Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Endarterectomy: Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Amaurosis Fugax: Transient complete or partial monocular blindness due to retinal ischemia. This may be caused by emboli from the CAROTID ARTERY (usually in association with CAROTID STENOSIS) and other locations that enter the central RETINAL ARTERY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p245)Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection: The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Carotid Body: A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Asymptomatic Diseases: Diseases that do not exhibit symptoms.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Peripheral Arterial Disease: Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Carotid Body Tumor: Benign paraganglioma at the bifurcation of the COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES. It can encroach on the parapharyngeal space and produce dysphagia, pain, and cranial nerve palsies.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Celiac Artery: The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood is flowing into the MYOCARDIUM by following over time the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Thoracic Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.Myocardial Revascularization: The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Balloon Occlusion: Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Mesenteric Artery, Superior: A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Fibromuscular Dysplasia: An idiopathic, segmental, nonatheromatous disease of the musculature of arterial walls, leading to STENOSIS of small and medium-sized arteries. There is true proliferation of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and fibrous tissue. Fibromuscular dysplasia lesions are smooth stenosis and occur most often in the renal and carotid arteries. They may also occur in other peripheral arteries of the extremity.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Aneurysm, False: Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Constriction: The act of constricting.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Brachiocephalic Trunk: The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Neointima: The new and thickened layer of scar tissue that forms on a PROSTHESIS, or as a result of vessel injury especially following ANGIOPLASTY or stent placement.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Ulnar Artery: The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Echocardiography, Stress: A method of recording heart motion and internal structures by combining ultrasonic imaging with exercise testing (EXERCISE TEST) or pharmacologic stress.Ankle Brachial Index: Comparison of the BLOOD PRESSURE between the BRACHIAL ARTERY and the POSTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY. It is a predictor of PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE.Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi: A technetium imaging agent used to reveal blood-starved cardiac tissue during a heart attack.Maxillary Artery: A branch of the external carotid artery which distributes to the deep structures of the face (internal maxillary) and to the side of the face and nose (external maxillary).Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Bronchial Arteries: Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.

Facial diplegia complicating a bilateral internal carotid artery dissection. (1/2869)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We report a case of facial diplegia complicating a bilateral internal carotid artery dissection. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 49-year-old patient presented with unilateral headache and oculosympathetic paresis. Cerebral angiography revealed a bilateral internal carotid artery dissection. A few days later, the patient developed a facial diplegia that regressed after arterial recanalization. An arterial anatomic variation may explain this ischemic complication of carotid dissection. CONCLUSIONS: Double carotid dissection should be included among the causes of bilateral seventh nerve palsy.  (+info)

Bruits, ophthalmodynamometry and rectilinear scanning on transient ischemic attacks. (2/2869)

One hundred seventeen patients with clinical signs and symptoms of transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) were evaluated. All underwent clinical evaluation for bruit, ophthalmodynamometry, rapid sequence scintiphotography with rectilinear scanning and four-vessel cerebral angiography. The results of these tests were compared for reliability in predicting location of lesions causing transient ischemic attacks. Angiography remains the most accurate procedure in evaluating extracranial vascular lesions. When determination of bruits, ophthalmodynamometry and brain scanning are done together, accuracy is greater than when any one of the procedures is done alone.  (+info)

A new sign of occlusion of the origin of the internal carotid artery. (3/2869)

When the origin of the internal carotid artery is occluded, the transmission of cardiac sounds along the carotid stops at the site of the occlusion. This is a new neurovascular sign which is being reported.  (+info)

Ophthalmodynamometry in internal carotid artery occlusion. (4/2869)

Retinal artery pressure was measured by ophthalmodynamometry in 15 patients with occlusion of the internal carotid artery in its extracranial part. Nine of the patients had severe neurological deficit whereas the remaining six had slight or intermittent symptoms. Retinal artery pressure was reduced on the side of the internal carotid artery occlusion in all patients studied. Near-zero low diastolic retinal artery pressure on the affected side was a common finding among patients with severe deficit and was also seen in some patients with slight deficit. Its presence strongly suggests occlusion of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery.  (+info)

Carotid endarterectomy and intracranial thrombolysis: simultaneous and staged procedures in ischemic stroke. (5/2869)

PURPOSE: The feasibility and safety of combining carotid surgery and thrombolysis for occlusions of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA), either as a simultaneous or as a staged procedure in acute ischemic strokes, was studied. METHODS: A nonrandomized clinical pilot study, which included patients who had severe hemispheric carotid-related ischemic strokes and acute occlusions of the MCA, was performed between January 1994 and January 1998. Exclusion criteria were cerebral coma and major infarction established by means of cerebral computed tomography scan. Clinical outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin scale. RESULTS: Carotid reconstruction and thrombolysis was performed in 14 of 845 patients (1.7%). The ICA was occluded in 11 patients; occlusions of the MCA (mainstem/major branches/distal branch) or the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) were found in 14 patients. In three of the 14 patients, thrombolysis was performed first, followed by carotid enarterectomy (CEA) after clinical improvement (6 to 21 days). In 11 of 14 patients, 0.15 to 1 mIU urokinase was administered intraoperatively, ie, emergency CEA for acute ischemic stroke (n = 5) or surgical reexploration after elective CEA complicated by perioperative intracerebral embolism (n = 6). Thirteen of 14 intracranial embolic occlusions and 10 of 11 ICA occlusions were recanalized successfully (confirmed with angiography or transcranial Doppler studies). Four patients recovered completely (Rankin 0), six patients sustained a minor stroke (Rankin 2/3), two patients had a major stroke (Rankin 4/5), and two patients died. In one patient, hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarction was detectable postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Combining carotid surgery with thrombolysis (simultaneous or staged procedure) offers a new therapeutic approach in the emergency management of an acute carotid-related stroke. Its efficacy should be evaluated in interdisciplinary studies.  (+info)

Expression of interleukin-10 in advanced human atherosclerotic plaques: relation to inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and cell death. (6/2869)

Inflammation is a major feature of human atherosclerosis and is central to development and progression of the disease. A variety of proinflammatory cytokines are expressed in the atherosclerotic plaque and may modulate extracellular matrix remodeling, cell proliferation, and cell death. Little is known, however, about the expression and potential role of anti-inflammatory cytokines in human atherosclerosis. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a major anti-inflammatory cytokine whose expression and potential effects in advanced human atherosclerotic plaques have not been evaluated. We studied 21 advanced human atherosclerotic plaques. IL-10 expression was analyzed by use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical techniques. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was assessed by using immunohistochemistry, and cell death was determined by use of the TUNEL method. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction identified IL-10 mRNA in 12 of 17 atherosclerotic plaques. Immunohistochemical staining of serial sections and double staining identified immunoreactive IL-10 mainly in macrophages, as well as in smooth muscle cells. Consistent with its anti-inflammatory properties, high levels of IL-10 expression were associated with significant decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase expression (P<0.0001) and cell death (P<0. 0001). Hence, IL-10, a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, is expressed in a substantial number of advanced human atherosclerotic plaques and might contribute to the modulation of the local inflammatory response and protect from excessive cell death in the plaque.  (+info)

Surgical treatment of internal carotid artery anterior wall aneurysm with extravasation during angiography--case report. (7/2869)

A 54-year-old female presented subarachnoid hemorrhage from an aneurysm arising from the anterior (dorsal) wall of the internal carotid artery (ICA). During four-vessel angiography, an extravasated saccular pooling of contrast medium emerged in the suprasellar area unrelated to any arterial branch. The saccular pooling was visualized in the arterial phase and cleared in the venophase during every contrast medium injection. We suspected that the extravasated pooling was surrounded by hard clot but communicated with the artery. Direct surgery was performed but major premature bleeding occurred during the microsurgical procedure. After temporary clipping, an opening of the anterior (dorsal) wall of the ICA was found without apparent aneurysm wall. The vessel wall was sutured with nylon thread. The total occlusion time of the ICA was about 50 minutes. Follow-up angiography demonstrated good patency of the ICA. About 2 years after the operation, the patient was able to walk with a stick and to communicate freely through speech, although left hemiparesis and left homonymous hemianopsia persisted. The outcome suggests our treatment strategy was not optimal, but suture of the ICA wall is one of the therapeutic choices when premature rupture occurs in the operation.  (+info)

Vasa vasorum: another cause of the carotid string sign. (8/2869)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our purpose was to describe a variant of the carotid string sign that may be associated with a completely occluded vessel and to consider possible pathophysiological mechanisms for this observation. METHODS: Carotid angiography was performed in three patients with suspected carotid stenosis and in a fourth with carotid dissection. Surgery was performed in one of the patients with carotid stenosis. RESULTS: On all angiograms, instead of a single linear or curvilinear contrast "string," either single or multiple serpiginous channels were seen. In one case, such a channel was seen emanating from below the origin of an occluded internal carotid stump, reconstituting the distal portion of the vessel. Surgery revealed a completely occluded lumen with a small intramural vessel bypassing the obstruction. CONCLUSION: We propose that these channels are either atherosclerotically induced neovessels connecting bridging vasa vasorum or recanalized luminal thrombus. We review the literature associated with this subject.  (+info)

