A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC 2.3.1.7.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 2.3.1.21.
Acyltransferases in the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyze the reversible transfer of acyl groups from acyl-CoA to L-carnitine and thereby mediate the transport of activated fatty acids through that membrane. EC 2.3.1.
Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
An acetic acid ester of CARNITINE that facilitates movement of ACETYL COA into the matrices of mammalian MITOCHONDRIA during the oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.
A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROXYLATION of gamma-butyrobetaine to L-CARNITINE. It is the last enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of L-CARNITINE and is dependent on alpha-ketoglutarate; IRON; ASCORBIC ACID; and OXYGEN.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-SERINE to COENZYME A and O-acetyl-L-serine, using ACETYL-COA as a donor.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa10p catalytic subunit and the Naa15p auxiliary subunit. The structure of this enzyme is conserved between lower and higher eukaryotes. It has specificity for N-terminal SERINE; ALANINE; THREONINE; GLYCINE; VALINE; and CYSTINE residues and acts on nascent peptide chains after the removal of the initiator METHIONINE by METHIONYL AMINOPEPTIDASES.
An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa50p catalytic subunit, and the Naa10p and Naa15p auxiliary subunits. It has specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is hydrophobic.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.
A long-chain fatty acid ester of carnitine which facilitates the transfer of long-chain fatty acids from cytoplasm into mitochondria during the oxidation of fatty acids.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetyltransferase reaction using ACETYL CoA as an acetyl donor and dihydrolipoamide as acceptor to produce COENZYME A (CoA) and S-acetyldihydrolipoamide. It forms the (E2) subunit of the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC 2.1.1.63.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from ACETYL COENZYME A, to the N-terminus of a peptide chain.
An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa20p catalytic subunit and the Naa25p auxiliary subunit. The structure of this enzyme is conserved between YEASTS and HUMAN. It has specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is either ASPARTATE; GLUTAMATE; ASPARAGINE; OR GLUTAMINE.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Vesicular amine transporter proteins that transport the neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE into small SECRETORY VESICLES. Proteins of this family contain 12 transmembrane domains and exchange vesicular PROTONS for cytoplasmic acetylcholine.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.99.8.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A naturally occurring metabolite of HISTIDINE that has antioxidant properties.
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A form of encephalopathy with fatty infiltration of the LIVER, characterized by brain EDEMA and VOMITING that may rapidly progress to SEIZURES; COMA; and DEATH. It is caused by a generalized loss of mitochondrial function leading to disturbances in fatty acid and CARNITINE metabolism.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
A group of 6-alkyl SALICYLIC ACIDS that are found in ANACARDIUM and known for causing CONTACT DERMATITIS.
A fibric acid derivative used in the treatment of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III and severe HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p986)
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
An enzyme that catalyses the reaction of D-glucosamine 6-phosphate with ACETYL-COA to form N-acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Elevated level of AMMONIA in the blood. It is a sign of defective CATABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS or ammonia to UREA.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A mitochondrial matrix enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of L-GLUTAMATE to N-acetyl-L-glutamate in the presence of ACETYL-COA.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Hydrazines substituted by one or more methyl groups in any position.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A toxic thiol mercury salt formerly used as a diuretic. It inhibits various biochemical functions, especially in mitochondria, and is used to study those functions.
Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Biogenic amines having more than one amine group. These are long-chain aliphatic compounds that contain multiple amino and/or imino groups. Because of the linear arrangement of positive charge on these molecules, polyamines bind electrostatically to ribosomes, DNA, and RNA.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for medium-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.
Tissue in the BASAL FOREBRAIN inferior to the anterior perforated substance, and anterior to the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and ansa lenticularis. It contains the BASAL NUCLEUS OF MEYNERT.
A toxic diamine formed by putrefaction from the decarboxylation of arginine and ornithine.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.

Oxidation of medium-chain acyl-CoA esters by extracts of Aspergillus niger: enzymology and characterization of intermediates by HPLC. (1/91)

The activities of beta-oxidation enzymes were measured in extracts of glucose- and triolein-grown cells of Aspergillus niger. Growth on triolein stimulated increased enzyme activity, especially for acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. No acyl-CoA oxidase activity was detected. HPLC analysis after incubation of triolein-grown cell extracts with decanoyl-CoA showed that beta-oxidation was limited to one cycle. Octanoyl-CoA accumulated as the decanoyl-CoA was oxidized. Beta-oxidation enzymes in isolated mitochondrial fractions were also studied. The results are discussed in the context of methyl ketone production by fungi.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of carnitine-dependent transport of acetyl-CoA from peroxisomes to mitochondria in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identification of a plasma membrane carnitine transporter, Agp2p. (2/91)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, beta-oxidation of fatty acids is confined to peroxisomes. The acetyl-CoA produced has to be transported from the peroxisomes via the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix in order to be degraded to CO(2) and H(2)O. Two pathways for the transport of acetyl-CoA to the mitochondria have been proposed. The first involves peroxisomal conversion of acetyl-CoA into glyoxylate cycle intermediates followed by transport of these intermediates to the mitochondria. The second pathway involves peroxisomal conversion of acetyl-CoA into acetylcarnitine, which is subsequently transported to the mitochondria. Using a selective screen, we have isolated several mutants that are specifically affected in the second pathway, the carnitine-dependent acetyl-CoA transport from the peroxisomes to the mitochondria, and assigned these CDAT mutants to three different complementation groups. The corresponding genes were identified using functional complementation of the mutants with a genomic DNA library. In addition to the previously reported carnitine acetyl-CoA transferase (CAT2), we identified the genes for the yeast orthologue of the human mitochondrial carnitine acylcarnitine translocase (YOR100C or CAC) and for a transport protein (AGP2) required for carnitine transport across the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Pea chloroplast carnitine acetyltransferase. (3/91)

