Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Xanthophylls: Oxygenated forms of carotenoids. They are usually derived from alpha and beta carotene.Lutein: A xanthophyll found in the major LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES of plants. Dietary lutein accumulates in the MACULA LUTEA.beta Carotene: A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)Geranylgeranyl-Diphosphate Geranylgeranyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to give prephytoene diphosphate. The prephytoene diphosphate molecule is a precursor for CAROTENOIDS and other tetraterpenes.Canthaxanthin: A trans-carotenoid pigment widely distributed in nature. The compound is used as an oral suntanning agent and as a food and drug coloring agent. Oral ingestion of the compound causes canthaxanthin retinopathy.Intramolecular Lyases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.beta-Carotene 15,15'-Monooxygenase: A monooxygenase that catalyzes the conversion of BETA-CAROTENE into two molecules of RETINAL. It was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.11.21 and EC 1.18.3.1.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Tocopherols: A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.Rhodopsins, Microbial: Rhodopsin molecules found in microorganisms such as ARCHAEA and PROTEOBACTERIA.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Bacteriochlorophylls: Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Beak: In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)Norisoprenoids: Thirteen-carbon butene cyclohexene degradation products formed by the cleavage of CAROTENOIDS. They contribute to the flavor of some FRUIT. Ionone should not be confused with the similarly named ionol.Dioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Alkyl and Aryl Transferases: A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes: Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Biosynthetic Pathways: Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Erwinia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Capsicum: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.Rhodopseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.Plant Tubers: An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.alpha-Tocopherol: A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Chlorophyta: A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.Singlet Oxygen: An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Fat Substitutes: Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Diospyros: A plant genus of the family EBENACEAE, order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida best known for the edible fruit and the antibacterial activity and compounds of the wood.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins: Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.Crocus: A plant genus, in the IRIDACEAE family, known as a source of Saffron.Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.

The food matrix of spinach is a limiting factor in determining the bioavailability of beta-carotene and to a lesser extent of lutein in humans. (1/2951)

Carotenoid bioavailability depends, amongst other factors, on the food matrix and on the type and extent of processing. To examine the effect of variously processed spinach products and of dietary fiber on serum carotenoid concentrations, subjects received, over a 3-wk period, a control diet (n = 10) or a control diet supplemented with carotenoids or one of four spinach products (n = 12 per group): whole leaf spinach with an almost intact food matrix, minced spinach with the matrix partially disrupted, enzymatically liquefied spinach in which the matrix was further disrupted and the liquefied spinach to which dietary fiber (10 g/kg wet weight) was added. Consumption of spinach significantly increased serum concentrations of all-trans-beta-carotene, cis-beta-carotene, (and consequently total beta-carotene), lutein, alpha-carotene and retinol and decreased the serum concentration of lycopene. Serum total beta-carotene responses (changes in serum concentrations from the start to the end of the intervention period) differed significantly between the whole leaf and liquefied spinach groups and between the minced and liquefied spinach groups. The lutein response did not differ among spinach groups. Addition of dietary fiber to the liquefied spinach had no effect on serum carotenoid responses. The relative bioavailability as compared to bioavailability of the carotenoid supplement for whole leaf, minced, liquefied and liquefied spinach plus added dietary fiber for beta-carotene was 5.1, 6.4, 9.5 and 9.3%, respectively, and for lutein 45, 52, 55 and 54%, respectively. We conclude that the bioavailability of lutein from spinach was higher than that of beta-carotene and that enzymatic disruption of the matrix (cell wall structure) enhanced the bioavailability of beta-carotene from whole leaf and minced spinach, but had no effect on lutein bioavailability.  (+info)

A survey of serum and dietary carotenoids in captive wild animals. (2/2951)

Accumulation of carotenoids varies greatly among animal species and is not fully characterized. Circulating carotenoid concentration data in captive wild animals are limited and may be useful for their management. Serum carotenoid concentrations and dietary intakes were surveyed and the extent of accumulation categorized for 76 species of captive wild animals at Brookfield Zoo. Blood samples were obtained opportunistically from 275 individual animals immobilized for a variety of reasons; serum was analyzed for alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein + zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin and canthaxanthin. Total carotenoid content of diets was calculated from tables and chemical analyses of commonly consumed dietary components. Diets were categorized as low, moderate or high in carotenoid content as were total serum carotenoid concentrations. Animals were classified as unknown, high, moderate or low (non-) accumulators of dietary cartenoids. Nonaccumulators had total serum carotenoid concentrations of 0-101 nmol/L, whereas accumulators had concentrations that ranged widely, from 225 to 35,351 nmol/L. Primates were uniquely distinguished by the widest range of type and concentration of carotenoids in their sera. Most were classified as high to moderate accumulators. Felids had high accumulation of beta-carotene regardless of dietary intake, whereas a wide range of exotic birds accumulated only the xanthophylls, lutein + zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin or cryptoxanthin. The exotic ungulates, with the exception of the bovids, had negligible or nondetectable carotenoid serum concentrations despite moderate intakes. Bovids accumulated only beta-carotene despite moderately high lutein + zeaxanthin intakes. Wild captive species demonstrated a wide variety of carotenoid accumulation patterns, which could be exploited to answer remaining questions concerning carotenoid metabolism and function.  (+info)

Accumulation of astaxanthin all-E, 9Z and 13Z geometrical isomers and 3 and 3' RS optical isomers in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is selective. (3/2951)

Concentrations of all-E-, 9Z- and 13Z- geometrical and (3R,3'R), (3R, 3'S) and (3S,3'S) optical isomers of astaxanthin were determined in rainbow trout liver, gut tissues, kidney, skin and blood plasma to evaluate their body distribution. Two cold-pelleted diets containing predominantly all-E-astaxanthin (36.9 mg/kg astaxanthin, 97% all-E-, 0.4% 9Z-, 1.5% 13Z-astaxanthin, and 1.1% other isomers, respectively) or a mixture of all-E- and Z-astaxanthins (35.4 mg/kg astaxanthin, 64% all-E-, 18.7% 9Z-, 12.3% 13Z-astaxanthin, and 2.0% other isomers, respectively), were fed to duplicate groups of trout for 69 d. Individual E/Z isomers were identified by VIS- and 1H-NMR-spectrometry, and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Significantly higher total carotenoid concentration was observed in plasma of trout fed diets with all-E-astaxanthin (P < 0.05). The relative E/Z-isomer concentrations of plasma, skin and kidney were not significantly different among groups, whereas all-E-astaxanthin was higher in intestinal tissues and 13Z-astaxanthin was lower in liver of trout fed all-E-astaxanthin (P < 0.05). The relative amount of hepatic 13Z-astaxanthin (39-49% of total astaxanthin) was higher than in all other samples (P < 0.05). Synthetic, optically inactive astaxanthin was used in all experiments, and the determined dietary ratio between the 3R,3'R:3R, 3'S (meso):3S,3'S optical isomers was 25.3:49.6:25.1. The distribution of R/S-astaxanthin isomers in feces, blood, liver and fillet was similar to that in the diets. The ratio between (3S,3'S)- and (3R,3'R)-astaxanthin in the skin and posterior kidney was ca. 2:1 and 3:1, respectively, regardless of dietary E/Z-astaxanthin composition. The results show that geometrical and optical isomers of astaxanthin are distributed selectively in different tissues of rainbow trout.  (+info)

Carotenoid intakes, assessed by dietary questionnaire, are associated with plasma carotenoid concentrations in an elderly population. (4/2951)

High intakes of fruits and vegetables and of carotenoids are associated with a lower risk for a variety of chronic diseases. It is therefore important to test the validity of dietary questionnaires that assess these intakes. We compared intakes of five carotenoids, as calculated from responses to the Willett 126-item food-frequency questionnaire, with corresponding biochemical measures. Subjects included 346 women and 201 men, aged 67-93 y, in the Framingham Heart Study. Unadjusted correlations were higher among women than men as follows: alpha-carotene 0.33 and 0.18, beta-carotene, 0.36 and 0.25; beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.44 and 0.32; lycopene, 0.35 and 0.21; and lutein + zeaxanthin, 0.27 and 0.10, respectively. Adjustment for age, energy intake, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), plasma cholesterol concentrations and smoking reduced the gender differences, respectively, to the following: alpha-carotene 0.30 and 0.28; beta-carotene, 0.34 and 0.31; beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.45 and 0.36; lycopene, 0.36 and 0.31; and lutein + zeaxanthin, 0.24 and 0.14. Plots of adjusted mean plasma carotenoid concentration by quintile of respective carotenoid intake show apparent greater responsiveness among women, compared with men, to dietary intake of alpha- and beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin, but similar blood-diet relationships for lycopene and lutein + zeaxanthin. Reported daily intake of fruits and vegetables correlated most strongly with plasma beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene among women and with plasma alpha- and beta-carotene among men. With the exception of lutein + zeaxanthin, this dietary questionnaire does provide reasonable rankings of carotenoid status among elderly subjects, with the strongest correlations for beta-cryptoxanthin. Appropriate adjustment of confounders is necessary to clarify these associations among men.  (+info)

Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopene, and cancer: review of the epidemiologic literature. (5/2951)

The epidemiologic literature in the English language regarding intake of tomatoes and tomato-based products and blood lycopene (a compound derived predominantly from tomatoes) level in relation to the risk of various cancers was reviewed. Among 72 studies identified, 57 reported inverse associations between tomato intake or blood lycopene level and the risk of cancer at a defined anatomic site; 35 of these inverse associations were statistically significant. No study indicated that higher tomato consumption or blood lycopene level statistically significantly increased the risk of cancer at any of the investigated sites. About half of the relative risks for comparisons of high with low intakes or levels for tomatoes or lycopene were approximately 0.6 or lower. The evidence for a benefit was strongest for cancers of the prostate, lung, and stomach. Data were also suggestive of a benefit for cancers of the pancreas, colon and rectum, esophagus, oral cavity, breast, and cervix. Because the data are from observational studies, a cause-effect relationship cannot be established definitively. However, the consistency of the results across numerous studies in diverse populations, for case-control and prospective studies, and for dietary-based and blood-based investigations argues against bias or confounding as the explanation for these findings. Lycopene may account for or contribute to these benefits, but this possibility is not yet proven and requires further study. Numerous other potentially beneficial compounds are present in tomatoes, and, conceivably, complex interactions among multiple components may contribute to the anticancer properties of tomatoes. The consistently lower risk of cancer for a variety of anatomic sites that is associated with higher consumption of tomatoes and tomato-based products adds further support for current dietary recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable consumption.  (+info)

Cyclin D1 proteolysis: a retinoid chemoprevention signal in normal, immortalized, and transformed human bronchial epithelial cells. (6/2951)

BACKGROUND: Retinoids (derivatives of vitamin A) are reported to reduce the occurrence of some second primary cancers, including aerodigestive tract tumors. In contrast, beta-carotene does not reduce the occurrence of primary aerodigestive tract cancers. Mechanisms explaining these effective retinoid and ineffective carotenoid chemoprevention results are poorly defined. Recently, the all-trans-retinoic acid (RA)-induced proteolysis of cyclin D1 that leads to the arrest of cells in G1 phase of the cell cycle was described in human bronchial epithelial cells and is a promising candidate for such a mechanism. In this study, we have investigated this proteolysis as a common signal used by carotenoids or receptor-selective and receptor-nonselective retinoids. METHODS: We treated cultured normal human bronchial epithelial cells, immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B), and transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2BNNK) with receptor-selective or receptor-nonselective retinoids or with carotenoids and studied the effects on cell proliferation by means of tritiated thymidine incorporation and on cyclin D1 expression by means of immunoblot analysis. We also examined whether calpain inhibitor I, an inhibitor of the 26S proteasome degradation pathway, affected the decline (i.e., proteolysis) of cyclin D1. RESULTS: Receptor-nonselective retinoids were superior to the carotenoids studied in mediating the decline in cyclin D1 expression and in suppressing the growth of bronchial epithelial cells. Retinoids that activated retinoic acid receptor beta or retinoid X receptor pathways preferentially led to a decrease in the amount of cyclin D1 protein and a corresponding decline in growth. The retinoid-mediated degradation of cyclin D1 was blocked by cotreatment with calpain inhibitor I. CONCLUSIONS: Retinoid-dependent cyclin D1 proteolysis is a common chemoprevention signal in normal and neoplastic human bronchial epithelial cells. In contrast, carotenoids did not affect cyclin D1 expression. Thus, the degradation of cyclin D1 is a candidate intermediate marker for effective retinoid-mediated cancer chemoprevention in the aerodigestive tract.  (+info)

Protective effect of dietary tomato against endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic mice. (7/2951)

The effects of dietary ingestion of tomato were studied in mice that had been made hypercholesterolemic by feeding atherogenic diets. Mice which had been fed on the atherogenic diet without tomato for 4 months had significantly increased plasma lipid peroxide, and the vaso-relaxing activity in the aorta induced by acetylcholine (ACh) was harmed when compared with mice fed on a common commercial diet. On the other hand, mice which had been fed on the atherogenic diet containing 20% (w/w) lyophilized powder of tomato showed less increase in the plasma lipid peroxide level, and ACh-induced vaso-relaxation was maintained at the same level as that in normal mice. These results indicate that tomato has a preventive effect on atherosclerosis by protecting plasma lipids from oxidation.  (+info)

Glutathione-S-transferase (GSTM1) genetic polymorphisms do not affect human breast cancer risk, regardless of dietary antioxidants. (8/2951)

Glutathione-S-transferases catalyze the detoxication of carcinogen metabolites and reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced through a number of mechanisms. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) M1 is polymorphic, and the null allele results in a lack of enzyme activity. Because there are indications that ROS may be involved in breast carcinogenesis, we sought to determine whether the GSTM1 null allele was associated with increased breast cancer, particularly among women with lower consumption of dietary sources of alpha-tocopherol, carotenoids and ascorbic acid. In a study of diet and cancer in western New York, women with primary, incident, histologically confirmed breast cancer (n = 740) and community controls (n = 810) were interviewed and an extensive food-frequency questionnaire administered. A subset of these women provided a blood specimen. DNA was extracted and genotyping performed for GSTM1. Data were available for 279 cases and 340 controls. The null allele did not increase breast cancer risk, regardless of menopausal status. There were also no differences in associations between the polymorphism and risk among lower and higher consumers of dietary sources of antioxidants or smokers and nonsmokers. These results indicate that GSTM1 genetic polymorphisms are not associated with breast cancer risk, even in an environment low in antioxidant defenses.  (+info)

