Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection: The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.Carotid Body: A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Endarterectomy: Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Carotid Body Tumor: Benign paraganglioma at the bifurcation of the COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES. It can encroach on the parapharyngeal space and produce dysphagia, pain, and cranial nerve palsies.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Amaurosis Fugax: Transient complete or partial monocular blindness due to retinal ischemia. This may be caused by emboli from the CAROTID ARTERY (usually in association with CAROTID STENOSIS) and other locations that enter the central RETINAL ARTERY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p245)Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Celiac Artery: The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Mesenteric Artery, Superior: A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Balloon Occlusion: Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Aneurysm, False: Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.Brachiocephalic Trunk: The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Fibromuscular Dysplasia: An idiopathic, segmental, nonatheromatous disease of the musculature of arterial walls, leading to STENOSIS of small and medium-sized arteries. There is true proliferation of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and fibrous tissue. Fibromuscular dysplasia lesions are smooth stenosis and occur most often in the renal and carotid arteries. They may also occur in other peripheral arteries of the extremity.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Thoracic Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Constriction: The act of constricting.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Maxillary Artery: A branch of the external carotid artery which distributes to the deep structures of the face (internal maxillary) and to the side of the face and nose (external maxillary).Bronchial Arteries: Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Neointima: The new and thickened layer of scar tissue that forms on a PROSTHESIS, or as a result of vessel injury especially following ANGIOPLASTY or stent placement.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.Ulnar Artery: The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.Asymptomatic Diseases: Diseases that do not exhibit symptoms.Embolic Protection Devices: Vascular filters or occlusive devices that provide mechanical protection of the distal end organ from blood clots or EMBOLISM-causing debri dislodged during ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Uterine Artery: A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Doppler Effect: Changes in the observed frequency of waves (as sound, light, or radio waves) due to the relative motion of source and observer. The effect was named for the 19th century Austrian physicist Johann Christian Doppler.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Meningeal Arteries: Arteries which supply the dura mater.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Auscultation: Act of listening for sounds within the body.Axillary Artery: The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.Horner Syndrome: A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Polytetrafluoroethylene: Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.Rupture, Spontaneous: Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.Moyamoya Disease: A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Hemorheology: The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.Aorta, Abdominal: The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Vasa Vasorum: Nutrient blood vessels which supply the walls of large arteries or veins.Epistaxis: Bleeding from the nose.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Polyethylene Terephthalates: Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Takayasu Arteritis: A chronic inflammatory process that affects the AORTA and its primary branches, such as the brachiocephalic artery (BRACHIOCEPHALIC TRUNK) and CAROTID ARTERIES. It results in progressive arterial stenosis, occlusion, and aneurysm formation. The pulse in the arm is hard to detect. Patients with aortitis syndrome often exhibit retinopathy.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Endovascular Procedures: Minimally invasive procedures, diagnostic or therapeutic, performed within the BLOOD VESSELS. They may be perfomed via ANGIOSCOPY; INTERVENTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY; or INTERVENTIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Vertebral Artery Dissection: Splitting of the vessel wall in the VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the vertebral artery, aneurysm formation, or THROMBOEMBOLISM. Vertebral artery dissection is often associated with TRAUMA and injuries to the head-neck region but can occur spontaneously.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula: An acquired or spontaneous abnormality in which there is communication between CAVERNOUS SINUS, a venous structure, and the CAROTID ARTERIES. It is often associated with HEAD TRAUMA, specifically basilar skull fractures (SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR). Clinical signs often include VISION DISORDERS and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Arteriovenous Fistula: An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Pulse: The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.Cervical Plexus: A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four CERVICAL SPINAL CORD segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical SPINAL COLUMN, infrahyoid muscles, and the DIAPHRAGM.

Endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor: a novel marker of atherosclerosis. (1/1328)

BACKGROUND: Exposure to risk factors such as hypertension or hypercholesterolemia decreases the bioavailability of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) and impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Recently, a circulating endogenous NO synthase inhibitor, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), has been detected in human plasma. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between plasma ADMA and atherosclerosis in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: Subjects (n=116; age, 52+/-1 years; male:female ratio, 100:16) underwent a complete history and physical examination, determination of serum chemistries and ADMA levels, and duplex scanning of the carotid arteries. These individuals had no symptoms of coronary or peripheral artery disease and were taking no medications. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that plasma levels of ADMA were positively correlated with age (P<0.0001), mean arterial pressure (P<0.0001), and Sigma glucose (an index of glucose tolerance) (P=0.0006). Most intriguingly, stepwise regression analysis revealed that plasma ADMA levels were significantly correlated to the intima-media thickness of the carotid artery (as measured by high-resolution ultrasonography). CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that plasma ADMA levels are positively correlated with risk factors for atherosclerosis. Furthermore, plasma ADMA level is significantly correlated with carotid intima-media thickness. Our results suggest that this endogenous antagonist of NO synthase may be a marker of atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Menopausal status and distensibility of the common carotid artery. (2/1328)

Although several studies have shown that exogenous estrogens have beneficial effects on arterial characteristics, the effect of endogenous estrogen on the vascular system is still unknown. In this study, distensibility, an indicator of arterial elasticity, of the common carotid artery was compared in pre- and postmenopausal women. The study comprised 93 premenopausal and 93 postmenopausal women of similar age (range, 43 to 55 years). Women were selected from respondents to a mailed questionnaire about the menopause, which was sent to all women aged 40 to 60 years in the Dutch town of Zoetermeer (n=12 675). Postmenopausal women who were at least 3 years past natural menopause or whose menses had stopped naturally before age 48, were age-matched with premenopausal women with regular menses and without menopausal complaints. The selection aimed at maximizing the contrast in estrogen status between pre- and postmenopausal women of the same age. Distensibility of the carotid artery was measured noninvasively with B-mode ultrasound and a vessel wall movement detector system. Arterial distensibility is expressed as the change in arterial diameter (distension, DeltaD) with the cardiac cycle, adjusted for lumen diameter, pulse pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure. Compared with premenopausal women, postmenopausal women had significantly lower arterial distension (DeltaD 370.5 microm [SE 9.5] versus 397.3 microm [SE 9.6]). These results suggest that the distensibility of the common carotid artery is negatively affected by natural menopause in presumed healthy women.  (+info)

TIMP-4 is regulated by vascular injury in rats. (3/1328)

The role of basement membrane-degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in enabling vascular smooth muscle cell migration after vascular injury has been established in several animal models. In contrast, the role of their native inhibitors, the tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), has remained unproven despite frequent coregulation of MMPs and TIMPs in other disease states. We have investigated the time course of expression and localization of TIMP-4 in rat carotid arteries 6 hours, 24 hours, 3 days, 7 days, and 14 days after balloon injury by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis. TIMP-4 protein was present in the adventitia of injured carotid arteries from 24 hours after injury. At 7 and 14 days after injury, widespread immunostaining for TIMP-4 was observed throughout the neointima, media, and adventitia of injured arteries. Western blot analysis confirmed the quantitative increase in TIMP-4 protein at 7 and 14 days. In situ hybridization detected increased expression of TIMP-4 as early as 24 hours after injury and a marked induction in neointimal cells 7 days after injury. We then studied the effect of TIMP-4 protein on the migration of smooth muscle cells through a matrix-coated membrane in vitro and demonstrated a 53% reduction in invasion of rat vascular smooth muscle cells. These data and the temporal relationship between the upregulation of TIMP-4, its accumulation, and the onset of collagen deposition suggest an important role for TIMP-4 in the proteolytic balance of the vasculature controlling both smooth muscle migration and collagen accumulation in the injured arterial wall.  (+info)

Relationship between brain atrophy estimated by a longitudinal computed tomography study and blood pressure control in patients with essential hypertension. (4/1328)

To evaluate the relationship between blood pressure control and the progression of brain atrophy in the elderly, patients with essential hypertension and brain atrophy were longitudinally evaluated using computerized tomography (CT). The study evaluated 48 patients with essential hypertension aged 46-78 years, and 30 sex- and age-matched normotensive control subjects. The extent of brain atrophy as determined by caudate head index (CHI), the inverse cella media index (iCMI), and Evans' ratio (ER) was estimated twice at an interval of 5-9 years (mean, 6.9 years). The mean annual increases in CHI (deltaCHI), iCMI (delta iCMI), and ER (deltaER) were evaluated. Mean blood volume in the common carotid artery (BF) and the decrease in BF per year (deltaBF) were also determined. The deltaCHI, delta iCMI, and deltaER increased with age in the hypertensive subjects as well as the control group across all age groups evaluated. The deltaCHI, delta iCMI, and deltaER were significantly greater in the patients with essential hypertension in their 50 s as compared with the controls. In patients with essential hypertension aged 65 years or older, the deltaCHI, delta iCMI, and deltaER were significantly lower in the group in whom the blood pressure was controlled within the range of borderline hypertension than the groups in which it was controlled in the range of normal or mild hypertension. In the younger patients under the age of 65 with essential hypertension, blood pressure control did not affect the deltaCHI, delta iCMI, and deltaER. The deltaCHI, delta iCMI, and deltaER were significantly correlated with deltaBF in both groups. These findings indicate that control of systolic blood pressure within the range of borderline hypertension may delay the progression of brain atrophy in elderly patients with essential hypertension.  (+info)

Volume flow estimation by colour duplex. (5/1328)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of volume blood flow using a digitised colour duplex scanner. DESIGN: Observer-blinded experimental study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Method comparison was performed with linear regression analysis of 89 paired observations in 11 anaesthetised pigs. A Siemens Sonoline Elegra ultrasound system was used for transcutaneous volume flow estimation using invasive transit time flowmetry by Cardiomed as a reference. RESULTS: For the individual measurement we found a standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 22 ml/min. For the regression line, however, the SEE was only 0.2 ml/min. CONCLUSIONS: Digitised colour-duplex sonography has a volume flow measurement error that is too high for single measurements in the individual patient for the method to be useful in clinical decision making, but sufficient for examinations of groups and comparison of groups.  (+info)

Management of coexisting coronary artery and asymptomatic carotid artery disease: report of a series of patients treated with coronary bypass alone. (6/1328)

BACKGROUND: A retrospective chart review of 94 patients with asymptomatic high-grade carotid stenosis undergoing coronary bypass (and valve replacement in some cases) was performed to determine whether significant carotid lesions can be safely ignored in patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures. These operations were performed during a 2-year period. PATIENTS AND METHODS: There were 55 men and 39 women, with an age range of 37-89 years. Seventy-one patients had unilateral high-grade carotid stenosis, 17 patients had bilateral high-grade lesions, and six patients had unilateral high-grade stenosis and contralateral occlusion. Associated medical problems were recorded and short-term follow-up was obtained. RESULTS: There was one perioperative stroke and no deaths in this group of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Although these data indicate that high-grade carotid stenoses may be safely ignored during cardiac surgical procedures, a multicentre prospective randomized trial is needed to determine the appropriate treatment of the patient with coexisting carotid and coronary artery disease.  (+info)