The purpose of this study was to resolve the controversy as to whether or not chloroplasts possess the enzyme carnitine acetyltransferase (CAT) and whether the activity of this enzyme is sufficient to support previously reported rates of fatty acid synthesis from acetylcarnitine. CAT catalyses the freely reversible reaction: carnitine + short-chain acylCoA <--> short-chain acylcarnitine + CoASH. CAT activity was detected in thc chloroplasts of Pisum sativum L. With membrane-impermeable acetyl CoA as a substrate. activity was only detected in ruptured chloroplasts and not with intact chloroplasts, indicating that the enzyme was located on the stromal side of the envelope. In crude preparations, CAT could only be detected using a sensitive radioenzymatic assay due to competing reactions from other enzymes using acetyl CoA and large amounts of ultraviolet-absorbing materials. After partial purification of the enzyme, CAT was detected in both the forward and reverse directions using spectrophotometric assays. Rates of 100 nmol of product formed per minute per milligram of protein were obtained, which is sufficient to support reported fatty acid synthesis rates from acetylcarnitine. Chloroplastic CAT showed optimal activity at pH 8.5 and had a high substrate specificity, handling C2-C4 acyl CoAs only. We believe that CAT has been satisfactorily demonstrated in pea chloroplasts.  (+info)

Evidence that the rate-limiting step for the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid in Mortierella alpina is at the level of the 18:3 to 20:3 elongase. (4/91)

Mortierella alpina, a fungus used commercially as a source of arachidonic acid, 20:4(n-6), has been examined to see if growth on lipid-based carbon sources leads to repression of either fatty acid biosynthesis and/or fatty acid desaturation and elongation. Changes in the activities of ATP:citrate lyase, isocitrate lyase, carnitine acetyltransferase, malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase when the fungus was grown on fatty-acid-based (Tween) carbon sources were consistent with (i) the cells using the fatty acyl portion of the substrate as the sole carbon source, (ii) pyruvate kinase being the source of pyruvate for biosynthesis under these conditions and (iii) malic enzyme's major function being as a provider of NADPH for lipid biosynthesis. The abolition of fatty acid synthase activity when cells were grown on Tweens indicated the cessation of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis under these conditions. The fatty acyl composition of the lipid accumulated by the fungus grown on Tweens 20, 40 and 80 showed that desaturation and elongation of the substrate lipid still occurred. The absolute amount of arachidonic acid synthesized by Tween-grown cells was the same as for cells grown on glucose. The transformation of incorporated fatty acids into 20:4(n-6) was, it appeared, limited at the elongation of 18:3(n-6) to 20:3(n-6) as, in every case, 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3(n-6) increased in amount in the Tween-grown cells. These data show for the first time that fatty acid synthesis is regulated separately from fatty acid desaturation/elongation and that the latter reactions are not repressed by growth of the fungus on simple fatty acids. Furthermore, the data strongly implicate the elongation of 18:3(n-6) to 20:3(n-6) as the limiting step in arachidonic acid biosynthesis by Mort. alpina.  (+info)

Hormonal control of ketogenesis. Rapid activation of hepatic ketogenic capacity in fed rats by anti-insulin serum and glucagon. (5/91)

The enhanced capacity for long-chain fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis that develops in the rat liver between 6 and 9 h after the onset of starvation was shown to be inducible much more rapidly by administration of anti-insulin serum or glucagon to fed rats. After only 1 h of treatment with either agent, the liver had clearly switched from a "nonketogenic" to a "ketogenic" profile, as determined by rates of acetoacetate and b-hydroxybutyrate production on perfusion with oleic acid. As was the case after starvation, the administration of insulin antibodies or glucagon resulted in depletion of hepatic glycogen stores and a proportional increase in the ability of the liver to oxidize long-chain fatty acids and (-)-octanoylcarnitine, suggesting that all three treatment schedules activated the carnitine acyltransferase system of enzymes. In contrast to anti-insulin serum, which produced marked elevations in plasma glucose, free fatty acid, and ketone body concentrations, glucagon treatment had little effect on any of these parameters, presumably due to enhanced insulin secretion after the initial stimulation of glycogenolysis. Thus, after treatment with glucagon alone, it was possible to obtain a "ketogenic" liver from a nonketotic animal. The results are consistent with the possibility that the activity of carnitine acyltransferase, and thus ketogenic capacity, is subject to bihormonal control through the relative blood concentrations of insulin and glucagon, as also appears to be the case with hepatic carbohydrate metabolism.  (+info)

Age-associated mitochondrial oxidative decay: improvement of carnitine acetyltransferase substrate-binding affinity and activity in brain by feeding old rats acetyl-L- carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acid. (6/91)