Purpose: There is a lack of consensus regarding the significance of calcification in the atherosclerotic carotid plaque. While some studies suggest calcification is a stabilizing factor, others have associated it with intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) - an indicator of plaque vulnerability. Since magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proven to accurately identify the lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC) and IPH of the carotid lesion, we sought to determine if carotid MRI can accurately detect and quantify calcification. We then tested the hypothesis that the location of calcification relative to the LRNC is an important determinant for the presence of IPH.. Methods: 24 subjects scheduled for carotid endarterectomy were imaged with high-resolution, multi-contrast carotid MRI (T1-weighted, proton density, T2-weighted, and 3D time of flight) at 1.5T. The LRNC, IPH and calcification were identified with previously established MRI criteria. Types of calcification were defined based on location as Type I: ...
BACKGROUND Low plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, recently several studies have questioned the protective role of high plasma HDL levels. OBJECTIVE This study was designed to evaluate HDL functions in women with high plasma HDL cholesterol and very low risk profile with relation to subclinical carotid atherosclerosis (ATS). METHODS Included were 158 middle-aged women with plasma HDL |60 mg/dL and Framingham risk score |7% who had B-mode ultrasound of the carotid arteries. Subclinical ATS was determined by the presence of plaques and/or intima-media thickness (IMT) |1.0 mm. RESULTS ATS was observed in 51 women, with the majority (n=41) having carotid plaques, some with advanced morphology. In a multivariable model analysis, each, HDL or age, were independently associated with increased prevalence of ATS. Odds ratios for ATS were 3.1 and 2.5 greater for age|60 years and HDL |70 mg/dL, respectively. None of
Carotid artery disease is a disease in which a waxy substance called plaque builds up inside the arteries. You have two carotid arteries, one on each side of the neck which divide into the internal and external carotid arteries. The internal arteries supply blood to the brain and the external arteries supply blood to the face, scalp, and neck... Carotid artery disease is serious because it can cause a stroke if the plaque should build up to the point it cuts off blood supply to the brain, or the plaque ruptures and a blood clot forms in the artery cutting off blood supply to the brain.. Carotid artery disease causes over half the strokes that occur in the United States. Carotid artery disease may not have any symptoms until the arteries are severely narrowed or blocked. For some people, a stroke is the first sign of the disease.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carotid artery atherosclerosis, MRI indices of brain ischemia, aging, and cognitive impairment. T2 - The framingham study. AU - Romero, José R.. AU - Beiser, Alexa. AU - Seshadri, Sudha. AU - Benjamin, Emelia J.. AU - Polak, Joseph F.. AU - Vasan, Ramachandran S.. AU - Au, Rhoda. AU - Decarli, Charles. AU - Wolf, Philip A.. PY - 2009/5/1. Y1 - 2009/5/1. N2 - Background and Purpose-: Carotid atherosclerosis has been associated with increased risk of stroke and poorer cognitive performance in older adults. The relation of carotid atherosclerosis to cognitive impairment and MRI indices of ischemia and aging in midlife is less clear. Methods-: We studied 1975 Framingham Offspring Study participants free of stroke and dementia with available carotid ultrasound, brain MRI, and neuropsychological testing. We related common and internal carotid artery intima-media thickness and internal carotid stenosis to large white matter hyperintensity (,1 SD above age-specific mean), total brain ...
Methods 5 carotid atherosclerotic plaques were obtained at the time of operation (2 symptomatic, 2 asymptomatic, and 1 control). RNA was isolated and 5 cDNA libraries were constructed and sequenced with single-reads100nt in length using one line of flow cell of HySeq 2000 (Illumina Inc). Standard bioinformatic techniques were used to ensure quality screening of raw reads. Ingenuity Systems IPA software was used to determine canonical biological pathways overrepresented in plaques. We compared our data to the data of Illumina Human Body Map processed by a similar analytical pipeline. Linkage analysis was performed. ...
Accumulation of tissue iron has been implicated in development of atherosclerotic lesions mainly because of increased iron-catalyzed oxidative injury. However, it remains unknown whether cellular iron import and storage in human atheroma are related to human atheroma development. We found that transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), a major iron importer, is highly expressed in foamy macrophages and some smooth muscle cells in intimal lesions of human carotid atheroma, mainly in cytoplasmic accumulation patterns. In 52 human carotid atherosclerotic lesions, TfR1 expression was positively correlated with macrophage infiltration, ectopic lysosomal cathepsin L, and ferritin expression. Highly expressed TfR1 and ferritin in CD68-positive macrophages were significantly associated with development and severity of human carotid plaques, smoking, and patients symptoms. The findings suggest that pathologic macrophage iron metabolism may contribute to vulnerability of human atheroma, established risk factors, and ...
Background: To determine if black-blood 3 T cardiovascular magnetic resonance (bb-CMR) can depict differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaques in acute ischemic stroke patients. Methods: In this prospective monocentric observational study 34 patients (24 males; 70 +/- 9.3 years) with symptomatic carotid disease defined as ischemic brain lesions in one internal carotid artery territory on diffusion weighted images underwent a carotid bb-CMR at 3 T with fat-saturated pre- and post-contrast T1w-, PDw-, T2w- and TOF images using surface coils and Parallel Imaging techniques (PAT factor = 2) within 10 days after symptom onset. All patients underwent extensive clinical workup (lab, brain MR, duplex sonography, 24-hour ECG, transesophageal echocardiography) to exclude other causes of ischemic stroke. Prevalence of American Heart Association lesion type VI (AHA-LT6), status of the fibrous cap, presence of hemorrhage/thrombus and area measurements of calcification, ...
Primary Objective:. Atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries is a common cause of stroke. The prevalence and progression of carotid atherosclerosis are believed to be influenced by genetically inherited variations in lipoprotein metabolism. This study investigates the specific role of paraoxonase, an enzyme thought to detoxify atherogenic oxidized low-density lipoprotein. This study compares veterans who have significant carotid atherosclerosis on ultrasound examination with controls without carotid atherosclerosis. Both paraoxonase activity and genotype will be determined and compared between groups. The results may eventually make it possible to screen for a paraoxonase allele that confers high risk of atherosclerosis, and to diminish the risk by early treatment.. Study Abstract:. The general aim of the proposed research is to evaluate the contribution and mechanism of paraoxonase (PON1) genotypic and phenotypic variation (PON1 status) in risk and progression of carotid artery disease (CAAD). ...
Introduction: The Womens Health Initiative (WHI) previously reported that a diet aimed at reducing total fat intake, while increasing fruit vegetable and grain intake, did not result in a significant reduction in incident stroke. Since the diagnosis and treatment of carotid artery disease may reduce the rate of stroke, the aim of this study was to determine whether the same diet intervention was associated with incident carotid artery disease.. Methods: Participants were 48,835 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years who were randomly assigned to the intervention or comparison groups in the WHI Dietary Modification Trial. The intervention included intensive behavior modification designed to reduce fat intake to 20% of total calories and increase intake of fruits and vegetables to 5 servings/day and grains to at least 6 servings/day. The comparison group received diet-related education materials. The outcome measure of incident carotid artery disease was defined as either symptomatic or ...
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Approach and Results-Histological analysis of 143 endarterectomized human carotid atherosclerotic plaques revealed that ATG16L1 was expressed in areas surrounding the necrotic core and the shoulder regions. Double immunofluorescence labeling revealed that ATG16L1 was abundantly expressed in phagocytic cells (CD68), endothelial cells (CD31), and mast cells (tryptase) in human advanced plaques. ATG16L1 immunogold labeling was predominantly observed in endothelial cells and foamy smooth muscle cells of the plaques. ATG16L1 protein expression correlated with plaque content of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Analysis of Atg16L1 at 2 distinct stages of the atherothrombotic process in a murine model of plaque vulnerability by incomplete ligation and cuff placement in carotid arteries of apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice revealed a strong colocalization of Atg16L1 and smooth muscle cells only in early atherosclerotic lesions. An increase in ATG16L1 expression and autophagy flux ...
Xie, Gaoqiang, Myint, Phyo K, Zhao, Liancheng, Li, Ying, Wang, Hao, Liang, Lirong and Wu, Yangfeng (2010) Relationship between -592A/C polymorphism of interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene and risk of early carotid atherosclerosis. International Journal of Cardiology, 143 (1). pp. 102-104. ISSN 1874-1754 Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
Carotid Artery Disease by Mark K Eskandari, William H Pearce, James S T Yao starting at . Carotid Artery Disease has 1 available editions to buy at Alibris
ADMA-SDMA in Elderly Subjects with Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis: Values and Site-Specific Association. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
AIM: The traditional morphological parameters for the description of a carotid atherosclerotic plaque (degree of stenosis, echogenicity, systolic peak velocity etc.) are insufficient for the prediction of the risk of embolization. Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), based on the theory of inflammation and neoangiogenesis, seems to have a great potential for the detection of unstable plaques. The purpose of our work was to compare echogenicity of the plaque (evaluated with the Grey Scale Median; GSM), the degree of stenosis and CEUS with the histopathological findings ...
Carotid artery disease is when the carotid arteries, which provide the main blood supply to your brain, become narrow or blocked. Carotid disease is very highly associated with stroke.
Vidant Health - Carotid Artery Disease occurs when the carotid arteries (main blood vessels that carry blood and oxygen to the brain) become narrowed.
Abstract: Introduction: Carotid Endarterectomy (CEA) is widely recognized as effective in significantly reducing the risk of recurrent stroke emanating from extracranial carotid atherosclerosis and approximately 140,000 carotid endarterectomies are performed annually in the United States (US). As such, data are scarce on the prevalence and clinical outcomes of CEA across different age groups. This study aimed to determine and analyze the prevalence, demographic and clinical outcomes of CEA across six decades of life. Methods: Data on 40,276,240 patients were abstracted from discharge data obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database, a part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (2004-2008). Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients undergoing CEA as the primary procedure were abstracted including age, gender, elective or non-elective admission, comorbidities, Length of Stay (LOS), secondary procedures, ...
Ajduk, Marko and Bulimbašić, Stela and Pavić, Ladislav and Šarlija, Mirko and Patrlj, Leonardo and Brkljačić, Boris and Pavić, Predrag and Čikara, Igor and Ivanac, Gordana (2013) Comparison of multidetector-row computed tomography and duplex Doppler ultrasonography in detecting atherosclerotic carotid plaques complicated with intraplaque hemorrhage. Collegium Antropologicum, 37 (1). pp. 213-9. ISSN 0350-6134 Jukić, Mladen and Pavić, Ladislav and Čerkez Habek, Jasna and Medaković, Petar and Delić Brkljačić, Diana and Brkljačić, Boris (2012) Influence of coronary computed tomography-angiography on patient management. Croatian Medical Journal, 53 (1). pp. 4-10. ISSN 0353-9504 Ajduk, Marko and Pavić, Ladislav and Bulimbašić, Stela and Šarlija, Mirko and Pavić, Predrag and Patrlj, Leonardo and Brkljačić, Boris (2009) Multidetector-row computed tomography in evaluation of atherosclerotic carotid plaques complicated with intraplaque hemorrhage. Annals of Vascular Surgery, 23 ...
In a population-based prospective study of more than 5000 men and women aged 65 years or older, the Cardiovascular Health Study1 found a strong relation between three different measures of carotid atherosclerosis and the presence of any major abnormality, including T-wave inversions, on the resting ECG. Unfortunately, this study did not examine the prevalence of isolated T-wave abnormalities in relation to carotid disease separately from other major ECG abnormalities and included subjects with angina, myocardial infarction, and coronary revascularization.1 The strong association between nonspecific repolarization abnormalities, which included localized T-wave inversions, and subsequent coronary morbidity and mortality found in large population studies8 9 10 11 12 13 14 and the increased mortality in asymptomatic patients with carotid disease and similar nonspecific ECG abnormalities27 suggest that asymptomatic individuals with carotid hypertrophy and localized T-wave inversions on the resting ...
