AU - Mohajel Shoja, Mohammadali. AU - Salter, E. George. AU - Oakes, W. Jerry. PY - 2007/9/13. Y1 - 2007/9/13. N2 - Microsurgical approaches to the skull base require a thorough knowledge of the microvasculature of this region. Interestingly, most standard texts of anatomy do not mention the branches of the internal carotid artery as it travels through the temporal bone and cavernous sinus. Although small and with often conflicting descriptions, these arterial branches may be of significance when contributing to the vascular supply of such pathological entities as meningiomas and vascular malformations. Furthermore, multiple anastomoses exist between these branches and branches of the external carotid artery, thus providing a potentially important collateral circulation between these two systems and thus retrograde ...
This lateral view from an internal carotid artery angiogram demonstrates the origin of the ascending pharyngeal artery from the cervical internal carotid artery, which is an unusual but normal variant of angiographic anatomy. Normally, the ascending pharyngeal artery arising from the proximal external carotid artery. - Stock Image C007/5818
Arising from the external carotid artery in the jaw, the maxillary artery supplies blood to deep structures of the face and mouth.
Position and source of blood supply to the human carotid body displays population variations. These data are important during surgical procedures and diagnostic imaging in the neck but are only scarcely reported and altogether missing for the Kenyan population. The aim of this study was to describe the position and blood supply of the carotid body in a Kenyan populati on. A descriptive cross-sectional study at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, was designed. 136 common carotid arteries and their bifurcations were exposed by gross dissection. The carotid body was identified as a small oval structure embedded in the blood vessel adventitia. Position and source of blood supply were photographed. Data are presented by tables and macrographs. 138 carotid bodies were identified. Commonest position was carotid bifurcation (75.4%) followed by external carotid artery (10.2%), internal carotid artery (7.2%) and ascending pharyngeal artery (7.2%). Sources of arterial blood supply ...
Aortic archesâ€"On both sides, the common carotid artery is derived by an elongation of that segment of the horn of the aortic sac between the origins of the third and fourth aortic arches. The proximal segment of the internal carotid artery is formed by the third aortic arch, its distal segment by the cranial extension of the paired dorsal aorta rostral to the carotid duct. The external carotid artery, a new vessel, joins the internal carotid artery at its point of origin. On the left the distal part of the definitive aortic arch is formed by the fourth aortic arch and the segment of the paired dorsal aorta between the carotid duct and the seventh dorsal intersegmental artery; on the right side these segments form the proximal part (base) of the right subclavian artery. The proximal part of the sixth arch on each side becomes the stem of the right or left pulmonary artery. Its distal part on the right loses its connection with the dorsal aorta and disappears. The connection with the dorsal ...
Why is the Dim Mak effective? The carotid sinus is a special sensory organ regulating the pressure of blood flow to the brain. The carotid sinus is located over internal and external carotid arteries. When blood pressure is too high, the carotid sinus signals the vasomotor center of the brain to decrease the blood pressure by dilating peripheral blood vessels and slowing down heart rate. Thats why it can result in a loss of consciousness along with a build up of plaques in the carotid arteries. By striking this area, small tears can result in the carotid arteries and blood clots. Death can occur by striking this area. Thats why doctors look for a pulse because the carotid artery is a major indicator of life. A very helpful resource in understanding more on Dim Mak is Dr. Michael Kellys (a sports medical doctor) book "Death Touch: The Science of Dim Mak (1). In this book, he explains that stimulating a nerve through a Dim Mak point connected to an internal organ can cause damage ...
E. Common, internal, external. B. Internal followed by common and then external. "Placing the clamps on the internal carotid first, followed by the common and then the external carotid artery often ensures that any accumulated blood clot will be more likely to pass through the external rather than the internal carotid circulation." Source ...
The blood supply of the face is through branches of the facial artery (Figure 1-2). After arising from the external carotid artery in the neck, the facial artery passes deep to the submandibular gland and crosses the mandible in front of the attachment of the masseter muscle. It takes a tortuous course across the face and travels up to the medial angle of the eye, where it anastomoses with branches of the ophthalmic artery. It gives labial branches to the lips, of which the superior labial artery enters ...
Brain haemorrhage. Coloured axial computed tomography (CT) scan through the brain of a 28-year-old woman in a case of a meningeal haemorrhage. The scan shows an aneurysm at the level of the anterior communicating artery. An aneurysm occurs when an artery wall weakens and swells. If it bursts (as here), an aneurysm can cause severe internal haemorrhage. Meningeal haemorrhage is bleeding caused by damage to the middle meningeal artery, one of the two terminal branches of the external carotid artery. - Stock Image C037/0729
Migraine was thought to be a vascular disorder since decades with headache attributed solely to dilation and inflammation of extra- cranial arteries within the pain- producing intracranial meningeal structures. The role of external carotid artery vasculature in migraine headache has been explained in the past decade. But the recent evidences suggest the involvement of both, vascular and neuronal components in the pathogenesis of migraine attack ...
So I received this message in a PM. I figured that I would post my answer here so that if I get anything wrong the more qualified of you to answer can correct me minimizing any damage I have done. Also it is a good question to address in the open. So onto my answer The key to a good blood flow choke is placement. Now most of us know what we are trying to do is block the blood flow of the External Carotid Artery.
So I received this message in a PM. I figured that I would post my answer here so that if I get anything wrong the more qualified of you to answer can correct me minimizing any damage I have done. Also it is a good question to address in the open. So onto my answer The key to a good blood flow choke is placement. Now most of us know what we are trying to do is block the blood flow of the External Carotid Artery.
Posted on April 10, 2015. Nose bleeds (also known as epistaxis) can occur at any age, but most commonly in young children aged 2-10 years and older adults from 50 years onwards. The nose contains many blood vessels originating from both the internal and external carotid arteries. Many of these vessels end at a specific area located on the lower part of the nasal septum .... ...
thyroid gland is situated in the neck, with each lobe on each side of the trachea. A lobe measures 2 inches in length, connected by a stub of tissue known as the isthmus. The thyroid is the biggest of all the endocrine glands, specifically found beneath the larynx. This organs high denmand for vascular support is satisfied by the two branches of the external carotid arteries, and the ...
As an ECAS member you are entitled to membership with the Canadian Electrical Contractors Association. Click here (CECA) to go to their website. ...
Many authors have studied variation in the maxillary artery but there have been inconsistencies between reported observations. The present research aimed to examine the courses and branching patterns
The maxillary artery is an extremely large artery that reaches most of the important areas of the face including the mouth, teeth, nose, muscles, and more. The branches of this artery are located within three divisions where there are five branches to each division.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The use of covered stents for the endovascular treatment of extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis. T2 - A prospective study with a 5-year follow-up. AU - Szólics, Alex. AU - Sztriha, László K.. AU - Szikra, Péter. AU - Sźlics, Mikĺs. AU - Palḱ, András. AU - Vörös, Erika. PY - 2010/7/1. Y1 - 2010/7/1. N2 - Objectives: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of the use of covered stents for the treatment of extracranial carotid artery stenosis caused by highly embologenic plaques, and to study the long-term outcome of patients receiving such covered stents. Methods: Between 2002 and 2007, 46 patients (63% symptomatic, 78.3% male, 67± 8.6 years old) with internal carotid artery stenosis caused by embologenic plaques or restenosis were treated with self-expanding covered stents (Symbiot, Boston Scientific). Pre-dilatation or protecting devices were not used. Post-dilatation was applied in every patient. Each patient was followed long-term. The outcome measures were ...