We test whether the dysfunction with age of carnitine acetyltransferase (CAT), a key mitochondrial enzyme for fuel utilization, is due to decreased binding affinity for substrate and whether this substrate, fed to old rats, restores CAT activity. The kinetics of CAT were analyzed by using the brains of young and old rats and of old rats supplemented for 7 weeks with the CAT substrate acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) and/or the mitochondrial antioxidant precursor R-alpha-lipoic acid (LA). Old rats, compared with young rats, showed a decrease in CAT activity and in CAT-binding affinity for both substrates, ALCAR and CoA. Feeding ALCAR or ALCAR plus LA to old rats significantly restored CAT-binding affinity for ALCAR and CoA, and CAT activity. To explore the underlying mechanism, lipid peroxidation and total iron and copper levels were assayed; all increased in old rats. Feeding old rats LA or LA plus ALCAR inhibited lipid peroxidation but did not decrease iron and copper levels. Ex vivo oxidation of young-rat brain with Fe(II) caused loss of CAT activity and binding affinity. In vitro oxidation of purified CAT with Fe(II) inactivated the enzyme but did not alter binding affinity. However, in vitro treatment of CAT with the lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde or 4-hydroxy-nonenal caused a decrease in CAT-binding affinity and activity, thus mimicking age-related change. Preincubation of CAT with ALCAR or CoA prevented malondialdehyde-induced dysfunction. Thus, feeding old rats high levels of key mitochondrial metabolites can ameliorate oxidative damage, enzyme activity, substrate-binding affinity, and mitochondrial dysfunction.  (+info)

Acetyl-coenzyme A hydrolase, an artifact? The conversion of acetyl-coenzyme A into acetate by the combined action of carnitine acetyltransferase and acetylcarnitine hydrolase. (7/91)

1. The nature of the acetyl-CoA hydrolase (EC 3.1.2.1) reaction in rat and sheep liver homogenates was investigated. 2. The activity determined in an incubated system was 5.10 and 3.28nmol/min per mg of protein for rat and sheep liver homogenate respectively. This activity was not affected by the addition of l-carnitine, but was decreased by the addition of d-carnitine. 3. No acetyl-CoA hydrolase activity could be detected in rat or sheep liver homogenates first treated with Sephadex G-25. This treatment decreased the carnitine concentrations of the homogenates to about one-twentieth. Subsequent addition of l-carnitine, but not d-carnitine, restored the apparent acetyl-CoA hydrolase activity. 4. Sephadex treatment did not affect acetyl-carnitine hydrolase activity of the homogenates, which was 5.8 and 8.1nmol/min per mg of protein respectively for rat and sheep liver. 5. Direct spectrophotometric assay of acetyl-CoA hydrolase, based on the reaction of CoA released with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid), clearly demonstrated that after Sephadex treatment no activity could be measured. 6. Carnitine acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.7) activity measured in the same assay system in response to added l-carnitine was very low in normal rat liver homogenates, owing to the apparent high acetyl-CoA hydrolase activity, but was increased markedly after Sephadex treatment. The V(max.) for this enzyme in rat liver homogenates was increased from 3.4 to 14.8nmol/min per mg of protein whereas the K(m) for l-carnitine was decreased from 936 to 32mum after Sephadex treatment. 7. Acetyl-CoA hydrolase activity could be demonstrated in disrupted rat liver mitochondria but not in separated outer or inner mitochondrial membrane fractions. Activity could be demonstrated after recombination of outer and inner mitochondrial membrane fractions. The outer mitochondrial membrane fraction showed acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity and the inner mitochondrial membrane fraction showed carnitine acetyltransferase activity. 8. The results presented here demonstrate that acetyl-CoA hydrolase activity in rat and sheep liver is an artifact and the activity is due to the combined activity of carnitine acetyltransferase and acetylcarnitine hydrolase.  (+info)

Crystal structure of carnitine acetyltransferase and implications for the catalytic mechanism and fatty acid transport. (8/91)

Carnitine acyltransferases have crucial roles in the transport of fatty acids for beta-oxidation. Dysregulation of these enzymes can lead to serious diseases in humans, and they are targets for therapeutic development against diabetes. We report the crystal structures of murine carnitine acetyltransferase (CRAT), alone and in complex with its substrate carnitine or CoA. The structure contains two domains. Surprisingly, these two domains share the same backbone fold, which is also similar to that of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and dihydrolipoyl transacetylase. The active site is located at the interface between the two domains. Carnitine and CoA are bound in deep channels in the enzyme, on opposite sides of the catalytic His343 residue. The structural information provides a molecular basis for understanding the catalysis by carnitine acyltransferases and for designing their inhibitors. Specifically, our structural information suggests that the substrate carnitine may assist the catalysis by stabilizing the oxyanion in the reaction intermediate.  (+info)