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Indirect noninvasive neurovascular tests provide information on hemodynamic changes cephalad to the carotid bifurcation, whereas direct tests measure anatomic or physiologic changes at the bifurcation itself. Batteries of tests are often done and should combine both indirect and direct methods. Results with two ultrasonic techniques and digital subtraction intravenous angiography suggest a larger role for these methods. Carotid arteriography is the definitive procedure for evaluating the carotid artery, although it should only be done when carotid endarterectomy is contemplated. The relative risks and benefits of other diagnostic and therapeutic management strategies should guide the decision to do noninvasive neurovascular tests, or to proceed directly to arteriography. ...
Diagnosis of carotid artery disease (stenosis) (costs for program #167077) ✔ University Hospital RWTH Aachen ✔ Department of Thoracic, Vascular Surgery and Cardiac Surgery ✔ BookingHealth.com
Diagnosis of carotid artery disease (stenosis) (costs for program #141431) ✔ Academic Hospital Schwabing ✔ Department of Vascular Surgery ✔ BookingHealth.com
... causes a narrowing of the major blood vessels that supply the brain. It is caused by atherosclerosis and can lead to a stroke.
... causes a narrowing of the major blood vessels that supply the brain. It is caused by atherosclerosis and can lead to a stroke.
Our New Medical Therapies(TM) Trial Results database provides a snapshot of results from completed and ongoing clinical trials, based on published materials from medical conferences, journals and CenterWatch reports. View Carotid Artery Disease clinical trial results here.
Find out more about Carotid Artery Disease and the screening procedures MedStar St. Marys Hospital uses for early detection and treatment.
Question - Have difficulty breathing, phlegm, have COPD, CHF, carotid artery disease, relief vicks inhaler, senile. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Copd, Ask a Cardiologist
The present study shows for the first time that image-guided 1H-MRS of carotid atherosclerotic plaques is feasible in vivo in humans. We successfully quantified the allylic methylene (2.0 ppm) to methylene (1.2 ppm) ratio, which reflects the ratio of the fatty acid composition of plaque cholesteryl ester to that of perivascular tissue triglyceride. Furthermore, the allylic methylene (2.0 ppm) to methylene (1.2 ppm) ratio was shown to have good reproducibility. 1H-MRS of plaques still has a limited spatial resolution and is technically challenging, illustrated by the fact only 49% of the obtained 1H-MRS spectra was of adequate quality for analysis. The present data imply that in vivo in humans, 1H-MRS of carotid artery plaques offers a promising and valuable tool that can specifically identify liquid cholesteryl ester through its specific proton resonances.. The type of lipids and their physical properties in atherosclerotic lesions have been well investigated over the past decades (1). ...
Mean HDL-C/P ratio was 46.4 (standard deviation = 9.3, range = 23.8-86.9). HDL-C/P ratio was associated with 5-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis. Participants with the highest HDL-C/P ratio had 1.56-fold (p = 0.006) increased progression compared to those with the lowest level. Among participants without baseline plaque, plaque area in re-examination was larger by 9.4 mm2 in the subgroup with the highest level when compared to the lowest level.. ...
The initial formulation and testing of CAS was based on data from a cross-sectional study (17). The serial carotid MRI study reported herein demonstrates that CAS measures are predictive of future carotid luminal surface disruption, thus providing prospective confirmation of the earlier single time-point study findings. Furthermore, a significant association was noted between CAS and plaque progression in asymptomatic patients with 50% to 79% stenosis and who did not have carotid DLS or IPH at baseline. We caution the reader against over-interpretation of the data presented given the relatively low number of events. Nevertheless, the data are promising for a simplification of carotid risk stratification using CAS and provide strong evidence for conducting future studies that use a larger study sample to validate these initial findings.. Findings from randomized clinical trials indicate that the benefit of CEA or stenting in this group of individuals is marginal. However, the further risk ...
What is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid Artery Disease is a form of Peripheral Artery Disease that affects blood flow through the carotid arteries, the two
Pathophysiology. As in many other vascular diseases, common risk factors for the development of large artery atherosclerosis include hypertension, tobacco use, and diabetes. Male gender also increases the risk of progression, as does radiation for head and neck cancers. Temporally speaking, carotid atherosclerosis develops over decades (see figure), and while genetics plays a large role, there are no congenital atherosclerotic lesions.. So we are left with the question of, "when should physicians intervene?" In a pooled analysis of two international trials trials, there was a 4.6% absolute reduction in 5-year ipsilesional stroke in patients with revascularization for 50-69% stenosis by NASCET criteria, and a more impressive 16% 5-year risk reduction in patients with severe stenosis (70-99%). After pooling data from 3 major trials, the NNT to prevent an ipsilateral stroke or peri-operative death is 22 for a 50-69% stenosis, but drops to 6.3 for 70-99%, and for a near occlusive lesion, there is no ...
Carotid artery disease is a major cause of stroke in the United States. Other conditions, such as certain heart problems and bleeding in the brain, also can cause strokes. Lifestyle changes, medicines, and medical procedures can help prevent or treat carotid artery disease and may reduce the risk of stroke.. If you think youre having a stroke, you need urgent treatment. Call 9-1-1 right away if you have symptoms of a stroke. Do not drive yourself to the hospital. You have the best chance for full recovery if treatment to open a blocked artery is given within 4 hours of symptom onset. The sooner treatment occurs, the better your chances of recovery.. How Can Atherosclerosis Be Prevented or Delayed?. Taking action to control your risk factors can help prevent or delay atherosclerosis and its related diseases. Your risk for atherosclerosis increases with the number of risk factors you have.. One step you can take is to adopt a healthy lifestyle, which can include:. Heart-Healthy Eating. Adopt ...
Heavy snorers might be at an increased risk of developing carotid atherosclerosis, which may progress to be associated with stroke.
Results Fasting blood glucose, haemoglobin A1c, insulin, triglyceride, and ADMA levels, and mean IMT, plaque score were higher in diabetic patients compared with the controls. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated an independent association between ADMA and mean IMT in diabetic patients. On a multiple logistic regression analysis, ADMA was the sole predictor of carotid plaque formation (plaque score ≥1.1) (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.19 to 4.94, p,0.05).. ...
RESULTS Carotid atherosclerosis was common in men aged 70-89 years. There was no significant difference in the maximal carotid intimal-medial thickness between diabetic and nondiabetic men and over different age-groups; it was 1.28, 1.33, and 1.36 mm in subjects with diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and normal glucose tolerance, respectively (P = 0.69). No association between the presence of a nonmineralized or a mineralized atherosclerotic lesion with diabetes was found. Fasting plasma insulin did not relate to ultrasonographically detectable atherosclerotic lesions.. ...
Results The mean age was 68.8 years, and 65.3% of subjects had intermediate Framingham Risk Score (6% to 20% 10-year risk). Carotid plaques were identified in 78% of cases, abnormal ABI in 10%, AAD ,20 mm in 28%, and coronary calcium in 68% of participants. Carotid plaque burden was found to correlate stronger with CACS (chi-square 450, p , 0.0001) than did cIMT (chi-square 24, p , 0.0001), AAD (chi-square 2.9, p = 0.091), and ABI (chi-square 35.2, p , 0.0001). ...
Objective: To determine the association of TRIB3 Q84R polymorphism with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and carotid atherosclerosis.. Research design and Methods: A case-control study enrolled 513 Chinese subjects in three groups: control, MetS and obese groups. The functional TRIB3 Q84R polymorphism was genotyped among subjects undergoing carotid ultrasonography. The clinical and biochemical characteristics were determined.. Results: For individuals with the TRIB3 R84 allele, the odds ratio for developing MetS was 2.349 (P=0.018), abdominal obesity 2.351 (P=0.012), hypertriglyceridemia 2.314 (P=0.00003) and insulin resistance 1.697 (P=0.023). Likewise, the odds ratio for those with the TRIB3 R84 allele to develop thickened intima-media thickness was 2.208 (P=0.040).. Conclusions: Individuals with the functional TRIB3 Q84R polymorphism are at risk for MetS. Especially, the TRIB3 R84 allele predisposes to carotid atherosclerosis in part through the effects of abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and ...
Results. One hundred seventy patients (mean age 61.4 ± 11 years, 58.8% men) were included. Average FSCV, FSCD and NS values were 33.6% ± 21%, 20.6% ± 12% and 24.8% ± 18%, respectively. According to the UKPDS score, average risk of coronary disease and stroke were 22.1% ± 16% and 14.3% ± 19% respectively. Comparing the risks estimated by the different scores a significant correlation was found. The prevalence of CAP was 51%, in patients with the higher scores this prevalence was increased. ROC analysis showed a good discrimination power between subjects with or without CAP. ...
Blockage or narrowing of the arteries in the neck can cause patients to suffer a stroke which occurs when part of the brain gets inadequate blood flow and dies. Since it is very difficult to reverse the damage once it has occurred, successful management of this condition requires early recognition of the disease, often even before symptoms occur, and prompt, safe treatment.
Despite countless advancements in healthcare, cardiovascular disease and stroke remain leading causes of death and disability worldwide. As with most diseases and conditions, early diagnosis of these oft-silent killers remains critical in treatment, ...
Vascular Interventional Physicians is an outpatient-style clinic offering convenience and choice to physicians, and to patients who refer themselves.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [N K J Oksala, I Seppälä, R Rahikainen, K-M Mäkelä, E Raitoharju, T Illig, N Klopp, I Kholova, R Laaksonen, P J Karhunen, V P Hytönen, T Lehtimäki].
General Information: Considered to be a form of a stroke with similar clinical approach and management Incidence is low with less than 10 in 100,00 Average age is 60-65 with men more commonly affected and RF of HTN, smoking and diabetes Most common etiology is carotid artery atherosclerosis, especially in older patients. Other etiologies common…
The two pistons allow cymbalta physician samples p1 and p2 to be applied to each sampels. Atherosclerosis of the carotid system is the most common source of retinal emboli with 80 being associated with carotid artery disease.
The investigators calculated the sample size for multivariate logistic regression analysis with a power of 0.8 and an alpha of 0.05. The investigators will analyze the highest tertile of carotid plaques burden in terms of plaque volume versus others (see Sillesen, 2012). By definition, the prevalence of high burden atherosclerosis will be 33%. The investigators estimated a clinically relevant probability of progressing in terms of WMH in the high burden group to be 50%, while subjects without high burden plaques are estimated to progress in terms of WMH as the general population with carotid atherosclerosis in a similar time frame. This probability would be estimated to be around 15% (see Dufoil, 2005 and Pico, 2002). The estimated sample size would be 58 individuals. ...
Carotid artery disease can lead to stroke and possibly death. While surgery in serious cases is the recommended treatment, some patients, because of their age or medical condition, are not
Have you been told you have diseased or clogged carotid arteries (carotid stenosis)? Are you nervous about what this may mean in terms of your risk of stroke? Here are some answers to commonly asked questions regarding carotid artery disease.. What are the carotid arteries?. Carotid arteries are the two main blood vessels that supply most of your brain with blood.. What is a carotid bruit and does it definitely mean that the carotid is blocked?. A carotid bruit is a swooshing sound heard during a physical exam in which the physician listens to the sound of blood flow through the neck. When blood passes through a narrowing channel, it will give a very distinctive sound when heard through a stethoscope. Approximately 30 percent of patients with a carotid bruit will have a significant carotid blockage. However, carotid bruits are often associated with the presence of other atherosclerotic heart disease as well as other cardiovascular problems.. How is a carotid bruit assessed by my ...
Our current study demonstrates a strong association between increasing soft plaque thickness measurements and ipsilateral ischemic events. We found that with each 1-mm increase in plaque thickness, patients with high-grade extracranial internal carotid artery disease had 2.7 times greater likelihood to have had ipsilateral ischemic disease. On the contrary, densely calcified plaque was associated with a lower risk of symptomatic disease, with maximum hard plaque thickness substantially higher in asymptomatic patients. Of the plaque imaging characteristics we studied, maximum soft plaque thickness had the best ability to discriminate between symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects, with an optimal cutoff of 3.5 mm.. Several studies have used CTA plaque characteristics in defining carotid disease.11-13,15,18,19 However, the clinical relevance to patients with carotid disease has been limited because these studies have often studied a wide range of stenosis severity15,20 and have used advanced ...