While the use of CTA to assess EC-IC bypass postoperatively has been described [3], we demonstrate how CTA may be used for the preoperative assessment of the STA for potential use in EC-IC bypass. Although use of preoperative CTA for anatomic evaluation of the external carotid anatomy has been described for head and neck surgery [4, 5], to our knowledge, no report has yet been made demonstrating the utility of CTA for preoperative planning for EC-IC bypass. EC-IC bypass has remained one area where invasive catheter angiography has been thought necessary, specifically for evaluation of the STA vessel caliber as a bypass conduit. The patient described in this case illustration did not go on to surgery, therefore, no direct intraoperative comparison could be made between the findings at CTA and at DSA. To prove the utility of CTA for preoperative evaluation of the STA, intraoperative comparison of vessel caliber with DSA findings would be needed. If findings of vessel caliber at operation reliably ...
The internal carotid artery is a major paired artery, one on each side of the head and neck, in human anatomy. They arise from the common carotid arteries where these bifurcate into the internal and external carotid arteries at cervical vertebral level 3 or 4; the internal carotid artery supplies the brain, while the external carotid nourishes other portions of the head, such as face, scalp, skull, and meninges. Terminologia Anatomica in 1998 subdivided the artery into four parts: "cervical", "petrous", "cavernous", and "cerebral". However, in clinical settings, the classification system of the internal carotid artery usually follows the 1996 recommendations by Bouthillier, describing seven anatomical segments of the internal carotid artery, each with a corresponding alphanumeric identifier-C1 cervical, C2 petrous, C3 lacerum, C4 cavernous, C5 clinoid, C6 ophthalmic, and C7 communicating. The Bouthillier nomenclature remains in widespread use by neurosurgeons, neuroradiologists and neurologists. ...
Carotid artery disease is a disease in which a waxy substance called plaque builds up inside the arteries. You have two carotid arteries, one on each side of the neck which divide into the internal and external carotid arteries. The internal arteries supply blood to the brain and the external arteries supply blood to the face, scalp, and neck... Carotid artery disease is serious because it can cause a stroke if the plaque should build up to the point it cuts off blood supply to the brain, or the plaque ruptures and a blood clot forms in the artery cutting off blood supply to the brain.. Carotid artery disease causes over half the strokes that occur in the United States. Carotid artery disease may not have any symptoms until the arteries are severely narrowed or blocked. For some people, a stroke is the first sign of the disease.. ...
One disclosed embodiment comprises a method for treating lesions in the carotid artery of a mammalian body. The method comprises transcervical access and blocking of blood flow through the common carotid artery (with or without blocking of blood flow through the external carotid artery), shunting blood from the internal carotid artery and treating the lesion in the carotid artery.
7Bak rkoy Research and Training Hospital, Psychiatry Clinic, Istanbul, Turkey DOI : 10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.17206-16.2 AIM: Cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may lead to a devastating neurological outcome by inducing cerebral ischemia. However the role of external carotid artery (ECA) vasospasm has been rarely reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of ECA vasospasm on cerebral ischemia related neurodegeneration in the cerebral cortex after SAH.. MATERIAL and METHODS: This study was performed on 23 rabbits, divided into three groups: control (n=5), sham (n=5), and SAH (n=13). Experimental SAH was performed by injecting 0.75 mL auricular arterial homologous blood into the cisterna magna. After three weeks, the animals were decapitated and the common carotid arteries with their external and internal branches and the brains were examined histopathologically. Vasospasm indexes (VSI) of ECAs and internal carotid arteries (ICAs) and degenerated ...
Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has not been shown to be as safe as carotid endarterectomy for treatment of symptomatic extracranial carotid artery stenosis in the immediate postoperative period. However, beyond the postoperative period, data continues to support a role for CAS in selected patients. A large systematic review of 206 individual studies (54 713 total patients) undergoing CAS found the cumulative 30-day risk of stroke or death to be 7.6% in symptomatic and 3.3% in asymptomatic patients.1 Factors associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes in both groups were age 75 years (relative risk [RR] 1.88), hypertension (RR 1.86), and coronary artery disease (RR 1.41). Use of embolic protection devices significantly reduced the risk of stroke or death (RR 0.57). Although reports of adverse events vary widely in the literature, there has been a trend toward overall reduction in risk over the past several years, suggesting that use of embolic protection devices, careful patient selection, and
The ascending palatine artery, which is one of the cervical branches of the facial artery, supplies the muscle along with a somewhat variable branch of pharyngeal arteries from the external carotid artery. It also receives blood from the greater palatine artery, a terminal branch of the descending palatine artery from the third part of the maxillary artery ...
5. Identify the retromandibular vein and its divisions and review the branches of the external carotid artery to the face region ...
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Non-randomized prospective study to evaluate the need for shunt placement during carotid endarterectomy by measuring the stump pressures in internal carotid, external carotid and common carotid after clamping each artery, Hillingdon Hospital, Middlesex, ...
The facial vein is a branch of the external carotid vein. It returns deoxygenated blood from the pharynx (throat), palate, chin, lips, and nose back to the heart.. ...
posterior del calcaneo Sacroileitis bilateral asimétrica, esclerosis subcondral, del espacio articular, contorno irregular por erosiones, reabsorción ósea Osificaciones paravertebrales asimétricas de la región dorso- lumbar Manos y muñecas Osteoporosis, del espacio articular, proliferación ósea en IFP, IFD, MCF, difuso de partes blandas Artritis lúpica IMAGENES ...
Embolization of the Internal Maxillary Artery for Severe Epistaxis-Including an Experience of the Approach from the Superficial Temporal Artery- (1993 ...
I have just begun my ECA stack and I am going to be doing 2 weeks - 2 weeks off and I was told that I should take benadryl for the first week in
The complication rates of carotid artery stenting (CAS) vary from 3.0% to 4.4%, and most commonly include ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, or groin complications. We present the rare complication of a patient who underwent CAS for a symptomatic 90% left internal carotid artery stenosis and developed an expanding cervical hematoma after the procedure with imminent respiratory compromise. After intubation, an arteriogram revealed perforation of the external carotid artery trunk, proximal to the origin of the internal maxillary artery. The artery was subsequently embolized and the hematoma resolved without further intervention. We present a potential catastrophic complication and suggest potential causes and treatment options available.. ...
|b||i|Background:|/i||/b| To investigate the correlation between tortuosity of extracranial internal carotid artery (EICA) and intraprocedural complications in patients undergo
1.2.1 Methods of modeling documents using the light of improved Koizumis method [1] Preparation of MCAO animal model. The external carotid artery ligation in rats, since the common carotid artery bifurcation to the carotid artery into plug-. line (18.5 ? 0.5) mm, block the middle cerebral artery blood flow, resulting in focal cerebral ischemia. After the tail of the plug wire placed through the skin, ischemia and 2 h after the bolt of light pulling lines caused by blood reperfusion. Survival in rats observed after 6,12,24 h reperfusion in rats changes in behavior. Zea Longa behavioral ratings refer to the five-point scale score criteria: ? 0 points: normal, no symptoms of nerve injury; ? 1 pm: contralateral forepaw flexion or full flexion part; ? 2 points: the hemiplegic side turning in circles; ? 3 points: the hemiplegic side of dumping; ? 4 points: You can not spontaneously walk, loss of consciousness. Sham-operated group, in addition to non-insertion lines, the remaining steps ibid. 1.2.2 ...
