Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE with strong-smelling foliage. It is a source of SANTONIN and other cytotoxic TERPENES.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 2.3.1.21.
An acetic acid ester of CARNITINE that facilitates movement of ACETYL COA into the matrices of mammalian MITOCHONDRIA during the oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC 2.3.1.7.
Acyltransferases in the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyze the reversible transfer of acyl groups from acyl-CoA to L-carnitine and thereby mediate the transport of activated fatty acids through that membrane. EC 2.3.1.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROXYLATION of gamma-butyrobetaine to L-CARNITINE. It is the last enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of L-CARNITINE and is dependent on alpha-ketoglutarate; IRON; ASCORBIC ACID; and OXYGEN.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.
An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A group of anaerobic coccoid bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.
Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.
A condition in infancy or early childhood due to an in-utero deficiency of THYROID HORMONES that can be caused by genetic or environmental factors, such as thyroid dysgenesis or HYPOTHYROIDISM in infants of mothers treated with THIOURACIL during pregnancy. Endemic cretinism is the result of iodine deficiency. Clinical symptoms include severe MENTAL RETARDATION, impaired skeletal development, short stature, and MYXEDEMA.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.

Cardiomegaly in the juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mouse is reduced with acute elevation of heart short-chain acyl-carnitine level after L-carnitine injection. (1/1186)

The long-term administration of L-carnitine was very effective in preventing cardiomegaly in juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mice, which was confirmed by heart weight as well as the lipid contents in heart tissue. After i.p. injection of L-carnitine, the concentration of free carnitine in heart remained constant, although serum free carnitine level increased up to 80-fold. On the other hand, a significant increase in short-chain acyl-carnitine level in heart was observed. These results suggest that increased levels of short-chain acyl-carnitine, not free carnitine, might be a key compound in the protective effect of L-carnitine administration in JVS mice.  (+info)

Mutations in the organic cation/carnitine transporter OCTN2 in primary carnitine deficiency. (2/1186)

Primary carnitine deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation caused by defective carnitine transport. This disease presents early in life with hypoketotic hypoglycemia or later in life with skeletal myopathy or cardiomyopathy. The gene for this condition maps to 5q31.2-32 and OCTN2, an organic cation/carnitine transporter, also maps to the same chromosomal region. Here we test the causative role of OCTN2 in primary carnitine deficiency by searching for mutations in this gene in affected patients. Fibroblasts from patients with primary carnitine deficiency lacked mediated carnitine transport. Transfection of patient's fibroblasts with the OCTN2 cDNA partially restored carnitine transport. Sequencing of the OCTN2 gene revealed different mutations in two unrelated patients. The first patient was homozygous (and both parents heterozygous) for a single base pair substitution converting the codon for Arg-282 to a STOP codon (R282X). The second patient was a compound heterozygote for a paternal 1-bp insertion producing a STOP codon (Y401X) and a maternal 1-bp deletion that produced a frameshift creating a subsequent STOP codon (458X). These mutations decreased the levels of mature OCTN2 mRNA and resulted in nonfunctional transporters, confirming that defects in the organic cation/carnitine transporter OCTN2 are responsible for primary carnitine deficiency.  (+info)

Mutations of OCTN2, an organic cation/carnitine transporter, lead to deficient cellular carnitine uptake in primary carnitine deficiency. (3/1186)

Systemic primary carnitine deficiency (CDSP, OMIM 212140) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by low serum and intracellular concentrations of carnitine. CDSP may present with acute metabolic derangement simulating Reye's syndrome within the first 2 years of life. After 3 years of age, patients with CDSP may present with cardiomyopathy and muscle weakness. A linkage with D5S436 in 5q was reported in a family. A recently cloned homologue of the organic cation transporter, OCTN2, which has sodium-dependent carnitine uptake properties, was also mapped to the same locus. We screened for mutation in OCTN2 in a confirmed CDSP family. One truncating mutation (Trp132Stop) and one missense mutation (Pro478Leu) of OCTN2 were identified together with two silent polymorphisms. Expression of the mutant cDNAs revealed virtually no uptake activity for both mutations. Our data indicate that mutations in OCTN2 are responsible for CDSP. Identification of the underlying gene in this disease will allow rapid detection of carriers and postnatal diagnosis of affected patients.  (+info)

Study on propionyl-L-carnitine in chronic heart failure. (4/1186)

AIMS: In patients with chronic heart failure, fatigue is independent of haemodynamic and neuroendocrine changes and possibly may be due to impaired muscle metabolism. Propionyl-L-carnitine, a carnitine derivative, was shown in previous studies to improve muscle metabolism. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of propionyl-L-carnitine on exercise capacity in mild moderate chronic heart failure patients, treated with ACE inhibitors and diuretics. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a phase III, double-blind, randomized, parallel, multicentre study. The primary objective was the evaluation of the effect of propionyl-L-carnitine vs placebo on maximum exercise duration using a bicycle exercise test. The primary analysis performed in the intention-to-treat population (271 and 266 patients in propionyl-L-carnitine and placebo), showed no statistically significant difference between treatments. A difference of 15 s in favour of propionyl-L-carnitine was observed in the completer/complier population (P=0.092). An a priori specified subgroup analysis on patients stratified by baseline maximum exercise duration showed a trend of improvement in propionyl-L-carnitine patients with shorter maximum exercise duration. A non a priori specified analysis in patients stratified by ejection fraction (< or = 30% vs 30-40%), showed a statistically significant difference in maximum exercise duration in favour of propionyl-L-carnitine in those patients with a higher ejection fraction (40 s, P<0.01). There were no safety issues. CONCLUSION: The study fails to meet the primary objective, but confirms the good safety profile of propionyl-L-carnitine. An exploratory non-prespecified analysis suggests that propionyl-L-carnitine improves exercise capacity in patients with preserved cardiac function. This hypothesis needs to be confirmed by a specific tailored study.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetic analysis of the cardioprotective effect of 3-(2,2, 2-trimethylhydrazinium) propionate in mice: inhibition of carnitine transport in kidney. (5/1186)

The site of action of 3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium) propionate (THP), a new cardioprotective agent, was investigated in mice and rats. I.p. administration of THP decreased the concentrations of free carnitine and long-chain acylcarnitine in heart tissue. In isolated myocytes, THP inhibited free carnitine transport with a Ki of 1340 microM, which is considerably higher than the observed serum concentration of THP. The major cause of the decreased free carnitine concentration in heart was found to be the decreased serum concentration of free carnitine that resulted from the increased renal clearance of carnitine by THP. The estimated Ki of THP for inhibiting the reabsorption of free carnitine in kidneys was 52.2 microM, which is consistent with the serum THP concentration range. No inhibition of THP on the carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity in isolated mitochondrial fractions was observed. These results indicate that the principal site of action of THP as a cardioprotective agent is the carnitine transport carrier in the kidney, but not the carrier in the heart.  (+info)

Decreased tissue distribution of L-carnitine in juvenile visceral steatosis mice. (6/1186)

We kinetically analyzed the disposition of L-carnitine of juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mice compared with that of normal mice to elucidate the mechanism of the systemic L-carnitine deficiency of JVS mice. There were significant differences in the plasma concentration-time course of total radioactive carnitine (L-[3H]carnitine, [acetyl-3H]carnitine, and other [acyl-3H]carnitines) between normal and JVS mice after a single i.v. or p.o. administration of L-[3H]carnitine (250 ng/kg). The oral bioavailability of L-[3H]carnitine in JVS mice (0.341) was about half of that in normal mice (0.675). The cumulative urinary excretion of total radioactive carnitine in JVS mice was about 10-fold more than that in normal mice, and the total clearance of unchanged L-[3H]carnitine for JVS mice (6.70 ml/min) was significantly higher than that for normal mice (2.45 ml/min). The distribution volume at the steady state of unchanged L-[3H]carnitine in JVS mice (1.10 liters/kg) was significantly smaller than that in normal mice (8.16 liters/kg). At 4 h after an i.v. administration, the apparent tissue-to-plasma concentration ratios of unchanged L-[3H]carnitine for various tissues of JVS mice, except for brain, were about one half to one 20th of those in normal mice. In conclusion, this in vivo disposition kinetic study of L-carnitine supports the previous in vitro finding that the L-carnitine transporter is absent or functionally deficient in JVS mice because the renal reabsorption, the intestinal absorption, and the apparent tissue-to-plasma concentration ratios in JVS mice are significantly lower than those in normal mice. The JVS mouse should be a useful experimental model for studying carnitine deficiency diseases.  (+info)

Comparisons of flux control exerted by mitochondrial outer-membrane carnitine palmitoyltransferase over ketogenesis in hepatocytes and mitochondria isolated from suckling or adult rats. (7/1186)

The primary aim of this paper was to calculate and report flux control coefficients for mitochondrial outer-membrane carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I) over hepatic ketogenesis because its role in controlling this pathway during the neonatal period is of academic importance and immediate clinical relevance. Using hepatocytes isolated from suckling rats as our model system, we measured CPT I activity and carbon flux from palmitate to ketone bodies and to CO2 in the absence and presence of a range of concentrations of etomoxir. (This is converted in situ to etomoxir-CoA which is a specific inhibitor of the enzyme.) From these data we calculated the individual flux control coefficients for CPT I over ketogenesis, CO2 production and total carbon flux (0.51 +/- 0.03; -1.30 +/- 0.26; 0.55 +/- 0.07, respectively) and compared them with equivalent coefficients calculated by similar analyses [Drynan, L., Quant, P.A. & Zammit, V.A. (1996) Biochem. J. 317, 791-795] in hepatocytes isolated from adult rats (0.85 +/- 0.20; 0.23 +/- 0.06; 1.06 +/- 0.29). CPT I exerts significantly less control over ketogenesis in hepatocytes isolated from suckling rats than those from adult rats. In the suckling systems the flux control coefficients for CPT I over ketogenesis specifically and over total carbon flux (< 0.6) are not consistent with the enzyme being rate-limiting. Broadly similar results were obtained and conclusions drawn by reanalysis of previous data {from experiments in mitochondria isolated from suckling or adult rats [Krauss, S., Lascelles, C.V., Zammit, V.A. & Quant, P.A. (1996) Biochem. J. 319, 427-433]} using a different approach of control analysis, although it is not strictly valid to compare flux control coefficients from different systems. Our overall conclusion is that flux control coefficients for CPT I over oxidative fluxes from palmitate (or palmitoyl-CoA) differ markedly according to (a) the metabolic state, (b) the stage of development, (c) the specific pathway studied and (d) the model system.  (+info)

Replenishment and depletion of citric acid cycle intermediates in skeletal muscle. Indication of pyruvate carboxylation. (8/1186)

The effects of various substrates on the concentrations of free amino acids, citric acid cycle intermediates and acylcarnitines were studies in perfused hindquarter of rat in presence of glucose and insulin in order to assess regulatory mechanisms of the level of citric acid cycle intermediates in skeletal muscle. 1. Acetate and acetoacetate effected a significant increase in the level of citrate cycle intermediates and accumulation of acetylcarnitine. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in the level of alanine. The concentration of AMP was significantly elevated. 2. Muscle mitochondria fixed 14CO2 in the presence of pyruvate. The products were identified as malate or citrate when whole and disintegrated mitochondria were used respectively. The fixation was greatly stimulated by acetylcarnitine. 3. Acetylcarnitine inhibited the production of pyruvate from malate by muscle mitochondria. 4. Perfusion with 2-oxoisocaproate and 2-oxoisovalerate promoted increases in the level of citric cycle intermediates, a drop in both alanine and glutamate, and accumulation of branched-chain acylcarnitines. 2-Oxoisocaproate also caused a reduction of alanine released from the muscle. 5. Perfusion with leucine and valine did not change the concentration of citric acid cycle intermediates, but elevated glutamate and still more the concentration of alanine. 6. It is concluded that citric cycle intermediate level in the perfused resting muscle is modified by a) conditions which change the concentration of acetyl-CoA and thereby modify the rate of pyruvate carboxylation and decarboxylation of malate via malic enzyme b) conditions which change the concentration of pyruvate cause changes in alanine and cycle intermediates in the same direction via transamination reactions c) conditions which change the concentrations of 2-oxoacids which are converted to cycle intermediates via oxidation.  (+info)