The purpose of the study is to investigate the hemodynamic effect of calcified carotid plaque on blood flow in patients diagnosed with carotid artery disease. Two carotid artery models were generated based on a sample patient data, with normal and calcified carotid artery appearances. Circular calcified carotid plaque was found at the carotid bifurcation based on 3D computed tomography images. A computational fluid dynamics was performed to analyze the changes of blood flow in different situations. Our results showed that apparent turbulence was found in the diastolic phase at the carotid bifurcation in normal carotid artery geometry. In the presence of the calcified plaque, the flow velocity was increased to some extent, indicating the effect of plaque on hemodynamic changes. Wall shear stress was noticed to decrease at the aortic branches, and this indicates the potential risk of developing stenosis at this area. Our preliminary study demonstrates fluid structure interaction between calcified ...
When narrowing occurs in the main arteries that flow to the brain, the condition is called "carotid artery disease". This can increase a persons risk of having a stroke, however, most people are unaware that they might have it!. Carotid duplex ultrasound, or an ultrasound of the carotid artery, is a simple and painless test performed in our office that easily detects carotid artery disease.. Treating carotid artery disease is focused on preventing a stroke, or if you have had a stroke, preventing any further strokes. Lifestyle changes are key in this battle. Sometimes medications are needed as well. Surgeries or stenting may be needed in certain people.. Carotid stenting is a minimally invasive procedure for certain appropriate people with carotid disease. A small metal mesh tube, or "stent", is placed in the artery to prop it open.. Discuss with one of our cardiologists to see if you are at risk for carotid artery disease.. ...
To our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal that carotid plaque characteristics identified by 3-T in vivo MRI differ between men and women who are referred to subspecialists for the evaluation of asymptomatic carotid stenosis seen on DUS or CT angiogram. Men tend to have carotid plaque characterized by the presence of LR/NC and thin/ruptured fibrous cap as well as larger percent volume of LR/NC and intraplaque hemorrhage as compared with women.. We determined baseline patient characteristics and MR angiographic findings as potential confounders to characterize plaque features. It is known that the prevalence of intraplaque hemorrhage is high in CEA specimens removed from severely stenotic carotid arteries,23 and the prevalence of complicated American Heart Association Type VI carotid atherosclerotic lesions increases as the degree of stenosis increases from 1% to 15% to 80% to 99%.24 The present study demonstrated that LR/NC and a thin/ruptured fibrous cap occurred more often in men than ...
Introduction and objectives The equations used in the general population to calculate cardiovascular risk are not useful in genetic hypercholesterolemia (GH). Carotid plaque detection has proved useful in cardiovascular prediction and risk reclassification but there have been no studies of its usefulness in GH. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the presence of carotid artery plaque and the occurrence of cardiovascular events in patients with GH.. Methods This study included 1778 persons with GH. The mean follow-up until the occurrence of cardiovascular events was 6.26 years. At presentation, the presence of carotid artery plaque was studied by high-resolution ultrasound.. Results Carotid artery plaque was found in 661 (37.2%) patients: 31.9% with familial hypercholesterolemia, 39.8% with familial combined hyperlipidemia, 45.5% with dysbetalipoproteinemia, and 43.2% with polygenic hypercholesterolemia. During follow-up, 58 patients had a cardiovascular event. Event ...
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Common mechanisms for the development of micro- and macroangiopathic diabetic complications have been suggested. We aimed to cross-sectionally investigate strength and characteristics of the association between carotid atherosclerosis and microangiopathy in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT), carotid plaque (CP) type and degree of stenosis were evaluated by ultrasound, along with the determination of anthropometric parameters, HbA1c, lipid profile, assessment of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, in 662 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients were divided according to high/low cIMT, presence/absence of CP and of retinopathy and nephropathy. Patients with CP were older, more prevalently males, past smokers, had longer diabetes duration, significantly lower HDL cholesterol and more prevalent ischemic heart disease (all p,0.05) as compared to those with cIMT , 1 mm. Microangiopathies ...
|b||i|Background:|/i||/b| To investigate the correlation between tortuosity of extracranial internal carotid artery (EICA) and intraprocedural complications in patients undergo
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque Neovascularization Using Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound. T2 - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. AU - Huang, Runqing. AU - Abdelmoneim, Sahar S.. AU - Ball, Caroline A.. AU - Nhola, Lara F.. AU - Farrell, Ann M.. AU - Feinstein, Steven. AU - Mulvagh, Sharon L.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Background: Intraplaque neovascularization is considered an important indicator of plaque vulnerability. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) of carotid arteries improves imaging of carotid intima-media thickness and permits real-time visualization of neovascularization of the atherosclerotic plaque. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the accuracy of CEUS-detected carotid atherosclerotic plaque. Methods: A systematic search was performed to identify studies published in the MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from 2004 to June 2015. Studies evaluating the accuracy of ...
New research from the Netherlands shows that older patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk for carotid artery plaque formation and for the presence of vulnerable plaques with a lipid core, according to the American Thoracic Society. The cross-sectional study, part of the Rotterdam Study, an ongoing population-based cohort study examining the occurrence of and risk factors for chronic diseases in subjects aged 55 years and older, involved 253 patients with COPD and 920 patients without the condition. COPD was confirmed by spirometry. Participations with carotid wall thickening (intima-media thickness ≥ 2.5 mm) on ultrasonography underwent high-resolution MRI to characterize carotid plaques.. Participants with COPD had a twofold increased risk of carotid wall thickening on ultrasonography compared with controls. This risk increased significantly with the severity of airflow limitation. On MRI, vulnerable lipid core plaques were significantly more frequent ...
New research from the Netherlands shows that older patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk for carotid artery plaque formation and for the presence of vulnerable plaques with a lipid core, according to the American Thoracic Society. The cross-sectional study, part of the Rotterdam Study, an ongoing population-based cohort study examining the occurrence of and risk factors for chronic diseases in subjects aged 55 years and older, involved 253 patients with COPD and 920 patients without the condition. COPD was confirmed by spirometry. Participations with carotid wall thickening (intima-media thickness ≥ 2.5 mm) on ultrasonography underwent high-resolution MRI to characterize carotid plaques.. Participants with COPD had a twofold increased risk of carotid wall thickening on ultrasonography compared with controls. This risk increased significantly with the severity of airflow limitation. On MRI, vulnerable lipid core plaques were significantly more frequent ...
The introduction of cerebral angiography in the 1930s by Moniz, followed by detailed postmortem studies of the cervical portion of the carotid artery in the 1950s by Miller Fisher, drew attention to the extracranial carotid arterys being more important than the middle cerebral artery in ischemic stroke (1). The description of the diagnostic features of carotid disease soon followed, and this led to strategies for preventing or eliminating carotid lesions. From the earliest writings, clinical investigators have debated a possible connection between severe carotid disease and impaired cognition. Few dispute the relationship between cognitive decline and large areas of infarction of cortex supplied by the carotid artery. The unsettled component is the causal relationship between mild cognitive decline and asymptomatic disease in the carotid artery that supplies the dominant hemisphere (the left carotid in 98% of right-handed individuals). In the presence of intellectual changes, should an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Machine learning to predict rapid progression of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. AU - Hu, Xia. AU - Reaven, Peter D.. AU - Saremi, Aramesh. AU - Liu, Ninghao. AU - Abbasi, Mohammad Ali. AU - Liu, Huan. AU - Migrino, Raymond Q.. AU - the ACT NOW Study Investigators, ACT NOW Study Investigators. PY - 2016/12/1. Y1 - 2016/12/1. N2 - Objectives: Prediabetes is a major epidemic and is associated with adverse cardio-cerebrovascular outcomes. Early identification of patients who will develop rapid progression of atherosclerosis could be beneficial for improved risk stratification. In this paper, we investigate important factors impacting the prediction, using several machine learning methods, of rapid progression of carotid intima-media thickness in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) participants. Methods: In the Actos Now for Prevention of Diabetes (ACT NOW) study, 382 participants with IGT underwent carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) ultrasound ...
Among patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and carotid atherosclerosis, the ACAT inhibitor pactimibe failed to reduce CIMT. There was no change in maximum CIMT at follow-up, although mean CIMT progressed more with pactimibe compared with placebo. LDL cholesterol increased more with pactimibe. Serious adverse events were similar between the groups, although there were more major adverse cardiovascular events with pactimibe. This composite outcome was mainly influenced by a higher rate of MI with pactimibe ...
Radcliffe Vascular peer-reviewed articles on carotid artery stenting, carotid artery endarterectomy, carotid artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, carotid
carotid artery - MedHelps carotid artery Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for carotid artery. Find carotid artery information, treatments for carotid artery and carotid artery symptoms.
Figure 2 Step-by-Step Carotid Artery Stenting. (A) Bilateral visualization using a diagnostic catheter in the right internal carotid artery. During proximal protection with flow blockage (Medtronic Invatec MoMa, Roncadelle, Italy), a standard 0.014-inch coronary wire was inserted in the dissection and could not be advanced further (arrow). A hydrophilic polymeric 0.014-inch wire (Fielder FC, Asahi-Intecc, Aichi, Japan) (arrowhead) over a coronary microcatheter (Finecross, Terumo, Tokyo, Japan) (black arrow) managed to re-enter the true lumen distally (B, C). (D) Wire progression was controlled by performing contralateral injections. Once the wire reached the midcerebral artery (E), the microcatheter was advanced (F), and the position was checked again with gentle injection of contrast medium (G). (H) The hydrophilic wire was exchanged for a standard one with a trapping balloon inside the MoMa catheter. After predilations with 3.5-mm balloons, 2 open-cell stents (Precise 7-40 mm, Cordis, Fremont, ...
Exploring Best Medical Treatments vs. an Intervention The continuing debate among vascular specialists over the comparative benefits of different approaches to treating carotid artery disease takes center stage at the 39th Annual VEITHsymposium, November 14-18, with a number of presentations over the five-day event, and two dedicated afternoon sessions on Wednesday and Thursday afternoon to explore the controversies.. While there is universal acceptance of the fact that carotid atherosclerosis, (hardening of the arteries) is a high risk factor for stroke, vascular specialists continue to disagree on the optimal methods to treat it, especially in asymptomatic patients who have plaque deposits and narrowing of the arteries detectable via ultrasound but no prior history of a cardiovascular event.. One school of thought favors medical management over intervention, using prescription drugs (antiplatelet drugs, anti hypertensives, statins) to control cholesterol and prevent further build up of ...
Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., ranks No. 1 for neurology and neurosurgery in the U.S. News & World Report Best Hospitals rankings. Mayo Clinic in Scottsdale, Ariz., and Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Fla., are ranked among the Best Hospitals for neurology and neurosurgery by U.S. News & World Report. Mayo Clinic also ranks among the Best Childrens Hospitals for neurology and neurosurgery.. At Mayo Clinic, neurologists work with neurosurgeons and with specialists in heart and blood vessel conditions (cardiologists), blood vessel surgery (vascular and endovascular surgeons), and imaging techniques (radiologists) to diagnose people who have carotid artery disease. Mayo Clinics team approach means doctors can often diagnose your condition and develop a treatment plan within a few days.. Mayo Clinic surgeons have experience performing complex procedures such as carotid endarterectomy and carotid angioplasty and stenting. At Mayo, specialists individualize care to your specific needs.. Mayo Clinic ...
