Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection: The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.Carotid Body: A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Endarterectomy: Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Carotid Body Tumor: Benign paraganglioma at the bifurcation of the COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES. It can encroach on the parapharyngeal space and produce dysphagia, pain, and cranial nerve palsies.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Amaurosis Fugax: Transient complete or partial monocular blindness due to retinal ischemia. This may be caused by emboli from the CAROTID ARTERY (usually in association with CAROTID STENOSIS) and other locations that enter the central RETINAL ARTERY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p245)Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Celiac Artery: The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Mesenteric Artery, Superior: A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Balloon Occlusion: Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Aneurysm, False: Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.Brachiocephalic Trunk: The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Fibromuscular Dysplasia: An idiopathic, segmental, nonatheromatous disease of the musculature of arterial walls, leading to STENOSIS of small and medium-sized arteries. There is true proliferation of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and fibrous tissue. Fibromuscular dysplasia lesions are smooth stenosis and occur most often in the renal and carotid arteries. They may also occur in other peripheral arteries of the extremity.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Thoracic Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Constriction: The act of constricting.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Maxillary Artery: A branch of the external carotid artery which distributes to the deep structures of the face (internal maxillary) and to the side of the face and nose (external maxillary).Bronchial Arteries: Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Neointima: The new and thickened layer of scar tissue that forms on a PROSTHESIS, or as a result of vessel injury especially following ANGIOPLASTY or stent placement.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.Ulnar Artery: The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.Asymptomatic Diseases: Diseases that do not exhibit symptoms.Embolic Protection Devices: Vascular filters or occlusive devices that provide mechanical protection of the distal end organ from blood clots or EMBOLISM-causing debri dislodged during ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Uterine Artery: A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Doppler Effect: Changes in the observed frequency of waves (as sound, light, or radio waves) due to the relative motion of source and observer. The effect was named for the 19th century Austrian physicist Johann Christian Doppler.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Meningeal Arteries: Arteries which supply the dura mater.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Auscultation: Act of listening for sounds within the body.Axillary Artery: The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.Horner Syndrome: A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Polytetrafluoroethylene: Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.Rupture, Spontaneous: Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.Moyamoya Disease: A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Hemorheology: The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.Aorta, Abdominal: The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Vasa Vasorum: Nutrient blood vessels which supply the walls of large arteries or veins.Epistaxis: Bleeding from the nose.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Polyethylene Terephthalates: Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Takayasu Arteritis: A chronic inflammatory process that affects the AORTA and its primary branches, such as the brachiocephalic artery (BRACHIOCEPHALIC TRUNK) and CAROTID ARTERIES. It results in progressive arterial stenosis, occlusion, and aneurysm formation. The pulse in the arm is hard to detect. Patients with aortitis syndrome often exhibit retinopathy.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Endovascular Procedures: Minimally invasive procedures, diagnostic or therapeutic, performed within the BLOOD VESSELS. They may be perfomed via ANGIOSCOPY; INTERVENTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY; or INTERVENTIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Vertebral Artery Dissection: Splitting of the vessel wall in the VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the vertebral artery, aneurysm formation, or THROMBOEMBOLISM. Vertebral artery dissection is often associated with TRAUMA and injuries to the head-neck region but can occur spontaneously.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula: An acquired or spontaneous abnormality in which there is communication between CAVERNOUS SINUS, a venous structure, and the CAROTID ARTERIES. It is often associated with HEAD TRAUMA, specifically basilar skull fractures (SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR). Clinical signs often include VISION DISORDERS and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Arteriovenous Fistula: An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Pulse: The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.Cervical Plexus: A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four CERVICAL SPINAL CORD segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical SPINAL COLUMN, infrahyoid muscles, and the DIAPHRAGM.

Donor MHC and adhesion molecules in transplant arteriosclerosis. (1/4744)

Transplant-associated arteriosclerosis remains an obstacle to long-term graft survival. To determine the contribution to transplant arteriosclerosis of MHC and adhesion molecules from cells of the donor vasculature, we allografted carotid artery loops from six mutant mouse strains into immunocompetent CBA/CaJ recipients. The donor mice were deficient in either MHC I molecules or MHC II molecules, both MHC I and MHC II molecules, the adhesion molecule P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, or both P-selectin and ICAM-1. Donor arteries in which ICAM-1, MHC II, or both MHC I and MHC II were absent showed reductions in neointima formation of 52%, 33%, and 38%, respectively, due primarily to a reduction in smooth muscle cell (SMC) accumulation. In P-selectin-deficient donor arteries, neointima formation did not differ from that in controls. In donor arteries lacking both P-selectin and ICAM-1, the size of the neointima was similar to that in those lacking ICAM-1 alone. In contrast, neointima formation increased by 52% in MHC I-deficient donor arteries. The number of CD4-positive T cells increased by 2.8-fold in MHC I-deficient arteries, and that of alpha-actin-positive SMCs by twofold. These observations indicate that ICAM-1 and MHC II molecules expressed in the donor vessel wall may promote transplant-associated arteriosclerosis. MHC I molecules expressed in the donor may have a protective effect.  (+info)

Anti-monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/monocyte chemotactic and activating factor antibody inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in injured rat carotid arteries. (2/4744)

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) has been suggested to promote atherogenesis. The effects of in vivo neutralization of MCP-1 in a rat model were examined in an effort to clarify the role of MCP-1 in the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Competitive polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed maximum MCP-1 mRNA expression at 4 hours after carotid arterial injury. Increased immunoreactivities of MCP-1 were also detected at 2 and 8 hours after injury. Either anti-MCP-1 antibody or nonimmunized goat IgG (10 mg/kg) was then administered every 12 hours to rats that had undergone carotid arterial injury. Treatment with 3 consecutive doses of anti-MCP-1 antibody within 24 hours (experiment 1) and every 12 hours for 5 days (experiment 2) significantly inhibited neointimal hyperplasia at day 14, resulting in a 27.8% reduction of the mean intima/media ratio (P<0.05) in experiment 1 and a 43.6% reduction (P<0.01) in experiment 2. This effect was still apparent at day 56 (55.6% inhibition; P<0.05). The number of vascular smooth muscle cells in the neointima at day 4 was significantly reduced by anti-MCP-1 treatment, demonstrating the important role of MCP-1 in early neointimal lesion formation. However, recombinant MCP-1 did not stimulate chemotaxis of vascular smooth muscle cells in an in vitro migration assay. These results suggest that MCP-1 promotes neointimal hyperplasia in early neointimal lesion formation and that neutralization of MCP-1 before, and immediately after, arterial injury may be effective in preventing restenosis after angioplasty. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism underlying the promotion of neointimal hyperplasia by MCP-1.  (+info)

Vascular remodeling in response to altered blood flow is mediated by fibroblast growth factor-2. (3/4744)

Vascular structures adapt to changes in blood flow by adjusting their diameter accordingly. The factors mediating this process are only beginning to be identified. We have recently established a mouse model of arterial remodeling in which flow in the common carotid artery is interrupted by ligation of the vessel near the carotid bifurcation, resulting in a dramatic reduction in vessel diameter as a consequence of inward remodeling and intimal lesion formation. In the present study, we used this model to determine the role of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in the remodeling response by maintaining neutralizing serum levels of a mouse monoclonal antibody against FGF-2 for 4 weeks. Morphometric analysis revealed that intimal lesion formation was not affected by the antibody. However, lumen narrowing was significantly inhibited, resulting in a greater than 3-fold increase in lumen area in anti-FGF-2-treated animals compared with controls. Treatment with anti-FGF-2 antibody significantly inhibited the reduction in vessel diameter (inward remodeling) and shortening of the internal elastic lamina in the ligated vessel. In addition, anti-FGF-2 treatment also caused outward remodeling of the contralateral carotid artery. These findings identify FGF-2 as an important factor in vascular remodeling, and its effects are likely to be mediated by increasing vascular tone. The results are consistent with the recent observation of reduced vascular tone in the FGF-2-deficient mouse.  (+info)

Expression and cellular localization of the CC chemokines PARC and ELC in human atherosclerotic plaques. (4/4744)

Local immune responses are thought to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Histological studies have shown that human atherosclerotic lesions contain T lymphocytes throughout all stages of development, many of which are in an activated state. A number of novel CC chemokines have been described recently, which are potent chemoattractants for lymphocytes: PARC (pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine), ELC (EBI1-ligand chemokine), LARC (liver and activation-regulated chemokine), and SLC (secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine). Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization, we have found gene expression for PARC and ELC but not for LARC or SLC in human atherosclerotic plaques. Immunohistochemical staining of serial plaque sections with specific cell markers revealed highly different expression patterns of PARC and ELC. PARC mRNA was restricted to CD68+ macrophages (n = 14 of 18), whereas ELC mRNA was widely expressed by macrophages and intimal smooth muscle cells (SMC) in nearly all of the lesions examined (n = 12 of 14). ELC mRNA was also found to be expressed in the medial SMC wall of highly calcified plaques (n = 4). Very low levels of ELC mRNA expression could also be detected in normal mammary arteries but no mRNA expression for PARC was detected in these vessels (n = 4). In vitro, ELC mRNA was found to be up-regulated in aortic SMC stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-a and interferon-gamma but not in SMC stimulated with serum. Both PARC and ELC mRNA were expressed by monocyte-derived macrophages but not monocytes. The expression patterns of PARC and ELC mRNA in human atherosclerotic lesions suggest a potential role for these two recently described CC chemokines in attracting T lymphocytes into atherosclerotic lesions.  (+info)

Variations in acute multifocal histoplasmic choroiditis in the primate. (5/4744)

Experimental histoplasmic choroiditis was produced in primates by intracarotid injections of living H. capsulatum organisms. The severity of the choroiditis varied with inoculum size, as well as with site of injection (common carotid vs. internal carotid artery). A reproducible model of histoplasmic choroiditis in primates was produced with an internal carotid injection of 5,000 to 10,000 organisms/lb. The clinical and histopathological course of this acute choroiditis over the first 30 days is presented.  (+info)

3D angiography. Clinical interest. First applications in interventional neuroradiology. (6/4744)