Systemic primary carnitine deficiency (SPCD), also known as carnitine uptake defect, carnitine transporter deficiency (CTD) or systemic carnitine deficiency is an inborn error of fatty acid transport caused by a defect in the transporter responsible for moving carnitine across the plasma membrane. Carnitine is an important amino acid for fatty acid metabolism. When carnitine cannot be transported into tissues, fatty acid oxidation is impaired, leading to a variety of symptoms such as chronic muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, hypoglycemia and liver dysfunction. The specific transporter involved with SPCD is OCTN2, coded for by the SLC22A5 gene located on chromosome 5. SPCD is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, with mutated alleles coming from both parents. Acute episodes due to SPCD are often preceded by metabolic stress such as extended fasting, infections or vomiting. Cardiomyopathy can develop in the absence of an acute episode, and can result in death. SPCD leads to increased ...
Background: Primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) is attributed to a variation in the SLC22A5 (OCTN2) gene which encodes the key protein of the carnitine cycle, the OCTN2 carnitine transporter. PCD is typically identified in childhood by either hypoketotic hypoglycemia, or skeletal and cardiac myopathy. The aim of this study was to the clinical, biochemical, and molecular characteristics of PCD patients via newborn screening with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS).Methods: MS/MS was performed to screen newborns for inherited metabolic diseases. SLC22A5 gene mutations were detected in the individual and/or their family member by DNA mass array and next-generation sequencing (NGS).Results: Among the 236,368 newborns tested, ten exhibited PCD, and six others were diagnosed with low carnitine levels caused by their mothers, who had asymptomatic PCD. The incidence of PCD in the Xuzhou area is ~1:23,637. The mean initial free carnitine (C0) concentration of patients was 6.41 ± 2.01 μmol/L, and the follow-up
Background: The goal of postnatal total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in premature neonates (PT) is to mimic the intrauterine environment of the fetus. Micronutrients are essential for optimal development. Although carnitine is present in human breast milk and is supplemented in infant formula, very preterm infants primarily receive parenteral nutrition, often devoid of carnitine, shortly after birth. Carnitine plays a critical role in cellular and mitochondrial metabolism. Preterm infants are deficient in carnitine as it is transferred from the placenta to the fetus during late pregnancy. Previously, our group surveyed US neonatologists in 2001 regarding carnitine supplementation practices and found that the majority were not fully familiar with the implications of carnitine deficiency and only 28% of preterm neonates on TPN were receiving carnitine. Since this study, recent research has emphasized the impact of carnitine on early weight gain and its neuroprotective effects. Objective: To ...
We determined four carnitine constituents (total and free carnitine and short- and long-chain fatty acid carnitine esters) in serum from 471 patients treated for convulsions with phenobarbital, valproic acid, phenytoin, and/or carbamazepine. The 471 patients were in eight treatment groups; four were …
Background/Aim: L -Carnitine is important in β-oxidation of fatty acids. A lack of carnitine in hemodialysis patients is caused by insufficient carnitine synthesis and especially by its loss during dialysis. The aim of our study was to test the influence of carnitine supplementation on plasma lipids, red blood cell count, and metabolism of free radicals. Methods: Twelve regularly dialyzed patients (average age 55.5 years, average dialysis treatment period 22.5 months) were given 15 mg/kg L -carnitine intravenously three times weekly (after each hemodialysis session) for 6 months. Laboratory markers of oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, and red blood cell count were measured before the supplementation and then controlled during two 3-month intervals. Nine patients were retested 3 months after the supplementation had ended. Results: All supplemented patients showed increased plasma free carnitine in comparison with the pretreatment values (113.3 ± 11.2 vs. 62.3 ± 16.7 µmol/l, p | 0.001). The
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic deficiency of short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase in cultured fibroblasts from a patient with muscle carnitine deficiency and severe skeletal muscle weakness. AU - Coates, P. M.. AU - Hale, D. E.. AU - Finocchiaro, G.. AU - Tanaka, K.. AU - Winter, S. C.. PY - 1988/1/1. Y1 - 1988/1/1. N2 - Genetic deficiency of short-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase activity was demonstrated in cultured fibroblasts from a 2-yr-old female whose early postnatal life was complicated by poor feeding, emesis, and failure to thrive. She demonstrated progressive skeletal muscle weakness and developmental delay. Her plasma total carnitine level (35 nmol/ml) was low-normal, but was esterified to an abnormal degree (55% vs. controls of , 10%). Her skeletal muscle total carnitine level was low (7.6 nmol/mg protein vs. controls of 14 ± 2 nmol/mg protein) and was 75% esterified. Mild lipid deposition was noted in type I muscle fibers. Fibroblasts from this patient had 50% of control ...
The aim of this study was to investigate whether a decrease in carnitine body stores is a risk factor for valproic acid (VPA)-associated hepatotoxicity and to explore the effects of VPA on carnitine homeostasis in mice with decreased carnitine body stores. Therefore, heterozygous juvenile visceral steatosis (jvs)(+/-) mice, an animal model with decreased carnitine stores caused by impaired renal reabsorption of carnitine, and the corresponding wild-type mice were treated with subtoxic oral doses of VPA (0.1 g/g b. wt./day) for 2 weeks. In jvs(+/-) mice, but not in wild-type mice, treatment with VPA was associated with the increased plasma activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. Furthermore, jvs(+/-) mice revealed reduced palmitate metabolism assessed in vivo and microvesicular steatosis of the liver. The creatine kinase activity was not affected by treatment with VPA. In liver mitochondria isolated from mice that were treated with VPA, oxidative metabolism of ...
This study was designed to determine any correlation between infertility and semen quality with concentrations of total carnitine in human seminal plasma. Seminal plasma total carnitine concentrations were determined in 79 men. The seminal plasma of 65 infertile men and 14 men as a control group wit …
The level and profiles of blood free carnitine and acylcarnitines, obtained by acylcarnitine analysis using tandem mass spectrometry, reflect various metabolic conditions. We aimed to examine the level of free carnitine and acylcarnitines in liver cirrhosis patients by acylcarnitine analysis and determine the clinical and subjective factors associated with blood carnitine fraction levels in liver cirrhosis. We compared blood carnitine fractions in 54 liver cirrhotic patients to other laboratory test results and questionnaire answers. In almost all patients, the blood levels of free carnitine (C0) and acetylcarnitine (C2) were within the normal reference range. However, in some patients, the levels of long-chain acylcarnitines, such as C16 and C18:1-acylcarnitine, were higher than the normal reference range. Liver function, assessed by Child-Pugh score, was significantly correlated with the blood level of each carnitine fraction measured (C0, C2, C3, C4, C6, C10, C12, C12:1, C14:1, C16, C18:1, and C18:2
Male Infertility. Concentrations of L-carnitine can be found in the epididymis and sperm cells of the male reproductive system. Scientists have found that L-carnitine plays a key role in sperm motility and respiration, making adequate carnitine levels essential for male fertility. Clinical research demonstrates that L-carnitine supplementation can benefit men with fertility problems. In a study published in 2005, researchers gave 30 participants with male infertility two grams of L-carnitine per day for three months. Sperm health was measured at baseline and after carnitine treatment. Results showed that participants who received L-carnitine and had normal mitochondrial function showed a significant increase in sperm motility above baseline levels.. In another study, researchers wanted to know if carnitine supplementation would reduce infertility among 60 men with low sperm counts, atypical sperm or reduced sperm motility. Participants were given two grams of L-carnitine and one gram of ...
A total of 59 gilts were used to determine the effects of supplemental L-carnitine on reproductive performance. Experimental treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with main effects of L-carnitine (0 or 50 ppm) and day of gestation (40, 55, or 70). All gilts received a constant feed allowance of 3.86 lb/day and a top-dress containing either 0 or 88 mg of L-carnitine, starting on the first day of breeding and continuing until the day of harvest. Total litter size, total litter weight, and crown-to-rump length of fetuses were not different (P,0.10) between treatments at any gestation length. By d 70 of gestation, average fetus weight was heavier (P = 0.06) for fetuses from gilts fed L-carnitine, compared with fetuses from gilts fed the control diet. In addition, at d 70, fetal insulin-like growth factor- II (IGF-II) concentrations were lower (P = 0.09) for fetuses from gilts fed L-carnitine than for fetuses from gilts fed the control diet. Feeding L-carnitine may have decreased fetal ...
Carnitine (earlier known as vitamin Bt) is a quaternary amine, beta-hydroxy-gamma-trimethylaminobutyrate. It is a very hygroscopic compound and is found in biological samples both as free carnitine and as the ester of a wide variety of acyl compounds. Of the two types of carnitine, L-and D-carnitine, only L-carnitine is biologically active. This has been shown in a number of species (Grandjean et al., 1993). Carnitine is synthesized in the liver and kidneys. The synthesis depends on two precursors, L-lysine and methionine, as well as ascorbic acid, nicotinamide, vitamin B6 and iron (Borum, 1991). Deficiency in any cofactor will cause L-carnitine deficiency. In rats, total acid-soluble carnitine and free carnitine in plasma and tissues were reduced in a vitamin B6 deficiency but increased when vitamin B6 was provided in a repletion diet (Cho and LeKlem, 1990; Ha et al., 1994). It has been suggested that early features of scurvy (fatigue and weakness) may be attributed to carnitine deficiency. ...
The introduction of Highly Active AntiRetroviral Therapy (HAART) for AIDS and HIV has improved survival considerably. However, HIV patients treated with HAART show significant metabolic symptoms, such as lipodystrophy, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. A possible contribution to these dysmetabolic symptoms in HIV/HAART is a decrease in mitochondrial function, resulting in a decreased fatty acid oxidation. Life style modulation such as aerobic exercise and L-carnitine supplementation may be beneficial to mitochondrial function. Aerobic exercise improves the biogenesis and function of mitochondria. A combined regime of aerobic and resistance training has been demonstrated to increase lean body mass and reduce overall fat and truncal fat and the levels of triglyceride and LDL cholesterol. L-Carnitine plays an important role in the transfer of long-chain acyl groups into the mitochondrial matrix and potentially improves energy metabolism. Further, L-carnitine supplementation decreases serum ...
The introduction of Highly Active AntiRetroviral Therapy (HAART) for AIDS and HIV has improved survival considerably. However, HIV patients treated with HAART show significant metabolic symptoms, such as lipodystrophy, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. A possible contribution to these dysmetabolic symptoms in HIV/HAART is a decrease in mitochondrial function, resulting in a decreased fatty acid oxidation. Life style modulation such as aerobic exercise and L-carnitine supplementation may be beneficial to mitochondrial function. Aerobic exercise improves the biogenesis and function of mitochondria. A combined regime of aerobic and resistance training has been demonstrated to increase lean body mass and reduce overall fat and truncal fat and the levels of triglyceride and LDL cholesterol. L-Carnitine plays an important role in the transfer of long-chain acyl groups into the mitochondrial matrix and potentially improves energy metabolism. Further, L-carnitine supplementation decreases serum ...
Mechanisms of impaired fatty acid metabolism will not be the similar in nondialysis and hemodialysis patients. Correlations between the serum free carnitine concentration (FC), acylcarnitine concentration (AC), acyl to free carnitine ratio (AC/FC) and estimated glomerular filtration charge (eGFR) in the nondialysis inhabitants and the length of hemodialysis in hemodialysis patients have been investigated. As… Read the full article. ...
Abstract: Effect of Pre-Conception Coenzyme Q10 and L-Carnitine Treatments on Ovulatory Response, Genital Characteristics and in vitro Embryo Characteristics in Rabbits
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhanced uptake of carnitine by perfused rat liver following starvation. AU - Kispal, Gyula. AU - Melegh, Bela. AU - Alkonyi, Istvan. AU - Sandor, Attila. PY - 1987/1/9. Y1 - 1987/1/9. N2 - Previously, the release of carnitine from the perfused rat liver was found to be protein-mediated, dependent on the nutritional state but not on metabolic energy. Further, it was shown to exceed the physiological demand by about 10-fold (Sandor et al. (1985) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 835, 83-91). In the present study the uptake of carnitine by perfused rat liver has been investigated. (1) The liver tissue and the perfusate were in equilibrium when the carnitine concentration in the perfusate was close to 45 μM, physiological in the rat plasma. Under this condition, when no net carnitine transport occurred, an unidirectional uptake of l-[3H]carnitine was observed. Quantitatively, the uptake rate was 355 ± 60 (S.D.) nmol/h per 100 g body weight at 45-50 μM perfusate concentration. This uptake ...
Vegetarian athletes generally eat better than their meat-eating counterparts, but there are some nutrients (e.g. vitamin B12) that they lack including one crucial amino acid that is key to muscle performance and recovery: carnitine.. Normally, carnitine is supplied in meat and dairy products, items that vegetarians usually avoid unless they are ovo-lacto (able to consume eggs and dairy) (1, 2). Blood concentrations of carnitine in vegetarians are reported to be strikingly low or around 20-30 percent lower than their meat-eating counterparts and suggests that tissue carnitine stores in the body are also low in concentration (3).. Unfortunately, lower carnitine intake in vegetarians has received relatively little attention (4). But the role carnitine plays in the body is one of heavy involvement in energy metabolism and cellular protection. Additionally, 95 percent of the bodys carnitine is found in muscle tissue.. Carnitine supplementation is shown to correct low concentrations and support ...
AL-DARAJI, H.J. and TAHIR, A.O.. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on drake semen quality. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2014, vol.44, n.1, pp.18-25. ISSN 2221-4062.. This study was conducted to determine the effect on semen quality traits of supplementing the diets of Iraqi drakes with L-carnitine. Forty eight male Iraqi ducks, 30 weeks old, were randomly allocated to four treatments with 12 drakes per treatment group, replicated three times, with four drakes per replicate. The treatment groups consisted of birds fed a diet free of L-carnitine (T1, control group); birds fed a diet containing 50 mg L-carnitine/kg diet (T2); birds fed a diet containing 100 mg L-carnitine/kg diet (T3); and birds fed a diet containing 150 mg L-carnitine/kg diet. The drakes were fed the experimental diets only during the experimental period, which lasted three months. The semen quality traits that were investigated were ejaculate volume, mass and individual motility of spermatozoa, spermatocrit, spermatozoa ...
L-carnitine is concentrated in the epididymis, where sperm mature and acquire their motility (86). Two uncontrolled trials of L-carnitine supplementation in more than 100 men diagnosed with decreased sperm motility found that oral L-carnitine supplementation (3 grams/day) for three to four months significantly improved sperm motility (87, 88). However, no information on subsequent fertility was reported. A cross-sectional study of 101 fertile and infertile men found that L-carnitine concentrations in semen were positively correlated with the number of sperm, the percentage of motile sperm, and the percentage of normal appearing sperm in the sample (89), suggesting that L-carnitine levels in semen may be useful in evaluating male infertility. More recently, a placebo-controlled,double-blind, cross-over trial in 86 patients with male infertility found that L-carnitine (2 grams/day) supplementation for two months led to significantly improvements in sperm quality, evidenced by increases in sperm ...
Without carnitine, fats cannot be burned for energy. This explains the fascination with carnitine supplementation as a fat burner. In two separate studies, supplementation of carnitine (3 grams per day) for 10 days resulted in significantly higher rates of fat oxidation (1,2). This work was recently validated by researchers in the United Kingdom (3). They studied healthy endurance-trained men who supplemented with 80 grams of carbohydrate 2 times per day for 24 weeks. One group also received 2 grams l-carnitine l-tartrate (LCLT) in their carbohydrate beverage. Resting muscle carnitine was unchanged after 12 weeks but increased by 21% after 24 weeks in the carnitine group. When the carnitine group exercised at a low intensity after 24 weeks of supplementation, they showed the higher muscle carnitine was linked to significant muscle glycogen sparing (55% less) compared to controls. Work output was 35% greater than controls. Several lines of evidence support a role of carnitine in other processes ...