Treatment with statins to currently recommended levels of LDL, whether alone or in combination with niacin, resulted in significant and sustained reduction in carotid atherosclerosis. Niacin treatment resulted in HDL that was 17% higher than with statins alone, accounted for, in part, by a significant HDL decline with placebo. Placebo-treated patients required a significant, small, increase in statin dose over 18 months (4.2 mg atorvastatin equivalent) to reach therapeutic goals, though there was no difference in final statin dose. Both therapeutic strategies resulted in regression of carotid atherosclerosis to a similar degree.. The bulk of existing evidence supporting the use of niacin in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events derives from studies using imaging measures as their endpoints. Previous reports have extensively explored the differences in patient populations and outcomes in these trials.22 An understanding of the heterogeneity in combination therapies, lipid endpoints ...
BACKGROUND:. Atherosclerotic vascular disease is a major source of morbidity and mortality. Inflammation plays an important role in atherosclerosis. The tools to systematically study the extent to which genetic variation determines risk of and progression of atherosclerosis are only now becoming available.. DESIGN NARRATIVE:. The study will evaluate the role of genetic variation in inflammatory pathway genes at 29 loci on the risk and progression of carotid artery atherosclerotic disease (CAAD). Genes to be evaluated include those potentially involved in plaque initiation and progression. The investigators will evaluate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) informative for the common locus haplotypes. Choice of informative polymorphisms for evaluation is based on the genes evolutionary history. They will evaluate progression effects in subjects with CAAD followed longitudinally by noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR) techniques over 3 years. Risk will be evaluated by case-control comparisons. ...
... (CEA) is a surgical treatment for carotid artery disease. The carotid arteries are the main blood vessels that carry oxygen and blood to the brain. In carotid artery disease, these arteries become narrowed. This reduces blood flow to the brain and could cause a stroke.
Page provides an overview of carotid artery disease, including an overview, causes, symptoms, tests, prevention and treatment. Also discusses the carotid endarterectomy procedure and its potential risks as well as possible alternatives.
Narrowing of the carotid arteries is most often caused by atherosclerosis. This is a buildup of plaque in the inner lining of the artery. Plaque is made up of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium, and fibrin. Atherosclerosis, or "hardening of the arteries," can affect arteries throughout the body. Carotid artery disease is similar to coronary artery disease, in which blockages form in the arteries of the heart, and may cause a heart attack. In the brain, it can lead to stroke. The brain needs a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients to function. Even a brief break in blood supply can cause problems. Brain cells start to die after just a few minutes without blood or oxygen. If the narrowing of the carotid arteries becomes severe enough to block blood flow, or a piece of plaque breaks off and blocks blood flow to the brain, a stroke may happen. You may or may not have symptoms of carotid artery disease. Plaque buildup may not be blocking enough blood flow to cause ...
A segmentation framework is proposed to determine the wall thickness, carotid artery plaque volume as morphological markers. MRI features, NMR peaks, oxida
This 3D stock medical animation shows the progression of a left carotid artery occlusion which results in a cerebral infarct (stroke). The animation opens with a generic (blue) figure with the brain and major arteries shown. The camera then zooms into a detailed cut-section through the left carotid artery bifurcation. As blood flows to the brain, an occlusion forms cutting off the circulation resulting in the subsequent death of the brain tissue.
Noninvasive imaging of carotid artery plaque with MRI can accurately predict future cardiovascular events like strokes and heart attacks in people without a history of cardiovascular disease, according to a new study published online in the journal Radiology.. Researchers have long known that some arterial plaque is more dangerous because of its vulnerability to rupture. MRI can discern features of vulnerable plaque, such as a lipid core with a thin fibrous cap. This ability makes MRI a potentially valuable tool for identifying patients at risk for subsequent cardiovascular events.. To study the predictive value of MRI plaque imaging, researchers performed carotid artery ultrasound and MRI on 946 asymptomatic patients from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). The carotid arteries are the large vessels located on each side of the neck that carry oxygenated blood to the front part of the brain. They are highly accessible for imaging, and their condition tends to mirror that of the ...
Previous studies have supported the theory that there is a positive association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in Western people. Diet plays an important role in determining serum ferritin concentration. Asian dietary patterns are different from Western dietary patterns, implying that there may be a difference in the association of ferritin with carotid atherosclerosis between Asian and Western people. However, few studies focus on the association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis among Asians. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in an Asian adult population. A cross-sectional assessment was performed in 8302 adults in Tianjin, China. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques were assessed using ultrasonography, and serum ferritin was measured using the protein chip-chemiluminescence method. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of serum ...
TIA may be related to severe narrowing or blockage or from small pieces of an atherosclerotic plaque breaking off, traveling through the bloodstream, and lodging in small blood vessels in the brain. With TIA, there is rarely permanent brain damage.. Call for medical help immediately if you suspect a person is having a TIA, as it may be a warning sign that a stroke is about to occur. Not all strokes, however, are preceded by TIAs.. Stroke is another indicator of carotid artery disease. The symptoms of a stroke are the same as for a TIA. A stroke is loss of blood flow (ischemia) to the brain that continues long enough to cause permanent brain damage. Brain cells begin to die after just a few minutes without oxygen. The area of dead cells in tissues is called an infarct.. The area of the brain that suffered the loss of blood flow will determine what the physical or mental disability may be. This may include impaired ability with movement, speech, thinking and memory, bowel and bladder function, ...
Carotid Artery Disease: From Bench to Bedside and Beyond - free book at E-Books Directory. You can download the book or read it online. It is made freely available by its author and publisher.
You are invited to attend a free ultrasound screening for Carotid Artery Disease on Wednesday, May 28, from 9 a.m. to noon. The screening will be administered by the Pen Bay Vascular Lab under the direction of Dr. Julie White at Pen Bay Surgery located in the Physicians Building, Suite 103 on the Pen Bay Medical Center campus.. Carotid Artery disease is the most common cause of stroke. When this disease is detected early, stroke can be prevented. See your doctor. Discuss lifestyle changes. Consider getting an ultrasound exam. A few small steps may save your life.. You are eligible to participate in this screening if you have all these risk factors:. · Are age 60 or over.. · Are currently a smoker, have a smoking history (100 cigarettes or more) or have had prolonged exposure to second-hand smoke.. · Have elevated cholesterol and/or high blood pressure.. · Have a family or personal history of coronary artery disease.. The event is free and open to the public, but space is limited. Call us ...
We use stenting, which involves the placement of a tiny tube into your carotid artery, to treat abdominal aortic aneurysm, carotid artery disease, peripheral vascular disease.
Heavy snorers might be at an increased risk of developing carotid atherosclerosis, which may progress to be associated with stroke, says a new study.
The heterogeneity of atherosclerotic tissue has limited comprehension in proteomic and metabolomic analyses. To elucidate the functional implications, and differences between genders, of atherosclerotic lesion formation we investigated protein profiles from different regions of human carotid atherosclerotic arteries; internal control, fatty streak, plaque shoulder, plaque centre, and fibrous cap. Proteomic analysis was performed using 2-DE with MALDI-TOF, with validation using nLC-MS/MS. Protein mapping of 2-DE identified 52 unique proteins, including 15 previously unmapped proteins, of which 41 proteins were confirmed by nLC-MS/MS analysis. Expression levels of 18 proteins were significantly altered in plaque regions compared to the internal control region. Nine proteins showed site-specific alterations, irrespective of gender, with clear associations to extracellular matrix remodelling. Five proteins display gender-specific alterations with 2-DE, with two alterations validated by nLC-MS/MS. ...
Using a simple and reproducible plaque measurement on CTA, we found a strong association between increasing soft-plaque thickness measurements and symptomatic carotid artery plaques. Previous studies have shown that CTA plaque thickness measures can predict high-risk plaque as defined on correlative MR imaging12 or symptomatic plaque in high-grade stenosis.13 In the current study, we found that such CTA plaque measures can differentiate asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid plaques despite the relatively smaller volume of plaque and lower absolute stroke risk present in moderate-grade stenosis. Moreover, we found no significant differences in traditional vascular risk factors in the asymptomatic and symptomatic groups, suggesting that plaque thickness measurements may be able to discriminate high-risk and stable plaque more accurately than clinical factors. This is the first report, to our knowledge, applying this CTA technique to patients with a tightly defined and clinically relevant NASCET ...
Q: Dr. Pasterkamp, this year began with the publication of a very exciting study of yours in Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. It points out the natural history of carotid artery plaques after an acute cerebral ischemia event providing support for current concepts as well as new aspects. What would point out as the key findings of the study?. A: For our research group there are several key findings. First, it confirms the outcome of previous studies and concepts that plaque remodeling can go in two directions. The mechanism of plaque destabilization has always been the main research domain for many cardiovascular investigators. But this study strengthens the idea that unstable plaques also stabilize after an event, which, in fact, is a normal response after an injury (like a rupture of cap). Secondly, it shows that cytokine expression in plaques can rapidly change over time independent of the amount of inflammatory cells. Many researchers use a limited number of human ...
A significant percentage of strokes and transient ischemic attacks is caused by atherosclerotic carotid plaques.[1] Current management guidelines of carotid disease primarily take into account the degree of luminal stenosis and whether or not the patient is symptomatic.[2] However, it is now well-established that there are several imaging features of carotid plaques significantly associated with the occurrence of neurologic symptoms. Such features can be investigated with virtually every imaging modality, reflect plaque histology and include surface characteristics and plaques content as expressed with echogenicity on ultrasound, density on CT or signal intensity on MRI.[3] As for surface morphology, a plaque can be classified as smooth, irregular or ulcerated. Based on conventional angiographic studies, carotid ulcerations have been classified to four different types depending on their morphology and geometric characteristics.[4, 5] Accurately characterizing a plaque as smooth, irregular or ...
A CT heart scan is used to diagnose blockage or narrowing of the carotid arteries of the neck and/or the branches of the carotid artery. Plaque build up, blood clots, calcium deposits and other substances in the blood stream may cause an interruption in the blood flow through the carotid arteries.
The importance of reactive nitrogen species in atherosclerosis remains poorly understood, despite the semi-quantitative evidence for the presence of 3-nitrotyrosine provided by immunohistochemical staining studies. At this time, there appear to be no data describing the prevalence of nitration relative to oxidation in atherosclerotic plaque proteins. The present study used 3-nitrotyrosine and dityrosine as markers of nitration and oxidation respectively to examine the relative abundance of each process. Substantial methodological improvements were required to overcome problems associated with sensitivity and artefactual production of 3-nitrotyrosine when quantified by GLC-MS. It was shown that careful selection of hydrolysis vessel, sample reduction and the use of the oxazolinone derivative provided sample stability and exquisite sensitivity. Using these methods, it was observed that the frequency of nitration was 92±15μmol/mol of tyrosine (0.01%). Dityrosine was present at 1.5±0.14mmol/mol ...