3D angiography is a true technical revolution that allows improvement in the quality and safety of diagnostic and endovascular treatment procedures. 3D angiography images are obtained by reconstruction of a rotational angiography acquisition done on a C-arm (GE Medical Systems) spinning at 40 degrees per second. The carotid or vertebral selective injection of a total of 15 ml of non-ionic contrast media at 3 ml/sec over 5 seconds allows the selection of the "arterial phase". Four hundred sixty 3D angiographic studies were performed from December 1996 to September 1998 on 260 patients and have been analyzed in MIP (Maximum Intensity Projection) and SSD (Shaded Surface Display) views. The exploration of intracranial aneurysms is simplified and only requires, for each vascular axis, a biplane PA and Lateral run followed by a single rotational angiography run. The 3D angiography image is available on the workstation's screen (Advantage Workstation 3.1, GE Medical Systems) in less than 10 minutes after the acquisition of the rotational run. It therefore allows one to analyze, during the intervention, the aneurysm's angioarchitecture, in particular the neck, and select the best therapeutic technique. When endovascular treatment is the best indication, 3D angiography allows one to define the optimal angle of view and accurately select the microcoils dimensions. 3D angiography replaces the multiple oblique views that used to be required to analyze the complex aneurysms and therefore allows a reduction of the total contrast medium quantity, the patient X-ray dose and the length of the intervention time which is a safety factor. Also, in particular for complex cases, it brings additional elements complementing the results of standard 2D DSA and rotational angiograms. In the cervical vascular pathology, 3D angiography allows for a better assessment of the stenosis level and of dissection lesions. Our current research activities focus on the matching without stereotactic frame between 3D X-ray angiography and volumetric MR acquisition, which should allow us to improve the treatment of intracerebral arterio-venous malformations (AVMs).  (+info)

Expression of stromelysin-3 in atherosclerotic lesions: regulation via CD40-CD40 ligand signaling in vitro and in vivo. (7/4744)

Stromelysin-3 is an unusual matrix metalloproteinase, being released in the active rather than zymogen form and having a distinct substrate specificity, targeting serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins), which regulate cellular functions involved in atherosclerosis. We report here that human atherosclerotic plaques (n = 7) express stromelysin-3 in situ, whereas fatty streaks (n = 5) and normal arterial specimens (n = 5) contain little or no stromelysin-3. Stromelysin-3 mRNA and protein colocalized with endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages within the lesion. In vitro, usual inducers of matrix metalloproteinases such as interleukin-1, interferon-gamma, or tumor necrosis factor alpha did not augment stromelysin-3 in vascular wall cells. However, T cell-derived as well as recombinant CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154), an inflammatory mediator recently localized in atheroma, induced de novo synthesis of stromelysin-3. In addition, stromelysin-3 mRNA and protein colocalized with CD40L and CD40 within atheroma. In accordance with the in situ and in vitro data obtained with human material, interruption of the CD40-CD40L signaling pathway in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient hyperlipidemic mice substantially decreased expression of the enzyme within atherosclerotic plaques. These observations establish the expression of the unusual matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-3 in human atherosclerotic lesions and implicate CD40-CD40L signaling in its regulation, thus providing a possible new pathway that triggers complications within atherosclerotic lesions.  (+info)

Accelerated intimal hyperplasia and increased endogenous inhibitors for NO synthesis in rabbits with alloxan-induced hyperglycaemia. (8/4744)

1. We examined whether endogenous inhibitors of NO synthesis are involved in the augmentation of intimal hyperplasia in rabbits with hyperglycaemia induced by alloxan. 2. Four weeks after the endothelial denudation of carotid artery which had been performed 12 weeks after alloxan, the intimal hyperplasia was greatly augmented with hyperglycaemia. The degree of hyperplasia was assessed using three different parameters of histopathological findings as well as changes in luminal area and intima: media ratio. 3. There were positive and significant correlations between intima:media ratio, plasma glucose, and concentrations of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and N(G), N(G)-dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA) in endothelial cells, that is, the intima:media ratio became greater as plasma glucose and endothelial L-NMMA and ADMA were increased. Furthermore, endothelial L-NMMA and ADMA were increased in proportion to the increase in plasma glucose. 4. In contrast, there were inverse and significant correlations between cyclic GMP production by carotid artery strips with endothelium and plasma glucose, between cyclic GMP production and endothelial L-NMMA and ADMA, and between the intima:media ratio and cyclic GMP production. 5. Exogenously applied L-NMMA and ADMA inhibited cyclic GMP production in a concentration-dependent manner. IC50 values were determined to be 12.1 microM for the former and 26.2 microM for the latter. The cyclic GMP production was abolished after the deliberate removal of endothelium from the artery strips. 6. These results suggest that the augmentation of intimal hyperplasia with hyperglycaemia is closely related to increased accumulation of L-NMMA and ADMA with hyperglycaemia, which would result in an accelerated reduction in NO production/release by endothelial cells.  (+info)