The acylcarnitines in plasma and blood spots of 23 patients with proven deficiency of long-chain 3-hydroxyacylcoenzyme A dehydrogenase were reviewed. Long-chain 3-hydroxyacylcarnitines of C14:1, C14, C16 and C18:1 chain length, and long-chain acylcarnitines of C12, C14:1, C14, C16, C18:2 and C18:1 chain length were elevated. Acetylcarnitine was decreased. In plasma, elevation of hydroxy-C18:1 acylcarnitine over the 95th centile of controls, in combination with an elevation of two of the three acylcarnitines C14, C14:1 and hydroxy-C16, identified over 85% of patients with high specificity (less than 0.1% false positive rate). High endogenous levels of long-chain acylcarnitines in normal erythrocytes reduced the diagnostic specificity in blood spots compared with plasma samples. The results were also diagnostic in asymptomatic patients, and were not influenced by genotype. Treatment with diet low in fat and high in medium-chain triglyceride decreased all disease-specific acylcarnitines, often to normal,
Raising your carnitine levels will fight this visceral fat gain because it increases fat burning, which has the effect of taking triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins out of the system so that they dont build up causing high cholesterol and atherosclerosis. A new research study in the journal Food and Chemical Toxicology illustrates this. Researchers gave a carnitine supplement to mice who were fed a high-fat diet in order to make them gain weight. In comparison to a group of mice fed a placebo, the carnitine group gained substantially less visceral and subcutaneous fat (fat that is right below the surface of the skin that you can pinch with your fingers). The placebo group exhibited the beginning stages of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis, neither of which were evident in the carnitine group ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Altered carnitine homeostasis is associated with decreased mitochondrial function and altered nitric oxide signaling in lambs with pulmonary hypertension. AU - Sharma, Shruti. AU - Sud, Neetu. AU - Wiseman, Dean A.. AU - Carter, A. Lee. AU - Kumar, Sanjiv. AU - Hou, Yali. AU - Rau, Thomas. AU - Wilham, Jason. AU - Harmon, Cynthia. AU - Oishi, Peter. AU - Fineman, Jeffrey R.. AU - Black, Stephen M.. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - Utilizing aortopulmonary vascular graft placement in the fetal lamb, we have developed a model (shunt) of pulmonary hypertension that mimics congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow. Our previous studies have identified a progressive development of endothelial dysfunction in shunt lambs that is dependent, at least in part, on decreased nitric oxide (NO) signaling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible role of a disruption in carnitine metabolism in shunt lambs and to determine the effect on NO signaling. Our data ...
L-Carnitine L Carnitine deficiency has been identified in some dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy. Unfortunately we know from animal models that carnitine deficiency can be created by making the heart beat at very rapid heart rate (using a pacemaker); we also know that very rapid heart rates are common in dogs with DCM. Therefore the carnitine deficiency that was reported in earlier years may be the result of, rather than the cause of, DCM. So while we had all hoped that carnitine supplementation would resolve or prevent DCN in dogs, unfortunately it hasn’t. Many people choose to supplement L-carnitine in the diets of dogs with DCM and it is not likely to cause them any harm, but it is costly and may not be of any real benefit. Boxers with DCM should get 2-3 grams every 12 hours. If you want to supplement a Cocker Spaniel with DCM, the recommended dose is 1 gram of L-carnitine every 12 hours. DO NOT GIVE D-CARNITINE OF D,L-CARNITINE.. Taurine In the late 1980s taurine deficiency was ...
The conversion of 6-N-[Me-14C]trimethyl-lysine into carnitine and 4-N-trimethylaminobutyrate (butyrobetaine) was demonstrated in rats kept on a lysine-deficient diet. After the rats were given [14C]trimethyl-lysine for 4 days, a total of 17% of the injected label was recovered as carnitine from carcass and urine extracts. Another 8% of the trimethyl-lysine label was converted into 4-N-trimethylaminobutyrate, most of which was recovered from the urine. The conversion of trimethyl-lysine into the above two metabolites supports the pathway of carnitine biosynthesis as lysine+methionine → 6-N-trimethyl-lysine → 4-N-trimethylaminobutyrate → carnitine. In addition, three other metabolites representing 2% of the injected dose were recovered. Only an insignificant portion of the label was recovered as free trimethyl-lysine from the carcass, whereas 22% of the injected label was recovered in the urine. A relatively low specific radioactivity in carnitine was found when ...
For more information on preventing heart disease in your dog with carnitine supplementation, click here). Before fatty acids can be metabolized for energy they must be transported into the mitochondria, and before the end products of fatty acid decomposition (acetyl groups) can be used in the body for energy or to make carbohydrates they must be transported out of the mitochondria. Carnitine promotes the movement of those important molecules. Without carnitine, the metabolism of fatty acids would slow as would the utilization of the acetyl groups, which are the end products of fatty acid metabolism. This would limit the amount of energy that can be obtained from fats. Carnitine has become the centre of attention in recent years because of the its potential to improve performance and, perhaps, assist in the management of myocardial pathology.. Dogs and cats both make carnitine from the amino acid lysine and, therefore, it is unlikely that simple dietary deficiencies exist in the normal animal. ...
Recently, supplementation of L-carnitine to obese rats was found to improve the carnitine status and to counteract an obesity-induced muscle fiber transition from type I to type II. However, it has not been resolved if the change of muscle fiber distribution induced in obese rats and the restoration of the
4 Answers - Posted in: carnitine deficiency - Answer: Well sorry to say that I dont have the condition that u speak of but I ...
L-carnitine is concentrated in the epididymis, where sperm mature and acquire their motility (86). Two uncontrolled trials of L-carnitine supplementation in more than 100 men diagnosed with decreased sperm motility found that oral L-carnitine supplementation (3 grams/day) for three to four months significantly improved sperm motility (87, 88). However, no information on subsequent fertility was reported. A cross-sectional study of 101 fertile and infertile men found that L-carnitine concentrations in semen were positively correlated with the number of sperm, the percentage of motile sperm, and the percentage of normal appearing sperm in the sample (89), suggesting that L-carnitine levels in semen may be useful in evaluating male infertility. More recently, a placebo-controlled,double-blind, cross-over trial in 86 patients with male infertility found that L-carnitine (2 grams/day) supplementation for two months led to significantly improvements in sperm quality, evidenced by increases in sperm ...
This case study suggest that CoQ deficiency and the concomitant significant reductions in complex I, I+III, and II+III enzymatic activities in respiratory chain (RC) were responsable for the mitochondrial disorders observed in this patient. The observed muscle carnitine deficiency is most likely related to an increased reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ratio associated with respiratory chain defects. The increased ratio could impair beta-oxidation at the level of 3-hydroxyacyl- coenzyme A dehydrogenases, with a subsequent accumulation of acyl-coenzyme A beta-oxidation intermediates. These intermediates, released as carnitine esters, are transported into plasma and eliminated in urine, leading to secondary carnitine deficiency ...
New research by the Cleveland Clinic has found another reason why consuming a lot of red meat increases your risk of heart disease. Researchers are now convinced that the association between red meat and arteriosclerosis is more complex than just consuming bad fat. A chemical compound in red meat called carnitine, and the type of gut bacterial flora that you have also play an important role.. Large amounts of diet sourced carnitine are found in red meats and pork. For most people, dietary carnitine isnt necessary since your liver and kidneys also produce carnitine from the amino acids lysine and methionine.. How Does Dietary Carnitine Increase Your Risk Of Heart Disease?. The cardio health problems associated with dietary carnitine comes when certain bacteria in your intestines convert it into a chemical called trimethylamine-N-oxide or TMAO. TMAO is known to increase your risk of developing arteriosclerosis or clogged arteries that can lead to heart attacks and death.. By eating large amounts ...
Carnitine is a natural substance that the body uses to process fats and produce energy. Carnitine deficiency is when not enough of the nutrient carnitine is available to cells in the body. This can cause muscle weakness and heart or liver problems.
We determined the effects of supplemental L-carnitine on the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in porcine embryonic myoblasts (PEM) from gilts. Forty gilts (BW = 303.6 lb) were allotted to 1 of 4 treatments that were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial, with main effects of L-carnitine (0 or 50 ppm) and day of gestation (55 or 70). All gilts were fed 3.86 lb/day and a top-dress containing either 0 or 50 ppm of L-carnitine, starting on the first day of breeding and continuing through the allotted gestation length. At d 55 or 70 of gestation, fetuses were removed for isolation of PEM from the hind-limb muscles. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to determine growth factor messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in cultured PEM at 72-, 96-, 120-, and 144-h after plating. Flow cytometry was used to analyze percentage of myogenic cells with a myoblast/myotube specific monoclonal antibody 5.1H11, and for determination of cell cycle stage. There was no treatment differences (P,0.10) for the expression of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - L-carnitine supplementation in hypothyroidism. AU - An, Jee Hyun. AU - Kim, Sin Gon. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84994031831&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84994031831&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1507/endocrj.EJ16-0392. DO - 10.1507/endocrj.EJ16-0392. M3 - Letter. C2 - 27580951. AN - SCOPUS:84994031831. VL - 63. SP - 939. EP - 940. JO - Endocrine Journal. JF - Endocrine Journal. SN - 0918-8959. IS - 10. ER - ...
April 11, 2013 A study published in Nature Medicine claims that carnitine, a compound abundant in red meat, sold as a dietary supplement, and present in some energy drinks, may increase the risk of heart disease. Carnitine typically helps the body transport fatty acids into cells to be used as energy. But researchers at the Cleveland Clinic found that in both humans and mice, certain bacteria in the digestive tract convert carnitine to another metabolite, called TMAO, which promotes atherosclerosis, or a thickening of the arteries. The researchers tested the carnitine and TMAO levels of omnivores, vegans, and vegetarians, and examined records of 2,595 patients undergoing cardiac evaluations. In patients with high TMAO levels, the more carnitine in their blood, the more likely they were to develop cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, stroke, and death. The researchers speculated that carnitine could be compounding the danger. Cholesterol is still needed to clog the arteries, but TMAO changes ...
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM E71.44 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
Carnitine is a quaternary amine compound found at high concentration in animal tissues, particularly muscle, and is most well studied for its contribution to fatty acid transport into mitochondria. In bacteria, carnitine is an important osmoprotectant, and can also enhance thermotolerance, cryotolerance and barotolerance. Carnitine can be transported into the cell or acquired from metabolic precursors, where it can serve directly as a compatible solute for stress protection or be metabolized through one of a few distinct pathways as a nutrient source. In this review, we summarize what is known about carnitine physiology and metabolism in bacteria. In particular, recent advances in the aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways as well as the use of carnitine as an electron acceptor have addressed some long-standing questions in the field.
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Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline and phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We demonstrate here that metabolism by intestinal microbiota of dietary L-carnitine, a trimethylamine abundant in red meat, also produces TMAO and accelerates atherosclerosis in mice. Omnivorous human subjects produced more TMAO than did vegans or vegetarians following ingestion of L-carnitine through a microbiota-dependent mechanism. The presence of specific bacterial taxa in human feces was associated with both plasma TMAO concentration and dietary status. Plasma L-carnitine levels in subjects undergoing cardiac evaluation (n = 2,595) predicted increased risks for both prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and incident major adverse cardiac events (myocardial infarction, stroke or death), but only among subjects with concurrently high TMAO levels. Chronic dietary L-carnitine supplementation in mice altered ...
Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline and phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We demonstrate here that metabolism by intestinal microbiota of dietary l-carnitine, a trimethylamine abundant in red meat, also producesTMAO and accelerates atherosclerosis in mice. Omnivorous human subjects produced more TMAO than did vegans or vegetarians following ingestion of l-carnitine through a microbiota-dependent mechanism. The presence of specific bacterial taxa in human feces was associated with both plasma TMAO concentration and dietary status. Plasma l-carnitine levels in subjects undergoing cardiac evaluation (n = 2,595) predicted increased risks for both prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and incident major adverse cardiac events (myocardial infarction, stroke or death), but only among subjects with concurrently high TMAO levels. Chronic dietary l-carnitine supplementation in mice altered ...
Abstract: A factorial bioassay was made to evaluate 4 different levels of exogenous saponin (S); 0 mg (So), 25 mg (S1), 50 mg (S2) and 75 mg (S3) per kg and also a combination (SC) of 50 mg saponin plus 50 mg L-carnitine (S4) per kg maize-soybean meal based basal diet during the late autumn. In all, 5 experimental diets being iso-nutritive (as per NRC, 1994 recommendation) but for variable in presence and contents of saponin and L-carnitine were prepared. 8-day old male broiler chicks (n=150, Starboro) were distributed randomly into 15 groups of 10 chicks in each housed in separate pen of littered floor. Three such groups received each of 5 test diets ad libitum as mash up to 8 weeks of age. The plenty of water was made available to all chicks during the experimental period. It was found that S2 diet significantly improved body weight gain (BWG) during growing (8 days to 3 weeks) period when compared with S0, S1, S3 and S4. Dietary S and SC had no significant (p>0.05) effect separately and ...
A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was carried out to assess L-carnitine supplements’ influence on the biomarkers of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, and CINAHL were used to collect RCT studies published prior to February 2020. RCT studies were included if they had at least one of the following biomarker outcome measurements: waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride (TG), or high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLc). Nine of twenty studies with adequate methodological quality were included in this meta-analysis. The dose of L-carnitine supplementation administered varied between 0.75 and 3 g/day for durations of 8–24 weeks. L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced WC and systolic BP (SBP), with no significant effects on FBS, TG, and HDLc. We found that L-carnitine supplementation at a dose of more than 1 g/d significantly reduced FBS and TG and increased HDLc. In
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
This Pilot study follows up on a publication entitled A novel X-linked inborn error of carnitine biosynthesis and a neuronal carnitine pathway hypothesis for autism. This paper describes a new genetic condition (called TMLHE deficiency) that results in the loss of ability to make carnitine in the body.
Carnitine β-hydroxy-γ-(trimethylammonio)butyrate - a compound necessary in the peripheral tissues for a transfer of fatty acids for their oxidation within the cell, accumulates in the brain despite low β-oxidation in this organ. In order to enter the brain, carnitine has to cross the blood-brain barrier formed by capillary endothelial cells which are in close interaction with astrocytes. Previous studies, demonstrating expression of mRNA coding two carnitine transporters - organic cation/carnitine transporter 2 (OCTN2) and B|SUP|0,+|/SUP| in endothelial cells, did not give any information on carnitine transporters polarity in endothelium. Therefore more detailed experiments were performed on expression and localization of a high affinity carnitine transporter OCTN2 in an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier by real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and immunocytochemistry. The amount of mRNA was comparable in endothelial cells and kidney, when referred to housekeeping genes, it was, however,
Oxaliplatin transport mediated by organic cation/carnitine transporters OCTN1 and OCTN2 in overexpressing human embryonic kidney 293 cells and rat dorsal root ganglion neurons
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Compare solute carrier family 25 (carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase), member 20 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
CARNITOR® (levocarnitine) Tablets.. Adults: The recommended oral dosage for adults is 990 mg two or three times a day using the 330 mg tablets, depending on clinical response.. Infants and children: The recommended oral dosage for infants and children is between 50 and 100 mg/kg/day in divided doses, with a maximum of 3 g/day. Dosage should begin at 50 mg/kg/day. The exact dosage will depend on clinical response.. Monitoring should include periodic blood chemistries, vital signs, plasma carnitine concentrations and overall clinical condition.. CARNITOR® (levocarnitine) Oral Solution and CARNITOR® SF (levocarnitine) Sugar-Free Oral Solution.. For oral use only. Not for parenteral use. Adults: The recommended dosage of levocarnitine is 1 to 3 g/day for a 50 kg subject, which is equivalent to 10 to 30 mL/day of CARNITOR® (levocarnitine) Oral Solution or CARNITOR® SF (levocarnitine) Sugar-Free Oral Solution. Higher doses should be administered only with caution and only where clinical and ...
