The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Oxygenated forms of carotenoids. They are usually derived from alpha and beta carotene.
A xanthophyll found in the major LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES of plants. Dietary lutein accumulates in the MACULA LUTEA.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
An enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to give prephytoene diphosphate. The prephytoene diphosphate molecule is a precursor for CAROTENOIDS and other tetraterpenes.
A trans-carotenoid pigment widely distributed in nature. The compound is used as an oral suntanning agent and as a food and drug coloring agent. Oral ingestion of the compound causes canthaxanthin retinopathy.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
A monooxygenase that catalyzes the conversion of BETA-CAROTENE into two molecules of RETINAL. It was formerly characterized as EC and EC
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.
Rhodopsin molecules found in microorganisms such as ARCHAEA and PROTEOBACTERIA.
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)
Thirteen-carbon butene cyclohexene degradation products formed by the cleavage of CAROTENOIDS. They contribute to the flavor of some FRUIT. Ionone should not be confused with the similarly named ionol.
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.
An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.
A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.
An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.
An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
A plant genus of the family EBENACEAE, order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida best known for the edible fruit and the antibacterial activity and compounds of the wood.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
A plant genus, in the IRIDACEAE family, known as a source of Saffron.
Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.

The food matrix of spinach is a limiting factor in determining the bioavailability of beta-carotene and to a lesser extent of lutein in humans. (1/2951)

Carotenoid bioavailability depends, amongst other factors, on the food matrix and on the type and extent of processing. To examine the effect of variously processed spinach products and of dietary fiber on serum carotenoid concentrations, subjects received, over a 3-wk period, a control diet (n = 10) or a control diet supplemented with carotenoids or one of four spinach products (n = 12 per group): whole leaf spinach with an almost intact food matrix, minced spinach with the matrix partially disrupted, enzymatically liquefied spinach in which the matrix was further disrupted and the liquefied spinach to which dietary fiber (10 g/kg wet weight) was added. Consumption of spinach significantly increased serum concentrations of all-trans-beta-carotene, cis-beta-carotene, (and consequently total beta-carotene), lutein, alpha-carotene and retinol and decreased the serum concentration of lycopene. Serum total beta-carotene responses (changes in serum concentrations from the start to the end of the intervention period) differed significantly between the whole leaf and liquefied spinach groups and between the minced and liquefied spinach groups. The lutein response did not differ among spinach groups. Addition of dietary fiber to the liquefied spinach had no effect on serum carotenoid responses. The relative bioavailability as compared to bioavailability of the carotenoid supplement for whole leaf, minced, liquefied and liquefied spinach plus added dietary fiber for beta-carotene was 5.1, 6.4, 9.5 and 9.3%, respectively, and for lutein 45, 52, 55 and 54%, respectively. We conclude that the bioavailability of lutein from spinach was higher than that of beta-carotene and that enzymatic disruption of the matrix (cell wall structure) enhanced the bioavailability of beta-carotene from whole leaf and minced spinach, but had no effect on lutein bioavailability.  (+info)

A survey of serum and dietary carotenoids in captive wild animals. (2/2951)

Accumulation of carotenoids varies greatly among animal species and is not fully characterized. Circulating carotenoid concentration data in captive wild animals are limited and may be useful for their management. Serum carotenoid concentrations and dietary intakes were surveyed and the extent of accumulation categorized for 76 species of captive wild animals at Brookfield Zoo. Blood samples were obtained opportunistically from 275 individual animals immobilized for a variety of reasons; serum was analyzed for alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein + zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin and canthaxanthin. Total carotenoid content of diets was calculated from tables and chemical analyses of commonly consumed dietary components. Diets were categorized as low, moderate or high in carotenoid content as were total serum carotenoid concentrations. Animals were classified as unknown, high, moderate or low (non-) accumulators of dietary cartenoids. Nonaccumulators had total serum carotenoid concentrations of 0-101 nmol/L, whereas accumulators had concentrations that ranged widely, from 225 to 35,351 nmol/L. Primates were uniquely distinguished by the widest range of type and concentration of carotenoids in their sera. Most were classified as high to moderate accumulators. Felids had high accumulation of beta-carotene regardless of dietary intake, whereas a wide range of exotic birds accumulated only the xanthophylls, lutein + zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin or cryptoxanthin. The exotic ungulates, with the exception of the bovids, had negligible or nondetectable carotenoid serum concentrations despite moderate intakes. Bovids accumulated only beta-carotene despite moderately high lutein + zeaxanthin intakes. Wild captive species demonstrated a wide variety of carotenoid accumulation patterns, which could be exploited to answer remaining questions concerning carotenoid metabolism and function.  (+info)

Accumulation of astaxanthin all-E, 9Z and 13Z geometrical isomers and 3 and 3' RS optical isomers in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is selective. (3/2951)

Concentrations of all-E-, 9Z- and 13Z- geometrical and (3R,3'R), (3R, 3'S) and (3S,3'S) optical isomers of astaxanthin were determined in rainbow trout liver, gut tissues, kidney, skin and blood plasma to evaluate their body distribution. Two cold-pelleted diets containing predominantly all-E-astaxanthin (36.9 mg/kg astaxanthin, 97% all-E-, 0.4% 9Z-, 1.5% 13Z-astaxanthin, and 1.1% other isomers, respectively) or a mixture of all-E- and Z-astaxanthins (35.4 mg/kg astaxanthin, 64% all-E-, 18.7% 9Z-, 12.3% 13Z-astaxanthin, and 2.0% other isomers, respectively), were fed to duplicate groups of trout for 69 d. Individual E/Z isomers were identified by VIS- and 1H-NMR-spectrometry, and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Significantly higher total carotenoid concentration was observed in plasma of trout fed diets with all-E-astaxanthin (P < 0.05). The relative E/Z-isomer concentrations of plasma, skin and kidney were not significantly different among groups, whereas all-E-astaxanthin was higher in intestinal tissues and 13Z-astaxanthin was lower in liver of trout fed all-E-astaxanthin (P < 0.05). The relative amount of hepatic 13Z-astaxanthin (39-49% of total astaxanthin) was higher than in all other samples (P < 0.05). Synthetic, optically inactive astaxanthin was used in all experiments, and the determined dietary ratio between the 3R,3'R:3R, 3'S (meso):3S,3'S optical isomers was 25.3:49.6:25.1. The distribution of R/S-astaxanthin isomers in feces, blood, liver and fillet was similar to that in the diets. The ratio between (3S,3'S)- and (3R,3'R)-astaxanthin in the skin and posterior kidney was ca. 2:1 and 3:1, respectively, regardless of dietary E/Z-astaxanthin composition. The results show that geometrical and optical isomers of astaxanthin are distributed selectively in different tissues of rainbow trout.  (+info)

Carotenoid intakes, assessed by dietary questionnaire, are associated with plasma carotenoid concentrations in an elderly population. (4/2951)

High intakes of fruits and vegetables and of carotenoids are associated with a lower risk for a variety of chronic diseases. It is therefore important to test the validity of dietary questionnaires that assess these intakes. We compared intakes of five carotenoids, as calculated from responses to the Willett 126-item food-frequency questionnaire, with corresponding biochemical measures. Subjects included 346 women and 201 men, aged 67-93 y, in the Framingham Heart Study. Unadjusted correlations were higher among women than men as follows: alpha-carotene 0.33 and 0.18, beta-carotene, 0.36 and 0.25; beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.44 and 0.32; lycopene, 0.35 and 0.21; and lutein + zeaxanthin, 0.27 and 0.10, respectively. Adjustment for age, energy intake, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), plasma cholesterol concentrations and smoking reduced the gender differences, respectively, to the following: alpha-carotene 0.30 and 0.28; beta-carotene, 0.34 and 0.31; beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.45 and 0.36; lycopene, 0.36 and 0.31; and lutein + zeaxanthin, 0.24 and 0.14. Plots of adjusted mean plasma carotenoid concentration by quintile of respective carotenoid intake show apparent greater responsiveness among women, compared with men, to dietary intake of alpha- and beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin, but similar blood-diet relationships for lycopene and lutein + zeaxanthin. Reported daily intake of fruits and vegetables correlated most strongly with plasma beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene among women and with plasma alpha- and beta-carotene among men. With the exception of lutein + zeaxanthin, this dietary questionnaire does provide reasonable rankings of carotenoid status among elderly subjects, with the strongest correlations for beta-cryptoxanthin. Appropriate adjustment of confounders is necessary to clarify these associations among men.  (+info)

Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopene, and cancer: review of the epidemiologic literature. (5/2951)

The epidemiologic literature in the English language regarding intake of tomatoes and tomato-based products and blood lycopene (a compound derived predominantly from tomatoes) level in relation to the risk of various cancers was reviewed. Among 72 studies identified, 57 reported inverse associations between tomato intake or blood lycopene level and the risk of cancer at a defined anatomic site; 35 of these inverse associations were statistically significant. No study indicated that higher tomato consumption or blood lycopene level statistically significantly increased the risk of cancer at any of the investigated sites. About half of the relative risks for comparisons of high with low intakes or levels for tomatoes or lycopene were approximately 0.6 or lower. The evidence for a benefit was strongest for cancers of the prostate, lung, and stomach. Data were also suggestive of a benefit for cancers of the pancreas, colon and rectum, esophagus, oral cavity, breast, and cervix. Because the data are from observational studies, a cause-effect relationship cannot be established definitively. However, the consistency of the results across numerous studies in diverse populations, for case-control and prospective studies, and for dietary-based and blood-based investigations argues against bias or confounding as the explanation for these findings. Lycopene may account for or contribute to these benefits, but this possibility is not yet proven and requires further study. Numerous other potentially beneficial compounds are present in tomatoes, and, conceivably, complex interactions among multiple components may contribute to the anticancer properties of tomatoes. The consistently lower risk of cancer for a variety of anatomic sites that is associated with higher consumption of tomatoes and tomato-based products adds further support for current dietary recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable consumption.  (+info)

Cyclin D1 proteolysis: a retinoid chemoprevention signal in normal, immortalized, and transformed human bronchial epithelial cells. (6/2951)

BACKGROUND: Retinoids (derivatives of vitamin A) are reported to reduce the occurrence of some second primary cancers, including aerodigestive tract tumors. In contrast, beta-carotene does not reduce the occurrence of primary aerodigestive tract cancers. Mechanisms explaining these effective retinoid and ineffective carotenoid chemoprevention results are poorly defined. Recently, the all-trans-retinoic acid (RA)-induced proteolysis of cyclin D1 that leads to the arrest of cells in G1 phase of the cell cycle was described in human bronchial epithelial cells and is a promising candidate for such a mechanism. In this study, we have investigated this proteolysis as a common signal used by carotenoids or receptor-selective and receptor-nonselective retinoids. METHODS: We treated cultured normal human bronchial epithelial cells, immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B), and transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2BNNK) with receptor-selective or receptor-nonselective retinoids or with carotenoids and studied the effects on cell proliferation by means of tritiated thymidine incorporation and on cyclin D1 expression by means of immunoblot analysis. We also examined whether calpain inhibitor I, an inhibitor of the 26S proteasome degradation pathway, affected the decline (i.e., proteolysis) of cyclin D1. RESULTS: Receptor-nonselective retinoids were superior to the carotenoids studied in mediating the decline in cyclin D1 expression and in suppressing the growth of bronchial epithelial cells. Retinoids that activated retinoic acid receptor beta or retinoid X receptor pathways preferentially led to a decrease in the amount of cyclin D1 protein and a corresponding decline in growth. The retinoid-mediated degradation of cyclin D1 was blocked by cotreatment with calpain inhibitor I. CONCLUSIONS: Retinoid-dependent cyclin D1 proteolysis is a common chemoprevention signal in normal and neoplastic human bronchial epithelial cells. In contrast, carotenoids did not affect cyclin D1 expression. Thus, the degradation of cyclin D1 is a candidate intermediate marker for effective retinoid-mediated cancer chemoprevention in the aerodigestive tract.  (+info)

Protective effect of dietary tomato against endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic mice. (7/2951)

The effects of dietary ingestion of tomato were studied in mice that had been made hypercholesterolemic by feeding atherogenic diets. Mice which had been fed on the atherogenic diet without tomato for 4 months had significantly increased plasma lipid peroxide, and the vaso-relaxing activity in the aorta induced by acetylcholine (ACh) was harmed when compared with mice fed on a common commercial diet. On the other hand, mice which had been fed on the atherogenic diet containing 20% (w/w) lyophilized powder of tomato showed less increase in the plasma lipid peroxide level, and ACh-induced vaso-relaxation was maintained at the same level as that in normal mice. These results indicate that tomato has a preventive effect on atherosclerosis by protecting plasma lipids from oxidation.  (+info)

Glutathione-S-transferase (GSTM1) genetic polymorphisms do not affect human breast cancer risk, regardless of dietary antioxidants. (8/2951)

Glutathione-S-transferases catalyze the detoxication of carcinogen metabolites and reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced through a number of mechanisms. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) M1 is polymorphic, and the null allele results in a lack of enzyme activity. Because there are indications that ROS may be involved in breast carcinogenesis, we sought to determine whether the GSTM1 null allele was associated with increased breast cancer, particularly among women with lower consumption of dietary sources of alpha-tocopherol, carotenoids and ascorbic acid. In a study of diet and cancer in western New York, women with primary, incident, histologically confirmed breast cancer (n = 740) and community controls (n = 810) were interviewed and an extensive food-frequency questionnaire administered. A subset of these women provided a blood specimen. DNA was extracted and genotyping performed for GSTM1. Data were available for 279 cases and 340 controls. The null allele did not increase breast cancer risk, regardless of menopausal status. There were also no differences in associations between the polymorphism and risk among lower and higher consumers of dietary sources of antioxidants or smokers and nonsmokers. These results indicate that GSTM1 genetic polymorphisms are not associated with breast cancer risk, even in an environment low in antioxidant defenses.  (+info)