OZCETIN, Mustafa et al. The importance of carotid artery stiffness and increased intima-media thickness in obese children. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j. [online]. 2012, vol.102, n.5, pp.295-299. ISSN 2078-5135.. BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis that starts in childhood invariably advances during adulthood. AIM: We aimed to study the effect of obesity on main carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and arterial stiffness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 78 children were studied from October 2010 to February 2011. They were divided into obese (n=42, group 1) and normal (n=36, group 2). All children were subjected to physical examination, routine biochemical and haematological analysis, carotid ultrasonography and echocardiographic measurements. A detailed medical history was obtained. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by dividing participants weight in kilograms by the square of their height in metres. Stiffness index β was calculated using blood pressure and diameter of the systolic and diastolic ...
Experiments in tissue culture using hydroxamic and phosphinic acid-based inhibitors show that MMPs are necessary for both maximal proliferation and migration of rabbit aortic SMCs.11 Furthermore, MMP inhibitors also prevent intimal migration of rat carotid artery SMCs after balloon injury in vivo.13 In rabbit SMCs, only gelatinases A and B are expressed in measurable quantities,11 which emphasize their role in modulating migration and proliferation in this model, which contains only SMCs. In the rat carotid artery, injury increases tissue levels of gelatinase B and activates gelatinase A,13 19 further implicating gelatinases in the response to injury. In the present study, we also investigated the expression of gelatinases after balloon injury, but in this case, a pig carotid artery model in which both deep medial tears and stretch-induced injury occur was used. Both types of injury are thought to be important in angioplasty restenosis in humans.34 Furthermore, we sought to investigate whether ...
The purpose of the study is to investigate the hemodynamic effect of calcified carotid plaque on blood flow in patients diagnosed with carotid artery disease. Two carotid artery models were generated based on a sample patient data, with normal and calcified carotid artery appearances. Circular calcified carotid plaque was found at the carotid bifurcation based on 3D computed tomography images. A computational fluid dynamics was performed to analyze the changes of blood flow in different situations. Our results showed that apparent turbulence was found in the diastolic phase at the carotid bifurcation in normal carotid artery geometry. In the presence of the calcified plaque, the flow velocity was increased to some extent, indicating the effect of plaque on hemodynamic changes. Wall shear stress was noticed to decrease at the aortic branches, and this indicates the potential risk of developing stenosis at this area. Our preliminary study demonstrates fluid structure interaction between calcified ...
Have you been told you have diseased or clogged carotid arteries (carotid stenosis)? Are you nervous about what this may mean in terms of your risk of stroke? Here are some answers to commonly asked questions regarding carotid artery disease.. What are the carotid arteries?. Carotid arteries are the two main blood vessels that supply most of your brain with blood.. What is a carotid bruit and does it definitely mean that the carotid is blocked?. A carotid bruit is a swooshing sound heard during a physical exam in which the physician listens to the sound of blood flow through the neck. When blood passes through a narrowing channel, it will give a very distinctive sound when heard through a stethoscope. Approximately 30 percent of patients with a carotid bruit will have a significant carotid blockage. However, carotid bruits are often associated with the presence of other atherosclerotic heart disease as well as other cardiovascular problems.. How is a carotid bruit assessed by my ...
Introduction and objectives The equations used in the general population to calculate cardiovascular risk are not useful in genetic hypercholesterolemia (GH). Carotid plaque detection has proved useful in cardiovascular prediction and risk reclassification but there have been no studies of its usefulness in GH. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the presence of carotid artery plaque and the occurrence of cardiovascular events in patients with GH.. Methods This study included 1778 persons with GH. The mean follow-up until the occurrence of cardiovascular events was 6.26 years. At presentation, the presence of carotid artery plaque was studied by high-resolution ultrasound.. Results Carotid artery plaque was found in 661 (37.2%) patients: 31.9% with familial hypercholesterolemia, 39.8% with familial combined hyperlipidemia, 45.5% with dysbetalipoproteinemia, and 43.2% with polygenic hypercholesterolemia. During follow-up, 58 patients had a cardiovascular event. Event ...
When narrowing occurs in the main arteries that flow to the brain, the condition is called "carotid artery disease". This can increase a persons risk of having a stroke, however, most people are unaware that they might have it!. Carotid duplex ultrasound, or an ultrasound of the carotid artery, is a simple and painless test performed in our office that easily detects carotid artery disease.. Treating carotid artery disease is focused on preventing a stroke, or if you have had a stroke, preventing any further strokes. Lifestyle changes are key in this battle. Sometimes medications are needed as well. Surgeries or stenting may be needed in certain people.. Carotid stenting is a minimally invasive procedure for certain appropriate people with carotid disease. A small metal mesh tube, or "stent", is placed in the artery to prop it open.. Discuss with one of our cardiologists to see if you are at risk for carotid artery disease.. ...
Childhood obesity is a major health problem throughout the world. Obese children are more likely to become obese adults in whom one can expect a higher rate of hospitalisation, interventions and premature death.1 In obese people, coronary heart disease generally manifests in middle age or later life. However, atherosclerosis has its roots in childhood, its first signs in obese children appearing before puberty; therefore, it is important to develop efficient strategies to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the population. Carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) serves as a marker of preclinical atherosclerosis.2. CVD develops as a result of arterial damage in the form of arteriosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis is a general term for conditions in which diffuse thickening and stiffening in mainly large- and medium-sized arteries develop under different conditions. Both the media and intima of the arteries could be involved in the pathology. Risk factors diagnosed in childhood ...
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between adiposity measures, ultrasound image quality, and preclinical markers of atherosclerosis in young adults. METHODS: B-mode ultrasound was used to obtain common carotid intima-media thickness and common carotid artery distensibility of 2265 and 1313 adults aged 24 to 39 years in two population-based studies: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns and Childhood Determinants of Adult Health studies. Qualitative assessments of ultrasound image quality were obtained from each study (scored as 1, excellent; 2, average; and 3, poor) based on the ability to detect arterial interfaces and the amount of noise present in the image. RESULTS: Increased adiposity was associated with significantly increased odds (all P | .05) of average or poor carotid ultrasound image quality. Reduced image quality was associated with lower intima-media thickness in Young Finns (regression coefficient = -0.029; P = .01) and higher intima-media thickness in
Carotid artery - What are the carotid arteries? Carotic Arteries. The human carotid arteries supply the head and the neck with oxygenated blood. The left common carotid artery originates from the aorta and the right common carotid originates from the brachiocephalic artery which originates from the aorta. The carotic artery divides in the neck to form the internal and external carotic arteries.
c) 2014, The Authors. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (c) 2014 John Wiley & Son. This is the accepted version of the following publication: Luo, J, Ingham, E, Fisher, J, Homer-Vanniasinkam, S and Wilshaw, S-P (2014) The development of an acellular porcine carotid artery. In: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine International Society, European Chapter Meeting, 10-13 June, 2014, Genova, Italy. Wiley , 335 - 336, which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/term. ...
D: Narrowing of the carotid artery by atherosclerosis, a common cause of stroke. ^^. A: Atheromatous plaque development in the region of the common carotid bifurcation.. A/R: Hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, DM and smoking are all strong risk ^^ factors for carotid artery disease.. E: Common, affecting men more than women with increasing incidence with age.. H: May be asymptomatic.. TIAs or CVAs (responsible for 25-30%).. Amaurosis fugax (temporary unilateral vision loss - like a curtain coming down caused by embolism into the ophthalmic artery, the first branch off the internal carotid artery).. E: Often normal. There may be a carotid bruit heard; however, this often does not reflect the degree of stenosis.. Signs of CVA (e.g. dysarthria, dysphasia, weakness in limbs). Signs of systemic vascular disease.. P: The carotid artery bifurcation is an area of the vascular tree where atherosclerosis is common. In combination with systemic risk factors, local haemo-dynamics, including low shear ...
carotid artery - MedHelps carotid artery Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for carotid artery. Find carotid artery information, treatments for carotid artery and carotid artery symptoms.
Increased arterial stiffness assessed by increase PWV and increased pulse pressure have been shown to relate directly with cardiovascular events.23,24 Similar prognostic information can be gained from BRS evaluation in different patient populations at risk for cardiovascular complications. Previous investigations have demonstrated that BRS is significantly related to carotid artery distensibility. A positive association between the elastic properties of the carotid artery and BRS has been reported in healthy volunteers,25 pregnant women,26 hypertensive subjects,27 and nondiabetic patients with carotid artery stenosis.28 However, in this study we did not observe any correlation between BRS and common carotid artery wall distensibility in T2DM patients with at least 2 additional cardiovascular risk factors.. This T2DM population differs significantly from previously published works. We have selected high-risk subjects with T2DM who are characterized by stiffened and diseased arteries as evidenced ...
Carotid artery morphological changes relate to the risk and presence of CAD in patients with suspected CAD. Additionally, the association of carotid artery morphological changes such as carotid artery plaque formation1,2 or stenosis3,4 with the extent of CAD has been reported. Although our observations are consistent with these studies, the study population was limited to patients with CAD with preserved LV function and did not include patients without CAD. In addition to the previous studies, we have shown that even in this selected population, carotid morphological changes are still useful and independent predictors of the extent of CAD and multivessel CAD.. A direct association between functional changes of artery and coronary atherosclerosis has been reported in previous studies.5,6 However, these studies concluded that this association was stronger for aortic stiffness than carotid arterial stiffness, suggesting that in the larger artery, stiffness could be a significant marker of the ...
To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the accuracy with which central aortic systolic pressure can be estimated noninvasively in children. The method that we elected to compare invasive measures, carotid wall tracking, assumes carotid wall distension to be proportional to local intra-arterial carotid pressure and for carotid pressure to approximate aortic root pressure.15,16 Theoretically, tonometric measurements obtained at the carotid artery would be expected to perform as well as carotid wall tracking.10 However, in preliminary studies, we found that high-quality carotid tonometric recordings were more difficult to obtain than ultrasound wall tracking in children. We compared agreement between cSBP estimated from carotid wall tracking with measured cSBP in a heterogenous group of children in whom central hemodynamics would be expected to vary widely. Despite this, we observed good agreement between estimated and measured central aortic systolic pressures. This suggests that, in ...
One disclosed embodiment comprises a method for treating lesions in the carotid artery of a mammalian body. The method comprises transcervical access and blocking of blood flow through the common carotid artery (with or without blocking of blood flow through the external carotid artery), shunting blood from the internal carotid artery and treating the lesion in the carotid artery.
Introduction - Arterial stiffness is a major contributor to aging-related cardiovascular diseases. Pericardial fat (Pfat) may have a pathological effect due to its close proximity to the coronary arteries. However, no studies have examined whether Pfat is related to arterial stiffness.. Purpose - We examined the association between baseline measures of Pfat and carotid stiffness in 5768 participants (mean age, 62 yrs; 53% female; 39% Caucasian, 13% Chinese, 25% African American, and 23% Hispanic) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a prospective cohort study of 45- 84 yr-old men and women free of cardiovascular disease at baseline.. Methods - Pfat volume was assessed by computed tomography. Ultrasonography of the common carotid artery was used to calculate the distensibility coefficient (DC, a measure of compliance) and Youngs modulus (YM, a measure of stiffness). A lower DC and a higher YM are indicative of stiffer arteries. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the ...