Plant carotenoids have been implicated in preventing several age-related diseases, and they also provide vitamin A precursors; therefore, increasing the content of carotenoids in maize grains is of great interest. It is not well understood, however, how the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is regulated. Fortunately, the maize germplasm exhibits a high degree of genetic diversity that can be exploited for this purpose. Here, the accumulation of carotenoids and the expression of genes from carotenoid metabolic and catabolic pathways were investigated in several maize landraces. The carotenoid content in grains varied from 10.03, in the white variety MC5, to 61.50 μg·g−1, in the yellow-to-orange variety MC3, and the major carotenoids detected were lutein and zeaxanthin. PSY1 (phythoene synthase) expression showed a positive correlation with the total carotenoid content. Additionally, the PSY1 and HYD3 (ferredoxin-dependent di-iron monooxygenase) expression levels were positively correlated with β
Colorless Carotenoids: Phytoene & Phytofluene Efficacy Protection and Colorless Carotenoids Combinations Colorless Carotenoids: Phytoene & Phytofluene Efficacy Protection and Stability Synergism Boosting activity TiO2 & ZnO CoQ10 DHA DiHydroxy Acetone Retinol IBR-Dormin ® Vitamin C Squalene Omega 3 oils DHA & EPA Carotenoids Phytoene and phytofluene Beauty from the inside* and outside Anti aging and photo-aging Skin brightening/whitening - evening of skin tone Protection against UV and its damage Anti oxidant Prevention of DNA damage Anti inflammatory Protection and enhancement of other active ingredients and their activity ©
Carotenoids are natural pigments which are synthesized by plants and are responsible for the bright colors of various fruits and vegetables. There are several dozen carotenoids in the foods that we eat, and most of these carotenoids have antioxidant activity. β-carotene has been best studied since, in most countries it is the most common carotenoid in fruits and vegetables. However, in the U.S., lycopene from tomatoes now is consumed in approximately the same amount as β-carotene. Antioxidants (including carotenoids) have been studied for their ability to prevent chronic disease. β-carotene and others carotenoids have antioxidant properties in vitro and in animal models. Mixtures of carotenoids or associations with others antioxidants (e.g. vitamin E) can increase their activity against free radicals. The use of animals models for studying carotenoids is limited since most of the animals do not absorb or metabolize carotenoids similarly to humans. Epidemiologic studies have shown an inverse ...
Dr. Wurtzel was elected as an ICS Fellow for significant career-long contributions to research on provitamin A carotenoid biosynthesis, which is enabling sustainable solutions to global vitamin A deficiency. Her interdisciplinary research integrates molecular biology, cell biology, biochemistry, genetics, bioinformatics, and systems biology. For example, Dr. Wurtzel and her team took advantage of natural genetic diversity to elucidate pathway control points and to develop molecular markers for breeding high-provitamin A maize, identifying gene families and their roles in controlling carotenoid accumulation. Most recently, the Wurtzel laboratory discovered Z-ISO, a new carotenoid enzyme, which is essential for biosynthesis of all plant carotenoids, including provitamin A carotenoids. This breakthrough led to the discovery of a new prototype function for heme proteins, uncovered a novel means for regulating carotenoid biosynthesis in plants, and redefined the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in ...
Carotenoids protect the photosynthetic apparatus against harmful radicals arising from the presence of both light and oxygen. They also act as accessory pigments for harvesting solar energy, and are required for stable assembly of many light-harvesting complexes. In the phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rba.) sphaeroides phytoene desaturase (CrtI) catalyses three sequential desaturations of the colourless carotenoid phytoene, extending the number of conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds, N, from three to nine and producing the yellow carotenoid neurosporene; subsequent modifications produce the yellow/red carotenoids spheroidene/spheroidenone (N=10/11). Genomic crtI replacements were used to swap the native three-step Rba. sphaeroides CrtI for the four-step Pantoea agglomerans enzyme, which re-routed carotenoid biosynthesis and culminated in the production of 2,2-diketo-spirilloxanthin under semi-aerobic conditions. The new carotenoid pathway was elucidated using a combination of HPLC and ...
Efforts are underway for development of crops with improved levels of provitamin A carotenoids to help combat dietary vitamin A deficiency. As a global staple crop with considerable variation in kernel carotenoid composition, maize (Zea mays L.) could have a widespread impact. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of quantified seed carotenoids across a panel of maize inbreds ranging from light yellow to dark orange in grain color to identify some of the key genes controlling maize grain carotenoid composition. Significant associations at the genome-wide level were detected within the coding regions of zep1 and lut1, carotenoid biosynthetic genes not previously shown to impact grain carotenoid composition in association studies, as well as within previously associated lcyE and crtRB1 genes. We leveraged existing biochemical and genomic information to identify 58 a priori candidate genes relevant to the biosynthesis and retention of carotenoids in maize to test in a pathway-level ...
A method for inhibiting and/or ameliorating the occurrence of diseases in a human subject whereby a subject is administered a carotenoid analog or derivative, either alone or in combination with another carotenoid analog or derivative. In some embodiments, the administration of analogs or derivatives of carotenoids may inhibit and/or ameliorate the occurrence of diseases in subjects. In some embodiments, analogs or derivatives of carotenoids may be water-soluble and/or water dispersible. Maladies that may be treated with analogs or derivatives of carotenoids embodied herein may include diseases that provoke or trigger an inflammatory response. In an embodiment, asthma may be treated with analogs or derivatives of carotenoids embodied herein. In an embodiment, administering analogs or derivatives of carotenoids embodied herein to a subject may control or affect the bioavailability of eicosanoids. In an embodiment, atherosclerosis may be treated with analogs or derivatives of carotenoids embodied herein.
One of the interesting and previously unknown properties of the orange carotenoid protein is the ability to transmit the carotenoid to other proteins with a similar structure. The mechanism of the process is described in the mentioned work published in the Biophysical Journal.. "We studied the interaction of carotenoid-containing violet C-domains of the OCP with a colorless apo form of the OCP. As a result of the interaction, the colorless apo form of the OCP became orange and photoactive (capable of changing its structure and color).. The carotenoid transfer process simulates the process of assembling a photoactive protein from a protein matrix and a chromophore (carotenoid)," said Dr. Eugene Maksimov, senior researcher at the Laboratory of Biophotonics.. The discovered transfer reaction of a hydrophobic carotenoid molecule between two water-soluble proteins gives us several interesting opportunities. This mechanism will allow us create water-soluble protein complexes to deliver antioxidant ...
Since carotenoids can serve as antioxidants and/or immune stimulants, it has been assumed that deposition of carotenoids in feathers or bills can reveal the health status in birds. In order to study the function of carotenoids as signals or immune stimulants, it is necessary to characterise the types of carotenoid molecules in the study species. In this preliminary study, we examined the types of carotenoids in the plasma of four nestlings of the Eurasian magpie (Pica pica) using mass spectrometry ...
Carotenoids (/kəˈrɒtɪnɔɪd/), also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi. Carotenoids can be produced from fats and other basic organic metabolic building blocks by all these organisms. The only animals known to produce carotenoids are aphids and spider mites, which acquired the ability and genes from fungi or it is produced by endosymbiotic bacteria in whiteflies. Carotenoids from the diet are stored in the fatty tissues of animals, and exclusively carnivorous animals obtain the compounds from animal fat. There are over 600 known carotenoids; they are split into two classes, xanthophylls (which contain oxygen) and carotenes (which are purely hydrocarbons, and contain no oxygen). All are derivatives of tetraterpenes, meaning that they are produced from 8 isoprene molecules and contain 40 carbon atoms. In general, carotenoids absorb wavelengths ranging from 400-550 nanometers (violet to green light). This ...
BACKGROUND: Published associations between dietary carotenoids and vitamin C and bladder cancer risk are inconsistent. Biomarkers may provide more accurate measures of nutrient status. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between plasma carotenoids and vitamin C and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. DESIGN: A total of 856 patients with newly diagnosed UCC were matched with 856 cohort members by sex, age at baseline, study center, date and time of blood collection, and fasting status. Plasma carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin) were measured by using reverse-phase HPLC, and plasma vitamin C was measured by using a colorimetric assay. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated by using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for smoking status, duration, and intensity. RESULTS: UCC risk decreased with higher concentrations of the sum
Epidemiologic evidence suggests that serum carotenoids are potent antioxidants and may play a protective role in the development of chronic diseases including cancers, cardiovascular disease, and inflammatory diseases. The role of these antioxidants in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus remains unclear.This study examined data from a cross-sectional survey to investigate the association between serum carotenoids and type 2 diabetes.Study participants were adults aged > or = 25 y (n = 1597) from 6 randomly selected cities and towns in Queensland, Australia. Study examinations conducted between October and December 2000 included fasting plasma glucose, an oral-glucose-tolerance test, and measurement of the serum concentrations of 5 carotenoid compounds.Mean 2-h postload plasma glucose and fasting insulin concentrations decreased significantly with increasing quintiles of the 5 serum carotenoids--alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene. Geometric mean ...
In this large prospective study, we found no overall association between prostate cancer risk and dietary intake of either lycopene or total tomato products. Although not statistically significant, inverse trends were found with pizza consumption, for all prostate cancer; with lycopene, for nonadvanced cancer; and with pizza and spaghetti sauce, for advanced disease. We also noted that lycopene and pizza were inversely associated with risk among those with a family history of prostate cancer.. Results from a recent meta-analysis of 11 case-control studies and 10 cohort studies indicated that serum lycopene (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.59-0.92 for the high versus low levels) was associated with a greater reduction in prostate cancer risk than dietary lycopene (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81-0.98 for the high versus low intake), whereas cooked tomato products (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71-0.92 for high versus low intake) were associated with greater risk reduction than raw tomato products (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-1.00 ...
Venado, Rafael E.; Owens, Brenda F.; Ortiz, Darwin; Lawson, Tyler; Mateos-Hernandez, Maria; Ferruzzi, Mario G.; and Rocheford, Torbert R. 2017. Genetic analysis of provitamin A carotenoid β-cryptoxanthin concentration and relationship with other carotenoids in maize grain (Zea mays L.). Molecular Breeding (2017) 37:127. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11032-017-0723-8 ...
Plastids are the carotenoid fabrication facilities inside the cells. The biosynthetic route involved is called the "1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate pathway" and always starts with the colourless molecule phytoene, a C40 carotenoid formed by condensation of two molecules of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (C20PP) by phytoene synthase (PSY). C20PP is in turn a precursor to chlorophylls and tocopherol. After four desaturation reactions phytoene is transformed into lycopene, the molecule that gives the red colour to ripe tomatoes. Lycopene leads to α- and ß-carotene and subsequent chemical reactions produce xanthophylls: lutein, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, etc (Figure 1)1.. Parallel roles Although carotenoids play different roles in plants and animals there are some curious analogies. In both taxa they are involved in photoreception/photoprotection, bio-communication and antioxidant defence.. Carotenoids are known to complete the photosynthetic machinery in plants by harvesting light in the spectral ...
Carotenoids are C40 isoprenoids synthesized by plants, as well as some bacteria, fungi and algae, that have been reported to be responsible for a number of benefits conferred on human health. The inability of animals and humans to synthesize de novo these compounds is the reason why they must be introduced from dietary sources. In cereal grains, carotenoids are important phytochemicals responsible for the characteristic yellow colour of the endosperm, which confers nutritional and aesthetic quality to cereal-based products. Cereals are staple foods for a large portion of the world population, and the biofortification of cereal grains with carotenoids may represent a simple way to prevent many human diseases and disorders. Unfortunately, evidence exists that the storage and processing of cereal grains into food products may negatively impact their carotenoid content; so, this loss should be taken into consideration when analysing the potential health benefits of the cereal-based products. Focusing on the
Consuming more lycopene in the diet is of significant benefit to post-menopausal women, as it reduces oxidative stress and bone turnover. The findings come from head researcher Erin Collins from the University of Toronto. The study results also suggest, that dietary lycopene is readily absorbed, particularly in combination with vitamin C. These results are encouraging, as lycopene may be one of the main agents important for the prevention of osteoporosis." We found that women who consumed more tomato products on a daily basis had a lower bone turnover and lower oxidative stress than women of the same age group who did not consume as much", reports Ms. Collins. The participants of the research project were between 50 and 60 years. Lycopene levels in the blood were analyzed, and a seven-day food record was completed. The lowest quartile of estimated lycopene intake was 1.8 mg per day, and the highest was 8 mg per day. Lab tests also showed that higher levels of lycopene were associated with a ...
A study was conducted to screen out the low-temperature tolerant Boro rice seedlings from November 2012 to January 2013 for facing the upcoming rice production challenge in Northwest Bangladesh. The experimental time was characterized by a prevailing low environmental temperature of below 15°C. Five rice cultivars (V1: BR-2; V2: BR-16; V3: Pariza; V4: Minicate; V5: BRRI dhan 50) were selected for the study. The leaf proline, chlorophyll content and total carotenoid content were investigated. The V2 (BR-16) seedling synthesized the higher leaf proline (1.228 g·g-1) at a low temperature than those of other tested cultivars. Again, the highest amount of chlorophyll-a (3.957 g·g-1), chlorophyll-b (2.118 g·g-1), chlorophyll-a/b ratio (3.6754 mg·g-1) and total chlorophyll (5.051 g·g-1) was measured in V2 (BR-16). The maximum total carotenoid (1.213 g·g-1) was also observed in V2. In this experiment, the V2 (BR-16) showed comparatively better potentiality to survive at low temperatures (below 15°C)
Lycopene is one of the major carotenoids in Western diets and is found almost exclusively in tomatoes and tomato products. It accounts for about 50% of carotenoids in human serum. Among the common dietary carotenoids lycopene has the highest singlet oxygen quenching capacity in vitro. Other outstanding features are its high concentration in testes, adrenal gland and prostate. In contrast to other carotenoids its serum values are not regularly reduced by smoking or alcohol consumption but by increasing age. Remarkable inverse relationships between lycopene intake or serum values and risk have been observed in particular for cancers of the prostate, pancreas and to a certain extent of the stomach. In some of the studies lycopene was the only carotenoid associated with risk reduction. Its role in cancer risk reduction still needs to be clarified. Patients with HIV infection, inflammatory diseases and hyperlipidemia with and without lipid lowering treatment may have depleted lycopene serum ...
Background The carotenoids are pure isoprenoids that are essential components of the photosynthetic apparatus and are coordinately synthesized with chlorophylls in chloroplasts. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate carotenoid biosynthesis or the mechanisms that coordinate this synthesis with that of chlorophylls and other plastidial synthesized isoprenoid-derived compounds, including quinones, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid. Here, a comprehensive transcriptional analysis of individual carotenoid and isoprenoid-related biosynthesis pathway genes was performed in order to elucidate the role of transcriptional regulation in the coordinated synthesis of these compounds and to identify regulatory components that may mediate this process in Arabidopsis thaliana. Results A global microarray expression correlation analysis revealed that the phytoene synthase gene, which encodes the first dedicated and rate-limiting enzyme of carotenogenesis, is highly co-expressed with many