Epistaxis is a common disorder affecting equally both genders. Posterior origin of epistaxis in some instances requires endovascular treatment. Anastomoses between external carotid artery and internal carotid or ophthalmic arteries heighten the risk
Kutsche and Van Mierop4 described CORSA in 1984. They found this anomaly in 4 of 21 infants (19%) studied for aortic arch interruption. The origin of the vessel was seen along with the origins of the internal and external carotid arteries as a trifurcation, at the level of the thyroid gland. It then descended down the neck to enter the right arm. The right recurrent laryngeal nerve was seen to course around the origin of the right subclavian artery, much higher than normal. The pathogenesis of CORSA can be explained by impairment of fourth aortic arch development, before the involution of the right ductus caroticus (segment of the dorsal aorta between the third and fourth arches). The right ductus caroticus, which normally involutes at the 14-mm crown-rump length, is retained and forms the initial segment of the right subclavian artery at its origin from the common carotid bifurcation. The seventh intersegmental artery and the dorsal aorta below the level of the third arch form the rest of the ...
A 4-year-old boy was referred to our hospital for further treatment of pulmonary atresia (Fallot type), multiple systemic to pulmonary collateral arteries, and hypoplastic central pulmonary arteries. Echocardiography revealed cervical origin of the right subclavian artery, which originated close to the bifurcation of the internal and external carotid arteries (Figure 1, Movie I, and Movie II). The anomaly of the subclavian artery was confirmed with cardiac catheterization (Figure 2A, Movie III). In addition, the boy had dysmorphic features of conotruncal anomaly facies syndrome, and monosomy 22q11 was confirmed by cytogenetic testing. To improve antegrade perfusion of the hypoplastic central pulmonary arteries, the patient underwent creation of a central aortopulmonary shunt followed by interventional coil occlusion of a large collateral artery from the descending aorta. The postoperative course was complicated by formation of a seroma of the polytetrafluoroethylene shunt, diagnosed by computed ...
232 MORPHOLOGY AND EVOLUTION (4) Articular arteries to the temporo-inaxillary joint. (5) Buccal artery (B.A.), which accompanies the long buccal nerve into the face. (6) Posterior superior dental artery (P.S.D.) to the gums round the molar teeth. (7) Small vessels to the suctorial pad of fat (S.P.F.). (8; Two deep temporal arteries (D.T.A.), which divide and anastomose within the temporal muscle. C. In the Pterygo-maxillary region: (1) Infra-orbital artery, which passes to the face. It supplies the incisor and canine teeth and the skin and muscles of the upper lip. (2) Descending palatine artery to the soft palate, gums and mucous membrane of the mouth. (3; Ptenjgo-palatine and spheno-palatine arteries to the pharynx, nose, Eustachian tube, sphenoidal sinus and ethraoidal air cells. The occipital artery arises from the beginning of the external carotid artery and runs upwards and backwards under the cleido-mastoid and splenius capitis to end among the muscles of the neck. It gives off the ...
CT of the neck is helpful for diagnosis and can identify any local lymph node enlargement or bony erosions. Additionally, MR can help determine the relationship of the tumor with respect to the carotid vessels and other neck structures and if there are multiple paragangliomas present. A classic finding of the carotid body tumor is splaying of the internal and external carotid arteries. On both enhanced CT and MR, the carotid body tumors and other paragangliomas are intensely enhancing due to their extensive vascularity. Sometimes small flow voids can be seen on nonenhanced MR, causing a "speckled" or "salt and pepper" appearance of the tumor. On dynamic enhanced CT or MR, there will be a rapid enhancement, a high peak, and rapid washout due to early arteriovenous shunting of the tumor. Conventional catheter angiography reveals similar findings. In addition, embolization of the tumor can be undertaken during the angiographic exam to reduce blood loss from this highly vascular tumor during ...
Indications Large septal perforations (≥ 2 cm) Septal perforation in patients with poor quality or lack of intranasal tissues such as those with previous radiation therapy in the concerned area, extensive ablative surgeries, or chronic cocaine abuse 18.3 Anatomy 18.3.1 Facial Artery Pedicle The facial artery follows a cervical course after exiting the external carotid artery. It…
Second branchial cleft remnants account for the majority of branchial cleft abnormalities. Embryologically, the second arch overgrows the second, third, and fourth branchial clefts. This process results in expansion of the second branchial cleft into an elongated common cavity, called the cervical sinus of His, which is obliterated shortly after its formation. Various degrees of incomplete closure of the sinus lead to anomalies of the second branchial cleft. Anomalies can occur anywhere along an embryologically defined tract that extends from the external opening, the anterior border of the junction of the middle and lower thirds of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, passes between the internal and external carotid arteries superficial to cranial nerves IX and XII, and enters the oropharyngeal tonsillar fossa (1, 2). The parapharyngeal space is a very rare location for a branchial cleft cyst. This rare location superior to the tonsillar fossa can best be explained by the fact that a second ...
The nares serve as the functional beginning of the airway, namely warming and humidification of air.4 The mucosa of the nasal passage is extremely vascular and fragile. It is susceptible to bleeding with minimal manipulation during instrumentation to establish an airway. The nasal blood supply originates from branches of the internal and external carotid arteries. It is wise to consider the use of a vasoconstricting agent, when appropriate, to help avoid epistaxis, which may obscure further attempts at securing the airway. Although patients tolerate nasal intubation better than oral intubation for a longer time, it is more important in an emergency to definitively secure the airway using a straightforward oral intubation. Choose the more patent side of the nasal cavity for instrumentation in patients with nasal septal deviation.4 ...
AHMADI, A. Sheikh et al. Effect of extruded cotton and canola seed on unsaturated fatty acid composition in the plasma, erythrocytes and livers of lambs. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2010, vol.40, n.4, pp.311-318. ISSN 2221-4062.. An experiment was conducted to study the effects of extruded cotton seed (ECOS) and canola seed (ECAS) in the diet of male Mehraban lambs on the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in their plasma, erythrocytes and livers. The treatments were: (1) control (C); (2) diet C+6% ECAS, (3) diet C+6% ECOS, (4) diet C+12% ECAS, (5) diet C+12% ECOS, (6) diet C+6% ECAS+6% ECOS, (7) diet C+12% ECAS +6% ECOS, (8) diet C+6% ECAS +12% ECOS, (9) diet C+12% ECAS+12% ECOS, (10) diet C+18% ECAS+18% ECOS. A complete randomized experimental design was applied. Sixty lambs (5 - 6 months of age) were randomly allocated to the 10 dietary treatments in order to have six lambs (replicates) per diet. The lambs were housed in individual pens. The average weight of lambs at the onset of ...
In this study, we present our experiences with echocontrast-enhanced ECCD of the carotid artery in a highly selected group of patients with difficult precontrast insonation conditions and suspected high-grade stenosis or occlusion. In most patients investigated in our neurosonological laboratory during the time period of the study, a conclusive extracranial diagnosis could be made without the use of echocontrast.. Echo enhancement enabled both the visualization of color-coded blood flow in more vessel segments and the recording of Doppler spectra in more vessel segments of the diseased artery, especially in the distal parts. Identification of the area of maximal narrowing was facilitated both for spectral and color Doppler recording. The absence of both color-coded blood flow and Doppler spectrum increased the investigators diagnostic confidence that ICA occlusion existed. Otis et al16 described a different condition that was not observed in our study: using contrast, they detected a still ...
As the external carotid passes superiorly, it gives off other branches: maxillary artery, superficial temporal artery, and posterior auricular artery (Figure 25.4). Links and References: ...
The maxillary artery is a blood vessel that helps to supply various facial structures with blood and oxygen. Any problems with...