New research from the Netherlands shows that older patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk for carotid artery plaque formation and for the presence of vulnerable plaques with a lipid core, according to the American Thoracic Society. The cross-sectional study, part of the Rotterdam Study, an ongoing population-based cohort study examining the occurrence of and risk factors for chronic diseases in subjects aged 55 years and older, involved 253 patients with COPD and 920 patients without the condition. COPD was confirmed by spirometry. Participations with carotid wall thickening (intima-media thickness ≥ 2.5 mm) on ultrasonography underwent high-resolution MRI to characterize carotid plaques.. Participants with COPD had a twofold increased risk of carotid wall thickening on ultrasonography compared with controls. This risk increased significantly with the severity of airflow limitation. On MRI, vulnerable lipid core plaques were significantly more frequent ...
New research from the Netherlands shows that older patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk for carotid artery plaque formation and for the presence of vulnerable plaques with a lipid core, according to the American Thoracic Society. The cross-sectional study, part of the Rotterdam Study, an ongoing population-based cohort study examining the occurrence of and risk factors for chronic diseases in subjects aged 55 years and older, involved 253 patients with COPD and 920 patients without the condition. COPD was confirmed by spirometry. Participations with carotid wall thickening (intima-media thickness ≥ 2.5 mm) on ultrasonography underwent high-resolution MRI to characterize carotid plaques.. Participants with COPD had a twofold increased risk of carotid wall thickening on ultrasonography compared with controls. This risk increased significantly with the severity of airflow limitation. On MRI, vulnerable lipid core plaques were significantly more frequent ...
Radcliffe Vascular peer-reviewed articles on carotid artery stenting, carotid artery endarterectomy, carotid artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, carotid
misc{3051799, abstract = {Cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, is a major cause of mortality in, primarily, the western world. To be able to recognize early symptoms of this type of diseases it has proven to be important to investigate the mechanical properties of blood vessels. A few years back from now it became evident that the common carotid artery has a distinct bidirectional movement pattern in the longitudinal direction during each cardiac cycle. The mechanisms of this behavior has however since then been undetermined. In this study three independent indicators of the cardiac wall movements involvement is presented. By ultrasound examinations of both the right and left side common carotids and simultaneous examinations of left ventricle movement of the heart of 14 humans it has become evident that: The longitudinal movement in the carotid arterial wall, in both directions, occurs in parts of the vessel close to the heart before it is transmitted to more peripheral parts of ...
Ultrasound study to assess Carotid Intima Media Thickness in an office setting 525 patients to be enrolled at seven medical centers DALLAS - November 13, 2005 - SonoSite, Inc. (NASDAQ: SONO), the world leader in hand-carried ultrasound, announced today at the 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions that it is initiating a multi-center study to determine whether the addition of an ultrasound examination evaluating carotid artery wall thickness (CIMT), performed in the office setting, will provide a more effective tool for risk assessment and prevention of cardiovascular disease than current clinical methods alone. Over 20 years of clinical research has shown that the thickness (T) of the two innermost layers of the carotid artery wall, the intima (I) and media (M), begins to increase before plaque is evident within the vessel. This increased wall thickness is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality and disability in the United States
Disease of the carotid artery is related to, in large part, the amount of atherosclerosis (or plaque) that is present in one of the main arteries to the brain-the Internal Carotid Artery (ICA. )Typically, the more plaque that is present, the narrower the diameter of the internal portion of the artery is that is delivering blood to the brain. One potential cause of stroke is the lack of enough blood flow to the brain that may be reduced as the inner diameter of the ICA get smaller. Alternatively, a piece of the plaque in the ICA could break away and travel to the brain lodging in a small artery producing a stroke by restricting blood flow (and oxygen) to a particular area of the brain.. While degree of narrowing within the carotid artery is a factor in determining whether intervention is required, the presence of symptoms related specifically to the carotid artery in question is another important factor to be considered. People may have a significant degree of narrowing of their ICA-in fact, it ...
The introduction of cerebral angiography in the 1930s by Moniz, followed by detailed postmortem studies of the cervical portion of the carotid artery in the 1950s by Miller Fisher, drew attention to the extracranial carotid arterys being more important than the middle cerebral artery in ischemic stroke (1). The description of the diagnostic features of carotid disease soon followed, and this led to strategies for preventing or eliminating carotid lesions. From the earliest writings, clinical investigators have debated a possible connection between severe carotid disease and impaired cognition. Few dispute the relationship between cognitive decline and large areas of infarction of cortex supplied by the carotid artery. The unsettled component is the causal relationship between mild cognitive decline and asymptomatic disease in the carotid artery that supplies the dominant hemisphere (the left carotid in 98% of right-handed individuals). In the presence of intellectual changes, should an ...
Introduction: It is unknown whether stroke risk is increased in the setting of large-artery atherosclerotic plaque that does not cause significant luminal stenosis.. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that the prevalence of vulnerable, non-stenosing carotid artery plaque on the side ipsilateral to an acute brain infarction would be higher than on the contralateral side.. Methods: Using a prospective stroke registry, we identified patients with acute infarction limited to the vascular territory of one internal carotid artery (ICA) and no large-vessel atherosclerosis based on the common criterion of greater than or equal to 50% luminal stenosis. We used magnetic resonance angiography to ascertain vulnerable ICA plaque, as defined by the presence of intraplaque high-intensity signal (IHIS). We used McNemars test for correlated proportions to compare the prevalence of IHIS on the side ipsilateral to acute infarction versus the contralateral side within individual subjects.. Results: We analyzed 218 ...
In the normal vascular system, the extracellular matrix (ECM), a complex network of various proteins and proteoglycans, is maintained by an intricate balance between synthesis and degradation of its structural components. Maintenance of tissue integrity during normal development and growth is achieved by programmed remodeling of the matrix, involving numerous enzymes as well as specific inhibitors that keep their activity in check. The MMPs are a family of at least 12 zinc-dependent endoproteinases that function at neutral pH and cooperatively hydrolyze most of the proteins in the ECM. In this study, the temporal expression and activity of members of the MMP family and one specific inhibitor, TIMP-1, have been examined using the balloon catheter-induced injury model in the rat carotid artery.. Unlike in the human, there are no smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the intima of a normal rat carotid artery.19,20 SMCs resident in the media are surrounded by a basal lamina and anchored to the ECM. After ...
Noninvasive imaging of carotid artery plaque with MRI can accurately predict future cardiovascular events like strokes and heart attacks in people without a history of cardiovascular disease, according to a new study published online in the journal Radiology.. Researchers have long known that some arterial plaque is more dangerous because of its vulnerability to rupture. MRI can discern features of vulnerable plaque, such as a lipid core with a thin fibrous cap. This ability makes MRI a potentially valuable tool for identifying patients at risk for subsequent cardiovascular events.. To study the predictive value of MRI plaque imaging, researchers performed carotid artery ultrasound and MRI on 946 asymptomatic patients from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). The carotid arteries are the large vessels located on each side of the neck that carry oxygenated blood to the front part of the brain. They are highly accessible for imaging, and their condition tends to mirror that of the ...
This 3D stock medical animation shows the progression of a left carotid artery occlusion which results in a cerebral infarct (stroke). The animation opens with a generic (blue) figure with the brain and major arteries shown. The camera then zooms into a detailed cut-section through the left carotid artery bifurcation. As blood flows to the brain, an occlusion forms cutting off the circulation resulting in the subsequent death of the brain tissue.
Figure 1 Intraluminal Thrombus. Right carotid angiogram just prior to carotid artery stenting (CAS) showed severe stenosis (arrow) of the internal carotid artery (A). Cross sections by optical coherence tomography (OCT) (B) demonstrated large thrombus as a backscattering protrusion into the carotid lumen with signal free shadowing (white arrow). Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) (C) showed eccentric and low-echoic plaque, but did not discriminate this thrombus from other tissue components. T1 weighted images of black-blood magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (D) showed severe stenosis with high intensity spot without clear margin (blue arrow). In this patient, carotid endarterectomy was performed instead of CAS because a large intraluminal thrombus was clearly demonstrated by an OCT. Post-operative pathological analysis with Hematoxylin and Eosin staining (E) demonstrated a large intraluminal red thrombus (blue arrow) in the carotid artery. The bar (B, C, D, and E) equals 2 mm. This patient was ...
Patients will be chosen for the study based on presence of carotid artery stenosis ascertained by CTA and carotid artery ultrasound. Patients will receive and intravenous injection of the radiolabeled PET tracer,[F-18]RGD-K5, and will undergo PET imaging of their carotid arteries bilaterally. PET images will be analyzed to determine the standard uptake value (SUV) of [F-18]RGD-K5 uptake by the carotid artery plaque and this will be compared to the SUV of the background (blood pool in the aorta). This will be expressed as a target to background ratio (TBR). Investigators expect to find a significant uptake of [F-18]RGD-K5 by carotid artery palque and investigators therefore expect to find a TBR that is significantly ,1. Investigators also expect to find that plaque from patients who show a TBR ,1 will also be enriched for histologic markers for inflammation and angiogenesis ...
Carotid artery disease occurs when plaque, a build-up of fat, cholesterol and other substances, collects and forms along the walls of the carotid arteries. This buildup of plaque and the injury it causes is called atherosclerosis.. Over time, the walls of affected arteries thicken and become stiff and the blood vessel may also become narrowed, a condition called stenosis, limiting blood flow.. Left untreated, carotid artery disease increases the risk for stroke. A stroke occurs when blood flow to the brain is obstructed by plaque or blood clots, when bits of plaque break free and travel to smaller arteries in the brain, or when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures. A lack of oxygen and other essential nutrients may cause permanent damage to the brain or death.. ...
BACKGROUND:. Atherosclerotic vascular disease is a major source of morbidity and mortality. Inflammation plays an important role in atherosclerosis. The tools to systematically study the extent to which genetic variation determines risk of and progression of atherosclerosis are only now becoming available.. DESIGN NARRATIVE:. The study will evaluate the role of genetic variation in inflammatory pathway genes at 29 loci on the risk and progression of carotid artery atherosclerotic disease (CAAD). Genes to be evaluated include those potentially involved in plaque initiation and progression. The investigators will evaluate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) informative for the common locus haplotypes. Choice of informative polymorphisms for evaluation is based on the genes evolutionary history. They will evaluate progression effects in subjects with CAAD followed longitudinally by noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR) techniques over 3 years. Risk will be evaluated by case-control comparisons. ...
A CT heart scan is used to diagnose blockage or narrowing of the carotid arteries of the neck and/or the branches of the carotid artery. Plaque build up, blood clots, calcium deposits and other substances in the blood stream may cause an interruption in the blood flow through the carotid arteries.
Improve your skills on carotid artery stenting procedures!. You will be able to learn more about carotid artery access: femoral, brachial, radial. Learn about carotid artery protection during procedures: different filters used, and reversal of flow (moma technique), and different stents placed in the internal and common carotid. Youll also learn about the role of a new micro mesh carotid stent. Dont hesitate to give us your feedback. ...
The principal finding of this study was that, among a variety of noninvasively assessed morphological and functional carotid artery parameters, only plaque burden consistently predicted both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Blood pressure variables, heart rate, IMT, and lumen diameter were not predictive, and among various stiffness indexes, only YEM was associated with cardiovascular but not all-cause mortality. The relation with traditional risk factors seemed very modest.. Potential limitations need to be considered. Predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were derived with stringent statistical criteria, yet the limited number of events may have restrained statistical power. The effect of a single baseline measurement on future events is subject to regression dilution.22 Hence, we may have underestimated the true associations with mortality. Calculating stiffness parameters from brachial rather than carotid PP may have introduced a bias23,24 that is known to depend on ...