Plant carotenoids have been implicated in preventing several age-related diseases, and they also provide vitamin A precursors; therefore, increasing the content of carotenoids in maize grains is of great interest. It is not well understood, however, how the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is regulated. Fortunately, the maize germplasm exhibits a high degree of genetic diversity that can be exploited for this purpose. Here, the accumulation of carotenoids and the expression of genes from carotenoid metabolic and catabolic pathways were investigated in several maize landraces. The carotenoid content in grains varied from 10.03, in the white variety MC5, to 61.50 μg·g−1, in the yellow-to-orange variety MC3, and the major carotenoids detected were lutein and zeaxanthin. PSY1 (phythoene synthase) expression showed a positive correlation with the total carotenoid content. Additionally, the PSY1 and HYD3 (ferredoxin-dependent di-iron monooxygenase) expression levels were positively correlated with β
The use of cell factories to convert sugars from lignocellulosic biomass into chemicals in which oleochemicals and food additives, such as carotenoids, is essential for the shift toward sustainable processes. Rhodotorula toruloides is a yeast that naturally metabolises a wide range of substrates, including lignocellulosic hydrolysates, and converts them into lipids and carotenoids. In this study, xylose, the main component of hemicellulose, was used as the sole substrate for R. toruloides, and a detailed physiology characterisation combined with absolute proteomics and genome-scale metabolic models was carried out to understand the regulation of lipid and carotenoid production. To improve these productions, oxidative stress was induced by hydrogen peroxide and light irradiation and further enhanced by adaptive laboratory evolution. Based on the online measurements of growth and CO2 excretion, three distinct growth phases were identified during batch cultivations. Majority of the intracellular flux
Colorless Carotenoids: Phytoene & Phytofluene Efficacy Protection and Colorless Carotenoids Combinations Colorless Carotenoids: Phytoene & Phytofluene Efficacy Protection and Stability Synergism Boosting activity TiO2 & ZnO CoQ10 DHA DiHydroxy Acetone Retinol IBR-Dormin ® Vitamin C Squalene Omega 3 oils DHA & EPA Carotenoids Phytoene and phytofluene Beauty from the inside* and outside Anti aging and photo-aging Skin brightening/whitening - evening of skin tone Protection against UV and its damage Anti oxidant Prevention of DNA damage Anti inflammatory Protection and enhancement of other active ingredients and their activity ©
Carotenoids are natural pigments which are synthesized by plants and are responsible for the bright colors of various fruits and vegetables. There are several dozen carotenoids in the foods that we eat, and most of these carotenoids have antioxidant activity. β-carotene has been best studied since, in most countries it is the most common carotenoid in fruits and vegetables. However, in the U.S., lycopene from tomatoes now is consumed in approximately the same amount as β-carotene. Antioxidants (including carotenoids) have been studied for their ability to prevent chronic disease. β-carotene and others carotenoids have antioxidant properties in vitro and in animal models. Mixtures of carotenoids or associations with others antioxidants (e.g. vitamin E) can increase their activity against free radicals. The use of animals models for studying carotenoids is limited since most of the animals do not absorb or metabolize carotenoids similarly to humans. Epidemiologic studies have shown an inverse ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A study on serum carotenoid levels in breast cancer patients of Indian women in Chennai (Madras), India.. AU - Ito, Y.. AU - Gajalakshmi, K. C.. AU - Sasaki, R.. AU - Suzuki, K.. AU - Shanta, V.. N1 - Copyright: This record is sourced from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine. PY - 1999/11. Y1 - 1999/11. N2 - Two-hundred and six breast cancer cases were histologically confirmed breast cancer diagnoses at the Cancer Institute in Chennai (Madras), India. One-hundred and fifty hospital controls were patients who had cancer at any site other than breast and gynecological organs, and 61 healthy controls were persons accompanying patients in the Cancer Institute. Serum levels of carotenoids such as beta-carotene, lycopene, cryptoxanthin, and zeaxanthin & lutein were determined by HPLC. Serum levels of total carotenes and total carotenoids including beta-carotene, which reflects food intake of colored vegetables and fruits and has a protective role for ...
Carotenoid Production by Bacillus clausii Using Rice Powder as the Sole Substrate: Pigment Analyses and Optimization of Key Production Parameters
Dr. Wurtzel was elected as an ICS Fellow for significant career-long contributions to research on provitamin A carotenoid biosynthesis, which is enabling sustainable solutions to global vitamin A deficiency. Her interdisciplinary research integrates molecular biology, cell biology, biochemistry, genetics, bioinformatics, and systems biology. For example, Dr. Wurtzel and her team took advantage of natural genetic diversity to elucidate pathway control points and to develop molecular markers for breeding high-provitamin A maize, identifying gene families and their roles in controlling carotenoid accumulation. Most recently, the Wurtzel laboratory discovered Z-ISO, a new carotenoid enzyme, which is essential for biosynthesis of all plant carotenoids, including provitamin A carotenoids. This breakthrough led to the discovery of a new prototype function for heme proteins, uncovered a novel means for regulating carotenoid biosynthesis in plants, and redefined the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in ...
Carotenoids protect the photosynthetic apparatus against harmful radicals arising from the presence of both light and oxygen. They also act as accessory pigments for harvesting solar energy, and are required for stable assembly of many light-harvesting complexes. In the phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rba.) sphaeroides phytoene desaturase (CrtI) catalyses three sequential desaturations of the colourless carotenoid phytoene, extending the number of conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds, N, from three to nine and producing the yellow carotenoid neurosporene; subsequent modifications produce the yellow/red carotenoids spheroidene/spheroidenone (N=10/11). Genomic crtI replacements were used to swap the native three-step Rba. sphaeroides CrtI for the four-step Pantoea agglomerans enzyme, which re-routed carotenoid biosynthesis and culminated in the production of 2,2-diketo-spirilloxanthin under semi-aerobic conditions. The new carotenoid pathway was elucidated using a combination of HPLC and ...
Carotenoids are C40 tetraterpenoids synthesized by nuclear-encoded multienzyme complexes located in the plastids of higher plants. To understand further the components and mechanisms involved in carotenoid synthesis, we screened Arabidopsis for mutations that disrupt this pathway and cause accumulation of biosynthetic intermediates. Here, we report the identification and characterization of two nonallelic albino mutations, pds1 and pds2 (for phytoene desaturation), that are disrupted in phytoene desaturation and as a result accumulate phytoene, the first C40 compound of the pathway. Surprisingly, neither mutation maps to the locus encoding the phytoene desaturase enzyme, indicating that the products of at least three loci are required for phytoene desaturation in higher plants. Because phytoene desaturase catalyzes an oxidation reaction, it has been suggested that components of an electron transport chain may be involved in this reaction. Analysis of pds1 and pds2 shows that both mutants are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of serum carotenoid levels with urinary albumin excretion in a general Japanese population. T2 - The Yakumo study. AU - Suzuki, Koji. AU - Honjo, Hisashi. AU - Ichino, Naohiro. AU - Osakabe, Keisuke. AU - Sugimoto, Keiko. AU - Yamada, Hiroya. AU - Kusuhara, Yasuhiro. AU - Watarai, Rika. AU - Hamajima, Takeshi. AU - Hamajima, Nobuyuki. AU - Inoue, Takashi. PY - 2013/8/31. Y1 - 2013/8/31. N2 - Background: Albuminuria is a risk factor for not only nephropathy progression but also cardiovascular disease. Oxidative stress may have a role in the positive association between albuminuria and cardiovascular disease. Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated the associations of serum levels of carotenoids, which are dietary antioxidants, with albuminuria among 501 Japanese adults (198 men, mean age ± SD: 66.4 ± 10.0 years; 303 women, mean age ± SD: 65.4 ± 9.8 years) who attended a health examination. Serum levels of carotenoids were determined by high-performance ...
Gene transfer among reproductively isolated organisms can lead to novel phenotypes and increased fitness. Among the Sternorrhyncha, a suborder of plant sap-feeding hemipteran insects, both aphids and adelgids acquired carotenoid biosynthesis genes from a fungal donor that result in ecologically relevant pigmentation. Phylloxerids form another family that are closely related to aphids and adelgids and share similar pigmentation, but are largely uncharacterized for their presence and number of pigment genes that have duplicated among aphids. Here, we examined the transcriptomes of nine phylloxerid species, and performed PCR to amplify carotenoid genes from their genomic DNA. We identified carotenoid cyclase/synthase and desaturase genes in each species and demonstrated that they share the common fungal origin as those of aphids and adelgids based on their exon-intron gene structures and phylogenetic relationships. The phylogenetic analyses also indicated that carotenoid genes evolved following the
Efforts are underway for development of crops with improved levels of provitamin A carotenoids to help combat dietary vitamin A deficiency. As a global staple crop with considerable variation in kernel carotenoid composition, maize (Zea mays L.) could have a widespread impact. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of quantified seed carotenoids across a panel of maize inbreds ranging from light yellow to dark orange in grain color to identify some of the key genes controlling maize grain carotenoid composition. Significant associations at the genome-wide level were detected within the coding regions of zep1 and lut1, carotenoid biosynthetic genes not previously shown to impact grain carotenoid composition in association studies, as well as within previously associated lcyE and crtRB1 genes. We leveraged existing biochemical and genomic information to identify 58 a priori candidate genes relevant to the biosynthesis and retention of carotenoids in maize to test in a pathway-level ...
A method for inhibiting and/or ameliorating the occurrence of diseases in a human subject whereby a subject is administered a carotenoid analog or derivative, either alone or in combination with another carotenoid analog or derivative. In some embodiments, the administration of analogs or derivatives of carotenoids may inhibit and/or ameliorate the occurrence of diseases in subjects. In some embodiments, analogs or derivatives of carotenoids may be water-soluble and/or water dispersible. Maladies that may be treated with analogs or derivatives of carotenoids embodied herein may include diseases that provoke or trigger an inflammatory response. In an embodiment, asthma may be treated with analogs or derivatives of carotenoids embodied herein. In an embodiment, administering analogs or derivatives of carotenoids embodied herein to a subject may control or affect the bioavailability of eicosanoids. In an embodiment, atherosclerosis may be treated with analogs or derivatives of carotenoids embodied herein.
Carotenoids have many biological effects,23 and can function as antioxidants to protect eye tissues against free radicals.4-6 The only source of carotenoids for humans is food, and the carotenoid availability in plasma is critical in long term maintenance of adequate tissue levels. A correlation exists between carotenoid intake and plasma carotenoid concentrations.24 However, the individual variability in plasma response to carotenoid intake in humans is large.25The mechanisms providing the transport of carotenoids from intestine to the tissues are not clearly understood. Scita et al 26 proposed that the uptake of carotenoids in cultured small intestine cells of rats takes place in the absence of any receptor regulation. The postprandial incorporation into lipoproteins could be demonstrated in normolipaemic subjects for β carotene by Cornwell et al in 1962.27 The transport of the carotenoids in blood, and the distribution to the different tissues is done by lipoproteins. Clevidence and Bieri ...
One of the interesting and previously unknown properties of the orange carotenoid protein is the ability to transmit the carotenoid to other proteins with a similar structure. The mechanism of the process is described in the mentioned work published in the Biophysical Journal.. We studied the interaction of carotenoid-containing violet C-domains of the OCP with a colorless apo form of the OCP. As a result of the interaction, the colorless apo form of the OCP became orange and photoactive (capable of changing its structure and color).. The carotenoid transfer process simulates the process of assembling a photoactive protein from a protein matrix and a chromophore (carotenoid), said Dr. Eugene Maksimov, senior researcher at the Laboratory of Biophotonics.. The discovered transfer reaction of a hydrophobic carotenoid molecule between two water-soluble proteins gives us several interesting opportunities. This mechanism will allow us create water-soluble protein complexes to deliver antioxidant ...
There is a strong evidence that human papillomavirus (HPV) is the key causative agent of cervical cancer. However, the majority of women who are exposed to the oncogenic HPV do not develop invasive cervical cancer, suggesting that other factors could play a role in the cause and progression of cervical cancer. Epidemiological studies have suggested carotenoids and retinol as possible risk co-factors in cervical cancer etiology. However, the evidence is not conclusive. The study was design to achieve five objectives: 1) to validate the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in a case-control study in Bangkok, Thailand; 2) to examine the association of individual plasma carotenoids and retinol with the risk of in situ cervical carcinoma; 3) to examine association of individual plasma carotenoids and retinol with the risk of invasive cervical carcinoma; 4) to investigate the association between individual plasma carotenoids and retinol and the risk of progression from in situ carcinoma to invasive ...
Since carotenoids can serve as antioxidants and/or immune stimulants, it has been assumed that deposition of carotenoids in feathers or bills can reveal the health status in birds. In order to study the function of carotenoids as signals or immune stimulants, it is necessary to characterise the types of carotenoid molecules in the study species. In this preliminary study, we examined the types of carotenoids in the plasma of four nestlings of the Eurasian magpie (Pica pica) using mass spectrometry ...
Carotenoids (/kəˈrɒtɪnɔɪd/), also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi. Carotenoids can be produced from fats and other basic organic metabolic building blocks by all these organisms. The only animals known to produce carotenoids are aphids and spider mites, which acquired the ability and genes from fungi or it is produced by endosymbiotic bacteria in whiteflies. Carotenoids from the diet are stored in the fatty tissues of animals, and exclusively carnivorous animals obtain the compounds from animal fat. There are over 600 known carotenoids; they are split into two classes, xanthophylls (which contain oxygen) and carotenes (which are purely hydrocarbons, and contain no oxygen). All are derivatives of tetraterpenes, meaning that they are produced from 8 isoprene molecules and contain 40 carbon atoms. In general, carotenoids absorb wavelengths ranging from 400-550 nanometers (violet to green light). This ...
Carotenoids are important antioxidant compounds, present in many foods of plant, animal and marine origin. The aim of the present study was to describe the carotenoid composition of tomato waste, prawn muscle and cephalothorax and avian (duck and goose) egg yolks through the use of a modified gradient elution HPLC method with a C30 reversed-phase column for the efficient separation and analysis of carotenoids and their cis-isomers. Elution time was reduced from 60 to 45 min without affecting the separation efficiency. All-trans lycopene predominated in tomato waste, followed by all-trans-β-carotene, 13-cis-lutein and all-trans lutein, while minor amounts of 9-cis-lutein, 13-cis-β-carotene and 9-cis-β-carotene were also detected. Considering the above findings, tomato waste is confirmed to be an excellent source of recovering carotenoids, especially all-trans lycopene, for commercial use. Xanthophylls were the major carotenoids of avian egg yolks, all-trans lutein and all-trans zeaxanthin in ...
BACKGROUND: Published associations between dietary carotenoids and vitamin C and bladder cancer risk are inconsistent. Biomarkers may provide more accurate measures of nutrient status. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between plasma carotenoids and vitamin C and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. DESIGN: A total of 856 patients with newly diagnosed UCC were matched with 856 cohort members by sex, age at baseline, study center, date and time of blood collection, and fasting status. Plasma carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin) were measured by using reverse-phase HPLC, and plasma vitamin C was measured by using a colorimetric assay. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated by using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for smoking status, duration, and intensity. RESULTS: UCC risk decreased with higher concentrations of the sum
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lycopene supplementation attenuated xanthine oxidase and myeloperoxidase activities in skeletal muscle tissues of rats after exhaustive exercise. AU - Liu, Chieh Chung. AU - Huang, Chi Chang. AU - Lin, Wan Teng. AU - Hsieh, Chin Cheng. AU - Huang, Shih Yi. AU - Lin, Su Jiun. AU - Yang, Suh Ching. PY - 2005/10. Y1 - 2005/10. N2 - Strenuous exercise is known to induce oxidative stress leading to the generation of free radicals. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of lycopene, an antioxidant nutrient, at a relatively low dose (2.6 mg/kg per d) and a relatively high dose (7.8 mg/kg per d) on the antioxidant status of blood and skeletal muscle tissues in rats after exhaustive exercise. Rats were divided into six groups: sedentary control (C); sedentary control with low-dose lycopene (CLL); sedentary control with high-dose lycopene (CHL); exhaustive exercise (E); exhaustive exercise with low-dose lycopene (ELL); exhaustive exercise with high-dose lycopene ...
Epidemiologic evidence suggests that serum carotenoids are potent antioxidants and may play a protective role in the development of chronic diseases including cancers, cardiovascular disease, and inflammatory diseases. The role of these antioxidants in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus remains unclear.This study examined data from a cross-sectional survey to investigate the association between serum carotenoids and type 2 diabetes.Study participants were adults aged > or = 25 y (n = 1597) from 6 randomly selected cities and towns in Queensland, Australia. Study examinations conducted between October and December 2000 included fasting plasma glucose, an oral-glucose-tolerance test, and measurement of the serum concentrations of 5 carotenoid compounds.Mean 2-h postload plasma glucose and fasting insulin concentrations decreased significantly with increasing quintiles of the 5 serum carotenoids--alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene. Geometric mean ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mimicry of antenna and photo-protective carotenoid functions by a synthetic carotenoporphyrin. AU - Bensasson, René V.. AU - Land, Edward J.. AU - Morre, Ana L.. AU - Crouch, Robert L.. AU - Dirks, Gary. AU - Moore, Thomas. AU - Gust, Devens. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - Carotenoid pigments, ubiquitous in photosynthetic membranes, are essential for the survival of green plants1. Two facets of carotenoid function are recognized in photosynthetic membranes. First, carotenoids prevent the chlorophyll-photosensitized formation of highly destructive singlet oxygen by intercepting the chlorophyll triplet states2-10 and may also scavenge additional singlet oxygen present11,12. Second, carotenoids perform an antenna function by transferring the energy of absorbed light at the singlet excited state level to the chlorophyll system for the execution of photosynthetic work13-16. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which carotenoids perform these functions are poorly understood. We now report that ...
In this large prospective study, we found no overall association between prostate cancer risk and dietary intake of either lycopene or total tomato products. Although not statistically significant, inverse trends were found with pizza consumption, for all prostate cancer; with lycopene, for nonadvanced cancer; and with pizza and spaghetti sauce, for advanced disease. We also noted that lycopene and pizza were inversely associated with risk among those with a family history of prostate cancer.. Results from a recent meta-analysis of 11 case-control studies and 10 cohort studies indicated that serum lycopene (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.59-0.92 for the high versus low levels) was associated with a greater reduction in prostate cancer risk than dietary lycopene (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81-0.98 for the high versus low intake), whereas cooked tomato products (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71-0.92 for high versus low intake) were associated with greater risk reduction than raw tomato products (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-1.00 ...
Venado, Rafael E.; Owens, Brenda F.; Ortiz, Darwin; Lawson, Tyler; Mateos-Hernandez, Maria; Ferruzzi, Mario G.; and Rocheford, Torbert R. 2017. Genetic analysis of provitamin A carotenoid β-cryptoxanthin concentration and relationship with other carotenoids in maize grain (Zea mays L.). Molecular Breeding (2017) 37:127. ...
Plastids are the carotenoid fabrication facilities inside the cells. The biosynthetic route involved is called the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate pathway and always starts with the colourless molecule phytoene, a C40 carotenoid formed by condensation of two molecules of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (C20PP) by phytoene synthase (PSY). C20PP is in turn a precursor to chlorophylls and tocopherol. After four desaturation reactions phytoene is transformed into lycopene, the molecule that gives the red colour to ripe tomatoes. Lycopene leads to α- and ß-carotene and subsequent chemical reactions produce xanthophylls: lutein, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, etc (Figure 1)1.. Parallel roles Although carotenoids play different roles in plants and animals there are some curious analogies. In both taxa they are involved in photoreception/photoprotection, bio-communication and antioxidant defence.. Carotenoids are known to complete the photosynthetic machinery in plants by harvesting light in the spectral ...