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Bifurcation diagram varying ε. The bifurcation diagram of varying ε, showing the attracting regions. With respect to the coordinates of small equilibrium poi
A carotid artery duplex scan is a type of vascular ultrasound study done to assess the blood flow of the arteries that supply blood from the heart through the neck to the brain. There are six carotid arteries--the right and left common carotid arteries, which divide and form the right and left internal carotid arteries and the right and left external carotid arteries. One pair (external and internal) is located on each side of the neck.. A carotid artery duplex scan is a noninvasive (the skin is not pierced) procedure. The term "duplex" refers to the fact that two modes of ultrasound are used--Doppler and B-mode. The B-mode transducer (like a microphone) obtains an image of the carotid artery being studied. The Doppler probe within the transducer evaluates the velocity and direction of blood flow in the vessel.. A transducer sends out ultrasonic sound waves at a frequency too high to be heard. When the transducer is placed on the carotid arteries at certain locations and angles, the ultrasonic ...
A carotid artery duplex scan is a type of vascular ultrasound study done to assess the blood flow of the arteries that supply blood from the heart through the neck to the brain. There are six carotid arteries--the right and left common carotid arteries, which divide and form the right and left internal carotid arteries and the right and left external carotid arteries. One pair (external and internal) is located on each side of the neck.. A carotid artery duplex scan is a noninvasive (the skin is not pierced) procedure. The term "duplex" refers to the fact that two modes of ultrasound are used--Doppler and B-mode. The B-mode transducer (like a microphone) obtains an image of the carotid artery being studied. The Doppler probe within the transducer evaluates the velocity and direction of blood flow in the vessel.. A transducer sends out ultrasonic sound waves at a frequency too high to be heard. When the transducer is placed on the carotid arteries at certain locations and angles, the ultrasonic ...
We studied the extra cranial portion of the internal carotid artery and structures associated with it, which are vulnerable to iatrogenic injury during surgical approach to the neck region in 18 individuals. Distances from the origin of the artery to hypoglossal nerve and posterior belly of digastric muscle were measured. The mastoid process and the hyoid bone were also used as landmarks in locating the nerve and respective distances measured. Hypoglossal nerve and posterior belly of digastric muscle crossed the ICA at variable positions with a mean distance of 10.1mm and 17.9mm respectively from the common carotid bifurcation. From the mastoid process, the internal carotid artery ascends underneath the posterior belly of the digastric muscle a third the distance to the hyoid bone. The external carotid artery is located lateral to the internal carotid artery in 63.8% of the cases, posterior in 16.7% and anterior in 19.4%. The posterior belly of digastric muscle and its attachments are key ...
A complete occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is an important cause of cerebrovascular disease. A never-symptomatic ICA occlusion has a relatively benign course, whereas symptomatic occlusion increases future risk of strokes. Ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and contrast angiography are useful diagnostic tests, and functional imaging of the brain (eg, with positron emission tomography) helps to understand haemodynamic factors involved in the pathophysiology of brain ischaemia. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in the role of extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery for the treatment of completely occluded ICA. With advances in the measurement of cerebral haemodynamics, it may be possible to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from the bypass surgery ...
With just a light stroke across the temporal artery area of the forehead, an accurate reproducible temperature is measured in about 3 seconds - eliminating any discomfort caused by a thermometer inserted into the ear, mouth, or rectum. Designed specifically to be completely non-invasive, the TemporalScanner is a most significant advance, applying Exergens well-proven Arterial Heat Balance (AHB) technology to the most convenient site possible.. Branching from the external carotid, the superficial temporal artery courses about 1 mm below the skin of the lateral forehead, providing good heat conduction to the skin surface. The TA is readily accessible, and provides no risk of injury from being touched. Since it is not an anastomosing vessel, perfusion remains high and stable, ensuring the reliability of conditions for the patented AHB method to compute accurate temperatures. High resolution infrared images confirm the reliability of the heat signature of the TA area for all ages.. ...
A, Measurement of internal carotid artery (ICA) calcification by semiquantitative methods. A region of interest is drawn around the calcified artery in a wide w
Details of the image Occluded distal left M1 internal carotid artery with cerebral ischaemia Modality: CT (RAPID Color MTT [s])
This is an article about the segments, branches and clinical aspects of the internal carotid arteries. Learn all about these important blood vessels here!
KAZEM FATHIE, M.D., F.A.C.S., F.I.C.S., Ph.D. THE patient whose case I shall describe had a large aneurysmal tumor of the internal carotid artery. It had
Total Lubmarine has received a No Objection Letter from MAN Diesel & Turbo for the use of its cylinder lube oil, Talusia Optima 100 BN, in the engine manufacturers two-stroke engine designs. The move follows the completion of a successful 8,700 hour sea-trial and means that Talusia Optima is now approved by the three major 2-stroke engine manufacturers Winterthur Gas & Diesel (WinGD), Japan Engine Corporation (JEC) and MAN Diesel & Turbo.. Talusia Optima has been designed specifically to facilitate fuel switching when transiting both in and out of Emission Control Areas (ECAs), without the need to change lubricants. The lubricant has been designed for use alongside all distillate fuels with a sulphur content of between 0 and 3.5%.. The sea-trials were completed onboard a modern 14,000teu containership powered by the latest generation fuel-efficient 2-stroke 11S90ME-C mark 10.2 B&W engine, while sailing in and out of ECAs in Europe and Asia. The vessel sailed for more than 600 hours in ECAs ...
Carotid artery pseudoaneurysms can refer to pseudoaneurysms involving any segment of the carotid arteries: common carotid artery pseudoaneurysm internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm external carotid artery pseudoaneurysm Pathology As with p...
Looking for online definition of cervical part of internal carotid artery in the Medical Dictionary? cervical part of internal carotid artery explanation free. What is cervical part of internal carotid artery? Meaning of cervical part of internal carotid artery medical term. What does cervical part of internal carotid artery mean?
... s are uncommon and occur in a broad range of patients due to many etiologies. True aneurysms involving all layers of the carotid arterial wall and false aneurysms both occur. Overall, extracranial carotid artery an
1. Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) has been used for many years in the prevention of eclamptic seizures, but its mechanism of action has never been elucidated. Recent studies suggest that cerebral vasospasm is an important feature of eclampsia and we have developed and tested the hypothesis that MgSO4 can reverse cerebral vasoconstriction.. 2. Studies were performed in conscious, male Long Evans rats with pulsed Doppler probes sutured around both common carotid arteries after the external carotid artery had been ligated on the left, thus allowing simultaneous measurement of changes in common and internal carotid blood flow. Intravascular catheters were placed in the abdominal aorta for measurement of systemic blood pressure and in the right jugular vein for administration of drugs. Mean arterial blood pressure and mean Doppler shift signals were used to calculate percentage changes in common and internal carotid vascular conductance.. 3. After a period of recovery the animals were infused with ...
Carotid cavernous fistulas are abnormal communications between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, either directly or via intradural branches of the internal or external carotid arteries.1 Direct fistulas are high flow, frequently follow trauma, and tend to have a dramatic clinical presentation. In contrast, indirect fistulas are low flow, often spontaneous, and may have a subtle clinical presentation. Symptoms and signs common to both types of fistulas include proptosis, chemosis, diplopia, visual loss, pulse-synchronous tinnitus, orbital bruit, elevated intraocular pressure, dilated episcleral veins, and retinal venous congestion. The pattern of venous drainage, either anterior into the ophthalmic veins or posterior into the petrosal sinuses, often dictates the clinical findings and radiographic appearance. Anterior drainage typically leads to the most dramatic ocular findings and enlargement of the superior orbital vein, the latter often detectable with CT or MRI. However, superior ...