A new carotenoid has been isolated from the chicken retina for which the name galloxanthin is proposed. This substance has the properties of a hydroxy carotenoid or xanthophyll. It has not yet been crystallized. On a chromatogram of calcium carbonate it is adsorbed just below astaxanthin and above lutein.. The absorption spectrum of galloxanthin lies in a region where natural carotenoids have not ordinarily been found. Its main, central absorption band falls at about 400 mµ. The position of its spectrum suggests a conjugated system of eight double bonds. This relatively short polyene structure must be reconciled with very strong adsorption affinities.. With antimony trichloride, galloxanthin yields a deep blue product, possessing a main absorption band at 785 to 795 mµ, and a secondary maximum at about 710 mµ which may not be due to galloxanthin itself.. Galloxanthin appears to be one of the carotenoid filter pigments associated with cone vision in the chicken. It may act as an auxiliary to ...
The International Carotenoid Society (ICS) will this year celebrate a half century since the inception of its International Symposium on Carotenoids event, to be held 9 - 14 July in Lucerne, Switzerland. The 18th International Symposium on Carotenoids will see the best and brightest scientists in academia, government and industry come together to share and raise public awareness of the latest research and developments in carotenoids. A principal objective of the ICS is to promote the education of young scientists and the public about the importance of carotenoids as naturally occurring pigments and essential components present in virtually every living organism ...
The International Carotenoid Society (ICS) will this year celebrate a half century since the inception of its International Symposium on Carotenoids event, to be held 9 - 14 July in Lucerne, Switzerland. The 18th International Symposium on Carotenoids will see the best and brightest scientists in academia, government and industry come together to share and raise public awareness of the latest research and developments in carotenoids. A principal objective of the ICS is to promote the education of young scientists and the public about the importance of carotenoids as naturally occurring pigments and essential components present in virtually every living organism ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer share the same etiologic factor, cigarette smoking. Higher consumption of dietary lycopene has been associated with lower risks of COPD and lung cancer in smokers. We investigated whether lycopene feeding protects against COPD and lung cancer in ferrets, a nonrodent model that closely mimics cigarette smoke (CS)-induced chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and lung tumorigenesis in human. We also explored whether the protective effect of lycopene is associated with restoring reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), a key driver in persistent inflammation with CS exposure. Ferrets (4 groups, n = 12-16/group) were exposed to a combination of tobacco carcinogen (NNK) and CS with or without consuming lycopene at low and high doses (equivalent to ∼30 and ∼90 mg lycopene/day in human, respectively) for 22 weeks. Results showed that dietary lycopene at a high dose significantly inhibited NNK/CS-induced chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and ...
An excess of dietary carotenoids may cause a marked orange discoloration of the outermost skin layer. This benign and reversible condition - which is most easily observed in light-skinned people and may be mistaken for jaundice - is known as carotenosis or carotenoderma or carotenodermia. Carotenemia or carotenaemia (xanthaemia) is the presence of the orange pigment carotene in the blood from excessive intake of carrots or other vegetables containing the pigment resulting in increased serum carotenoids. Carotenoids are lipid-soluble compounds that include alpha- and beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. The primary serum carotenoids are beta-carotene, lycopene, and lutein. Serum levels of carotenoids vary between region, ethnicity, and sex in the healthy population. All are absorbed by passive diffusion from the gastrointestinal tract and are then partially metabolized in the intestinal mucosa and liver to vitamin A. From there they are transported in the plasma ...
Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported their diet, the childrens school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self-reported food and FJV consumption at school lunch was measured in terms of matches, intrusion, omission and ...
Carotenoids are organic pigments, occurring in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some bacteria. Carotenoids and Anti cancers In the investigation of the molecular basis of interaction of selected carotenoids and xanthophylls with ascorbic acid on cancer cells, found that Several carotenoids inhibited the multidrug resistance of cancer …. ...
In this prospective, nested case-control study of generally well-nourished healthy male physicians without diagnosed cardiovascular disease at enrollment, we found no evidence for a protective effect against MI for higher baseline levels of plasma retinol or carotenoids, apart from a tendency toward lower risk among those with higher levels of β-carotene among current and former smokers. Higher plasma levels of γ-tocopherol were associated with an increased risk of MI.. These analyses were based on a single baseline measurement of carotenoids and tocopherols and may therefore not reflect levels over a longer period with complete accuracy. However, our baseline measurements were reasonably correlated with levels measured 5 years later. In addition, we observed reasonable correlations of plasma carotenoids with intake of specific fruits and vegetables, and plasma tocopherol levels differed between multivitamin users and nonusers. Previous results from the Physicians Health Study showed that ...
Carotenoids, calcium and vitamin D helped boost bone density and reduce fractures in men and women, and DHEA increased bone density in women, in several new studies. Doctors in a carotenoid study believe that the colorful red, orange and yellow pigments in fruits and vegetables help the body maintain bone density. Researchers followed over 900 men and women, average age 75, for 17 years, and found that those who consumed the most carotenoids overall had far fewer hip fractures than those who consumed the least. The scientists noted that for lycopene, the carotenoid in tomatoes, those who ate more than 4.4 servings per week had fewer hip fractures than those who ate less lycopene. In a four-year segment of the study, researchers also found that bone mineral density of the hip in men, and of the lumbar spine in women, was greatest in those who consumed the most carotenoids. A review of 20 vitamin D studies covering more than 83,000 adults, average age 78, found that overall, those who took vitamin ...
Carotenoids, calcium and vitamin D helped boost bone density and reduce fractures in men and women, and DHEA increased bone density in women, in several new studies. Doctors in a carotenoid study believe that the colorful red, orange and yellow pigments in fruits and vegetables help the body maintain bone density. Researchers followed over 900 men and women, average age 75, for 17 years, and found that those who consumed the most carotenoids overall had far fewer hip fractures than those who consumed the least. The scientists noted that for lycopene, the carotenoid in tomatoes, those who ate more than 4.4 servings per week had fewer hip fractures than those who ate less lycopene. In a four-year segment of the study, researchers also found that bone mineral density of the hip in men, and of the lumbar spine in women, was greatest in those who consumed the most carotenoids. A review of 20 vitamin D studies covering more than 83,000 adults, average age 78, found that overall, those who took vitamin ...
Carotenoids are tetraterpenoids (contain 40 carbon atoms) organic pigments from chloroplasts and chromoplasts from plants and algae, some types of fungi and bacteria. Carotenoids that contain oxygen, such as lutein and zeaxanthin, are known as xanthophylls. Carotenoids do not which contain oxygen, such as x-carotene, b-carotene and lycopene, are known as carotenes. Carotene contains only carbon and hydrogen. The best known carotenoid is the carotene found in carrots, which is responsible for their bright orange color. Palm oil is the richest source of carotenoids in nature. The carotene has a yellow, orange or red color. Xanthophylls are often yellow. The carotenoid pigments in the mature leaves are not obviously due to chlorophyll. However, when chlorophyll is not present, ca. in young leaves and dying leaves (autumn leaves), yellow, orange and red carotenoid colors are predominant. These colors also predominate in ripe fruits such as oranges, tomatoes and bananas. Pink color of salmon and the ...
Carotenoids and vitamin C are thought to be associated with reduced cancer risk because of their antioxidative capacity.This study evaluated the associations of plasma carotenoid, retinol, tocopherol, and vitamin C concentrations and risk of breast cancer.In a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, 1502 female incident breast cancer cases were included, with an oversampling of premenopausal (n = 582) and estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) cases (n = 462). Controls (n = 1502) were individually matched to cases by using incidence density sampling. Prediagnostic samples were analyzed for α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, retinol, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and vitamin C. Breast cancer risk was computed according to hormone receptor status and age at diagnosis (proxy for menopausal status) by using conditional logistic regression and was further stratified by smoking status, alcohol consumption, and
The strength of our immune system determines our ability to resist infectious micro-organisms and cancer. A compromised immune system affects the speed and effectiveness to mount an immune response, leading to increased susceptibility to infectious disease, both bacterial and viral. It also undermines the immune systems ability to detect and eradicate cancerous cells. In a compromised immune system, poor integration of all of its components may lead to immunological disorders such as allergies and chronic autoimmune diseases. However, we know that carotenoids can boost immunity. The problem is people just arent getting enough from their diet. The biggest advantage of new Carotenoid Complex is that it delivers a broad range of carotenoids as found in fruits and vegetables with proven bioavailability. Additionally, Carotenoid Complex is far superior to other carotenoid products, and has four distinct advantages. First, it delivers a broad range of carotenoids. Secondly, Carotenoid Complex is ...
Background Low tissue concentrations of carotenoids have been suggested to contribute to insulin resistance in obesity. Objectives The objectives of the study were to 1) evaluate the relations of adipose tissue and serum carotenoids with body fat, abdominal fat distribution, muscle, adipose tissue and liver insulin resistance, and dietary intake; 2) evaluate the relations and distributions of carotenoids detected in adipose tissue and serum; and 3) compare serum carotenoids and retinol concentrations in subjects with and without obesity. Methods Post hoc analysis of serum and adipose tissue carotenoids in individuals [n = 80; 31 men, 49 women; age (mean ± SEM): 51.4 ± 1.1 y] who participated in 2 separate studies conducted at the Clinical Research Facility at the Garvan Institute of Medical Research (Sydney) between 2008 and 2013. Retinol, α-carotene, β-carotene, ζ-carotene, lutein, lycopene, phytoene, and phytofluene were measured using HPLC. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X
Associations of serum vitamin A and carotenoid levels with markers of prostate cancer detection among US men - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Jul 29 - Associations of serum vitamin A and carotenoid levels with markers of prostate cancer detection were evaluated among 3,927 US men, 40-85 years of age, who participated in the 2001-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Five recommended definitions of prostate cancer detection were adopted using total and free prostate-specific antigen (tPSA and fPSA) laboratory measurements. Men were identified as high risk based on alternative cutoffs, namely tPSA , 10 ng/ml, tPSA , 4 ng/ml, tPSA , 2.5 ng/ml, %fPSA , 25%, and %fPSA , 15%. %fPSA was defined as (fPSA÷tPSA)× 100%. Serum levels of vitamin A (retinol and retinyl esters) and carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein + zeaxanthin, lycopene) were defined as quartiles and examined as risk/protective factors for PSA biomarkers. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence ...
Detail záznamu - Carotenoid response to retinal excitation and photoisomerization dynamics in xanthorhodopsin - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
Eicosapentaenoic (C20:5 n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6 n-3, DHA) fatty acids are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation and may contribute to oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if a diet rich in EPA and DHA could promote higher oxidation in both plasma and brain tissue of rats and if lycopene supplementation could revert the oxidation biomarkers to their baseline levels. Wistar rats were divided into four groups (7 rats/group): SOY group received AIN93M diet containing 8% soybean oil for 21 days; OMEGA group received 8% fish oil containing 2% EPA and 1% DHA instead of soybean oil for 21 days; OMEGA-L0.5 and OMEGA-L50 groups were fed a diet containing 8% fish oil for I I days followed by lycopene supplementation (5 and 500 mg/kg diet, respectively) for 10 more days. The brain homogenate oxidation measured by TBARS suggested that supplementation with EPA and DHA reduced the oxidation rate and this effect was suppressed by lycopene at both concentrations. Antioxidant ...
Colorful ornaments have been the focus of sexual selection studies since the work of Darwin. Yellow to red coloration is often produced by carotenoid pigments. Different hypotheses have been formulated to explain the evolution of these traits as signals of individual quality. Many of these hypotheses involve the existence of a signal production cost. The carotenoids necessary for signaling can only be obtained from food. In this line, carotenoid-based signals could reveal an individuals capacity to find sufficient dietary pigments. However, the ingested carotenoids are often yellow and became transformed by the organism to produce pigments of more intense color (red ketocarotenoids). Biotransformation often involves oxidation reactions. We tested the hypothesis that biotransformation could be costly because a certain level of oxidative stress is required. Thus, the carotenoid-based signals could reveal the efficiency of the owner in successfully managing this challenge. In a bird with ketocarotenoid
TY - JOUR. T1 - Energy transfer and spin polarization of the carotenoid triplet state in synthetic carotenoporphyrin dyads and in natural antenna complexes. AU - Carbonera, D.. AU - Di Valentin, M.. AU - Agostini, G.. AU - Giacometti, G.. AU - Liddell, P. A.. AU - Gust, D.. AU - Moore, Ana. AU - Moore, Thomas. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - A series of carotenoporphyrin dyads, in which the carotenoid is covalently linked to a tetraarylporphyrin at the ortho, meta or para position of one of the meso aromatic rings, has been studied using Time-Resolved Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (TREPR) spectroscopy. In parallel, an investigation has been carried, on two different photosynthetic antenna systems, the B800-B850 complex of R. acidophila and the LHCII complex of higher organisms. The initial spin polarization of the carotenoid triplet-state, populated indirectly by laser excitation, has been detected. It has been demonstrated that the initial polarization is not a characteristic property of the ...
You want more? Well I have another study for you. One that attempts to explain why fruits an veggies in general and plant carotenoids in particular are good for you. Its a study from the Environment and Agro-biotechnologies Department in Luxemburg (Kaulmann. 2014) that analyzed the effect of carotenoids on intracellular signaling cascade and the corresponding effects on gene expression and protein translation and found that (1) carotenoids are able to interact with the nuclear factor κB pathway and thus inhibit the downstream production of inflammatory cytokines, (2) carotenoids can block oxidative stress by interacting with the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway and activating phase II enzymes and antioxidants, such as glutathione-S-transferases, and concludes that we (3) still have an incomplete understanding of what exactly carotenoids and other phytochemicals can do for our health , Any comments? If so, leave them on Facebook ...
Page contains details about carotenoid-containing emulsion oily droplets . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Lycopene Antioxidant Carotenoid 15 mg Softgels Lycopene is a carotenoid pigment which gives tomatoes their red color and has been the focus of recent scientific research. Lycopene is one of the four main carotenoids normally found in human blood and tissue. Studies show that lycopene is a scavenger of singlet oxygen, offering powerful antioxidant protection. The body cannot convert lycopene into vitamin A; thus lycopene is reserved exclusively for antioxidant use. Supplement Facts for 5 mg Softgels Serving Size: 3 softgel(s) Amount Per Serving - % Daily Value Tomato Oleoresin Extract 6.8% (Lyc-O-Mato) 220 mg Yielding 15 mg Lycopene Other Ingredients: gelatin, rice bran oil, glycerin, purified water, lecithin, and yellow beeswax. Warning: If you are pregnant, may become pregnant, or breastfeeding, consult your health care professional before using this product. STORE IN A COOL, DRY PLACE. Suggested Use: 1 to 3 softgels daily with a meal.
Low vitamin and carotenoid levels are related to cerebral white matter lesions Abstract: Objectives: Purpose: To determine the effects of vitamins and carotenoids on brain white matter lesions (WMLs), we examined the associations between WMLs with vitamin and carotenoid levels ...