Objective: To compare plasma free amino acid (FAA) and carnitine levels in pregnant women with and without hydatidiform mole (HM). Methods: This prospective study was conducted in patients admitted to Harran University Medical Faculty Hospital Obstetr
Recently, we found a serum acylcarnitine (ACR) deficiency in Japanese patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). To clarify whether this ACR abnormality is a characteristic of CFS or not, we also studied the levels of serum carnitine in Swedish subjects. Both serum ACR and free carnitine (FCR) levels in normal healthy subjects were quite different between Japanese (n=131) and Swedish people (n=46) ( ...
Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency (SLC25A20) Test Cost INR 30000.00 Surat Pune Jaipur Lucknow Kanpur Nagpur Visakhapatnam Indore Thane Bhopal Patna Vadodara Ghaziabad Ludhiana Coimbatore Madurai Meerut Ranchi Allahabad Trivandrum Pondicherry Mysore Aligarh best offer discount price
Acylcarnitines are intermediates of fatty acid and amino acid oxidation found in tissues and body fluids. Acylcarnitines are important diagnostic markers for inherited diseases of peroxisomal and mitochondrial oxidation processes and abnormalities in specific acylcarnitine concentrations are used in the identification of carnitine deficiency and diagnosis of fatty acids oxidation defects and organic acidurias such as carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency (CACTD) or Isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Measuring different acylcarnitines can be used to detect more than 40 different inborn errors of metabolism. If these diseases are not diagnosed, the metabolic disorders can already lead to severe irreversible harm to newborns within their first few days of life. Newborn screening programs aim to detect congenital metabolic disorders early on in infants before they become symptomatic. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has greatly increased the screening possibilities in
SLC22A5 is a membrane transport protein associated with primary carnitine deficiency. Polyspecific organic cation transporters in the liver, kidney, intestine, and other organs are critical for elimination of many endogenous small organic cations as well as a wide array of drugs and environmental toxins. The encoded protein is a plasma integral membrane protein which functions both as an organic cation transporter and as a sodium-dependent high affinity carnitine transporter. The encoded protein is involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Mutations in this gene are the cause of systemic primary carnitine deficiency (CDSP), an autosomal recessive disorder manifested early in life by hypoketotic hypoglycemia and acute metabolic decompensation, and later in life by skeletal myopathy or cardiomyopathy. Solute carrier family GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000197375 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000018900 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystal structure of human gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase. AU - Tars, Kaspars. AU - Rumnieks, Janis. AU - Zeltins, Andris. AU - Kazaks, Andris. AU - Kotelovica, Svetlana. AU - Leonciks, Ainars. AU - Sharipo, Jelena. AU - Viksna, Arturs. AU - Kuka, Janis. AU - Liepinsh, Edgars. AU - Dambrova, Maija. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the Latvian State Research Program 4VPP-2010-6/3.3 and by ESF grant 1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/150 . We thank Anna Janson and Ana-Laura Stern for their assistance in data collection. We thank the personnel for their help during our stay at ESRF, in particular Hassan Belrhali for his assistance in quickly obtaining the first SAD map. We thank also Prof. Lars Liljas for critical reading of this manuscript.. PY - 2010/8. Y1 - 2010/8. N2 - Gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase (GBBH) is a 2-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of l-carnitine by hydroxylation of gamma-butyrobetaine (GBB). l-carnitine is required ...
Transcriptional regulation of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism is considered the major long-term regulatory mechanism controlling lipid homeostasis. By means of this mechanism, transcription factors, nutrients, hormones and epigenetics control not only fatty acid metabolism, but also many metabolic pathways and cellular functions at the molecular level. The regulation of the expression of many genes at the level of their transcription has already been analyzed. This review focuses on the transcriptional control of two genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and oxidation: the citrate carrier (CIC) and the carnitine/ acylcarnitine/carrier (CAC), which are members of the mitochondrial carrier gene family, SLC25. The contribution of tissue-specific and less tissue-specific transcription factors in activating or repressing CIC and CAC gene expression is discussed. The interaction with drugs of some transcription factors, such as PPAR and FOXA1, and how this interaction can be an attractive
BACKGROUND:Hyperammonemia and a carnitine deficiency with concomitant encephalopathy have been reported to result from valproate administration. The reported incidence of hyperammonemia in children treated with valproate is 19%. OBJECTIVE: This study explores the feasibility of reversing Valproate Induced Hyperammonemic Encephalopathy (VHE) by discontinuing valproate and normalizing the carnitine level via L-carnitine supplementation.
Background: Amethopterin is a folic acid antagonist which used as a chemotherapeutic agent and its anti-oxidant activity is used to treat many cancer types. This study aimed to determine the possible protective effects of L-carnitine against Amethopterin induced large intestine toxicity. Methodology: A total 60 male albino rats were equally divided into six groups; the first and second groups were the control and L-carnitine groups respectively while the 3rd group was Amethopterin rat group; the 4th and 5th groups were co- and post- treated Amethopterin rat with L-carnitine respectively and the 6th group was self treated Amethopterin rat group. Results: Glutathione, catalase and total protein levels in Amethopterin and self-treated groups showed a significant decrease when compared with control group, while MDA levels in Amethopterin and self-treated groups showed a significant increase when compared with control group. Many of abnormalities as colonic epithelial cell damage in the form of epithelial
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of propionyl-L-carnitine in chronically hypoperfused (hibernating) myocardium. AU - Bolukoglu, H.. AU - Eggleston, A. M.. AU - Subramanian, R.. AU - Nellis, S. H.. AU - Liedtke, A. J.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - The purpose of this report was to test the effects of systemic treatment with propionyl-L-carnitine in a new model of chronically hypoperfused (hibernating) myocardium. Adolescent swine were instrumented to undergo a period of mild partial coronary constriction for 1 week (50% reduction of the maximum phasic flow velocity in the anterior descending coronary artery). This reduced regional mechanical function by 56%. The system satisfied criteria defining hibernating myocardium, in that the chronic hypoperfusion did not produce massive tissue necrosis and that the reduction in regional contraction remained responsive to inotropic stimulation. Treatment with 50 mg/kg propionyl-L-carnitine by ...
LivOn Labs Lypo-Spheric Acetyl L-Carnitine is the leading liposomal supplement containing Acetyl L-Carnitine, which may raise carnitine levels in the brain. The pathways to absorb Acetyl L-Carnitine are complex and unreliable, and absorption depends on the concurrence of several favorable conditions. The body cant sto
Transcriptional regulation of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism is considered the major long-term regulatory mechanism controlling lipid homeostasis. By means of this mechanism, transcription factors, nutrients, hormones and epigenetics control not only fatty acid metabolism, but also many metabolic pathways and cellular functions at the molecular level. The regulation of the expression of many genes at the level of their transcription has already been analyzed. This review focuses on the transcriptional control of two genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and oxidation: the citrate carrier (CIC) and the carnitine/ acylcarnitine/carrier (CAC), which are members of the mitochondrial carrier gene family, SLC25. The contribution of tissue-specific and less tissue-specific transcription factors in activating or repressing CIC and CAC gene expression is discussed. The interaction with drugs of some transcription factors, such as PPAR and FOXA1, and how this interaction can be an attractive ...
Prevalence and incidence statistics for Carnitine palmitoyl transferase II deficiency, lethal neonatal form covering estimated populations and diagnosis rates.
Several experimental studies have shown that levocarnitine reduces myocardial injury after ischemia and reperfusion by counteracting the toxic effect of high levels of free fatty acids, which occur in ischemia, and by improving carbohydrate metabolism. In addition to increasing the rate of fatty acid transport into mitochondria, levocarnitine reduces the intramitochondrial ratio of acetyl-CoA to free CoA, thus stimulating the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase and increasing the oxidation of pyruvate. Supplementation of the myocardium with levocarnitine results in an increased tissue carnitine content, a prevention of the loss of high-energy phosphate stores, ischemic injury, and improved heart recovery on reperfusion. Clinically, levocarnitine has been shown to have anti-ischemic properties. In small short-term studies, levocarnitine acts as an antianginal agent that reduces ST segment depression and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. These short-term studies also show that levocarnitine ...
Not all doctors will order these tests, nor will they know how to interpret them. Its important to work with a doctor who has training or is educated to understand these tests. Interpreting these labs is both simple yet complicated. For example, if carnitine levels are low supplementation is warranted. Other markers that indicate a need for carnitine are urinary fatty acids, adipic and suberic acid. When they are elevated in the urine it indicates that they are not being shuttled into mitochondria and not being used, hence the need for carnitine. Doses recommended are in the range of 20-100 mg/kg/day for children (28). Elevated urinary pyruvic acid can indicate a need for alpha lipoic acid as well as B1, B2 and B3. Elevated intermediates of the TCA in the urine can indicate a need for cofactors of the enzyme needed to convert that intermediate to the next step of the TCA, typically these are B vitamins. This information is greatly simplified and assessment of what each patient needs to support ...
Save 24% Fitness Labs - L-Carnitine Liquid 1,000 mg Natural Tropical Punch 16 Fluid Ounces L-Carnitine Liquid 1,000 mg Free Form Advanced Stim-Free Energy* Fat Metabolism* Energy Production* Amazing Taste No Artificial Sweeteners No Artificial Flavors Maximize energy production for optimal physical performance* L-carnitine is an amino acid-like compound. It plays a crucial role in fat breakdown and energy production.* L-carnitine, plus three enzymes produced by the body, transport fat into the bodys furnace (mitochondria), where its burned for energy.* Some studies show benefits for athletes taking L-carnitine before workouts.* L-carnitine research has focused on work output, VO2 max, lactic acid and fat metabolism.* Enjoy the benefits of L-carnitine in a highly absorbable liquid form.* Each tablespoon contains 1,000 mg (1 gram) of L-carnitine.
CPT2Z : Confirmation of diagnosis of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency   Carrier screening in cases where there is a family history of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency, but disease-causing mutations have not been identified in an affected individual
A European animal study has found that L-carnitine supplementation could become part of treatment for cancer-related cachexia.. Cancer-related cachexia is a devastating wasting syndrome, where the sufferer experiences dramatic muscle loss and weight loss. This is caused by the bodys own immune system which is attempting to fight the cancer, but breaks down and destroys skeletal muscle and fat tissue.. It usually occurs in advanced cancer, and severely affects quality of life. Some patients with cancer cachexia become so frail they cannot even walk.. The National Cancer Institute estimates that about a third of all cancer deaths are caused by cancer cachexia. This is not only due to extreme frailty, but also because cachexia hinders treatment responses.. S Busquets, R Serpe, et al, part of the Cancer Research Group, Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, developed an animal trial to study the effects of L-carnitine on ...
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating mental disease with a pronounced impact on the quality of life of many people; however, it is still difficult to diagnose MDD accurately. In this study, a nontargeted metabolomics approach based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was used to find the differential metabolites in plasma samples from patients with MDD and healthy controls. Furthermore, a validation analysis focusing on the differential metabolites was performed in another batch of samples using a targeted approach based on the dynamic multiple reactions monitoring method. Levels of acyl carnitines, ether lipids, and tryptophan pronouncedly decreased, whereas LPCs, LPEs, and PEs markedly increased in MDD subjects as compared with the healthy controls. Disturbed pathways, mainly located in acyl carnitine metabolism, lipid metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism, were clearly brought to light in MDD ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Purification, characterization and partial amino acid sequences of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase from human liver. AU - Finocchiaro, G.. AU - Colombo, I.. AU - DiDonato, S.. PY - 1990/11/12. Y1 - 1990/11/12. N2 - Carnitine palmitoyl-transferase has been extracted with 0.5% Tween-20 from human liver homogenatc and purified to homogeneity. The purified enzyme has a native Mr of 274 kDa. The subunit Mr is of 66 kDa, as shown by SDS-PAGE and immunoblots obtained with antibodies raised against human CPT. Purified CPT shows high affinity for palmitoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-carnitine and is not inhibited by malonyl-CoA, Seven tryptic peptides and the N-terminal of purified human CPT have been sequenced, and found homologous to rat CPT sequence. Both antibodies and peptide sequences are important tools for the investigation of the molecular basis of CPT deficiency in man.. AB - Carnitine palmitoyl-transferase has been extracted with 0.5% Tween-20 from human liver homogenatc and purified to ...
In 1965, I was training to become a clinical pharmacologist, a specialist in conducting clinical studies, at St. Vincents Hospital and Medical Center in New York City. One day, my colleague and physician friend, Sheldon Gilgore who later became President of Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, visited my research unit and told me about some European clinical studies which reported that carnitine is effective in the treatment of hyperthyroidism or an overactive thyroid gland. He came to me because I was also trained as an endocrinologist and was experienced in treating patients with thyroid disease.. I reviewed the data and found that the studies were poorly conducted and would not be accepted by quality medical journals. I did, however, conclude that certain clinical effects possibly couldnt have happened by chance alone. Since carnitine is an exceptionally safe natural substance, I decided that it was reasonable to test this substance in a few hyperthyroid patients. At that time carnitine was not ...
Save 45% Fitness Labs - L-Carnitine Liquid 1,000 mg Natural Orange 16 Fluid Ounces L-Carnitine Liquid 1,000 mg Free Form For a Lean, Healthy Body* Maximize Energy Production for Optimal Physical Performance* L-carnitine is an amino acid-like compound. It plays a crucial role in fat breakdown and energy production.* L-carnitine, plus three enzymes produced by the body, transport fat into the bodys furnace (mitochondria), where its burned for energy.* Some studies show benefits for athletes taking 2 to 4 grams daily before workouts.* L-carnitine research has focused on work output, VO2 max, lactic acid and fat metabolism.* Enjoy the benefits of L-carnitine in a highly absorbable liquid form.* Each tablespoon contains 1,000 mg (1 gram) of L-carnitine. Vegetarian.
As these molecules started to accumulate, the availability of free, unprocessed carnitine decreased. This imbalance was linked to fuel-burning problems, that is, impairments in the cells combustion of both fat and glucose fuel. We suspected that persistent increases in acylcarnitines in the rats were causing problems, and we could also see that the availability of free carnitine was decreasing with weight gain and aging, said Muoio, according to an August 12, 2009 news release, Carnitine supplements reverse glucose intolerance in animals. It appeared that carnitine could no longer do its job when chronic metabolic disruptions were stressing the system. Thats when we designed an experiment to add extra carnitine to the rats diet. Muoio (at the time of the news release) also is a professor in the departments of medicine, pharmacology and cancer biology ...
Dr. Stavros Chatzifotis holds a degree in Biology from the Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki-Greece, a Masters Degree in Fisheries Biology and Management for the University College of North Wales-UK and a Doctoral degree in Aquatic Bioscience from the Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology (former Tokyo University of Fisheries)-Japan. In his doctoral dissertation he investigated the effect of dietary carnitine on growth and lipid composition of red sea bream and rainbow trout ...