Carotenoids are C40 isoprenoids synthesized by plants, as well as some bacteria, fungi and algae, that have been reported to be responsible for a number of benefits conferred on human health. The inability of animals and humans to synthesize de novo these compounds is the reason why they must be introduced from dietary sources. In cereal grains, carotenoids are important phytochemicals responsible for the characteristic yellow colour of the endosperm, which confers nutritional and aesthetic quality to cereal-based products. Cereals are staple foods for a large portion of the world population, and the biofortification of cereal grains with carotenoids may represent a simple way to prevent many human diseases and disorders. Unfortunately, evidence exists that the storage and processing of cereal grains into food products may negatively impact their carotenoid content; so, this loss should be taken into consideration when analysing the potential health benefits of the cereal-based products. Focusing on the
Consuming more lycopene in the diet is of significant benefit to post-menopausal women, as it reduces oxidative stress and bone turnover. The findings come from head researcher Erin Collins from the University of Toronto. The study results also suggest, that dietary lycopene is readily absorbed, particularly in combination with vitamin C. These results are encouraging, as lycopene may be one of the main agents important for the prevention of osteoporosis. We found that women who consumed more tomato products on a daily basis had a lower bone turnover and lower oxidative stress than women of the same age group who did not consume as much, reports Ms. Collins. The participants of the research project were between 50 and 60 years. Lycopene levels in the blood were analyzed, and a seven-day food record was completed. The lowest quartile of estimated lycopene intake was 1.8 mg per day, and the highest was 8 mg per day. Lab tests also showed that higher levels of lycopene were associated with a ...
A study was conducted to screen out the low-temperature tolerant Boro rice seedlings from November 2012 to January 2013 for facing the upcoming rice production challenge in Northwest Bangladesh. The experimental time was characterized by a prevailing low environmental temperature of below 15°C. Five rice cultivars (V1: BR-2; V2: BR-16; V3: Pariza; V4: Minicate; V5: BRRI dhan 50) were selected for the study. The leaf proline, chlorophyll content and total carotenoid content were investigated. The V2 (BR-16) seedling synthesized the higher leaf proline (1.228 g·g-1) at a low temperature than those of other tested cultivars. Again, the highest amount of chlorophyll-a (3.957 g·g-1), chlorophyll-b (2.118 g·g-1), chlorophyll-a/b ratio (3.6754 mg·g-1) and total chlorophyll (5.051 g·g-1) was measured in V2 (BR-16). The maximum total carotenoid (1.213 g·g-1) was also observed in V2. In this experiment, the V2 (BR-16) showed comparatively better potentiality to survive at low temperatures (below 15°C)
Lycopene is one of the major carotenoids in Western diets and is found almost exclusively in tomatoes and tomato products. It accounts for about 50% of carotenoids in human serum. Among the common dietary carotenoids lycopene has the highest singlet oxygen quenching capacity in vitro. Other outstanding features are its high concentration in testes, adrenal gland and prostate. In contrast to other carotenoids its serum values are not regularly reduced by smoking or alcohol consumption but by increasing age. Remarkable inverse relationships between lycopene intake or serum values and risk have been observed in particular for cancers of the prostate, pancreas and to a certain extent of the stomach. In some of the studies lycopene was the only carotenoid associated with risk reduction. Its role in cancer risk reduction still needs to be clarified. Patients with HIV infection, inflammatory diseases and hyperlipidemia with and without lipid lowering treatment may have depleted lycopene serum ...
Background The carotenoids are pure isoprenoids that are essential components of the photosynthetic apparatus and are coordinately synthesized with chlorophylls in chloroplasts. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate carotenoid biosynthesis or the mechanisms that coordinate this synthesis with that of chlorophylls and other plastidial synthesized isoprenoid-derived compounds, including quinones, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid. Here, a comprehensive transcriptional analysis of individual carotenoid and isoprenoid-related biosynthesis pathway genes was performed in order to elucidate the role of transcriptional regulation in the coordinated synthesis of these compounds and to identify regulatory components that may mediate this process in Arabidopsis thaliana. Results A global microarray expression correlation analysis revealed that the phytoene synthase gene, which encodes the first dedicated and rate-limiting enzyme of carotenogenesis, is highly co-expressed with many
A new carotenoid has been isolated from the chicken retina for which the name galloxanthin is proposed. This substance has the properties of a hydroxy carotenoid or xanthophyll. It has not yet been crystallized. On a chromatogram of calcium carbonate it is adsorbed just below astaxanthin and above lutein.. The absorption spectrum of galloxanthin lies in a region where natural carotenoids have not ordinarily been found. Its main, central absorption band falls at about 400 mµ. The position of its spectrum suggests a conjugated system of eight double bonds. This relatively short polyene structure must be reconciled with very strong adsorption affinities.. With antimony trichloride, galloxanthin yields a deep blue product, possessing a main absorption band at 785 to 795 mµ, and a secondary maximum at about 710 mµ which may not be due to galloxanthin itself.. Galloxanthin appears to be one of the carotenoid filter pigments associated with cone vision in the chicken. It may act as an auxiliary to ...
The International Carotenoid Society (ICS) will this year celebrate a half century since the inception of its International Symposium on Carotenoids event, to be held 9 - 14 July in Lucerne, Switzerland. The 18th International Symposium on Carotenoids will see the best and brightest scientists in academia, government and industry come together to share and raise public awareness of the latest research and developments in carotenoids. A principal objective of the ICS is to promote the education of young scientists and the public about the importance of carotenoids as naturally occurring pigments and essential components present in virtually every living organism ...
The International Carotenoid Society (ICS) will this year celebrate a half century since the inception of its International Symposium on Carotenoids event, to be held 9 - 14 July in Lucerne, Switzerland. The 18th International Symposium on Carotenoids will see the best and brightest scientists in academia, government and industry come together to share and raise public awareness of the latest research and developments in carotenoids. A principal objective of the ICS is to promote the education of young scientists and the public about the importance of carotenoids as naturally occurring pigments and essential components present in virtually every living organism ...
Eating vegetables high in carotenoids with some fat has been shown to increase both the absorption and synthesis of vitamin A (2).. Many factors affect how well dietary carotenoids are absorbed and converted to vitamin A, including body composition, age, smoking, medications, alcohol consumption, food processing, and genetic variation (3, 4). As many as 50% of individuals in some populations may have a low response to beta-carotene and other carotenoids, meaning they either dont absorb as much as others do or they dont convert as much to vitamin A (6).. Researchers are looking into how genetic variability impacts the conversion of carotenoids into vitamin A and whether recommendations should vary according to peoples genetic type (5). But at this point, its not possible outside of a research setting to determine if someone has a lower response to dietary carotenoids. Even so-called low-responders apparently can absorb some dietary carotenoids and convert some to vitamin A (7).. We dont ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer share the same etiologic factor, cigarette smoking. Higher consumption of dietary lycopene has been associated with lower risks of COPD and lung cancer in smokers. We investigated whether lycopene feeding protects against COPD and lung cancer in ferrets, a nonrodent model that closely mimics cigarette smoke (CS)-induced chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and lung tumorigenesis in human. We also explored whether the protective effect of lycopene is associated with restoring reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), a key driver in persistent inflammation with CS exposure. Ferrets (4 groups, n = 12-16/group) were exposed to a combination of tobacco carcinogen (NNK) and CS with or without consuming lycopene at low and high doses (equivalent to ∼30 and ∼90 mg lycopene/day in human, respectively) for 22 weeks. Results showed that dietary lycopene at a high dose significantly inhibited NNK/CS-induced chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and ...
An excess of dietary carotenoids may cause a marked orange discoloration of the outermost skin layer. This benign and reversible condition - which is most easily observed in light-skinned people and may be mistaken for jaundice - is known as carotenosis or carotenoderma or carotenodermia. Carotenemia or carotenaemia (xanthaemia) is the presence of the orange pigment carotene in the blood from excessive intake of carrots or other vegetables containing the pigment resulting in increased serum carotenoids. Carotenoids are lipid-soluble compounds that include alpha- and beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. The primary serum carotenoids are beta-carotene, lycopene, and lutein. Serum levels of carotenoids vary between region, ethnicity, and sex in the healthy population. All are absorbed by passive diffusion from the gastrointestinal tract and are then partially metabolized in the intestinal mucosa and liver to vitamin A. From there they are transported in the plasma ...
Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported their diet, the childrens school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self-reported food and FJV consumption at school lunch was measured in terms of matches, intrusion, omission and ...
Carotenoids are organic pigments, occurring in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some bacteria. Carotenoids and Anti cancers In the investigation of the molecular basis of interaction of selected carotenoids and xanthophylls with ascorbic acid on cancer cells, found that Several carotenoids inhibited the multidrug resistance of cancer …. ...
In this prospective, nested case-control study of generally well-nourished healthy male physicians without diagnosed cardiovascular disease at enrollment, we found no evidence for a protective effect against MI for higher baseline levels of plasma retinol or carotenoids, apart from a tendency toward lower risk among those with higher levels of β-carotene among current and former smokers. Higher plasma levels of γ-tocopherol were associated with an increased risk of MI.. These analyses were based on a single baseline measurement of carotenoids and tocopherols and may therefore not reflect levels over a longer period with complete accuracy. However, our baseline measurements were reasonably correlated with levels measured 5 years later. In addition, we observed reasonable correlations of plasma carotenoids with intake of specific fruits and vegetables, and plasma tocopherol levels differed between multivitamin users and nonusers. Previous results from the Physicians Health Study showed that ...
The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of the carotenoid-producing Bacillus indicus strain PD01 on intestinal barrier function and its ability to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract and to assess systemic bioavailability of these carotenoids in vivo. As model for impaired barrier function, 16 early weaned piglets were randomly assigned to a control diet or control diet with PD01 for 23 days. In addition, 67 overweight/obese, otherwise healthy individuals were randomly assigned to groups receiving PD01 or placebo for 6 weeks. PD01 survived passage through the gastrointestinal tract in piglets and human subjects and resulted in significant accumulation of PD01 derived carotenoids (methyl-glycosyl-apo-8 ′-lycopenoate and glycosyl-apo-8 ′lycopene) in human plasma after 3-and 6-weeks supplementation versus baseline (0.044 and 0.076 vs 0 µM, respectively; p | 0.001). PD01 supplementation resulted in higher expression levels of occludin in the distal small intestine (1.38
Carotenoids, calcium and vitamin D helped boost bone density and reduce fractures in men and women, and DHEA increased bone density in women, in several new studies. Doctors in a carotenoid study believe that the colorful red, orange and yellow pigments in fruits and vegetables help the body maintain bone density. Researchers followed over 900 men and women, average age 75, for 17 years, and found that those who consumed the most carotenoids overall had far fewer hip fractures than those who consumed the least. The scientists noted that for lycopene, the carotenoid in tomatoes, those who ate more than 4.4 servings per week had fewer hip fractures than those who ate less lycopene. In a four-year segment of the study, researchers also found that bone mineral density of the hip in men, and of the lumbar spine in women, was greatest in those who consumed the most carotenoids. A review of 20 vitamin D studies covering more than 83,000 adults, average age 78, found that overall, those who took vitamin ...
Carotenoids, calcium and vitamin D helped boost bone density and reduce fractures in men and women, and DHEA increased bone density in women, in several new studies. Doctors in a carotenoid study believe that the colorful red, orange and yellow pigments in fruits and vegetables help the body maintain bone density. Researchers followed over 900 men and women, average age 75, for 17 years, and found that those who consumed the most carotenoids overall had far fewer hip fractures than those who consumed the least. The scientists noted that for lycopene, the carotenoid in tomatoes, those who ate more than 4.4 servings per week had fewer hip fractures than those who ate less lycopene. In a four-year segment of the study, researchers also found that bone mineral density of the hip in men, and of the lumbar spine in women, was greatest in those who consumed the most carotenoids. A review of 20 vitamin D studies covering more than 83,000 adults, average age 78, found that overall, those who took vitamin ...
C. Inflammation Lycopene is a natural compound found in many foods, from pizza sauce and ketchup to watermelons and grapefruits. This recent study examines whether 14mg of daily lycopene supplementation, for 12 weeks, can help improve sperm motility and sperm morphology in men. The antioxidant properties of this carotenoid provide benefits outside of the eyes. Red pigment Lycopene is a potent antioxidant. Lycopene health benefits include treating neurological disorder, preventing stroke, supporting immune system, preventing macular degeneration, alleviating osteoporosis, fighting diabetes, treating prostate cancer, controlling cholesterol level, treating infertility, and promoting hair growth. Additional Benefits of Lycopene. Health benefits of lycopene supplementation have been proposed for a variety of health conditions. Although lycopene is chemically a carotene, it has no vitamin A activity.. Lycopene - a nutrient found in tomatoes - may boost sperm quality, a study has suggested. Lycopene ...
Carotenoids are tetraterpenoids (contain 40 carbon atoms) organic pigments from chloroplasts and chromoplasts from plants and algae, some types of fungi and bacteria. Carotenoids that contain oxygen, such as lutein and zeaxanthin, are known as xanthophylls. Carotenoids do not which contain oxygen, such as x-carotene, b-carotene and lycopene, are known as carotenes. Carotene contains only carbon and hydrogen. The best known carotenoid is the carotene found in carrots, which is responsible for their bright orange color. Palm oil is the richest source of carotenoids in nature. The carotene has a yellow, orange or red color. Xanthophylls are often yellow. The carotenoid pigments in the mature leaves are not obviously due to chlorophyll. However, when chlorophyll is not present, ca. in young leaves and dying leaves (autumn leaves), yellow, orange and red carotenoid colors are predominant. These colors also predominate in ripe fruits such as oranges, tomatoes and bananas. Pink color of salmon and the ...
BACKGROUND: Carotenoids and vitamin C are thought to be associated with reduced cancer risk because of their antioxidative capacity. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the associations of plasma carotenoid, retinol, tocopherol, and vitamin C concentrations and risk of breast cancer. DESIGN: In a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, 1502 female incident breast cancer cases were included, with an oversampling of premenopausal (n = 582) and estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) cases (n = 462). Controls (n = 1502) were individually matched to cases by using incidence density sampling. Prediagnostic samples were analyzed for α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, retinol, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and vitamin C. Breast cancer risk was computed according to hormone receptor status and age at diagnosis (proxy for menopausal status) by using conditional logistic regression and was further stratified by smoking
The strength of our immune system determines our ability to resist infectious micro-organisms and cancer. A compromised immune system affects the speed and effectiveness to mount an immune response, leading to increased susceptibility to infectious disease, both bacterial and viral. It also undermines the immune systems ability to detect and eradicate cancerous cells. In a compromised immune system, poor integration of all of its components may lead to immunological disorders such as allergies and chronic autoimmune diseases. However, we know that carotenoids can boost immunity. The problem is people just arent getting enough from their diet. The biggest advantage of new Carotenoid Complex is that it delivers a broad range of carotenoids as found in fruits and vegetables with proven bioavailability. Additionally, Carotenoid Complex is far superior to other carotenoid products, and has four distinct advantages. First, it delivers a broad range of carotenoids. Secondly, Carotenoid Complex is ...
Background Low tissue concentrations of carotenoids have been suggested to contribute to insulin resistance in obesity. Objectives The objectives of the study were to 1) evaluate the relations of adipose tissue and serum carotenoids with body fat, abdominal fat distribution, muscle, adipose tissue and liver insulin resistance, and dietary intake; 2) evaluate the relations and distributions of carotenoids detected in adipose tissue and serum; and 3) compare serum carotenoids and retinol concentrations in subjects with and without obesity. Methods Post hoc analysis of serum and adipose tissue carotenoids in individuals [n = 80; 31 men, 49 women; age (mean ± SEM): 51.4 ± 1.1 y] who participated in 2 separate studies conducted at the Clinical Research Facility at the Garvan Institute of Medical Research (Sydney) between 2008 and 2013. Retinol, α-carotene, β-carotene, ζ-carotene, lutein, lycopene, phytoene, and phytofluene were measured using HPLC. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X
Associations of serum vitamin A and carotenoid levels with markers of prostate cancer detection among US men - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Jul 29 - Associations of serum vitamin A and carotenoid levels with markers of prostate cancer detection were evaluated among 3,927 US men, 40-85 years of age, who participated in the 2001-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Five recommended definitions of prostate cancer detection were adopted using total and free prostate-specific antigen (tPSA and fPSA) laboratory measurements. Men were identified as high risk based on alternative cutoffs, namely tPSA , 10 ng/ml, tPSA , 4 ng/ml, tPSA , 2.5 ng/ml, %fPSA , 25%, and %fPSA , 15%. %fPSA was defined as (fPSA÷tPSA)× 100%. Serum levels of vitamin A (retinol and retinyl esters) and carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein + zeaxanthin, lycopene) were defined as quartiles and examined as risk/protective factors for PSA biomarkers. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence ...
In this study, serum concentrations of five carotenoids were examined in a study population consuming vegetable juice versus raw or cooked vegetables. The study population consisted of women at risk for breast cancer recurrence who were participating in a feasibility study for a trial examining the influence of diet on breast cancer recurrence. The daily dietary prescription in the intervention group included consumption of two 8-ounce portions of vegetable juice and a diet high in vegetables, fruits, and fiber and low in fat. Because any combination of vegetables could be selected when preparing the vegetable juice, direct comparison of serum carotenoid concentrations between juice and no juice subjects could only be made by matching the two groups on dietary intake of the respective carotenoids. The matched analysis produced similar dietary consumption of carotenoids between the juice and no juice group. We found, for this study population, that women who were consuming vegetable juice had ...
Abstract: Consumption of a diet high in carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with a decreased risk of many chronic and degenerative diseases. Carotenoids are a class of lipophilic compounds found in many fruits and vegetables and have often been targeted as imparting some of the beneficial effects associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. However, our understanding o... read moref the biochemical and molecular framework of carotenoid metabolism is incomplete. Investigating the biochemical and molecular pathways of carotenoid metabolism are important to understanding their biological functions. Carotene-15,15-monooxygenase (CMO1) is involved in vitamin A formation, while recent studies suggest that carotene-9,10-monooxygenase (CMO2) may have a broader substrate specificity than previously recognized. The first part of this research investigated the in vitro cleavage activity of recombinant ferret CMO2 towards the xanthophylls lutein, zeaxanthin and ...