MCC of fungal esophagitis… Candida Cottons grading… Sub glottic stenosis Cause of sudden death in a pt who underwent maxillary sinus irrigation….. Air embolism Weber Ferguson approach…. Used for maxillectomy Tobey ayer test +ve in lateral sinus thrombosis Mucocoeles are most common in frontal sinus In Dacryocystorhinostomy opening is done in middle meatus. Nasal bone fracture corrected by Walshams forceps Artery responsible for epistaxis after ligating external carotid artery…. Ethmoidal artery Epleys test is used for benign paroxysmal vertigo. Schullers and Laws view…. Mastoid air cells ...
Forty consecutive patients undergoing thromboendarterectomy for total internal carotid artery occlusion were studied in an attempt to determine a) whether careful case selection could be expected to reduce future postoperative mortality and morbidity, b) whether the achieved patency rate justified early operation and c) whether patients in whom patency was restored and maintained had a better long-term prognosis. The results show that a group of patients can be selected that will have low postoperative mortality and morbidity. The success rate for restoration of blood flow is high, particularly if the operation is performed soon after occlusion. The long-term prognosis in patients in whom patency of the internal carotid artery is restored and maintained appears to be better than in those with persistent occlusion of the carotid artery. ...
Serial monitoring of patients participating in clinical trials of carotid artery therapy requires noninvasive precision methods that are inexpensive, safe and widely available. Noninvasive ultrasonic duplex Doppler velocimetry provides a precision method that can be used for recruitment qualification, pre-treatment classification and post treatment surveillance for remodeling and restenosis. The University of Washington Ultrasound Reading Center (UWURC) provides a uniform examination protocol and interpretation of duplex Doppler velocity measurements. Doppler waveforms from 6 locations along the common carotid and internal carotid artery path to the brain plus the external carotid and vertebral arteries on each side using a Doppler examination angle of 60 degrees are evaluated. The UWURC verifies all measurements against the images and waveforms for the database, which includes pre-procedure, post-procedure and annual follow-up examinations. Doppler angle alignment errors greater than 3 degrees and
carotid artery - MedHelps carotid artery Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for carotid artery. Find carotid artery information, treatments for carotid artery and carotid artery symptoms.
Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) have a wide range of clinical presentations. Operative bleeding is one of the most hazardous complications in the surgical management of high-flow vascular malformations. In the cervical region, the presence of vital vascular structures, such as the carotid artery and jugular vein, may increase this risk. This is a case of massive arteriovenous malformation deforming the neck and the face aspect of this aged lady and growing for several years. A giant mass of the left neck occupied the carotid region and the subclavian region. The AVM was developed between the carotid arteries, jugular veins, and vertebral and subclavian vessels, with arterial and venous flux. The patient underwent surgery twice for the cure of that AVM. The first step was the ligation of the external carotid. Seven days later, the excision of the mass was done. In postoperative period the patient presented a peripheral facial paralysis which completely decreased within 10 days. The first ligation of
Milano, 11 Marzo 2008 Functional Data Analysis of the Geometrical Features of the Internal Carotid Artery Laura Maria SANGALLI Piercesare SECCHI Simone VANTINI Alessandro VENEZIANI The ANEURISK Project
Evaluation of Extracranial Carotid Artery Duplex Ultrasound Scanning Parameters in Cerebral Ischemic or Nonischemic Patients Without Significant Cervical Carotid Artery Stenosis (2005 ...
The United States and other G-7 countries have ECAs that support domestic exports, but Ex-Im differs from other ECAs in several important ways, including its explicit mission to promote domestic employment.
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Narrowing of the carotid arteries can restrict blood flow to the brain and increase the risk of stroke. Treatments include surgery or stent placement, but…
Pseudoaneurysms of the superficial temporal artery are an uncommon vascular lesion of the external carotid system and most often the result of blunt head trauma. The frequency of pseudoaneurysms of the superficial temporal artery developing after craniotomy is exceedingly low and only a few cases have been reported. We present a case of pseudoaneurysm of this type in a 45-year-old male who underwent craniotomy for excision of meningioma. One month postoperatively, the craniotomy flap exhibited an enormous diffuse pulsate swelling. The suspected diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm arising from superficial temporal artery was confirmed on angiography. Surgical excision was done and no recurrences of the tumor or aneurysm were noted on subsequent follow up.
Common carotid artery stenosis is often diagnosed when actually looking for internal carotid artery stenosis. The methods for diagnosis include duplex ultrasound and computed tomography. The criteria for the diagnosis of common carotid artery stenosis are unclear. The convention is that a doubling of the flow velocity between adjacent artery segments denotes significant stenosis. A retrospective analysis compared duplex ultrasound of 62 patients with common carotid artery stenosis to CT. A peak systolic velocity >182 cm/sec and an end-diastolic velocity >30 cm/sec were the most accurate as assessed by receiver-operating curves. While sensitivity was not very high, specificity was better. In this analysis duplex ultrasonography was also accurate in detection of common carotid artery occlusion, albeit in a small number of patients.. ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Redundant internal carotid arteries have been considered a risk factor in tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, and surgical treatment of peritonsillar abscess and also a potentially treatable cause of stroke. However, an association between internal carotid artery redundancy and spontaneous dissection has not yet been clearly demonstrated. METHODS: We reviewed, for spontaneous carotid artery dissection, records of all patients admitted to our institution during the period from 1986 through 1992 with the diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack. We also reviewed 108 percutaneous cerebral arteriograms performed between September 1992 and December 1992 for presence of carotid artery redundancies. RESULTS: Thirteen patients exhibited spontaneous dissection. Of these, 8 of 13 (62%) patients and 13 of 20 (65%) internal carotid arteries, viewed to the siphon, had significant redundancies, kinks, coils, or loops. Of 108 consecutive arteriograms of patients without dissection, in which
Details of the image Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) with associated convexity subarachnoid haemorrhage, nimodipine-reversibility Modality: DSA (angiography) (External carotid artery)
Vertebral artery dissection (T, good article since 7 January 2011), Vestibular schwannoma, Winchester syndrome, Whipple's ... Procedures and treatments - Arterial catheter (T), Advanced Life Support, Ann Arbor staging, Body surface area, Carotid ... External links policy; when should I link externally?. *WP:RAUL (Raul654's deep wisdom of Wikipedia) ... Renal artery stenosis, Renal failure, Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (T), Reye syndrome, Rhabdomyolysis (T / ...
External links[edit]. Wikimedia Commons has media related to X-rays of the chest. ... Enlargement of the right descending pulmonary artery can indirectly reflect changes of pulmonary hypertension, with a size ... Carotid ultrasonography. *Contrast-enhanced. *3D ultrasound. *Endoscopic ultrasound. *Emergency ultrasound *FAST. *Pre-hospital ...
with both external and internal openings Incomplete a fistula with an external skin opening, which does not connect to any ... H05.81) Carotid cavernous fistula. *(H70.1) Mastoid fistula *Craniosinus fistula: between the intracranial space and a ... Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula: between an artery and vein of the lungs, resulting in shunting of blood. This results in ...
Coronary artery aneurysm. *head / neck *Intracranial aneurysm. *Intracranial berry aneurysm. *Carotid artery dissection ... 4 External links. Types[edit]. Kidney[edit]. Renovascular hypertension[edit]. It has two main causes: fibromuscular dysplasia ... Kidney disease / renal artery stenosis - the normal physiological response to low blood pressure in the renal arteries is to ... Voiculescu A, Rump LC (January 2009). "[Hypertension in patients with renal artery stenosis]". Der Internist (in German). 50 (1 ...
Redistribution indicates the existence of coronary steal and the presence of ischemic coronary artery disease.[5] ... Scintigraphy is unlike a diagnostic X-ray where external radiation is passed through the body to form an image. ... This produces coronary steal from areas of ischemia where arteries are already maximally dilated. Areas of infarct or ischemic ... Exercise or dipyridamole induces widening (vasodilation) of normal coronary arteries. ...