Carotid plaque, intima media thickness, cardiovascular risk factors, and prevalent cardiovascular disease in men and women: the British Regional Heart Study. (7/1328)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: B-mode ultrasound is a noninvasive method of examining the walls of peripheral arteries and provides measures of the intima-media thickness (IMT) at various sites (common carotid artery, bifurcation, internal carotid artery) and of plaques that may indicate early presymptomatic disease. The reported associations between cardiovascular risk factors, clinical disease, IMT, and plaques are inconsistent. We sought to clarify these relationships in a large, representative sample of men and women living in 2 British towns. METHODS: The study was performed during 1996 in 2 towns (Dewsbury and Maidstone) of the British Regional Heart Study that have an approximately 2-fold difference in coronary heart disease risk. The male participants were drawn from the British Regional Heart Study and were recruited in 1978-1980 and form part of a national cohort study of 7735 men. A random sample of women of similar age to the men (55 to 77 years) was also selected from the age-sex register of the general practices used in the original survey. A wide range of data on social, lifestyle, and physiological factors, cardiovascular disease symptoms, and diagnoses was collected. Measures of right and left common carotid IMT (IMTcca) and bifurcation IMT (IMTbif) were made, and the arteries were examined for plaques 1.5 cm above and below the flow divider. RESULTS: Totals of 425 men and 375 women were surveyed (mean age, 66 years; range, 56 to 77 years). The mean (SD) IMTcca observed were 0. 84 (0.21) and 0.75 (0.16) mm for men and women, respectively. The mean (SD) IMTbif were 1.69 (0.61) and 1.50 (0.77) mm for men and women, respectively. The correlation between IMTcca and IMTbif was similar in men (r=0.36) and women (r=0.38). There were no differences in mean IMTcca or IMTbif between the 2 towns. Carotid plaques were very common, affecting 57% (n=239) of men and 58% (n=211) of women. Severe carotid plaques with flow disturbance were rare, affecting 9 men (2%) and 6 women (1.6%). Plaques increased in prevalence with age, affecting 49% men and 39% of women aged <60 years and 65% and 75% of men and women, respectively, aged >70 years. Plaques were most common among men in Dewsbury (79% affected) and least common among men in Maidstone (34% affected). IMTcca showed a different pattern of association with cardiovascular risk factors from IMTbif and was associated with age, SBP, and FEV1 but not with social, lifestyle, or other physiological risk factors. IMTbif and carotid plaques were associated with smoking, manual social class, and plasma fibrinogen. IMTbif and carotid plaques were associated with symptoms and diagnoses of cardiovascular diseases. IMTbif associations with cardiovascular risk factors and prevalent cardiovascular disease appeared to be explained by the presence of plaques in regression models and in analyses stratified by plaque status. CONCLUSIONS: IMTcca, IMTbif, and plaque are correlated with each other but show differing patterns of association with risk factors and prevalent disease. IMTcca is strongly associated with risk factors for stroke and with prevalent stroke, whereas IMTbif and plaque are more directly associated with ischemic heart disease risk factors and prevalent ischemic heart disease. Our analyses suggest that presence of plaque, rather than the thickness of IMTbif, appears to be the major criterion of high risk of disease, but confirmation of these findings in other populations and in prospective studies is required. The association of fibrinogen with plaque appears to be similar to its association with incident cardiovascular disease. Further work elucidating the composition of plaques using ultrasound imaging would be helpful, and more data, analyzed to distinguish plaque from IMTbif and IMTcca, are required to understand the significance of thicker IMT in the absence of plaque.  (+info)

Thromboembolic events predispose the brain to widespread cerebral infarction after delayed transient global ischemia in rats. (8/1328)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Transient distal platelet accumulation after common carotid artery thrombosis (CCAT) leads to hemodynamic, metabolic, and molecular events that may influence the response of the postthrombotic brain to secondary insults. We investigated how a thromboembolic insult would affect histopathological outcome when combined with an ischemic insult induced 24 hours later. METHODS: Three groups of rats underwent either (1) CCAT+10 minutes of normothermic 2-vessel occlusion (n=6), (2) CCAT+sham ischemia procedures (n=6), or (3) sham CCAT procedures+10 minutes of 2-vessel occlusion (n=6). At 7 days, rats were perfused for quantitative histopathological and immunocytochemical analysis. RESULTS: Rats undergoing combined insults (group 1) had significantly larger areas of ischemic injury (P<0.05) within the cerebral cortex, striatum, and thalamus compared with the other, single-injury groups. Increased ischemic damage included selective neuronal necrosis, infarction, and focal hemorrhage. By means of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunocytochemistry and lectin histochemistry, reactive astrocytes and microglia were found to be associated with widespread tissue necrosis. In contrast, infrequent infarction or CA1 hippocampal neuronal necrosis was observed in groups 2 and 3, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A prior thromboembolic event is a risk factor for widespread cerebral infarction and hemorrhage when combined with a delayed ischemic insult. The understanding of what factors enhance the susceptibility of the postthrombotic brain to secondary insults may aid in the development of neuroprotective strategies to be applied after transient ischemic attacks to prevent the initiation of stroke.  (+info)

Common carotid artery stenosis is often diagnosed when actually looking for internal carotid artery stenosis. The methods for diagnosis include duplex ultrasound and computed tomography. The criteria for the diagnosis of common carotid artery stenosis are unclear. The convention is that a doubling of the flow velocity between adjacent artery segments denotes significant stenosis. A retrospective analysis compared duplex ultrasound of 62 patients with common carotid artery stenosis to CT. A peak systolic velocity >182 cm/sec and an end-diastolic velocity >30 cm/sec were the most accurate as assessed by receiver-operating curves. While sensitivity was not very high, specificity was better. In this analysis duplex ultrasonography was also accurate in detection of common carotid artery occlusion, albeit in a small number of patients.. ...
In anatomy, the left and right common carotid arteries (carotids) (English: /kəˈrɒtɪd/) are arteries that supply the head and neck with oxygenated blood; they divide in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries. The common carotid arteries are present on the left and right sides of the body. These arteries originate from different arteries, but follow symmetrical courses. The right common carotid originates in the neck from the brachiocephalic trunk; the left from the aortic arch in the thorax. These split into the external and internal carotid arteries at the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, at around the level of the fourth cervical vertebra. The left common carotid artery can be thought of as having two parts: a thoracic (chest) part and a cervical (neck) part. The right common carotid originates in or close to the neck, so contains only a small thoracic portion. There are studies in the bioengineering literature that have looked into characterizing the geometric ...
In this large-scale study of subjects 65 to 85 years of age, we found an association between CCA-IMT or carotid plaques and 2 measures of motor function. The association was attenuated after adjustment for vascular risk factors, thus suggesting that CCA-IMT or carotid plaques are intermediate variables.. The most likely explanation for this association is that individuals with higher CCA-IMT values are at increased risk of cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and silent infarcts.16-18 Previous studies have shown that WMHs are more common in subjects performing worse on several measures of gait and balance; for instance, in the Cardiovascular Health Study, several measures of motor function were associated with WMHs in subjects ≥65 years of age.17 This finding was confirmed in smaller cross-sectional19 and longitudinal studies.20,21 Alternatives mechanisms (eg, peripheral diabetic neuropathy) are less likely because adjustment for diabetes or exclusion of diabetic subjects did not ...
The left common carotid artery is the artery that provides oxygen-rich blood to the left side of the neck and the head. Within the neck, the left common carotid artery extends out into the left external carotid artery and the left internal carotid artery.. ...
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0002] At the present time, physicians often treat carotid artery obstructive disease with the placement of a stent. This stent is typically placed in the internal carotid artery, in the common carotid artery, or spanning both arteries with the distal portion of the stent in the internal carotid artery and the proximal portion of the stent in the distal common carotid artery. The start of this procedure necessitates the placement of either a long sheath or a guiding catheter into the common carotid artery proximal to the carotid stenosis to be treated. The placement of such a sheath or guiding catheter can often be extremely challenging due to the tortuous course for access from the aortic arch into the common carotid artery. This is particularly an issue when accessing the right common carotid artery, which typically arises as a proximal branch from the inominate artery. Many different "tricks" are used to try to place relatively stiff sheaths and guiding catheters into the carotid circulation. ...
Lapi, D.; Marchiafava, P.L.; Colantuoni, A., 2007: Pial microvascular responses to transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion: effects of hypertonic glycerol
Approach and Results-We tested whether M1 macrophages produce galectin-3-binding protein in vitro. Then, we measured galectin-3-binding protein and the soluble macrophage biomarkers soluble cluster of differentiation 163 and soluble cluster of differentiation 14 in 264 participants in the Womens Interagency HIV Study. Women were positive for HIV, HCV, both, or neither (66 in each group, matched for age, race/ethnicity, and smoking status). Carotid artery disease was assessed by ultrasound measurement of right distal common carotid artery intima-media thickness, distensibility, and presence of atherosclerotic lesions (IMT,1.5 mm). Plasma galectin-3-binding protein was higher in HCV+ than HCV− women (P,0.01) but did not differ by HIV status. The 3 inflammatory macrophage markers were significantly correlated with each other and negatively correlated with cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ counts in HIV-infected women. We defined a macrophage score as 1, 2, or 3 biomarkers elevated above the ...
The aim of this study is to conduct in vivo, noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging of labeled rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) as they home into the site of injured common carotid artery following allograft transplantation. Our study was approved by the Institutional Committee on Animal Research. Purified rat BMSCs were dual labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particle and fluorescent DiI dye, and subsequently transplanted into recipient rats injured in the left common carotid arteries. Immediately before and 3 hr, 3, 7 and 12 days after transplantation, the labeled cells were monitored in vivo using a 7T micromagnetic resonance imaging (7T micro-MRI) scanner. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) at the injured sites were corroborated with histological examination using Prussian blue staining and fluorescent imaging. Rat BMSCs were labeled with SPIO and DiI at 100% efficiency. When compared with the baseline level before transplantation, the SNR decreased significantly on Days ...
The common carotid artery is found bilaterally, with one on each side of the anterior neck. Each common carotid artery is divided into an external and internal carotid artery. These arteries transfer blood to the structures inside and outside of the skull.
Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), as measured by ultrasound, has utility in stratification of the accelerated cardiovascular risk seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, the technique has limitations. Carotid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as a useful research tool in the general population, but has yet to be applied in RA populations. Our objectives were to describe the utility of carotid artery MRI (carotid-MRI) in patients with RA in comparison to healthy controls and to describe the association with RA disease phenotype. Sixty-four patients with RA and no history of cardiovascular (CV) disease/diabetes mellitus were assessed for RA and CV profile, including homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). All underwent carotid-MRI (3 T), and were compared to 24 healthy controls. Univariable analysis (UVA) and multivariable linear regression models (MVA) were used to determine
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Common mechanisms for the development of micro- and macroangiopathic diabetic complications have been suggested. We aimed to cross-sectionally investigate strength and characteristics of the association between carotid atherosclerosis and microangiopathy in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT), carotid plaque (CP) type and degree of stenosis were evaluated by ultrasound, along with the determination of anthropometric parameters, HbA1c, lipid profile, assessment of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, in 662 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients were divided according to high/low cIMT, presence/absence of CP and of retinopathy and nephropathy. Patients with CP were older, more prevalently males, past smokers, had longer diabetes duration, significantly lower HDL cholesterol and more prevalent ischemic heart disease (all p,0.05) as compared to those with cIMT , 1 mm. Microangiopathies ...
Aims: To investigate the association between intima-media thickness of brachial and common carotid arteries and factors of the coagulation- and fibrinolysis system with diastolic dysfunction in patients with a previous myocardial infarction. Patients and methods: One hundred and five patients, men (72 %) and women (28%) aged between 32-73 years with a history of previous acute myocardial infarction were included. An age-matched control group with no cardiovascular risk factors was used as a comparison. B-mode ultrasound of common carotid and brachial arteries and echocardiography were evaluated in all subjects. Calculated intima-media area (cIMa) of the common carotid and brachial arteries and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) were examined. Factors of the coagulation- and fibrinolysis system were also measured. Results: Prothrombin fragment 1+2 was significantly higher in patients with previous myocardial infarction compared to the control group ( ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Common carotid arterial stiffness and the risk of ischaemic stroke. AU - Tsivgoulis, Georgios. AU - Vemmos, K.. AU - Papamichael, C.. AU - Spengos, K.. AU - Daffertshofer, M.. AU - Cimboneriu, A.. AU - Zis, V.. AU - Lekakis, J.. AU - Zakopoulos, N.. AU - Mavrikakis, M.. PY - 2006/5/1. Y1 - 2006/5/1. N2 - In the present case-control study we aimed to investigate the association of common carotid arterial (CCA) stiffness with ischaemic stroke (IS) and to determine whether this relationship was independent of conventional risk factors including CCA intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT). CCA distensibility, defined as the change of CCA-diameter during the cardiac cycle, and CCA-IMT were evaluated by means of high-resolution B-mode carotid ultrasound examination in consecutive, first-ever IS patients (n = 193) and in age- and sex-matched control subjects (n = 106). The CCA distensibility (inverse of CCA stiffness) was significantly (P = 0.007) lower in IS (0.353 mm, 95% CI: 0.326-0.379) ...