Acetyl forms of amino acids are directly taken into the brain, and Carnitine is no exception. This is where the majority of actions take place, with the Acetyl form used to treat memory related illness and neuropathies.. The body can convert Acetyl L Carnitine into L Carnitine and visa versa, however, if you are wanting weight loss, best use L-Carnitine alone and if you are treating any brain related disorders, use the Acetyl form.. Acetyl L Carnitine is used for age related memory loss, Alzheimers disease, late life depression, cataracts, pain due to diabetes type 2 and pain associated with drugs that are used to treat HIV AIDS.. In Alzheimers disease, this amino acid seems to work best with reducing rapid onset Alzheimers disease presenting in those under 65 years of age. Also great for muscle function, Acetyl L Carnitine is vital for health of the heart muscle and also reduces prostate inflammation. Useful also for increasing aged related testosterone decline.. Acetyl-L-Carnitine by Seeking ...
A small-for-date infant presented at birth with severe non-immune hydrops, cardiac failure, metabolic acidosis and hypoglycaemia. Ultrasonography disclosed a cardiomyopathy. Initial therapy...
Acetyl-L-carnitine, also known as ALC, is produced in the body from the amino acid L-carnitine and is known to help the body produce energy; it has research in aiding dementia patients and with fatigue; potential uses for cancer patients include neuropathy, brain fog and reducing healthy cell damage.. What is carnitine?. Carnitine is an antioxidant and is present in almost every cell of the body and plays a role in providing fats to the mitochondria and clearing away waste products. Muscles have high levels of carnitine. Carnitine is produced by the liver and kidneys. It is made from the amino acids lysine and methionine.. Because of its fat carrying abilities, some people take it for weight loss.x. Food sources and almost exclusively animal - chicken, beef, dairy.. Vascular benefits of carnitine from research. It may help in angina, arrhythmias, and may also help in blood vessel function especially the type linked to congenital heart failure. Where claudication occurs (declining vascular ...
Lonza is a leading manufacturer of L-Carnitine, sold under the brand name Carnipure™. L-Carnitine is a nutrient that plays an important role in energy metabolism. The proprietary and fully backward integrated Carnipure™ production process was invented by Lonza scientists in Switzerland. It directly produces the L-isomer of Carnitine, the beneficial form found in nature. L-Carnitine is found in infant formulas, multivitamins and a wide variety of health products. Carnipure™ crystalline and Carnipure™ tartrate are self-affirmed GRAS for use in certain conventional foods as a dietary source of L-Carnitine. Lonza developed Carnipure™ tartrate as a non-hygroscopic alternative for solid and liquid applications in the early 90s. Carnipure™ tartrate consists of 68% L-Carnitine and 32% L-tartaric acid, which is the highest L-Carnitine concentration of any current commercially available non-hygroscopic salt form. Both Carnipure™ crystalline and Carnipure™ tartrate are bright white, pH- ...
While there are many different forms of l-carnitine, Acetyl L-Carnitine (ALCAR) has proven to be one of the best sources for the human body. Scientists often recommend Acetyl L-Carnitine for its ability to support brain and cognitive function, promote energy production, improve insulin sensitivity, and alleviate the effects of aging and disease on mitochondria.. Acetyl L-Carnitine - One of the strongest supplements on the market, each serving provide an incredible 1200mg of acetyl l-carnitine.. Pure Goodness - The Divine Bounty Acetyl L-Carnitine supplement is free from common allergens including: soy, peanuts, milk, gluten, shellfish, corn and wheat. This product also has no preservatives, binders, fillers and any artificial ingredients. We proudly use vegetarian capsules.. EAN: 9506000122250 ...
Citrus Flavor NOW® L-Carnitine Liquid provides all of the extensive benefits of Carnitine in a highly absorbable liquid form. L-Carnitine is a non-essential amino acid that helps to maintain overall good health by facilitating the transfer of fatty acid groups into the mitochondrial membrane for cellular energy production.* It naturally occurs in red meat and other animal-source foods, but we recommend supplementation to obtain optimal levels of this excellent amino acid. NOW® L-Carnitine is the purest form, clinically tested, and vegetarian (non-animal sourced). Carnipure™ offers purest L-Carnitine and is a registered trademark of Lonza, Ltd., Switzerland. NOW L-Carnitine 2X Liquid provides double (1 g) the potency of competing brands per serving size.
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This dissertation research involved investigations into possible drug-nutrient or disease-nutrient transport interactions in the nursing mother-neonate dyad. The overall hypothesis was that cefepime would inhibit L-carnitine transport at the lactating mammary gland and in developing neonates. Additionally, inflammation would alter energy substrate transporter expression in mammary tissue. The first objective was to investigate the potential for drug-nutrient transport interactions at the lactating mammary gland. A continuous cefepime infusion to lactating rats reduced L-carnitine transfer into milk at early but not mid lactation. In conjunction with higher milk L-carnitine and cefepime concentrations and higher expression levels of Octn2, the data suggests cefepime competitively inhibited Octn2-mediated L-carnitine transport into milk. The second objective was to assess the influence of lactation stage on milk-to-serum ratios (M/S) for an actively transported drug, cefepime, and its impact on ...
Objective Fatty acid oxidation in macrophages is thought to regulate inflammatory status and insulin-sensitivity. fatty acids and are required for fatty acid oxidation [13]. Carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CrOT) and carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) conjugate medium-chain and short-chain acyl-CoA to carnitine, respectively [13]. CrAT is localized primarily within the mitochondrial matrix and catalyzes both the addition and the removal of carnitine from acetyl-CoA [14], facilitating the efflux of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA and buffering the intracellular pools of acetyl-CoA and carnitine. Consistent with an important role of fatty acid oxidation in macrophages, CPT1, CPT2, Crat and Crot are abundantly expressed in macrophages [15]. Interestingly, the CrAT activity is reduced during obesity and aging, leading to impaired glycemic control [16], [17]. Notably, muscle-specific deletion of CrAT was shown to reduce exercise performance [18] and exacerbated metabolic dysregulation in HFD mice [19]. ...
Objective Fatty acid oxidation in macrophages is thought to regulate inflammatory status and insulin-sensitivity. fatty acids and are required for fatty acid oxidation [13]. Carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CrOT) and carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) conjugate medium-chain and short-chain acyl-CoA to carnitine, respectively [13]. CrAT is localized primarily within the mitochondrial matrix and catalyzes both the addition and the removal of carnitine from acetyl-CoA [14], facilitating the efflux of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA and buffering the intracellular pools of acetyl-CoA and carnitine. Consistent with an important role of fatty acid oxidation in macrophages, CPT1, CPT2, Crat and Crot are abundantly expressed in macrophages [15]. Interestingly, the CrAT activity is reduced during obesity and aging, leading to impaired glycemic control [16], [17]. Notably, muscle-specific deletion of CrAT was shown to reduce exercise performance [18] and exacerbated metabolic dysregulation in HFD mice [19]. ...
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Enhancement of muscular performance by a coformulation of propionyl-L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, nicotinamide, riboflavin and pantothenic acid in the
CoQ10 l-Carnitine fumarate Ultra-charged cardiovascular support l-Carnitine fumarate, recommended by leading U.S. cardiologists, is combined with CoQ10 for advanced cardiovascular energy support. In addition to being one of the most bioavailable forms of carnitine, l-carnitine fumarate provides fumaric acid, leading to a synergistic effect in cellular energy production in the mitochondria. l- Carnitine shuttles fatty acids across the mitochondria membrane where they are metabolized and promote the Krebs cycle. This stimulates the electron transport chain, which produces ATP, or energy, for the heart. Meanwhile, fumaric acid is a key constituent of the Krebs cycle, fueling this process even more. As a component of the electron transport chain, CoQ10 further augments the ATP synthesis and energy formation potential for this product. As a result, these nutrients play crucial roles in the energy dynamics of the heart, the most concentrated source of mitochondria and fatty acid utilization in the body.
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.LongDesc { font-family: Verdana, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; font-variant: normal; color: #666; } Life Extension Acetyl-L-Carnitine 500mg 100 Vegetarian Capsules A major cause of aging is a reduction in the energy-producing components of the cell, resulting in reduced cellular metabolic activity, and the accumulation of cellular debris. L-carnitine helps maintain cellular energy metabolism by assisting in the transport of fatty acids from the cytosol into the mitochondria within the cell, where fats are oxidized to produce the cellular energy (adenosine triphosphate or ATP). Acetyl-L-carnitine is the acetylated ester of the amino acid L-carnitine. Acetyl-L-carnitine is an endogenous mitochondrial membrane compound that helps maintain mitochondrial bioenergetics and lowers the increased oxidative stress associated with aging. Acetyl-L-carnitine and L-carnitine are absorbed into the bloodstream efficiently. Both are
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Whale meat and blubber as source of carnitine, vitamins and minerals[edit]. In 1995 the first Faroese patient with systemic ... The treatment is to give the patients carnitine supplement. The German physician and scientist Ulrike Steurwald, who has done ... 3.1 Whale meat and blubber as source of carnitine, vitamins and minerals ... The whale meat contains nutritions like carnitine, taurine and selenium. The concentration of selenium in raw fresh cod fillet ...
Vitamin B4: can refer to the distinct chemicals choline, adenine, or carnitine.[38][39] Choline is synthesized by the human ... "Chemical studies on vitamin BT isolation and characterization as carnitine". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 38 (1): ... Carnitine is an essential dietary nutrient for certain worms, but not for humans.[42] ...
Carnitine Synthesized in body Vitamin F Essential fatty acids Needed in large quantities (does. not fit the definition of a ...
Yüce A, Demir H, Temizel IN, Koçak N (2004). "Serum carnitine and selenium levels in children with celiac disease". Indian ...
L-CARNITINE 87. CARTEOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE 88. CARVEDILOL 89. CEFADROXYL 90. CEFATOXIME SODIUM ...
Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR). *Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA). *Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) ...
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency (also known as CPT-II deficiency) leads to an excess long chain fatty acids, as ... "Carnitine plamitoyltransferase I deficiency". Genetics Home Reference. National Institute of Health. Retrieved 4 November 2013 ... "Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II Deficiency". NIH. Retrieved 22 November 2013. "Galactosemia". Genetics Home Reference. ... Treatment generally includes dietary modifications and carnitine supplements. Galactosemia results from an inability to process ...
Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR). *Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA). *Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) ...
Two enzymes (ε-N-trimethyl-L-lysine hydroxylase and γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase) that are necessary for synthesis of carnitine. ... These functions include the synthesis of collagen, carnitine, and neurotransmitters; the synthesis and catabolism of tyrosine; ... 103][104] Carnitine is essential for the transport of fatty acids into mitochondria for ATP generation. ... "Ascorbic acid and carnitine biosynthesis". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 54 (6 Suppl): 1147S-1152S. PMID 1962562 ...
The co-A is then exchanged with carnitine (via the enzyme carnitine palmitoyltransferase I) to produce a fatty acid-carnitine ... Once inside, carnitine is liberated (catalysed by the enzyme carnitine palmitoyltransferase II) and transported back outside so ... Meldonium has also been shown by NMR to bind to carnitine acetyltransferase. Carnitine acetyltransferase belongs to a family of ... Carnitine is mainly absorbed from the diet, but can be formed through biosynthesis. To produce carnitine, lysine residues are ...
Carnitine biosynthesis γ-Butyrobetaine hydroxylase 4-N-Trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase Hulse JD, Ellis SR, Henderson ... "Where Does Nε-Trimethyllysine for the Carnitine Biosynthesis in Mammals Come from?". PLoS ONE. 9 (1): e84589. doi:10.1371/ ... This enzyme participates in lysine degradation and L-carnitine biosynthesis and requires the presence of iron and ascorbate. ... LM (1978). "Carnitine biosynthesis. beta-Hydroxylation of trimethyllysine by an alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent mitochondrial ...
Vitamin B20: L-carnitine. Vitamin Bf: carnitine. Vitamin Bm: myo-inositol, also called "mouse antialopaecia factor". Vitamin Bp ... Vitamin BT: carnitine. Vitamin Bv: a type of B6 other than pyridoxine. Vitamin BW: a type of biotin other than d-biotin. ... Carnitine is an essential dietary nutrient for certain worms, but not for humans. Vitamin B8: adenosine monophosphate (AMP), ... Vitamin B4: can refer to the distinct chemicals choline, adenine, or carnitine. Choline is synthesized by the human body, but ...
Acyl-carnitine is shuttled inside by a carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase, as a carnitine is shuttled outside. Acyl-carnitine ... Acyl-CoA is transferred to the hydroxyl group of carnitine by carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, located on the cytosolic faces ... The liberated carnitine is shuttled back to the cytosol, as an acyl-CoA is shuttled into the matrix. Beta oxidation, in the ... ISBN 0 7167 2009 4. Activation and transportation of fatty acids to the mitochondria via the carnitine shuttle (with animation ...
GA1 causes secondary carnitine deficiency, as glutaric acid, like other organic acids, is detoxified by carnitine. Mental ... Like many other organic acidemias, GA1 causes carnitine depletion. Whole-blood carnitine can be raised by oral supplementation ... that oral carnitine raises plasma levels but doesn't affect muscle carnitine, where most of it is stored and used. In contrast ... So-called "orphan diseases", such as GA1, can be adopted into wider groups of diseases (such as carnitine deficiency diseases, ...
... a substandard diet lacking sufficient carnitine and lysine can lead to decreased carnitine levels, which can have significant ... Carnitine is synthesised from trimethyllysine, which is a product of the degradation of certain proteins, as such lysine must ... Finally, lysine has been shown to be a precursor for carnitine, which transports fatty acids to the mitochondria, where they ... Flanagan JL, Simmons PA, Vehige J, Willcox MD, Garrett Q (April 2010). "Role of carnitine in disease". Nutrition & Metabolism. ...
Yüce A, Demir H, Temizel IN, Koçak N (2004). "Serum carnitine and selenium levels in children with celiac disease". Indian ... Blood factors Carnitine - deficiency. Prolactin - deficiency (childhood). homocysteine - excess. Megaloblastic anemia (MA) is ...
SLC25A20: solute carrier family 25 (carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase), member 20. *STT3B: catalytic subunit of the ...
PRKAR1A Carnitine deficiency, systemic primary; 212140; SLC22A5 Carotid intimal medial thickness 1; 609338; PPARG Carpal tunnel ...
Its treatment is carnitine replacement. Urinary tract infection caused by urease-producing organisms (Proteus species, ... Medication-induced hyperammonemia can occur with valproic acid overdose, and is due to a deficiency in carnitine. ... Methylmalonic acidemia Isovaleric acidemia Propionic acidemia Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency Transient ...
Acetyl-l-carnitine in aged subjects with major depression: Clinical efficacy and effects on the circadian rhythm of cortisol. ... Amelioration of the depression of HIV-infected subjects with L-acetyl carnitine therapy. J Drug Dev. 1:163-166, 1988. ... A double-blind, randomised, controlled clinical trial of acetyl-l-carnitine vs. amisulpride in the treatment of dysthymia. Eur ... 31P-MRS study of acetyl-L-carnitine treatment in geriatric depression: preliminary results. Bipolar Disord. 4(1):61-66, 2002. ...
Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR). * آلفا-لیپوئیک اسید (ALA). * اسید اسکوربیک (ویتامین ث) ...
Animals, including dogs, are able to synthesize L-carnitine from the amino acid lysine in the liver. However, carnitine ... L-Carnitine is an amino acid that plays a key role in energy production, and facilitates the transport of fatty acids into the ... Sources of L-carnitine are predominantly from animals. Vegetable and plant sources have significantly lower amounts of L- ... carnitine compared to animal sources. There is strong evidence that L-carnitine deficiency is associated with an increased risk ...
... taurine and carnitine supplementation may be indicated even if the dog does not have a documented taurine or carnitine ... Sanderson SL (November 2006). "Taurine and carnitine in canine cardiomyopathy". The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small ... deficiency although the cost of carnitine supplementation may be viewed as prohibative by some, along with traditional ...
Carnitine is used in lipid transport. Nine proteinogenic amino acids are called "essential" for humans because they cannot be ... Those either are not found in proteins (for example carnitine, GABA, levothyroxine) or are not produced directly and in ...
The causes for muscle weakness is said to be decrease in muscle carnitine, decreased muscle oxidation, expression of a slower ... Sinclair, Christopher; Gilchrist, James M.; Hennessey, James V.; Kandula, Manju (2005). "Muscle carnitine in hypo- and ...
Tejani AM, Wasdell M, Spiwak R, Rowell G, Nathwani S (2012). "Carnitine for fatigue in multiple sclerosis". Cochrane Database ...
Dunn WA, Rettura G, Seifter E, Englard S. Carnitine biosynthesis from gamma-butyrobetaine and from exogenous protein-bound 6-N- ... Rebouche CJ: Ascorbic acid and carnitine biosynthesis. Am J Clin Nutr 54:1147S-1152S, 1991. ...