This separates the carotid artery from the vertebral artery and the carotid artery can be massaged against this tubercle to ... External linksEdit. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cervical vertebrae.. *Diagram at kenyon.edu ... The carotid tubercle is also used as a landmark for anaesthesia of the brachial plexus and cervical plexus. ... The anterior tubercle of the sixth cervical vertebra is known as the carotid tubercle or Chassaignac tubercle. ...
The pressures in each foot's posterior tibial artery and dorsalis pedis artery are measured with the higher of the two values ... 6 External links. Method[edit]. The patient must be placed supine, without the head or any extremities dangling over the edge ... Detection of peripheral artery disease. The ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) or ankle-brachial index (ABI) is the ratio of ... lower blood pressure in the leg suggests blocked arteries due to peripheral artery disease (PAD). The ABPI is calculated by ...
... circle of Willis and joins with blood supplied to the anterior part of the circle of Willis from the internal carotid arteries. ... 5 External links. Structure[edit]. The basilar artery arises from the union of the two vertebral arteries at the junction ... Vertebral arteries. Branches. Pontine arteries, anterior inferior cerebellar (AICA) and superior cerebellar arteries, and ... ACA (anterior communicating, Recurrent artery of Heubner, Orbitofrontal artery). *MCA (anterolateral central, Prefrontal artery ...
The groove is curved like the italic letter f, and lodges the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus.[citation needed] ... External links[edit]. *. "Anatomy diagram: 34257.000-2". Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator. Elsevier. Archived from the ... The carotid groove is a anatomical groove in the sphenoid bone located above the attachment of each great wing of the sphenoid ... Sphenoid bone is in yellow, and carotid groove is labeled at center of sphenoid. ...
Coronary artery aneurysm. *head / neck *Intracranial aneurysm. *Intracranial berry aneurysm. *Carotid artery dissection ... 11 External links. Signs and symptoms[edit]. Signs and symptoms of chronic kidney disease, including loss of appetite, nausea, ... Bilateral renal artery stenosis should always be considered as a differential diagnosis for the presentation of HN. Kidney ... This leads to a build-up of plaques and they can be deposited in the renal arteries causing stenosis and ischemic kidney ...
... left common carotid artery, and left subclavian artery, as well as geometrically similar, nonplanar curvature in the aortic ... Articles with dead external links from February 2019. *Articles with dead external links from August 2019 ... including altered pulmonary arteries and double or absent aortic arches.[18] Despite existing anatomical analogy in the ...
Common sites treated with peripheral artery stents include the carotid, iliac, and femoral arteries. Because of the external ... The most common use for coronary stents is in the coronary arteries, into which a bare-metal stent, a drug-eluting stent, a ... Vascular stents are commonly placed as part of peripheral artery angioplasty. ... "Efficacious Use of Nitinol Stents in the Femoral and Popliteal Arteries". Journal of Vascular Surgery. 38 (6): 1178-1183. doi: ...
The neck contains the larynx, trachea, pharynx, esophagus, vasculature (carotid, subclavian, and vertebral arteries; jugular, ... External linksEdit. Classification. D. *ICD-10: S01, S11, S21, S31, S41, S51, S61, S71, S81, S91, T01, T09.1, T11.1, T13.1, ...
Coronary artery aneurysm. *head / neck *Intracranial aneurysm. *Intracranial berry aneurysm. *Carotid artery dissection ... 7 External links. Types[edit]. There are several types of vascular disease, (which is a subgroup of cardiovascular disease), ... Renal artery stenosis - is the narrowing of renal arteries that carry blood to the kidneys from the aorta.[2] ... Peripheral artery disease - happens when atheromatous plaques build up in the arteries that supply blood to the arms and legs, ...
labeled) Branches of external carotid artery *. Side effects of nicotine *. Thyroid hormone synthesis ...
External link in ,website=. (help). *↑ ୬.୦ ୬.୧ Feigin VL, Rinkel GJ, Lawes CM, Algra A, Bennett DA, van Gijn J, Anderson CS ( ... Ederle J, Brown MM (2006). "The evidence for medicine versus surgery for carotid stenosis". European Journal of Radiology. 60 ( ... A CT showing early signs of a middle cerebral artery stroke with loss of definition of the gyri and grey white boundary ... External link in ,website=. (help). *↑ ୮.୦ ୮.୧ Feigin VL, Forouzanfar MH, Krishnamurthi R, Mensah GA, Connor M, Bennett DA, ...
Coronary artery disease (CAD). *Coronary artery aneurysm. *Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) ... External links[edit]. Classification. D. *ICD-10: I47-I49, R00.0. *ICD-9-CM: 427, 785.0 ...
In humans, hypoxia is detected by the peripheral chemoreceptors in the carotid body and aortic body, with the carotid body ... to an extent that parallels the degree to which resting mean pulmonary artery pressure is elevated. Although the severity of ... 10 External links. Generalized hypoxia[edit]. The symptoms of generalized hypoxia depend on its severity and acceleration of ...
Caval filter migrated to heart or pulmonary artery (4 patients). Numerous small published articles and case studies report ... 8 External links. History[edit]. The first IVC filter was created by Kazi Mobin-Uddin, MD who published his findings in 1969 in ...
Coronary artery aneurysm. *head / neck *Intracranial aneurysm. *Intracranial berry aneurysm. *Carotid artery dissection ... External links[edit]. Look up trans fat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... the main artery of the heart, thereby raising risk of coronary artery disease.[63] ... Coronary artery disease[edit]. The primary health risk identified for trans fat consumption is an elevated risk of coronary ...
Central venous pressure/right atrial pressure → Right ventricular pressure → Pulmonary artery pressure → Pulmonary wedge ... "Accuracy of the advanced trauma life support guidelines for predicting systolic blood pressure using carotid, femoral, and ... All articles with dead external links. *Articles with dead external links from May 2009 ...
external carotid artery. Повърхностна анатомия на гърба (Тема 281)[редактиране , редактиране на кода]. Страница 1303[ ...
Artery. Mylohyoid branch of inferior alveolar artery and submental artery of facial artery. ... External links[edit]. *. "Anatomy diagram: 25420.000-1". Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator. Elsevier. Archived from the ...
atrium to pulmonary artery Fontan procedure. left ventricle to aorta Rastelli procedure. right ventricle to pulmonary artery ... This also meant that operations were largely restricted to amputations and external growth removals. Beginning in the 1840s, ... Bypass/Coronary artery bypass MIDCAB. Off-pump CAB. TECAB. Coronary stent. Bare-metal stent. Drug-eluting stent. *Bentall ... systemic circulation to pulmonary artery shunt Blalock-Taussig shunt. SVC to the right PA Glenn procedure. ...
The posterior auricular artery is a direct branch of the external carotid artery, and the anterior auricular arteries are ... ascending pharyngeal artery, internal carotid artery, and the artery of the pterygoid canal.[8] ... and the labyrinthine artery, arising from either the anterior inferior cerebellar artery or the basilar artery.[8] ... Other arteries which are present but play a smaller role include branches of the middle meningeal artery, ...
The nerve runs in the sinus body adjacent to the internal carotid artery and oculo-sympathetic fibres responsible for pupil ... 8 External links. Signs and symptoms[edit]. Limitation of abduction of the right eye. This individual tries to look to his ... through the subarachnoid space it lies adjacent to anterior inferior and posterior inferior cerebellar and basilar arteries and ...