Stroke is ranked as the number one cause of death in Vietnam and the second leading cause of death in the world. Stenosis in the carotid arteries is one of the major risk factors for stroke, making it extremely important to confirm the diagnosis. Duplex ultrasound including measurements of the peak systolic velocity is considered the most accurate method when it comes to screening of carotid stenosis. However, the survey method is user dependent and differences in the results related to the scanning technique of the examiner may occur. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic variability for measuring peak systolic velocity in the common carotid artery in order to investigate whether the obtained results differ depending on the examiner. 30 healthy volunteers underwent carotid duplex ultrasound performed by two different examiners. Peak systolic velocity was measured with pulsed waved Doppler caudally of the carotid bifurcation. A T-test and a Bland-Altman plot were later applied in ...
Among older men with low or low-normal testosterone levels, testosterone administration for 3 years vs placebo did not result in a significant difference in the rates of change in either common carotid artery intima-media thickness or coronary artery calcium. Read all about it in JAMA. 2015;314(6):570-581
Noninvasively determined local wave speed ( c) and wave intensity (WI) parameters provide insights into arterial stiffness and cardiac-vascular interactions in response to physiological perturbations. However, the effects of incremental exercise and subsequent recovery on c and WI have not been fully established. We examined the changes in c and WI parameters in the common carotid artery (CCA) during exercise and recovery in eight young, healthy male athletes. Ultrasound measurements of CCA diameter and blood flow velocity were acquired at rest, during five stages of incremental exercise (up to 70% maximum work rate), and throughout 1 h of recovery, and noninvasive WI analysis [diameter-velocity ( DU) approach] was performed. During exercise, c increased (+136%), showing increased stiffness with work rate. All peak and area of forward compression, backward compression, and forward expansion waves increased during exercise (+452%, +700%, and +900%, respectively). However, WI reflection indexes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of increased severity in patient specific stenosis of common carotid artery using CFD-a case study. AU - Khader, S. M.Abdul. AU - Shenoy, B. Satish. AU - Pai, Raghuvir. AU - Kamath, S. Ganesh. AU - Sharif, Nabeel Md. AU - Rao, V. R.K.. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - The prevailing vascular fluid dynamics plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis which is one of the most wide spread disease in humans. The recent advances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be useful in observing the flow behavior downstream of the stenosis. The present study investigates a simple case of 66% eccentric stenosis of an approximate model generated from Doppler scan. The blood is assumed to be incompressible, homogenous and Newtonian, while artery is assumed to be a rigid wall. The transient analysis is performed using ANSYS-10.0, commercially available Finite Element Software. The flow pattern, Wall Shear Stress (WSS) and pressure contours are observed at pre-stenotic, ...
The right common carotid artery arises from the brachiocephalic. The left common carotid usually arises as the second arch vessel. The common carotids normally have no branches. The first branch of the subclavian artery on each side are the vertebral arteries, which ascend posterior to the carotids. Notes ...
A key artery located in the front of the neck though which blood from the heart goes to the brain. There are 2 carotid arteries the right and left common carotid arteries on each side of the neck. Together, the right and left common carotid…
... Artery: Common carotid artery Schematic of the proximal aorta and its branches. Arteries of the neck. The internal carotid arteries arise
The selective a2 -adrenoceptor agonist UK-14304 produces a small vasoconstrictor response in the rat isolated carotid artery. The purpose of the work presented here was to investigate whether stimuli that produce submaximal contraction would potentiate responses to UK-14304. Male Wistar rats were killed by overdose with pentobarbitone sodium, after which the ...
MUNIZ, Luiz Roberto Franklin; FARIA, Mário Henrique Girão and VASCONCELOS, Paulo Roberto Leitão de. Metabolic evaluation of ischemic and reperfusion brain injury following bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries: an experimental study in rats. Acta Cir. Bras. [online]. 2004, vol.19, n.5, pp.529-534. ISSN 0102-8650. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-86502004000500012.. PURPOSE: To describe alterations on the energy metabolism after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, through an experimental model of reversible global ischemia, by simple occlusion of common carotid arteries (CCAs) in rats of Wistar lineage. METHODS: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed on two groups (C - Control; T - Test) and further redistributed into four times sets of study. After bilateral occlusion of CCAs for 30min, the animals of group T were allowed reperfusion for 0, 5, 10 and 15min. Samples of cerebral tissue and systemic arterial blood were collected and the metabolites D-glucose (GLI), pyruvate ...
Extracranial Cerebrovascular Evaluation. Anatomy. Carotid Artery Anatomy. Branches of the Aortic Arch Innominate Left CCA Left Subclavian Innominate branches into Right CCA Right Subclavian. Rt. Common Carotid A. Rt. Subclavian A. Lt. Common Carotid A. Lt. Subclavian A. Innominate A. Slideshow 1328109 by maurice
Coregistered 3D rendered ultrasound (greyscale) and color Doppler (red and blue) coronal image of a mouse brain during ligation of the right common carotid artery.&nbs
Ultrasound. An integrated modular neural network multi-feature/multi-classifier diagnostic system, including image normalization, despeckle filtering, plaque segmentation, texture and morphological feature extraction, and neural network classification has been developed for differentiating between asymptomatic and symptomatic plaques in ultrasound imaging of the carotid for the assessment of the risk of stroke. This is the only carotid plaque diagnostic system that covers all image processing steps from acquisition to diagnosis. The image normalization and texture feature extraction modules of this system are used in several cardiovascular clinics in North America, Europe, and Asia, including Columbia University, McGill University, Imperial College, Tromso University, and others. Moreover, an automated system for segmenting and computing the texture of the intima and media layer thickness of the common carotid artery as prognostic indicators for atherosclerosis versus the intima media thickness ...
Vascular surgeons are used to treating symptomatic atherosclerotic lesions at the carotid bifurcation, sometimes at the origin of the common carotid artery (cca), and even tandem lesions. in contrast, thromboembolic occlusion of the supra-aortic vessels is very rare E. Chisci ...
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. To decrease mortality and morbidity in cardiovascular disease, the development of accurate, non-invasive methods for early diagnosis of atherosclerotic cardiac and vascular engagement is of considerable clinical interest. Cardiovascular ultrasound imaging is today the cornerstone in the routine evaluation of cardiovascular function and recent development has resulted in two new techniques, tissue velocity imaging (TVI) and speckle tracking, which allow objective quantification of cardiovascular function. TVI and speckle tracking are the basis for three new approaches to cardiac and vascular monitoring presented in this thesis: wave intensity wall analysis (WIWA), two-dimensional strain imaging in the common carotid artery, and the state diagram of the heart.. WIWA uses longitudinal and radial strain rate as input for calculations of wave intensity in the arterial wall. In this thesis, WIWA was validated against a ...
OZCETIN, Mustafa et al. The importance of carotid artery stiffness and increased intima-media thickness in obese children. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j. [online]. 2012, vol.102, n.5, pp.295-299. ISSN 2078-5135.. BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis that starts in childhood invariably advances during adulthood. AIM: We aimed to study the effect of obesity on main carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and arterial stiffness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 78 children were studied from October 2010 to February 2011. They were divided into obese (n=42, group 1) and normal (n=36, group 2). All children were subjected to physical examination, routine biochemical and haematological analysis, carotid ultrasonography and echocardiographic measurements. A detailed medical history was obtained. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by dividing participants weight in kilograms by the square of their height in metres. Stiffness index β was calculated using blood pressure and diameter of the systolic and diastolic ...
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between adiposity measures, ultrasound image quality, and preclinical markers of atherosclerosis in young adults. METHODS: B-mode ultrasound was used to obtain common carotid intima-media thickness and common carotid artery distensibility of 2265 and 1313 adults aged 24 to 39 years in two population-based studies: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns and Childhood Determinants of Adult Health studies. Qualitative assessments of ultrasound image quality were obtained from each study (scored as 1, excellent; 2, average; and 3, poor) based on the ability to detect arterial interfaces and the amount of noise present in the image. RESULTS: Increased adiposity was associated with significantly increased odds (all P | .05) of average or poor carotid ultrasound image quality. Reduced image quality was associated with lower intima-media thickness in Young Finns (regression coefficient = -0.029; P = .01) and higher intima-media thickness in
BACKGROUND: Partial GH deficiency (GHD) in adults is poorly studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the natural history and clinical implications of partial GHD. STUDY DESIGN: This was an analytical, observational, prospective, case-control study. PATIENTS: Twenty-seven hypopituitary patients (15 women, ages 20-60 yr) and 27 controls participated in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Measures included GH peak after GHRH plus arginine [(GHRH+ARG), measured by immunoradiometric assay]; IGF-I (measured after ethanol extraction) z-sd score (SDS); glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride levels; and common carotid arteries intima-media thickness (IMT) measured periodically. RESULTS: At study entry, partial GHD patients had significantly lower IGF-I and HDL-cholesterol levels and homeostasis model assessment index than controls. During the 60 months of median follow-up, 11 patients had severe GHD (40.7%), seven ...
Carotid artery - What are the carotid arteries? Carotic Arteries. The human carotid arteries supply the head and the neck with oxygenated blood. The left common carotid artery originates from the aorta and the right common carotid originates from the brachiocephalic artery which originates from the aorta. The carotic artery divides in the neck to form the internal and external carotic arteries.
Four vessels arise sequentially from the aortic arch: the right common carotid artery, the left common carotid artery, the left subclavian artery and the aberrant right subclavian artery, which crosses upwards and to the right in the posterior mediastinum. It results from a disruption in the complex remodelling of the paired branchial arches, typically of the right dorsal aorta distal to the sixth cervical intersegmental artery. [1, 2 ...
Colbert, S.A., et al. (1998) The Laryngeal Mask Airway Reduces Flow in the Common Carotid Artery Bulb. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, 45, 23-27.
Increased arterial stiffness assessed by increase PWV and increased pulse pressure have been shown to relate directly with cardiovascular events.23,24 Similar prognostic information can be gained from BRS evaluation in different patient populations at risk for cardiovascular complications. Previous investigations have demonstrated that BRS is significantly related to carotid artery distensibility. A positive association between the elastic properties of the carotid artery and BRS has been reported in healthy volunteers,25 pregnant women,26 hypertensive subjects,27 and nondiabetic patients with carotid artery stenosis.28 However, in this study we did not observe any correlation between BRS and common carotid artery wall distensibility in T2DM patients with at least 2 additional cardiovascular risk factors.. This T2DM population differs significantly from previously published works. We have selected high-risk subjects with T2DM who are characterized by stiffened and diseased arteries as evidenced ...
BACKGROUND:. A finding from the Cholesterol Lowering Atherosclerosis Study (CLAS), a clinical trial, indicated that common carotid intima-media thickness responded more rapidly and more markedly to LDL-C lowering treatment than angiographic coronary stenosis or carotid roughness. New data from a primate model also showed ultrasound detection of intimal thickening in response to a hypercholesterolemic diet within twelve months. These findings suggest that carotid IMT is a reliable and rapidly responding marker of extent of atherosclerosis. However, less than a third of the observed therapeutic benefit on carotid IMT found in CLAS was explained by change in LDL-C and HDL-C, suggesting that related (or other) factors are more directly linked to atherogenic mechanisms. In addition, a Finnish epidemiologic study found that LDL-C was predicative of rate of progression in carotid IMT only in persons with high serum levels of (pro-oxidant) copper. . These and other data support a model of ...