We use stenting, which involves the placement of a tiny tube into your carotid artery, to treat abdominal aortic aneurysm, carotid artery disease, peripheral vascular disease.
Objetivo: analisar o espessamento intimal adjacente ao implante de um stent em artérias carótidas de suínos e aquele secundário à simples manipulação da artéria pelo introdutor do dispositivo. Métodos: sete suínos receberam o implante de um stent na artéria carótida comum direita, sob dissecção direta do vaso e sete animais controles sofreram manipulação arterial, com o sistema introdutor, sem o implante do stent. As artérias carótidas comuns contralaterais não lesadas, dos dois grupos, também foram utilizadas como controle. Realizada a análise morfométrica de amostras de tecido arterial, obtidas junto ao segmento distal do stent, quatro semanas após o implante. Os achados morfométricos foram comparados com amostras arteriais oriundas das carótidas lesadas, no grupo controle, e das carótidas contralaterais não lesadas dos dois grupos. A análise estatística foi realizada através do teste de Mann-Whitney e do teste T de Wilcoxon, para amostras não-paramétricas ...
You are invited to attend a free ultrasound screening for Carotid Artery Disease on Wednesday, May 28, from 9 a.m. to noon. The screening will be administered by the Pen Bay Vascular Lab under the direction of Dr. Julie White at Pen Bay Surgery located in the Physicians Building, Suite 103 on the Pen Bay Medical Center campus.. Carotid Artery disease is the most common cause of stroke. When this disease is detected early, stroke can be prevented. See your doctor. Discuss lifestyle changes. Consider getting an ultrasound exam. A few small steps may save your life.. You are eligible to participate in this screening if you have all these risk factors:. · Are age 60 or over.. · Are currently a smoker, have a smoking history (100 cigarettes or more) or have had prolonged exposure to second-hand smoke.. · Have elevated cholesterol and/or high blood pressure.. · Have a family or personal history of coronary artery disease.. The event is free and open to the public, but space is limited. Call us ...
Carotid artery stenting is a procedure to open up a narrowed carotid artery. Two carotid arteries on each side of the neck deliver blood to the brain. A stent is a tiny, metal mesh coil that props open the artery so that blood can flow freely. During the procedure, your doctor inserts a long thin tube called a catheter into an artery. This lets the doctor move instruments through the artery to put the stent in place. Stenting is often done with a procedure called angioplasty. For angioplasty, the doctor inflates a tiny balloon at the tip of the catheter at the blocked portion of the artery. The inflated balloon presses the plaque against the artery wall thereby opening the artery for better blood flow. The doctor then places the stent to help keep the artery open. ...
Surgery to treat carotid artery dissection (a tear in the carotid artery) is usually a minimally invasive procedure, according to the Cleveland Clinic. Minimally invasive surgery generally causes...
MRI Based on T2 Mapping An MRI scan can determine the size of a plaque in the carotid arteries, but cannot [MORE]
MRI of the CAROTID ARTERIES Review Pathogenesis/Progression Intima-Media Thickness (IMT) Studies Plaque Constituents Morphology Stable vs Unstable (Vulnerable) Survey of Methods and Results Most Published Results - 1.5T Recent 3T Carotid MRI Studies
The heterogeneity of atherosclerotic tissue has limited comprehension in proteomic and metabolomic analyses. To elucidate the functional implications, and differences between genders, of atherosclerotic lesion formation we investigated protein profiles from different regions of human carotid atherosclerotic arteries; internal control, fatty streak, plaque shoulder, plaque centre, and fibrous cap. Proteomic analysis was performed using 2-DE with MALDI-TOF, with validation using nLC-MS/MS. Protein mapping of 2-DE identified 52 unique proteins, including 15 previously unmapped proteins, of which 41 proteins were confirmed by nLC-MS/MS analysis. Expression levels of 18 proteins were significantly altered in plaque regions compared to the internal control region. Nine proteins showed site-specific alterations, irrespective of gender, with clear associations to extracellular matrix remodelling. Five proteins display gender-specific alterations with 2-DE, with two alterations validated by nLC-MS/MS. ...
The primary objective of this cadaveric study was to review the morphological variations of the anatomy of the human carotid artery bifurcation relevant to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stent-supported ...
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misc{6255e459-8fcc-46d0-a460-4291149361a2, abstract = {Background: Previous studies from our and other centers on young patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have indicated pro-atherosclerotic changes in the carotid arteries and in the lipid and systemic inflammatory profiles without a clear relationship between these changes and the hyperglycemic control. We have also earlier found in these patients a certain HLA-related genetic susceptibility to adverse vascular changes.,br, Objective: To assess whether pro-atherosclerotic changes are present in apparently healthy first- degree relatives of patients with T1D.,br, Methods: Plasma lipids, C-peptide (index of insulin secretion), C-reactive protein (CRP), and the carotid artery intima-media thickness (CA-IMT), compliance (CAC) and stiffness index (SI) were assessed in up to 116 non-diabetic first-degree relatives (FDR; mean age: 12.6 years; 56 female) of patients with T1D and in up to 43 age-matched control individuals (mean age: 13.3 years; 23 ...
The carotid artery is one of the major arteries of the human body. It helps blood flow to and from a humans heart. In human anatomy, the left and right common carotid arterie are arteries that supply the head and neck with oxygenated blood.. ...
Objective. Preliminary evidence suggests that ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is associated with an increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. We investigated subclinical atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness in patients with AS compared with controls, and identified CV and AS related risk factors for atherosclerotic disease.. Methods. A total of 59 patients with AS who were scheduled for etanercept treatment according to the ASsessments in Ankylosing Spondylitis guidelines and 30 healthy controls were recruited. Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed as the average intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery. Arterial stiffness was determined by distensibility, compliance, and Youngs elastic modulus of the carotid artery.. Results. AS patients had a greater IMT (0.62 ± 0.09 mm vs 0.57 ± 0.09 mm in controls; p = 0.02), a difference that remained after adjustment for traditional CV risk factors. AS was associated with higher carotid pulse pressure (47 ± 7 mm Hg vs 44 ± 8 mm Hg in ...
When the location of the narrowing is too difficult to access directly, the surgeon may perform a carotid angioplasty and stenting. With this procedure, a tiny balloon is threaded by a catheter to the area of the condition (carotid artery) or clogging. The balloon is then inflated, which in turn widens the artery, and a small wire-mesh coil, or stent, is inserted, keeping the artery from narrowing again. The procedure is still relatively new, and its effectiveness is still being calculated. ...
My father, 87, has been diagnosed with a 90% blockage of the right carotid artery. His doctor will not do surgery, even though Dad experiences dizzy spells. The left artery seems to be OK. He has be...
In February of 2010, a chance screening at a local church changed my life forever when an ultrasound revealed a 90% blockage of my right carotid artery.
A CT heart scan is used to diagnose blockage or narrowing of the carotid arteries of the neck and/or the branches of the carotid artery. Plaque build up, blood clots, calcium deposits and other substances in the blood stream may cause an interruption in the blood flow through the carotid arteries.
Professor Kazem Fathie, M.D., F.A.C.S., F.I.C.S., Ph.D. CAROTID ARTERY OCCLUSION is caused by atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis and atheroma, and is
After graduating with a Biomedical Sciences degree from Cardiff University in 2012, Dr Bethan Brown (nee Monk) began a PhD in Cardiovascular Biology in Professor Sarah Georges lab at the University of Bristol. During this time, Beth investigated the effect of ageing on Wnt3a and Wnt5a signalling in vascular smooth muscle cells, highlighting the divergence between these two pro-survival pathways. In addition, Beth examined the effect of ageing on carotid artery ligation induced intimal thickening and observed exaggerated medial remodelling in the contralateral carotid artery of older mice. After completing her studies in 2016, Beth started a Research Associate position in Professor Georges lab examining a potential role for casein kinase II inhibitors in restenosis. Other sessions Dr Bethan Brown is participating in ...
The carotid arteries are 2 blood vessels, one either side of the neck, that each transport blood to the brain from the heart. These arteries can become partly or totally blocked resulting in the decrease of blood flow to the brain. This condition in turn is caused by atherosclerosis, also known as hardening of the arteries. Atherosclerosis is the outcome of a build up of cholesterol and calcium on the inner lining of the arteries. These deposits are referred to as plaques, which might eventually become so thick that they totally prevent the blood flow through the arteries. Those with untreated blocked carotid arteries are statistically likely to have a stroke ...
h, root of aorta; 1, arch of aorta, to the right side; li, left innominate; ri, innominate; ls, left subclavian; rs, right subclavian; lc, left carotid; rc, right carotid. Aves conjuncto-carotidinae, with two carotids, which speedily unite in one.Bittern, both alike." Elliot Coues, 1884. ...
MONDAY, July 7, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Routine screening for a narrowing of the neck arteries should not be done in healthy adults, an influential panel of U.S. health experts says.. The arteries that run along both sides of the neck supply blood to the brain. If they become narrowed -- a condition called carotid artery stenosis -- this reduced blood flow to the brain can boost the risk of stroke.. But the downside of having everyone tested for narrowed carotid arteries would be too many unnecessary and potentially risky procedures afterwards, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force said in a final recommendation statement. Therefore, general screening of healthy adults for the condition is not advised.. "Screening for carotid artery stenosis often leads to follow-up testing and surgeries that can cause serious harms, including stroke, heart attack, or death," task force member Dr. Jessica Herzstein said in a news release from the group. She explained that this type of blocked artery "is ...
among patients given either simvastatin (40 mg/d) or atorvastatin leading proponents of the lipid hypothesis dominated the (80 mg/d), but declined over the next 2 years to a greater extent in subsequent extensive media coverage, enthusiastically hailing the latter group. A significant correlation was found between the these results as triumphant confirmation of the PROVE-IT decrease of CRP and reduction in intima media thickness (IMT) of findings. According to these prestigious commentators, the carotid artery segments. No correlation was observed between "lower is better" era of LDL reduction had officially arrived. The fact that all-cause mortality did not differ between the twogroups, owing to an increase in noncardiovascular deaths among Conclusion ...
Carotid phonoangiography is a test using a sensitive microphone placed on the neck, very close to the carotid artery. It records sounds and detects blockages, such as those caused by carotid artery disease.. ...
Narrowing of the carotid arteries can restrict blood flow to the brain and increase the risk of stroke. Treatments include surgery or stent placement, but…
Question - Can plaque build up in the brain be reduced or reversed as well as in the carotid arteries?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Hypertension, Ask a Cardiologist
➤ Stenosis of the carotid artery treatment in Spain, ➤ 6 clinics, Addresses, $ Prices for treatments and diagnostics, ☺ 15 reviews, ✎ Make an appointment, ✉ 679 patients are sent for treatment
Objective: There is no special catheter used for carotid angiography in the market. We studied the efficacy feasibility and safety of Femoral S carotid catheter (made by ..
Bhatti AF, Leon LR Jr, Labropoulos N et al (2007) Free-floating thrombus of the carotid artery: literature review and case reports. J Vasc Surg 45(1):199-205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
In this work, analysis of carotid plaque ultrasound images have been attempted using statistical method based on Gray Level Co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The ultrasound imaging of the carotid arteries...
Just after midnight Wednesday, Brad began showing symptoms of a stroke. He was confused, his speech was beginning to slur and his arms were losing feeling. Dr. Bjorgaard asked Dr. Go to check Brads stents with an angiogram. In the cath lab, Dr. Go discovered the stent in Brads aorta was partially obstructing blood flow to his left carotid artery to his brain.. In order to prevent lasting stroke symptoms, Dr. Go needed to take action, and fast. After discussing risks and possible outcomes with Brads family, Dr. Go stented Brads left carotid artery. While trained in the procedure, at the time he performed it, Dr. Go didnt have privileges at Altru to do so.. "Dr. Go took his professional career into his own hands when he did this to save my life," said Brad. "What he did was way above what I think a lot of doctors would have done. How do you thank someone for that?". "You get into this field to save peoples lives," said Dr. Go. "I knew he wasnt going to have the same quality of life, or life ...