More rarely the maxillary or a branch of the external carotid artery can be ligated. The bleeding can also be stopped by intra- ... External links[edit]. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nosebleeds.. *National Library of Medicine - Describes causes, ... These blood vessels include the sphenopalatine, anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries. ...
Carotid artery stenosis. *cerebral: MCA. *ACA. *Amaurosis fugax. *Moyamoya disease. POCI. *precerebral: Anterior spinal artery ... 10 External links. Signs and symptoms[edit]. People with intracerebral bleeding have symptoms that correspond to the functions ...
... carotid artery; PhN, phrenic nerve. ... external jugular vein. Superficial cervical plexus is seen ... Indications: carotid endarterectomy, superficial neck surgery. *Transducer position: transverse over the midpoint of the ... emerging behind the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle at the intersection of the muscle with the external ...
Cervical part of internal carotid artery. *cervical part of spinal cord. *cervical part of thoracic duct ... Bupivacaine at the point where external jugular vein crosses the posterior border of Sternocleidomastoid muscle in fan shaped ...
... carotid artery: The external carotid artery ascends through the upper part of the side of the neck and behind the lower jaw ... The external carotid artery gives off the following branches: (1) superior thyroid to the larynx and… ... Other articles where External carotid artery is discussed: ... In carotid artery. The external carotid artery ascends through ... The external carotid artery gives off the following branches: (1) superior thyroid to the larynx and… ...
How to remember branches of External Carotid Artery?. a. Visual mnemonics. b. Textual mnemonics. c. Brief description. d. ... Stroke Prevention: New Carotid Artery Treatment , El Camino Hospital - Duration: 6:31. El Camino Hospital 61,675 views ... External Carotid Branches - 3D Anatomy Tutorial - Duration: 8:21. AnatomyZone 427,883 views ... Carotid Body and Carotid Sinus ( Anatomy , Functions , Clinical application ) Medical animation - Duration: 2:50. Dr.G.Bhanu ...
There is one external carotid artery on the right side of the neck and one on the left side of the neck. ... The external carotid arteries supply oxygenated blood to the head region. ... facial artery, superior thyroid artery, and maxillary artery all branch off from the external carotid artery. These arteries ... The external carotid arteries supply oxygenated blood to the head region. There is one external carotid artery on the right ...
Maxillary artery Superficial temporal artery Branches of external carotid artery Magnetic Resonance Angiography "Carotid artery ... The external carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck. It arises from the common carotid artery when it splits ... into the external and internal carotid artery. It supplies blood to the face and neck. The external carotid artery begins at ... In children, the external carotid artery is somewhat smaller than the internal carotid; but in the adult, the two vessels are ...
ANEURYSM OF EXTERNAL.... *ANEURYSM OF EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY TREATED BY LIGATURE OF COMMON CAROTID ARTERY AND INTERNAL JUGULAR ... ANEURYSM OF EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY TREATED BY LIGATURE OF COMMON CAROTID ARTERY AND INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN Br Med J 1921; 1 : ... ANEURYSM OF EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY TREATED BY LIGATURE OF COMMON CAROTID ARTERY AND INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN. Br Med J 1921; 1 ... ANEURYSM OF EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY TREATED BY LIGATURE OF COMMON CAROTID ARTERY AND INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN ...
The National Center for Biomedical Ontology was founded as one of the National Centers for Biomedical Computing, supported by the NHGRI, the NHLBI, and the NIH Common Fund under grant U54-HG004028 ...
Arteries External carotid - Near jugular foramen Home Sitemap Privacy Policy - Contact Us. Copyright © 1999-2017 - Instant ...
Carotid Artery, External / ultrasonography*. Carotid Artery, Internal / ultrasonography*. Cerebrovascular Circulation / ... external carotid artery (ECA) and vertebral artery (VA). In 10 healthy young subjects, we evaluated the ICA, ECA, and VA blood ... 22526884 - Differential blood flow responses to co₂ in human internal and external carotid and ver.... 23878364 - Intrauterine ... and that CO2 reactivity of the external carotid circulation is markedly diminished compared to that of the cerebral circulation ...
Gortex graft-external carotid artery anastomotic stricture treated by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. - J E Dacie, J S ... Gortex graft-external carotid artery anastomotic stricture treated by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty.. Abstract. We ... of a gortex-right external carotid artery anastomotic stricture in a 49-year-old man with amaurosis fugax and occlusion of the ... right internal carotid artery. No neurological complications occurred during the procedure. The patient had had three previous ...
... primary dorsal external carotid artery ll, secondary dorsal external carotid artery Ling., lingual artery Ow., third root of ... In lizards no dorsal external carotid artery develops and the stapedial and ventral external carotid arteries a r e distributed ... T H E E X T E R N A L CAROTID ARTERY Since the work of Twining, it has been known that the external carotid artery in chick ... stapedial artery 77, ventral external carotid artery Tog., vagws nerve The numbcrs, 3, i, 10, 13, 20, drsignate the respectjve ...
Interposition of External Jugular Vein Graft in the Common Carotid Artery in Rats. J. Vis. Exp. (69), e4124, doi:10.3791/4124 ( ...
... and the vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) and passing through the hypoglossal canal. A carotid-vertebrobasilar... ... We report a case of an anomalous anastomosis formed between the external carotid artery (ECA) ... Primitive hypoglossal artery Proatlantal artery External carotid artery Occipital artery Hypoglossal branch of ascending ... We report a case of an anomalous anastomosis formed between the external carotid artery (ECA) and the vertebrobasilar artery ( ...
Patency of external and internal carotid artery in the presence of an occluded common carotid artery: noninvasive evaluation ... Patency of external and internal carotid artery in the presence of an occluded common carotid artery: noninvasive evaluation ... Patency of external and internal carotid artery in the presence of an occluded common carotid artery: noninvasive evaluation ... Patency of external and internal carotid artery in the presence of an occluded common carotid artery: noninvasive evaluation ...
External Carotid Artery definition, categories, type and other relevant information provided by All Acronyms. ECA stands for ... How to abbreviate External Carotid Artery?. External Carotid Artery can be abbreviated as ECA ... What is the abbreviation for External Carotid Artery?. The abbreviation for External Carotid Artery is ECA ... www.allacronyms.com/ECA/External_Carotid_Artery,. MLA. All Acronyms. "ECA - External Carotid Artery". 18 September 2018. Web. ...
Several studies have shown that common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is increased after radiotherapy (RT) to the head ... Effects of external irradiation of the neck region on intima media thickness of the common carotid artery : ... Objectives:To investigate whether external irradiation to the carotid area has any effect on IMT of the common carotid artery ... Objectives To investigate whether external irradiation to the carotid area has any effect on IMT of the common carotid artery ...
We investigated whether unilateral endovascular coil-embolization of external carotid artery branches in swine would lead to ... Their cerebrovascular anatomy, however, comes with challenges because of the natural higher external carotid artery perfusion ... Equal amounts of approximately 4 °C cold saline were injected in 6 Yorkshire pigs into the ipsilateral common carotid artery ... CC common carotid artery, O occipital artery, EC external carotid artery, AP ascending pharyngeal artery. Branches of the ...
"Cerebral infarction due to external carotid artery atherosclerosis",. abstract = "Cerebral ischemia resulting from carotid ... Ingall, T. J. (1997). Cerebral infarction due to external carotid artery atherosclerosis. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 7(4), 232- ... Cerebral infarction due to external carotid artery atherosclerosis. / Ingall, Timothy J.. In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, Vol. 7 ... Ingall, TJ 1997, Cerebral infarction due to external carotid artery atherosclerosis, Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 7, no. 4 ...