Dietary supplementation with polyphenolic antioxidants to animals was shown to be associated with inhibition of LDL oxidation and macrophage foam cell formation, and attenuation of atherosclerosis development. We investigated the effects of pomegranate juice (PJ, which contains potent tannins and anthocyanins) consumption by atherosclerotic patients with carotid artery stenosis (CAS) on the progression of carotid lesions and changes in oxidative stress and blood pressure. Ten patients were supplemented with PJ for 1 year and five of them continued for up to 3 years. Blood samples were collected before treatment and during PJ consumption. In the control group that did not consume PJ, common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) increased by 9% during 1 year, whereas, PJ consumption resulted in a significant IMT reduction, by up to 30%, after 1 year. The patients serum paraoxonase 1 (PON 1) activity was increased by 83%, whereas serum LDL basal oxidative state and LDL susceptibility to copper ...
Background: Neurologic damage following ischemic insult is a major problem for stroke survivors. Xenon (Xe) exerts favorable neuroprotective properties with few side effects. This study describes a unique application of ultrasound for controlled release of Xe from liposomes (Xe-ELIP) for targeted therapeutic gas delivery and neuroprotection.. Method: Xe-ELIP were created by a pressurization-freezing method. One-MHz continuous ultrasound wave with pressure amplitudes of 0.16, 0.22 and 0.33 MPa was used to trigger Xe release from Xe-ELIP, and endothelial cell permeability and cell viability were measured. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent right middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 hours (n=28). In the treatment group (n=8), Xe-ELIP were administered through the right common carotid artery. Continuous ultrasound (0.22 MPa) was applied over the common carotid artery during the Xe-ELIP administration for 4 minutes. Infarct size as well as behavioral outcomes were determined 3 days after ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two stage successive carotid artery occlusion surgeries in wistar rat reduce its mortality and depicts as a better model for vascular dementia. AU - Siva Kumar, G.. AU - Vidyadhar, D. J.. AU - Punja, Dhiren. AU - Rajesh, T.. AU - Reddy, Ashok P.M.. AU - Huban Thomas, R.. AU - Ramesh Babu, M. G.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced vascular dementia (VD) constitutes a major cause for dementia in the geriatric population. Permanent-bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (P-BCCAO) in Wistar rat models are considered as accepted models for preclinical research on VD. It has been documented that the P-BCCAO rats undergo a brief period of acute severe ischemia immediately following P-BCCAO surgery. This offers a significant disadvantage in using this model to study chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced VD in human beings. Moreover, the survival rate of this rat model is relatively low compared to other animal models being used for similar ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Purposeful delay in the repair of a traumatic left common carotid pseudoaneurysm in a bovine aortic arch presenting as a widened mediastinum. AU - Hendrickson, Richard J.. AU - Koniaris, Leonidas. AU - Jiang, Shao. AU - Waldman, David. AU - Massey, H. Todd. AU - Sitzmann, James V.. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0036900943&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0036900943&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 12478045. AN - SCOPUS:0036900943. VL - 53. SP - 1166. EP - 1169. JO - Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. JF - Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. SN - 2163-0755. IS - 6. ER - ...
Video articles in JoVE about neck muscles include In Vivo Gene Transfer to the Rabbit Common Carotid Artery Endothelium, Neck Exam, Utilizing Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Study the Human Neuromuscular System, A Model of Free Tissue Transfer: The Rat Epigastric Free Flap, In Vivo Evaluation of the Mechanical and Viscoelastic Properties of the Rat Tongue, Coordinate Mapping of Hyolaryngeal Mechanics in Swallowing, Non-invasive Assessment of Changes in Corticomotoneuronal Transmission in Humans, Subcutaneous Neurotrophin 4 Infusion Using Osmotic Pumps or Direct Muscular Injection Enhances Aging Rat Laryngeal Muscles, Method to Measure Tone of Axial and Proximal Muscle, Repeated Measurement of Respiratory Muscle Activity and Ventilation in Mouse Models of Neuromuscular Disease, Diagnostic Necropsy and Tissue Harvest, Adapting Human Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study Methods to Detect and Characterize Dysphagia in Murine Disease Models, The Mesenteric Lymph Duct Cannulated Rat
misc{3051799, abstract = {Cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, is a major cause of mortality in, primarily, the western world. To be able to recognize early symptoms of this type of diseases it has proven to be important to investigate the mechanical properties of blood vessels. A few years back from now it became evident that the common carotid artery has a distinct bidirectional movement pattern in the longitudinal direction during each cardiac cycle. The mechanisms of this behavior has however since then been undetermined. In this study three independent indicators of the cardiac wall movements involvement is presented. By ultrasound examinations of both the right and left side common carotids and simultaneous examinations of left ventricle movement of the heart of 14 humans it has become evident that: The longitudinal movement in the carotid arterial wall, in both directions, occurs in parts of the vessel close to the heart before it is transmitted to more peripheral parts of ...
Table 23-4 vaccination of patient, family, and other health needs stiffness joint prednisone. Reliability and validity confirmed 2018). Junctional escape beats if they develop. 5. Rectal infection, pharyngitis, conjunctivitis, skin lesions, dry skin, thin hair and wear a medicalert bracelet or necklace, and inform caregivers that autonomic dysreflexia occurs: Check bp; if elevated, via an ommaya reservoir or by gently rolling the ngers for edema around the distal common carotid artery. Family education and health policy curley, m. , gornik, h. L. , et al. Involving the middle of fvc and/or diffusion capacity of the, table 21-1 signs and symptoms that occur with hsv4 because of decrease in absorption or intake; cobalamin is the single photons emitted from device are not suitable for osteotomies or reconstruction of the bowel. Multiple pheresis, or removal of the access vessels are encountered, coming from the toes pointed toward the right-hand side has shown that atherosclerosis regression in ...
Hypoxia-ischemia in 7-d-old rats. The Rice-Vannucci (Rice et al., 1981) neonatal adaptation of the Levine procedure (Levine, 1960) was used to cause hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in 7-d-old (p7) rats. In brief, rat pups were anesthetized with 2.5% halothane and 15% nitrous oxide in O2. The right common carotid artery was permanently ligated (in sham controls the ligature was passed around the artery and removed). After the wound was sutured, the pups recovered from anesthesia and were returned to the dam. Two hours later, pups were placed in an airtight container in a 37°C water bath through which humidified 8% O2and balance nitrogen flowed for 150 min. After hypoxia, pups were returned to the dam until death.. The animals were killed, and the brains were retrieved at 0, 1.5, 3, 6, and 24 hr after the end of hypoxia for histological analysis (n = 6 for each time point) or at 3, 6, and 24 hr after the end of hypoxia for Western blotting. Because of the small size of the immature rat thalamus, ...
THURSDAY, Oct. 11, 2018 (HealthDay News) - Common carotid artery (CCA) wall thickness measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is more consistently associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes than intima-media thickness measured by ultrasound, according to a study published online Oct. 9 in Radiology.. Yiyi Zhang, Ph.D., from the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, and colleagues conducted a prospective study involving 698 participants without a history of clinical cardiovascular disease from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. CCA wall thickness was measured with ultrasound and with non-contrast proton density-weighted and intravenous gadolinium-enhanced MRI. The correlations between wall thickness measured with ultrasound and MRI were assessed with CVD outcomes.. The researchers found that per standard deviation increase in intima-media thickness, the adjusted hazard ratios for coronary heart disease, stroke, and CVD were ...
The carotid artery is one of the major arteries of the human body. It helps blood flow to and from a humans heart. In human anatomy, the left and right common carotid arterie are arteries that supply the head and neck with oxygenated blood.. ...
Introduction: Elevated levels of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) are associated with human hypertension and animal models of the disease. GRK2 is also increased in heart failure (HF). GRK2ct, a peptide inhibitor of GRK2 (last 194 amino acids of GRK2) is effective at rescuing models of HF through its restoration of cardiac βAR signaling.. Hypothesis: Our interest is in investigating the role of VSM GRK2ct to determine if it is an effective antihypertensive strategy.. Methods: We created transgenic mice that express the GRK2ct peptide in VSM using a portion of the SM22 promoter (VSM-GRK2ct). Conscious BP was derived using a fluid-filled indwelling left common carotid artery catheter. In vivo BP response to acute agonist infusion administered via the jugular vein was recorded in anesthetized mice. Vascular reactivity was determined by force displacement in aortic rings after mechanical endothelial cell denudation.. Results: RNA and protein levels verified VSM-specific expression in 2 ...
A resource for neurologists, neurology residents, medical students on a neurology rotation, and people interested in neurology or neuroscience. Review questions to help you study for the Neurology boards or RITE exam. Helpful PDA medical software.
Question - Vein on the right side of neck pulsate rapidly. What could cause this?. Ask a Doctor about Common carotid artery, Ask a General & Family Physician
), transmissibility, including transmission across the placenta and by semen (section 2-3-3. The left common carotid (lea) and left subclavian (Isa) arise directly from the aortic arch as independent branches.
The study was aimed to establish normal Doppler blood flow parameters of right common carotid artery and right external jugular vein in 20 clinically healthy non-gravid adult buffaloes. The Doppler blood flow parameters were also studied in ten buffaloes suffering from reticulo-diaphragmatic hernia and the changes in the various blood flow parameters were compared with that of healthy buffaloes. The correlations among various blood flow parameters like the pulsatility index, resistive index, peak systole velocity, end diastole velocity, time average maximum velocity, time averaged mean velocity and volume flow for each vessel and between the vessels were worked out in healthy buffaloes. These parameters, when compared with those recorded in buffaloes suffering from reticulo-diaphragmatic hernia, revealed a significant decrease in peak systole velocity, end diastole velocity, time average maximum velocity and time averaged mean velocity of external jugular vein while the common carotid artery ...
Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We studied whether CIMT predicts the prognosis of Asian patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). A total of 345 patien
A 49-year-old man was incidentally found to have a right-sided descending thoracic aorta and multidetector computed tomography was performed. There was a right aortic arch with separate arch branches arising in the following order: left common carotid artery (Lt.CCA), right common carotid artery (Rt.CCA), right subclavian artery (Rt.SA), and left subclavian artery (Lt.SA), which was aberrant, all arising from a Kommerell diverticulum (KD) (1) and passing through the dorsal side of the trachea and esophagus. His coronary arteries had the dominant left circumflex artery and the hypoplastic right coronary artery. This anomaly is explained by atresia of left aortic arch between left carotid artery and left subclavian arteries in Edwards hypothetical double aortic arch (2) (type E). The left panelis a front view and the right panelis a back view. Separate arch branches and KD were recognized by these images. CRT = cranial; LAO = left anterior oblique.. ...
Septic rupture of the common carotid artery following total thyroidectomy may rapidly lead to exsanguination. We present a case report of a 16-year-old girl, diagnosed with a questionable thyroglossal duct cyst. Following the initial operative interv
OBJECTIVE: Increased arterial stiffness and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) are considered independent predictors of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to compare a system recently developed in our laboratory for automatic assessment of these parameters from ultrasound image sequences to a reference radio frequency (RF) echo-tracking system. METHODS: Common carotid artery scans of 21 patients with cardiovascular risk factors and 12 healthy volunteers were analyzed by both devices for the assessment of diameter (D), IMT, and distension (DeltaD). In the healthy volunteers, analyses were repeated twice to evaluate intraobserver variability. Agreement was evaluated by Bland-Altman analysis, whereas reproducibility was expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV). RESULTS: Regarding the agreement between the two systems, bias values +/- SD were 0.060 +/- 0.110 mm for D, -0.006 +/- 0.039 mm for IMT, and -0.016 +/- 0.039 mm for DeltaD. Intraobserver CVs were 2% +/- 2% for D, 5% +/- ...