Carnitine or its precursor acetylcarnitine are sometimes added to the mix for their supposed ability to enhance exercise ... Sawicka AK, Renzi G, Olek RA (September 2020). "The bright and the dark sides of L-carnitine supplementation: a systematic ... Fielding R, Riede L, Lugo JP, Bellamine A (March 2018). "l-Carnitine Supplementation in Recovery after Exercise". Nutrients. 10 ...
Carnitine Mildronate Carnitine biosynthesis Beta Oxidation Fatty acid metabolism Stevens rearrangement GRCh38: Ensembl release ... Enzyme-coupled method have also been applied to detect carnitine formation, by using the enzyme carnitine acetyltransferase and ... Parvin R, Pande SV (1976). "Microdetermination of (−)carnitine and carnitine acetyltransferase activity". Anal. Biochem. 79 (1- ... the last step in the L-carnitine biosynthesis pathway. Carnitine is essential for the transport of activated fatty acids across ...
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. *Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, types 1 and 2 ...
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are carnitine and NAD+, whereas its 3 products are 3-dehydrocarnitine, NADH, and H+. ... In enzymology, a carnitine 3-dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.108) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is carnitine:NAD+ 3-oxidoreductase. ... carnitine+dehydrogenase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Carnitine Description Carnitine is an amino acid [1] that is essential for babies and nonessential for others. In this context ... Products containing D-carnitine and DL-carnitine should be avoided. L-acetyl-carnitine and L-propionyl-carnitine are acceptable ... Several forms of oral carnitine are available, including L-carnitine, D-carnitine, and DL-carnitine. The latter two forms are ... Carnitine. Description. Carnitine is an amino acid that is essential for babies and nonessential for others. In this context, ...
Carnitine, which can be synthesized by the higher animals, is associated with the transfer ... Carnitine, , a water-soluble, vitamin-like compound related to the amino acids. It is an essential growth factor for mealworms ... vitamin: Carnitine. Carnitine is essential for the growth of mealworms. The role of carnitine in all organisms is associated ... CoA to a molecule of carnitine, a hydroxy amino acid. The carnitine ester is transported across the membrane by a transferase ...
... is a carnitine (CHEBI:17126) (R)-carnitine (CHEBI:16347) is conjugate base of (R)-carnitinium (CHEBI ... carnitine (CHEBI:16347). (R)-carnitinium (CHEBI:39547) is conjugate acid of (R)-carnitine (CHEBI:16347). (S)-carnitine (CHEBI: ... R)-carnitine (CHEBI:16347) has role nutraceutical (CHEBI:50733) (R)-carnitine (CHEBI:16347) has role vitamin (CHEBI:33229) (R)- ... R)-carnitine (CHEBI:16347) has role Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite (CHEBI:75772) (R)-carnitine (CHEBI:16347) has role ...
Primary carnitine deficiency is a condition that prevents the body from using certain fats for energy, particularly during ... Longo N, Amat di San Filippo C, Pasquali M. Disorders of carnitine transport and the carnitine cycle. Am J Med Genet C Semin ... Carnitine transport by organic cation transporters and systemic carnitine deficiency. Mol Genet Metab. 2001 Aug;73(4):287-97. ... Amat di San Filippo C, Pasquali M, Longo N. Pharmacological rescue of carnitine transport in primary carnitine deficiency. Hum ...
... a deficiency of carnitine may cause severe brain, liver, and heart damage. Treatment with carnitine is partially effective. ... Other articles where Carnitine transport is discussed: metabolic disease: Fatty acid oxidation defects: …individuals with ... individuals with inherited disorders of carnitine transport, a deficiency of carnitine may cause severe brain, liver, and heart ... Treatment with carnitine is partially effective. Fatty acid oxidation disorders are relatively common and as a group may ...
Carnitine, a natural substance acquired mostly through the diet, is used by cells to process fats and produce energy.Signs and ... symptoms of primary carnitine deficiency typically appear during infancy or early childhood and can include severe brain ... Primary carnitine deficiency is a condition that prevents the body from using certain fats for energy, particularly during ... Longo N, Amat di San Filippo C, Pasquali M. Disorders of carnitine transport and the carnitine cycle. Am J Med Genet C Semin ...
... also need to take a nutritional supplement known as L-carnitine. The reason is that dipivoxil, the molecule attached to the ... Carnitine can be absorbed quickly in the small intestines. Carnitine can also be made in the liver and the kidneys and where ... Carnitine works mostly in the muscle cells of the body. In the muscle cell, carnitine is the molecule that transports long- ... Usual intakes of carnitine for non-vegetarian persons average 100-300 mg a day. Greatest quantities of carnitine are found in ...
Carnitine has only recently been noted as an important amino acid (the L- form only) essential to our health. It is found in ... L-carnitine is the active form and can be taken as a safe supplement with positive benefits. With carnitines effect on fatty ... The dosage of L-carnitine (not D- or DL-carnitine) suggested to improve fat metabolism and muscular performance is 1000-2000 mg ... Many athletes have noted improved endurance with L-carnitine supplementation. In some studies, L-carnitine has been shown to ...
Carnitine is a naturally occurring hydrophilic amino acid derivative, produced endogenously in the kidneys and liver and ... encoded search term (Carnitine Deficiency) and Carnitine Deficiency What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and ... Longo N, Amat di San Filippo C, Pasquali M. Disorders of carnitine transport and the carnitine cycle. Am J Med Genet C Semin ... Scaglia F, Wang Y, Longo N. Functional characterization of the carnitine transporter defective in primary carnitine deficiency ...
A 24-hour urinary excretion of L-carnitine under L-carnitine supplementation will typically reveal very high rates of carnitine ... Results were as follows: free carnitine 6 μmol (normal range 32-60 μmol); total carnitine 7 μmol (normal values 41-70 μmol); ... Carnitine can cross the placenta. Hence a low carnitine level of the neonate can reflect both neonatal deficiency and maternal ... Carnitine deficiency can have multiple causes. One of them is a condition called systemic primary carnitine deficiency (SPCD). ...
Carnitine occurs in almost every cell in the body and in most foods. It may help treat a range of health conditions. Find out ... Carnitine supplements may help reverse the drop critical immune cells in people with HIV or AIDS. A reduction in carnitine ... Carnitine has two functions.. A part of carnitine transports long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria. They are burned there, ... Carnitine is often used to support exercise and weight loss.. The hypothesis is that carnitine supplementation improves ...
Home › Q & A › Questions › Metformine and L-carnitine.... Metformine and L-carnitine PCOS?. Asked. 4 Apr 2016 by ellenor. ... L-Carnitine Drug Information. Search for questions. Still looking for answers? Try searching for what you seek or ask your own ... birth control, polycystic ovary syndrome, metformin, l-carnitine, doctor, diagnosis, birth control pills, pill, capsule. ... Ive been taking L-Carnitine capsules before work out, as it enhance my performance. I also drink protein powder for muscle ...
Carnitine is a naturally occurring hydrophilic amino acid derivative, produced endogenously in the kidneys and liver and ... Primary carnitine deficiency is caused by a deficiency in the plasma membrane carnitine transporter, with urinary carnitine ... encoded search term (Carnitine%20Deficiency) and Carnitine Deficiency What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and ... Carnitine deficiency is a metabolic state in which carnitine concentrations in plasma and tissues are less than the levels ...
... David R. Nelson dnelson at utmem1.utmem.edu Tue Apr 18 13:51:20 EST 1995 *Previous message: ... I am seeking a strain with a defect in carnitine biosynthesis, to eliminate the carnitine pathway for acetyl-CoA export from ... Due to redundancy in the function of the acyl-carnitine carrier and the citrate carrier (both move acetyl-CoA out of the ...
... doctor with a website sells a supplement for people over 50 who want more energy that has alpha lipoic acid and l-carnitine. ... What is the difference between acetyl l-carnitine and l-carnitine?. Has anyone had any experience with carnitine?. I already ... L-Carnitine is effective for the treatment of primary and secondary carnitine deficiencies. Acetyl-L-carnitine improves ... Carnitine deficiency occurs as a primary genetic defect of carnitine transport and secondary to a variety of genetic and ...
Superb range of Wellness products Carnitine at Wiggle, the online cycle, run, swim & tri shop! Collect+ and Next Day delivery ...
L-Carnitine, acetyl-l-carnitine, and propionyl-l-carnitine are available in dietary supplement pills or powders, with a daily ... Carnitine exists as one of two stereoisomers (the two enantiomers d-carnitine (S-(+)-) and l-carnitine (R-(-)-)). Both are ... Two types of carnitine deficiency states exist. Primary carnitine deficiency is a genetic disorder of the cellular carnitine- ... Even carnitine-poor diets have little effect on total carnitine content, as the kidneys conserve carnitine. In general, ...
Carnitine is a nutrient found naturally in the body and in foods such as meat and dairy products, beans, and avocados. It plays ... L-carnitine should not be confused with acetyl-L-carnitine, which can increase chemotherapy side effects such as nerve pain. ... However, carnitine does not improve fatigue in patients with invasive malignancies (28). Carnitine may inhibit cisplatin- ... Rebouche CJ. Kinetics, pharmacokinetics, and regulation of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine metabolism. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Nov ...
Brands A-Z Doctors Best L Carnitine Categories Supplements Amino Acids L Carnitine Categories Sports L Carnitine Categories ... Doctors Best, Aceteyl-L-Carnitine with Biosint Carnitines, 500 mg, 60 Veggie Caps. 115 ... Doctors Best, L Carnitine 4 Results (showing 1 - 4 ) Visit Manufacturers Website » ... Doctors Best, Best L-Carnitine Fumarate, 855 mg, 180 Veggie Caps. 816 ...
Doctors Best, L-Carnitine Fumarate with Biosint Carnitines , 855 mg, 180 Veggie Caps. 1266 ... Doctors Best, L-Carnitine Fumarate with Biosint Carnitine, 855 mg, 60 Veggie Caps. 1266 ... Brands A-Z Doctors Best L-Carnitine Categories Supplements Amino Acids L-Carnitine ... Doctors Best, L-Carnitine 2 Results (showing 1 - 2 ) Visit Manufacturers Website » ...
In enzymology, a carnitine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.42) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction carnitine ⇌ {\ ... Khairallah EA, Wolf G (1967). "Carnitine decarboxylase. The conversion of carnitine to beta-methylcholine". J. Biol. Chem. 242 ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is carnitine carboxy-lyase (2-methylcholine-forming). This enzyme is also called ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2-methylcholine + CO2 Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, carnitine, and two products, 2- ...
L-carnitine CoA-transferase CaiB (IPR023452). Short name: CoA-Trfase_CaiB Family relationships *CoA-transferase family III ( ... GO:0009437 carnitine metabolic process Molecular Function. GO:0016782 transferase activity, transferring sulfur-containing ... The fixA and fixB genes are necessary for anaerobic carnitine reduction in Escherichia coli.. J. Bacteriol. 184 4044-7 2002 ... Molecular characterization of the cai operon necessary for carnitine metabolism in Escherichia coli.. Mol. Microbiol. 13 775-86 ...
L-carnitine, one of two types, is present in beef, chicken, fish, dairy products, grains and legumes and is available in ... The body can normally manufacture the biochemical carnitine; ... University of Maryland Medical Center: Carnitine (L-Carnitine) ... Effects of Carnitine. According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, carnitine is successful in treating ... The body can normally manufacture the biochemical carnitine; L-carnitine, one of two types, is present in beef, chicken, fish, ...
Carnitine is produced in your body from the two amino acids... ... L-carnitine is the biologically active form of the nonessential ... L-carnitine is the biologically active form of the nonessential amino acid carnitine. Carnitine is produced in your body from ... In fact, L-carnitine was found to decrease heart toxicity caused by adryamicin, a chemotherapeutic agent. L-carnitine works in ... L-carnitine is involved in the transport of certain fatty acids into cells where they go through a process of oxidation. As a ...
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency, hepatocardiomuscular. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency with ...
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We conclude that supplementary choline maintained serum carnitine concentrations by conserving urinary carnitine. Moreover, ... Analyses of carnitine and cholesterol fractions, triacylglycerols, and creatinine were determined in serum and/or urine. In ... Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of supplementary choline and/or pantothenate on the carnitine and lipid ... Choline supplementation reduces urinary carnitine excretion in humans.. Dodson WL1, Sachan DS. ...
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  • One of the primary heart problems that can be helped by carnitine supplementation is angina (heart pain due to decreased oxygen because of coronary artery disease ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • In addition, there has been some indication that carnitine supplementation may be helpful in the reduction of elevated triglycerides, a growing problem for many on combination therapies. (thebody.com)
  • Many athletes have noted improved endurance with L-carnitine supplementation. (healthy.net)
  • Effects of parenteral L-carnitine supplementation on fat metabolism and nutrition in premature neonates. (medscape.com)
  • In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. (hindawi.com)
  • Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, supplementation with carnitine is advised. (hindawi.com)
  • Supplementation with L-carnitine was started (200 mg/day or 50 mg/kg body weight/day) for the baby. (hindawi.com)
  • She was started on oral L-carnitine supplementation 500 mg 3 times a day. (hindawi.com)
  • Some clinical trials show that carnitine supplementation is helpful for patients with angina, heart disease, or peripheral vascular disease. (mskcc.org)
  • Healthy individuals, including strict vegetarians, synthesize enough L-carnitine in vivo to not require supplementation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some individuals with genetic or medical disorders (such as preterm infants) cannot make enough carnitine, requiring dietary supplementation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supplementation with L-carnitine under medical supervision may benefit diabetic sufferers, although more research is needed to fully assess its efficacy. (livestrong.com)
  • Supplementation with L-carnitine improves the usage of fat as a source of energy, lowers cholesterol and trygliceride levels and may reduce the risk of health problems in diabetics, who have impaired fat metabolism. (livestrong.com)
  • Consult an alternative health care practitioner to find out if you can benefit from supplementation with L-carnitine as well as to determine optimal daily doses of this supplement. (livestrong.com)
  • Choline supplementation reduces urinary carnitine excretion in humans. (nih.gov)
  • Muscle Growth Due to its advantageous impact on muscle irritation and recuperation it is accepted that Carnitine supplementation assists with muscle development and quality. (authorstream.com)
  • There was no difference in clinical outcome between DCM dogs supplemented with carnitine and DCM dogs receiving no supplementation in studies by Costa and Labuc(4). (healthyhappydogs.com)
  • Those dogs receiving carnitine supplementation had significantly higher myocardial carnitine levels than the non-supplemented group, but this had no correlation with the clinical outcome of the disease. (healthyhappydogs.com)
  • The fact that supplementation increases myocardial carnitine levels without reversal of DCM would make carnitine deficiency as a causal factor in DCM unlikely. (healthyhappydogs.com)
  • They also propose that the hypothesis is testable by analysis of carnitine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and by clinical trials of carnitine supplementation. (autismspeaks.org)
  • The research has the potential to show that the 0.5 to 1% of autism that is associated with TMLHE deficiency will be preventable and partially reversible at early ages through carnitine supplementation. (autismspeaks.org)
  • Here are a few more health benefits that have been linked to L-carnitine supplementation. (healthline.com)
  • Some tests have shown that carnitine supplementation leads to significant improvement in heart function and tolerance to exercise. (newsmax.com)
  • The new research, published on-line in the journal Clinical Nutrition ​ (doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2006.02.005), divided 60 male albino Wistar rats into 10 groups, depending on age (young, middle-aged, or old) and supplementation with placebo (saline solution), L-carnitine only (300 mg per kg body weight per day), alpha-lipoic acid (100 mg per kg body weight per day), or both. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Supplementation with the L-carnitine, alpha-lipoic acid combination reduced the level of ROS by 28 per cent, compared to placebo. (nutraingredients.com)
  • "Our study strongly suggests that supplementation of mitochondrial metabolites, carnitine and lipoic acid may prevent mitochondrial damage and restore mitochondrial function during ageing process," ​ said the researchers. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Supplementation with L-carnitine may restore natural losses of the nutrient that occur naturally with age, according to a new study with rats. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Researchers form the University of Dijon report that supplementation with Lonza's Carnipure ingredient led to increases in the levels of L-carnitine in rat muscle cells, as well as improving muscle capabilities in the old animals. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Normal age-related increases in body weight appeared to be limited by L-carnitine supplementation. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Nonetheless, further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism underlying the effect of carnitine on bone and evaluate the benefits of carnitine supplementation as an alternative/ adjunctive treatment to reduce bone turnover. (nutraingredients.com)