A study was conducted of the effects of 10 hypolipidaemic agents on peroxisomal and microsomal enzyme activities in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Treatment with compounds such as Wy-14,643, tiadenol, nafenopin, BR-931, clofibrate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate induced cyanide-insensitive palmitoyl-CoA oxidation (a specific peroxisomal marker enzyme), a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 80,000 associated with peroxisome proliferation, and carnitine acetyltransferase activity, after 70 h of culture. These compounds also maintained hepatocyte cytochrome P-450 levels and markedly induced lauric acid hydroxylation, whereas little effect was observed on 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase. Studies with metyrapone, which also maintains cytochrome P-450, suggested that treatment with the hypolipidaemic agents resulted in the formation of different form(s) of cytochrome P-450 to those present in control cultures. Regression analysis demonstrated a high correlation between the induction of the peroxisomal
Objective Fatty acid oxidation in macrophages is thought to regulate inflammatory status and insulin-sensitivity. fatty acids and are required for fatty acid oxidation [13]. Carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CrOT) and carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) conjugate medium-chain and short-chain acyl-CoA to carnitine, respectively [13]. CrAT is localized primarily within the mitochondrial matrix and catalyzes both the addition and the removal of carnitine from acetyl-CoA [14], facilitating the efflux of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA and buffering the intracellular pools of acetyl-CoA and carnitine. Consistent with an important role of fatty acid oxidation in macrophages, CPT1, CPT2, Crat and Crot are abundantly expressed in macrophages [15]. Interestingly, the CrAT activity is reduced during obesity and aging, leading to impaired glycemic control [16], [17]. Notably, muscle-specific deletion of CrAT was shown to reduce exercise performance [18] and exacerbated metabolic dysregulation in HFD mice [19]. ...
Objective Fatty acid oxidation in macrophages is thought to regulate inflammatory status and insulin-sensitivity. fatty acids and are required for fatty acid oxidation [13]. Carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CrOT) and carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) conjugate medium-chain and short-chain acyl-CoA to carnitine, respectively [13]. CrAT is localized primarily within the mitochondrial matrix and catalyzes both the addition and the removal of carnitine from acetyl-CoA [14], facilitating the efflux of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA and buffering the intracellular pools of acetyl-CoA and carnitine. Consistent with an important role of fatty acid oxidation in macrophages, CPT1, CPT2, Crat and Crot are abundantly expressed in macrophages [15]. Interestingly, the CrAT activity is reduced during obesity and aging, leading to impaired glycemic control [16], [17]. Notably, muscle-specific deletion of CrAT was shown to reduce exercise performance [18] and exacerbated metabolic dysregulation in HFD mice [19]. ...
Complete information for CRAT gene (Protein Coding), Carnitine O-Acetyltransferase, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Certificate Level Registrants (CCT & CRAT) must accrue 16 CEUs every triennial cycle. Registry-Level Registrants (ACS, RCES, RCIS, RCS, RCCS, RPhS, and RVS) must accrue thirty-six (36) CEUs. every triennial cycle. Thirty (30) of the 36 CEUs must be cardiovascular-related ...
I am no lady in waiting I am glad I have kept my girl friend in the dark on her diamond I havent even told her about this web site (she is not big into...
Gemstone weight is offered in metric measurements known as carats. 1 carat is the same as 200 milligrammes, also 1/5 of the gramme or .20 gramme. 142 carats comparable to an oz. Carat is called the conventional unit of weight for many gemstone & gemstones. The most recent carat system has. ...
dat yat.... last location of dog.. location updated... - Best of luck and prays sent. If I was up to it, I would be down there to help. I used to hunt that area wa
Marketing journalist and former editor of The Drum, Mairi Clark discusses the implications for Aegis owned media group Carat following its appointment for the global General Motors media account.
Preowned 9 carat yellow gold opal triplet ring with 1 oval opal triplet in a rubover setting. Please note: This ring is currently a size L but once a
With Philips account, Carat strikes gold. CIT agrees to acquire Newcourt Credit; stock deal for $4.12 billion forms top public firm in commercial finance
This is a loose Tourmaline Pink . A 2.54 carats Pink Tourmaline Beautiful Raspberry Pink color. Well cut and polished. VVS, loupe clean clarity.
Bring out your personailty with elegant pendants, radiant charms or simple neclaces. Accentuate your neckline with our boundless variety of choices to suit your every mood.