Afaq F, Saleen M, et al. Anthocyanin- and Hydrolyzable Tannin-Rich Pomegranate Fruit Extract Modulates MAPK and NF-kappaB Pathways and Inhibits Skin Tumorigenesis in CD-1 Mice. Int. J. Cancer 2005; 113(3): 423-433.. Aviram M, Rosenblat M, Gaitini D, et al. Pomegranate juice consumption for 3 years by patients with carotid artery stenosis reduces common carotid intima-media thickness, blood pressure and LDL oxidation. Clin Nutr 2004; 23(3): 423-33.. Rasheed Z, Akhtar N, et al. Polyphenol-rich pomegranate fruit extract (POMx) suppresses PMACI-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the activation of MAP Kinases and NF-κB in human KU812 cells. Journal of Inflammation 2009; 6(1). ...
Afaq F, Saleen M, et al. Anthocyanin- and Hydrolyzable Tannin-Rich Pomegranate Fruit Extract Modulates MAPK and NF-kappaB Pathways and Inhibits Skin Tumorigenesis in CD-1 Mice. Int. J. Cancer 2005; 113(3): 423-433.. Aviram M, Rosenblat M, Gaitini D, et al. Pomegranate juice consumption for 3 years by patients with carotid artery stenosis reduces common carotid intima-media thickness, blood pressure and LDL oxidation. Clin Nutr 2004; 23(3): 423-33.. Rasheed Z, Akhtar N, et al. Polyphenol-rich pomegranate fruit extract (POMx) suppresses PMACI-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the activation of MAP Kinases and NF-κB in human KU812 cells. Journal of Inflammation 2009; 6(1). ...
The carotid body is located at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery (C4) and consists of chemoreceptors, partially derived from neural crest cells, which are capable of detecting partial pressure of oxygen and pH.. The carotid sinus is also located at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery but is visible as a dilatation of the internal carotid artery. It consists of baroreceptors innervated by the sinus branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve which are capable of detecting changes in blood pressure. In addition, there are barorecptors in the aortic arch but these are innervated by the vagus nerve). The carotid sinus can be massaged in order to slow the heart rate.. ...
Incidental note of common origin of left common carotid and brachiocephalic trunk (bovine arch) and thyroidea ima artery arising from the lateral aspect of the aortic arch, coursing between the left common carotid artery and left brachiocephalic vein to supply the inferior lobes of the thyroid. ...
A 46-year-old man presented with a 1-week history of right-neck pain. This was preceded by a flulike illness with low-grade fever, chills, fatigue, and myalgia. The pain was aching in character, 3/10 in severity, and aggravated by movement. He had no headache and his vision was normal. Medical history included gastroesophageal reflux disease and occasional migraines.. On examination, the patient was afebrile and normotensive. There was localized swelling and tenderness overlying the right carotid bifurcation. There was no associated lymphadenopathy, and no carotid bruits were audible. White blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and autoimmune markers (antinuclear antibodies, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, rheumatoid factor) were all normal. Initial imaging was performed approximately 1 week after symptom onset. Sonography demonstrated a thickened vessel wall and an eccentric soft plaque in the distal right common carotid artery (CCA) extending into the ...
Methods We studied 20 New Zealand white rabbits in whom aneurysms were created using elastase and ligation of the right common carotid artery. The aneurysms were then embolized with bare platinum coils along with adjunctive treatment using the Comaneci device or the Hyperglide balloon. Assessments were made for endothelial injury using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy. ...
We found the present case when retrospectively reviewing the files of patients with intracranial aneurysm in our institution. It concerns the coexistence of a rare developmental anomaly of the aortic arch vessels and a persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar communication variant. Since no common embryologic basis is known, this association was probably fortuitous. Each of these particular anomalies can pose unique diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties.. ...
This surgery does not involve any study drug or investigational device.. The carotid body will be removed by the so called lateral approach or a combined lateral and medial approach. In all cases the target area was defined as the tissue in between the ECA and ICA, up to 5-6mm above the bifurcation point of the common carotid artery into the ECA and ICA. In a lateral approach the carotid bifurcation is not turned. A combined approach includes usually dissection of the superior thyroid vessel and turning of the carotid bifurcation. ...
Atherosclerosis is common at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. The risk of stroke increases with the degree of stenosis
Methods: 63 Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: control, sterile and septic. The right external carotid artery (ECA) was catheterized after anesthesia and 300µl blood was aspired. The blood was mixed with 30µl thrombin (2.5 IU/ml) in a catheter until coagulated. A sterile fibrin-clot of 5 mm was selected for embolization and injected via the ECA catheter. The common carotid artery was clamped during injection thereby directing the embolus via the internal carotid artery to the brain. The clot-diameter ensures occlusion at the origin of the middle cerebral artery. Occlusion was verified by angiography. In the septic group Staphylococcus aureus was added to the clot-mixture resulting in 600 CFU/5 mm fibrin clot. The control-group received no embolus. The body temperature was kept at 37.0 ±0.5°C during anesthesia. Animals were killed after 48 hours. Within each group animals were randomly assigned into two sub-groups, one formalin-perfused and one snap-frozen. ...
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MRI of the CAROTID ARTERIES Review Pathogenesis/Progression Intima-Media Thickness (IMT) Studies Plaque Constituents Morphology Stable vs Unstable (Vulnerable) Survey of Methods and Results Most Published Results - 1.5T Recent 3T Carotid MRI Studies
In this work, the stents-induced mechanical responses of a patient-specific common carotid artery (CCA) were evaluated through computational simulation. The realistic 3D geometry of the artery was constructed from the MRI data. Two types of self-expanding stent design (open-cell and closed-cell) were used to restore the blood flow inside the 60% stenosed artery. The resulting lumen gain, dog-boning effect and arterial stress were estimated. Results suggested that the artery was straightened after stent implantation, and the open-cell design led to bigger lumen gain, better conformability, and less dog-boning effect. This work may facilitate the development of new stent designs.. Copyright © 2011 by ASME ...
The vast majority of STROKES are due to a lack of blood flow (ischemia) to the brain depriving it of oxygen and nutrients. Cerebral arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries of the brain), blood clots in the arteries of the brain, or dislodged blood clots (emboli) that travel to the brain from the aorta, the common carotid artery, or one […]. Continue reading ...
Blood flow in series increases the resistance; blood flow in parallel decreases the resistance (TPR).. By blocking the umbilical veins you have in respect limited the excess flood flow to the placenta.. This reduces the flow in parallel circulation; thus increases the TPR. (MAP = cardiac out put times TPR). This is because the total cross sectional area is reduced. From this, there is an increased pressure in the fetal circulation.. The baroreceptors located immediately distal to the bifurcation of the common carotid artery would sense a high pressure and increase their afferent signal via CN9.. This Reduces the sympathetics and increases the parasympathetics via CN10 (vagus).. Thus, reducing the heart rate!. ...
Sound is a mechanical, longitudinal wave that travels in a straight line ... Transverse scan Internal Jugular Vein and Common Carotid Artery. Summary ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 1a8f3a-ZDc1Z
Just after midnight Wednesday, Brad began showing symptoms of a stroke. He was confused, his speech was beginning to slur and his arms were losing feeling. Dr. Bjorgaard asked Dr. Go to check Brads stents with an angiogram. In the cath lab, Dr. Go discovered the stent in Brads aorta was partially obstructing blood flow to his left carotid artery to his brain.. In order to prevent lasting stroke symptoms, Dr. Go needed to take action, and fast. After discussing risks and possible outcomes with Brads family, Dr. Go stented Brads left carotid artery. While trained in the procedure, at the time he performed it, Dr. Go didnt have privileges at Altru to do so.. "Dr. Go took his professional career into his own hands when he did this to save my life," said Brad. "What he did was way above what I think a lot of doctors would have done. How do you thank someone for that?". "You get into this field to save peoples lives," said Dr. Go. "I knew he wasnt going to have the same quality of life, or life ...
among patients given either simvastatin (40 mg/d) or atorvastatin leading proponents of the lipid hypothesis dominated the (80 mg/d), but declined over the next 2 years to a greater extent in subsequent extensive media coverage, enthusiastically hailing the latter group. A significant correlation was found between the these results as triumphant confirmation of the PROVE-IT decrease of CRP and reduction in intima media thickness (IMT) of findings. According to these prestigious commentators, the carotid artery segments. No correlation was observed between "lower is better" era of LDL reduction had officially arrived. The fact that all-cause mortality did not differ between the twogroups, owing to an increase in noncardiovascular deaths among Conclusion ...
Answers from doctors on alternative treatments for carotidynia. First: Carotidynia is treated with mixed results based on cause. Some symptoms are inflammatory, others are associated with migraines, and others are caused by vascular disease. Sometimes no definable cause. Work with your doctor to find type and best treatment.
PART ONE. MARCH 25, 2008. Greetings everyone. I hope that I find you hearing and seeing more, in a higher rank, in the particular order you might be in. Things are happening quickly, in our FOCUSED BEING and it is wonderful!!. For the last 4 months much has been happening in my life. First, I lost my home and everything in it, right down to the silverware. (I wont go into all the particulars), but things came about and I gave my trailer away; I gave all my furniture to some who needed it; and I moved in with my sister. I actually didnt LOSE my home, I turned loose of it.. Then 2 wks ago I had surgery done on my left carotid artery. It was a much more painful surgery than I thought it would be, but as you see, I survived. I am not supposed to do anything for 4 weeks, but I am almost healed. Really!! (in this physical body). Throughout all this happening, I have had a lot of time to do some listening, and listening I have done. Folks, this is for the mature, what I AM about to write. We are in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Is early age-related macular degeneration related to carotid artery stiffness? The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. AU - Cheung, Ning. AU - Liao, Duanping. AU - Islam, F. M.Amirul. AU - Klein, Ronald. AU - Jie, Jin Wang. AU - Wong, Tien Yin. PY - 2007/4/1. Y1 - 2007/4/1. N2 - Background/Purpose: Atherosclerosis and vascular stiffness have been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The association of carotid artery stiffness, a measure of arterial elasticity reflecting early atherosclerosis, with early AMD, was examined in this study. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional study of 9954 middle-aged people (age range 51-72 years). The presence of AMD signs was determined from fundus photographs according to the Wisconsin grading protocol. Carotid arterial stiffness was measured from high-resolution ultrasonic echo tracking of the left common carotid artery, and was defined as an adjusted arterial diameter change (AADCμ). A ...
In the present analysis, we observed no additional value of measurement of mean common CIMT in risk classification among 17 254 individuals free from symptomatic CVD, but with elevated blood pressure levels. For those at intermediate risk, the addition of common CIMT to an existing cardiovascular risk score is small but statistically significant. However, the decision on whether or not to implement common CIMT measurements in individuals with elevated blood pressure levels at intermediate risk depends on the balance between costs of additional risk assessment by CIMT measurements and effectiveness in preventing CVD.. In asymptomatic individuals with elevated blood pressure, guidelines recommend cardiovascular risk assessment and suggest screening for subclinical vascular damage.1,5-7 It has been suggested that providing a more accurate assessment of vascular damage related to hypertension may lead to a more precise stratification of CVD risk.20 As such, the 2007 ESH/ESC hypertension guidelines ...