A, Measurement of internal carotid artery (ICA) calcification by semiquantitative methods. A region of interest is drawn around the calcified artery in a wide w
Useful mnemonics to remember the branches of the internal carotid artery is: A VIPS COMMA calming voices make intra-operative surgery pleasurable and almost memorable Mnemonics A VIPS COMMA A: anterior choroidal artery (C7) V: Vidian arte...
Details of the image Occluded distal left M1 internal carotid artery with cerebral ischaemia Modality: CT (RAPID Color MTT [s])
This is an article about the segments, branches and clinical aspects of the internal carotid arteries. Learn all about these important blood vessels here!
KAZEM FATHIE, M.D., F.A.C.S., F.I.C.S., Ph.D. THE patient whose case I shall describe had a large aneurysmal tumor of the internal carotid artery. It had
MRI of the CAROTID ARTERIES Review Pathogenesis/Progression Intima-Media Thickness (IMT) Studies Plaque Constituents Morphology Stable vs Unstable (Vulnerable) Survey of Methods and Results Most Published Results - 1.5T Recent 3T Carotid MRI Studies
Carotid phonoangiography is a test using a sensitive microphone placed on the neck, very close to the carotid artery. It records sounds and detects blockages, such as those caused by carotid artery disease.. ...
Evaluation of Extracranial Carotid Artery Duplex Ultrasound Scanning Parameters in Cerebral Ischemic or Nonischemic Patients Without Significant Cervical Carotid Artery Stenosis (2005 ...
When the location of the narrowing is too difficult to access directly, the surgeon may perform a carotid angioplasty and stenting. With this procedure, a tiny balloon is threaded by a catheter to the area of the condition (carotid artery) or clogging. The balloon is then inflated, which in turn widens the artery, and a small wire-mesh coil, or stent, is inserted, keeping the artery from narrowing again. The procedure is still relatively new, and its effectiveness is still being calculated. ...
... s are uncommon and occur in a broad range of patients due to many etiologies. True aneurysms involving all layers of the carotid arterial wall and false aneurysms both occur. Overall, extracranial carotid artery an
TY - JOUR. T1 - The use of covered stents for the endovascular treatment of extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis. T2 - A prospective study with a 5-year follow-up. AU - Szólics, Alex. AU - Sztriha, László K.. AU - Szikra, Péter. AU - Sźlics, Mikĺs. AU - Palḱ, András. AU - Vörös, Erika. PY - 2010/7/1. Y1 - 2010/7/1. N2 - Objectives: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of the use of covered stents for the treatment of extracranial carotid artery stenosis caused by highly embologenic plaques, and to study the long-term outcome of patients receiving such covered stents. Methods: Between 2002 and 2007, 46 patients (63% symptomatic, 78.3% male, 67± 8.6 years old) with internal carotid artery stenosis caused by embologenic plaques or restenosis were treated with self-expanding covered stents (Symbiot, Boston Scientific). Pre-dilatation or protecting devices were not used. Post-dilatation was applied in every patient. Each patient was followed long-term. The outcome measures were ...
Vascular morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) are high after ischemic stroke at a young age. Data on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) as marker of atherosclerosis are scarce for young stroke populations. In this prospective case-control study, we examined cIMT, the burden of vascular risk factors (RF) and their associations among young and middle-aged ischemic stroke patients and controls. We aimed to detect clinical and sub-clinical arterial disease. This study was conducted in 150 patients aged 15-60 years and 84 controls free of CVD. We related RF to ultrasonographic B-mode cIMT-measurements obtained from 12 standardized multiangle measurements in the common carotid artery (CCA), carotid bifurcation (BIF) and internal carotid artery (ICA). RF burden was higher among patients than among controls (p | 0.001). In multivariate analyses of all 234 participants, increased cIMT was associated with age in each carotid segment. Incident stroke was associated with increased ICA-IMT.
A carotid artery duplex scan is a type of vascular ultrasound study done to assess the blood flow of the arteries that supply blood from the heart through the neck to the brain. There are six carotid arteries--the right and left common carotid arteries, which divide and form the right and left internal carotid arteries and the right and left external carotid arteries. One pair (external and internal) is located on each side of the neck.. A carotid artery duplex scan is a noninvasive (the skin is not pierced) procedure. The term "duplex" refers to the fact that two modes of ultrasound are used--Doppler and B-mode. The B-mode transducer (like a microphone) obtains an image of the carotid artery being studied. The Doppler probe within the transducer evaluates the velocity and direction of blood flow in the vessel.. A transducer sends out ultrasonic sound waves at a frequency too high to be heard. When the transducer is placed on the carotid arteries at certain locations and angles, the ultrasonic ...
Internal carotid artery dissection has been well recognized as a major cause of ischaemic stroke in young and middle-aged adults. However, internal carotid artery dissection induced hypoglossal nerve palsy has been seldom reported and may be difficult to diagnose in time for treatment; even angiography sometimes misses potential dissection, especially when obvious lumen geometry changing is absent. We report a 42-year-old man who presented with isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy. High-resolution MRI showed the aetiological dissected internal carotid artery. In addition, a potential genetic structural defect of the arterial wall was suggested due to an exon region mutation in the polycystic-kidney-disease type 1 gene. Hypoglossal nerve palsy is a rare manifestations of carotid dissection. High-resolution MRI may provide useful information about the vascular wall to assist in the diagnosis of dissection. High-throughput sequencing might be useful to identify potential cerebrovascular-related gene mutation,
In human anatomy, the carotid sinus is a dilated area at the base of the internal carotid artery just superior to the bifurcation of the internal carotid and external carotid at the level of the superior border of thyroid cartilage. The carotid sinus extends from the bifurcation to the "true" internal carotid artery. The carotid sinus is sensitive to pressure changes in the arterial blood at this level. It is the major baroreception site in humans and most mammals. The carotid sinus is the reflex area of the carotid artery, consisting of various nerve receptors for baroregulation (pressure regulation of the body in sync to external conditions). The carotid sinus contains numerous baroreceptors which function as a "sampling area" for many homeostatic mechanisms for maintaining blood pressure. The carotid sinus baroreceptors are innervated by the sinus nerve of Hering, which is a branch of cranial nerve IX (glossopharyngeal nerve). The glossopharyngeal nerve synapses in the nucleus tractus ...
Rogalewski, A. and Evers, S. (2005), Symptomatic Hemicrania Continua After Internal Carotid Artery Dissection. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 45: 167-169. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2005.05034_2.x ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Is early age-related macular degeneration related to carotid artery stiffness? The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. AU - Cheung, Ning. AU - Liao, Duanping. AU - Islam, F. M.Amirul. AU - Klein, Ronald. AU - Jie, Jin Wang. AU - Wong, Tien Yin. PY - 2007/4/1. Y1 - 2007/4/1. N2 - Background/Purpose: Atherosclerosis and vascular stiffness have been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The association of carotid artery stiffness, a measure of arterial elasticity reflecting early atherosclerosis, with early AMD, was examined in this study. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional study of 9954 middle-aged people (age range 51-72 years). The presence of AMD signs was determined from fundus photographs according to the Wisconsin grading protocol. Carotid arterial stiffness was measured from high-resolution ultrasonic echo tracking of the left common carotid artery, and was defined as an adjusted arterial diameter change (AADCμ). A ...
Relationship between periodontal disease, tooth loss, and carotid artery plaque". Stroke. 34 (9): 2120-5. doi:10.1161/01.STR. ... Diseases may cause periodontal disease or bone loss to prompt tooth loss. Consequently, periodontal disease may cause increased ... The main method of preventing tooth loss is prevention of oral diseases. Tooth loss can be due to tooth decay and gum disease. ... Diseases commonly related to tooth loss include, but are not limited to: cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis and ...
Estol CJ (March 1996). "Dr C. Miller Fisher and the history of carotid artery disease". Stroke. 27 (3): 559-66. doi:10.1161/01. ... He contributed greatly to the understanding of stroke, more specifically carotid artery disease and lacunar infarcts and their ... He made a number of contributions to the understanding of cervical artery dissection (carotid artery dissection and vertebral ... He also showed the relationship between stroke and carotid artery stenosis, which made preventive surgery possible and greatly ...
Atherosclerosis can lead to coronary artery disease, carotid artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and aneurysms. Standing ... The authors also found that men with carotid stenosis or ischemic heart disease were at greater risk for the progression of ... "Diseases and Conditions: Varicose veins". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved December 22, 2015. "Society of Interventional Radiology- ... 2000) the authors examined the relationship between standing at work and the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in men. ...
Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin G Antibody Is Associated With Subclinical Carotid Artery Disease Among HIV-Infected Women. J ... Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin G Antibody Is Associated With Subclinical Carotid Artery Disease Among HIV-Infected Women. J ... The WIHS is funded primarily by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), with additional co-funding ... sexually transmitted diseases, and reproductive function. Thus, WIHS funding was augmented in 2001 to empower the study to ...
Relationship between periodontal disease, tooth loss, and carotid artery plaque". Stroke. 34 (9): 2120-5. doi:10.1161/01.STR. ... Secondary to diseaseEdit. Tooth loss can occur secondary or concomitantly to many diseases. Diseases may cause periodontal ... Consequently, periodontal disease may cause increased infection, which may predispose a person to other diseases. Diseases ... The main method of preventing tooth loss is prevention of oral diseases. Tooth loss can be due to tooth decay and gum disease. ...
"A common VLDLR polymorphism interacts with APOE genotype in the prediction of carotid artery disease risk". J. Lipid Res. 49 (3 ... In addition, being that apoE, a major ligand of VLDLR, is a leading genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, VLDLR may play ... VLDLR has also been shown to reduce the chances of premature heart disease and stroke because VLDLR clears out lipoprotein A ( ... Mutations of this gene may lead to a variety of symptoms and diseases, which include type I lissencephaly, cerebellar ...
Correlation with cerebral collaterals in internal carotid artery occlusive disease". J Neurol. 253 (10): 1285-1291. doi:10.1007 ... The left and right internal carotid arteries arise from the left and right common carotid arteries. The posterior communicating ... Anterior cerebral artery (left and right) Anterior communicating artery Internal carotid artery (left and right) Posterior ... The vertebral arteries arise from the subclavian arteries. The anterior communicating artery connects the two anterior cerebral ...
Likewise, using carotid ultrasonography on the premise of identifying carotid artery disease as a cause of syncope also is not ... Although sometimes investigated as a cause of syncope, carotid artery problems are unlikely to cause that condition. The San ... or in neurological diseases (e.g., Parkinson's disease). Factors that influence fainting are fasting long hours, taking in too ... flow of blood in the vertebral artery or the internal thoracic artery, due to a proximal stenosis (narrowing) and/or occlusion ...
HVLA is also contraindicated in patients with vascular disease such as aneurysms, or disease of the carotid arteries or ... This soft tissue can become restricted due to psychogenic disease, overuse, trauma, infectious agents, or inactivity, often ... and are less commonly used to treat systemic conditions such as asthma and Parkinson's disease. OMT is based on the idea that a ... commenting that it has a view of disease which had no meaning outside its own closed system. In a 1995 conference address, the ...
Unilateral arcus is a sign of decreased blood flow to the unaffected eye, due to carotid artery disease or ocular hypotony. ... and ischaemic vascular disease and death in general population: prospective cohort study". BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 343: ... Lipids in health and disease. 7: 7. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-7-7. PMC 2279133 . PMID 18331643. Christoffersen, M; Frikke-Schmidt, ... of 12,745 Danes followed up for a mean of 22 years found that it had no clinical value as a predictor of cardiovascular disease ...