GNLD Londons Carotenoid complex has been proven by the CDC to lead to a dramatic 37% increase in immune function in just 21 days! GNLD Carotenoid Complete is the first and only product to deliver the full spectrum of carotenoids in a natural supplement! Each and every capsule provides the phytonutrinet value of an optimal serving of a wide variety of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables.
Carotenoids are among the most prevalent pigments used in animal signals and are also important for a range of physiological functions. These concomitant roles have made carotenoidbased signals a popular topic in behavioural ecology while also causing confusion and controversy. After a thorough background, we review the many pitfalls, caveats and seemingly contradictory conclusions that can result from not fully appreciating the complex nature of carotenoid function. Current controversies may be resolved through a more careful regard of this complexity, and of the immense taxonomic variability of carotenoid metabolism. Studies investigating the physiological trade-offs between ornamental and physiological uses of carotenoids have yielded inconsistent results. However, in many studies, homeostatic regulation of immune and antioxidant systems may have obscured the effects of carotenoid supplementation. We highlight how carefully designed experiments can overcome such complications. There is also a need to
The key to a healthy glow is not in your tanning cream, but it may be in a sweet potato. A recent study found that those people identified with a yellow "glow" to their skin were viewed as the most beautiful. Mirror, mirror on the wall whos the yellowest of them all? Fruit and veggie eaters. Thats right, the study found that the prettiest people were the ones who ate the most fruit and veggies packed with carotenoids.. Carotenoids dont just make us look good but act as antioxidants as well, which when consumed in our diet might be beneficial in reducing the risk of heart disease, some cancers, urinary tract infections, and possibly even lengthening our lifespan.. Carotenoids include lycopene, carotenes, lutein and zeaxanthin. You can find them in:. ...
Carotenoids. Carotenoids are essential anti-oxidants that play an important role in animal health and reproduction. Wherever you look in nature, you will see the influence of carotenoids. They are responsible for the color of everything from fruit and vegetables to fish and animal skin. All animals need carotenoids, but since they cannot produce these naturally-occurring nutrients, they must instead obtain them from their diet ...
Europe and North America together accounted for more than 65% share of the pie in 2014 and projected to maintain their dominance over the next six years. In terms of revenue Europe accounted for 40% share of the pie. Germany was the largest carotenoids market in the Europe and accounted for more than 19% share of the regions market. Eastern Europe offer huge untapped market potential. Globally, the U.S. is the largest market for carotenoids and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 4.5% from 2015 to 2022. Browse full report @ http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/carotenoids-market The market is witnessing growth on the back of busy lifestyle, growing health concerns, availability of the product in different form such as functional food & health food and increasing deficiency in the diet. Moreover, presence of large multinational player and higher product availability and retail shelf space is playing a very vital role in creating demand for the carotenoids products. Synthetic carotenoids are ...
Did you know that eating a small avocado with a meal containing carotenoids (found in the tomatoes, peppers, and salad greens) helps to absorb these beneficial compounds? Carotenoids, like beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, gamma-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin all need to be consumed with fat to optimize absorption in the intestines. One also needs to have a functioning small intestine for this to occur (gluten, antibiotics, yeast overgrowth, and environmental toxins can damage the gut and impede absorption of fats and fat-soluble nutrients). Once in the body these carotenoids act as powerful antioxidants mopping up free radicals. Some of these carotenoids can also be converted into vitamin A (all-trans-retinol). We need vitamin A to assist with gene transcription, proper development of an embryo, various reproductive processes, night and color vision, skin health (acne), cellular communication, and proper immune function. Vitamin A is found in liver, meat, and dairy ...
The term carotenoid refers to a family of about 600 different plant pigments that function as antioxidants. The yellow, orange, and many of the red pigments in fruits, vegetables, and plant materials are usually carotenoids. In fall, when deciduous trees prepare for winter and stop their chlorophyll production, the green color of the leaves fade and the orange, yellow, and red colors of the carotenoids in the leaves are revealed before the leaves die and fall to the ground. Plants appear to produce carotenoids to protect their stems and leaves from the energy of the sun. Ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths can generate molecules called free radicals that can damage living cells. Free radicals are molecules, or fragments of molecules, that are unstable and highly reactive. Free radicals are produced as the result of a normal molecule losing or gaining an electron. In normal, stable molecules, electrons associate in pairs. However, radiation from the sun can result in the removal of an electron from a ...
Lycopene, a carotenoid mainly found in tomato-based food products, has strong antioxidant properties relative to other carotenoids and has been postulated to play a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease through a variety of mechanisms. Lycopene cooked and consumed in oil mediums is optimal for not only its efficient absorption, but also its potential clinical effectiveness. Studies have also linked serum lycopene with the early stages of atherosclerosis, as measured by carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), a noninvasive ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries and potential surrogate endpoint for subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality used in previous clinical trials of vitamin supplements. Short-term intervention studies of lycopene supplements are limited, having explored mechanisms through which lycopene or its readily absorbable food sources may increase plasma lycopene or induce changes in other relevant biochemical markers impacting the subsequent risk of ...
Citation: Novotny Dura, J. 2005. Mathematical investigations of carotenoid kinetics in humans. Mathematical Modeling in Health and Toxicology. Athens, GA: Mathematical Biology Press. 189-204. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Carotenoids are health-promoting compounds that give many fruits and vegetables their red, orange, and yellow hues. A variety of mathematical techniques have been used to study carotenoid absorption and elimination. The most commonly used mathematical technique is empirical modeling, whereby scientists have calculated area under the plasma concentration time curve after a carotenoid dose to investigate many features of carotenoid bioavailability, including carotenoid interactions, age influences, effects of other dietary components, etc. Progress has also been made with compartmental modeling for beta-carotene and lycopene. Finally, isotope dilution methods and isotope reference methods have been very useful for learning about the vitamin A equivalency of ...
How to Cite: Priyadarshani, A.M.B. & Jansz, E.R., (2006). The effect of maturity on carotenoids of Lasia spinosa stem and the effects of cooking on in-vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka. 34(3), pp.131-136. DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/jnsfsr.v34i3.3643 ...
The retinal carotenoid, lutein, is replenished through dietary intake along with zeaxanthin. Published studies have shown an inverse relationship between high dietary intake of these retinal pigments and the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A Recent report by researchers from Harvard University suggests that lutein may also play a protective role in the prevention of cataracts. The authors presented their work at the 1998 annual meeting of the Society for Epidemiologic Research in Chicago. One etiology of cataract formation is the oxidation of lens proteins. Studies have shown that the antioxidant vitamins A, C and E are protective (see earlier EduFacts issues). Lutein is the only carotenoid found in the human lens. Since lutein does have antioxidant activity in the retina, the Harvard researchers hypothesized a similar role in the natural crystalline lens. The authors evaluated 36,646 U.S. male professionals without previous diagnosis of cataract at the time of study intake in ...
Arango, Jacobo; Jourdan, Matthieu; Geoffriau, Emmanuel; Beyer, Peter; Welsch, Ralf. 2014. Carotene hydroxylase activity determines the levels of both a-carotene and total carotenoids in orange carrots. The Plant Cell. 26: 2223-2233 ...
Maize has been targeted for biofortification with provitamin A carotenoids through traditional breeding. Two studies were conducted in gerbils to evaluate factors that may affect provitamin A activity. Maize diets had equal theoretical concentrations of vitamin A (VA) assuming 100% bioefficacy. Study 1 (n = 57) varied the ratio of β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene but maintained the same theoretical VA. Study 2 (n = 67) varied lutein and zeaxanthin. Other treatments were oil, VA, or β-carotene doses. Serum and livers were analyzed for VA and carotenoids. In study 1, total liver VA did not differ among the maize groups. In study 2, total liver VA of the VA and maize groups were higher than controls (P ...
This study investigated the effects of prior lycopene supplementation on behaviour and haematology of Wistar rats subjected to psychological stress. Four groups of Wistar rats, each comprising seven animals were investigated: unstressed (U-Control), unstressed + lycopene (U+Lyco), stressed (SControl) and stressed + lycopene (S+Lyco). Olive oil was given by oral gavage to each rat in the groups, either singly or mixed with 10 mg/kg lycopene daily for two weeks. S-Control and S+Lyco groups were subjected to psychological stress followed by behavioural assessment using excitability score test. Blood samples were collected after sacrificing the animals and then analyzed. Psychological stress increased (P < 0.05) erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in Wistar rats. Lycopene significantly increased excitability scores and total blood plasma proteins, and decreased (P > 0.05) erythrocyte MDA concentration. In conclusion, antioxidant properties of lycopene may be attenuating the effects of
This work investigated the effects of irradiation (0, 1 and 2 kGy) on the content of bioactive compounds such as vitamin C and carotenoids with provitamin A activity in arugula during the storage at 5 +/- 1 degrees C for up to 13 and 16 days, respectively. The vitamin C content decreased in non-irradiated as well as irradiated (1 and 2 kGy) samples during the storage period. On the other hand, no significant change in the content of carotenoids with provitamin A activity was observed after irradiation or storage period. Thus, the irradiation had minimal detrimental effects on the contents of carotenoids in arugula. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved ...
Carotenoids are fat-soluble micronutrients that play an important role in human health. The properties of many carotenoids are being studied. Find out more.
Leutein. Zeaxanthin Some plant foods contain darkly colored pigments called Pro-vitamin A Carotenoids that can be converted to retinol during digestion. Two parts of carotene are required to form one part of retinol. Grass contains carotene so during the summer when more carotene is present, milk from cows will contain more vitamin A than in winter. Approximately 26% and 36% of vitamin A consumed by men is provided by Pro-vitamin A carotenoids.. Beta-Carotene is a Pro-Vitamin A carotenoid that is more efficiently converted to retinol than carotenoids. For example, alpha carotenoid and B-Cryptoxanthin are also converted to vitamin A but only half as efficiently as beta-carotene (1). Lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids commonty founds in food. they are not sources of Vitamin A but may have other health promoting properties.. IMPORTANCE OF VITAMIN ...
Leutein. Zeaxanthin Some plant foods contain darkly colored pigments called Pro-vitamin A Carotenoids that can be converted to retinol during digestion. Two parts of carotene are required to form one part of retinol. Grass contains carotene so during the summer when more carotene is present, milk from cows will contain more vitamin A than in winter. Approximately 26% and 36% of vitamin A consumed by men is provided by Pro-vitamin A carotenoids.. Beta-Carotene is a Pro-Vitamin A carotenoid that is more efficiently converted to retinol than carotenoids. For example, alpha carotenoid and B-Cryptoxanthin are also converted to vitamin A but only half as efficiently as beta-carotene (1). Lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids commonty founds in food. they are not sources of Vitamin A but may have other health promoting properties.. IMPORTANCE OF VITAMIN ...
To back-up my claims:. The conventional methods of reducing inflammation such as NSAIDS, is not good enough. Since, 1999, the New England Journal of Medicine, has reported that NSAIDS are as fatal as AIDS. NSAID like Vioxx, is reported to have caused 60,000 people to death.. Kiran Recommends Pink Carotenoid:. Carotenoid are responsible for different food hues. From violet-red of beets, to bright green of pepper to rich red of tomato. Although, there are 700 carotenoids, only 10 are easily present in our bloodstream. These carotenoids are not just food colors.. One such, super potent carotenoid is astaxanthin, which is present in "haematococcus pluvialis. Astaxanithin has UV protecting radiations for algae, when nutrients, and water are scarce. Best sources for astaxanthin are salmon, shellfish, and krill; or you can eat microalgae as the direct source of astaxanthin. Pink salmon is pink as it feeds on astaxanthin. So, its immensely rich in astaxanithin.. Antioxidant Potency Value:. Astaxanthin ...
Research into the cause, prevention and treatment of heart disease has made tremendous progress in the last few years. One of the most promising areas of research has been with antioxidants and their roles in the prevention of atherosclerotic plaque. Arterial pathways are narrowed and damaged by these plaques, which can eventually lead to heart disease. Oxidation of LDL cholesterol is a major contributor to these plaque formations. The exciting news is that powerful antioxidants, such as Carotenoid Complex, can minimize this destructive process.. GNLDs revolutionary Carotenoid Complex has been proven to reduce the formation of oxidatively modified LDL cholesterol in human clinical trials. The trials were conducted by United States Department of Agriculture researchers and published in the journal, Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine.. When used as part of an overall heart health plan, Carotenoid Complex offers proven protection to help you achieve and maintain optimal health and ...
By: John Miller, Scientific Advisory Board Director It has been known for many years that dietary carotenoids play diverse roles within our bodies as both fundamental nutrients in systems and processes as well as defenders of the cells and tissues that make up those systems. Much of that knowledge can be tied directly back to the many peer-reviewed scientific papers that showcased and substantiated the many benefits of NeoLife Carotenoid Complex.. Two particular carotenoids; lutein and zeaxanthin (both present in Carotenoid Complex) have been shown to protect delicate tissue in the center of the retina of the eye, the macula lutea, from the degenerative effects of the light that streams into our eyes every moment of our waking lives. Such knowledge is also proof that these carotenoids cross over the blood brain barrier to do that important job.Read More. ...
... The global carotenoid market value was $1.5 billion in 2014. This market is expected to reach - Market research report and industry analysis - 9189432
Aging makes your skin vulnerable to oxidation. However, astaxanthin is an antioxidant that effectively protects your skin from oxidation. This process helps keep the cells in the body such as your skin cells looking younger and more vibrant. It is believed by researchers that the substance repairs the DNA and the protein in your cells to re-energize them and prevent many of the common visual signs of aging. It ultimately increases the moisture levels in the skin and rejuvenates its elasticity. The appearance of age spots, wrinkles, and freckles improve dramatically. The skins moisture levels, elasticity, and smoothness also become more noticeable after using the carotenoid supplement.. The natural carotenoid also appears to inhibit the damage caused by UV-A light by reducing the secretion of IL-6. This is extremely promising when it comes to protecting your skin from the aging effects of the sun. The effects of the sun are well known to cause wrinkled and sagging skin, especially after ...
Genome-wide association study identifies a novel locus associated with lycopene concentrations across ethnic groups, as well as two other loci specific to African Americans.
Egea, J., Fabregat, I., Frapart, Y. M., Ghezzi, P., Görlach, A., Kietzmann, T., Kubaichuk, K., Knaus, U. G., Lopez, M. G., Olaso-Gonzalez, G., Petry, A., Schulz, R., Vina, J., Winyard, P., Abbas, K., Ademowo, S., Afonso, C. B., Andreadou, I., Antelmann, H., Antunes, F., Aslan, M., Bachschmid, M. M., Barbosa, R. M., Belousov, V., Berndt, C., Bernlohr, D., Bertrán, E., Bindoli, A., Bottari, S. P., Brito, P. M., Carrara, G., Casas, A. I., Chatzi, A., Chondrogianni, N., Conrad, M., Cooke, M. S., Costa, J. G., Cuadrado, A., My-Chan Dang, P., De Smet, B., Debelec-butuner, B., Dias, I., Dunn, J. D., Edson, A. J., El Assar, M., El-Benna, J., Ferdinandy, P., Fernandes, A. S., Fladmark, K. E., Förstermann, U., Giniatullin, R., Giricz, Z., Görbe, A., Griffiths, H., Hampl, V., Hanf, A., Herget, J., Hernansanz-Agustín, P., Hillion, M., Huang, J., Ilikay, S., Jansen-Dürr, P., Jaquet, V., Joles, J. A., Kalyanaraman, B., Kaminskyy, D., Karbaschi, M., Kleanthous, M., Klotz, L-O., Korac, B., Korkmaz, K. S., ...