Through this work we followed the influence of some thermal treatments on the carotenoids content of carrots. Carrots were analyzed fresh and after blanching, boiling, freezing raw and freezing blanching prior. Carotenoids content of the samples was determined spectrophotometrically. As raw material were used carrots from the domestic market, Flam variety. The highest carotenoid content was recorded for raw carrot (82.716 mg / g). By boiling for 20 minutes, the content of carotenoids in carrot remains only 28% (23.209 mg /g). Frozen carrot also lose the contents of carotenoids, leaving only 33.8% (27.961 mg /g). The lowest content of carotenoids(20.196 g/g) was found in carrots blanched and then frozen for 2 months at -18˚C ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Singlet and triplet energy transfer in the peridinin-chlorophyll a protein from Amphidinium carterae. AU - Bautista, James A.. AU - Hiller, RG. AU - Sharples, FP. AU - Gosztola, David. AU - Wasielewski, Michael R.. AU - Frank, Harry A.. PY - 1999/4/8. Y1 - 1999/4/8. N2 - The spectroscopic properties of peridinin in solution, and the efficiency and dynamics of energy transfer from peridinin to chlorophyll a in the peridinin-chlorophyll-protein (PCP) from Amphidinium carterae, were studied by steady-state absorption, fluorescence, fluorescence excitation, and fast transient optical spectroscopy. Steady-state measurements of singlet energy transfer from peridinin to chlorophyll revealed an 88 +/- 2% efficiency. Fast-transient absorption experiments showed that the excited S-1 state of peridinin decayed in 13.4 +/- 0.6 ps in methanol and 3.1 +/- 0.3 ps in the PCP complex after direct excitation of the carotenoid. The onset of the bleaching of the chlorophyll absorption band at 672 ...
Euglena gracilis, a unicellular phytoflagellate within Euglenida, has attracted much attention as a potential feedstock for renewable energy production. In outdoor open-pond cultivation for biofuel production, excess direct sunlight can inhibit photosynthesis in this alga and decrease its productivity. Carotenoids play important roles in light harvesting during photosynthesis and offer photoprotection for certain non-photosynthetic and photosynthetic organisms including cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants. Although, Euglenida contains β-carotene and xanthophylls (such as zeaxanthin, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin and 9′-cis neoxanthin), the pathway of carotenoid biosynthesis has not been elucidated. To clarify the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in E. gracilis, we searched for the putative E. gracilis geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) synthase gene (crtE) and phytoene synthase gene (crtB) by tblastn searches from RNA-seq data and obtained their cDNAs. Complementation
This study aimed to identify and determine the carotenoids from green microalga, Scenedesmus protuberans using analytical techniques. Identification of carotenoids was realized by comparing their absorption and mass spectral data with those of reference standards available and reported values. Chromatographic data were then combined with the spectroscopic information. The separation of carotenoids was achieved by C30 column and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection was used for their determination. In the present work, the carotenoid content of S. protuberans was found to be 1.45 mg/g of violaxanthin, 2.47 mg/g of all-trans-lutein, 0.15 mg/g of all-trans-α-carotene, 0.55 mg/g of all-trans-β-carotene, and 0.20 mg/g of 9 or 9′-cis-β-carotene. Due to lack of their standards, the amount of all-trans-loroxanthin and cis-isomers of other carotenoids could not be quantified. In order to validate the method, Certified Reference Material (BCR 485-Mixed vegetables) was used. In ...
Carotenoids as Colorants and diet A Precursors: Technological and dietary functions offers the appliance of carotenoids to meals and to the feed of animals, chicken, fish, and birds. This ebook discusses using carotenoids in drugs, within the coloring of beauty and pharmaceutical items, and their distinctive position as photoconductors.. Organized into 10 chapters, this e-book starts off with an summary of the transforming into choice for natural-type shades in international locations around the globe. this article then examines the aptitude point of use of assorted carotenoids in numerous meals. different chapters give some thought to the kinds of carotenoids which are further to the nutrition of aquatic animals, which will be chosen in response to the species due to various biosynthetic functions and anticipated ultimate pigment content material. This ebook discusses in addition the mechanisms that keep an eye on the assimilation and absorption of a few carotenoids. the ultimate bankruptcy ...
Dietary carotenoid intake, especially from fruits and vegetables, has been associated with a reduced incidence of several chronic diseases. However, its bioavailability can vary, depending on the food matrix and host factors. Recently, it has been suggested that divalent minerals negatively impinge on carotenoid bioavailability by reducing bile-salt and non-esterified fatty-acid levels in the gut, which normally aid in emulsifying carotenoids. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether supplemental Ca would negatively influence carotenoid absorption in humans. A total of twenty-five healthy, non-obese men (age: 20-46 years, BMI,30 kg/m2) were recruited for this postprandial, randomised, crossover, double-blinded trial. Following a randomised block design, each participant received (after 2-week washout periods), on three occasions separated by 1 week, 270 g of spinach-based meals (8.61 (sd 1.08) mg carotenoids/100 g fresh weight), supplemented with 0, 500 or 1000 mg of Ca (as ...
The first three enzymatic steps of the strigolactone biosynthetic pathway catalysed by β-carotene cis-trans isomerase Dwarf27 (D27) from Oryza sativa and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases CCD7 and CCD8 from Arabidopsis thaliana have been reconstituted in vitro, and kinetic assays have been developed …
Citation: Tadmor, Y., Katzir, N., King, S., Levi, A., Davis, A.R., Hirschberg, J. 2004. Fruit coloration in watermelon - lessons from the tomato. Progress in Cucurbit Genetics and Breeding Research. A. Lebeda and H.S. Paris (Eds.). p. 181-185. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: The characteristic red pigmentation of watermelon and tomato fruits is determined by accumulation of the carotenoid pigment lycopene and this phenotype is polyphyletic. Since several carotenoids are known to have health promoting activities, and watermelon can be a significant source of lycopene and other carotenoids, it is important to understand the genetic basis of fruit-specific carotenoid biosynthesis. In contrast to tomato, very little is known about the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis during fruit development in watermelon. In this research we analyzed carotenoids in watermelon fruits of various flesh colors and compared their carotenoid patterns to known tomato fruit color mutants. we detected ...
Carotenoids and tocopherols are two classes of compounds present in maize (Zea mays L.) which may add value to the grain. Both the carotenoids and tocopherols are fat soluble antioxidant vitamins. The vitamin and antioxidant properties of the carotenoids and tocopherols provide health and economic benefits which potentially could be captured by both producers and consumers. beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol have the highest biological activity for the carotenoids and the tocopherols, respectively. However, neither of these compounds is in high concentration in maize kernels. The objective of this research was to gain basic genetic information about the chromosomal regions with quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling carotenoid and tocopherol accumulation in maize kernels using molecular markers. Once the QTL are identified and validated, they could be used in a marker assisted selection program to facilitate increasing levels of these antioxidant vitamins in maize grain. Three sets of ...
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of lutein and lycopene supplementation on carotid artery intima-media thickness (CAIMT) in subjects with subclinical atherosclerosis. A total of 144 subjects aged 45-68 years were recruited from local communities. All the subjects were randomly assigned to receive 20 mg lutein/d (n 48), 20 mg lutein/d+20 mg lycopene/d (n 48) or placebo (n 48) for 12 months. CAIMT was measured using Doppler ultrasonography at baseline and after 12 months, and serum lutein and lycopene concentrations were determined using HPLC. Serum lutein concentrations increased significantly from 0·34 to 1·96 μmol/l in the lutein group (P, 0·001) and from 0·35 to 1·66 μmol/l in the combination group (P, 0·001). Similarly, serum lycopene concentrations increased significantly from 0·18 to 0·71 μmol/l in the combination group at month 12 (P, 0·001), whereas no significant change was observed in the placebo group. The mean values of CAIMT decreased significantly ...
Antioxidant and light filtering protection for healthy visual function Lutein is a carotenoid found in a vast number of fruits and vegetables. Like other carotenoids, lutein has antioxidant activity in various tissues, but is only one of two that is stored within the retina where it promotes the integrity and density of the macular pigment, a key component of ocular health. Multiple clinical studies suggest a direct relationship between lutein supplementation and macula lutein concentration. Lutein uptake reportedly occurs in the receptor layer of the eye through a soluble carotenoid-binding protein called tubulin. Clinical trials have indicated that lutein specifically supports vision health through a combination of pigment associated antioxidant protection and light screening mechanisms. Furthermore, a two-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study reported that lutein may support healthy visual function in older individuals more efficiently than alpha tocopherol. Pure Encapsulations free-form
Chlorophylls and carotenoids are two main pigments contained in microalgae. The pigments have important function as they serve as bioactive compounds ..
The research presented in this thesis is focused on how carotenoids protect the photosynthetic apparatus by quenching chlorophyll (Chl) triplet states before they can sensitize the formation of the highly reactive ¹Δg* excited singlet state of oxygen. Nanosecond time-resolved flash-transient optical spectroscopy was used to evaluate the effect of structural modifications and environment on the triplet state photophysics of peridinin in solution and in the peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein (PCP) from the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae. A series of peridinin analogues with increasing π-electron chain length and with different functionalities were studied in various solvents using Chl a as a triplet state donor. Measurements were also performed on native and reconstituted PCP complexes containing peridinin and various Chls. The data indicate that Chl triplet state trapping and hence, photoprotection of the PCP complexes, is accomplished via a delocalized triplet state involving both the bound
Evidence of a protective effect of several antioxidants and other nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association for prediagnostic plasma levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-control study nested within the ... read more European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). 446 incident exocrine pancreatic cancer cases were matched to 446 controls by age at blood collection, study center, sex, date and time of blood collection, fasting status and hormone use. Plasma carotenoids (- and -carotene, lycopene, -cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein), - and -tocopherol and retinol were measured by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and plasma vitamin C by a colorimetric assay. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for pancreatic cancer risk were estimated using a conditional logistic regression ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunomodulating Actions of Carotenoids. T2 - Enhancement of In Vivo and In Vitro Antibody Production to T-Dependent Antigens. AU - Jyonouchi, H.. AU - Zhang, L.. AU - Gross, M.. AU - Tomita, Y.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Previously, we demonstrated an enhancement of in vitro antibody (Ab) production in response to T-dependent antigens (TD-Ag) by astaxanthin, a carotenoid without vitamin A activity. The effects of β-carotene, a carotenoid with vitamin A activity, and lutein, another carotenoid without vitamin A activity, on in vitro Ab production were examined with spleen cells from young and old B6 mice. In addition, the in vivo effects of lutein, astaxanthin, and β-carotene on Ab production were studied in young and old B6 mice. Lutein, but not β-carotene, enhanced in vitro Ab production in response to TD-Ags. The depletion of T-helper cells prevented the enhancement of Ab production by lutein and astaxanthin. In vivo Ab production in response to TD-Ag was ...
We present a comparison of the performance of four miniature portable Raman spectrometers for the discrimination of carotenoids in samples of carotene-producing microorganisms. Two spectrometers using a green laser allowing to obtain Resonance Raman (or pre-Resonance Raman) signals, one instrument with a 785 nm laser, and a recently developed Portable Sequentially Shifted Excitation Raman spectrometer (PSSERS) were used for identifying major pigments of different halophilic (genera Halobacterium, Halorubrum, Haloarcula, Salinibacter, Ectothiorhodospira, Dunaliella) and non-halophilic microorganisms (Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium glutamicum). Using all the tested instruments including the PSSERS, strong carotenoids signals corresponding to the stretching vibrations in the polyene chain and in-plane rocking modes of the attached CH3 groups were found at the correct positions. Raman spectra of carotenoids can be obtained from different types of microbiological samples (wet pellets, lyophilized
The aim of the present study was to investigate if the depletion of UV-B radiation affected the most representative carotenoids as well as the ascorbic acid content in tomato fruits, harvested at both breaker and firm red stages. To do this, three tomato genotypes, DRW 5981, HP 1, and Esperanza, were grown inside a greenhouse either covered with polyethylene transparent to UV-B or depleted of UV-B by a special covering film. The antioxidant properties of the fruits were evaluated on the water-insoluble fractions according to the ABTS method. UV-B effect on antioxidant activity was negligible in DRW and HP 1 genotypes, whereas it was detrimental in Esperanza at both ripening stages. This genotype seems to have a negligible capability of accumulating carotenoids and a great susceptibility to detrimental effects of UV-B; conversely, the DRW genotype shows high carotenoid levels under sunlight conditions and a further promotion by UV-B. On the other hand, the HP 1 mutant displays an intermediate ...
Crop plants are adversely affected by a variety of environmental factors, with air temperature being one of the most influential. Plants have developed a number of methods in the adaptation to air temperature variations. However, there is limited research to determine what impact air temperature has on the production of secondary plant compounds, such as carotenoid pigments. Kale (Brassica oleracea L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) have high concentrations of lutein and ß-carotene carotenoids. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of different growing air temperatures on plant biomass production and the accumulation of elemental nutrients, lutein, ß-carotene, and chlorophyll pigments in the leaves of kale and spinach. Plants were grown in nutrient solutions in growth chambers at air temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30 °C for `Winterbor kale and 10, 15, 20, and 25 °C for `Melody spinach. Maximum tissue lutein and ß-carotene concentration occurred at 30 °C for kale and 10
Carrots are root vegetables that have a high carotene content and widely consumed in juice form. The weakness of processed juice is the damage and loss of carotene due to enzymatic reactions and oxidation that can occur during processing. Blanching treatment on carrot juice before manufacture can inactivate the enzyme so that it can minimize the loss of carotene. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the treatment on the size of the carrot and the temperature during the process of blanching with response total carotene content. The highest value of total carotene exist in the treatment of carrot size 5x5x20 mm and temperature 60⁰C. This value is used as a central point in the optimization process using RSM. The results of the R software version 3.1.2 obtained a second ordo models corresponding to the value of R-square = 0.8404, p-value = 1,034% and the lack of fit = 0.6398. The optimum point response total carotenoid contained in carrot size 5x5x24 mm and blanching ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carotenoid excited-state properties in photosynthetic purple bacterial reaction centers. T2 - Effects of the protein environment. AU - Pan, Jie. AU - Lin, Su. AU - Allen, James. AU - Williams, Joann. AU - Frank, Harry A.. AU - Woodbury, Neal. PY - 2011/6/2. Y1 - 2011/6/2. N2 - Carotenoid excited-state properties are characterized and compared in reaction centers (RCs) of wild-type (WT) Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides, and a mutant VR(L157), in which the near-infrared absorbance band associated with the primary electron donor, P, is missing. Energy transfer from the carotenoid (spheroidenone) S2 and relaxed S1 excited states to an adjacent monomeric-bacteriochlorophyll is unchanged between WT and the mutant RC samples. However, two other excited states, including a vibrationally hot S1 state and a state referred to as S*, have distinct properties in the two RCs. The lifetime of the hot S1 state is significantly shortened in the P-less mutant compared to WT RCs (450 fs vs 800 fs, ...
We have used resonance Raman scattering as a novel noninvasive optical technology to measure carotenoid antioxidants in living human tissues of healthy volunteers. By use of blue-green laser excitation, clearly distinguishable carotenoid Raman spectra superimposed on a fluorescence background are obtained. The Raman spectra are obtained within less than a minute, and the required laser light exposure levels are well within safety standards. Our technique can be used for rapid screening of carotenoid levels in large populations and may have applications for assessing antioxidant status and the risk for diseases related to oxidative stress.. © 2001 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
The halotolerant green alga Dunaliella salina accumulates large amounts of beta-carotene when exposed to various stress conditions. Although several studies concerning accumulation and biotechnological production of beta-carotene have been published, the molecular basis and regulation of the genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in D. salina are still poorly known. In this paper, we report the isolation and regulation of the lycopene beta-cyclase (Lcy-beta) gene by abiotic stress. The function of this gene was determined by heterologous genetic complementation in E. coli. Gene expression and physiological analyses revealed that D. salina Lcy-beta steady-state transcript and carotenoid levels were up-regulated in response to all stress conditions tested (salt, light and nutrient depletion). The results presented here suggest that nutrient availability is a key factor influencing carotenogenesis as well as carotenoid biosynthesis-related gene expression in D. salina.. ...
We are happy to announce that the 18th International Symposium on Carotenoids will take place July 9 - 14, 2017 in Lucerne, Switzerland. Please save this date, We are looking forward to welcoming you in the heart of Switzerland ...
Originating from the Mongolia and northern China the Chinese hamster is adapted well for climbing as this region is rocky and mountainous. If you cant feed a carrots or sweet potatoes. Red Eyes Wake Up Every Morning Breast Cancer Carotenoids by: Sudden confusion or blurriness in vision; Sudden trouble with motility dizziness and Plasma Carotenoids before and during light-sensitive disorders List at least four systemic therapies for RSD/CRPS produces true chronic pain in patients that The blurred vision does not sound so bad As well as hearing problems such as buzzing in the ear ve had conjunctivitis one doctor said and one Why do i have a blurry vision when waking up in the Blurry vision in one eye when I wake up in Buy MICHAEL Michael Kors Womens Black Glitter Cosmetic Pouch starting at $90. Rich in anthocyanins carotenoids anti-inflammatory spices omega 3s and zinc No longer though; black-eyed peas are a new favorite.. Cabbage and black-eyed peas help ring in new Folklore has it that ...
In this study, fifteen commercial varieties, nine exotic genotypes, and three wild species of tomato grown in Eastern India were analyzed for variations in different phytochemicals viz. ascorbic acid, lycopene, total carotenoids, total phenolics content and total antioxidant capacity. Selected genotypes showed significant differences with respect to phytochemical composition. Among antioxidant property parameter, ascorbic acid content ranged between 12.62 to 76.15 mg 100 g-1 of Fresh Weight (FW), whereas, the total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity varied from 41.10 to 139.59 mg GAE 100 g-1 of FW and 1.16 to 4.52 µmol Trolex Equivalent (TE) g-1 of FW, respectively. Among carotenoid parameters, lycopene and total carotenoids content in whole tomato fruit ranged between 0.47 to 5.48 and 1.14 to 5.79 mg 100 g-1 of FW, respectively. Interestingly, it was found that, among the evaluated genotypes, Exotic Collection (EC lines) showed significant enriched amount of these phytochemicals. Results
In this study, fifteen commercial varieties, nine exotic genotypes, and three wild species of tomato grown in Eastern India were analyzed for variations in different phytochemicals viz. ascorbic acid, lycopene, total carotenoids, total phenolics content and total antioxidant capacity. Selected genotypes showed significant differences with respect to phytochemical composition. Among antioxidant property parameter, ascorbic acid content ranged between 12.62 to 76.15 mg 100 g-1 of Fresh Weight (FW), whereas, the total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity varied from 41.10 to 139.59 mg GAE 100 g-1 of FW and 1.16 to 4.52 µmol Trolex Equivalent (TE) g-1 of FW, respectively. Among carotenoid parameters, lycopene and total carotenoids content in whole tomato fruit ranged between 0.47 to 5.48 and 1.14 to 5.79 mg 100 g-1 of FW, respectively. Interestingly, it was found that, among the evaluated genotypes, Exotic Collection (EC lines) showed significant enriched amount of these phytochemicals. Results
Amphidinium carterae PsbE protein: involved in RNA editing; isolated from Amphidinium carterae; amino acid sequence in first source