chains in the Genus database with same CATH superfamily 4WZ0 A; 1BOR A; 3HTK C; 4F52 B; 5H9M A; 4UP0 A; 4TKP B; 1F62 A; 4CA1 A; 4ZQL A; 2C2L A; 2LXH C; 1MM2 A; 3U5P A; 2K1J A; 4AYC A; 5C11 A; 3RTR B; 2ECN A; 2VJF B; 4YAD A; 5TAB A; 2G6Q A; 4R2Y A; 3VK6 A; 2L5U A; 3KV5 A; 3GV4 A; 2KIZ A; 2C2V S; 2VPD A; 2MUM A; 3I2D A; 1XWH A; 5TRB A; 2KGI A; 2L0B A; 2F42 A; 5G0F A; 5B77 A; 2E6S A; 2ECI A; 2LGV A; 4UI9 B; 5TBN A; 1FBV A; 1JM7 A; 4GND A; 4L58 A; 2YUC A; 5KH3 A; 3V43 A; 4S3O B; 1WGM A; 3N9Q A; 1WEP A; 4A4C A; 1G25 A; 5B79 A; 3C6W A; 4V3L C; 4YAX A; 2YHO A; 3SHB A; 3NG2 A; 5D1M B; 3T7L A; 1U6G B; 4GNE A; 4YAT A; 4N3W A; 1VD4 A; 1V87 A; 2ECV A; 3ZPV E; 2G45 A; 2K4D A; 4C9Z A; 2MNY A; 5LKU A; 5C13 A; 2KFT A; 1LDK C; 3LQH A; 5D1K B; 4I7B A; 5B78 A; 2K16 A; 3SOX A; 4GNG A; 2K17 A; 1WES A; 4AYC B; 3LRQ A; 3C5K A; 1DVP A; 3N9P A; 2YSJ A; 2HYE D; 4PTB A; 3HCS A; 2EGP A; 2LXP C; 2VP7 A; 4YC9 A; 2MA6 A; 2QJ0 A; 4WA6 A; 4ZUX U; 2YUR A; 2FUI A; 5G04 B; 2LGL A; 3U5O A; 3ZTG A; 2YW8 A; 4A49 A; 2LGK A; 2BAY A; ...
In our 29-criterion evaluation of media management providers, we identified the 10 most significant ones - Carat, Havas Media Group, MediaCom, Mindshare, OMD, PHD, Starcom, UM, Wavemaker, and.... ...
|br| - Cadran blanc |br| - Marqueurs dheures en chiffres romains |br| - Lunette en or jaune 18 carats polie sertie de 12 diamants |br| - Fonction de date |br| Fenêtre de date affichée à 3 heures du matin |br| Objectif Cyclope Over Date |br| Fonction de r
We must know of same readers when we ring of the successes in our Filosofía iberoamericana en la época. in-class contemporary 1980s would refute us to own and heroic purposes. One or two Terms who have loaned new their campaigns Apart gradually, and I do lest they should make well HIV-1-infected a peace, lest the description of our file in the therapy Back to the OCLC Congress should be to advance not not painted.
Looking for online definition of carnitine acetyltransferase in the Medical Dictionary? carnitine acetyltransferase explanation free. What is carnitine acetyltransferase? Meaning of carnitine acetyltransferase medical term. What does carnitine acetyltransferase mean?
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Nordic Immunological Lab \ rabbit IgG against Pigeon breast muscle Carnitine acetyltransferase \ NE028/7S for more molecular products just contact us
Looking for online definition of CARAT in the Medical Dictionary? CARAT explanation free. What is CARAT? Meaning of CARAT medical term. What does CARAT mean?
Loose Diamonds between 0.8 to 1.2 carats are probably the most traded precious natural stones globally. Determining the price of a carat diamond primarily depends on seven factors, described as follows: Compare Diamond Prices at JamesAllen.com because they have the best prices. To sum it up, while on a budget, if you look around and shop well online, you can get a good quality: 1-carat round brilliant cut diamond for $4,500 to 6,000; 1-carat fancy shape diamond, such as a princess or radiant cut, for around $3,000 to $4,500; and 1-carat in the investment-grade range would cost as much as $13,000 to $16,000 for a round shape diamond and $11,000 to $14,000 for fancy shapes-the highest grade being a 1-carat GIA graded Flawless (FL) and Colorless (D) Excellent Cut diamond with no Fluorescence. How the Diamond Trade Works Online? The internet fundamentally changed the diamond business. In the past, retailers would charge up to 200% markups. Now, because
TY - JOUR. T1 - Altered carnitine homeostasis is associated with decreased mitochondrial function and altered nitric oxide signaling in lambs with pulmonary hypertension. AU - Sharma, Shruti. AU - Sud, Neetu. AU - Wiseman, Dean A.. AU - Carter, A. Lee. AU - Kumar, Sanjiv. AU - Hou, Yali. AU - Rau, Thomas. AU - Wilham, Jason. AU - Harmon, Cynthia. AU - Oishi, Peter. AU - Fineman, Jeffrey R.. AU - Black, Stephen M.. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - Utilizing aortopulmonary vascular graft placement in the fetal lamb, we have developed a model (shunt) of pulmonary hypertension that mimics congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow. Our previous studies have identified a progressive development of endothelial dysfunction in shunt lambs that is dependent, at least in part, on decreased nitric oxide (NO) signaling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible role of a disruption in carnitine metabolism in shunt lambs and to determine the effect on NO signaling. Our data ...
:: StarRuby.in :: 8.66-Carat Indian Alexandrite Cats Eye with Strong Color-Change [7700302] :: Gemstone:Natural Alexandrite Cats Eye;Stone ID:R10094;Carat Weight:8.66 Carats;Measurements:13.98 x 6.91 x 7.98 mm;Shape:Oval;Cutting Style:Cabochon;Color:Deep Green changing to Brown Red;Clarity:Semi-Transparent;Cats Eye Sharpness:Very Clearly Visible Chatoyance (Super Sharp);Color-Change Effect:Very Strong Color-Change Effect;Origin:Orissa (India);Mohs Hardness:8.5 (On a Scale of 10);Treatments:None (100% Natural & Unheated / Untreated);Certified By:IGI (Scan Provided Below);Special Offer:Free Express Worldwide Shipping
There is no set price range for colored gemstones. Aquamarine Ring Rose Gold 2.0 Carat Aquamarine Engagement Ring Art Deco Aquamarine Ring 14k Rose gold ring diamond accents DiamondSoulShop. Aquamarine Jewelry Aquamarine Pendants Aquamarine Rings Black Spinel Rings ... We value your trust above anything else and therefore provide a free lab certificate which ensures that your Jade gemstone is 100% natural. Aquamarine is also linked to enriching a marriage, providing a happy couple with happiness, and a sense of togetherness. Growing in carats would be about a range of 40%- 60% increase in price. However, lab grown gems will cost you less because they are less rare than naturally-occuring gems, and require no mining. The value of natural aquamarine varies greatly depending on size, quality and color. Green aquas are often heated to reduce the yellow, so a clean unheated blue aquamarine with good color saturation is a rare and valuable gem. The 2000s From 2002 to 2007 prices surged. Aquamarine ...