"Unilateral visual loss in bright light may indicate ipsilateral carotid artery occlusive disease and may reflect the inability ... ophthalmic artery, or ciliary arteries may cause this transient monocular blindness. Atherosclerotic carotid artery: Amaurosis ... An unusual symptom of carotid artery occlusive disease". Arch. Neurol. 36 (11): 675-6. doi:10.1001/archneur.1979.00500470045007 ... The most common source of these athero-emboli is an atherosclerotic carotid artery. However, a severely atherosclerotic carotid ...
... of clot formation process by treatment with the low-molecular-weight heparin nadroparin in patients with carotid artery disease ...
Madan SA, John F, Pyrsopoulos N, Pitchumoni CS (2015). "Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and carotid artery atherosclerosis in ... Variations in IMT between different locations (e.g. the common carotid artery, the carotid bulb and the internal carotid artery ... The carotid artery is the usual site of measurement of IMT and consensus statements for carotid IMT have been published for ... "Use of carotid ultrasound to identify subclinical vascular disease and evaluate cardiovascular disease risk: a consensus ...
... there is plausibility and initial evidence to support snoring as an independent source of carotid artery/cardiovascular disease ... Vibration of the carotid artery with snoring also lends itself as a potential mechanism for atherosclerotic plaque rupture and ... New studies associate loud "snoring" with the development of carotid artery atherosclerosis. Amatoury et al. demonstrated that ... Researchers also hypothesize that loud snoring could create turbulence in carotid artery blood flow. Generally speaking, ...
Imaging studies in severe internal carotid artery (ICA) disease report an incidence of watershed stroke ranging from 19% to 64 ... Momjian-Mayor, I; Baron, J.C. (2005). "The Pathophysiology of Watershed Infarction in Internal Carotid Artery Disease: Review ... Thrombi at the split of the internal carotid artery in the neck may cause watershed infarcts between the territories of the ... anterior cerebral artery and the middle cerebral artery. The resulting watershed infarcts in carotid artery blockages have ...
... for research and for management of patients with carotid artery disease. (.). This has evolved to the use of 3-D plaque volume ... With Maria Dicicco, RVT, he pioneered the measurement of total plaque area (TPA) in a patient's carotid artery using ultrasound ... Carotid Plaque Area: A Tool for Targeting and Evaluating Vascular Preventive Therapy Stroke. 2002;33:2916-2922 Stroke 1986; 17( ... Carotid Plaque Area: A Tool for Targeting and Evaluating Vascular Preventive Therapy Stroke. 2002;33:2916-2922 Stroke 1999;30: ...
... carotid artery diseases MeSH C10.228.140.300.200.331 --- carotid artery thrombosis MeSH C10.228.140.300.200.345 --- carotid ... carotid artery injuries MeSH C10.900.250.300.300 --- carotid artery, internal, dissection MeSH C10.900.250.300.400 --- carotid- ... carotid artery injuries MeSH C10.228.140.300.350.500.300 --- carotid artery, internal, dissection MeSH C10.228.140.300.350.500. ... carotid artery, internal, dissection MeSH C10.228.140.300.200.360 --- carotid stenosis MeSH C10.228.140.300.200.490 --- carotid ...
The retinal arteries may show spontaneous pulsations. If carotid occlusive disease results in ophthalmic artery occlusion, ... The syndrome has been associated with occlusion of the common carotid artery, internal carotid artery, and less frequently the ... Retinal artery occlusion (such as central retinal artery occlusion or branch retinal artery occlusion) leads to rapid death of ... such as coronary artery disease and especially carotid atherosclerosis). Consequently, those with transient blurring of vision ...
... carotid artery disease and problems of the cervical and lumbar spine. During his surgical internship, he met and married ... "Patient Selection for Carotid Endarterectomy." In: Bederson JB, Tuhrim S, (eds), Treatment of Carotid Disease: A Practitioner's ... Bederson is co-author of Treatment of Carotid Disease: A Practitioner's Manual (ISBN 1-879284-55-3), 12 chapters and 53 peer- ... "Carotid Endarterectomy: Description, Complications, and Adjuncts." In: Bederson JB, Tuhrim S (eds), Treatment of Carotid ...
... may also be contraindicated in patients with cerebrovascular disease, carotid artery stenosis, and ... but patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease limiting myocardial function (such as angina pectoris) may not. Applying ...
"Relationship of Periodontal Disease to Carotid Artery Intima-Media Wall Thickness : The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities ( ... Periodontal disease is the most common disease found in dogs and affects more than 80% of dogs aged three years or older. Its ... Disease primers. 3: 17038. doi:10.1038/nrdp.2017.38. PMID 28805207. Bonner M. To Kiss or Not to Kiss. A cure for gum disease. ... The "extent" of disease refers to the proportion of the dentition affected by the disease in terms of percentage of sites. ...
... tightening of the artery), aortic, carotid or vertebral artery dissection, various inflammatory diseases of the blood vessel ... Large vessel disease involves the common and internal carotid arteries, the vertebral artery, and the Circle of Willis. ... middle cerebral artery, stem, and arteries arising from the distal vertebral and basilar artery. Diseases that may form thrombi ... Small vessel disease involves the smaller arteries inside the brain: branches of the circle of Willis, ...
Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency Carnosinase deficiency Carnosinemia Caroli disease Carotenemia Carotid artery ... Marie-Tooth disease type 1A Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1C Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease ... Marie-Tooth disease type 2C Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2D Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4A Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease ... d Charcot disease Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease deafness dominant type Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease ...
... there is plausibility and initial evidence to support snoring as an independent source of carotid artery/cardiovascular disease ... New studies associate loud "snoring" with the development of carotid artery atherosclerosis.[7] Amatoury et al.[8] demonstrated ... Vibration of the carotid artery with snoring also lends itself as a potential mechanism for atherosclerotic plaque rupture and ... that snoring vibrations are transmitted to the carotid artery, identifying a possible mechanism for snoring-associated carotid ...
These vessels are the ACA (anterior cerebral artery), MCA (middle cerebral artery), and ICA (internal carotid artery). The ... such as the external carotid artery or the superficial temporal artery to replace its circulation. The arteries are either sewn ... branches of the internal carotid artery inside the skull. When the internal carotid artery becomes completely blocked, the fine ... Moyamoya disease is a disease in which certain arteries in the brain are constricted. Blood flow is blocked by the constriction ...
The common carotid artery divides into the internal and the external carotid arteries. The internal carotid artery becomes the ... Dissections within the carotid arteries or vertebral arteries may compromise blood flow to the brain due to thrombosis, and ... Many of these diseases can be asymptomatic until an acute event, such as a stroke, occurs. Cerebrovascular diseases can also ... From the basilar artery are two posterior cerebral arteries. Branches of the basilar and PCA supply the occipital lobe, brain ...
More rarely the maxillary or a branch of the external carotid artery can be ligated. The bleeding can also be stopped by intra- ... U.S. Centers for Disease Control Published 2001-05-11.. *^ a b c Wackym,, James B. Snow,... P. Ashley (2009). Ballenger's ... Connective tissue disease. *Drugs-aspirin, fexofenadine, warfarin, clopidogrel, prasugrel, isotretinoin, desmopressin and ... Chronic liver disease-cirrhosis causes deficiency of factor II, VII, IX,& X ...
PM2.5 is also linked to carotid artery thickening and increased risk of acute myocardial infarction. Existing cardiovascular ... Coronary artery disease (also known as coronary heart disease and ischemic heart disease) Peripheral arterial disease - disease ... congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, carditis, aortic aneurysms, peripheral artery disease, thromboembolic disease ... Coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease involve atherosclerosis. This may be caused by high blood ...
... which occurs when the central retinal artery or one of the arteries that branch off of it becomes blocked. ... Learn about symptoms and treatment of retinal artery occlusion, ... Carotid artery disease (narrowing of neck blood vessels). * ... A retinal artery occlusion occurs when the central retinal artery or one of the arteries that branch off of it becomes blocked ... Retinal Artery/Vein Occlusion News. Takes a moment to load .... See vitamins & supplements to support the vascular system. ...
Carotid artery disease occurs when the carotid arteries become narrowed or blocked. ... Carotid artery disease occurs when the carotid arteries become narrowed or blocked. ... Ultrasound of the carotid arteries (carotid duplex ultrasound) to see how well blood is flowing through the carotid artery ... Carotid artery disease occurs when fatty material called plaque builds up inside the arteries. This buildup of plaque is called ...
... clogs the arteries that bring blood to your brain and head. Find out how it cause a stroke. ... In carotid artery disease, a waxy substance (plaque) ... If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow ... Carotid Artery Disease (Texas Heart Institute) Also in Spanish * What Is Carotid Artery Disease? (National Heart, Lung, and ... Carotid artery disease (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Carotid artery stenosis -- self-care (Medical Encyclopedia) ...
"Carotid Artery Interventions For Cerebrovascular Disease Compared." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 6 Jun. 2011. Web. ... 2011, June 6). "Carotid Artery Interventions For Cerebrovascular Disease Compared." Medical News Today. Retrieved from. https ... complications as compared to men after intervention for carotid occlusive disease and that the indications for carotid ... or stroke before undergoing their carotid artery procedure (5.3 percent vs. 5.3 percent). It was noted that symptomatic women ...
Embolic stroke due to severe carotid artery stenosis can be preventable. In this article, we review the management of carotid ... Accelerated carotid artery disease after high-dose head and neck radiotherapy: is there a role for routine carotid duplex ... Carotid duplex ultrasonography is the screening modality of choice for the detection of cervical carotid artery disease. ... Carotid Artery Disease in Patients with Cancer. In: Yusuf S., Banchs J. (eds) Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease. Springer, Cham ...
... blockage of the right carotid artery. His doctor will not do surgery, even though Dad experiences dizzy spells. The left artery ... blockage of the right carotid artery. His doctor will not do surgery, even though Dad experiences dizzy spells. The left artery ... Can Mental Stress Lead to Heart Disease? Can depression and anxiety cause heart disease? Get the facts in this Missouri ... It is unusual to have dizziness due to carotid stenosis unless that carotid somehow provides flow to posterior circulation due ...
Carotid artery disease causes a narrowing of the major blood vessels that supply the brain. It is caused by atherosclerosis and ... Key points about carotid artery disease. * Carotid artery disease is narrowing of the carotid arteries. These arteries deliver ... Carotid Artery Disease. Facebook Twitter Linkedin Pinterest Print. What is carotid artery disease?. The carotid arteries are ... Can carotid artery disease be prevented?. You can prevent or delay carotid artery disease in the same way that you would ...
Carotid artery disease is a form of peripheral artery disease. ... or carotid artery stenosis) occurs when the major arteries in ... The carotid arteries, located on either side of your neck, run from your aorta (in your chest) to your brain. ... Carotid artery disease is a form of peripheral artery disease.. Carotid Artery Disease Symptoms and Diagnosis. As plaque builds ... Carotid artery disease (or carotid artery stenosis) occurs when the major arteries in your neck, which deliver oxygen-rich ...
Learn about carotid artery disease symptoms, prevention and treatment options including stenting, angioplasty and carotid ... Carotid endarterectomy, Carotid stent procedure, Brain aneurysm, Brain AVM, Carotid artery disease, Carotid artery stenosis, ... Aortoiliac disease, Carotid artery disease, Cerebrovascular disease, Mesenteric ischemia, Renovascular disease, Varicose veins ... Aneurysm surgery, Abdominal aortic aneurysm, Carotid artery disease, Mesenteric ischemia, Peripheral artery disease, Thoracic ...
Learn about carotid artery disease symptoms, prevention and treatment options including stenting, angioplasty and carotid ... options for asymptomatic carotid artery disease and surgical techniques for treating symptomatic carotid artery disease as well ... Carotid artery reconstruction, Carotid endar...terectomy, Endovascular treatment, Mesenteric artery bypass, Carotid angiogram, ... Embolization therapy, Sclerotherapy, Carotid angioplasty and stenting, Endovascular aneurysm repair, Carotid artery dis...ease ...
Occlusion of Internal Carotid Artery in Kimuras Disease. Tomonori Tamaki and Node Yoji ... with moyamoya-like collateral vessels arising from the right opthalamic artery. Kimuras disease is a chronic disease ... a unique case of Kimuras disease in which cerebral infarction was caused by occlusion of the right internal carotid artery. A ... have only been a few case reports in which occlusion of the internal carotid artery was associated with autoimmune disease, and ...