Carotenoids are pigments that are responsible for the hue of egg yolk and are essential to embryonic and early post-hatching development in birds (Surai 2002). Two studies using high performance liquid chromatography to measure carotenoid content in zebra finch yolks found mainly lutein, zeaxanthin and anhydrolutein, with small amounts of β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene (McGraw et al. 2002; Royle et al. 2003). Carotenoid content decreases over the laying sequence (e.g. Royle et al. 2003; Williamson et al. 2006), but the relative percentages of component carotenoids remained unchanged in a comparison of first and last eggs in zebra finch clutches (Royle et al. 2003). The hue of zebra finch egg yolks varies dramatically among eggs and changes substantially from orange to yellow over the laying sequence within a clutch, while the saturation invariably was very close to 100 per cent (this study). This suggests that more orange yolks contain a higher total concentration of carotenoids. Studies ...
Patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy were pretreated with low-dose, oral beta carotene to determine whether the carotenoid content of plaque could be increased in vivo. Beta carotene-treated patients had a 50-fold increase in their plaque beta carotene level from 0.066 to 3.3 micrograms beta carotene/g plaque. Microscopy and microspectrophotometry demonstrated that plaque from beta carotene-treated patients had higher carotenoid levels and higher absorption (450-500 nm) compared with control specimens, but normal media was unaffected. This demonstration of increased preferential absorption by plaque suggests that selective ablation of atherosclerotic plaque may be enhanced by pretreating patients with oral beta carotene. ...
After wheat and rice, potato is the third most important staple food worldwide. A collection of ten tetraploid (Solanum tuberosum) and diploid (S. phureja and S. chacoense) genotypes with contrasting carotenoid content was subjected to molecular characterization with respect to candidate carotenoid loci and metabolic profiling using LC-HRMS. Irrespective of ploidy and taxonomy, tubers of these genotypes fell into three groups: yellow-fleshed, characterized by high levels of epoxy-xanthophylls and xanthophyll esters and by the presence of at least one copy of a dominant allele of the β-Carotene Hydroxylase 2 (CHY2) gene; white-fleshed, characterized by low carotenoid levels and by the presence of recessive chy2 alleles; and orange-fleshed, characterized by high levels of zeaxanthin but low levels of xanthophyll esters, and homozygosity for a Zeaxanthin Epoxidase (ZEP) recessive allele ...
The key players identified in the global carotenoids market include BASF SE (Germany), Royal DSM N.V. (The Netherlands), Chr. Hansen A/S (Denmark), FMC Corporation (U.S.), Kemin Industries, Inc. (U.S.), and Cyanotech Corporation (U.S.). Along with these companies, the other players that have a strong presence in the carotenoids market include D.D. Williamson & Co., Inc. (U.S.) Allied Biotech Corporation (Taiwan), ExcelVite Sdn. Bhd. (Malaysia), and D hler Group (Germany).. The key market players have adopted strategies such as agreements, expansions & investments, acquisitions, new product and technology launches, collaborations and joint ventures to increase their market presence and revenue generation of the companies. Leading players focus on strengthening their R&D proficiencies by capitalizing in advanced technologies and entering into R&D agreements with other companies to develop diversified product portfolios of carotenoid products.. The core strengths of the key players in this market ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The relationship between plasma carotenoids and depressive symptoms in older persons. AU - Milaneschi, Y.. AU - Bandinelli, S.. AU - Penninx, B.W.J.H.. AU - Corsi, A.M.. AU - Lauretani, F.. AU - Vazzana, R.. AU - Semba, R.D.. AU - Guralnik, J.M.. AU - Ferrucci, L.. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. U2 - 10.3109/15622975.2011.597876. DO - 10.3109/15622975.2011.597876. M3 - Article. C2 - 21929378. VL - 13. SP - 588. EP - 598. JO - World Journal of Biological Psychiatry. JF - World Journal of Biological Psychiatry. SN - 1562-2975. IS - 8. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Very Early-Branching Staphylococcus aureus Lineage Lacking the Carotenoid Pigment Staphyloxanthin. AU - Holt, Deborah. AU - Holden, Matthew. AU - Tong, Steven. AU - Castillo-Ramirez, Santiago. AU - Clarke, Louise. AU - Quail, Michael. AU - Currie, Bart. AU - Parkhill, Julian. AU - Bentley, Stephen. AU - Feil, Edward. AU - Giffard, Philip. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Here we discuss the evolution of the northern Australian Staphylococcus aureus isolate MSHR1132 genome. MSHR1132 belongs to the divergent clonal complex 75 lineage. The average nucleotide divergence between orthologous genes in MSHR1132 and typical S. aureus is approximately sevenfold greater than the maximum divergence observed in this species to date. MSHR1132 has a small accessory genome, which includes the well-characterized genomic islands, mSAa and mSab, suggesting that these elements were acquired well before the expansion of the typical S. aureus population. Other mobile elements show mosaic structure (the ...
Post-doctoral Positions in X-ray Crystallography and Computational Biology Two post-doctoral positions are available immediately, one in experimental and one in computational aspects of protein crystallography. Applicants for the first position should be experienced in practical aspects of protein crystallography and structure determination. Experience in cloning and protein expression is also desirable. Crystals are already in hand for one novel carotenoid-binding protein. Subsequent projects will diversify to include work on self-assembling proteins and other proteins with repetitive or otherwise unusual architectures. The second position is in the area of computational crystallography, but may also include other aspects of computational biology such as genomics or protein structure analysis. The successful applicant should have a strong background in scientific programming, an understanding of numerical methods, and an ability to solve complex problem. Familiarity with crystallographic and ...
Nutrients in one serving of raw tomatoes (the cups or 150 grams) include, vitamin A, C, K, folate and potassium. Tomatoes contain sodium saturated fat, cholesterol and calories. Most of us do not realize the mineral intake is sufficient, but the tomatoes presents a good mineral content such as thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, magnesium, phosphorus and copper.. Tomatoes also contain carotenoids four main types namely alpha, beta-carotene, lutein, and lycopene. Carotenoids can be helpful for the individual, but also have synergy as a group (ie, they interact to provide health benefits). In particular, tomatoes contain an amazing amount of lycopene, an antioxidant that is thought to have the highest benefit of all carotenoids.. According to a study from Ohio State University, the tomatoes were consumed along with healthy fats, like those found in avocados benefit or benefits of olive oil, can help the absorption of phytochemicals carotenoids in the body to increase by 2 to 15 times.. ...
Night driving becomes increasingly dangerous with age, primarily related to changes in our vision and eye structure. New science shows that lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin can greatly reduce the effects of glare and loss of visual sensitivity that occur when driving at night.
In a cross-sectional study involving 44 subjects with psoriasis and 72 controls, results indicate that patients with psoriasis have significantly lower skin carotenoid levels, compared with controls. Additionally, after adjusting for confounders, significant association was observed between presence of psoriasis and lower levels of skin carotenoid levels. Thus, the authors of this study conclude, Patients with psoriasis appear to have lower skin carotenoid counts than patients without psoriasis. ...
The present invention is directed toward a method for producing beta-carotene using a mated culture of Mucorales fungi. The method includes mutating and selecting negative (minus mating type) and positive (plus mating type) Mucorales fungal microorganisms, culturing the selected negative and positive microorganisms in an effective medium to form a mated culture that produces beta-carotene, and recovering beta-carotene therefrom. The present invention provides mated cultures that overproduce beta-carotene and is also directed to certain negative and positive microorganisms used to overproduce beta-carotene. The present invention also provides beta-carotene formulations produced by the claimed method, and the use of such formulations, for example, to enhance pigmentation, to reduce damage caused by reactive oxygen species or phototoxic molecules, to prevent or treat cancer or cardiovascular disease, to provide a Vitamin A supplement, to enhance lactation
Handelman=20 and associates28 noted carotenoids concentration in the = macula to be=20 5-fold higher compared to peripheral retina and 500 times more than the=20 concentration in other tissues.29 Lutein is the major = carotenoid in=20 the peripheral retina, whereas zeaxanthin becomes more and more dominant = as the=20 foveal centre is approached. The proportion of lutein to zeaxanthin in = macula is=20 1:2 and the proportion is reversed in the peripheral = retina.30 The=20 distribution of xanthophyll carotenoids suggests a possible role of = lutein in=20 protecting the rods and for zeaxanthin in protecting the cones that are=20 concentrated in the central retina.31 The human lens = carotenoids=20 content is 10-20 ng/gm of wet tissue, and the ratio is 1.6:2.2 for = lutein and=20 zeaxanthin.29 ...
Green VegetablesGreen vegetables, especially green leafy vegetables exhibit unusual wide anti-cancer powers. A recent Italian study showed a powerful protection from the frequent consumption of green vegetables against the risk of most cancers. Green vegetables such as spinach, fenugreek, dark green lettuce and broccoli, are full of many different antioxidants, including beta carotene and folic acid, as well as lutein - a little-known antioxidant. Some scientists believe that lutein may even be as powerful as beta carotene in blocking cancer. Green leafy vegetables are rich in lutein. Darkest green vegetables should be chosen to derive maximum carotenoids and other anticancer agents. According to Frederick Khachik, Ph.D., a research scientist at the Department of Agriculture, The darker green they are the most cancer preventing carotenoids they have. He also says lutein and other carotenoids are not lost during cooking or freezing, although heat exercises harmful effects on more fragile ...
VITAMIN A (Retinol retinal and retinoic acid three active forms of vitamin A in the body are retinoids preformed vitamin A. buy quality bimatoprost treat eye pressure christ online store coupons for district bimatoprost cure glaucoma lumigan cure eye pressure sheets lazy eye caused by vaccines deficiency vitamin liver disease purchase After 24 hours you may remove the dressing. Carotenoids Foods Glaucoma Dna Testing pastila cialis prospect Viagra Betegtajekoztato Counterfeit cialis china Qual.diabetic retinopathy Cialis saved my Viagra Betegtajekoztato life Levitra 10 mg. Para qu sirve el Ginkgo Biloba y qu beneficios aporta al cuerpo humano? Informacin adicional: Dios los bendiga siempre. Calc Carb: Conjunctivitis or blocked tear duct.. One herd receiving such How long does it take to test proliferative beta carotene and the like crossword sclerosis symptoms eye diabetic retinopathy during pregnancy acne vitamin stop it? Up to fourteen Carotenoids Foods Glaucoma Dna Testing days. algorithm ...
Carrots and turnips are currently in season. Both vegetables can play an important role in a healthy diet. A plant-based diet including these vegetables may lower not only certain cancer risks but risk for other chronic diseases as well. So why not add more carrots and turnips into your diet?. Carrots are low in calories, nutritious and affordable. They also contain cancer-fighting phytochemicals and their orange color is from high amounts of beta-carotene and carotenoids. Research has shown that foods containing carotenoids lower the risk of mouth, pharynx and larynx cancers. Emerging research also shows that a diet high in carotenoids has been linked to a lower risk of some types of breast cancer.. Turnips are a cruciferous vegetable, which are rich in nutrients including vitamin C, E, K, Folate, and several carotenoids. The National Cancer Institute recognizes research that has shown cruciferous vegetables to help protect cells from DNA damage and inactivate carcinogens. Additionally, they ...
Sorghum lines known to have yellow pericarp or endosperm will be grown in Hays, Kansas and winter nurseries (Mexico or Puerto Rico). Samples will be harvested at maturity and analyzed for carotenoid content and composition as well as basic grain composition. GWAS analysis will be conducted to identify genetic markers for carotenoid levels. Samples found to be high in carotenoid content will be used for additional breeding with high starch lines to create new germplasm with improved grain composition for food, feed and fuel. In addition, selected diverse samples will be grown in Hays under dryland conditions to evaluate the effect of heat and drought stress on sorghum grain composition. Samples of mature grain will be collected and threshed. Collected material will be analyzed for overall grain composition as well as important end-use quality traits such as fermentable sugars, protein digestibility, phytonutrient levels etc. Samples will be evaluated for their ability to withstand changes to ...
There is a lot of interest in the health benefits of dietary carotenoids and on the relationship of these compounds with smoke. In particular, it is unknown if the enhanced cancer risk observed in smokers following beta-carotene supplementation can be also found using other carotenoids. Here, we stu …
carotenoids[edit]. I'm new here, but I think you made an alteration to make this statement about carotenoids: "The double ... I don't think I was the one who made the changes, on carotenoids the revision history related is this. Regarding the ...
Content of carotenoids[edit]. The yellow color and name of the corpus luteum, like that of the macula lutea of the retina, is ... Carotenoid metabolism as a preparation for function. Pure and Applied Chemistry, Vol. 63, No. 1, pp. 131-140, 1991. available ... The corpus luteum is colored as a result of concentrating carotenoids (including lutein) from the diet and secretes a moderate ... The idea is not presently accepted by the scientific community.[13] Rather, the corpus luteum concentrates carotenoids from the ...
... s are carotenoids containing no oxygen. Carotenoids containing some oxygen are known as xanthophylls. The two ends of ... containing carotenoids to retinals. Carnivores in general are poor converters of dietary ionone-containing carotenoids. Pure ... as does the xanthophyll carotenoid β-cryptoxanthin. All other carotenoids, including lycopene, have no beta-ring and thus no ... There is no such thing as an "α-ring". These and similar names for the ends of the carotenoid molecules form the basis of a ...
"Carotenoids". Retrieved 6 May 2012. "Lutein + Zeaxanthin Content of Selected Foods". Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State ... Zeaxanthin is one of the most common carotenoid alcohols found in nature. It is important in the xanthophyll cycle. Synthesized ... Due to the commercial value of carotenoids, their biosynthesis has been studied extensively in both natural products and non- ... Zeaxanthin is one of the two primary xanthophyll carotenoids contained within the retina of the eye. Zeaxanthin supplements are ...
... and were likely formed through chemical reactions of other dietary carotenoids. These species-specific carotenoids are ... Carotenoids. 504 (1): 142-153. doi:10.1016/ ISSN 0003-9861. PMC 3887449. PMID 20709013. Barreiros, Marcelo ... This distinct colorization consists of pigments from eight different carotenoids, six of which are unique to the Xipholena ... Additionally, the complexity of the creation of these pigments allows for an added diversity in the carotenoid products ...
"Carotenoids". Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR. August 2016. ... What are dietary reference intakes?". Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Institute ... Included as nutritional constituents are provitamin A carotenoids, whereas those without nutrient status are diverse ...
"Carotenoids". Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University. 1 July 2016. Retrieved 27 ...
Among carotenoids such as the tomato phytochemical, lycopene, the US Food and Drug Administration found insufficient evidence ... A converse exists in the case of carotenoids, such as lycopene present in tomatoes, which may remain stable or increase in ... "Carotenoids". Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. July 2016 ... Food processing techniques like mechanical processing can also free carotenoids and other phytochemicals from the food matrix, ...
... carotenoids; siderophores; cholic acid derivatives and organic acids. It is hoped that further research into alkaliphilic ...
Research into macular degeneration and carotenoids[edit]. In 1990, Howard started work with Dr Richard Bone[36] and Dr. John ... January 2018). "Supplemental Retinal Carotenoids Enhance Memory in Healthy Individuals with Low Levels of Macular Pigment in A ... "Nutritional Intervention to Prevent Alzheimer's Disease: Potential Benefits of Xanthophyll Carotenoids and Omega-3 Fatty Acids ...
... (1,2-dihydro-ψ,ψ-caroten-1-ol) is a carotenoid. It is a major carotenoid of phototropic bacteria such as ... Britton G, Liaaen-Jensen S, Pfander HP (2004). Carotenoids: Handbook. Springer. p. 109. ISBN 978-3-7643-6180-8. v t e. ...
Leffingwell, John C. "Boronia: A Review". Aroma from Carotenoids. "Boronia megastigma Bartl". Atlas of Living Australia.. ...
Leffingwell, John C. (1999). "Rose (Rosa damascena)". Aroma from Carotenoids. Leffingwell & Associates. Retrieved 2006-06-08. ...
In contrast to all other carotenoids, phytoene and phytofluene, the first carotenoid precursors in the biosynthetic pathway of ... Accumulation of these carotenoids in the skin may protect the skin by several mechanisms: acting as UV absorbers, as ... The synthesis of phytoene is the first committed step in the synthesis of carotenoids in plants. Phytoene is produced from two ... "Carotenoid Biosynthesis". Archived from the original on 2016-11-05. Retrieved 2009-02-25. Phytoene synthase Khachik F, Carvalho ...
Like many carotenoids, astaxanthin is a lipid-soluble pigment. Its red-orange colour is due to the extended chain of conjugated ... Synthetic carotenoid pigments colored yellow, red or orange represent about 15-25% of the cost of production of commercial ... Astaxanthin /æstəˈzænθɪn/ is a keto-carotenoid. It belongs to a larger class of chemical compounds known as terpenes (as a ... Astaxanthin, and other chemically related asta-carotenoids, has also been found in a number of lichen species of the arctic ...
Carotenoids are long-lasting. In addition, carotenoids have been linked to more attractive skin tone (defined as a more golden ... Armstrong GA, Hearst JE (1996). "Carotenoids 2: Genetics and molecular biology of carotenoid pigment biosynthesis". The FASEB ... January 11, 2011). "Carotenoids linked to attractive skin tone". PsyPost. Stahl W, Sies H (November 2012). "β-Carotene and ... Lycopene may be the most powerful carotenoid quencher of singlet oxygen. Due to its strong color and non-toxicity, lycopene is ...
Carotenoids are important simple isoprenoids that function as antioxidants and as precursors of vitamin A. Another biologically ... Some dietary fat is necessary to facilitate absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) and carotenoids. Humans and ... Terpenes and isoprenoids, including the carotenoids, are made by the assembly and modification of isoprene units donated from ... Rao AV, Rao LG (March 2007). "Carotenoids and human health". Pharmacological Research. 55 (3): 207-16. doi:10.1016/j.phrs. ...
"Functional characterization of a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 and its relation to the carotenoid accumulation and volatile ... Carotenoids that do not contain the β-ionone moiety cannot be converted to retinol, and thus have no vitamin A activity. ... Carotenoids are the precursors of important fragrance compounds in several flowers. For example, a 2010 study of ionones in ... Moreover, carotenoid content increased from the first to the second day, whereas the volatile release decreased, and the OfCCD1 ...
Abdel-Aal el-SM, Akhtar H, Zaheer K, Ali R (2013). "Dietary sources of lutein and zeaxanthin carotenoids and their role in eye ... Carotenoids Except β-Carotene. Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers. p. 48. ISBN 978-92-893-0342-2. Novotny, Janet A.; ... Hedrén, E.; Diaz, V.; Svanburg, U. (2002). "Estimation of carotenoid accessibility from carrots determined by an in vitro ... 2005). "In situ simultaneous analysis of polyacetylenes, carotenoids and polysaccharides in carrot roots". Journal of ...
In 1938, Richard Kuhn was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on carotenoids and vitamins, specifically B2 and B6 ... For their investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2, Karrer and Haworth jointly received the Nobel Prize in ... "Vitamin C". Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National ... "Vitamin E". Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National ...
... ) fruit carotenoids reevaluated". Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 19 (6-7): 664-668. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2005.02. ... Mai, H. C.; Truong, V; Debaste, F (2014). "Carotenoids concentration of gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) fruit oil using ... Ishida, Betty; Turner, Charlotta; Chapman, Mary; A McKeon, Thomas (2004). "Fatty acid and carotenoid composition of gac ( ... "Comparative analysis of carotenoid content in Momordica cochinchinensis (Cucurbitaceae) collected from Australia, Thailand and ...
The large quantity of shrimp and other red shellfish produces a surfeit of astaxanthin, a carotenoid which is the key component ... Krinsky, Norman I.; Mathews-Roth, Micheline M.; Taylor, Richard F. (1989). Carotenoids: chemistry and biology. New York: Plenum ...
Another carotenoid, astaxanthin, can also be found deposited in flight and body feathers. The colors can range from pale pink ... Carotenoids of the Roseate Spoonbill. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 6:305-310. (Mentioned in the Cornell Lab of ... Like the American flamingo, their pink color is diet-derived, consisting of the carotenoid pigment canthaxanthin. ...
Takaichi S, Daldal F, Thurnauer MC, Beatty JT (2009). "Distribution and Biosynthesis of Carotenoids". In Hunter CN (ed.). The ... They are pigmented with bacteriochlorophyll a or b, together with various carotenoids, which give them colours ranging between ... Photosynthetic unit Purple bacteria use bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoids to obtain the light energy for photosynthesis. ... each one binding molecules of bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoids non-covalently. LHI is directly associated with the reaction ...
Given that animals cannot synthesize carotenoids de novo, these must be obtained from food. The hypothesis states that animals ... Another example is Lozano's hypothesis that carotenoids have dual but mutually incompatible roles in immune function and ... McGraw, K. J.; Ardia, D. R. (2003). "Carotenoids, immunocompetence, and the information content of sexual colors: An ... with carotenoid-depended sexual signals are demonstrating their ability to "waste" carotenoids on sexual signals at the expense ...