18 carats solid white gold claw-set diamond 0,05 carats to clip, with bioplast labret (flexible material). Several lengths available. Secure payment, FAST shipping.
Recently, it has been shown that carnitine down-regulates genes involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in muscle of pigs and rats. The mechanisms underlying this observation are yet unknown. Based on the previous finding that carnitine increases plasma IGF-1 concentration, we investigated the hypothesis that carnitine down-regulates genes of the UPS by modulation of the of the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt signalling pathway which is an important regulator of UPS activity in muscle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged four weeks, were fed either a control diet with a low native carnitine concentration or the same diet supplemented with carnitine (1250 mg/kg diet) for four weeks. Components of the UPS and IGF-1/PI3K/Akt signalling pathway in skeletal muscle were examined. Rats fed the diet supplemented with carnitine had lower mRNA and protein levels of MuRF1, the most important E3 ubiquitin ligase in muscle, decreased concentrations of ubiquitin-protein conjugates in skeletal muscle and higher IGF-1
YAT Communication is an advertising agency providing creative communication activities for social development. Its our mission to change peoples behavior and raise their awareness with our Inspiring Loud & Clear Communication using different tools like… Creative Communication: Creative concept | Branding | Graphic design | Desktop publishing | Illustrations/Comic strips Media-Mix Communication: Video production (Digital - Animation) |Video Editing | Audio production | Animation | Photography We have an excellent 22-year track record working with international organizations, governmental bodies and NGOs including WHO, UNDP, UNFPA, Care Egypt, Plan International, FAO, UNIDO, ICRC, NAMRU3, WLF, NCW, fhi360, and many others. We pleased to spread their messages in a creative and effective way to touch hearts and influence change. We hope you will benefit using our services in communicating your messages. For any further inquiries please dont hesitate to communicate me at any time. Tel: +20 2 26 7134 16
Vind de beste Downhill MTB routes in Baladīyat az̧ Z̧aāyin (Qatar). Ontdek de mooiste plekken, download gps-tracks en volg de toproutes op een kaart. Haal je eigen gelopen routes op uit de Wikiloc-app, upload ze en deel ze met de community.
Gemi Sicilinde De ifliklik Amendment in Turkish International Ship Register Regulations Eylül 2006 tarihinde yürürlü e giren Türk Ulus- 17 lararas Gemi Sicili Yönetmeli- i ndeki de ifliklikle gemi ve yat
Giri ve Ama : Bu al man n amac klini imizde yatm olan karaci er sirozlu hastalar m z n yat endikasyonlar n ve genel zelliklerini irdelemektir. Gere ve Y ntem: Bu al mada, Aral k 2011 ve May s 2013 tarihleri aras nda klini imizde yatan 255 hasta retrospektif olarak de erlendirilmi tir. al maya al nma kriterleri; hastanede yatm olmak, yat ncesinde veya yat s ras nda karaci er sirozu tan s alm olmak, 18 ya st olmak ve t bbi verilerine tam olarak ula labiliyor olmak iken d lama kriterleri ise; ayaktan ba vuran hastalar, siroz d portal hipertansiyon varl , 18 ya alt olmak ve t bbi verilerinde eksiklik olmas olarak belirlenmi tir. Bulgular: Otuz hastan n verileri tam olmad i in al madan d lanm olup al maya 225 hasta dahil edilmi tir. Hastalar n o unu erkekler (%70.2) olu tururken erkeklerin ortalama ya 62, kad nlar n ortalama ya 67 bulunmu tur. Ba l ca yat nedenleri ileri giri imsel tedavi amac yla hepatosell ler kanser (%21.8), hepatik ensefalopati (%21.3), asit etiyolojisini ara t rmak (%20.4) ve ...
FREE Shipping - Fancy Yellow Diamond Ring, Cushion, 2.28 carat, VS1. SKU 11432 by Naturally Colored - Dealer and Manufacturer of Yellow Colored Diamonds.
FREE Shipping - Y-Z Diamond Ring, Cushion, 4.00 carat, VS2. SKU 11649 by Naturally Colored - Dealer and Manufacturer of Yellow Colored Diamonds.
Starlight Moissanite 1.0 Carat Simulation Diamond Engagement Ring at maxinejewelry. Were focus on the style and texture, and all pieces seriously experienced the 8 step process while produced. 100% handmade and exclusive design. Like it?
Achieve Excellence The quintessential statement of style and confidence For those who value individuality and impeccable style, Townsend embodies classic American elegance and finesse. Inspired by the graceful lines of 1930s Art Deco design, with distin
I will slowly be unveiling the Top 100 Soul Strut Related Records as Voted by the Strutters Themselves. # 2 - 24-Carat Black - Ghetto:
Sothebys will be auctioning off a diamond that is more than 100 carats Friday, and while the large size and clarity rating make it exceptional, it is also making news because the auction house will accept cryptocurrency as a form of payment.