UNC REX Healthcares vascular specialists can help reduce your risk of stroke by treating blockages in the carotid arteries, which send blood to the brain.
Prof. Fanelli, a world-wide expert on carotid artery stenting and teaching, explains the concepts behind the website www.carotidworld.org. The site is...
Carotid angioplasty is a procedure that opens clogged arteries to prevent or treat stroke. The carotid arteries are located on each side of your neck and are the main arteries supplying blood to your brain. The procedure involves temporarily inserting and inflating a tiny balloon where your carotid artery is clogged to widen the ...
Thanks Jackie. Your message is giving me the inspiration I need to add my story now. As we all recall, I placed myself in lurker mode sometime ago. It was meant to be for one week, but ended up being closer to three weeks. I was having left sided brain problems in that intermittently I was dropping stuff I tried to carry in my right hand and after one week I developed an intermittent speech block. Probably the speech thing was the hardest to deal with. As well as writing a lot, I also like to talk a lot and it was very frustrating to no be able to talk! I was referred to a neurologist who put me in the hospital for tests. My left carotid artery had three ulcerative blockages varying from 75% down to 25%. Three days later I had an enderectomy (sp?). My carotid artery was opened and scraped clean. After ten days of hospitalization I was released to go home and continue to recuperate. Like Jackie, I was allowed to monitor my blood sugars and make corrections with my pump. The hardest thing I had to ...
MC Assuta - the largest network of private clinics in Israel that has existed since 1934. It has a specialized branch of modern cardiac surgery. Medical Complex offers the best doctors with the required specialization, skill and experience. The effectiveness of the treatment is directly connected with the center level of technical equipment. Referring to Assuta, the patient will receive medical care corresponding to the highest international standards.
Is the surgery to remove carotid blockages very dangerous - Is the surgery to remove carotid blockages very dangerous? No. This surgery, when performed by experts, can be very safe. Surgical outcomes do depend on the experience of your surgeon.
Daniël van der Velden, Sanne Willems, P H Quax, G J de Borst, J.P.P.M. de Vries, F L Moll, J Kuiper, R E Toes, S C de Jager, D P de Kleijn, I E Hoefer, G Pasterkamp and I Bot ...
Treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases is one of the most challenging problems of modern medicine. Tortuosity of a carotid artery (CA) is a common pathology that may cause ischemic stroke. In this study, 3D FEM models with fluid-structure interactions of carotid arteries with pathological tortuousities of four main types (S-bending,C-bending, kinking, coiling) along with normal CA were built using a real 3D-geometry based on computer tomography data. ...
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PART ONE. MARCH 25, 2008. Greetings everyone. I hope that I find you hearing and seeing more, in a higher rank, in the particular order you might be in. Things are happening quickly, in our FOCUSED BEING and it is wonderful!!. For the last 4 months much has been happening in my life. First, I lost my home and everything in it, right down to the silverware. (I wont go into all the particulars), but things came about and I gave my trailer away; I gave all my furniture to some who needed it; and I moved in with my sister. I actually didnt LOSE my home, I turned loose of it.. Then 2 wks ago I had surgery done on my left carotid artery. It was a much more painful surgery than I thought it would be, but as you see, I survived. I am not supposed to do anything for 4 weeks, but I am almost healed. Really!! (in this physical body). Throughout all this happening, I have had a lot of time to do some listening, and listening I have done. Folks, this is for the mature, what I AM about to write. We are in ...
Caroline Monaghan was seen by her primary care physician, who determined that she possibly had blockage in her carotid arteries. Such a blockage, also known as stenosis, carries a great risk for a...
arteries I10.nrrd, angiography, stl, 3d, model, carotid, commun, external, internal, cerebellar, artery, anteroinferior, posteroinferior, basilar, pontine, middle, cerebral, anatomy normal, anterior, cerebral, posterior, vessels, aorta, arch, cerebellar.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Is early age-related macular degeneration related to carotid artery stiffness? The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. AU - Cheung, Ning. AU - Liao, Duanping. AU - Islam, F. M.Amirul. AU - Klein, Ronald. AU - Jie, Jin Wang. AU - Wong, Tien Yin. PY - 2007/4/1. Y1 - 2007/4/1. N2 - Background/Purpose: Atherosclerosis and vascular stiffness have been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The association of carotid artery stiffness, a measure of arterial elasticity reflecting early atherosclerosis, with early AMD, was examined in this study. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional study of 9954 middle-aged people (age range 51-72 years). The presence of AMD signs was determined from fundus photographs according to the Wisconsin grading protocol. Carotid arterial stiffness was measured from high-resolution ultrasonic echo tracking of the left common carotid artery, and was defined as an adjusted arterial diameter change (AADCμ). A ...
Stroke is the third-leading cause of death in America, and carotid artery stenosis-also known as carotid artery disease-is one of the leading risk factors for stroke, accounting for about 20 percent of strokes. To mark National Stroke Month in May, we asked University of Minnesota Health Neurosurgeon and Neurointerventionist Ramachandra Tummala, MD, to tell us five things we should know about carotid artery stenosis and its link to stroke risk.. Carotid stenosis occurs when buildup begins blocking blood flow.. Stenosis is a medical term for narrowing of blood vessels in the body due to a buildup of inflammatory substances and cholesterol deposits-called plaque. Two carotid arteries in the neck carry most of the blood flow from the heart to the brain. When stenosis occurs in these arteries it is known as carotid artery stenosis. Carotid artery stenosis can lead to a stroke.. Patients with carotid artery stenosis are at increased risk for a stroke, which can lead to disability or death. Sometimes, ...
The internal carotid artery is a major paired artery, one on each side of the head and neck, in human anatomy. They arise from the common carotid arteries where these bifurcate into the internal and external carotid arteries at cervical vertebral level 3 or 4; the internal carotid artery supplies the brain, while the external carotid nourishes other portions of the head, such as face, scalp, skull, and meninges. Terminologia Anatomica in 1998 subdivided the artery into four parts: "cervical", "petrous", "cavernous", and "cerebral". However, in clinical settings, the classification system of the internal carotid artery usually follows the 1996 recommendations by Bouthillier, describing seven anatomical segments of the internal carotid artery, each with a corresponding alphanumeric identifier-C1 cervical, C2 petrous, C3 lacerum, C4 cavernous, C5 clinoid, C6 ophthalmic, and C7 communicating. The Bouthillier nomenclature remains in widespread use by neurosurgeons, neuroradiologists and neurologists. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carotid artery atherosclerosis, MRI indices of brain ischemia, aging, and cognitive impairment. T2 - The framingham study. AU - Romero, José R.. AU - Beiser, Alexa. AU - Seshadri, Sudha. AU - Benjamin, Emelia J.. AU - Polak, Joseph F.. AU - Vasan, Ramachandran S.. AU - Au, Rhoda. AU - Decarli, Charles. AU - Wolf, Philip A.. PY - 2009/5/1. Y1 - 2009/5/1. N2 - Background and Purpose-: Carotid atherosclerosis has been associated with increased risk of stroke and poorer cognitive performance in older adults. The relation of carotid atherosclerosis to cognitive impairment and MRI indices of ischemia and aging in midlife is less clear. Methods-: We studied 1975 Framingham Offspring Study participants free of stroke and dementia with available carotid ultrasound, brain MRI, and neuropsychological testing. We related common and internal carotid artery intima-media thickness and internal carotid stenosis to large white matter hyperintensity (,1 SD above age-specific mean), total brain ...
Carotid artery disease is a disease in which a waxy substance called plaque builds up inside the arteries. You have two carotid arteries, one on each side of the neck which divide into the internal and external carotid arteries. The internal arteries supply blood to the brain and the external arteries supply blood to the face, scalp, and neck... Carotid artery disease is serious because it can cause a stroke if the plaque should build up to the point it cuts off blood supply to the brain, or the plaque ruptures and a blood clot forms in the artery cutting off blood supply to the brain.. Carotid artery disease causes over half the strokes that occur in the United States. Carotid artery disease may not have any symptoms until the arteries are severely narrowed or blocked. For some people, a stroke is the first sign of the disease.. ...
BACKGROUND Low plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, recently several studies have questioned the protective role of high plasma HDL levels. OBJECTIVE This study was designed to evaluate HDL functions in women with high plasma HDL cholesterol and very low risk profile with relation to subclinical carotid atherosclerosis (ATS). METHODS Included were 158 middle-aged women with plasma HDL |60 mg/dL and Framingham risk score |7% who had B-mode ultrasound of the carotid arteries. Subclinical ATS was determined by the presence of plaques and/or intima-media thickness (IMT) |1.0 mm. RESULTS ATS was observed in 51 women, with the majority (n=41) having carotid plaques, some with advanced morphology. In a multivariable model analysis, each, HDL or age, were independently associated with increased prevalence of ATS. Odds ratios for ATS were 3.1 and 2.5 greater for age|60 years and HDL |70 mg/dL, respectively. None of
Methods and Results: To identify cIMT-associated genes and genetic variants, a discovery analysis using the Illumina 200K CardioMetabochip was conducted in 3430 subjects with detailed ultrasonographic determinations of cIMT from the IMPROVE (Carotid Intima Media Thickness [IMT] and IMT-Progression as Predictors of Vascular Events in a High Risk European Population) study. Segment-specific IMT measurements of common carotid, bifurcation, and internal carotid arteries, and composite IMT variables considering the whole carotid tree (IMTmean, IMTmax, and IMTmean-max), were analyzed. A replication stage investigating 42 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for association with common carotid IMT was undertaken in 5 independent European cohorts (total n=11 590). A locus on chromosome 16 (lead single-nucleotide polymorphism rs4888378, intronic in CFDP1) was associated with cIMT at significance levels passing multiple testing correction at both stages (array-wide significant discovery P=6.75×10 -7 for ...
Synonyms for Carotid artery, external in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Carotid artery, external. 1 synonym for external carotid artery: external carotid. What are synonyms for Carotid artery, external?
Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), as measured by ultrasound, has utility in stratification of the accelerated cardiovascular risk seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, the technique has limitations. Carotid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as a useful research tool in the general population, but has yet to be applied in RA populations. Our objectives were to describe the utility of carotid artery MRI (carotid-MRI) in patients with RA in comparison to healthy controls and to describe the association with RA disease phenotype. Sixty-four patients with RA and no history of cardiovascular (CV) disease/diabetes mellitus were assessed for RA and CV profile, including homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). All underwent carotid-MRI (3 T), and were compared to 24 healthy controls. Univariable analysis (UVA) and multivariable linear regression models (MVA) were used to determine
Title:Cerebral Hypoperfusion During Carotid Artery Stenosis can Lead to Cognitive Deficits that may be Independent of White Matter Lesion Load. VOLUME: 9 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Martin Scherr, Eugen Trinka, Mark Mc Coy, Yvonne Krenn, Wolfgang Staffen, Margarita Kirschner, Hans Jurgen Bergmann and Johannes Sebastian Mutzenbach. Affiliation:Universitatsklinik fur Neurologie Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniversität Christian Doppler Klinik Ignaz Harrer Straße 79 A-5020 Salzburg Austria.. Keywords:Cerebral hypoperfusion, Carotid artery stenosis, Carotid atherosclerosis, Cognitive impairment, Microembolization, White matter lesions, atherosclerosis, stroke-free, stenosis, neuropsychological, hemodynamically, pathophysiological, MRI, Cerebral microembolization. Abstract:Studies investigating cognitive impairment in stroke-free patients with carotid artery stenosis have led to inconsistent results. Furthermore, the pathophysiological mechanism leading to cognitive impairment remains unclear. Cerebral ...
Impact of baseline characteristics on outcomes of carotid artery stenting in acute ischemic stroke patients Cheng-Sheng Yu,1,* Chih-Ming Lin,2,3,* Chi-Kuang Liu,4 Henry Horng-Shing Lu1 1Institute of Statistics and Big Data Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 2Stroke Centre and Department of Neurology, Chunghua Christian Hospital, Chunghua, 3Graduate Institute of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 4Department of Medical Imaging, Chunghua Christian Hospital, Chunghua, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Carotid artery stenting is an effective treatment for ischemic stroke patients with moderate-to-severe carotid artery stenosis. However, the midterm outcome for patients undergoing this procedure varies considerably with baseline characteristics. To determine the impact of baseline characteristics on outcomes following carotid artery stenting, data from 107 eligible patients with a first