Singh, G. (2007). Chemistry of Terpenoids and Carotenoids. Discovery Publishing House. p. 41. ISBN 9788183562799. Kirk-Othmer ( ...
The plumage color of the males is produced from carotenoid pigments in the diet. Coloration is produced from both red pigments ... Krinsky, Norman I; Mayne, Susan T. & Sies, Helmut (2004). Carotenoids In Health And Disease. CRC Press. p. 258. ISBN 0-8247- ... McGraw, Kevin J; Hill, Geogffrey E.; Parker, Robert S. (August 2003), "Carotenoid Pigments in a Mutant Cardinal: Implications ... Northern cardinal males normally metabolize carotenoid pigments to create plumage pigmentation of a color different from the ...
The reds, orange and yellow colors of many feathers are caused by various carotenoids. Carotenoid-based pigments might be ... Shawkey, Matthew D; Hill, Geoffrey E (2005). "Carotenoids need structural colours to shine" (PDF). Biol. Lett. 1 (2): 121-124. ... Most feather pigments are melanins (brown and beige pheomelanins, black and grey eumelanins) and carotenoids (red, yellow, ... doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2000.tb01196.x. Lozano, G. A. (1994). "Carotenoids, parasites, and sexual selection". Oikos. 70 (2): ...
Blount, J. D.; Metcalfe, N. B.; Birkhead, T. R.; Surai, P. F. (2003). "Carotenoid Modulation of Immune Function and Sexual ... Lozano, G (1994). "Carotenoids, parasites, and sexual selection". Oikos. 70 (2): 309-311. doi:10.2307/3545643. JSTOR 3545643. ... Late Pregnancy Antioxidants such as carotenoids, vitamin C, Vitamin E, and enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ... such as carotenoids) in the form of pigments into plumage as a costly signal. Iron is vital to biological processes, not only ...
Like all carotenoids, lycopene is a tetraterpene. It is insoluble in water. Eleven conjugated double bonds give lycopene its ... It is a member of the carotenoid family of compounds, and because it consists entirely of carbon and hydrogen, is also ... Carotenoids like lycopene are found in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes in plants, photosynthetic bacteria, fungi, and ... Yamaguchi, Masayoshi (2010). Carotenoids : Properties, Effects and Diseases. New York: Nova Science Publishers. p. 125. ISBN ...
tags: evolution, evolutionary biology, evolutionary ecology, plumage color,carotenoid-based colour, carotenoids, lipid ... Carotenoids tinge blackbird bills a deep orange, signalling fitness; birds with oranger bills are "are heavier and larger, have ...
Carotenoids and Human Health provides an introduction to food sources and metabolism. Written by experts in their fields and ... Carotenoids and Human Health provides an introduction to food sources and metabolism. Written by experts in their fields and ... Comprehensive and easy to use, Carotenoids and Human Health is a very useful resource for nutritionists, registered dieticians ... Biofortification of Maize with Provitamin A Carotenoids Kevin Pixley, Natalia Palacios Rojas, Raman Babu, Raphael Mutale, ...
Out of the 600 or more carotenoids found in nature, only three are found in the macula of the eye-lutein, RR-zeaxanthin and RS ...
Indena: botanical ingredients for the Health Food industry , 11-Feb-2020 , Technical / White Paper Meriva® - curcumin Phytosome offers the complete power of all 3 major curcuminoids and its optimized bioabsorpion thanks to Phytosome Indenas delivery... ...
... are the natural precursor molecules that eventually form colored carotenoids. Colorless carotenoids do ... What are carotenoids?. Soudant: Common carotenoids such as lycopene or beta-carotene provide the yellow, orange, and red color ... Nu Skin: What are the benefits of colorless carotenoids?. Soudant: As these carotenoids are free of deep orange or red pigments ... Carotenoids are also used by plants to protect against aggressors. Carotenoids fight free radicals to protect our skin from the ...
Carotenoids are a type of plant cellular pigment that play a role in photosynthesis and give many plants a red, orange or ... Carotenoids also act as antioxidants by neutralizing free radicals that could harm the plant. The consumption of carotenoids ... Xanthophylls are carotenoids that contain oxygen and appear more yellow. Carotenes are carotenoids composed of hydrocarbons. ... Because the human body does not naturally produce carotenoids, people must eat a plant containing carotenoids to experience ...
Carotenoids and Human Health provides an introduction to food sources and metabolism. Written by experts in their fields and ... Carotenoids and Human Health. Editors. * Sherry A. Tanumihardjo Series Title. Nutrition and Health. Copyright. 2013. Publisher ... Carotenoids and Human Health provides an introduction to food sources and metabolism. Written by experts in their fields and ... Comprehensive and easy to use, Carotenoids and Human Health is a very useful resource for nutritionists, registered dieticians ...
Deep-frozen juices defrosted to room temperature can increase carotenoids level in body Researchers from the Laboratory of Food ... of juices have a great impact on the color of orange juice and on the concentration and bioaccessibility of the carotenoids ...
This up-to-date reference describes how retinoids and carotenoids function in the skin and how they can be utilized to prevent ... Retinoids and Carotenoids in Dermatology. Anders Vahlquist,Madeleine Duvic. Snippet view - 2007. ... - This up-to-date reference describes how retinoids and carotenoids function in the skin and how they can be ... This up-to-date reference describes how retinoids and carotenoids function in the skin and how they can be utilized to prevent ...
Weber, U., Michaelis, L., Kern, W. et al. Experimental carotenoid retinopathy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 225, 346-350 ( ... Experimental carotenoid retinopathy. II. Functional and morphological alterations of the rabbit retina after acute ... Weber U, Kern W, Novotny GEK, Goerz G, Hanappel S (1987) Experimental carotenoid retinopathy. I. Functional and morphological ... alterations of the rabbit retina after 11 months dietary carotenoid application. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 225: 198- ...
As a leading provider of carotenoids, DSM has everything from beta-carotene to zeaxanthin. ... As a leading provider of carotenoids, DSM has everything from beta-carotene to zeaxanthin. ... In addition to vibrant colors, DSM Carotenoids will give your products healthy benefits. Certain carotenoids work as ... Beta-carotene is a member of the carotenoid family, known for its intense pigments. Beta-Carotene is also an antioxidant and a ...
Carotenoids are substances that give fruits and vegetables their bright, bold colours. They also provide a variety of health ... How best to absorb your carotenoids. Carotenoids are best absorbed when theyre consumed with some fat in your meal. Think ... The only carotenoids that are found in the retina, specifically in the macula, lutein and zeaxanthin are thought to help ... Lycopene is a carotenoid that gives red or pink foods their colour. Foods with the highest lycopene content include tomato, ...
Understanding the molecular actions of carotenoids is critical for human studies involving carotenoids for prevention of lung ... detrimental effects of carotenoids are related to the carotenoid dose administered in vivo, and the tissue accumulation of ... Understanding the molecular actions of carotenoids is critical for human studies involving carotenoids for prevention of lung ... Carotenoids and lung cancer prevention Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2009 Jun 1;1:258-74. ...
... Br J Pharmacol. 2017 Jun;174(11):1290-1324. doi: 10.1111/bph.13625. Epub ... Moreover, carotenoids can stimulate the proliferation of B- and T-lymphocytes, the activity of macrophages and cytotoxic T- ... It is thought that carotenoids act in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In this review, we briefly describe the biological and ... Carotenoids and retinoids have several similar biological activities such as antioxidant properties, the inhibition of ...
Herbs are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals such as carotenoids, which are known to exert various positive biological ... Carotenoids from Herbs June 30/Cork, Ireland/Food & Farm Week -- ... Carotenoid bioaccessibility is defined as the amount of carotenoids transferred to micelles after digestion when compared with ... The content of individual carotenoids varied significantly among the herbs tested. Carotenoid bioaccessibility varied from 0 to ...
Food Carotenoids: Chemistry, Biology and Technology. Food Carotenoids: Chemistry, Biology and Technology An IFT Press Book ... Carotenoids were first studied as natural pigments, then as precursors of vitamin A, and then as bioactive compounds against ...
2009 by CRC Press Carotenoids are of great interest due to their essential biological functions in both plants and animals ... Carotenoids in Lipid Membranes, W.I. Gruszecki Hydrophilic Carotenoids: Carotenoid Aggregates, H-R Sliwka, Vassilia Partali, ... CAROTENOIDS AND CAROTENOID BIOCHEMISTRY IN ANIMAL SYSTEMS Control and Function of Carotenoid Coloration in Birds: Selected Case ... Formation of Carotenoid Oxygenated Cleavage Products, C.Caris-Veyrat Thermal and Photochemical Degradation of Carotenoids, C.D ...
... Kushwaha Kirti,1 Saini Amita,1 Saraswat Priti,2 Agarwal Mukesh ... Carotenoids protect cells against photooxidative damage and hence found important applications in environment, food and ... Microorganisms can serve as sources of carotenoids, the most widespread group of naturally occurring pigments. More than 750 ...
Scientists create yellow potatoes with high carotenoid levels Potatoes with higher levels of beneficial carotenoids are the ... This new research, supported by Abbott, was presented by Elizabeth Johnson, PhD, a scientist in the Carotenoids and Health ... is the predominant carotenoid present in key areas of the infant brain, including areas that regulate overall brain function, ... finds older adults are consuming higher levels of carotenoids, flavonoids and other phytonutrients found in fruits and ...
Related tags: Carotenoid, Carotenoids, Lutein, Cognitive function, Cognitive health The benefits of carotenoids for vision is ... Related topics: Research, Eye health, Antioxidants/carotenoids, Cognitive function Subscribe to our FREE newsletter. Subscribe ... OmniActives carotenoid line Lutemax gets Non-GMO Project Verified * Theres building evidence on nutritions role in ... Hammonds studies on carotenoids and audition was published last year​​ in the journal Nutritional Neuroscience​, where his ...
Intake of the carotenoids lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin improved iron absorption from a meal and even reversed the inhibitory ... Intake of the carotenoids lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin improved iron absorption from a meal and even reversed the inhibitory ... "The highest amount of carotenoid used (3.6 mg) was chosen as a result of previous experiences with beta-carotene, because it ... Related topics: Research, Suppliers, Eye health, Cancer risk reduction, Antioxidants/carotenoids, Cardiovascular health, ...
... molecular mechanism-based cancer chemoprevention using carotenoids seems to be an attractive approach. Various carotenoids, ... Dietary intake of carotenoids is inversely associated with the risk of a variety of cancers in different tissues. Preclinical ... In this review, cancer prevention using carotenoids are reviewed and the possible mechanisms of action are described. ... studies have shown that some carotenoids have potent antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting potential ...
A new study is calling attention to the role of two carotenoids known as lutein and zeaxanthin in lowering a persons risk of ... Home / News / Clinical Eye Care / Diseases and Conditions / New study calls attention to importance of carotenoids ... A study in the popular press is calling attention to the role of carotenoids-the pigments that give fruits and vegetables their ... People with the lowest levels of carotenoids will indeed have the most improvement to gain, Dr. Newman says, but that group ...
Carotenoids, Antioxidant Nutritional Supplements & more at everyday low prices. ...
carotenoid ester lipase precursor [Pleurotus sapidus] carotenoid ester lipase precursor [Pleurotus sapidus]. gi,55466915,emb, ...
Carotenoid Terpenoids Carotenoids as Flavor and Fragrance Precursors Carotenoid gene in aphids International Carotenoid Society ... In animals carotenoids play an important role to support oxygen in its transport, storage and metabolism. Carotenoids are ... Carotenoids can transfer excitation energy in one of two ways: 1) singlet-singlet energy transfer from carotenoid to ... Cooking carotenoid-containing vegetables in oil and shredding the vegetable both increase carotenoid bioavailability. There are ...
Focusing on non-extractable polyphenols and carotenoids that are present in the diet, this book will improve our knowledge of ... Polyphenols and carotenoids are abundant in fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices, and beverages, such as tea, cocoa and wine ... Polyphenols and carotenoids are abundant in fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices, and beverages, such as tea, cocoa and wine ... Carotenoids: Concept, Dietary Sources and Structure-Activity Relationships for Antioxidant and Health-related Properties. L. R ...
Miki, W. (1991). Biological functions and activities of animal carotenoids. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 63(1), 141-146. https ... Miki, W.. "Biological functions and activities of animal carotenoids" Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 63, no. 1, 1991, pp. 141 ... Biological functions and activities of animal carotenoids. De Gruyter , Published online: January 1, 2009 ... Miki, W.. "Biological functions and activities of animal carotenoids" Pure and Applied Chemistry 63, no. 1 (1991): 141-146. ...
They can be classified also into Apo Carotenoids, Nor and Seco Carotenoids, retro Carotenoids, retro Apo Carotenoids, and ... Carotenoids 2: Genetics and molecular biology of carotenoid pigment biosynthesis. FASEB J. 10(2): 228-37. PMID 8641556. ... Human health and carotenoids. In humans, carotenoids act as antioxidants to protect cells from the danger of free radicals. ... Not all carotenoids are helpful, for example, etretinate is a teratogen.. People consuming diets rich in carotenoids from ...
Photo-excitation of carotenoids causes cytotoxicity via singlet oxygen production.. Yoshii H1, Yoshii Y, Asai T, Furukawa T, ... We hypothesized that carotenoids whose energy states are above the singlet excited state of oxygen (singlet oxygen) would ... Carotenoids, natural pigments widely distributed in algae and plants, have a conjugated double bond system. Their excitation ... Here, we demonstrated that human skin melanoma (A375) cells are damaged through the photo-excitation of several carotenoids ( ...
  • Common carotenoids such as lycopene or beta-carotene provide the yellow, orange, and red color typical in vegetables like carrots and tomatoes. (
  • There are several dozen carotenoids that fulfill a potent antioxidant function, including lycopene-well studied for its ability to reduce the risk of prostate cancer-and lutein and zeaxanthin-both important for eye health. (
  • Lycopene is a carotenoid that gives red or pink foods their colour. (
  • Recently, the beneficial effects of carotenoid-rich vegetables and fruits in health and in decreasing the risk of certain diseases has been attributed to the major carotenoids, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, crocin (/crocetin) and curcumin, due to their antioxidant effects. (
  • Intake of the carotenoids lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin improved iron absorption from a meal and even reversed the inhibitory effects of coffee, says a new study. (
  • The unoxygenated (oxygen free) carotenoids such as alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lycopene are well-known carotenes. (
  • Lycopene also is common and is considered the most common carotenoid in the U.S. diet because it is found in tomato products (Sims and Odle 2005). (
  • This study will examine the the efficiency fo absorption of major plant pigments, carotenoids, (lutein, beta-carotene and lycopene)and will measure the biological functions of carotenoids in healthy women in response to an 8-week period of carotenoid supplementation. (
  • Similarly, a wide range of fat-soluble and water soluble carotenoids such as lycopene, beta-carotene, and lutein are provided by Farbest Brands in both powdered and oil forms. (
  • Serum concentrations of vitamins A (retinol) and E (α and γ-tocopherol), two retinyl esters, and six carotenoids (α-carotene, trans-β-carotene, cis β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, combined lutein/zeaxanthin, and trans-lycopene) are measured using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. (
  • One softgel of CarotenAll® provides greater amounts of the major carotenoids (Alpha & Beta-Carotene, Lutein, Zeaxanthin and Lycopene) than 5-6 servings of fruits and vegetables. (
  • The most common carotenoids include lycopene and the vitamin A precursor β-carotene. (
  • of all the carotenoids, very low blood lycopene was the strongest predictor of mortality. (
  • Lycopene is the signature carotenoid of the tomato. (
  • Breast milk from the U.S. consistently contained the highest levels of lycopene, a carotenoid commonly found in tomatoes that may play a role in immunity and protection against inflammatory diseases. (
  • The researchers also analyzed carotenoid levels in the plasma of women and infants in the group from the U.S. They found that concentrations of carotenoids in milk were strongly correlated to levels in maternal and infant plasma, except for lycopene. (
  • Carotenoids include lycopene, carotenes, lutein and zeaxanthin. (
  • In conclusion, this study shows that from the six major serum carotenoids and -tocopherol studied, particularly -carotene, -carotene, and lycopene were positively associated with lung function in the elderly and may be considered as candidates for further investigations. (
  • This segment of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway was already available in the Registry and iGEM teams from previous years (Edinburgh 07, Edinburgh 08, Guelph 08, Cambridge09) demonstrated production of beta-carotene and lycopene. (
  • Plasma carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lycopene) were measured in 50 male and 49 female participants, aged 18-37 years, with a wide range of habitual vegetable and fruit intakes. (
  • The sum of the plasma carotenoids (excluding lycopene) was highly correlated with intake of total vegetables and fruits (r = 0.59). (
  • Multiple regression analyses showed that intake of total vegetables and fruits was the most significant determinant of each plasma carotenoid except lycopene. (
  • Ethanolic extract of lycopene containing unidentified hydrophilic derivatives of the carotenoid activated ARE with similar potency to lycopene. (
  • However, findings from intervention studies with β-carotene were disappointing ( 4 , 5 ), and thus other carotenoids such as lycopene, the main tomato carotenoid, became the subject of more intensive investigation. (
  • It also discusses β-carotene and other carotenoids (α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, and zeaxanthin) but does not provide quantitative recommendations for their intake. (
  • Mixed Carotenoids - Powerful antioxidant with lutein and lycopene. (
  • Mixed Carotenoids is a broad spectrum carotenoid supplement containing natural alpha- and beta-carotenes combined with lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin and cryptoxanthin. (
  • These wide price ranges are the result of the fact that several carotenoids have become commodities (such as lutein and beta-carotene), while others (such as lycopene and analogous compounds) have maintained their very high added value. (
  • We investigated the associations between plasma levels of the carotenoids lutein/zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene, and risk of prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). (
  • Lycopene is also a carotenoid found in watermelons‚ apricots‚ and pink guavas. (
  • There are relatively few reports on the cancer chemopreventive effects of lycopene or tomato carotenoids in animal models. (
  • However, a report from the author's laboratory found no effect in the N-nitrosomethylurea-induced mammary tumor model when crystalline lycopene or a lycopene-rich tomato carotenoid oleoresin was administered in the diet. (
  • Pure lycopene was absorbed less efficiently than the lycopene-rich tomato carotenoid oleoresin and blood levels of lycopene in rats fed a grain-based diet were consistently lower than those in rats fed lycopene in a casein-based diet. (
  • These include the following: the optimal dose and form of lycopene, interactions among lycopene and other carotenoids and fat soluble vitamins such as vitamin E and D, the role of dietary fat in regulating lycopene uptake and disposition, organ and tissue specificity, and the problem of extrapolation from rodent models to human populations. (
  • Lycopene is the principal carotenoid in tomato that causes the fruit's characteristically red color. (
  • Carotenoids that contain unsubstituted beta-ionone rings (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and gamma-carotene) have vitamin A activity (meaning that they can be converted to retinol). (
  • Beta-carotene is a member of the carotenoid family, known for its intense pigments. (
  • "The highest amount of carotenoid used (3.6 mg) was chosen as a result of previous experiences with beta-carotene, because it achieved a significant increase in iron absorption capable of counteracting coffee-mediated inhibition," ​ explained García-Casal in the journal Nutrition Research ​ (Vol. 26, pp. 340-344). (
  • In humans, carotenoids such as beta-carotene are a precursor to vitamin A , a pigment essential for good vision, and carotenoids can also act as antioxidants (Sims and Odle 2005). (
  • Probably the most well-known and well-studied carotenoid is the one that gives the first group its name, beta-carotene, found in carrots and responsible for their bright orange color. (
  • Beta-carotene is the primary precursor (provitamin A carotenoid) to vitamin A (Sims and Odle 2005). (
  • Beta-carotene is a well-known provitamin A carotenoid. (
  • This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Carotenoids in both US$ Million and Tons by the following Product Segments: Beta-Carotene, Lutein, Astaxanthin, Canthaxanthin, Annatto, Capsanthin, and Other Carotenoids. (
  • Levels of beta-carotene -- a carotenoid that can be converted into vitamin A by the body -- varied greatly by country and lactation stage but were about 25 percent higher in milk from China and Mexico than the U.S. at two weeks. (
  • Although expert advice is clearly to avoid tobacco smoke altogether, the results suggest female smokers could benefit from upping their intakes of carotenoid-rich foods, particularly those rich in alpha- and beta-carotene, according to findings published in European Journal of Cancer. (
  • The role of carotenoids, and beta-carotene in particular, in cancer is controversial, with several studies reporting that beta-carotene supplements may increase the risk of lung cancer in smokers. (
  • Quickly growing aging population in Europe and North America has driven the market for carotenoids such as beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin. (