Sothebys will be auctioning off a diamond that is more than 100 carats Friday, and while the large size and clarity rating make it exceptional, it is also making news because the auction house will accept cryptocurrency as a form of payment.
11.4carat 16 x 13 mm Oval Cabochon Natural Lavender Blue Chalcedony gemstone from Brazil. Fine Quality loose gems for jewelry at GemSelect.
Brisbane-based independent Moonlighting which is helmed by Ian Warner and Julie Maher, has won the media for jewellery businesses Wallace Bishop and Hardy Brothers account from incumbent agency Carat.. Moonlighting attributes the win to the agencys personalised approach, speed-to-market, and their ability, despite its small team, to match and beat any media rates in town.. Virginia Bishop, Wallace Bishop group marketing manager said that the decision to appoint Moonlighting was based on the unrivalled experience of the team.. Ian and Julies industry knowledge and commitment to quality execution was evident from the beginning. We love that we work with the agencys most experienced operators each and every day and that, regardless of the agencys size, our rates are more competitive than ever, Bishop said.. ...
A beautiful three stone pendant crafted in 14k White Gold. Diamonds weigh a total of 1.00 carats, color J-K-L, clarity I2-I3. Symbolizing your past, present, and future, this 3 stone pendant is a classic look that is sure to be cherished forever. - PDF905514WD
StoneAlgo has curated the top 3 Cushion 4.5 Carat G Color Diamonds. View images, price history and more to find the perfect Cushion diamond.
Cats eye stone is helpful in curing diseases like mania, paralysis etc. It brings fortune for businessman and people involved in speculative endeavors it gives miraculous result.
Ring information: Metal: Sterling Silver; Plating Color: White Gold/; Rhodium: Yes; Nickel Free: Yes; Gem Information: Gem Type: Lab Created Sapphire; Center Stone Shape: Oval Cut; Center Stone Size: 12*8mm; Center Stone Color: White Stone; Side Stone Shape: Round Cut; Side Stone Color: White Stone;
This unique band features six marquise diamonds, at approximately .35 carat TW, and five round diamonds, at approximately .37 carat TW. Each magnificent stone h
A midtown-based jeweler that had to shutter its Broadway showroom shined on dozens of unsuspecting shoppers looking to put a ring on it, leaving them desperate for refunds or demanding their precious stones be shipped.Now, Enchanted Diamonds customers are unloading on the online retailer after spending weeks in limbo waiting for their orders to arrive. Six spoke with the Daily News on Thursday - with one reporting she spent $19,000 on a stone. Twenty have complained to the Better Business Bureau in the last week, according to the watchdog.
We like transparency and were breaking industry stereotypes. Below is a list of our cost and mark ups. Our goal is to ensure you get a fair price. ...
So, kak intan (kawan / officemate) tadi pun terjah rak SSC. Yang ada cuma jenama Pognea dan Ergo. Yang lain kehabisan stok. So yat biarkan kak intan dan pekerja FM tu deal harga. Ada diskaun tau untuk SSC ni ...
Gold Plated Earring With Black Onyx and Black Mother Of pearl Semiprecious Stone. Stone-d In India. Size Free SizeMetal Weight (kt) 22 Carat Gold Plated Product Type Earring Total Pieces 1 pair Product Details Handmade Jaali Cutting, soldering, stone setting. Care Instructions It is recommended to keep it away from moi
That is 18 carat rolled gold ... FACT IF the ACC was dudded by those it took into their confidence is no excuse that should appease Bombers...
Youth cream enriched in 24 carat gold technology, white rose fresh cells and vitamin c for a visibly radiant remodelled and nourished skin. Turn back time to firmer, smoother and luminous looking skin.
Youth cream enriched in 24 carat gold technology, white rose fresh cells and vitamin c for a visibly radiant remodelled and nourished skin. Turn back time to firmer, smoother and luminous looking skin.
This rare and elusive Argyle diamond, graded 7PP, is a magnificent round brilliant cut weighing 0.10 of a carat and comes a complete certificate of authenticity.
This 2.06 Carat 8.11 x 8.12 x 5.05 mm Pink Round Lab Created Diamond has been hand selected by our GIA-certified gemologists for its exceptional characteristics and rarity.
This 4.21 Carat 11.0 x 11.0 mm Purple Round Amethyst has been hand selected by our GIA-certified gemologists for its exceptional characteristics and rarity.
The new MK 4 is a large-diaphragm, true condenser microphone. This cardioid microphone is Sennheisers first large-diaphragm side-address microphone. It features a nickel-colored finish and has a large 1-inch diaphragm spattered with 24-carat gold.
Within this QTL, RNAS-Seq data prioritized Crat (carnitine O-acetyl transferase) as a strong candidate regulator of the insulin ...
Description: carnitine O-acetyltransferase CHROMOSOME: 9 Template Information: Vendor Plate: 13. Vendor Position: E10 ...
But the question is can Acetyl L-Carnitine out-perform them all when it comes to boosting your sporting chances? ... Carnitine Acetyltransferase Mitigates Metabolic Inertia and Muscle Fatigue during Exercise. Cell Metabolism, 2015; 22 (1): 65. ... The main 3 supplemental forms of carnitine include L- Carnitine, Acetyl L-Carnitine, and Propionyl L- Carnitine. Each different ... Uptake of L-carnitine, D-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine by isolated guinea-pig enterocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1986; 886(3 ...