To gain insight into the evolution of xanthophyll synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana, we analyzed two pairs of duplicated carotenoid hydroxylase enzymes in Arabidopsis thaliana: the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP97A3 and CYP97C1, and non-heme di-iron enzymes, BCH1 and BCH2. Hydroxylated carotenes did not accumulate in a quadruple mutant for these four genes, demonstrating that they encode the full complement of carotenoid hydroxylases in A. thaliana. We were thus able to infer definitively the activity of each enzyme in vivo based on the phenotypes of selected double and triple mutant genotypes. The CYP97 and BCH gene pairs are primarily responsible for hydroxylation of α- and β-carotenes, respectively, but exhibit some overlapping activities, most notably in hydroxylation of the β-ring of α-carotene. Surprisingly, triple mutants containing only CYP97C1 or CYP97A3 activity produced 74 and 6% of the wild-type lutein level, indicating that CYP97C1 can efficiently hydroxylate both the β- and ...
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Several biological mechanisms of lycopene and its metabolites have been described and suggested as linked to cancer development and prevention in humans.11 However, the metabolism and biological effects of lycopene are still not fully understood and, to date, studies have yielded discrepant results.. Some studies with healthy volunteers found that the intake of additional lycopene decreased the level of biomarkers of oxidative stress, while other investigations showed no effect.3 In one randomized clinical trial (RCT) involving male African American urology patients, no antioxidant effect of lycopene supplementation prior to prostate biopsy (30 mg/day for 21 days) could be seen.12. Another investigation with healthy volunteers suggested that the intake of lycopene (30 mg/day) increased serum insulin-like growth factor (ILGF)-binding protein-1 and -2 concentrations 13, which might lower ILGF-levels and prevent its possible cancer-promoting effects. Lycopene has also been linked to androgen ...
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Effects of lycopene on activations of signaling molecules for cell proliferation and survival. Cells were treated with 100 μM lycopene for indicated times and
The audience listened with rapt attention as she introduced other colors in food and their health benefits. "Orange in carrots, mangoes, winter squash, sweet potatoes and pumpkins is a sign that they contain alpha- and beta-carotenes, thought to improve cell-to-cell communication. Beta-carotene is converted to vitamin A, which helps maintain healthy mucous membranes and healthy eyes," she explained. "Scientists have also reported that carotenoid-rich foods can help reduce the risk of cancer and heart disease and can improve immune system function," she revealed, adding: "One study found that people who ate a diet high in carotenoid-rich vegetables were forty three percent less likely to develop age-related macular degeneration, an eye disorder common among the elderly, which can lead to blindness.". "Orange/yellow in oranges, tangerines, papayas, and nectarines indicates vitamin C and beta-cryptoxanthin, another carotenoid compound, while yellow/green in spinach and other greens, yellow corn, ...
The levels of carotenoids in your skin and in your blood are a good indicator of your overall health because the levels parallel the levels of plant-derived phytochemicals in general. In fact, Dr. Fuhrman uses a carotenoid skin testing method to non-invasively track his patients progress as they adopt a nutritarian diet. Low blood levels of total carotenoids, alpha-carotene, and lycopene have been linked to premature death; of all the carotenoids, very low blood lycopene was the strongest predictor of mortality.2 ...
H. Yan, K. Wang, T. Kuang, J. Zhang, L. Gui, X. An, and W. Chang. 2004. 72 A resolution. Nature 428:287-292. , J. F. F. P. Mason. 2007. Differential effects of carotenoids on lipid peroxidation due to membrane interactions: X-ray diffraction analysis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1768:167-174. Mendelsohn, R. W. Van Holten. 1979. Zeaxanthin ([3R,3′R]-beta, beta-carotene-3′-diol) as a resonance Raman and visible absorption probe of membrane structure. Biophys. J. 27:221-235. , A. Polit, Z. I. Gruszecki. A. Sujak, K. Strzalka, A. H. Schmid. 1999. Organisation of xanthophyll-lipid membranes studied by means of specific pigment antisera, spectrophotometry and monomolecular layer technique lutein versus zeaxanthin. Z. Naturforsch. C 54:517-525. , H. Yuan, Q. Yang, T. Hoshino, A. Yokoyama, and J. Miyake. 1999. Stabilization of liposomal membranes by thermozeaxanthins: Carotenoid-glucoside esters. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1461:147-154. Havaux, M. I. Gruszecki. 1993. Heat- and light-induced chlorophyll a ...
Explore Carotenoid benefits, also known as Lutein. Carotenoid has antioxidant properties, which are use for protecting the skin against harmful free-radicals.
There is a widespread belief that the nutritional value of many vegetables diminishes during cooking but there is scientific evidence that carrots maintain levels of carotenoids and other beneficial compounds. Now, European scientists have used Raman spectroscopy to see what effects different types of cooking have on the levels of various...
Hofe C, Feng L, Zephyr D, Stromberg AJ, Hennig B, Gaetke LM. 2014. Fruit and vegetable intake, as reflected by serum carotenoid concentrations, predicts reduced probability of polychlorinated biphenyl-associated risk for type 2 diabetes: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004. Nutr Res 34(4):285-293. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2014.02.001 PMID:24774064 PMCID:PMC4008967 ...
(PRWEB) July 28, 2014 -- The North America Carotenoids & Antioxidants Market report defines and segments the carotenoids & antioxidants market in North America
The concentration of β-carotene was analyzed by the modified method of Jo and Jung (2000). The 1 g of finely ground soybean seed and sprout powder were extracted with 40 mL of acetone : petroleum ether = 1 : 1 solution and stirred 30 min at room temperature. The suspension was filtered through Whatman filter paper (No. 4). This process repeated twice in each sample. The extract was transferred to a separatory-funnel and added 50 mL of saturated sodium chloride solution, then mixed. To obtain a supernatant, wait until the layer was separated, and then was added 100 mL of distilled water, then mixed. The following process was expressed as saponification. But Oliver et al. (1998) reported that the photo-diode array detection enables the spectra of each individual peak of the chromatogram, it could allow carotenoid separation without sample saponification. And Khachik et al. (1986) reported that saponification of carotenoid extracts underestimated the individual carotenoid content (Individual ...
In this study, men in Finland with the highest blood levels of lycopene at the start of the study had a 55% reduced risk of stroke and a 59% reduced risk of ischaemic stroke (caused by a blood clot) over the following 12 years. However, levels of other carotenoids studied were not associated with stroke risk.. This study has the limitation that serum levels of lycopene cannot be shown to be responsible for the differences in stroke risk, as it is possible that other factors could explain the reduction in stroke risk. In particular, the researchers did not collect any information on dietary intakes. Therefore their analyses did not account for dietary factors, and also, although they adjusted for several other potential confounders that could influence the association, they did not adjust for physical activity. However, the researchers did collect information on baseline physical activity. These things are important, as higher carotenoid levels could be associated with a healthy lifestyle, ...
Eating fresh fruit with dark colors, such as plums and nectarines, increases attractiveness and skin tone according to recent research. Dr Ian Stephen of the University of Nottingham has found that attractiveness is linked to dietary carotenoids, found in red or yellow fruits... ...
Lycopene, a major carotenoid component of tomato, has a potential anticancer activity in many types of cancer. Epidemiological and clinical trials rarely provide evidence for mechanisms of the compounds action, and studies on its effect on cancer of
The effects of mechanical and thermal treatments on the consistency and in vitro lycopene accessibility of crushed tomatoes were evaluated. Different crushing intensities and a subsequent heat treatment carried out as a heat shock (95 °C for 8 min) or a boiling step (100 °C for 20 min) were examined. Additional homogenization was compared with milder crushing regarding the effect on lycopene content and in vitro accessibility. Textural properties, polygalacturonase and pectinmethylesterase activity, pectin degree of methoxylation, lycopene content, and in vitro lycopene accessibility were evaluated. Microstructure was studied using both light and transmission electron microscopy. Crushing and subsequent heating affected the pectin degree of methoxylation and the consistency of the crushed tomatoes. The mechanical and thermal treatments did not affect the lycopene content to any great extent; however, in vitro accessibility seemed to improve with extensive crushing followed by heating. Crushing or
There are three key reasons why so many people dont get enough vitamin A.. First, vitamin A is only found in animal foods. Its a myth that plant foods are high in this nutrient. Instead, fruits and vegetables are high in a family of phytonutrients called carotenoids. The body must convert three of these compounds-beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin-to vitamin A. But in humans, this conversion is quite inefficient, with about 10 to 20 molecules of carotenoids needed to make one of vitamin A. In addition, 80 percent or more of natural vitamin A from animal sources is absorbed, but only three percent or less of carotenoids from plant foods are absorbed.. Second is that there are a number of genetic variants, polymorphisms similar to those described for folates in the article, "The Folate Plot," which can significantly impair the bodys ability to convert the carotenoids to vitamin A. This genetic problem may exist in up to half of the population. Its presence appears to be ...
Premier Tomato is a raw, unheated, untreated concentrate containing 100% of its active enzymes and nutrients. Besides containing an incredible 67 mg per tablespoon of lycopene, it also contains a whopping 95 mg per tablespoon of potassium, an important mineral for the kidney, heart, blood, muscle and nervous system. Premier Tomato from South America is completely free of pesticides or chemical residues. Due to the pristine growing environment in South America (with rich soil and pure water), this powder contains an extremely high level of naturally occurring lycopene. This gives the consumer not only one of the highest lycopene concentrates, but also the full gamut of the tomatos other associated nutrients which help fully metabolize the lycopene ...
0015] Other suitable carotenoid compounds which may be used as described herein include hydrocarbons, such as lycopersene (7,8,11,12,15,7,8,11,12,15-decahydro-?,?-carotene), phytofluene, hexahydrolycopene (15-cis-7,8,11,12,7,8-hexahydro-?,?-carotene), torulene (3,4-didehydro-ß,?-carotene) and a-zeacarotene (7,8-dihydro-e,?-carotene); alcohols, such as alloxanthin, cynthiaxanthin, pectenoxanthin, cryptomonaxanthin, ((3r,3r)-7,8,7,8-tetradehydro-ß,ß-carotene-3,3-diol), crustaxanthin (ß,-carotene-3,4,3,4-tetrol), gazaniaxanthin ((3r)-5-cis-ß,?-caroten-3-ol), oh-chlorobactene (1,2-dihydro-f,?-caroten-1-ol), loroxanthin (ß,e-carotene-3,19,3-triol), lycoxanthin (?,?-caroten-16-ol), rhodopin (1,2-dihydro-?,?-caroten-1-ol), rhodopinol (aka warmingol; 13-cis-1,2-dihydro-?,?-carotene-1,20-diol), saproxanthin (3,4-didehydro-1,2-dihydro-ß,?-carotene-3,1-diol) and zeaxanthin; glycosides, such as oscillaxanthin ...
Diet - What you eat is a huge factor in the appearance of your skin. Omega-3s and antioxidants are very good for your skin. It isnt any secret that eating a healthy diet of fruits and veggies (antioxidants), coupled with fish (Omega 3) is much better for you (and your skin) than fast foods. Another favorite…cocoa…contains flavanols, a phytochemical that can help to improve circulation to your skin cells, improve its hydration and protect your skin from sun damage. Along with flavanols, carotenoids can also boost your skins ability to fight off wrinkles around the eyes. Foods that contain carotenoids are carrots, sweet potatoes, and spinach, just to name a few. ...
Carotenoids are a type of plant cellular pigment that play a role in photosynthesis and give many plants a red, orange or yellow color. They absorb specific wavelengths of light and aid in the...
This image depicts the freshly dissected retina of a chicken (Gallus gallus) viewed en face from the photoreceptor side. Birds have an elaborate color visual system consisting of five cone photoreceptor types which are evenly distributed across the retina: four single cones maximally sensitive to ultraviolet, blue, green and red light that mediate tetrachromatic color vision; and an unusual cell type called a double cone which detects changes in luminance. Each of the five cone types contains a differently colored, carotenoid-containing oil droplet in its inner segment (shown in the image) which filters the incoming light before it reaches the light-sensitive outer segment, thereby improving color discrimination. Such brightly colored oil droplets are found in turtles and birds, animals that frequently use carotenoids to pigment their integument. Thus, carotenoids serve a complementary role in both seeing and in coloring what is seen.. ...
Epidemiologic studies have shown an inverse relationship between presence of various cancers and dietary carotenoids or blood carotenoid levels. However,
Dunaliella salina(Dunal) Teodoresco (1905) is a green unicellular alga able to withstand severe salt, light, and nutrient stress, adaptations necessary to grow in harsh environments such as salt...
Novahues Health supplements are the result of all-natural carotenoid-based research and extensive clinical testing. Supplements with Carotenoid and Lycopene.
201735DNABrevundimonas sp.CDS(1)..(732) 1atg acc gcc gcc gtc gcc gag ccc cgc atc gtc ccg cgc cag acc tgg 48Met Thr Ala Ala Val Ala Glu Pro Arg Ile Val Pro Arg Gln Thr Trp1 5 10 15atc ggt ctg acc ctg gcg gga atg atc gtg gcg gga tgg ggg agc ctg 96Ile Gly Leu Thr Leu Ala Gly Met Ile Val Ala Gly Trp Gly Ser Leu 20 25 30cac gtc tac ggc gtc tat ttt cac cgc tgg ggc acc tcc agt ctg gtg 144His Val Tyr Gly Val Tyr Phe His Arg Trp Gly Thr Ser Ser Leu Val 35 40 45atc gtc ccg gcg atc gta gcg gtc cag acc tgg ttg tcg gtc ggc ctt 192Ile Val Pro Ala Ile Val Ala Val Gln Thr Trp Leu Ser Val Gly Leu 50 55 60ttc atc gtc gcc cat gac gcc atg cac ggc tcc ctg gcg ccg gga cgg 240Phe Ile Val Ala His Asp Ala Met His Gly Ser Leu Ala Pro Gly Arg65 70 75 80ccg cgg ctg aac gcc gca gtc ggc cgg ctg acc ctg ggg ctc tat gcg 288Pro Arg Leu Asn Ala Ala Val Gly Arg Leu Thr Leu Gly Leu Tyr Ala 85 90 95ggc ttc cgc ttc gat cgg ctg aag acg gcg cac cac gcc cac cac gcc 336Gly Phe Arg Phe Asp Arg Leu Lys Thr Ala His His Ala His His Ala 100 ...
Intake of the carotenoids lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin improved iron absorption from a meal and even reversed the inhibitory effects of coffee, says a new study.
The relationships between FEV1 decline and serum levels of β-carotene and α-carotene have never been explored, so we cannot compare our results with other studies. However, the internal consistency of the results is supported by the fact that the results were identical in the whole study population, in lifelong non-smokers, and when regression models were adjusted for baseline smoking status, baseline smoking status plus change in smoking status, or cumulative exposure assessed by pack years. Our results are also consistent with the results from observational studies on lung cancer risk.26,27 However, interventional trials of β-carotene supplementation showed an unexpected negative effect28,29 or no beneficial effect30 on the risk of lung cancer. A biologically plausible explanation for these unlikely findings has yet to be found.31. Vitamin A and vitamin E have already been analysed in longitudinal studies, with data collected using dietary questionnaires. One study that followed 1346 adults ...
Comstock GW, Alberg AJ, Huang HY, Wu K, Burke AE, Hoffman SC, Norkus EP, Gross M, Cutler RG, Morris JS, Spate VL, Helzlsouer KJ. The risk of developing lung cancer associated with antioxidants in the blood: ascorbic acid, carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, selenium, and total peroxyl radical absorbing capacity. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 1997; 6(11): 907-16 ...
Its week two of my rainbow-themed colorful foods project. Time for some orange foods! While red foods can get their pigment from many different types of molecules, orange foods primarily get their pigment from carotenoids. Carotenoids can make red, yellow or orange pigments in plants. For animals they can satisfy several essential nutritional functions, notably ...
Abstract: Consumption of a diet high in carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with a decreased risk of many chronic and degenerative diseases. Carotenoids are a class of lipophilic compounds found in many fruits and vegetables and have often been targeted as imparting some of the beneficial effects associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. However, our understanding o... read moref the biochemical and molecular framework of carotenoid metabolism is incomplete. Investigating the biochemical and molecular pathways of carotenoid metabolism are important to understanding their biological functions. Carotene-15,15-monooxygenase (CMO1) is involved in vitamin A formation, while recent studies suggest that carotene-9,10-monooxygenase (CMO2) may have a broader substrate specificity than previously recognized. The first part of this research investigated the in vitro cleavage activity of recombinant ferret CMO2 towards the xanthophylls lutein, zeaxanthin and ...
Looking for online definition of conjugated double bonds in the Medical Dictionary? conjugated double bonds explanation free. What is conjugated double bonds? Meaning of conjugated double bonds medical term. What does conjugated double bonds mean?