  • L-carnitine supplementation at doses above 2 gram a day has favourable effects on patients' lipid profiles. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • L-carnitine supplementation might have a positive effects in achieving an improved body weight and BMI especially in overweight and obese subjects. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • This meta-analysis has shown that L-carnitine supplementation significantly reduces FPG, insulin, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c levels. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Carnitine supplementation may correct carnitine deficiences associated with both hypo- and hyperthyroidism. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • By contrast, diagnosed patients respond promptly to dietary carnitine supplementation, with correction of metabolic abnormalities and even reversal of skeletal and heart muscle abnormalities ( 1 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • The presence of genetically distinct carnitine transporters explains the restoration of carnitine stores in the liver, but not in the muscle of patients with primary carnitine deficiency after carnitine supplementation ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Brass EP, Hiatt WR in J Am Coll Nutr 1998 Jun;17(3):207-15 'The role of carnitine and carnitine supplementation during exercise in man and in individuals with special needs. (cptips.com)
  • Despite the theoretical basis for carnitine supplementation in otherwise healthy persons to improve exercise performance, clinical data have not demonstrated consistent benefits of carnitine administration. (cptips.com)
  • Additionally, most of the anticipated metabolic effects of carnitine supplementation have not been observed in healthy persons. (cptips.com)
  • The failure to demonstrate clinical efficacy of carnitine may reflect the complex pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of carnitine supplementation, the challenges of clinical trial design for performance endpoints, or the adequacy of endogenous carnitine content to meet even extreme metabolic demands in the healthy state. (cptips.com)
  • Several rationales have been forwarded in support of the potential ergogenic effects of oral carnitine supplementation. (cptips.com)
  • However, the following arguments derived from established scientific observations may be forwarded: (i) carnitine supplementation neither enhances FA oxidation in vivo or spares glycogen or postpones fatigue during exercise. (cptips.com)
  • 2. Muscle carnitine concentration can be decreased by 40% with D-carnitine and increased by 40% with L-carnitine supplementation. (cptips.com)
  • Later studies point to the positive impact of dietary supplementation with l -carnitine on the recovery process after exercise. (mdpi.com)
  • The supplementation-based increase in serum and muscle l -carnitine contents is suggested to enhance blood flow and oxygen supply to the muscle tissue via improved endothelial function thereby reducing hypoxia-induced cellular and biochemical disruptions. (mdpi.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Messina report that supplementation with L-carnitine, a quaternary amine which occurs naturally in the body, can eliminate the side effects of thyroxine treatment and reduce the need for constant monitoring. (yourhealthbase.com)
  • Carnitine also increases bone mass (bone mineral density) by about two per cent after just four months of supplementation. (yourhealthbase.com)
  • They suggest that L-carnitine supplementation (perhaps as little as 1 gram/day) can be of clinical use in goiter therapy and in the treatment of other thyrotoxicosis-related disorders such as amiodarone-related thyrotoxicosis. (yourhealthbase.com)
  • We used a combined tracer technique with the stable isotopes (13)C and (15)N to gain further insight into the metabolic changes that accompany supplementation of l-carnitine. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate whether l-carnitine supplementation can influence fat oxidation, protein turnover, body composition, and weight development in slightly overweight subjects. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Twelve volunteers received an individual regular diet either without or with l-carnitine supplementation of 3 grams a day for 10 days. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • L-carnitine supplementation led to a significant increase in protein synthesis indicating that the increased dietary fat oxidation in slightly overweight subjects was not accompanied by protein catabolism. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Caffeine, carnitine and choline supplementation of rats decreases body fat and serum leptin concentration as does exercise. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Supplementation may be needed in rare cases of primary carnitine deficiency. (livingnaturally.com)
  • Another condition that may benefit from carnitine supplementation is decreased sperm movement. (livingnaturally.com)
  • Carnitine supplementation has been studied in premature babies for maintaining or increasing carnitine levels and possibly weight gain. (livingnaturally.com)
  • Carnitine supplementation, as L-carnitine, or acetyl- or propionyl-L-carnitine, has been studied for many other conditions. (livingnaturally.com)
  • Clinical research reveals muscle levels of L-Carnitine are markedly increased after supplementation. (bodybuildingpro.com)
  • With this new research in mind, Hazen cautions that more research needs to be done to examine the safety of chronic carnitine supplementation. (anabolicminds.com)
  • The strongest indication for supplemental carnitine is a genetic defect that causes a deficiency. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Poor consumption of the nutrients required in order to synthesize carnitine also sometimes results in deficiency. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The use of supplements containing D-carni-tine has the potential to cause L-carnitine deficiency. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Primary carnitine deficiency is a condition that prevents the body from using certain fats for energy, particularly during periods without food (fasting). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Signs and symptoms of primary carnitine deficiency typically appear during infancy or early childhood and can include severe brain dysfunction (encephalopathy), a weakened and enlarged heart (cardiomyopathy), confusion, vomiting, muscle weakness, and low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some people with primary carnitine deficiency are asymptomatic, which means they do not have any signs or symptoms of the condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Problems related to primary carnitine deficiency can be triggered by periods of fasting or by illnesses such as viral infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The incidence of primary carnitine deficiency in the general population is approximately 1 in 100,000 newborns. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in the SLC22A5 gene cause primary carnitine deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As a result, there is a shortage (deficiency) of carnitine within cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Reduced energy production can lead to some of the features of primary carnitine deficiency, such as muscle weakness and hypoglycemia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Amat di San Filippo C, Pasquali M, Longo N. Pharmacological rescue of carnitine transport in primary carnitine deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Maternal systemic primary carnitine deficiency uncovered by newborn screening: clinical, biochemical, and molecular aspects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Carnitine transport by organic cation transporters and systemic carnitine deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Molecular spectrum of SLC22A5 (OCTN2) gene mutations detected in 143 subjects evaluated for systemic carnitine deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • individuals with inherited disorders of carnitine transport, a deficiency of carnitine may cause severe brain, liver, and heart damage. (britannica.com)
  • One of the deficiency symptoms of carnitine is progressive muscle weakness. (thebody.com)
  • More research is needed to clarify and verify these deficiency states, as well as to establish whether the metabolic benefits of L-carnitine are clearly separate from correcting that deficiency. (healthy.net)
  • Systemic primary carnitine deficiency: an overview of clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management. (medscape.com)
  • Genetic epidemiology of the carnitine transporter OCTN2 gene in a Japanese population and phenotypic characterization in Japanese pedigrees with primary systemic carnitine deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Expanded newborn screening identifies maternal primary carnitine deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Increased risk of sudden death in untreated Primary Carnitine Deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Pericardial effusion in primary systemic carnitine deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Agnetti A, Bitton L, Tchana B, Raymond A, Carano N. Primary carnitine deficiency dilated cardiomyopathy: 28years follow-up. (medscape.com)
  • Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1b deficiency aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy caused by lipotoxicity. (medscape.com)
  • Angelini C, Vergani L, Martinuzzi A. Clinical and biochemical aspects of carnitine deficiency and insufficiency: transport defects and inborn errors of beta-oxidation. (medscape.com)
  • Primary and secondary carnitine deficiency syndromes. (medscape.com)
  • We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. (hindawi.com)
  • In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. (hindawi.com)
  • In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. (hindawi.com)
  • Carnitine deficiency can have multiple causes. (hindawi.com)
  • One of them is a condition called systemic primary carnitine deficiency (SPCD). (hindawi.com)
  • Hence a low carnitine level of the neonate can reflect both neonatal deficiency and maternal deficiency [ 5 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • At 3 months of gestation, the value of free carnitine showed a severe deficiency (3.58 μ mol). (hindawi.com)
  • Because of the carnitine deficiency, she was considered a high-risk patient and close follow-up with ultrasound was established. (hindawi.com)
  • Primary systemic carnitine deficiency can happen when the protein that is responsible for bringing carnitine into cells undergoes a genetic change. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If it happens as a result of other metabolic diseases, this is secondary carnitine deficiency. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Carnitine deficiency is a metabolic state in which carnitine concentrations in plasma and tissues are less than the levels required for normal function of the organism. (medscape.com)
  • Carnitine deficiency may be primary or secondary. (medscape.com)
  • Primary carnitine deficiency is caused by a deficiency in the plasma membrane carnitine transporter, with urinary carnitine wasting causing systemic carnitine depletion. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] Intracellular carnitine deficiency impairs the entry of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix. (medscape.com)
  • Muscle carnitine deficiency (restricted to muscle) is characterized by depletion of carnitine levels in muscle with normal serum concentrations. (medscape.com)
  • In secondary carnitine deficiency, which is caused by other metabolic disorders (eg, fatty acid oxidation disorders, organic acidemias), carnitine depletion may be secondary to the formation of acylcarnitine adducts and the inhibition of carnitine transport in renal cells by acylcarnitines. (medscape.com)
  • Preterm newborns also may be at risk for developing carnitine deficiency because immature renal tubular function combined with impaired carnitine biosynthesis renders them strictly dependent on exogenous supplies to maintain normal plasma carnitine levels. (medscape.com)
  • Valproic acid may cause an acquired type of secondary carnitine deficiency by directly impairing renal tubular reabsorption of carnitine. (medscape.com)
  • In a Japanese study, primary systemic carnitine deficiency was estimated to occur in 1 per 40,000 births. (medscape.com)
  • In order to abate the mortality and morbidity of undiagnosed primary carnitine deficiency, this condition has been included in the expanded newborn screening program in several states within the United States. (medscape.com)
  • The D-isomer may actually compete with L-carnitine for absorption and transport, increasing the risk of carnitine deficiency. (bikeforums.net)
  • Carnitine deficiency occurs as a primary genetic defect of carnitine transport and secondary to a variety of genetic and acquired disorders. (bikeforums.net)
  • The pathophysiological states associated with carnitine deficiency have been summarized. (bikeforums.net)
  • However some people, such as those with a genetic deficiency who are fatigued because energy production is greatly reduced, respond well with carnitine supplements. (mskcc.org)
  • Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) deficiency is a disorder of long-chain fatty acid oxidation. (nih.gov)
  • The FDA has approved the use of L-carnitine, either taken by mouth or given intravenously (by IV), for treating L-carnitine deficiency caused by certain genetic diseases or other disorders. (rxlist.com)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved giving L-carnitine intravenously (by IV) but not by mouth to treat and prevent L-carnitine deficiency in these patients. (rxlist.com)
  • Bezafibrate therapy has been shown to improve beta-oxidation of fatty acids and to reduce episodes of rhabdomyolysis in patients with carnitine palmitoyltransferase type-2 (CPT2) deficiency. (hindawi.com)
  • Carnitine palmitoyl transferase type 2 (CPT2) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • While a direct connection between carnitine intake and a deficiency syndrome is difficult to establish in normal animals, there are reports of carnitine deficiency being linked to myocardial disorders in dogs (1) such as dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in Boxers, Doberman Pinchers and American Cocker Spaniels (2), (3). (healthyhappydogs.com)
  • While carnitine supplements are not always able to reverse the effects of this deficiency, they have proven to be the most successful course of treatment. (petmd.com)
  • While causes of carnitine deficiency is unknown, it is believed some dog breeds show an increased risk of developing the deficiency, including Boxers, Doberman Pinschers, Great Danes, Irish wolfhounds, and other giant breeds. (petmd.com)
  • In order to diagnose this deficiency, heart (endomyocardial) muscle biopsies must be performed to measure carnitine levels. (petmd.com)
  • While L-carnitine supplements may improve this deficiency, keep in mind that many dogs will not show improvement. (petmd.com)
  • however, a deficiency in any of these nutrients can cause a deficiency in carnitine, which may explain why carnitine deficiency is quite common. (care2.com)
  • Some of the symptoms of a carnitine deficiency include: being overweight, having fatigue, heart problems, and high levels of triglycerides. (care2.com)
  • This paper describes a new genetic condition (called TMLHE deficiency) that results in the loss of ability to make carnitine in the body. (autismspeaks.org)
  • The fact that many healthy adult males also have TMLHE deficiency may be explained by differences in carnitine intake in infancy. (autismspeaks.org)
  • Therefore, a deficiency of carnitine in the body will have a negative effect on the heart and skeletal muscles. (petmd.com)
  • Carnitine deficiency is found in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and may impair muscle function. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Primary carnitine deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation caused by defective carnitine transport. (pnas.org)
  • Here we test the causative role of OCTN2 in primary carnitine deficiency by searching for mutations in this gene in affected patients. (pnas.org)
  • Fibroblasts from patients with primary carnitine deficiency lacked mediated carnitine transport. (pnas.org)
  • These mutations decreased the levels of mature OCTN2 mRNA and resulted in nonfunctional transporters, confirming that defects in the organic cation/carnitine transporter OCTN2 are responsible for primary carnitine deficiency. (pnas.org)
  • Primary carnitine deficiency [On-Line Mendelian Inheritance in Man no. 212140] is a rare autosomal recessive disorder due to defective carnitine transport ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • The gene for primary carnitine deficiency was recently mapped to chromosome 5q31.1-32 ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, we tested OCTN2 as the candidate gene for primary carnitine deficiency in two unrelated families. (pnas.org)
  • Individuals should NOT use D,L-Carnitine as the D isomer impairs synthesis of L-Carnitine in the body, leading to symptoms of L-Carnitine deficiency including myopathy and muscular weakness. (cptips.com)
  • Athletes are not at risk for carnitine deficiency and do not have an increased need for carnitine. (cptips.com)
  • Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency is a condition that prevents the body from converting certain fats called long-chain fatty acids into energy, particularly during periods without food. (bionity.com)
  • The myopathic form is the most frequently seen and least severe form of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. (bionity.com)
  • Mutations in the CPT2 gene cause carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency, leading to the production of a defective version of an enzyme called carnitine palmitoyltransferase II. (bionity.com)
  • What is carnitine deficiency? (mda.org)
  • Carnitine deficiency is one of a group of metabolic muscle diseases that interferes with the processing of food (in this case, fats) for energy production. (mda.org)
  • What are the symptoms of carnitine deficiency? (mda.org)
  • Carnitine deficiency may occur in response to a genetic mutation (gene defect) in the protein responsible for bringing carnitine into the cell ( primary carnitine deficiency ), or it may occur secondary to other metabolic diseases ( secondary carnitine deficiency ). (mda.org)