... encodes a member of the carnitine/choline acetyltransferase family. The encoded protein converts 4,8-dimethylnonanoyl-CoA to ... its corresponding carnitine ester. This transesterification occurs in the peroxisome and is necessary for transport of medium- ... CROT (carnitine O-octanoyltransferase) encodes a member of the carnitine/choline acetyltransferase family. The encoded protein ... CROT; COT; Peroxisomal carnitine O-octanoyltransferase; COT. Others. CROT Polyclonal Antibody detects endogenous levels of CROT ...
... ka taea te aukati i te carnitine acetyltransferase me te whakawhitinga o te carnitine palmitate. ... ka aukati i te ngaro o te mitochondrial carnitine. Ka tae te kukume o te sulfobetaine ki te maha o nga wa e hiahiatia ana mo te ...
CRAT Carnitine acetyltransferase. CROT Carnitine O octanoyltransferase. D bifunctional protein deficiency MFP2 deficiency SCPx ...
CRAT Carnitine acetyltransferase. CROT Carnitine O octanoyltransferase. D bifunctional protein deficiency MFP2 deficiency SCPx ...
... a sulfoacetaldehyde acetyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl phosphate + sulfite ⇌ {\ ... ⓘ Sulfoacetaldehyde acetyltransferase. In enzymology, a sulfoacetaldehyde acetyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the ... ⓘ Sulfoacetaldehyde acetyltransferase. In enzymology, a sulfoacetaldehyde acetyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-phosphate:sulfite S-acetyltransferase acyl-phosphate hydrolysing, 2-oxoethyl ...
myristoyl-CoA + L-carnitine <=> CoA + O-Myristoylcarnitine 2.3.1.7 carnitine O-acetyltransferase - ... myristoyl-CoA + L-carnitine <=> myristoyl-L-carnitine + CoA 2.3.1.137 carnitine O-octanoyltransferase 2.3.1.21 carnitine O- ...
The carnitine acetyltransferase gene (CRAT): a characterization of porcine transcripts with insights into the 5-end variants ...
The supplements Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR), CoQ10, PQQ and R-Lipoic Acid taken together daily will increase your energy with no ... Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR). Athlete and dieters love L-Carnitine because of its fat-metabolizing benefits. The thing is, the ... R-Lipoic Acid increases acetylcholine production by activation of choline acetyltransferase, and increases in glucose uptake. ... i] Rebouche C.J. "Kinetics, pharmacokinetics, and regulation of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine metabolism." Annals of the ...
acetyl l-carnitine. *acetyl phosphate. *Acetyl Reduction Assay. *acetyl:CoA ligase. *acetylase ...
But in order for acetylcholine to be synthesized, the enzyme that produces it - choline acetyltransferase - needs to be ... Thats where Bacopa monnieri can be helpful - it activates choline acetyltransferase, increasing the output of acetylcholine. ...
Human CPT1B(Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1B, Muscle) ELISA Kit. *Human CPT2(Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 2, Mitochondrial) ... It functions as histone acetyltransferase that regulates transcription via chromatin remodeling and is important in the ... It functions as histone acetyltransferase that regulates transcription via chromatin remodeling and is important in the ... Mediates acetylation of histone H3 at Lys-27 (H3K27ac). Also functions as acetyltransferase for nonhistone targets. ...
  • Your body relies on Carnitine to transport fatty acids into the mitochondria for use as fuel. (abundanceandhealth.co.uk)
  • Long-chain fatty acids cannot cross mitochondrial membranes without the help of Acetyl-L-Carnitine . (nootropicsexpert.com)
  • Within this QTL, RNAS-Seq data prioritized Crat (carnitine O-acetyl transferase) as a strong candidate regulator of the insulin secretion trait. (genomyx.ch)
  • Can Acetyl L-Carnitine really push you to the finish line? (abundanceandhealth.co.uk)
  • But the question is can Acetyl L-Carnitine out-perform them all when it comes to boosting your sporting chances? (abundanceandhealth.co.uk)
  • Why Try Acetyl L-Carnitine? (abundanceandhealth.co.uk)
  • The main 3 supplemental forms of carnitine include L- Carnitine, Acetyl L-Carnitine, and Propionyl L- Carnitine. (abundanceandhealth.co.uk)
  • The main difference between Acetyl L-Carnitine (ALC) and L-Carnitine (LC) is that ALC has an acetyl group attached making it a superior version of the non-acetylated form. (abundanceandhealth.co.uk)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-phosphate:sulfite S-acetyltransferase acyl-phosphate hydrolysing, 2-oxoethyl-forming. (pp.ua)
  • But when you add an acetyl group to make Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR) , studies show using it daily for 50 days will boost blood carnitine levels by 43% . (nootropicsexpert.com)
  • Researchers in Italy found that Acetyl-L-Carnitine stimulates the growth of new neurites . (nootropicsexpert.com)
  • Another small study on the L-carnitineʼs effect on high-repetition squat exercise found significant benefit from 2g carnitine daily compared to placebo. (abundanceandhealth.co.uk)
  • The carnitine supplemented group found their 3 mile run times had dropped from 26.5 minutes on average to 25.6 minutes. (abundanceandhealth.co.uk)
  • Athlete and dieters love L-Carnitine because of its fat-metabolizing benefits. (nootropicsexpert.com)

No images available that match "carnitine o acetyltransferase"