Care guide for Carotid Artery Disease. Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of ... What is carotid artery disease?. Carotid artery disease is a condition that causes narrow or blocked carotid arteries. Your ... What causes carotid artery disease?. Carotid artery disease is caused by atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). ... What are the signs and symptoms of carotid artery disease?. You may have no signs or symptoms. Most commonly, carotid artery ...
Carotid artery disease causes more than a third of all strokes, which strike more than 750,000 people in the United States each ... Treatment of carotid artery disease helps prevent stroke Carotid artery disease causes more than a third of all strokes, which ... Story From NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital: Treatment of carotid artery disease helps prevent stroke. Carotid artery disease ... Carotid artery disease develops when these arteries become narrowed, or occluded, by an accumulation of a fatty substance ...
Atherosclerotic disease of the carotid artery may be associated with the following: Amaurosis fugax (transient ipsilateral ... Carotid artery stenting has increased risk of external carotid artery occlusion compared with carotid endarterectomy. J Vasc ... Carotid artery exposed prior to carotid endarterectomy (coil present in internal carotid artery). ... Atherosclerotic Disease of the Carotid Artery Q&A Which conditions are associated with atherosclerotic disease of the carotid ...
... embolization is considered the most common mechanism causing ischemic strokes from atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid bulb ... Atherosclerotic Disease of the Carotid Artery Q&A What is the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic disease of the carotid artery? ... Carotid artery stenting has increased risk of external carotid artery occlusion compared with carotid endarterectomy. J Vasc ... Carotid artery exposed prior to carotid endarterectomy (coil present in internal carotid artery). ...
Much of it comes from oxygen-rich blood delivered by the carotid arteries. These travel from the bodys main… ... Symptoms of carotid artery disease. Carotid artery disease often causes no signs or symptoms until it severely narrows or ... Treating carotid artery disease. Carotid artery disease can be treated with medication or with a procedure to remove the ... Diagnosing carotid artery disease. The starting point for detecting carotid artery disease is an ultrasound exam. It uses sound ...
View Carotid Artery Disease clinical trial results here. ... of Repatha on the change in burden of coronary artery disease ( ... Carotid Artery Disease. September 4, 2017 Amgen announced results from an exploratory virtual histology sub-study of the ... involving the right coronary artery (RCA), the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and the left circumflex artery (LCx), as ... Group reported results of a phase III study of Generx Ad5FGF-4 for myocardial ischemia due to coronary artery disease. The 100 ...
Atherosclerosis is a degenerative disease of the arteries resulting in plaques consisting of necrotic cells, lipids, and ... encoded search term (Atherosclerotic Disease of the Carotid Artery) and Atherosclerotic Disease of the Carotid Artery What to ... Carotid artery stenting has increased risk of external carotid artery occlusion compared with carotid endarterectomy. J Vasc ... Carotid artery exposed prior to carotid endarterectomy (coil present in internal carotid artery). ...
MU Health Care heart and vascular surgeons offer advanced care for carotid artery disease. Learn about our comprehensive, ... Carotid artery disease treatment. Carotid artery disease treatment may include:. Medicine and monitoring. Medicines can reduce ... diabetes or a family history of carotid artery disease can contribute to plaque build-up. Many people with carotid artery ... After carotid artery surgery, you will have better blood flow through your carotid arteries and a lower chance of stroke. ...
... William S. Kerwin1,2 ... asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis-medical therapy alone versus medical therapy plus carotid endarterectomy or stenting," ... K. Yamada, S. Yoshimura, M. Kawasaki et al., "Embolic complications after carotid artery stenting or carotid endarterectomy are ... recently symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with carotid artery disease," Atherosclerosis, vol. 207, no. 2, pp. 434-439, ...
Carotid disease is very highly associated with stroke. ... Carotid artery disease is when the carotid arteries, which ... Carotid artery disease, also known as carotid artery stenosis, is a narrowing of the carotid arteries commonly caused by a ... Treatment of Carotid Disease Carotid artery disease may be treated by medical therapy, surgery or by a combination depending on ... Carotid Artery Stenting. The treatment of carotid artery disease has evolved over the years and continues to evolve. In recent ...
Dukes heart and vascular specialists treat carotid artery disease with techniques that reduce increase blood flow to the brain ... If you have a family history of carotid artery disease, like carotid artery stenosis or carotid artery occlusion, or your ... Lifestyle changes can be key to managing carotid artery disease, including carotid artery stenosis and carotid artery occlusion ... Carotid artery disease is the buildup of plaque along the inner wall of the arteries that causes narrowing and restricts blood ...
... a narrowing of the carotid arteries in the neck, in the eMedicineHealth Image Collection Gallery. ... See an illustration picture of and learn about carotid artery disease, ... Picture of Carotid Arteries Disease. Carotid artery disease, or carotid artery stenosis, is a condition in which there is ... Carotid artery occlusion occurs when there is complete blockage of the blood vessel. Occluded carotid arteries increase the ...
... also called carotid artery diseases - occurs when a fatty substance called plaque or atherosclerosis builds up inside an artery ... The plaque buildup can narrow an artery, or block it completely. ... Carotid stenosis - also called carotid artery disease - occurs ... Carotid artery angioplasty and stenting is the widening of a carotid artery and inserting a tube or stent to keep it open. This ... When carotid arteries become narrowed by 70 percent or if someone has had a stroke, opening the carotid artery is considered. ...
Diseases : Brain Damage, Brain Ischemia, Carotid Artery Narrowing, Carotid Stenosis, Cerebral Stroke, Oxidative Stress, Stroke ... Diseases : Arterial Thickening, Carotid Artery Narrowing, Intima Media Thickening Pharmacological Actions : Anti-atherogenic, ... Diseases : Atherosclerosis, Carotid Artery Narrowing, Intima Media Thickening , Osteoporosis, Osteoporosis: Age-Related ... 10 Abstracts with Carotid Artery Narrowing Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ...
  • Mayo Clinic researchers are working to improve the diagnosis and treatment of carotid artery disease. (mayoclinic.org)
  • It's here, too, that you'll find the renowned Florida Hospital Pepin Heart Institute, known across the country for its advances in cardiovascular disease prevention, diagnosis, treatment and research. (floridahospital.com)
  • As with most diseases and conditions, early diagnosis of these oft-silent killers remains critical in treatment, which CVR Medical (TSX-V:CVM)(OTCQB:CRRVF) hopes it revolutionize with its Carotid Stenotic Scan, or CSS. (baystreet.ca)
  • In order to address the needs for stratified and personalised therapeutic interventions, this approach will be the first of its kind in cardiovascular and other chronic diseases in general. (europa.eu)
  • Carotid Artery Stiffness and Diastolic Function in Subjects without Known Cardiovascular Disease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between carotid artery stiffness and diastolic function in a cohort of subjects without known cardiovascular risk factors and/or overt cardiovascular disease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Worried about cardiovascular disease? (dignityhealth.org)
  • Our Dignity Health Central Coast cardiovascular team will provide a personalized treatment option for you based on your overall health, age, severity of heart disease, and lifestyle. (dignityhealth.org)
  • Dignity Health's award-winning cardiovascular doctors offer personalized carotid artery disease treatment and prevention on the Central Coast of California. (dignityhealth.org)
  • MRI measurements of wall thickness in the carotid arteries improve cardiovascular disease risk assessment, according to a new study appearing in the journal Radiology . (medicalxpress.com)
  • The carotid artery serves as window into the cardiovascular system," said study lead author Bruce A. Wasserman, M.D., from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore. (medicalxpress.com)
  • However, research suggests that IMT offers only minor improvement in cardiovascular disease risk prediction when added to the Framingham risk score, a commonly used measure that takes into account factors like cholesterol, smoking and family history. (medicalxpress.com)
  • It can also see the adventitia, a vessel layer that may have an important role in cardiovascular risk because small vessels proliferate there, leading to thickening of the artery, which may be responsible for early disease development and progression. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Worth pre-ordering- fully updated, Cardiovascular Disease: Diet, Nutrition and Emerging Risk Factors, 2nd Edition. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • After adjustment for traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, the association with TNFR-I (P = 0.007) and fibrinogen (P = 0.033) remained significant. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Wall thickness measurements of the carotid arteries using MRI improves cardiovascular disease risk assessment. (rsna.org)
  • Researchers measured carotid artery wall thickness in 698 men and women with no known history of cardiovascular disease. (rsna.org)
  • 40 years , when the risk of cardiovascular disease also becomes significant. (who.int)
  • Diseases commonly related to tooth loss include, but are not limited to: cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, although severe hemodynamic compromise appears to underlie combined cortical and internal WS infarction, artery-to-artery embolism may play an important role in isolated cortical WS infarcts. (ahajournals.org)
  • Based on the well-established notion that severe systemic hypotension can cause bilateral WS infarction, 7,10 hemodynamic failure is classically thought to cause WS infarcts in ICA disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4,8,9,11 Susceptibility of the WS areas is thought to result from their situation of "distal field," where perfusion pressure is lowest, 12 and repeated episodes of hypotension in the presence of severe ICA disease is regarded as facilitating WS infarcts. (ahajournals.org)
  • Bruit sounds may not always be present, even when carotid artery disease is severe. (ausrad.com)
  • After an impromptu Life Line mobile clinic screening indicated that Mrs. Jellinghaus had carotid artery disease, her primary care physician referred her to Dr. Dietzek, who confirmed her left carotid artery was 80 percent blocked, which is very severe. (newmilfordhospital.org)
  • Plaques, which consist of cholesterol and other material, start to build up when there is damage inside the arteries. (medbroadcast.com)
  • When plaques in the arteries break open or crack, platelets stick to the crack and form a blood clot. (medbroadcast.com)
  • TAXINOMISIS aims to develop a new concept for carotid artery disease stratification by analysing the pathobiology of symptomatic plaques, identifying disease mechanisms, and developing a multiscale risk stratification model, which integrates clinical and personalised data, plaque and cerebral image processing and computational modelling and novel biomarkers for high- vs low-risk states. (europa.eu)
  • TAXINOMISIS aims to develop a new concept for carotid artery disease stratification by analysing the pathobiology of symptomatic plaques, identifying disease mechanisms and developing a multiscale risk stratification model. (europa.eu)
  • Carotid artery disease, which refers to the build-up of atherosclerotic plaques in carotid bifurcations, is a highly prevalent and devastating disease of our times with enormous socioeconomic burden. (europa.eu)
  • Taken together, the phenotypic characteristics and the numerous possible molecular mediators of the destabilization of carotid plaques provide potential platforms for future research. (helsinki.fi)
  • Carotid plaques were classified as normal, homogeneous or heterogeneous according to morphology. (eur.nl)
  • Conclusions About one-third of Chinese adults had carotid plaques. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Calcium, fibrous tissue, clumps of cholesterol and other cellular debris that gather at microscopic injury sites within the artery form plaques. (epharmapedia.com)
  • Doctors label the case as carotid artery disease when a lot of these plaques accumulate, narrowing the carotid artery and substantially restricting blood flow. (epharmapedia.com)
  • The plaque or clot can travel through the bloodstream and get stuck in one of your brain's smaller arteries. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Additionally, pieces of plaque and/or blood clots sometimes break away and lodge in the brain's smaller arteries, further restricting the blood flow. (umms.org)
  • TCAR (or transcarotid arterial revascularization) - With TCAR, a 1-2- centimeter incision is made above the collarbone to place a catheter into the carotid artery, which temporarily reverses the flow of blood away from the brain. (lvhn.org)
  • This can be done by evaluating the carotid Doppler and maybe even perfoming a transcranial doppler to evaluate the posterior circulation. (medhelp.org)
  • METHODS: Ninety-two healthy subjects underwent transthoracic echocardiographic Doppler and carotid echo-tracking studies. (biomedsearch.com)