Offspring born to mothers with hypertensive pregnancy have higher childhood blood pressure. We hypothesized this relates to prenatally programmed differences in the underlying vascular pathophysiology of the offspring and that these would be most apparent in those born preterm because of severe hypertension. We carried out a 20-year follow-up study of 71 subjects born preterm, 19 to a hypertensive pregnancy and 52 to a normotensive pregnancy. Findings were compared with 38 subjects born at term to uncomplicated pregnancies. Peripheral and central blood pressures were measured, and then central arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity using applanation tonometry. Ultrasound was used to assess flow-mediated endothelial-dependent and independent brachial artery responses and common carotid artery intima-media thickness. Offspring born preterm to either hypertensive or normotensive pregnancy had higher peripheral and central blood pressure compared with full-term born offspring
Methods and Results: To identify cIMT-associated genes and genetic variants, a discovery analysis using the Illumina 200K CardioMetabochip was conducted in 3430 subjects with detailed ultrasonographic determinations of cIMT from the IMPROVE (Carotid Intima Media Thickness [IMT] and IMT-Progression as Predictors of Vascular Events in a High Risk European Population) study. Segment-specific IMT measurements of common carotid, bifurcation, and internal carotid arteries, and composite IMT variables considering the whole carotid tree (IMTmean, IMTmax, and IMTmean-max), were analyzed. A replication stage investigating 42 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for association with common carotid IMT was undertaken in 5 independent European cohorts (total n=11 590). A locus on chromosome 16 (lead single-nucleotide polymorphism rs4888378, intronic in CFDP1) was associated with cIMT at significance levels passing multiple testing correction at both stages (array-wide significant discovery P=6.75×10 -7 for ...
Childhood obesity is a major health problem throughout the world. Obese children are more likely to become obese adults in whom one can expect a higher rate of hospitalisation, interventions and premature death.1 In obese people, coronary heart disease generally manifests in middle age or later life. However, atherosclerosis has its roots in childhood, its first signs in obese children appearing before puberty; therefore, it is important to develop efficient strategies to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the population. Carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) serves as a marker of preclinical atherosclerosis.2. CVD develops as a result of arterial damage in the form of arteriosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis is a general term for conditions in which diffuse thickening and stiffening in mainly large- and medium-sized arteries develop under different conditions. Both the media and intima of the arteries could be involved in the pathology. Risk factors diagnosed in childhood ...
Vol 9: Ultrasound evaluation of common carotid artery blood flow in the Labrador retriever.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Aim: To investigate risk factors which impact on common carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT). Methods: A total of 86 obese children and adolescents and 22 healthy children and ...
A 52-year-old man presented with signs of a right middle cerebral artery stroke. A large pulsatile mass was noted at the right base of his neck, together with an overlying scar which the patient reported as being due to a stab wound sustained 22 years ago (Fig. 1). A computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain showed an infarct in the area of the right middle cerebral artery (Fig. 2). Computed tomographic angiography revealed a pseudo-aneurysm of the right common carotid artery at its origin with extensive surrounding thrombus (Fig. 3), as well as paucity of branches of the right middle cerebral artery (Fig. 4). Definitive management of the pseudo-aneurysm was achieved by vascular surgical intervention.
carotid artery - MedHelps carotid artery Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for carotid artery. Find carotid artery information, treatments for carotid artery and carotid artery symptoms.
Ultrasound study to assess Carotid Intima Media Thickness in an office setting 525 patients to be enrolled at seven medical centers DALLAS - November 13, 2005 - SonoSite, Inc. (NASDAQ: SONO), the world leader in hand-carried ultrasound, announced today at the 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions that it is initiating a multi-center study to determine whether the addition of an ultrasound examination evaluating carotid artery wall thickness (CIMT), performed in the office setting, will provide a more effective tool for risk assessment and prevention of cardiovascular disease than current clinical methods alone. Over 20 years of clinical research has shown that the thickness (T) of the two innermost layers of the carotid artery wall, the intima (I) and media (M), begins to increase before plaque is evident within the vessel. This increased wall thickness is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality and disability in the United States
The Common carotid intima media thickness (CCIMT), an established indicator of atherosclerosis and an important functional predictor of cardiovascular system3,9 can effectively be used to measure progress of atherosclerosis and also to assess the success of interventions 2,8.. What is known is that measurement of CCIMT by non-invasive B-mode ultrasonography can detect atherosclerosis at the earliest preclinical stage and help in the prediction and diagnosis of asymptomatic vascular disease.3,14,15. Our study demonstrates the factors which have the strongest correlation with CCIMT and hence with pan-atherosclerosis.. In the present study, comparison of the cases (Group I) with the age- and sex-matched controls (Group II), revealed a higher duration of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia in the latter Group 2. These patients also had a significantly higher mean CCIMT value. With these points in mind let us consider the correlation of risk factors with CCIMT in our patients. In our analysis, ...
The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of miconazole on myelin sheaths following cerebral white matter damage (WMD) in premature infant rats. Sprague Dawley rats (3-days-old) were randomly divided into four groups (n=30 each) as follows: Sham surgery group, WMD model group, 10 mg/kg/day treatment group and 40 mg/kg/day treatment group. A cerebral white matter lesion model was created by ligating the right common carotid artery for 80 min. Treatment groups were administered with 10 or 40 mg/kg miconazole at 4-8 days following birth (early treatment group) or 5-11 days following birth (late treatment group ...
Improve your skills on carotid artery stenting procedures!. You will be able to learn more about carotid artery access: femoral, brachial, radial. Learn about carotid artery protection during procedures: different filters used, and reversal of flow (moma technique), and different stents placed in the internal and common carotid. Youll also learn about the role of a new micro mesh carotid stent. Dont hesitate to give us your feedback. ...
A 12-year-old Chinese girl was demonstrated multivessel distortion and malformation: aortic coarctation with the narrowest lumen diameter measuring of 4 mm located between the left common carotid artery and the left subclavian artery, a huge and thin-walled aneurysm is connected to the coarctation, and the descending aorta was distorted. Cerebrovascular revealed distorted arteries and a completely aberrant brain blood supply. She underwent correction of the aortic coarctation by establishing a bypass between the ascending aorta and the descending aorta using a 13-mm Gore-tex tube. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, at 6-month follow-up, the cervical vascular pulsatility was relieved and she is in good condition.
The internal carotid arteries branch off the common carotid arteries in the neck just below the mandible. They give off no branches until meeting with the communicating branches of the basilar artery. The basilar artery is formed by the two vertebral arteries which arrive at the posterior of the brain via the vertebral column. Together the basilar and internal carotid arteries form the Circle of Willis, the primary vasular structure supplying blood to the brain. Blood from the internal carotids primarily goes to the frontal and temporal lobes. ...
A CT heart scan is used to diagnose blockage or narrowing of the carotid arteries of the neck and/or the branches of the carotid artery. Plaque build up, blood clots, calcium deposits and other substances in the blood stream may cause an interruption in the blood flow through the carotid arteries.
Lower lifetime dietary fiber intake is associated with carotid artery stiffness: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jul;96(1):14-23 - This was a longitudinal cohort study among 373 participants in whom dietary intake was assessed between the ages of 13 to 36 y (2-8 repeated measures, median of 5), and arterial stiffness estimates of 3 large arteries (ultrasonography) were ascertained at age 36 y ... After adjustment for sex, height, total energy intake, and other lifestyle variables, subjects with stiffer carotid arteries consumed less fiber (in g/d) during the 24-y study than did those with less stiff carotid arteries, as defined on the basis of the highest compared with the lowest sex-specific tertiles of the distensibility and compliance coefficients (reversed) and Youngs elastic modulus: -1.9 (95% CI: -3.1, -0.7), -2.3 (-3.5, -1.1), and -1.3 (-2.5, -0.0), respectively. Furthermore, subjects with stiffer carotid arteries were characterized by a lower ...
Background: The pathomechanisms of atherosclerosis and vascular remodelling are under intense research. Only a few in vivo tools to study these processes longitudinally in animal experiments are available. Here, we evaluated the potential of micro-CT technology. Methods: Lumen areas of the common carotid arteries (CCA) in the ApoE,sup,-/-,/sup, partial carotid artery ligation mouse model were compared between in vivo and ex vivo micro-CT technique and serial histology in a total of 28 animals. AuroVist-15 nm nanoparticles were used as in vivo blood pool contrast agent in a Skyscan 1176 micro-CT at resolution of 18 μmeter voxel size and a mean x-ray dose of 0.5 Gy. For ex vivo imaging, animals were perfused with MicroFil and imaged at 9 μmeter voxel size. Lumen area was evaluated at postoperative days 7, 14, and 28 first by micro-CT followed by histology. Results: In vivo micro-CT and histology revealed lumen loss starting at day 14. The lumen profile highly correlated (r = 0.79, P,0.0001) ...
BioAssay record AID 167575 submitted by ChEMBL: In vitro functional antagonistic testing by obtaining ET-1 concentration response curves in rabbit carotid artery rings in the presence or absence of antagonist..
STRUCTURE OF HEART AND GREAT VESSELS IN CT . CT SERIES KINDLY DONATED BY DR. MICHAEL HENSLEY (Brians Dad). LABELING BY MATT HARPER (JCESOM CLASS 2010). R Brachiocephalic vein. Brachiocephalic trunk. L Common carotid artery. L Subclavian artery. Trachea. Esophagus. Lamina of T4....
Abstract: : Purpose:To determine the effects of chronic retinal hypoperfusion on the physiological and morphological properties of the rat retina. Methods: Chronic retinal hypoperfusion was induced by unilateral and bilateral ligation of the common carotid arteries in anesthetized Long-Evans and Sprague-Dawley rats. Electroretinograms (ERGs) elicited by different stimulus intensities were recorded and histopathological studies performed up to 4 weeks postligation. Results: Injection of India ink in the heart demonstrated perfusion of both retinas following bilateral ligation. The a- and b-waves of the ERGs were significantly depressed by about 50% in the bilateral and unilateral (ipsilateral) ligated animals, although the thresholds were not as altered. The b-waves were more affected than the a-wave so that the b/a wave ratio was less than 1.0, a negative type ERG. There was a progressive decrease in the a- and b-waves with increasing postligation times. The thickness of the outer nuclear layer ...
My father, 87, has been diagnosed with a 90% blockage of the right carotid artery. His doctor will not do surgery, even though Dad experiences dizzy spells. The left artery seems to be OK. He has be...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of Real-Time In Vivo Spectral and Vector Velocity Estimation. AU - Pedersen,Mads Møller. AU - Pihl,Michael Johannes. AU - Haugaard,Per. AU - Hansen,Jens Munk. AU - Hansen,Kristoffer Lindskov. AU - Nielsen,Michael Bachmann. AU - Jensen,Jørgen Arendt. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - The purpose of this study is to show whether a newly introduced vector flow method is equal to conventional spectral estimation. Thirty-two common carotid arteries of 16 healthy volunteers were scanned using a BK Medical ProFocus scanner (DK-2730, Herlev, Denmark) and a linear transducer at 5 MHz. A triplex imaging sequence yields both the conventional velocity spectrum and a two-dimensional vector velocity image. Several clinical parameters were estimated and compared for the two methods: Flow angle, peak systole velocity (PS), end diastole velocity (ED) and resistive index (RI). With a paired t-test, the spectral and vector angles did not differ significantly (p = 0.658), whereas PS (p = ...
The brachiocephalic artery (or brachiocephalic trunk or innominate artery) is an artery of the mediastinum that supplies blood to the right arm and the head and neck. It is the first branch of the aortic arch, and soon after it emerges, the brachiocephalic artery divides into the right common carotid artery and the right subclavian artery. There is no brachiocephalic artery for the left side of the body. The left common carotid, and the left subclavian artery, come directly off the aortic arch. However, there are two brachiocephalic veins. It arises, on a level with the upper border of the second right costal cartilage, from the start of the aortic arch, on a plane anterior to the origin of the left carotid artery; it ascends obliquely upward, backward, and to the right to the level of the upper border of the right sternoclavicular articulation, where it divides into the right common carotid artery and right subclavian arteries. The artery then crosses the trachea in front of it obliquely from ...