In one of our earliest EduFacts briefings (Macular Pigment Density, Dietary Carotenoids and Age-Related Macular Degeneration) we reviewed a study which documented a near-twenty percent increase in macular pigment (MP) density in subjects fed a diet vigorously enriched with spinach and corn (1). The high levels of dietary spinach and corn effectively boosted lutein intake approximately 4-fold and zeaxanthin intake 3-fold. In the same article we reviewed 2 other studies relating increased serum (2) and dietary intake (3) of these dietary carotenoids with reduced risk of age related macular degeneration (AMD). While the value of adequate dietary levels of lutein and zeaxanthin is generally recognized, the value of using lutein/zeaxanthin supplements is disputed. However, a recent (1997) experimental study demonstrates that the use of a lutein supplement can directly generate an increase in the density of the protective macular pigment (4). Landrum, Bone, and colleagues serially measured macular ...
Various fatty acids, tocopherols, carotenoids, and their respective antioxidant contributions in 7 amaranth seed and 11 quinoa seed samples along with a new evaluation method are reported. The lipid yield was 6.98-7.22% in amaranth seeds and 6.03-6.74% in quinoa seeds, with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) being the predominant fatty acids, 71.58-72.44% in amaranth seeds and 81.44-84.49% in quinoa seeds, respectively. Carotenoids, mainly lutein and zeaxanthin, are confirmed for the first time in amaranth seeds, while β-carotene is reported first in quinoa seeds. The predominant tocopherols in amaranth seeds are δ- and α-tocopherol, whereas γ- and α-tocopherol are the primary tocopherols in quinoa seeds. UFAs, carotenoids, and tocopherols showed good correlation with antioxidant activity. All of the amaranth seeds demonstrated lower overall lipophilic quality than quinoa seeds, with the AS1 and QS10 cultivars providing the highest scores for amaranth and quinoa seeds, respectively. Results ...
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Fucoxanthin, one of the main marine carotenoids, is abundant in macro- and microalgae. Here, fucoxanthin was isolated and structurally identified as the major carotenoid in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum through chromatographic and spectroscopic methods, such as liquid chromatography–positive-ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. This pigment was quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and a number of extraction procedures were assessed to investigate the effect of solvent type, extraction time, temperature, and extraction method (maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction, Soxhlet extraction, and pressurized liquid extraction). Among the investigated solvents, ethanol provided the best fucoxanthin extraction yield (15.71 mg/g freeze-dried sample weight). Fucoxanthin content in the extracts produced by the different methods was quite constant (15.42–16.51 mg/g freeze-dried sample weight) but ...
PACHECO, Sidney et al. Microscale extraction method for HPLC carotenoid analysis in vegetable matrices. Sci. agric. (Piracicaba, Braz.) [online]. 2014, vol.71, n.5, pp.416-419. ISSN 1678-992X. https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-9016-2013-0402.. In order to generate simple, efficient analytical methods that are also fast, clean, and economical, and are capable of producing reliable results for a large number of samples, a micro scale extraction method for analysis of carotenoids in vegetable matrices was developed. The efficiency of this adapted method was checked by comparing the results obtained from vegetable matrices, based on extraction equivalence, time required and reagents. Six matrices were used: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), sweet potato with orange pulp (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.), pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) flour. Quantification of the total ...
Crocus sativus Saffron Bulbs Crocus sativus Saffron Flower Seeds Saffron Crocus Bulbs Saffron Bulb or Saffron Crocus! It begins blooming in September and continues through October! The purple flowers have deep purple veining! It's orange-red stigmas are the source of saffron, the worlds most expensive spice! Plant in full sun or partial shade and well-drained soil. In cooler regions the Saffron Crocus can be grown in containers. You can harvest the saffron when the flowers are blooming.
Data were collected in 2001 in a population of blue and great tits breeding in eastern France (48°17′N, 4°18′E). The blue tit Parus caeruleus (Linnaeus 1758) and great tit Parus major (Linnaeus 1758) are small (i.e. adult body mass of 11 g and 19 g, respectively) hole-nesting passerines often living in the same wooded areas and that are in competition for access to breeding sites and for food (Gosler, 1993). Both species lay large clutches (i.e. generally more than seven eggs), although blue tit females lay on average more eggs than great tit females (Blondel et al., 1990; Newton, 1989). Nestlings of both species have a similar diet of arthropods, mainly lepidopteran larvae and spiders (Minot, 1981). The study area (about 250 ha) contained 400 nestboxes evenly distributed among a homogenous deciduous old woodland composed mainly of oak (Quercus spp.), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) and beech (Fagus sylvatica). Nests were regularly inspected to determine laying date, clutch size, start date of ...
Content of carotenoids[edit]. The yellow color and name of the corpus luteum, like that of the macula lutea of the retina, is ... Carotenoid metabolism as a preparation for function. Pure and Applied Chemistry, Vol. 63, No. 1, pp. 131-140, 1991. available ... The corpus luteum is colored as a result of concentrating carotenoids (including lutein) from the diet and secretes a moderate ... The idea is not presently accepted by the scientific community.[13] Rather, the corpus luteum concentrates carotenoids from the ...
carotenoids[edit]. I'm new here, but I think you made an alteration to make this statement about carotenoids: "The double ... I don't think I was the one who made the changes, on carotenoids the revision history related is this. Regarding the ...
Research into macular degeneration and carotenoids[edit]. In 1990, Howard started work with Dr Richard Bone[36] and Dr. John ... January 2018). "Supplemental Retinal Carotenoids Enhance Memory in Healthy Individuals with Low Levels of Macular Pigment in A ... "Nutritional Intervention to Prevent Alzheimer's Disease: Potential Benefits of Xanthophyll Carotenoids and Omega-3 Fatty Acids ...
The compound 13-cis retinoic acid was first studied in the 1960s at Roche Laboratories in Switzerland by Werner Bollag as a treatment for skin cancer. Experiments completed in 1971 showed that the compound was likely to be ineffective for cancer and, surprisingly, that it could be useful to treat acne. However, they also showed that the compound was likely to cause birth defects, so in light of the events around thalidomide, Roche abandoned the product. In 1975, Gary Peck and Frank Yoder independently rediscovered the drug's use as a treatment of cystic acne while studying it as a treatment for lamellar ichthyosis, and published that work. Roche resumed work on the drug. In clinical trials, subjects were carefully screened to avoid including women who were or might become pregnant. Roche's New Drug Application for isotretinoin for the treatment of acne included data showing that the drug caused birth defects in rabbits. The FDA approved the application in 1982. Scientists involved in the ...
"Structural basis of light harvesting by carotenoids: peridinin-chlorophyll-protein from Amphidinium carterae". Science. 272 ( ... "Structural basis of light harvesting by carotenoids: peridinin-chlorophyll-protein from Amphidinium carterae". Science. 272 ( ...
As with other carotenoids, cryptoxanthin is an antioxidant and may help prevent free radical damage to cells and DNA, as well ... Cryptoxanthin is a natural carotenoid pigment. It has been isolated from a variety of sources including the petals and flowers ... Lorenzo, Y.; Azqueta, A.; Luna, L.; Bonilla, F.; Dominguez, G.; Collins, A. R. (2008). "The carotenoid β-cryptoxanthin ... It is a member of the class of carotenoids known as xanthophylls. ...
... s are carotenoids containing no oxygen. Carotenoids containing some oxygen are known as xanthophylls. ... as does the xanthophyll carotenoid β-cryptoxanthin. All other carotenoids, including lycopene, have no beta-ring and thus no ... a b World's Healthiest Foods: Carotenoids Archived March 14, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.. Whfoods.org. Retrieved on 2013-03- ... Valadon, L. R. G.; Mummery, Rosemary S. "Changes in Carotenoid Composition of Certain Roses with Age". Annals of Botany. 33 (4 ...
... with β-carotene as the best-known provitamin A carotenoid. Others include α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoid absorption ... Lakshman, MR (2004). "Alpha and omega of carotenoid cleavage". J. Nutr. 134 (2): 241S-245S. doi:10.1093/jn/134.1.241S. PMID ... The proportion of carotenoids absorbed decreases as dietary intake increases. Within the intestinal wall (mucosa), β-carotene ... Isolation of β-carotene from fruits abundant in carotenoids is commonly done using column chromatography. It can also be ...
Lapchak P (2010). "Efficacy and safety profile of the carotenoid trans sodium crocetinate administered to rabbits following ... Transcrocetinate sodium belongs to a group of substances known as bipolar trans carotenoid salts, which constitute a subclass ...
Carotenoids are pigments produced by plants and algae and play a role in light harvesting as part of the photosynthesis process ... Fucoxanthin is a xanthophyll that contributes more than 10% of the estimated total production of carotenoids in nature.[1] It ... Xanthophylls are a subset of carotenoids, identified by the fact that they are oxygenated either as hydroxyl groups or as ... Satomi Y (April 2017). "Antitumor and Cancer-preventative Function of Fucoxanthin: A Marine Carotenoid". Anticancer Research. ...
In addition to chlorophylls, another group of yellow-orange[129] pigments called carotenoids are also found in the photosystems ... There are about thirty photosynthetic carotenoids.[131] They help transfer and dissipate excess energy,[14] and their bright ... They contain many types of lipids including plastoquinone, vitamin E, carotenoids and chlorophylls.[116] ... Photosystem II and photosystem I contain light-harvesting complexes with chlorophyll and carotenoids that absorb light energy ...
7-Dehydrocholesterol is the precursor of cholecalciferol.[7] Within the epidermal layer of skin, 7-Dehydrocholesterol undergoes an electrocyclic reaction as a result of UVB light at wavelengths between 290 and 315 nm, with peak synthesis occurring between 295 and 300 nm.[27] This results in the opening of the vitamin precursor B-ring through a conrotatory pathway making previtamin D3 (pre-cholecalciferol).[28] In a process which is independent of UV light, the pre-cholecalciferol then undergoes a [1,7] antarafacial sigmatropic rearrangement [29] and therein finally isomerizes to form vitamin D3.. The active UVB wavelengths are present in sunlight, and sufficient amounts of cholecalciferol can be produced with moderate exposure of the skin, depending on the strength of the sun.[27] Time of day, season, and altitude affect the strength of the sun, and pollution, cloud cover or glass all reduce the amount of UVB exposure. Exposure of face, arms and legs, averaging 5-30 minutes twice per week, may ...
Many molecules that are considered to be "dietary fiber" are so because humans lack the necessary enzymes to split the glycosidic bond and they reach the large intestine. Many foods contain varying types of dietary fibers, all of which contribute to health in different ways. Dietary fibers make three primary contributions: bulking, viscosity and fermentation.[49] Different fibers have different effects, suggesting that a variety of dietary fibers contribute to overall health. Some fibers contribute through one primary mechanism. For instance, cellulose and wheat bran provide excellent bulking effects, but are minimally fermented. Alternatively, many dietary fibers can contribute to health through more than one of these mechanisms. For instance, psyllium provides bulking as well as viscosity. Bulking fibers can be soluble (i.e., psyllium) or insoluble (i.e., cellulose and hemicellulose). They absorb water and can significantly increase stool weight and regularity. Most bulking fibers are not ...
In soils, it is assumed that larger amounts of phenols are released from decomposing plant litter rather than from throughfall in any natural plant community.[citation needed] Decomposition of dead plant material causes complex organic compounds to be slowly oxidized lignin-like humus or to break down into simpler forms (sugars and amino sugars, aliphatic and phenolic organic acids), which are further transformed into microbial biomass (microbial humus) or are reorganized, and further oxidized, into humic assemblages (fulvic and humic acids), which bind to clay minerals and metal hydroxides.[citation needed] There has been a long debate about the ability of plants to uptake humic substances from their root systems and to metabolize them.[citation needed] There is now a consensus about how humus plays a hormonal role rather than simply a nutritional role in plant physiology.[citation needed] In the soil, soluble phenols face four different fates. They might be degraded and mineralized as a carbon ...
The first use of rubber was by the indigenous cultures of Mesoamerica. The earliest archeological evidence of the use of natural latex from the Hevea tree comes from the Olmec culture, in which rubber was first used for making balls for the Mesoamerican ballgame. Rubber was later used by the Maya and Aztec cultures - in addition to making balls Aztecs used rubber for other purposes such as making containers and to make textiles waterproof by impregnating them with the latex sap.[6][7] The Pará rubber tree is indigenous to South America. Charles Marie de La Condamine is credited with introducing samples of rubber to the Académie Royale des Sciences of France in 1736.[8] In 1751, he presented a paper by François Fresneau to the Académie (published in 1755) that described many of rubber's properties. This has been referred to as the first scientific paper on rubber.[8] In England, Joseph Priestley, in 1770, observed that a piece of the material was extremely good for rubbing off pencil marks on ...
"Aroma from Carotenoids. Leffingwell & Associates. Retrieved 2006-06-08.. *^ This article incorporates text from a publication ...
Some dietary fat is necessary to facilitate absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) and carotenoids.[98] Humans and ... Carotenoids are important simple isoprenoids that function as antioxidants and as precursors of vitamin A.[50] Another ... Rao AV, Rao LG (March 2007). "Carotenoids and human health". Pharmacological Research. 55 (3): 207-16. doi:10.1016/j.phrs. ... Terpenes and isoprenoids, including the carotenoids, are made by the assembly and modification of isoprene units donated from ...
Krinsky, Norman I.; Mathews-Roth, Micheline M.; Taylor, Richard F. (1989). Carotenoids: chemistry and biology. New York: Plenum ... a carotenoid which is the key component of the birds' red pigmentation.[12][27] When kept in zoos, the birds' diet often ...
"carotenoid". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 25 September 2014.. *^ "Are carrots orange for political reasons?". Washington ... Annato contains carotenoids, the same ingredient that gives carrots and other vegetables their orange colour. Annato has been ... Paprika oleoresin contains natural carotenoids, and is made from chili peppers. It is used to colour cheese, orange juice, ...
"Carotenoids". Retrieved 6 May 2012. "Lutein + Zeaxanthin Content of Selected Foods". Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State ... Zeaxanthin is one of the most common carotenoid alcohols found in nature. It is important in the xanthophyll cycle. Synthesized ... Zeaxanthin is one of the two primary xanthophyll carotenoids contained within the retina of the eye. Within the central macula ... Due to the commercial value of carotenoids, their biosynthesis has been studied extensively in both natural products and non- ...
"Carotenoids". Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR. August 2016. ... Included as nutritional constituents are provitamin A carotenoids, whereas those without nutrient status are diverse ...
Carotenoids List of phytochemicals in food MSDS at Carl Roth (Lutein Rotichrom, German). "Lutein", Random House Webster's ... Includes chickens (usually in combination with other carotenoids), to get color in egg yolks, and fish farms to color the flesh ... Skin health via orally consumed supplements is one of the fastest growing areas of the US$2 billion carotenoid market. ... SanGiovanni JP, Chew EY, Clemons TE (September 2007). "The relationship of dietary carotenoid and vitamin A, E, and C intake ...
Among carotenoids such as the tomato phytochemical, lycopene, the US Food and Drug Administration found insufficient evidence ... A converse exists in the case of carotenoids, such as lycopene present in tomatoes, which may remain stable or increase in ... "Carotenoids". Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. July 2016 ... Food processing techniques like mechanical processing can also free carotenoids and other phytochemicals from the food matrix, ...
... carotenoids; siderophores; cholic acid derivatives and organic acids. It is hoped that further research into alkaliphilic ...
Carotenoids (carotenes as provitamin A) Fruit, vegetables and eggs Other antioxidants are not obtained from the diet, but ... Takeda A, Nyssen OP, Syed A, Jansen E, Bueno-de-Mesquita B, Gallo V (2014). "Vitamin A and carotenoids and the risk of ... Rodriguez-Amaya DB (2003). "Food carotenoids: analysis, composition and alterations during storage and processing of foods". ... such as some carotenoids in vegetables.[187] Processed food contains fewer antioxidant vitamins than fresh and uncooked foods, ...
Provitamin carotenoids - such as beta carotene - are "largely impossible" to cause toxicity, as their conversion to retinol is ... Carotenoids themselves cannot produce toxicity. Symptoms may include: Abnormal softening of the skull bone (craniotabes-infants ... High intake of provitamin carotenoids (such as beta carotene) from vegetables and fruits does not cause hypervitaminosis A, as ... Facts about Vitamin A and Carotenoids, from the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements.. ...