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stent-based nitric oxide delivery reducing neointimal proliferation in a porcine carotid overstretch injury model. AU - Hou, Dongming. AU - Narciso, Hugh. AU - Kamdar, Kirti. AU - Zhang, Ping. AU - Barclay, Bruce. AU - March, Keith L.. PY - 2005/1/1. Y1 - 2005/1/1. N2 - Background: The effects of nitric acid (NO) on vessel response to injury include the inhibition of platelet adhesion, platelet aggregation, leukocyte adhesion and smooth muscle cell proliferation. Releasing NO from a stent might reduce the clinical problem of restenosis. The present study was designed to examine whether an NO-eluting covered stent can prevent neointimal formation in a porcine carotid overstretch injury model. Methods: The interior of a self-expanding polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)-covered aSpire stent was coated with silicone, which contained 23.6 μg or 54.5 μg sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO-releasing compound). The stent was implanted into carotid artery. Six pigs were implanted with stents, ...
Carotid artery symptoms explains why carotid artery disease occurs. A family member has carotid artery disease. Recently he had to have two operations, one on each side of his neck. The operations had to be done a few months apart, with the worst affected artery being done first. Continue reading Carotid Artery Symptoms →. ...
Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane protein that binds factor VII/VIIa, thus activating the extrinsic blood coagulation pathway. Since this pathway appears to be involved in the formation of intravascular thrombi, the anti-rabbit TF monoclonal antibody, AP-1, was produced and tested as an antithrombotic agent in a rabbit model of recurrent intravascular thrombosis. In this model, a plastic constrictor is positioned around the injured rabbit carotid arteries, and flow is monitored with a Doppler flow probe. This produces cyclic flow variation (CFV) in the carotid artery, which is caused by recurrent formation and dislodgment of thrombi at the site of the stenosis. After monitoring CFV pattern for 30 minutes, AP-1 was infused intravenously into nine rabbits at doses of 0.05 to 1.5 mg/kg body weight, and a control monoclonal antibody that does not react with rabbit TF was infused into four additional rabbits. In all rabbits receiving AP-1, CFV was abolished, and a steady normal blood flow was ...
Accumulation of tissue iron has been implicated in development of atherosclerotic lesions mainly because of increased iron-catalyzed oxidative injury. However, it remains unknown whether cellular iron import and storage in human atheroma are related to human atheroma development. We found that transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), a major iron importer, is highly expressed in foamy macrophages and some smooth muscle cells in intimal lesions of human carotid atheroma, mainly in cytoplasmic accumulation patterns. In 52 human carotid atherosclerotic lesions, TfR1 expression was positively correlated with macrophage infiltration, ectopic lysosomal cathepsin L, and ferritin expression. Highly expressed TfR1 and ferritin in CD68-positive macrophages were significantly associated with development and severity of human carotid plaques, smoking, and patients symptoms. The findings suggest that pathologic macrophage iron metabolism may contribute to vulnerability of human atheroma, established risk factors, and ...
Many people are unaware that approximately 30 percent of strokes are caused by blockages in the carotid artery. Carotid artery disease is a condition characterized by a narrowing or blockage of one or both of the carotid arteries in the neck, which supply blood to the brain. Plaque, which is made up of an accumulation of fats, cholesterol, and fibrous tissue, can build up in the arteries over time, as a result of age, genetics, or an unhealthy lifestyle. The team of specialists at Stony Brook Medicine utilizes a multidisciplinary approach to diagnose and treat stroke and pre-stroke conditions, many of which are caused by a narrowing in the carotid arteries. We offer both nonsurgical and traditional treatment options. Specialists from cardiology, vascular surgery, and neurology work together to care for you and your family with compassion and expertise. What is it? Stroke is the leading cause of serious, long-term disability in the United States, and occurs when there is an interruption of blood flow
TY - JOUR. T1 - Common carotid arterial stiffness and the risk of ischaemic stroke. AU - Tsivgoulis, Georgios. AU - Vemmos, K.. AU - Papamichael, C.. AU - Spengos, K.. AU - Daffertshofer, M.. AU - Cimboneriu, A.. AU - Zis, V.. AU - Lekakis, J.. AU - Zakopoulos, N.. AU - Mavrikakis, M.. PY - 2006/5/1. Y1 - 2006/5/1. N2 - In the present case-control study we aimed to investigate the association of common carotid arterial (CCA) stiffness with ischaemic stroke (IS) and to determine whether this relationship was independent of conventional risk factors including CCA intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT). CCA distensibility, defined as the change of CCA-diameter during the cardiac cycle, and CCA-IMT were evaluated by means of high-resolution B-mode carotid ultrasound examination in consecutive, first-ever IS patients (n = 193) and in age- and sex-matched control subjects (n = 106). The CCA distensibility (inverse of CCA stiffness) was significantly (P = 0.007) lower in IS (0.353 mm, 95% CI: 0.326-0.379) ...
The common carotid artery is found bilaterally, with one on each side of the anterior neck. Each common carotid artery is divided into an external and internal carotid artery. These arteries transfer blood to the structures inside and outside of the skull.
The external carotid arteries supply oxygenated blood to the head region. There is one external carotid artery on the right side of the neck and one on the left side of the neck. Each begins at the common carotid artery and moves up the neck until it divides into the
OBJECTIVE: Increased arterial stiffness and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) are considered independent predictors of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to compare a system recently developed in our laboratory for automatic assessment of these parameters from ultrasound image sequences to a reference radio frequency (RF) echo-tracking system. METHODS: Common carotid artery scans of 21 patients with cardiovascular risk factors and 12 healthy volunteers were analyzed by both devices for the assessment of diameter (D), IMT, and distension (DeltaD). In the healthy volunteers, analyses were repeated twice to evaluate intraobserver variability. Agreement was evaluated by Bland-Altman analysis, whereas reproducibility was expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV). RESULTS: Regarding the agreement between the two systems, bias values +/- SD were 0.060 +/- 0.110 mm for D, -0.006 +/- 0.039 mm for IMT, and -0.016 +/- 0.039 mm for DeltaD. Intraobserver CVs were 2% +/- 2% for D, 5% +/- ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of carotid artery stenosis by in vivo duplex ultrasound. T2 - Correlation with planimetric measurements of the corresponding postmortem specimens. AU - Schulte-Altedorneburg, Gernot. AU - Droste, Dirk W.. AU - Felszeghy, S.. AU - Csiba, L.. AU - Popa, Vasile. AU - Hegedüs, Katalin. AU - Kollár, J.. AU - Módis, László. AU - Ringelstein, E. Bernd. PY - 2002/10/1. Y1 - 2002/10/1. N2 - Background and Purpose - The correct detection and quantification of carotid artery disease are of decisive impact on patient prognosis and adequate treatment. In this study, we evaluated the ability of ultrasonography to detect and to grade carotid artery stenosis through a comparison of the in vivo ultrasound findings with the planimetric analysis of the corresponding postmortem specimens. Methods - Shortly before their death, 59 critically ill neurological patients (mean age, 70 years) were prospectively examined by extracranial and intracranial Doppler sonography and color-coded ...
Mikael Häggström is a Doctor of Medicine, and the creator of WikiJournal of Medicine, as well as Radlines. He was born in Gothenburg, Sweden, and is a grandchild of Estonian historian Karin Aasma. He grew up in Uddevalla on the Swedish west coast. He decided to become a doctor while backpacking for half a year in 2005, taking the Trans-Siberian train to China and crossing the Himalayas from Tibet to Nepal. He graduated from Uppsala University, Faculty of Medicine in 2013. He did his internship in Sundsvall, and has worked 1.5 years as a physician in obstetrics and gynecology and 3 years in radiology. He is currently doing specialist training in pathology at the NU Hospital Group, Sweden. He has contributed to Wikipedia since 2006, including a multitude of medical images. He is the creator and current editor-in-chief of WikiJournal of Medicine, a new Wikipedia-integrated, peer-reviewed, open-access academic journal.[1] He is also the creator of Radlines and Patholines, containing open access ...
His injuries include: Amputation of both arms and both legs; Severed left carotid artery; Broken nose, left eye socket and ...
bruit over one or both carotid arteries or abdominal aorta. *arteriographic narrowing of aorta, its primary branches, or large ... Classically involves arteries of lungs and skin, but may be generalized. At least 4 criteria yields sensitivity and specificity ... Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). Systemic vasculitis of medium and small arteries, including venules and arterioles. ... December 1999). "Temporal artery biopsy: a diagnostic tool for systemic necrotizing vasculitis. French Vasculitis Study Group ...
... both carotid arteries and both vertebral arteries) that supply the brain. When the aneurysm has been located, platinum coils ... Those of the basilar artery and posterior cerebral artery are hard to reach surgically and are more accessible for endovascular ... "INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM OF THE INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY: CURED BY OPERATION". Annals of Surgery. 107 (5): 654-59. doi:10.1097/ ... a catheter is inserted into the femoral artery in the groin and advanced through the aorta to the arteries ( ...
Carotid artery occlusion is associated with slower conjunctival blood flow and apparent capillary loss.[3] ... PAVLOU AT; WOLFF HG (1959-07-01). "THe bulbar conjunctival vessels in occlusion of the internal carotid artery". Archives of ... The blood supply to the palpebral conjunctiva (the eyelid) is derived from the external carotid artery. However, the ... conjunctival and palpebral conjunctival vessels are supplied by both the ophthalmic artery and the external carotid artery, to ...
Repair of a damaged carotid artery is essential in order to prevent further neurological complications.[citation needed] ... In vascular Eagle syndrome, the elongated styloid process comes in contact with the internal carotid artery below the skull. In ... Hoffmann, E.; Räder, C.; Fuhrmann, H.; Maurer, P. (2013). "Styloid-carotid artery syndrome treated surgically with Piezosurgery ... or styloid-carotid artery syndrome)[3] is a rare condition commonly characterized but not limited to - sudden, sharp nerve-like ...
Basilar part of occipital bone Carotid sulcus lodging cavernous sinus and internal carotid artery These are asymmetrical air ... Internal carotid artery. Sphenoidal sinus Pterygospinal ligament Basilar skull fracture According to most dictionaries, the ...
Carotid sulcus lodging cavernous sinus and internal carotid artery Sphenoidal sinusesEdit. These are asymmetrical air sinuses ...
About 11 lb of pressure is required to compress the carotid artery; 4.4 lb for the jugular veins; and at least 15 kg for the ... and carotid artery injury. Ron M. Brown writes that hanging has a "fairly imperspicuous and complicated symbolic history". ... compression of the carotid arteries, the jugular veins, or the airway. ...
Atherosclerosis can lead to coronary artery disease, carotid artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and aneurysms. Standing ... The authors also found that men with carotid stenosis or ischemic heart disease were at greater risk for the progression of ... 2000) the authors examined the relationship between standing at work and the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in men. ... This study provides evidence that hemodynamic changes from standing can influence the progressions of carotid atherosclerosis. ...
However, in emergency situations the most reliable arteries to measure heart rate are carotid arteries. This is important ... This pulse rate can be found at any point on the body where the artery's pulsation is transmitted to the surface by pressuring ... Fox K, Ford I (2008). "Heart rate as a prognostic risk factor in patients with coronary artery disease and left-ventricular ... The radial artery is the easiest to use to check the heart rate. ... The neck (carotid artery).. *The inside of the elbow, or under ...
The wrestler then extends a thumb and thrusts it into the windpipe or carotid artery of the opponent, cutting off their air or ... it compresses the carotid arteries (jugulation). Two-handed chokelift[edit]. Also known as a "neck-hanging tree" a wrestler ... locks his hand to his wrist behind the opponent's neck to make the opponent submit or lose consciousness as the carotid artery ...
Origin of arteries[edit]. The left and right internal carotid arteries arise from the left and right common carotid arteries. ... The posterior communicating artery is given off as a branch of the internal carotid artery just before it divides into its ... The vertebral arteries arise from the subclavian arteries. The anterior communicating artery connects the two anterior cerebral ... Blood flows up to the brain through the vertebral arteries and through the internal carotid arteries. ...
... branches from the external carotid artery, the sphenopalatine artery, the greater palatine artery, the superior labial artery, ... infraorbital artery) and the ophthalmic arteries that derive from the internal common carotid artery system. ... branches from the internal carotid artery, the branch of the anterior ethmoidal artery, the branch of the posterior ethmoidal ... and the angular artery. The external nose is supplied with blood by the facial artery, which becomes the angular artery that ...