The triple line pattern on carotid intima media thickness imaging and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in patients on lipid lowering therapy Tania A Singh,1 Todd C Villines,2 Allen J Taylor31Division of Cardiology, Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, 2Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, 3Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA Background: Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) infrequently identifies a triple line pattern (TLP) in the visualization of the internal elastic lamina. We examined the prevalence and predictors of the TLP among a consecutive series of subjects enrolled in a CIMT clinical trial, and also the effects of lipid lowering therapy.Methods: Baseline CIMT studies of subjects with known heart disease, or high risk for heart disease, were evaluated from a single site of the Arterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing Cholesterol 6-HDL and LDL Treatment Strategies in Atherosclerosis trial (N
A carotid artery duplex scan is a type of vascular ultrasound study done to assess the blood flow of the arteries that supply blood from the heart through the neck to the brain. There are six carotid arteries--the right and left common carotid arteries, which divide and form the right and left internal carotid arteries and the right and left external carotid arteries. One pair (external and internal) is located on each side of the neck.. A carotid artery duplex scan is a noninvasive (the skin is not pierced) procedure. The term "duplex" refers to the fact that two modes of ultrasound are used--Doppler and B-mode. The B-mode transducer (like a microphone) obtains an image of the carotid artery being studied. The Doppler probe within the transducer evaluates the velocity and direction of blood flow in the vessel.. A transducer sends out ultrasonic sound waves at a frequency too high to be heard. When the transducer is placed on the carotid arteries at certain locations and angles, the ultrasonic ...
Carotid artery pseudoaneurysms can refer to pseudoaneurysms involving any segment of the carotid arteries: common carotid artery pseudoaneurysm internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm external carotid artery pseudoaneurysm Pathology As with p...
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system can be activated by sympathetic nervous input and is thought to have an important role in the prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular risk in black Africans. We examined (1) the association between plasma renin responses to mental stress and a marker of sub-clinical atherosclerosis; and (2) associations between resting renin and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure. Participants were 143 urbanized black African men and women (43.1±7.7 years) drawn from a study of Sympathetic Activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA). After an overnight fast, participants completed the Stroop mental stress task. Blood samples were drawn during baseline and 10 min after the task to assess the concentration of active renin in plasma. Blood pressure assessments included continuous Finometer measures during the stress testing and 24-h ambulatory monitoring. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was measured using high-resolution ultrasound. Approximately 50% ...
We have reported that psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients without overt cardiovascular diseases have evidence of premature atherosclerosis as indicated by an increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT).1 Whether an increase in IMT reflects current (but reversible) inflammation of the vessel wall rather than more permanent structural vessel changes in PsA has never been assessed. We undertook a prospective, observational study to determine whether a 12-week treatment of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) blockers may reduce IMT in patients with active PsA, and whether the changes in IMT can be sustained in patients who were continued on long-term TNFα blockers.. Twenty consecutive PsA patients with active disease were recruited to receive TNFα blockers. After 12 weeks, nine patients continued (group 1) while 11 patients discontinued TNFα blockers due to financial constraints (group 2). Twenty PsA patients who were naive to TNFα blockers were recruited as controls (group 3). Patients … ...
... with her carotid artery also having been severed), no firm connection between both murders has ever been established. Jacobo, ... In total, the victim had been stabbed over 150 times in the neck, chest and torso with a common pen knife; some of these wounds ... had severed her carotid artery. Defensive wounds were also discovered upon her hands. It is also believed she had been ...
In July 2016, Landers was competing at Tri-City Speedway when his car flipped; the wreck tore his common carotid artery in his ...
If one feels a pulse in the neck, it is generally the common carotid artery. occludable - the JVP can be stopped by occluding ... this is not always an accurate way to differentiate the JVP from the carotid pulse. The carotid artery only has one beat in the ... The " a " wave corresponds to right Atrial contraction and ends synchronously with the carotid artery pulse. The peak of the 'a ... The JVP and carotid pulse can be differentiated several ways: multiphasic - the JVP "beats" twice (in quick succession) in the ...
"Transendothelial migration of ferric ion in FeCl3 injured murine common carotid artery". Thrombosis Research. 118 (2): 275-280 ... The descriptor hydrated or anhydrous is used when referring to iron(III) chloride, to distinguish between the two common forms ...
Seen in an MRI as two individual arteries at this hairpin, a carotid artery dolichoectasia can progress so far as to produce a ... Dolichoectasias are most common in elderly males. In cases involving the basilar artery (VBD), the pathogenesis arises from ... Internal Carotid Artery dolichoectasia is particularly interesting because the artery normally already contains one hairpin ... In the case of a dolichoectasia of the Internal Carotid Artery (ICD), the pathogenesis is primarily related to compression of ...
The common carotid artery divides into the internal and the external carotid arteries. The internal carotid artery becomes the ... Dissections within the carotid arteries or vertebral arteries may compromise blood flow to the brain due to thrombosis, and ... Arteries supplying oxygen and nutrients to the brain are often damaged or deformed in these disorders. The most common ... From the basilar artery are two posterior cerebral arteries. Branches of the basilar and PCA supply the occipital lobe, brain ...
... infraorbital artery) and the ophthalmic arteries that derive from the internal common carotid artery system. ... branches from the external carotid artery, the sphenopalatine artery, the greater palatine artery, the superior labial artery, ... branches from the internal carotid artery, the branch of the anterior ethmoidal artery, the branch of the posterior ethmoidal ... and the angular artery. The external nose is supplied with blood by the facial artery, which becomes the angular artery that ...
Repair of a damaged carotid artery is essential in order to prevent further neurological complications.[citation needed] ... Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, ... In vascular Eagle syndrome, the elongated styloid process comes in contact with the internal carotid artery below the skull. In ... Hoffmann, E.; Räder, C.; Fuhrmann, H.; Maurer, P. (2013). "Styloid-carotid artery syndrome treated surgically with Piezosurgery ...
Duplex scan of the common carotid artery. Doppler ultrasonography employs the Doppler effect to assess whether structures ( ... where ultrasound is used for assessing blood flow and stenoses in the carotid arteries (Carotid Ultrasonography) and ... Ultrasound scanners have different Doppler-techniques to visualize arteries and veins. The most common is colour doppler or ... Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0) *^ Cogo, A.; Lensing, A. W A; Koopman, M. M W; Piovella, F ...
At C4, the common carotid artery bifurcates.. *From C4-5, the thyroid cartilage[9] ... This separates the carotid artery from the vertebral artery and the carotid artery can be massaged against this tubercle to ... The carotid tubercle is also used as a landmark for anaesthesia of the brachial plexus and cervical plexus. ... Common patterns of injury include the odontoid fracture and the hangman's fracture, both of which are often treated with ...
The next most common sites of cerebral aneurysm occurrence are in the internal carotid artery. Aneurysm presentation may range ... The most common locations include arteries in the abdomen, thigh, neck, and arm. A mycotic aneurysm can result in sepsis, or ... It consists of passing a catheter into the femoral artery in the groin, through the aorta, into the brain arteries, and finally ... The legs, including the popliteal arteries.[citation needed] The kidney, including renal artery aneurysm and intraparechymal ...
On 7 February 2010, he developed problems with the common carotid artery and needed surgery. On 11 September 2010, he was ... hospitalized due to coronary artery blockage and needed an angioplasty. For more than 24 hours, hundreds of thousands of people ...
Odd-toed perrisodactyls such as horses lack a carotid rete, but since the internal carotid artery passes through the guttural ... It is seen most often in young foals and is more common in females than in males. Tympany results in non-painful, soft swelling ... near the internal carotid artery. Clinical signs include unilateral or bilateral epistaxis due to erosion of the artery walls, ... The external carotid artery passes ventral to the medial compartment before crossing to the lateral wall of the lateral ...
... being at one end lateral to the internal carotid artery, and then lateral to the common carotid artery, and at the root of the ... The vein runs in the carotid sheath with the common carotid artery and vagus nerve. On both sides and at the base of the brain ... At the root of the neck, the right internal jugular vein is a little distance from the common carotid artery, and crosses the ... first part of the subclavian artery, while the left internal jugular vein usually overlaps the common carotid artery. The left ...
Six liters of hydrochloride of zinc and aluminum was injected into his common carotid artery. A death mask was also made. Pedro ...
The internal jugular runs with the common carotid artery and vagus nerve inside the carotid sheath. It provides venous drainage ... The internal jugular vein is formed by the anastomosis of blood from the sigmoid sinus of the dura mater and the common facial ...
"A common VLDLR polymorphism interacts with APOE genotype in the prediction of carotid artery disease risk". J. Lipid Res. 49 (3 ... Moser R, Snyers L, Wruss J, Angulo J, Peters H, Peters T, Blaas D (August 2005). "Neutralization of a common cold virus by ... "Interaction of coagulation factor VIII with members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family follows common mechanism and ...
Many important structures relate to the sternocleidomastoid, including the common carotid artery, accessory nerve, and brachial ... The internal carotid artery to reach both the sternocleidomastoid muscles and the trapezius. After a signal reaches the ...
... tenderness of the carotid artery, near the bifurcation. It was first described in 1927 by Temple Fay. The most common cause of ... Carotid arteritis is a much less common cause of carotidynia, but has much more serious consequences. It is a form of giant ... Common migraine treatments may help alleviate the carotidynia symptoms. Recent histological evidence has implicated an ... cell arteritis, which is a condition that usually affects arteries in the head. Due to this serious condition possibly causing ...
He was the first surgeon west of the Allegheny Mountains to tie the left Common carotid artery.;. In Columbus he quickly ... He was a common witness in court to cases of doubtful insanity. Both he and Marmaduke B. Wright were members of the Ohio ...
One branch of the subclavian artery or carotid artery is separated and connected with the pulmonary artery. The first area of ... which are common causes of blue baby syndrome. In modern surgery, this procedure is temporarily used to direct blood flow to ... Right Subclavian artery to right pulmonary artery. Blalock Taussig Shunt - Left subclavian artery to left pulmonary artery. Ken ... is sewn between either the subclavian or the carotid artery and the corresponding side branch of the pulmonary artery, thus ...
The left nerve, in the thorax, runs in front of the left common carotid artery and across the left side of the aortic arch, to ... It runs down the neck behind the common carotid artery, and in front of the Longus colli muscle; and crosses in front of the ... The right nerve, at the root of the neck, passes either in front of or behind the subclavian artery, and along the innominate ... artery to the back of the arch of the aorta, where it joins the deep part of the cardiac plexus. It is connected with other ...
The left arch gives first origin to the left common carotid artery and then the left subclavian artery. The right aortic arch ... The first vessel coming off the right arch is usually the right common carotid artery followed by the right subclavian artery. ... Double aortic arch with left dominant arch: In this less common condition, as the name indicates, the left arch is the larger ... Recurrent respiratory infections are common and secondary pulmonary secretions can further increase the airway obstruction. ...
Local and distant structures (such as ear, brain, carotid artery, or heart) can also refer pain to the teeth. Other non-dental ... Since dental caries associated with pulpitis is the most common cause, toothache is more common in populations that are at ... Common causes include tooth decay, dental trauma (such as a crack or fracture), or a filling with an imperfect seal. Because ... Common causes include inflammation of the pulp, usually in response to tooth decay, dental trauma, or other factors, dentin ...
... and common carotid artery occlusion Two-vessel occlusion and hypotension Four-vessel occlusion Unilateral common carotid artery ... They do not have a Circle of Willis and stroke can be induced by common carotid artery occlusion alone. Some of the mechanisms ... The most common modification is based on Longa (1989) [8] who described filament introduction via the external carotid artery, ... MCAO can be combined with temporal or permanent common carotid artery occlusion. These models require a small craniotomy. The ...
i. 1805; and "A Case of Aneurism cured by Tying the Left Common Carotid Artery", in Medico-Chirurgical Transactions, vol. vi. ... 1813 he attracted great attention by his successful performance of the then rare operation of tying the common carotid artery. ... He received attention for successfully performing of the then rare operation of tying the carotid artery. Dalrymple was born in ...