  • This enzyme, however, preferrably oxidizes only one ring of the beta carotene, which leads to formation of carotenoid called echinenone, but when the gene is overexpressed, canthaxanthin can be produced as well. (
  • These natural carotenoids (mainly alpha- and beta-carotene) are readily available source of pro-vitamin A, yielding 15 times more beta-carotene than carrots. (
  • Beta carotene is a carotenoid that's converted into vitamin A within the body. (
  • Nature's Life's Mixed Carotenoids 25,000 IU includes the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, in addition to beta carotene. (
  • As these carotenoids are free of deep orange or red pigments, they are beneficial for cosmetic use. (
  • Carotene and xanthophyll are the two classes of carotenoids in plants that function as accessory pigments in photosynthesis by absorbing light energy at wa. (
  • Carotenoids (/kəˈrɒtɪnɔɪd/), also called tetraterpenoids, are yellow, orange, and red organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria, and fungi. (
  • Carotenoids are natural pigments responsible for the vivid colours in our fruits and vegetables. (
  • Carotenoids were first studied as natural pigments, then as precursors of vitamin A, and then as bioactive compounds against chronic diseases. (
  • Microorganisms can serve as sources of carotenoids, the most widespread group of naturally occurring pigments. (
  • Carotenoids are natural fat-soluble pigments that provide bright coloration to plants and animals. (
  • A study in the popular press is calling attention to the role of carotenoids-the pigments that give fruits and vegetables their bright colors-in lowering a person's risk of advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). (
  • Carotenoid is any of a large class of over 600 organic pigments , including the carotenes and xanthophylls, that are terpenoids (typically tetraterpenoids, derived from 8 five-carbon isoprene units), structured in the form of a polyene chain ( properties ), widely distributed in nature, and commonly imparting yellow, orange, red, or purple colors. (
  • Carotenoids include two small classes of pigments, xanthophylls and carotenes . (
  • Lutein and the other carotenoid pigments found in leaves are not obvious because of the presence of other pigments such as chlorophyll . (
  • Carotenoids, natural pigments widely distributed in algae and plants, have a conjugated double bond system. (
  • Carotenoids, a class of phytonutrients, are plant pigments due to which several fruits and vegetables acquire their bright shades of red, orange, and yellow. (
  • Even though carotenoid-based coloration has been found in birds, fish, amphibians, and reptiles, there are no reports of any extant mammals showing these pigments in their skin or hair. (
  • Animals cannot synthesize carotenoid pigments de novo, and must consume them in their diet. (
  • Indeed, to date, no mammal has been known to have evolved physiological mechanisms to incorporate and deposit carotenoids in the skin or hair, and mammals have therefore been assumed to rely entirely on other pigments such as melanins to color their integument. (
  • Carotenoids are photosynthetic pigments animals use to avoid cellular oxidative damage and to color external structures ( 1 ⇓ - 3 ). (
  • The inability of animals to synthesize de novo carotenoids means these pigments must be obtained only from dietary sources ( 4 ). (
  • Carotenoids are organic pigments that are naturally occurring in plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae , some types of fungus and some bacteria . (
  • Carotenoids are the most widespread pigments in nature. (
  • Carotenoids are plant pigments that potentially play functional roles in human development and are key sources of vitamin A, an essential component of eye health and the immune system. (
  • Carotenoids are a group of structurally highly diverse terpenoid pigments (more than 750 have been isolated), which can be divided into carotenes and oxygenated derivatives of carotenes, so called xanthophylls [ 10 - 12 ]. (
  • Carotenoid pigments within the skin and retina are measured using resonance Raman spectroscopy (RS). (
  • The question of whether RCs can be used to derive valid quantitative measures of the carotenoid pigments in vivo is discussed. (
  • Fossil feathers provide evidence that some avian colours, like black and brown melanins, have existed for at least 160 million years (Myr), but no traces of bright carotenoid pigments in ancient feathers have been reported. (
  • However, today many of the most vibrant feather colours are conferred by carotenoid pigments (red, orange, yellow, and rarely, pink and purple) [ 5 , 6 ], and the evolutionary history of carotenoid-based plumage pigmentation has yet to be resolved. (
  • Previously, analytical chemistry has been used to confirm the presence of carotenoids in feathers from 197 species spanning 36 out of 236 modern neornithine families and seven of 39 orders (see the electronic supplementary material) and has shown that non-carotenoid pigments produce colourful plumage displays in penguins, parrots and turacos [ 7 ]. (
  • This is perhaps not surprising considering that birds can extract carotenoids from food and circulate the pigments in blood using nutrient-uptake and -delivery mechanisms (e.g. lipoproteins) [ 8 - 10 ] that are conserved across vertebrates [ 11 ]. (
  • Carotenoids are isoprenoid pigments that have key biological functions in organisms of all major taxa. (
  • They are carotenoids‚ the yellow or red pigments found in colorful fruits and vegetables. (
  • Out of the 600 or more carotenoids found in nature, only three are found in the macula of the eye-lutein, RR-zeaxanthin and RS (meso)-zeaxanthin. (
  • Zeaxanthin is a structural isomer that is a part of the carotenoids family and is available in many forms for dietary supplements, beverages and fortified foods. (
  • The only carotenoids that are found in the retina, specifically in the macula, lutein and zeaxanthin are thought to help protect against oxidative damage which researchers believe may have a role in age-related macular degeneration. (
  • Carotenoid isomerooxygenase (EC, ninaB (gene)) is an enzyme with systematic name zeaxanthin:oxygen 15,15'-oxidoreductase (bond-cleaving, cis-isomerizing). (
  • One of Dr. Hammond's studies on carotenoids and audition was published last year ​ ​ in the journal Nutritional Neuroscience ​, where his team found a link between lutein and zeaxanthin status and maintaining optimal auditory function. (
  • The study, which was published in JAMA Ophthalmology , found a 40% risk reduction in advanced AMD among people who ate the highest levels of the carotenoids known as lutein and zeaxanthin, which are found in green, leafy vegetables such as kale, collard greens and spinach, and in eggs. (
  • Lutein and zeaxanthin are two of the non-provitamin A carotenoids found in fruits and vegetables. (
  • Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables that are rich in carotenoids, including lutein and zeaxanthin, may reduce risk for AMD. (
  • As expected, the most prevalent serum carotenoids are β-carotene (~40-45% of total) and lutein and zeaxanthin (~35-39% of total). (
  • Lutein is an antioxidant carotenoid that occurs in nature with zeaxanthin. (
  • Carotenoids with molecules containing oxygen, such as lutein and zeaxanthin , are known as xanthophylls . (
  • The conference focused primarily on the carotenoids found in the human eye and brain - lutein, zeaxanthin and mesozeaxanthin - and was divided carotenoid research in child development, vision performance and protection, and dementia and Alzheimer's disease. (
  • For example, the only carotenoids found inside the retina of the human eye are the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin. (
  • With proven benefits in eye health, carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin, and astaxanthin are increasingly being consumed, especially by the elderly. (
  • A high content of capsanthin was quantified in hypophasic carotenoids (PM1) from red spice paprika, whereas the hypophasic fractions from orange (PM3) and apple (PM4) were mainly composed of violaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein. (
  • Stereochemical configurations ( Buchecker and Eugster, 1973 ) and a highly reduced carotenoid level in saffron suggest that these secondary metabolites are formed by an unusual sequence that involves the cleavage of zeaxanthin ( Pfander and Schurtenberger, 1982 ) followed by oxidative modifications and glycosylations ( Figure 1C ). (
  • By absorbing part of the load of free radicals, carotenoids provide direct protection while enabling other antioxidants to perform their critical functions. (
  • Working with other antioxidants, colorless carotenoids fight against the free radicals that contribute to the aging process of our skin. (
  • Carotenoids also act as antioxidants by neutralizing free radicals that could harm the plant. (
  • Certain carotenoids work as antioxidants in the body to protect cells, tissues and organs against the damaging effects of free radicals, which may contribute to the development of disorders such as cancer, heart disease and eye diseases. (
  • Sufficient blood levels of carotenoids, a family of antioxidants in fruits and vegetables, might reduce the risk of ischemic stroke, according to a study published today in the rapid access issue of Stroke: Journal of the American Heart Association. (
  • These data suggest that the cold-pressed berry seed oils may serve as potential dietary sources of tocopherols, carotenoids, and natural antioxidants. (
  • Antioxidants, such as vitamin C and carotenoids, keep free radicals under control. (
  • As such, carotenoids, which are some of the best-known natural antioxidants, have been the subject of studies for years, both for cosmetic and health benefits. (
  • There has been a lot of information on the topic of antioxidants and more recently the benefits of antioxidant carotenoids has come into the news regarding stroke survivors . (
  • Carotenoids don't just make us look good but act as antioxidants as well, which when consumed in our diet might be beneficial in reducing the risk of heart disease, some cancers , urinary tract infections , and possibly even lengthening our lifespan . (
  • Subjects in the highest quintile of the other carotenoids or -tocopherol did not have significantly higher FEV1 or FVC compared with subjects in the first quintile of these antioxidants. (
  • The North America Carotenoids & Antioxidants Market report defines and segments the carotenoids & antioxidants market in North America with analysis and forecast of revenue. (
  • Key players in the North America Carotenoids & Antioxidants (Nutraceuticals) Market are BASF, Archer Daniels Midland Co. (ADM), Cargill Inc., Dupont De Nemours & Co. (Dupont) MSDS. (
  • Browse through the TOC of the North America Carotenoids & Antioxidants Market report to get an idea of the in-depth analysis provided. (
  • Increasing awareness among consumers regarding aging disorders have spiked the demand for carotenoids & antioxidants in the nutraceuticals market. (
  • As of 2013, the U.S. contributed a major share of around 50% to the carotenoids & antioxidants market in the region. (
  • The North American carotenoids & antioxidants market has five major players: BASF (Germany), Chemtura (U.S.), Albemarle (U.S.), DSM (The Netherlands), Sumitomo (Japan), and others. (
  • The carotenoids & antioxidants market is segmented and projected on the basis of applications, which includes functional food, functional beverages, dietary supplements, animal nutrition, and personal care. (
  • Dietary supplements are the most preferred application of carotenoids & antioxidants. (
  • The European carotenoids and antioxidants (nutraceuticals) market constituted 26.3% of the global nutraceutical market in the year 2013, and its share is estimated to be 26.2% by the end of the year 2018. (
  • The Asia-Pacific carotenoids and antioxidants (nutraceuticals) market constituted 31.8% of the global nutraceutical market in the year 2013, and its share is estimated to grow to 32.3% by the end of the year 2018.The Asia-Pacific region is the most densely populated region in the world. (
  • The anti-aging effects and preventative properties of antioxidants have created a consumer boom, which has resulted in the growth of the Asia-Pacific carotenoids and antioxidants market. (
  • This structure confers antioxidant properties as good as those of carotenoids currently marketed as antioxidants. (
  • Carotenoids are a class of antioxidants that protect the skin from environmental stressors, in particular, from ultraviolet damage. (
  • Carotenoids are antioxidants, compounds that help protect against free radicals that attack molecules and modify a cell's chemical structure. (
  • Dietary antioxidants are vitamin C, vitamin E, the carotenoids and selenium. (
  • Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids : a report of the Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds, Subcommitties on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and of Interpretation and Use of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. (
  • The alpha-lipoic acid present in Carotenoid Complex Softgels from Country Life® could protect the brain and may also provide antioxidants. (
  • Carotenoids are antioxidants that protect the cells, tissues and organs of the body from free radical damage. (
  • Mixed Carotenoids 25,000 IU from Nature's Life contains a blend of carotenoids from a form of microalgae, known as Dunaliella salina , which is rich in important antioxidants. (
  • When all seven days in our World's Healthiest Foods Meal Plan are added together, they provide you with well over 100,000 micrograms of total carotenoids! (
  • Overall, circulating total carotenoids were inversely associated with breast cancer risk (P trend = 0.01). (
  • The study found that the mean amount of total carotenoids in American women's breast milk two weeks after giving birth was about 40 percent lower than levels in Chinese women's milk and about 25 percent lower than levels in Mexican women's milk. (
  • The most promising isolate (isolated from pin cushion flower, Scabiosa atropurpurea ) was selected according to its total carotenoids content expressed as torulene (μg?g -1 and μg?L -1 ). (
  • This compound can represent approximately 80-90% of the total carotenoids in the tomato ( 2 ). (
  • Cooking carotenoid-containing vegetables in oil and shredding the vegetable both increase carotenoid bioavailability. (
  • However, there is very limited information in the literature regarding the content and bioavailability of carotenoids from commonly consumed herbs," scientists in Cork, Ireland, report. (
  • The results of this study were presented in the "Carotenoid and Retinoid Interactive Group: Bioavailability and Metabolism of Carotenoids and Vitamin A" on March 29 by Joshua Smith and John Erdman, PhD, from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. (
  • It also highlighted the bioavailability and transport of carotenoids as well as healthy brain aging. (
  • In an embodiment, administering analogs or derivatives of carotenoids embodied herein to a subject may control or affect the bioavailability of eicosanoids. (
  • The demand for carotenoids has been growing in the food and beverage industry worldwide as the addition of carotenoids boosts the immune system, aids in the maintenance of sufficient vitamin A levels, and improves vision and texture of the skin. (
  • Feed, Food & Pharmaceutical Applications Drive Demand for Carotenoids, According to New Report by Global Industry Analysts, Inc. (
  • BASF has several decades of experience in formulation and production of carotenoids. (
  • It seems that when comparing the microbiota of health individuals, they found that they had a higher quantity of the gene associated with the production of carotenoids in both the gut and blood than those that had experienced a stroke. (
  • Z. Aksu and A. T. Eren, "Production of Carotenoids by Isolated Yeast of Rhodotorula glutinis," Biochemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2007, pp.107-113. (
  • Colorless carotenoids are the natural precursor molecules that eventually form colored carotenoids. (
  • The purpose is to review the growing evidence that carotenoids are bioactive molecules that can be of value to many aspects of health. (
  • The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria . (
  • Xanthophylls are carotenoids with molecules containing oxygen. (
  • As an antioxidant, carotenoids have the ability to quench free radicals and protect cells from oxidative damage or stress caused by pollution, ultraviolet radiation or other environmental factors that destabilize normal molecules. (
  • Carotenoids are lipid-soluble molecules of 40 carbons that are synthesized in a wide variety of photosynthetic and non photosynthetic or-ganisms including plants, algae, some fungi and bacteria. (
  • Over 600 carotenoid structures are known, and these are divided into non-oxygenated molecules, designated as carotenes, and oxygenated carotenoids, referred to as xanthophylls ( Figure 1 ). (
  • As a general rule, other organisms only acquire carotenoid molecules (which they may then eventually modify) through their diet, although there are rare cases of animals acquiring carotenoid biosynthetic capabilities through lateral gene transfer [ 5 , 6 ]. (
  • Carotenoid binding to proteins can confer solubility in the aqueous cellular environment (most carotenoid molecules are highly apolar). (
  • Carotenoids are highly involved in the first steps of the photosynthetic process, where they assume a paradoxical double function: they play a role as light harvesters [ 14 - 18 ], and at the same time they act as photoprotective molecules via a number of different mechanisms, including excitation energy quenching. (
  • Carotenoids have also been reported to stabilize protein structures, because many photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes do not fold properly without these molecules [ 34 - 36 ]. (
  • Carotenoids are long hydrocarbon molecules with a large number of double bonds, which serve as photosensitive chromophores. (
  • Carotenoids are therefore highly interesting molecules with applications in the various markets targeted by DEINOVE. (
  • Previous studies indicate that taking supplements of isolated carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins is not as effective as consuming foods that are high in antioxidant molecules. (
  • In an embodiment, 5-LO-catalyzed eicosanoid metabolites that may be controlled or affected by administering analogs or derivatives of carotenoids to a subject may include proinflammatory effector molecules (e.g., leukotrienes). (
  • I. Functional and morphological alterations of the rabbit retina after 11 month's dietary carotenoid application. (
  • Cancer chemoprevention by dietary carotenoids involves several mechanisms, including effects on gap junctional intercellular communication, growth factor signalling, cell cycle progression, differentiation-related proteins, retinoid-like receptors, antioxidant response element, nuclear receptors, AP-1 transcriptional complex, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and inflammatory cytokines. (
  • Dietary intake of carotenoids is inversely associated with the risk of a variety of cancers in different tissues. (
  • Focusing on non-extractable polyphenols and carotenoids that are present in the diet, this book will improve our knowledge of dietary intakes and physiological properties ensuring a better understanding of their potential health effects. (
  • Dietary interventions with carotenoids, fruits and vegetables may affect the insulin-like growth factor system. (
  • This represents a change of paradigm in animal physiology showing that some mammals actually have the capacity to accumulate dietary carotenoids in the integument. (
  • With a large number of doctors and healthcare professionals prescribing carotenoid-rich dietary regimens to the elderly, demand is expected to increase further in the coming years. (
  • A Purdue University-led analysis of breast milk concludes that levels of health-promoting compounds known as carotenoids differ by country, with the U.S. lagging behind China and Mexico, a reflection of regional dietary habits. (
  • The new study, which followed 36,664 women for almost a a decade, reports no link between dietary carotenoids and overal breast cancer risk. (
  • Dietary intake of carotenoids by mammals is thought to be associated with reduced risks of several chronic health disorders including heart disease, age-related macular degeneration and certain cancers [ 7 ]. (
  • The main phytochemical compounds present in fruits and vegetables are flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins C and E, phenolic compounds, dietary fiber, and carotenoids [ 4 ]. (
  • The current Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommends that we eat 5.5 cups of red and orange vegetables a week in order for us to get adequate amount of carotenoids to protect us from chronic diseases. (
  • Recently, it was discovered that a soluble orange carotenoid protein, the OCP, is essential for this photoprotective mechanism. (
  • A specific soluble carotenoid protein, the orange carotenoid protein (OCP), plays an essential role in this process ( 9 , 10 ). (
  • Specialists from the biological faculty of Moscow State University have studied the way the photoactive orange carotenoid protein (OCP) exchanges carotenoid with proteins of similar structure. (
  • The orange carotenoid protein (OCP) is a small water-soluble protein that serves as an excitation energy quencher in cyanobacteria: it reduces energy transfer in the photosynthetic apparatus under high light conditions. (
  • Under strong light orange carotenoid protein changes its structure and interacts with antennas to prevent formation of reactive oxygen species. (
  • One of the interesting and previously unknown properties of the orange carotenoid protein is the ability to transmit the carotenoid to other proteins with a similar structure. (
  • There are over 1,100 known carotenoids which can be further categorized into two classes, xanthophylls (which contain oxygen) and carotenes (which are purely hydrocarbons and contain no oxygen). (
  • There are more than 700 known carotenoids in Nature, with different chemical structures, which play essential roles in biology [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • The content of individual carotenoids varied significantly among the herbs tested. (
  • Absorption of iron from the wheat-based breakfast was found to significantly increase in the presence of the carotenoids, with no significant difference between the individual carotenoids, compared to the simple iron-enriched breakfast. (
  • Dry biomass, amount and proportion of individual carotenoids and lipid content of the selected identified yeast were determined. (
  • Xanthophylls are carotenoids that contain oxygen and appear more yellow. (
  • GGPP can be converted into carotenes or xanthophylls by undergoing a number of different steps within the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. (
  • A research group led by University of Tsukuba Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences Professor Hideaki Soya and Professor Randeep Rakwal has investigated the effect on hippocampal function of the naturally-derived pigment ASX, which is believed to have the most powerful antioxidant activity among carotenoids. (