Metabolic Pathways of Carotenoid Metabolism: Insights into the Biochemical and Regulatory Pathways of Carotenoid Cleavage.. ... Carotenoids are a class of lipophilic compounds found in many fruits and vegetables and have often been targeted as imparting ... Since apo-carotenoids serve as important signaling molecules in a variety of biological processes, enzymatic cleavage of ... Abstract: Consumption of a diet high in carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with a decreased risk of ...
... the content of carotenoids in carrot remains only 28% (23.209 mg /g). Frozen carrot also lose the contents of carotenoids, ... Carotenoids content of the samples was determined spectrophotometrically. As raw material were used carrots from the domestic ... The highest carotenoid content was recorded for raw carrot (82.716 mg / g). By boiling for 20 minutes, ... Through this work we followed the influence of some thermal treatments on the carotenoids content of carrots. Carrots were ...
... red carotenoid content in the former was twice of those in the second one (Table 1). The main carot enoids in red pepper pods ... Yellow and red carotenoids contents are comparable to those found in Capsicum annuum (0.09 0.36 and 4.19 mg/100 g fresh weight ... HPLC separation and quantitation of carotenoids. It was performed using an HPLC HP Agilent 1200 system, with a PDA detector and ... Pigment extraction. Pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids) were extracted as described by Hernández et al. [11], with some ...
The global carotenoids market generated at over USD 1.15 billion business in 2015 and may register over USD 1.65 billion by ... This carotenoid is used as a feed additive for animals which thereby improves meat and egg production. In addition, it improves ... Carotenoids are gaining growth due to its benefits regarding easy availability and health benefits offered with zeaxanthin, ... Animal feed industry is required to include this carotenoid to meet customer expectations and maintain animal health. It is ...
Canthaxanthin is a carotenoid that lacks pro-vitamin A activity but is known to have antioxidant activity. The products of its ...
For example, the content in vitamins C, B1 and carotenoids is significantly higher. The violet color is produced by so-called ...
AGE-RELATED MACULOPATHY ; MACULAR DEGENERATION ; ZEAXANTHIN ; SERUM ; CAROTENOIDS ; HEALTH ; OLDER ; CATARACTS ; PIGMENT ; DIET ...
1 Introduction Carotenoids are C40 isoprenoids and form one of the most diverse classes of natural compounds. They serve ... Carotenoids undergo a reaction involving incorporation of both oxygen atoms from molecular oxygen into their substrates across ... Saffron is the resources of special carotenoid derived molecules known as apocarotenoids which come with crocin, crocetin, ... moment part offers information regarding the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) that are the foremost gamers in ...
In contrast, the carotenoids showed no significant effect on either apoptosis or cell proliferation in any of the cells ... and two carotenoids (beta-carotene and lutein). Their effects on induction of apoptosis using Annexin V/PI and Caspase 3 ... all three lymphoid leukaemia cell lines with the fraction from carrot extracts which contained polyacetylenes and carotenoids ...
... carotenoids, vitamin C and polyphenols [12]. In the plant by-products from Diospyros kaki Thunb such as peels, seeds and calyx ...
... and the terpene carotenoid, where 100% of genes show homology in contig 6 between nucleotides 41,781 and 65,405 for RIT370 (6, ... in Bacillus safensis RIT372 and turnerbactin and carotenoid in Pseudomonas oryzihabitans RIT370. ...
TepalsNew target carotenoids for CCD4 enzymes are revealed with the characterization of a novel stress-induced carotenoid ...
Carotenoids and Human Health provides an introduction to food sources and metabolism. Written by experts in their fields and ... Carotenoids and Human Health provides an introduction to food sources and metabolism. Written by experts in their fields and ... Comprehensive and easy to use, Carotenoids and Human Health is a very useful resource for nutritionists, registered dieticians ... Biofortification of Maize with Provitamin A Carotenoids Kevin Pixley, Natalia Palacios Rojas, Raman Babu, Raphael Mutale, ...
Out of the 600 or more carotenoids found in nature, only three are found in the macula of the eye-lutein, RR-zeaxanthin and RS ...
Carotenoids are a type of plant cellular pigment that play a role in photosynthesis and give many plants a red, orange or ... Carotenoids also act as antioxidants by neutralizing free radicals that could harm the plant. The consumption of carotenoids ... Xanthophylls are carotenoids that contain oxygen and appear more yellow. Carotenes are carotenoids composed of hydrocarbons. ... Because the human body does not naturally produce carotenoids, people must eat a plant containing carotenoids to experience ...
This up-to-date reference describes how retinoids and carotenoids function in the skin and how they can be utilized to prevent ... Retinoids and Carotenoids in Dermatology. Anders Vahlquist,Madeleine Duvic. Snippet view - 2007. ... books.google.co.uk - This up-to-date reference describes how retinoids and carotenoids function in the skin and how they can be ... This up-to-date reference describes how retinoids and carotenoids function in the skin and how they can be utilized to prevent ...
Weber, U., Michaelis, L., Kern, W. et al. Experimental carotenoid retinopathy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 225, 346-350 ( ... Experimental carotenoid retinopathy. II. Functional and morphological alterations of the rabbit retina after acute ... Weber U, Kern W, Novotny GEK, Goerz G, Hanappel S (1987) Experimental carotenoid retinopathy. I. Functional and morphological ... alterations of the rabbit retina after 11 months dietary carotenoid application. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 225: 198- ...
As a leading provider of carotenoids, DSM has everything from beta-carotene to zeaxanthin. ... As a leading provider of carotenoids, DSM has everything from beta-carotene to zeaxanthin. ... In addition to vibrant colors, DSM Carotenoids will give your products healthy benefits. Certain carotenoids work as ... Beta-carotene is a member of the carotenoid family, known for its intense pigments. Beta-Carotene is also an antioxidant and a ...
Food Carotenoids: Chemistry, Biology and Technology. Food Carotenoids: Chemistry, Biology and Technology An IFT Press Book ... Carotenoids were first studied as natural pigments, then as precursors of vitamin A, and then as bioactive compounds against ...
... Kushwaha Kirti,1 Saini Amita,1 Saraswat Priti,2 Agarwal Mukesh ... Carotenoids protect cells against photooxidative damage and hence found important applications in environment, food and ... Microorganisms can serve as sources of carotenoids, the most widespread group of naturally occurring pigments. More than 750 ...
Eggs are a high in lutein, a carotenoid important for eye and skin health The study published in the August 2004 issue of the ... Sufficient blood levels of carotenoids, a family of antioxidants in fruits and vegetables, might reduce the risk of ischemic ...
Scientists create yellow potatoes with high carotenoid levels Potatoes with higher levels of beneficial carotenoids are the ... This new research, supported by Abbott, was presented by Elizabeth Johnson, PhD, a scientist in the Carotenoids and Health ... is the predominant carotenoid present in key areas of the infant brain, including areas that regulate overall brain function, ... finds older adults are consuming higher levels of carotenoids, flavonoids and other phytonutrients found in fruits and ...
Related tags: Carotenoid, Carotenoids, Lutein, Cognitive function, Cognitive health The benefits of carotenoids for vision is ... Related topics: Research, Eye health, Antioxidants/carotenoids, Cognitive function Subscribe to our FREE newsletter. Subscribe ... OmniActives carotenoid line Lutemax gets Non-GMO Project Verified * Theres building evidence on nutritions role in ... Hammonds studies on carotenoids and audition was published last year​​ in the journal Nutritional Neuroscience​, where his ...
Intake of the carotenoids lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin improved iron absorption from a meal and even reversed the inhibitory ... Intake of the carotenoids lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin improved iron absorption from a meal and even reversed the inhibitory ... "The highest amount of carotenoid used (3.6 mg) was chosen as a result of previous experiences with beta-carotene, because it ... Related topics: Research, Suppliers, Eye health, Cancer risk reduction, Antioxidants/carotenoids, Cardiovascular health, ...
... molecular mechanism-based cancer chemoprevention using carotenoids seems to be an attractive approach. Various carotenoids, ... Dietary intake of carotenoids is inversely associated with the risk of a variety of cancers in different tissues. Preclinical ... In this review, cancer prevention using carotenoids are reviewed and the possible mechanisms of action are described. ... studies have shown that some carotenoids have potent antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting potential ...
  • For example, the content in vitamins C, B1 and carotenoids is significantly higher. (magicgardenseeds.com)
  • Carotenoids also act as antioxidants by neutralizing free radicals that could harm the plant. (reference.com)
  • Certain carotenoids work as antioxidants in the body to protect cells, tissues and organs against the damaging effects of free radicals, which may contribute to the development of disorders such as cancer, heart disease and eye diseases. (dsm.com)
  • Sufficient blood levels of carotenoids, a family of antioxidants in fruits and vegetables, might reduce the risk of ischemic stroke, according to a study published today in the rapid access issue of Stroke: Journal of the American Heart Association. (news-medical.net)
  • These data suggest that the cold-pressed berry seed oils may serve as potential dietary sources of tocopherols, carotenoids, and natural antioxidants. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Antioxidants, such as vitamin C and carotenoids, keep free radicals under control. (ufl.edu)
  • As such, carotenoids, which are some of the best-known natural antioxidants, have been the subject of studies for years, both for cosmetic and health benefits. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Carotenoids don't just make us look good but act as antioxidants as well, which when consumed in our diet might be beneficial in reducing the risk of heart disease, some cancers , urinary tract infections , and possibly even lengthening our lifespan . (fyiliving.com)
  • The North America Carotenoids & Antioxidants Market report defines and segments the carotenoids & antioxidants market in North America with analysis and forecast of revenue. (prweb.com)
  • Key players in the North America Carotenoids & Antioxidants (Nutraceuticals) Market are BASF, Archer Daniels Midland Co. (ADM), Cargill Inc., Dupont De Nemours & Co. (Dupont) MSDS. (prweb.com)
  • Browse through the TOC of the North America Carotenoids & Antioxidants Market report to get an idea of the in-depth analysis provided. (prweb.com)
  • Increasing awareness among consumers regarding aging disorders have spiked the demand for carotenoids & antioxidants in the nutraceuticals market. (prweb.com)
  • As of 2013, the U.S. contributed a major share of around 50% to the carotenoids & antioxidants market in the region. (prweb.com)
  • The North American carotenoids & antioxidants market has five major players: BASF (Germany), Chemtura (U.S.), Albemarle (U.S.), DSM (The Netherlands), Sumitomo (Japan), and others. (prweb.com)
  • The carotenoids & antioxidants market is segmented and projected on the basis of applications, which includes functional food, functional beverages, dietary supplements, animal nutrition, and personal care. (prweb.com)
  • Dietary supplements are the most preferred application of carotenoids & antioxidants. (prweb.com)
  • The European carotenoids and antioxidants (nutraceuticals) market constituted 26.3% of the global nutraceutical market in the year 2013, and its share is estimated to be 26.2% by the end of the year 2018. (prweb.com)
  • The Asia-Pacific carotenoids and antioxidants (nutraceuticals) market constituted 31.8% of the global nutraceutical market in the year 2013, and its share is estimated to grow to 32.3% by the end of the year 2018.The Asia-Pacific region is the most densely populated region in the world. (prweb.com)
  • The anti-aging effects and preventative properties of antioxidants have created a consumer boom, which has resulted in the growth of the Asia-Pacific carotenoids and antioxidants market. (prweb.com)
  • Carotenoids are a class of antioxidants that protect the skin from environmental stressors, in particular, from ultraviolet damage. (vivawoman.net)
  • The alpha-lipoic acid present in Carotenoid Complex Softgels from Country Life® could protect the brain and may also provide antioxidants. (pureformulas.com)
  • Carotenoids are antioxidants that protect the cells, tissues and organs of the body from free radical damage. (evitamins.com)
  • Mixed Carotenoids 25,000 IU from Nature's Life contains a blend of carotenoids from a form of microalgae, known as Dunaliella salina , which is rich in important antioxidants. (evitamins.com)
  • Carotenoids could potentially prevent NMSC by acting as antioxidants to prevent UV-induced free radicals from damaging the skin ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Carotenoids are potent antioxidants mainly transported in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction. (diva-portal.org)
  • Carotenoids as antioxidants limit free radical damage by donating electrons to quench, or neutralize, the oxidant radicals. (encognitive.com)
  • In human nutrition, carotenoids, as antioxidants, serve to protect cells from the danger of free radicals that may be produced by the body during metabolism or by cigarette smoke, sunlight, radiation, pollutants, or even stress. (encognitive.com)
  • Antioxidants as well as carotenoids-which often provide antioxidant effects-welcome additional research to strengthen awareness of their existing benefits, as well as introduce new potential into the market. (naturalproductsinsider.com)
  • We learned from these studies that nature protects LDL with vitamin E, carotenoids and perhaps other not yet identified antioxidants. (healthy.net)
  • Furthermore, carotenoids are strong antioxidants, which can bind to free radicals in the body. (naturalremedies.org)
  • The "oxidative modification hypothesis" of coronary heart disease (CHD) 1 proposes that intake of antioxidants, such as carotenoids and vitamin E, protects against atherogenesis by blocking oxidation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. (ahajournals.org)
  • We experimentally manipulated dietary intake of carotenoids by nestlings of two closely related passerine species, the great tit Parus major and the blue tit Parus caeruleus , and measured nestling antioxidants, body condition, immunity and plumage colour. (biologists.org)
  • 5 Lungs are also protected by additional lipid soluble antioxidants, the carotenoids, which directly scavenge the superoxide anion and free radicals such as peroxyl radical. (bmj.com)
  • The antioxidant capacity (in both the aqueous and lipid compartments), DNA oxidation (single cell gel electrophoresis), Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1), Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 (IGFBP-3), (gene expression profile (high-density filter-based cDNA microarrays), lipid peroxidation (MDA analysis and Isoprostane determination), and antioxidant nutrient levels (carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid and uric acid) in the circulation will be measured every other week throughout the study period. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The statistically significant associations of antioxidant serum carotenoids with metabolic syndrome isn't necessarily causal. (dsm.com)
  • Carotenoids are a type of antioxidant derived from vegetables such as tomatoes, spinach and carrots. (diabetes.co.uk)
  • According to the authors of the study, the results: "suggest that smoking may nullify the protective effect (of high carotenoid levels), supporting the concept that antioxidant metabolism and the oxidative defence system behave differently in smokers than in non-smokers. (diabetes.co.uk)
  • The antioxidant property represents the prime benefit of carotenoids driving its use in anti-aging cosmetics and supplements. (prweb.com)
  • As an antioxidant, carotenoids have the ability to quench free radicals and protect cells from oxidative damage or stress caused by pollution, ultraviolet radiation or other environmental factors that destabilize normal molecules. (prweb.com)
  • In addition to its use as a natural nutritional additive in cosmetic formulations, carotenoids are also valued in the animal feed industry for its numerous benefits such as antioxidant properties, health and reproductive benefits. (prweb.com)
  • A research group led by University of Tsukuba Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences Professor Hideaki Soya and Professor Randeep Rakwal has investigated the effect on hippocampal function of the naturally-derived pigment ASX, which is believed to have the most powerful antioxidant activity among carotenoids. (qualitycounts.com)
  • The researchers said links between the lower risk of major chronic age-related diseases like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancer and diets high in fruit and vegetables had led to an increased interest in the influence of carotenoid- and antioxidant-rich diets on the ageing process. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Carotenoids Extracted from Dried Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. (hindawi.com)
  • Carotenoids extracted from dried peppers were evaluated for their antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. (hindawi.com)
  • The consumer base in these countries is ever increasing for nutraceuticals that incorporate carotenoid & antioxidant ingredients. (prweb.com)
  • Taking into consideration the growing population combined with the rising income levels, the demand for carotenoid & antioxidant ingredients seems to be unending in the North American region. (prweb.com)