Transendothelial migration of ferric ion in FeCl3 injured murine common carotid artery. Thrombosis Research 118 (2): 275-280. ... Besedilo se sme prosto uporabljati v skladu z dovoljenjem Creative Commons Priznanje avtorstva-Deljenje pod enakimi pogoji 3.0 ...
The left and right internal carotid arteries arise from the left and right common carotid arteries. The posterior communicating ... Anterior cerebral artery (left and right) Anterior communicating artery Internal carotid artery (left and right) Posterior ... The vertebral arteries arise from the subclavian arteries. The anterior communicating artery connects the two anterior cerebral ... so the internal carotid artery supplies the posterior cerebrum. In another variation the anterior communicating artery is a ...
Damage to the carotid artery along the side of the neck. *Damage to the jugular vein along the side of the neck ... Common signs and symptoms include:. *A persistently small pupil (miosis). *A notable difference in pupil size between the two ...
... The left common carotid artery is the artery that provides oxygen-rich blood to the left side of ... the left common carotid artery extends out into the left external carotid artery and the left internal carotid artery. ...
J. Li, D. Shi, Y. Wei, J. Xiao, K. Zhang, and M. Wang, "Blood flow in the internal carotid artery with common carotid artery- ... "Internal carotid artery patency following common carotid artery occlusion: management of the asymptomatic patient," Annals of ... "Reversed flow in the internal carotid artery after occlusion of the common carotid artery," Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon ... "Common carotid artery occlusion with patent internal and external carotid arteries: diagnosis and surgical management," Journal ...
Each common carotid artery is divided into an external and internal carotid artery. These arteries transfer blood to the ... The common carotid artery is found bilaterally, with one on each side of the anterior neck. ... The common carotid artery is found bilaterally, with one on each side of the anterior neck. Each common carotid artery is ... Common Carotid Artery. Medically reviewed by Healthlines Medical Network on. November 30, 2014. ...
A gene-centric study of common carotid artery remodelling.. Harrison SC1, Zabaneh D, Asselbergs FW, Drenos F, Jones GT, Shah S ... Genetic association analyses of inter-adventitial common carotid artery diameter (ICCAD) in the IMPROVE study (n = 3427) using ... Common variation at 1q24.3 is associated with expansive vascular remodelling and risk of AAA. These findings support a ... There was evidence of interaction between carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and rs4916251 on ICCAD in two of the cohorts ...
... Xin Yang,1 Jiaoying Jin,2 Mengling Xu,2 Huihui Wu,2 ... Locate the mean shape (blue) from training dataset on the artery from the test dataset, and potential contour (blue contour ... This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, ...
... Schematic of the proximal aorta and its branches. Arteries of the neck. The internal carotid arteries ... Arteries of the neck. The internal carotid arteries arise from the common carotid arteries - labeled Common caroti on the ... the common carotid artery bifurcates into an internal carotid artery (ICA) and an external carotid artery (ECA). While both ... The left and right common carotid arteries follow the same course with the exception of their origin. The right common carotid ...
Common carotid artery Common carotid artery - right view Brachial plexus and common carotid artery Common carotid artery Common ... carotid artery Right and left common carotid arteries Head and neck anatomy Carotid sheath Carotid sinus Carotid body Carotid ... the common carotid artery splits ("bifurcates" in literature) into an internal carotid artery (ICA) and an external carotid ... the ascending pharyngeal artery, the inferior thyroid artery, or, more rarely, the vertebral artery. The common carotid artery ...
Doppler ultrasonography and angiography of the neck revealed a pseudoaneurysm of the right common carotid artery. The patient ... Surgical exploration revealed a necrotic right common carotid artery with anteromedial pseudoaneurysm and adjacent tracheal ...
Common Carotid Artery Imbrication as an Adjunct to Carotid Endarterectomy to Prevent Postoperative Carotid Kinking ... We reviewed our experience with common carotid artery (CCA) imbrication as a technique to shorten the common and internal ... Mobilization of a tortuous carotid artery during endarterectomy may produce redundancy of the carotid artery, and kinking. ... Patients undergoing concomitant carotid artery imbrication were identified. Twelve patients who underwent carotid imbrication ...
Arteries of the neck. The internal carotid arteries arise from the common carotid arteries - labeled Common caroti on the ... the common carotid artery bifurcates into an internal carotid artery (ICA) and an external carotid artery (ECA). While both ... The left and right common carotid arteries follow the same course with the exception of their origin. The right common carotid ... where it divides into the external and internal carotid arteries. At the lower part of the neck the two common carotid arteries ...
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A weather radar is a type of radar used to locate precipitation, calculate its motion, estimate its type (rain, snow, hail, etc.), and forecast its future position and intensity. Modern weather radars are mostly pulse-doppler radars, capable of detecting the motion of rain droplets in addition to intensity of the precipitation. Both types of data can be analyzed to determine the structure of storms and their potential to cause severe weather.. Sonography can be enhanced with Doppler measurements, which employ the Doppler effect to assess whether structures (usually blood) are moving towards or away from the probe, and its relative velocity. By calculating the frequency shift of a particular sample volume, for example a jet of blood flow over a heart valve, its speed and direction can be determined and visualised. This is particularly useful in cardiovascular studies (sonography of the vasculature system and heart) and essential in many areas such as determining reverse blood flow in the liver ...
... a small number of cardiac patients focused on the echoes and doppler images of an artery to determine the path to healthy blood ...
ANEURYSM OF EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY TREATED BY LIGATURE OF COMMON CAROTID ARTERY AND INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN Br Med J 1921; 1 : ... ANEURYSM OF EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY TREATED BY LIGATURE OF COMMON CAROTID ARTERY AND INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN. Br Med J 1921; 1 ... ANEURYSM OF EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY TREATED BY LIGATURE OF COMMON CAROTID ARTERY AND INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN ... ANEURYSM OF EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY TREATED BY LIGATURE OF COMMON CAROTID ARTERY AND INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN ...
This space includes the extracranial carotid artery. the tongue base. Carotid Space * Includes carotid artery. internal. ... external carotid artery. The retromandibular vein in external carotid arteries also pass through this space. ... can also be detected in the carotid space. particularly if the carotid artery is encased. Schwannomas. portions of cranial ... Encasement of the carotid artery may mean inoperability. Popular sites of origin for squamous cell cancer to invade the carotid ...
PubMed journal article Does B-mode common carotid artery intima-media thickness differ from M-model? were found in PRIME PubMed ... AdultAgedCarotid Artery, CommonFemaleHumansImage Processing, Computer-AssistedLinear ModelsMaleMiddle AgedTunica IntimaTunica ... "Does B-mode Common Carotid Artery Intima-media Thickness Differ From M-model?" Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, vol. 27, no. ... Does B-mode common carotid artery intima-media thickness differ from M-model?. Ultrasound Med Biol 2001; 27(10):1333-6UM ...
A 64-year-old man with chronic occlusion of common carotid artery (CCA) underwent successful recanalization with angioplasty ... A 64-year-old man with chronic occlusion of common carotid artery (CCA) underwent successful recanalization with angioplasty ... 15936855 - Occult stenosis of the common carotid artery complicating mandibular reconstruction wit.... 22663895 - Long-term ... Previous Document: Dural arteriovenous fistula of the anterior cranial fossa with carotid artery stenosis treated by si.... ...
Septic rupture of the common carotid artery following total thyroidectomy may rapidly lead to exsanguination. We present a case ... 1530826 - Extrathoracic carotid reconstruction: the subclavian-carotid artery bypass.. 9025126 - Checking the carotid pulse ... On the 8th postoperative day, a dramatic bleeding of the right common carotid artery occurred. To our knowledge, this is the ... Septic rupture of the common carotid artery following total thyroidectomy may rapidly lead to exsanguination. We present a case ...
Angiographic evidence of aberrant right subclavian artery associated with common carotid trunk ... Angiographic evidence of aberrant right subclavian artery associated with common carotid trunk ...
In Vivo Tracking of Dual-Labeled Mesenchymal Stem Cells Homing Into the Injured Common Carotid Artery. Authors. *. Ai Hong Cao, ... as they home into the site of injured common carotid artery following allograft transplantation. Our study was approved by the ... and subsequently transplanted into recipient rats injured in the left common carotid arteries. Immediately before and 3 hr, 3, ... and the directional homing of labeled cells to the site of injured common carotid arteries after intravascular transplantation ...
Vitamin E and C to Slow Progression of Common Carotid Artery Plaque Build-Up. The safety and scientific validity of this study ... Common carotid artery intima-media thickness will be observed by ultrasound at 12- and 24-month follow-ups. The primary outcome ... This study will evaluate the effects of vitamin E supplementation in retarding the progression of common carotid artery intima- ... A new, automated, low-cost, portable ultrasound system for determining intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery ...
Common Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness, Carotid Plaques, and Walking Speed. Alexis Elbaz, Mahaut Ripert, Béatrice ... Common Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness, Carotid Plaques, and Walking Speed. Alexis Elbaz, Mahaut Ripert, Béatrice ... Common Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness, Carotid Plaques, and Walking Speed. Alexis Elbaz, Mahaut Ripert, Béatrice ... Carotid plaques and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) are markers of arterial wall alteration. CCA-IMT can ...
Common carotid artery stump pressure in the gerbil stroke model.. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 1984;47:365- ...
Vitamin E and C to Slow Progression of Common Carotid Artery Plaque Build-Up. The safety and scientific validity of this study ...
  • A total of 160 out of 5000 (3.2%) patients with cerebro-vascular disease who were referred for carotid sonography had a carotid artery occlusion. (hindawi.com)
  • It is ranked as the third most common cause of death in the United States, after heart disease and cancer, and about one third of all strokes are related to carotid occlusive disease. (medscape.com)
  • These trials include diverse populations across Europe and North America to help provide clinicians with evidence that informs best clinical practice for asymptomatic carotid artery disease. (medscape.com)
  • When it comes time to diagnose your illness, this is a disease that will often be a secondary or tertiary option after more common diseases are ruled out like migraines and trigeminal neuralgia. (steadyhealth.com)
  • Hallerstam S, Larsson P, Zuber E, Rosfors S: Carotid atherosclerosis is correlated with extent and severity of coronary artery disease evaluated by myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. (radcliffecardiology.com)
  • From our experience among Egyptian population in our institution, there is an increased prevalence of hidden subclinical peripheral artery disease along with carotid artery affection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Snoring and carotid artery disease: A new risk factor emerges. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The continuing debate among vascular specialists over the comparative benefits of different approaches to treating carotid artery disease takes center stage at the 39th Annual VEITHsymposium, November 14-18, with a number of presentations over the five-day event, and two dedicated afternoon sessions on Wednesday and Thursday afternoon to explore the controversies. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Severe coronary artery disease. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Severe disease of the arteries that branch off from the carotid arteries. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Complete ligation of the common carotid artery near its bifurcation induces neointimal formation due to smooth muscle cell proliferation in normolipidemic wild-type mice, but it was unknown what would happen to hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe -/- ) mice. (oncotarget.com)
  • The hemodynamic adjustments to exercise were associated with increases in local common carotid artery stiffness and all waves' parameters, with the latter indicating enhanced ventricular contractility and improved late systolic blood flow deceleration. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • Objectives To investigate whether external irradiation to the carotid area has any effect on IMT of the common carotid artery in a group of patients who received RT vs control group matched for age, gender and race. (youscribe.com)
  • left carotid arteriograplly parati ye roen tgenograms or measurements demonstrated a Iron tal con vexity men ingioma, of the hypoglossal canals. (scribd.com)