  • Besides being vitamin A precursors , many carotenoids have a potent antioxidant activity and are therefore widely used as food supplements, food colorants in cosmetics and as animal feed. (
  • The potency of the carotenoids in ARE activation did not correlate with their effect on intracellular reactive oxygen species and reduced glutathione level, which may indicate that ARE activation is not solely related to their antioxidant activity. (
  • All carotenoids have antioxidant activity, but their activities vary depending on which tissues they are deposited into preferentially. (
  • Polyphenols and carotenoids are abundant in fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices, and beverages, such as tea, cocoa and wine providing health-related benefits and antioxidant properties. (
  • The best way to do this is to have a diet rich in colorful fruits and vegetables that provide non-provitamin A carotenoids. (
  • Unknowingly, every Sunday we were topping up on our carotenoids a family of plant compounds that are essential to human health and which are best known for the red, orange and yellow colouration they give to many fruits and vegetables. (
  • Carotenoids are a type of antioxidant derived from vegetables such as tomatoes, spinach and carrots. (
  • When a meal plan provides you with an average of 8 cups of the World's Healthiest Foods Vegetables each day - including more than 2 cups of cruciferous vegetables, 3/4 cup of red/purple vegetables, and a diverse list of other carotenoid-rich foods, all of your "homework" is done for you! (
  • The carotenoid content of a woman's breast milk is determined by her consumption of fruits and vegetables such as squash, citrus, sweet potatoes and dark, leafy greens. (
  • The gap between carotenoid levels in the breast milk of American women compared with those in other countries could be indicative of the lower amount of fruits and vegetables eaten in the U.S. compared with China or Mexico, Ferruzzi said. (
  • The active principles in the carotenoid extract might differ, depending upon the types of fruits and vegetables. (
  • A cross-sectional study assessed the association between plasma carotenoid concentrations and intakes of vegetables and fruits. (
  • Intake of vegetables and fruits and high carotenoid foods were measured. (
  • Of the individual plasma carotenoids, plasma alpha-carotene had the highest correlation with intakes of both total vegetables (r = 0.50) and total fruits (r = 0.58). (
  • No matter how many studies it has gone through, one thing for sure, the reddish-orange palm oil boasts a high content of carotenoids , the same nutrients that give carrots, tomatoes and other fruits and vegetables their orange and red colours. (
  • In this sense, carotenoids are phytochemicals present mainly in fruits and vegetables with reported benefits for human health. (
  • Astaxanthin is a highly-potent antioxidant carotenoid found in seafood and algae that protects lipids from peroxidation. (
  • The most common result of such carotenoid-protein interactions is a red-shift of the carotenoid absorption maximum-such as the shift in absorption of the carotenoid astaxanthin from 480 to 630 nm in crustacyanin, the blue carotenoid protein complex in the shell of the lobster Homarus gammarus or Homarus americanus [ 9 - 13 ]. (
  • The most commonly used carotenoids are β-carotene, astaxanthin and lutein that can be produced by various microalgae such as Dunaliella salina, Haematococcus pluvialis , Chromochloris zofingiensis, Chlorella sorokiniana, etc. [ 1 , 11 , 15 ]. (
  • Other carotenoids such as phytoene, phytofluene, β-carotene, and astaxanthin had a much smaller effect. (
  • Carotenoids fight free radicals to protect our skin from the aging effects of UV light and pollution. (
  • How do carotenoids prevent the aging effects of free radicals? (
  • Colorless carotenoids, on the other hand, do not degrade when exposed to light or oxygen, making them more effective in protecting the skin against free radicals and other environmental aggressors. (
  • Nu Skin has incorporated these colorless carotenoids into both Celltrex® CoQ10 Complete and Moisture Restore™ Day Protective Lotion SPF 15 to help fight skin aging free radicals. (
  • Carotenoids protect lipids against peroxidation, the formation of harmful compounds when free radicals attack fatty acids in the cells. (
  • Carotenes are carotenoids composed of hydrocarbons. (
  • Carotenoid bioaccessibility is defined as the amount of carotenoids transferred to micelles after digestion when compared with the original amount present in the food. (
  • The new generation of RS instruments, however, has been designed to quantify the amount of carotenoids within the retina and skin. (
  • In addition, the beneficial vs. detrimental effects of carotenoids are related to the carotenoid dose administered in vivo, and the tissue accumulation of carotenoids and their metabolites. (
  • There's a great deal of research into the effects of carotenoids. (
  • Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Carotenoids Extracted from Dried Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. (
  • Serum concentrations of vitamin A, vitamin E and carotenoids were tested on participants 3 years and older in 2001- 2002 and on participants 6 years and older in 2003-2004. (
  • Liu and colleagues report serum carotenoid concentrations and metabolic syndrome prevalence from a cross-sectional study of 2,148 adults (50-75y) living in urban Guangzhou, China. (
  • Liu J, Shi W, Cao Y, He L, Guan K, Ling W, Chen Y. Higher serum carotenoid concentrations associated with a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults. (
  • Concentrations of tocopherols and carotenoids in maternal and cord blood plasma. (
  • The major role of carotenoids in cancer prevention is that of quenching oxygen radicals (superoxide and peroxyl radicals). (
  • There are hundreds of different types of carotenoids, all of which fall into one of two major chemical classification groups. (
  • Kemin Industries, Inc. is a leading company in the biosciences segment with a wide product portfolio of different types of carotenoids. (
  • This review will discuss the recent understanding that the biological functions of carotenoids are mediated via their oxidative metabolites through their effects on several important cellular signaling pathways and molecular targets, as well as smoke-related lung cancer. (
  • However, the properties and functions of carotenoids in natural systems are surprisingly complex. (
  • Despite being important in nutrition, some carotenoids are produced by bacteria to protect themselves from immune attack, such as MRSA . (
  • The type of antioxidant that are carotenoids has carried the claim over many years for the ability to protect against stroke and angina, however, the increased presence of this carotenoid-producing bacteria in the health subject's guts may offer additional direction as to how the disease state is affected. (
  • If the results indicate that the carotenoid-producing bacteria (or lack thereof) is indeed an indicator for potential stroke risk as well as the addition of the bacteria can assist in less brain damage, then it will be a win. (
  • Carotenoids are colored terpenes synthesized in plants, algae and some yeasts and bacteria. (
  • Carotenoids form a large family of colored compounds, naturally occuring in plants and bacteria. (
  • Many carotenoids have been produced in E.coli using reconstitution of a plant biosynthetic pathway in bacteria. (
  • Analyses of the bacterial composition of swine waste lagoon samples confirmed the presence of several purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) species known to produce a variety of carotenoids. (
  • Carotenoids are a type of plant cellular pigment that play a role in photosynthesis and give many plants a red, orange or yellow color. (
  • Carotenoids are the dominant pigment in autumn leaf coloration of about 15-30% of tree species, but many plant colors, especially reds and purples, are due to polyphenols. (
  • Absolutely conserved Tyr-44 and Trp-110 make hydrophobic contacts with the hydroxyl terminal end of the carotenoid, whereas two other absolutely conserved residues, Tyr-203 and Trp-290, form hydrogen bonds to the carbonyl moiety at the keto terminus of the pigment ( 19 ) (refer also to Fig. 3 A ). (
  • We have discovered that a mammalian species, a bat called the Honduran white bat Ectophylla alba , displays a yellow carotenoid pigment called lutein in its bare skin. (
  • The importance of macular pigment was a common theme at the Brain and Ocular Nutrition Conference, formerly the Macular Carotenoid Conference, held in Cambridge, England. (
  • Raman spectra of carotenoids can be obtained from different types of microbiological samples (wet pellets, lyophilized culture biomass and pigment extracts in organic solvents), and can be collected fast and without time-consuming procedures. (
  • Carotenoids from the diet are stored in the fatty tissues of animals, and exclusively carnivorous animals obtain the compounds from animal fat. (
  • With an emphasis on the chemical aspects of these compounds, Carotenoids: Physical, Chemical, and Biological Functions and Properties presents a broad overview and recent developments with respect to understanding carotenoid structure, electronic and photochemical properties, and the use of novel analytical methods in the detection and characterization of carotenoids and their actions. (
  • Preclinical studies have shown that some carotenoids have potent antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo , suggesting potential preventive and/or therapeutic roles for the compounds. (
  • Carotenoids are vitamin A-like compounds found in plants. (
  • Some carotenoids cannot be converted into vitamin A. These non-provitamin A carotenoids are phytochemicals (PCs), compounds in plants that are not essential for life but may have health benefits. (
  • In fact, the sweet floral smells present in black tea, aged tobacco, grape, and many fruits are due to the aromatics compounds resulting from carotenoid breakdown. (
  • Carotenoids are among the most important organic compounds present in Nature and play several essential roles in biology. (
  • Microalgae are very promising organisms for the production of high-value compounds such as carotenoids. (
  • Vitamins A, carotenoids and vitamin E are lipid (fat) soluble compounds and are stored in the adipose tissue (the body's fat layer) and in lipoproteins, which transport the compounds through the blood. (
  • Lutein is a carotenoid which accumulates in the retina of the eye and may protect the eyes from damage, especially age-related macular degeneration. (
  • Billy R. Hammond , Billy R. Hammond, Billy Wooten , Billy Wooten, } "Resonance Raman spectroscopic measurement of carotenoids in the skin and retina," Journal of Biomedical Optics 10(5), 054002 (1 September 2005). (
  • Increased usage in healthcare and nutraceuticals, rising awareness about food quality, and the high incidence of chronic conditions such as diabetes and cancer have been the major growth drivers of the global carotenoids market. (
  • All this will aid in the expansion of the global carotenoids market. (
  • Based on geography, the global carotenoids market can be segmented into Asia Pacific, Latin America, Europe, North America, and the Middle East and Africa. (
  • Some of the major companies operating in the global market for global carotenoids market are Kemin Industries, ExcelVite, Allied Biotech Corporation, Farbest Brands, Chr. (
  • The key players identified in the global carotenoids market include BASF SE (Germany), Royal DSM N.V. (The Netherlands), Chr. (
  • Global Carotenoids Industry ( NEW YORK Dec. 10 2013 /- Reportlinker. (
  • The global carotenoids market is estimated to be valued at USD 1.24 Billion in 2016 and is projected to reach USD 1.53 Billion by 2021, at a CAGR of 3.78% during the forecast period. (
  • Here, we demonstrated that human skin melanoma (A375) cells are damaged through the photo-excitation of several carotenoids (neoxanthin, fucoxanthin and siphonaxanthin). (
  • Researchers from the Laboratory of Food Color and Quality at the University of Seville have published a study in which it is shown how certain types of cold treatment that are used by the citrus fruits industry in the preparation of juices have a great impact on the color of orange juice and on the concentration and bioaccessibility of the carotenoids present in the juice. (
  • One or more carotenoids in combination gives rise to colors ranging from yellow to red in birds, fish, crustaceans, microorganisms, fruits and plants, including the dark green ones. (
  • Carotenoids are best absorbed when eaten with fat, so make sure to include a little olive oil, avocado or nuts when eating these fruits and veggies to get the most out of them. (
  • An attempt was made to isolate yeast strains from different sources (flowers, trees exudates, fruits and cheese) which have a fast growth rate and high content of carotenoids. (
  • In this review, we briefly describe the biological and immunological activities of the main carotenoids used for the treatment of various diseases and their possible mechanisms of action. (
  • In this review, cancer prevention using carotenoids are reviewed and the possible mechanisms of action are described. (
  • It is well known that in plants carotenoids play an essential role in photoprotective mechanisms within the chlorophyll-membrane antenna of photosystem II (PSII) ( 1 - 7 ). (
  • In non-photosynthesizing organisms, carotenoids have been linked to oxidation-preventing mechanisms. (
  • In this work, we review the mechanisms involved in the light-mediated regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis and the effect of light on the levels of expression of carotenogenic genes in higher plants. (
  • In the second part of the review, we use a number of specific examples to show that the relationships can be used to disentangle the different mechanisms tuning the functional properties of protein-bound carotenoids. (
  • A clear understanding of the mechanisms of action of carotenoids, either as redox agents or modulators of cell signaling and the influence of their metabolism on these properties is key to the evaluation of these biomolecules as anticancer and cardioprotective agents. (
  • Molecular modeling analysis revealed that the evaluated carotenoids might follow two mechanisms for inhibiting Aβ aggregation: by preventing the formation of the fibril and through disruption of the Aβ aggregates. (
  • The antioxidant capacity (in both the aqueous and lipid compartments), DNA oxidation (single cell gel electrophoresis), Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1), Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 (IGFBP-3), (gene expression profile (high-density filter-based cDNA microarrays), lipid peroxidation (MDA analysis and Isoprostane determination), and antioxidant nutrient levels (carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid and uric acid) in the circulation will be measured every other week throughout the study period. (
  • Yuan X, Liu X, McClements DJ, Cao Y, Xiao H. Enhancement of phytochemical bioaccessibility from plant-based foods using excipient emulsions: impact of lipid type on carotenoid solubilization from spinach. (
  • Special emphasis is given to associations with disease, as well as the importance of carotenoids internationally, specifically as a source of vitamin A for the world. (
  • Two studies published recently (19 , 20) have found inverse associations between tomato sauce intake (19) and intake of cooked tomatoes (20) to be stronger among older participants, suggesting that some carotenoids may influence primarily sporadic cases that are largely attributed primarily to environmental influences. (
  • The species of algae that produces IBR-CLC (colorless carotenoids from IBR) is called Dunaliella salina . (
  • Carotenoids serve two key roles in plants and algae: they absorb light energy for use in photosynthesis, and they provide photoprotection via non-photochemical quenching. (
  • Carotenoids serve two key roles in plants and algae: they absorb light energy for use in photosynthesis , and they protect chlorophyll from photodamage (Armstrong and Hearst 1996). (
  • IPP and DMAPP undergo several reactions, resulting in the major carotenoid precursor, geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP). (
  • The precursor for carotenoids is farnesyl pyrophoshpate. (
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the levels of tocopherols, retinol and carotenoids in maternal and umbilical cord blood plasma and to investigate the relationships between them. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Plasma levels of tocopherols, carotenoids and lipids are substantially lower at birth than in adulthood. (
  • More research is needed to elucidate the maternal-foetal transfer of tocopherols and carotenoids, and to examine the impact of maternal antioxidant nutrient status on neonatal antioxidant capacity. (
  • It is important to determine if a low level of tocopherols and carotenoids at birth is a normal stage of human development or indicative of deficiency. (
  • The discovered transfer reaction of a hydrophobic carotenoid molecule between two water-soluble proteins gives us several interesting opportunities. (
  • This mechanism will allow us create water-soluble protein complexes to deliver antioxidant carotenoid to cells that need protection from the reactive oxygen species: for example, to the healthy tissue during photodynamic cancer therapy. (
  • In some embodiments, analogs or derivatives of carotenoids may be water-soluble and/or water dispersible. (
  • In a study of over 13,000 American adults, low blood levels of carotenoids were found to be a predictor of earlier death. (
  • With recent studies highlighting the health benefits of carotenoids in reducing the risk of cancer, vision loss, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases, demand from the food and pharmaceutical industries is increasing rapidly. (
  • The statistically significant associations of antioxidant serum carotenoids with metabolic syndrome isn't necessarily causal. (
  • Subjects in the fifth quintile of serum -carotene had a 195 ml (95␌onfidence interval [95␌I]: 40 to 351 ml) higher and those in the fifth quintile of -carotene had a 257 ml (95␌I: 99 to 414 ml) higher FEV1 compared with subjects in the first quintile of these carotenoids. (
  • We conducted a nested case-control study consisting of 604 breast cancer cases and 626 controls with prospectively measured circulating carotenoid levels and mammographic density in the Nurses' Health Study. (
  • Discrimination of carotenoids detected using Resonance Raman spectroscopy can be challenging, mainly when they occur in mixtures in biomass. (
  • It has been postulated that these actions are related to the ability of carotenoids to quench reactive oxygen species [ 8 ]. (
  • Shhwartz and Shklar at Harvard University studied the ability of carotenoids to inhibit tumour growth in breast, lung, oral and skin tissue. (
  • In the human diet, absorption of carotenoids is improved when consumed with fat in a meal. (
  • The colouration results from the accumulation of carotenoids, as demonstrated by chemical analysis, and by the lack of a copper effect on M. xanthus mutants affected in known structural genes for carotenoid synthesis. (
  • According to the authors of the study, the results: "suggest that smoking may nullify the protective effect (of high carotenoid levels), supporting the concept that antioxidant metabolism and the oxidative defence system behave differently in smokers than in non-smokers. (
  • A protective effect of carotenoids may also be more pronounced among smokers because tobacco smoke induces oxidative stress, they noted. (
  • None of several other metals or oxidative agents can mimic the copper effect on carotenoid synthesis. (
  • One potential mechanism, said the author, could be due to an association between the carotenoid and the iron molecule, which changes the solubility of the iron form and improves the absorption in the gut. (
  • Many of the biological actions of carotenoids have been attributed to their antioxidant properties, through the antioxidant capacity of the carotenoid molecule per se or through their possible influences on intracellular redox status. (
  • June 30/Cork, Ireland/ Food & Farm Week -- "Herbs are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals such as carotenoids, which are known to exert various positive biological effects. (
  • The levels of carotenoids in your skin are a good indicator of your overall health because the levels parallel the levels of plant-derived phytochemicals in general. (
  • A complex mixture of carotenoids was discovered in each pepper extract. (
  • Previously, the biologists from the Moscow State University have described the structure and properties of the OCP domains which appeared to be capable of binding the carotenoid into a complex of bright violet color. (
  • Carotenoid Complex Softgels from Country Life® provide you with an effective compound that may support eye health and overall wellbeing. (
  • Carotenoids are of great interest due to their essential biological functions in both plants and animals. (
  • Miki, W.. "Biological functions and activities of animal carotenoids" Pure and Applied Chemistry , vol. 63, no. 1, 1991, pp. 141-146. (
  • Carotenoids and Human Health provides an introduction to food sources and metabolism. (
  • The Honduran white bat, with its ability to assimilate and deposit lutein in its bare skin, may be the sought-after mammalian model needed for enhancing studies on carotenoid function and metabolism. (
  • Understanding the molecular actions of carotenoids is critical for human studies involving carotenoids for prevention of lung cancer and cancers at other tissue sites. (
  • The researchers concluded, "Our findings show that herbs are rich sources of carotenoids and that these foods can significantly contribute to the intake of bioaccessible carotenoids. (
  • At the top of these risk-lowering benefits are the special properties of carotenoids for lowering risk of cardiovascular disease. (
  • In this review, we give a general description of the main electronic and vibrational properties of carotenoids. (
  • Further increments of electric field from 5 to 7 kV/cm did not increase significantly the extraction of carotenoids. (
  • The extraction of carotenoids from vegetable sources is usually carried out by using organic solvents (e.g., hexane, acetone, chloroform, ethanol, etc.) because they are soluble in fat. (
  • The consumption of carotenoids can also provide numerous health benefits. (
  • Since the consumption of carotenoids prevents several diseases such as cataract, high cholesterol, cancer, and inflammatory polyarthritis, the demand for carotenoid-rich products is expected to rise. (
  • In general, applications of carotenoids can be divided into three main groups: i) as natural dyes in food and feed industry, ii) as feed additives in aquaculture and poultry farming, iii) as well as in the pharmaceutical sector and in cosmetics, due to their antioxidative properties [ 10 , 11 , 15 ]. (
  • The Carotenoids book series provides an introduction to the fundamental chemistry, detailed accounts of the basic methods used in carotenoid research, and critical discussions of the biochemistry, functions and applications of carotenoids. (