Sharma, V.K., Pereira, A.W., Ong, B.K.C., Rathakrishnan, R., Chan, B.P.L., Hock, L.T. (2006-04). External carotid artery- ... External carotid artery-internal jugular vein fistula: A complication of internal jugular cannulation. ...
We hypothesize that stenting of the internal carotid artery can immediately impede blood flow to the external carotid artery by ... Carotid endarterectomy, angioplasty, and stenting study group. The fate of the external carotid artery after carotid artery ... Effect of carotid artery stenting on the external carotid artery. J Vasc Surg. 2003;38(5):1039-44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... We hypothesize that stenting of the internal carotid artery can immediately impede blood flow to the external carotid artery by ...
External Carotid Artery & boost your knowledge! Study for your classes, USMLE, MCAT or MBBS. Learn online with high-yield ... The lecture External Carotid Artery by Stuart Enoch, PhD is from the course Head and Neck Anatomy-MRCS. ...
Antonyms for Carotid artery, external. 1 synonym for external carotid artery: external carotid. What are synonyms for Carotid ... Synonyms for Carotid artery, external in Free Thesaurus. ... Related to Carotid artery, external: internal carotid artery # ... external carotid artery. (redirected from Carotid artery, external). Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia. ... Synonyms for external carotid artery. the branch of the carotid artery that supplies blood to the face and tongue and external ...
... 5.62 Kb. 1. read. Variations in the division of common carotid artery and in the course of superior ... Human head and neck External carotid artery. Abstract: Introduction. Indian Journal of Basic & Applied Medical Research; June ... "Variations in the Division of Common Carotid Artery and in the Course of Superior Thyroid Artery: a case Report". Journal of ... thyroid artery: a case report. D. A. V. S. sesi. " ...
1. Superior thyroid artery:. The superior thyroid artery arises near the origin of the external carotid artery. It reaches the ... One of the two terminal branches of the common carotid artery, the external carotid artery (the other being the internal ... The internal carotid artery and the wall of the pharynx is located medially. Also present between the external and internal ... Initially the artery is located medial to the internal carotid artery but as it moves upwards in the neck, it travels backwards ...
  • The trapezius muscle (see fig. 8-4 ) arises from the superior nuchal line, the external occipital protuberance, the ligamentum nuchae, and the spinous processes of the last cervical and all the thoracic vertebrae. (dartmouth.edu)
  • In the cervical region, the presence of vital vascular structures, such as the carotid artery and jugular vein, may increase this risk. (hindawi.com)
  • It is even more relevant for massive AVM within the cervical region, where the presence of vital vascular structures, such as the carotid artery and jugular vein, may evolve in uncontrollable bleeding [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 6. LeBlanc KA, Benzel EC: Trauma to the High Cervical Carotid Artery. (spineuniverse.com)
  • It is currently unknown whether plaque shift from the internal carotid artery and/or the implantation of a stent over the orifice of the ECA during the course of CAS can cause acute ischemic symptoms in the vascular territory of the ECA. (springer.com)
  • Concurrent angiography revealed markings consistent with dilatations of small arteries in the vascular territory of the stented arteries. (nih.gov)
  • Enhanced leakage of Evans blue dye from artery in IL-10 KO mice suggested that IL-10 depletion impaired vascular repair. (nih.gov)
  • We demonstrate the application of CTA for evaluation of the superficial temporal artery as a vascular conduit for EC-IC bypass. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have assessed inhibitory effects of tranilast on neointima formation after balloon injury in the carotid artery of dogs, which share a similar ANG II-forming chymase with humans, and further explored the pathophysiological significance of vascular chymase. (ahajournals.org)
  • We report a case of an anomalous anastomosis formed between the external carotid artery (ECA) and the vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) and passing through the hypoglossal canal. (springer.com)
  • A carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis of this kind is typically considered a variant of persistent primitive hypoglossal artery which usually originates from the internal carotid artery. (springer.com)
  • Brismar J (1976) Persistent hypoglossal artery, diagnostic criteria. (springer.com)
  • Meguro T, Terada K, Hirotsune N, Nishino S, Asano T (2007) Unusual variant of persistent primitive hypoglossal artery. (springer.com)
  • Nakamura M, Kobayashi S, Yoshida T, Kamagata M, Sasaki T (2000) Persistent external carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis via the hypoglossal canal. (springer.com)
  • Sabouri S, Ebrahimzadeh SA, Rahimian N (2014) Unusual variant of persistent primitive hypoglossal artery diagnosed by CT angiography: a case report and literature review. (springer.com)
  • Uchino A, Saito N (2011) Persistent hypoglossal artery arising from the external carotid artery diagnosed by MR angiography. (springer.com)
  • Welten RJ, Eikelboom BC, Ackerstaff RG, Ludwig JW (1988) A persistent hypoglossal artery arising from the external carotid artery. (springer.com)
  • This loop of the artery is crossed by the hypoglossal nerve superficially. (howmed.net)
  • The hypoglossal nerve has been displaced downward in this preparation (lingual artery labeled at center left). (wikipedia.org)
  • It then curves downward and forward, forming a loop which is crossed by the hypoglossal nerve , and passing beneath the digastric muscle and stylohyoid muscle it runs horizontally forward, beneath the hyoglossus , and finally, ascending almost perpendicularly to the tongue, turns forward on its lower surface as far as the tip, under the name of the deep lingual artery ( profunda linguae ). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, as seen in the picture, the deep lingual artery passes inferior to the hyoglossus (the cut muscle on the bottom) while the lingual nerve (not pictured) passes superior to it (for a comparison, the hypoglossal nerve, pictured, passes superior to the hyoglossus). (wikipedia.org)
  • The posterior and occipital auricular arteries and the glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerves cross it. (innerbody.com)
  • The superior laryngeal artery, along with the internal laryngeal nerve, pierces the thyrohyoid membrane. (howmed.net)
  • The tonsillar artery supplies the tonsil and perforates the superior constrictor muscle. (howmed.net)
  • Superior thyroid artery labelled at upper left. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Middle cerebra artery divides into the superior and inferior segment which also appears normal. (aapc.com)
  • Although duplex imaging helps in the detection of carotid lesions in asymptomatic patients, the cost and risk associated with potentially unnecessary follow-up testing and the risk of unnecessary surgical procedures are arguments againt the wider application of carotid sonography in asymptomatic indivduals. (medscape.com)
  • An analysis of perioperative surgical mortality and morbidity in the asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis study. (medscape.com)
  • Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study. (medscape.com)
  • The lingual artery begins opposite the tip of greater cornu of hyoid bone and enters the submandibular region by looping upwards. (howmed.net)
  • The lingual artery moves forward deep to hyoglossus muscle and supplies the tip of the tongue. (howmed.net)
  • The deep lingual artery (or ranine artery ) is the terminal portion of the lingual artery after the sublingual artery is given off. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carotid sinus is responsible for blood pressure and the carotid body watches the oxygen content of the blood and regulates breathing. (innerbody.com)
  • The therapy circuit is configured to deliver neural stimulation to the carotid sinus of the subject to stimulate respiration and to adjust respiration to maintain the value of the respiration parameter within the target value range. (google.de)
  • a therapy circuit configured to deliver neural stimulation to one or more carotid baroreceptors at the carotid sinus of the subject to stimulate respiration and deliver neural stimulation to the vagal nerve to depress respiration to maintain the value of the respiration parameter within the target value range. (google.de)
  • wherein the control circuit is configured to initiate delivery of neural stimulation to the carotid sinus in response to the respiration parameter satisfying the respiration apnea detection threshold and the central apnea recognition circuit identifying the respiration apnea as central apnea. (google.de)