  • Many of the biological actions of carotenoids have been attributed to their antioxidant properties, through the antioxidant capacity of the carotenoid molecule per se or through their possible influences on intracellular redox status. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This mechanism will allow us create water-soluble protein complexes to deliver antioxidant carotenoid to cells that need protection from the reactive oxygen species: for example, to the healthy tissue during photodynamic cancer therapy. (innovations-report.com)
  • More research is needed to elucidate the maternal-foetal transfer of tocopherols and carotenoids, and to examine the impact of maternal antioxidant nutrient status on neonatal antioxidant capacity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It seems that most carotenoids are not stable when exposed to air and light, and will immediately oxidize, losing their antioxidant and protective capacity. (vivawoman.net)
  • The antioxidant capacity of the extracts obtained from tomato peel was correlated with the carotenoid concentration and it was not affected by the PEF treatment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Carotenoids are a type of antioxidant, and it has been claimed for many years that they protect against angina and stroke. (drugstorenews.com)
  • Women with higher levels of antioxidant-rich carotenoids were associated with a significantly lower risk of developing a particularly aggressive type of breast cancer in a recent study. (newhope.com)
  • Some of the studies analyzing the chemical and antioxidant composition of A. unedo fruits, concluded that β-carotene is the major and single carotenoid found in these fruits (2). (csic.es)
  • We hypothesise that the difference in effect of dietary carotenoids on the two species is due to relatively larger clutch size and higher growth rates of blue tits compared to great tits, leading to blue tit nestlings being more in need of carotenoids for antioxidant function than great tit nestlings. (biologists.org)
  • Thus parents able to provide their nestlings with a carotenoid-rich diet should enhance their offspring's antioxidant protection, body condition and immunity, and modulate their phenotype. (biologists.org)
  • Both the carotenoids and tocopherols are fat soluble antioxidant vitamins. (illinois.edu)
  • The vitamin and antioxidant properties of the carotenoids and tocopherols provide health and economic benefits which potentially could be captured by both producers and consumers. (illinois.edu)
  • The results of this study were presented in the "Carotenoid and Retinoid Interactive Group: Bioavailability and Metabolism of Carotenoids and Vitamin A" on March 29 by Joshua Smith and John Erdman, PhD, from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. (nutrition.org)
  • It also highlighted the bioavailability and transport of carotenoids as well as healthy brain aging. (healio.com)
  • In an embodiment, administering analogs or derivatives of carotenoids embodied herein to a subject may control or affect the bioavailability of eicosanoids. (google.es)
  • Absorption of iron from the wheat-based breakfast was found to significantly increase in the presence of the carotenoids, with no significant difference between the individual carotenoids, compared to the simple iron-enriched breakfast. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Dry biomass, amount and proportion of individual carotenoids and lipid content of the selected identified yeast were determined. (scirp.org)
  • This new research, supported by Abbott, was presented by Elizabeth Johnson, PhD, a scientist in the Carotenoids and Health Laboratory at Tufts University, at the 16th International Symposium on Carotenoids, in Krakow, Poland. (news-medical.net)
  • Dr. Billy Hammond, a professor at the Brain and Behavioral Sciences at the University of Georgia, presented his work on a carotenoid called lutein and its potential interactions with the human auditory system during a symposium on carotenoids at the Nutrition 2018 ​ ​ conference in Boston last weekend. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Carotenoid biosynthesis in plants is highly regulated, although all of the processes involved have not yet been identified. (scielo.cl)
  • In this work, we review the mechanisms involved in the light-mediated regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis and the effect of light on the levels of expression of carotenogenic genes in higher plants. (scielo.cl)
  • The molecular insight gained into the light-regulated expression of carotenoid genes will facilitate our understanding of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis. (scielo.cl)
  • (C) Possible pathway for the biosynthesis of carotenoid metabolites in Crocus style branches. (plantcell.org)
  • sphaeroides CrtI for the four-step Pantoea agglomerans enzyme, which re-routed carotenoid biosynthesis and culminated in the production of 2,2'-diketo-spirilloxanthin under semi-aerobic conditions. (osti.gov)
  • This includes discovery of genes and metabolites involved in epigenetics, RNA metabolism, chloroplast-nuclear signaling, carotenoid biosynthesis, photosynthesis and drought. (edu.au)
  • In green plants, carotenoids are found in chloroplasts, as part of biosynthesis system, but they are more numerous, more visible, and more coloured in roots, fruits and flowers [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • The most common result of such carotenoid-protein interactions is a red-shift of the carotenoid absorption maximum-such as the shift in absorption of the carotenoid astaxanthin from 480 to 630 nm in crustacyanin, the blue carotenoid protein complex in the shell of the lobster Homarus gammarus or Homarus americanus [ 9 - 13 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The most commonly used carotenoids are β-carotene, astaxanthin and lutein that can be produced by various microalgae such as Dunaliella salina, Haematococcus pluvialis , Chromochloris zofingiensis, Chlorella sorokiniana, etc. [ 1 , 11 , 15 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • There are more than 700 known carotenoids in Nature, with different chemical structures, which play essential roles in biology [ 1 , 2 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Here, we demonstrated that human skin melanoma (A375) cells are damaged through the photo-excitation of several carotenoids (neoxanthin, fucoxanthin and siphonaxanthin). (nih.gov)
  • Methods: We prospectively evaluated associations of several carotenoids and α-tocopherol with risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer using serum collected at baseline from 302 subjects in the Isotretinoin-Basal Cell Carcinoma Prevention Trial. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nutritionally important carotenoids as consumer products. (springer.com)
  • These important carotenoids are found in many fruits and vegetables and have been of great interest to nutrition scientists. (health4youonline.com)
  • Carotenoids range, together with terpenoids, among the most prevalent, lipid-soluble secondary plant metabolites. (rsc.org)
  • Increasing evidence shows that carotenoids, and their metabolites, may modulate molecular pathways involved in cell proliferation, acting at Akt, tyrosine kinases, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) and growth factor signaling cascades. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Accumulation and Pathway of Carotenoid-Derived Metabolites in Crocus. (plantcell.org)
  • (B) Crocus flower displaying red style branches that accumulate carotenoid-derived metabolites. (plantcell.org)
  • Dietary intake of carotenoids is inversely associated with the risk of a variety of cancers in different tissues. (mdpi.com)
  • Presenters at the Brain and Ocular Nutrition Conference said nearly all components of visual performance are enhanced through increased carotenoid intake. (healio.com)
  • Twenty-three speakers described their research during the 3-day meeting, and the topics ranged from genetically engineering food sources to the importance of lifelong intake of the key carotenoids for improving both visual and brain function. (healio.com)
  • Dietary intake of carotenoids by mammals is thought to be associated with reduced risks of several chronic health disorders including heart disease, age-related macular degeneration and certain cancers [ 7 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • On the other hand, rising demand and intake of animal feed and food has boasted the market for carotenoids in the Asia-Pacific region. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Two studies published recently (19 , 20) have found inverse associations between tomato sauce intake (19) and intake of cooked tomatoes (20) to be stronger among older participants, suggesting that some carotenoids may influence primarily sporadic cases that are largely attributed primarily to environmental influences. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, we also investigated associations between carotenoid intake and prostate cancer risk after stratification by age. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Background- Increased intake of carotenoids and vitamin E may protect against myocardial infarction (MI). (ahajournals.org)
  • The OCP, a 35 kDa protein that contains a single noncovalently bound carotenoid ( 15 - 18 ), is the product of the slr1963 gene in Synechocystis PCC 6803 ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • We report the atomic-resolution structure of an active form of the OCP consisting of the N-terminal domain and a single noncovalently bound carotenoid pigment. (sciencemag.org)
  • Yuan X, Liu X, McClements DJ, Cao Y, Xiao H. Enhancement of phytochemical bioaccessibility from plant-based foods using excipient emulsions: impact of lipid type on carotenoid solubilization from spinach. (harvard.edu)
  • We investigated whether simvastatin, by exerting both lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects, altered the carotenoid status in plasma. (diva-portal.org)
  • Both crude and lipid-adjusted carotenoids were inversely correlated with CRP and IL-6 in plasma but the change in carotenoid status during simvastatin therapy was not specifically related to any changes in inflammatory markers. (diva-portal.org)
  • The lipid contained in whole eggs enhances the absorption of all these carotenoids. (healthcanal.com)
  • The co-consumption of whole egg with carotenoid-rich foods may increase overall carotenoid absorption via lipid-rich egg yolk. (healthcanal.com)
  • One potential mechanism, said the author, could be due to an association between the carotenoid and the iron molecule, which changes the solubility of the iron form and improves the absorption in the gut. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The discovered transfer reaction of a hydrophobic carotenoid molecule between two water-soluble proteins gives us several interesting opportunities. (innovations-report.com)
  • Carotenoids are an important group of vitamers of vitamin A. When referring to a vitamin such as vitamin A, it is important to note that vitamin A is not one substance or one molecule. (naturalremedies.org)
  • "To my knowledge, there is no report on carotenoids increasing iron absorption from food and the mechanism responsible for the effect needs to be addressed," ​ said García-Casal. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Co-consuming cooked whole eggs is an effective way to enhance carotenoid absorption from other carotenoid-rich foods. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The absorption of carotenoids was 3.8-fold higher when the salad included three eggs compared to no eggs. (healthcanal.com)
  • The lipids in salad dressings also increase the absorption of carotenoids but it is easy to overuse salad dressings and consume excess calories. (healthcanal.com)
  • Dietary lipids are one of the most effective stimulators of carotenoid absorption, but very limited data exist on the impact of endogenous food sources of lipids to enhance carotenoid absorption. (healthcanal.com)
  • We designed this study to assess the effects of egg consumption on carotenoid absorption from a carotenoid-rich, raw mixed-vegetable salad. (healthcanal.com)
  • They then determined the bioaccessibility of carotenoids, ie the proportion that can be absorbed by intestinal cells (enterocytes), in foods and culinary preparations, using an in vitro digestion model that reproduces the conditions in the stomach and duodenum corresponding to the first stage of digestion before absorption by enterocytes. (cirad.fr)
  • A process for preparing stable dry powders which are insoluble in hot water and which contain fat-soluble vitamins and/or carotenoids, which comprises the following steps: a) preparing an aqueous dispersion containing essentially these fat-soluble active substances, film-forming colloids and reducing. (google.es)
  • Conventionally, the fat-soluble vitamins and/or carotenoids are dispersed in an aqueous solution of an organic film-forming colloid and the resulting dispersion is finally converted into dry products in powder form. (google.es)
  • The stability of such products must meet particularly stringent requirements when they are to be used as additives to foodstuffs or to animal feeds, because when used for these they are often exposed to influences such as elevated temperatures, moisture, mechanical friction or pressure which are extremely damaging for the sensitive vitamins and carotenoids. (google.es)
  • Carotenoids and all other vitamers of vitamin A are fat soluble vitamins. (naturalremedies.org)
  • Jan 2016 Eurofins food division in North America has acquired Craft Technologies, Inc., which is a contract laboratory that focusses on analysis of carotenoids, nutrients, vitamins, bioflavonoids and phytochemicals and has previously awarded a Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation grant for formulating analytical methods. (comunicati.net)
  • Serum concentrations of vitamin A, vitamin E and carotenoids were tested on participants 3 years and older in 2001- 2002 and on participants 6 years and older in 2003-2004. (cdc.gov)
  • The interest in the role of vitamin E and carotenoids in the reduction of heart disease by their preventing oxidation of low density lipoproteins continues to grow. (healthy.net)
  • No matter how many studies it has gone through, one thing for sure, the reddish-orange palm oil boasts a high content of carotenoids , the same nutrients that give carrots, tomatoes and other fruits and vegetables their orange and red colours. (malaysiakini.com)
  • An attempt was made to isolate yeast strains from different sources (flowers, trees exudates, fruits and cheese) which have a fast growth rate and high content of carotenoids. (scirp.org)
  • Global market for Carotenoids is projected to reach US$1.3 billion by 2020, driven by growing demand from end-use applications such as food, animal feed and pharmaceuticals. (prweb.com)
  • With recent studies highlighting the health benefits of carotenoids in reducing the risk of cancer, vision loss, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases, demand from the food and pharmaceutical industries is increasing rapidly. (prweb.com)
  • We conducted a nested case-control study consisting of 604 breast cancer cases and 626 controls with prospectively measured circulating carotenoid levels and mammographic density in the Nurses' Health Study. (chiro.org)
  • It has been postulated that these actions are related to the ability of carotenoids to quench reactive oxygen species [ 8 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Shhwartz and Shklar at Harvard University studied the ability of carotenoids to inhibit tumour growth in breast, lung, oral and skin tissue. (canceractive.com)
  • The regional market for carotenoids globally includes North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and rest of the world. (comunicati.net)
  • Liu and colleagues report serum carotenoid concentrations and metabolic syndrome prevalence from a cross-sectional study of 2,148 adults (50-75y) living in urban Guangzhou, China. (dsm.com)
  • Liu J, Shi W, Cao Y, He L, Guan K, Ling W, Chen Y. Higher serum carotenoid concentrations associated with a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults. (dsm.com)
  • Results: Risk of developing a subsequent BCC was not related to serum levels of any of the carotenoids measured or to α-tocopherol. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Carotenoids are colored terpenes synthesized in plants, algae and some yeasts and bacteria. (scielo.cl)
  • Thus, the increased incidence of carotenoid-producing bacteria in the gut of healthy subjects may offer clues to explain how this affects disease states. (drugstorenews.com)
  • Our results indicate that long-term exposure to carotenoids, through production by the bacteria in the digestive system, has important health benefits,' Nielsen noted. (drugstorenews.com)
  • 2007) developed a small-scale method for quantitation of carotenoids in bacteria and yeasts, but in this case carotenoids are embedded into a compact matrix in small concentrations. (scielo.br)
  • There's a great deal of research into the effects of carotenoids. (canceractive.com)
  • The basis of form segments the carotenoids market is segmented into capsules, powder, and tablets. (comunicati.net)
  • In general, applications of carotenoids can be divided into three main groups: i) as natural dyes in food and feed industry, ii) as feed additives in aquaculture and poultry farming, iii) as well as in the pharmaceutical sector and in cosmetics, due to their antioxidative properties [ 10 , 11 , 15 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • The Carotenoids book series provides an introduction to the fundamental chemistry, detailed accounts of the basic methods used in carotenoid research, and critical discussions of the biochemistry, functions and applications of carotenoids. (foyles.co.uk)
  • In the current study, we addressed this hypothesis and also assessed if the association between carotenoids and breast cancer risk varies by mammographic density. (chiro.org)
  • In contrast, there was no inverse association between carotenoids and breast cancer risk among women with low mammographic density. (chiro.org)
  • 9 Few studies have examined the prospective association between carotenoids other than β-carotene and risk of CHD. (ahajournals.org)
  • A range of colorless carotenoids including Phytoene and phytofluene, are known to boost properties of key active ingredients used in the production of cosmetics and personal care products. (prweb.com)
  • yellow1 maps to chromosome six and is associated with the gene phytoene synthase, the first step in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. (illinois.edu)