Chung CL, Côté P, Stern P, L'espérance G (2014). "The Association Between Cervical Spine Manipulation and Carotid Artery ... The incidence of internal carotid artery dissection following cervical spine manipulation is unknown.[151] The literature ... There is very low evidence supporting a small association between internal carotid artery dissection and chiropractic neck ... Vertebrobasilar artery stroke (VAS) is statistically associated with chiropractic services in persons under 45 years of age,[ ...
The internal carotid and vertebral arteries. Right side. Course and distribution of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory ... Passing downward and forward between the internal and external carotid arteries, it divides upon the side of the tongue near ...
The internal carotid and vertebral arteries. Right side. Distribution of the maxillary and mandibular nerves, and the ... The lingual vein passes medial to the hyoglossus, and the lingual artery passes deep to the hyoglossus. Laterally, in between ... the stylohyoid ligament and the lingual artery and lingual vein. ...
The internal carotid and vertebral arteries. Right side. Muscles of the palate seen from behind. Dissection of the pharyngeal ...
Internal carotid artery. Abing W, Rauchfuss A (2005). "Fetal development of the tympanic part of the facial canal". European ...
... tinnitus may be a symptom of potentially life-threatening conditions such as carotid artery aneurysm or carotid artery ... Selim, Magdy; Caplan, Louis R (2004). "Carotid Artery Dissection". Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine. 6 (3 ... Moonis G, Hwang CJ, Ahmed T, Weigele JB, Hurst RW (2005). "Otologic manifestations of petrous carotid aneurysms". American ...
Internal carotid artery. Auditory ossicles. Tympanic cavity. Deep dissection. This article incorporates text in the public ... The anterior wall (or carotid wall) is wider above than below; it corresponds with the carotid canal, from which it is ... and by the deep petrosal nerve which connects the sympathetic plexus on the internal carotid artery with the tympanic plexus on ... separated by a thin plate of bone perforated by the tympanic branch of the internal carotid artery, ...
Internal carotid artery. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) ... and the labyrinthine artery (an internal auditory branch of the basilar artery) can pass from inside the skull to structures of ...
Internal carotid artery. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) ...
Internal carotid artery. Auditory ossicles. Tympanic cavity. Deep dissection. Aditory ossicles.Incus and malleus.Deep ...
New studies associate loud "snoring" with the development of carotid artery atherosclerosis.[7] Amatoury et al.[8] demonstrated ... Vibration of the carotid artery with snoring also lends itself as a potential mechanism for atherosclerotic plaque rupture and ... While there is plausibility and initial evidence to support snoring as an independent source of carotid artery/cardiovascular ... that snoring vibrations are transmitted to the carotid artery, identifying a possible mechanism for snoring-associated carotid ...
Transendothelial migration of ferric ion in FeCl3 injured murine common carotid artery. Thrombosis Research 118 (2): 275-280. ...
The relation of retinal artery occlusion and carotid artery stenosis.. M P Merchut, S R Gupta, M H Naheedy ... Extension of thrombus from an occluded carotid artery into the ophthalmic artery did not appear to be a mechanism of retinal ... retinal artery occlusion and assessed the pattern and extent of carotid artery disease ipsilateral to the retinal artery ... Ipsilateral internal carotid artery atherosclerotic lesions were virtually limited to the cervical arterial segment; 50% of ...
Carotid artery surgery is a procedure to treat carotid artery disease. ... Carotid artery surgery is a procedure to treat carotid artery disease.. The carotid artery brings needed blood to your brain ... Carotid artery surgery is done to restore proper blood flow to the brain. There are two procedures to treat a carotid artery ... The side your blocked carotid artery is on faces up.. *The surgeon makes a cut (incision) on your neck over your carotid artery ...
... the internal carotid artery is somewhat dilated. This part of the artery is known as the carotid sinus or the carotid bulb. The ... The named branches of the petrous segment of the internal carotid artery are: the vidian artery or artery of the pterygoid ... They arise from the common carotid arteries where these bifurcate into the internal and external carotid arteries at cervical ... The internal carotid artery is a terminal branch of the common carotid artery; it arises around the level of the fourth ...
... of the carotid artery, usually caused by atherosclerosis. The internal carotid artery supplies the brain. Plaque often builds ... Plaque can also build up at the origin of the carotid artery at the aorta.] ... up at that division, and causes a narrowing (stenosis). Pieces of plaque can break off and block the small arteries above in ... Carotid stenosis is a narrowing or constriction of the inner surface (lumen) ...
There are two carotid arteries in your neck: one on the right side and one on the le ... There are two carotid arteries in your neck: one on the right side and one on the left side. ...
Treatments and Tools for carotid artery. Find carotid artery information, treatments for carotid artery and carotid artery ... MedHelps carotid artery Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... Just over a year ago my right carotid artery suddenly started looking more like an allied t... ... Back in January 2014, I somehow managed to tear my right right internal carotid artery. Th... ...
3. Occipital Artery. - This artery, given off by the carotid, is the third division. It passes up to the atlas or first bone of ... Carotid Arteries. These vessels ascend the neck, one on the right and the other on the left side of the trachea, in company ... On reaching the larynx, they each divide into three vessels - the external carotid, the internal carotid, and the occipital. ... 1. The External Carotid supplies on each side the external parts of the head. It runs beneath the parotid gland, behind the ...
... carotid artery: The external carotid artery ascends through the upper part of the side of the neck and behind the lower jaw ... The external carotid artery gives off the following branches: (1) superior thyroid to the larynx and… ... Other articles where External carotid artery is discussed: ... In carotid artery. The external carotid artery ascends through ... The external carotid artery gives off the following branches: (1) superior thyroid to the larynx and… ...
Carotid artery disease occurs when the carotid arteries become narrowed or blocked. ... Ultrasound of the carotid arteries (carotid duplex ultrasound) to see how well blood is flowing through the carotid artery ... Carotid artery disease occurs when the carotid arteries become narrowed or blocked. ... Carotid angioplasty and stenting -- This procedure opens a blocked artery and places a tiny wire mesh (stent) in the artery to ...
... the major arteries in the neck that supply the brain with blood from the heart. ... arotid artery stenosis refers to a narrowing of the carotid arteries, ... Carotid artery stenosis refers to a narrowing of the carotid arteries, the major arteries in the neck that supply the brain ... Carotid angiography - A catheter is inserted into a vein in the patients arm or leg and guided towards the carotid arteries. A ...
... the left common carotid artery extends out into the left external carotid artery and the left internal carotid artery. ... Left Common Carotid Artery. The left common carotid artery is the artery that provides oxygen-rich blood to the left side of ...
True aneurysms involving all layers of the carotid arterial wall and false aneurysms both occur. Overall, extracranial carotid ... Extracranial carotid artery aneurysms are uncommon and occur in a broad range of patients due to many etiologies. ... The extracranial carotid arteries include the common carotid artery, which originates in the chest, the external carotid artery ... Any segment of the carotid artery (common, external, internal) can be affected, although the internal carotid artery is most ...
Stroke Prevention: New Carotid Artery Treatment , El Camino Hospital - Duration: 6:31. El Camino Hospital 61,675 views ... How to remember branches of External Carotid Artery?. a. Visual mnemonics. b. Textual mnemonics. c. Brief description. d. ... Carotid Body and Carotid Sinus ( Anatomy , Functions , Clinical application ) Medical animation - Duration: 2:50. Dr.G.Bhanu ... Memorize the Maxillary Artery Branches In Under 2 Minutes! - Duration: 2:30. YT Med 31,652 views ...
... clogs the arteries that bring blood to your brain and head. Find out how it cause a stroke. ... In carotid artery disease, a waxy substance (plaque) ... If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow ... Carotid Artery Disease (Texas Heart Institute) Also in Spanish * What Is Carotid Artery Disease? (National Heart, Lung, and ... Carotid artery disease (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Carotid artery stenosis -- self-care (Medical Encyclopedia) ...
... two on each side of the neck right and left internal carotid arteries, and right and left external carotid arteries. The ... right and left internal carotid arteries, and right and left external carotid arteries. The carotid arteries deliver oxygen- ... There are four carotid arteries, two on each side of the neck: ... carotid arteries deliver oxygen-rich blood from ...
Carotid artery stenting (CAS), which has emerged as an alternative therapy to high-risk surgical patients, has become an ... Carotid artery stenting com-pared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid ... Carotid plaque echolucency increases the risk of stroke in carotid stenting: the imaging in carotid angioplasty and risk of ... Carotid artery stenting protected with an emboli containment system. Stroke. 2002;33:1308-14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
"Carotid Artery Interventions For Cerebrovascular Disease Compared." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 6 Jun. 2011. Web. ... 2011, June 6). "Carotid Artery Interventions For Cerebrovascular Disease Compared." Medical News Today. Retrieved from. https ... or stroke before undergoing their carotid artery procedure (5.3 percent vs. 5.3 percent). It was noted that symptomatic women ... However, they added that the outcome of carotid angioplasty and stenting had not been extensively examined in women. "An ...
You have one of these arteries on each side of your neck. Carotid artery surgery is a procedure to restore proper blood flow to ... The carotid artery brings needed blood to your brain and face. ... carotid artery - discharge; PTA - carotid artery - discharge ... Having carotid artery surgery does not cure the cause of the blockage in your arteries. Your arteries may become narrow again. ... The carotid artery brings needed blood to your brain and face. You have one of these arteries on each side of your neck. ...
... covers carotid artery stenting (CAS) procedures under certain circumstances including through study participation. Listed below ... The National Coverage Determination (NCD) for Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) covers carotid artery stenting (CAS) ... Study Title: Carotid Revascularization for Primary Prevention of Stroke (CREST-2). Sponsor: National Institute of Neurological ... Carotid Artery Stenting Facilities * Carotid Artery Stenting Facility Recertification Process * Carotid Artery Stenting (CAS) ...
... Carotid Artery Endarterectomy or Carotid Stenting are used to treat Carotid Artery ... A catheter will be inserted through the femoral artery and threaded to the carotid artery. ... Carotid Artery Endarterectomy is usually performed as follows:. *This surgery can be performed using a local or general ... Carotid Artery Disease and Stroke: Prevention and Treatment Professor of Surgery Bruce Perler discusses causes, symptoms, risk ...
A carotid artery endarterectomy is a surgery to remove the deposits from this artery. Deposits in arteries result in plaque. ... The carotid artery carries blood through the neck to the brain. Blockage of this artery can lead to brain damage called a ... This Carotid Artery Endarterectomy page on EmpowHER Womens Health works best with javascript enabled in your browser.. Toggle ... a test that uses sound waves to examine the carotid arteries *. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) scan. -a test that uses ...
Carotid artery surgery - series-Aftercare. URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100124.htm Carotid artery ...
Also, small pieces of plaque can break off and block small arteries ... When the carotid arteries become blocked with cholesterol plaques (atherosclerotic plaques), blood flow to the brain is ... When the carotid arteries become blocked with cholesterol plaques (atherosclerotic plaques), blood flow to the brain is ... Also, small pieces of plaque can break off and block small arteries in the brain. This blockage of the blood vessels can cause ...
Embolic stroke due to severe carotid artery stenosis can be preventable. In this article, we review the management of carotid ... Accelerated carotid artery disease after high-dose head and neck radiotherapy: is there a role for routine carotid duplex ... Carotid duplex ultrasonography is the screening modality of choice for the detection of cervical carotid artery disease. ... Outcomes of carotid artery stenting versus historical surgical controls for radiation-induced carotid stenosis. J Vasc Surg. ...
... over the blocked carotid artery. A tube is inserted above and below the blockage to re-direct the blood flow. Fat and ... Fat and cholesterol build-ups are removed from the carotid artery. The artery is stitched (sutured) closed, the tube is removed ... While you are deep asleep and pain-free, an incision is made in the neck, over the blocked carotid artery. A tube is inserted ... Carotid artery surgery - series-Procedure. URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100124.htm Carotid artery ...
  • While in the canal, it gives off (a) orbital branches which assist in supplying the inferior rectus and inferior oblique and the lacrimal sac, and (b) anterior superior alveolar arteries - branches which descend through the anterior alveolar canals to supply the upper incisor and canine teeth and the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus. (wikipedia.org)
  • and others descend between the levator labii superioris and the levator anguli oris, and anastomose with the facial artery, transverse facial artery, and buccal artery. (wikipedia.org)
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