  • What is the progression of carnitine deficiency? (mda.org)
  • What is the status of research on carnitine deficiency? (mda.org)
  • Unless otherwise stated, the use of the term carnitine in this bottom line monograph refers to levocarnitine (L-carnitine) and not D-carnitine, which may cause secondary deficiency. (livingnaturally.com)
  • Deficiency may be caused by defects in carnitine production or transport, or in a defect in the kidney's ability to conserve carnitine in the body. (livingnaturally.com)
  • L-carnitine may be effective for some conditions caused by L-carnitine deficiency, including long-term chest pain and pain in the legs due to blocked blood flow. (livingnaturally.com)
  • D-carnitine or DL-carnitine may cause secondary L-carnitine deficiency and should not be used. (livingnaturally.com)
  • Carnitine deficiency may result in metabolism problems, including genetic disorders. (livingnaturally.com)
  • Carnitine has been used as part of a treatment plan for carnitine deficiency, metabolism problems, and carnitine uptake defects. (livingnaturally.com)
  • Primary carnitine deficiency is a genetic condition, while secondary deficiency is caused by other factors. (livingnaturally.com)
  • Carnitine taken by mouth or injected into the vein has been used for both primary and secondary carnitine deficiency. (livingnaturally.com)
  • For primary deficiency, L-carnitine has been found to restore levels of carnitine to nearly normal in the body. (livingnaturally.com)
  • Carnitine has also been used as part of a treatment plan for many other disorders caused by deficiency, including reduced carnitine transport and weakening of the heart muscle. (livingnaturally.com)
  • 1-11 Heart muscle tissue, because of its high energy requirements, is particularly vulnerable to carnitine deficiency. (lifescript.com)
  • 2004. "Relative carnitine deficiency in autism. (autismcanada.org)
  • Carnitine deficiency is when not enough of the nutrient carnitine is available to cells in the body. (ahealthyme.com)
  • With carnitine deficiency, cells that rely on fatty acids for energy may start to work poorly. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Carnitine deficiency can happen in men, women, and children of all ages and all ethnicities. (ahealthyme.com)
  • This is called primary muscle carnitine deficiency. (ahealthyme.com)
  • If the liver and heart are also affected, it may be called systemic carnitine deficiency. (ahealthyme.com)
  • What are the risks for carnitine deficiency? (ahealthyme.com)
  • Children with primary carnitine deficiency tend to show symptoms within the first few years of life. (ahealthyme.com)
  • The symptoms of carnitine deficiency can be like other health conditions. (ahealthyme.com)
  • How is carnitine deficiency diagnosed? (ahealthyme.com)
  • The process to diagnose carnitine deficiency starts with a medical history and a physical exam. (ahealthyme.com)
  • This kind of test can confirm primary carnitine deficiency. (ahealthyme.com)
  • The main treatment for carnitine deficiency is to take L-carnitine supplements. (ahealthyme.com)
  • No significant toxicities are associated with pharmaceutical grade L-carnitine (purity in over-the-counter L-carnitine may vary because nutritional supplements are not regulated adequately). (thebody.com)
  • Carnitine oral supplements have been known to cause nausea and diarrhea, especially at the beginning of usage. (thebody.com)
  • The liver and kidney usually produce enough carnitine in the human body, so topping up with food or supplements is not necessary. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People who lack carnitine may need to take supplements or eat specially enriched foods. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Research published in Alternative Therapies In Health And Medicine suggests that combinations of supplements, including carnitine, might help improve mitochondrial function. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • L-carnitine is more readily absorbed in the body if obtained from food rather than supplements. (mskcc.org)
  • There is less evidence for the use of carnitine supplements for other conditions. (mskcc.org)
  • Those suffering from the condition should allow their physician to monitor their thyroid levels regularly and should not attempt self-medication with any supplements, including L-carnitine, without discussing the issue with their doctor. (livestrong.com)
  • L-carnitine supplements are generally considered well-tolerated and safe. (livestrong.com)
  • L-carnitine supplements are taken by mouth to increase L-carnitine levels in people whose natural level of L-carnitine is too low because they have a genetic disorder, are taking certain drugs (such as valproic acid for seizures or certain antibiotics for tuberculosis ), or because they are undergoing a medical procedure ( hemodialysis for kidney disease ) that uses up the body's L-carnitine. (rxlist.com)
  • The supplements are also used to treat carnitine deficiencies resulting from poor carnitine absorption and chronic kidney failure as well as end-stage renal diseases resulting from dialysis. (globenewswire.com)
  • L-carnitine is also administered in the form of supplements to cure involuntary weight loss and increase the body mass index (BMI) in patients with cachexia or wasting syndrome. (globenewswire.com)
  • Livon-Lypo-Spheric-ACETYL L-CARNITINE All wellness fans concur on a certain something - supplements are profoundly helpful for your exercise schedule. (authorstream.com)
  • It is very easy to get Livon Lypo Spheric acetyl l Carnitine supplements. (authorstream.com)
  • In combination in L-carnitine fumarate supplements, the two elements are believed to complement and enhance their beneficial qualities. (wisegeek.com)
  • Dietary supplements which possess claimed weight loss, energy, and performance boosting qualities have become hugely popular, and L-carnitine fumarate is no exception. (wisegeek.com)
  • Although dietary supplements such as L-carnitine fumarate should never be viewed as a replacement for a healthy diet, they can be of great value in boosting natural levels of the essential elements they contain. (wisegeek.com)
  • As with all supplements, L-carnitine fumarate should only be used under a doctor's supervision. (wisegeek.com)
  • L-carnitine is the standard biologically active form of carnitine, which is found in your body, in foods and in most supplements. (healthline.com)
  • A combination of two common dietary supplements, L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid, could reduce oxidative stress associated with ageing and boost energy production, says new research - adding to previous reports. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Learn how to find the best acetyl-L-carnitine supplements. (consumerlab.com)
  • Researchers from Florida State University reported this summer that L-carnitine supplements had may increase the bone mineral density of rats by 6.3 per cent ( Phytomedicine ​, Vol. 15, pp. 595-601). (nutraingredients.com)
  • Coenzyme Q10 and L-carnitine supplements have beneficial effects on serum levels of lactate and migraine symptoms. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Your cat's size and weight will determine the proper dosage of L-carnitine supplements. (petmd.com)
  • 53 However, one study found that carnitine supplements had an adverse effect on triglyceride levels in people with diabetes. (lifescript.com)
  • You can grab Canadian supplements such as AOR I-carnitine from one of the best online supplement selling sites in Canada, Vitasave.ca. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Carnitine is concentrated in red meat, and so this new body of research has led to recommendations to decrease red meat consumption as well as avoid carnitine-containing supplements and energy drinks. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • We need to examine the safety of chronically consuming carnitine supplements as we've shown that, under some conditions, it can foster the growth of bacteria that produce TMAO and potentially clog arteries. (anabolicminds.com)
  • What Are the Warnings for L-Carnitine Supplements? (sharecare.com)
  • Video / Sharecare Experts / Michael Greger, MD / What Are the Warnings for L-Carnitine Supplements? (sharecare.com)
  • so taking L-carnitine supplements is not recommended. (sharecare.com)
  • Watch nutrition specialist Michael Greger, MD, explain why you should avoid L-carnitine supplements. (sharecare.com)
  • L-Carnitine Supplements may or may not have been even beneficial. (sharecare.com)
  • My new research suggests that we really, particularly if this evidence is confirmed, we really should stay away from all Carnitine supplements and reduce our meat consumption because that's kinda a natural way, we can get that same Carnitine substance into our intestines, where we don't want it. (sharecare.com)
  • That very day, a meta-analysis was released indicating that carnitine supplements can reduce mortality in people who have had heart attacks (1). (jacknorrisrd.com)
  • L-carnitine often appears in fat-loss supplements in the form of acetyl-L-carnitine, but this Ronnie Coleman Signature Series entry offers L-carnitine in its unbonded form. (prosource.net)
  • Taking acetyl-L-carnitine by mouth along with propionyl-L-carnitine seems to help symptoms related to declining male hormone levels. (webmd.com)
  • The body can convert L-carnitine to other amino acids called acetyl-L-carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine. (rxlist.com)
  • Glycine Propionyl L-Carnitine GPLC - in this structure L-Carnitine is bound to the amino corrosive glycine which makes a cancer prevention agent impact and quickens the blood stream while working out. (authorstream.com)
  • Although L-carnitine is the standard form, you can also take acetyl-L-carnitine, propionyl-L-carnitine and L-carnitine L-tartrate. (healthline.com)
  • L-carnitine is the foundation of a family of related compounds, including acetyl-L-carnitine, propionyl-L-carnitine, L-carnitine L-tartrate, and others. (betternutrition.com)
  • L-carnitine L-tartrate enhances muscle recovery from strenuous exercise, and propionyl-L-carnitine may be helpful in intermittent claudication, a condition characterized by poor blood flow to the legs. (betternutrition.com)
  • OBJECTIVES: To To compare testosterone undecanoate versus propionyl-L-carnitine plus acetyl-L-carnitine and placebo in the treatment of male aging symptoms. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Group 1 was given testosterone undecanoate 160 mg/day, the second group was given propionyl-L-carnitine 2 g/day plus acetyl-L-carnitine 2 g/day. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Studies show that propionyl-L-carnitine and L-carnitine may be effective for peripheral vascular disease. (livingnaturally.com)
  • More studies are also needed to compare the effectiveness of propionyl-L-carnitine and other treatments. (livingnaturally.com)
  • Evidence suggests that L-carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine are effective for reducing chest pain symptoms. (livingnaturally.com)
  • Carnitine is taken in three forms: L-carnitine (for heart and other conditions), propionyl-L-carnitine (for heart conditions), and acetyl-L-carnitine (for Alzheimer's disease). (lifescript.com)
  • The dosage of L-carnitine (not D- or DL-carnitine) suggested to improve fat metabolism and muscular performance is 1000-2000 mg. daily, usually divided into two doses. (healthy.net)
  • De Vivo D, Tein I. Primary and secondary disorders of carnitine metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • By interaction with CoA, carnitine is involved in the intermediary metabolism by modulating free CoA pools in the cell. (bikeforums.net)
  • Carnitine is a quaternary ammonium compound involved in metabolism in most mammals, plants, and some bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In support of energy metabolism, carnitine transports long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria to be oxidized for energy production, and also participates in removing products of metabolism from cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular characterization of the cai operon necessary for carnitine metabolism in Escherichia coli. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Another study published in the April 2010 issue of "Nutrition and Metabolism" assessed the benefits of L-carnitine for various health conditions. (livestrong.com)
  • L-carnitine is a well-known supplemental amino acid with antioxidant and metabolism boosting qualities. (wisegeek.com)
  • The first, carnitine, is a naturally occurring amino acid responsible for the intercellular transport of fatty acids essential for effective metabolism and energy production. (wisegeek.com)
  • When combined with carnitine in supplement form, the metabolism support offered by fumaric acid may be enhanced, and with both elements gaining some additional efficacy as a result. (wisegeek.com)
  • Carnitine, which is sometimes found in supplement form with fumaric acid, is an amino acid found in meat and helps in metabolism of fat. (wisegeek.com)
  • Without carnitine, the metabolism of fatty acids would slow as would the utilization of the acetyl groups, which are the end products of fatty acid metabolism. (healthyhappydogs.com)
  • Carnitine is added to weight management diets to support the increased amount of fat metabolism associated with loss of adipose tissue. (healthyhappydogs.com)
  • Supplementary carnitine may be added to weight management and performance diets to facilitate the metabolism of fats and release of energy. (healthyhappydogs.com)
  • It is proposed a neuronal carnitine pathway hypothesis that implies that a significant fraction of non-dysmorphic autism (NDA) is caused by abnormalities of carnitine metabolism with a major gene-diet interaction. (autismspeaks.org)
  • Carnitine is involved in lipids and carbohydrates metabolism and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), an intramitochondrial carrier of acylic group, may modulate cell fuel substrate utilization. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Carnitine plays a central role in fatty acid (FA) metabolism. (cptips.com)
  • Carnitine also modulates the metabolism of coenzyme-A (CoA). (cptips.com)
  • Simi B et al in Comp Biochem Physiol A 1990;97(4):543-9 'Large variations in skeletal muscle carnitine level fail to modify energy metabolism in exercising rats. (cptips.com)
  • 1. The importance of carnitine status in energy metabolism during exercise was studied in experimentally carnitine-depleted or supplemented rats. (cptips.com)
  • L-Carnitine also facilitates the metabolism of carbohydrates to enhance ATP production. (jarrow.com)
  • Given its pivotal role in fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism, l -carnitine has been investigated as ergogenic aid for enhancing exercise capacity in the healthy athletic population. (mdpi.com)
  • Carnitine also helps to reduce the effects of free radicals, by-products of oxygen metabolism that induce muscle inflammation and delay full muscle recovery. (aminoz.com.au)
  • Acetyl L-Carnitine supports energy production via the metabolism of fatty acids to yield the universal energy molecule ATP. (jarrow.com)
  • Kinetics, pharmacokinetics, and regulation of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine metabolism. (autismcanada.org)
  • They also examined the cardiac effects of a carnitine-enhanced diet in normal mice compared to mice with suppressed levels of gut microbes, and discovered that TMAO alters cholesterol metabolism at multiple levels, explaining how it enhances atherosclerosis. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Carnitine metabolism suggests a new way to help explain why a diet rich in red meat promotes atherosclerosis. (anabolicminds.com)
  • GNC Total Lean® L-Carnitine Liquid was designed to support fatty acid metabolism and to help fuel muscle recovery. (gnc.com)
  • L-Carnitine facilitates the metabolism of fatty acids for energy generation. (allegromedical.com)
  • Without carnitine, fatty acids cannot enter mitochondria and be used to make energy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the muscle cell, carnitine is the molecule that transports long-chain-fatty acids across the membrane of the mitochondria. (thebody.com)
  • Medium-chain-fatty acids do not require carnitine to enter the mitochondria, however, carnitine is needed to stimulate its energy production. (thebody.com)
  • Carnitine is utilized to transport fatty acids into the cell and across the mitochondrial membranes into our cellular energy factories, the mitochondria. (healthy.net)
  • A part of carnitine transports long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Due to redundancy in the function of the acyl-carnitine carrier and the citrate carrier (both move acetyl-CoA out of the mitochondrial matrix) I am seeking a strain with a defect in carnitine biosynthesis, to eliminate the carnitine pathway for acetyl-CoA export from mitochondria. (bio.net)
  • This transesterification is catalyzed by an enzyme found in the outer membrane of the mitochondria known as carnitine acyltransferase 1 (also called carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, CPT1). (wikipedia.org)
  • The major biochemical function of carnitine is to act as a trans-membrane carrier of fatty acids to the interior of mitochondria. (fsu.edu)
  • In the fasting animal, long chain fatty acids are an important energy source and must be coupled with carnitine for transport into the mitochondria for oxidation. (healthyhappydogs.com)
  • According to carnitine expert and author of The Carnitine Miracle , Robert Crayhon, M.S., the reason why carnitine is so effective for weight loss is because carnitine is the forklift that takes fat to the incinerators in our cells called mitochondria. (care2.com)
  • Carnitine shuttles fats from the watery outer region of cells into mitochondria, where both fats and glucose are broken down to make ATP, the chemical form of energy in the body. (betternutrition.com)
  • Carnitine is essential for the transfer of long-chain fatty acids from the cytosol to mitochondria for subsequent beta oxidation and the lack of carnitine impairs the ability to use fat as fuel during periods of fasting or stress ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Carnitine has a dual role as it is required for long-chain fatty acid oxidation, and also shuttles accumulated acyl groups out of the mitochondria. (cptips.com)
  • L-Carnitine is an amino acid found in high concentrations in heart and liver tissues where, inside the cells (mitochondria), L-Carnitine helps transform fats into energy (i.e. (jarrow.com)
  • As mitochondrial membranes are impermeable to coenzyme A (CoA) esters and long-chain fatty acids, binding of l -carnitine to acetyl groups via carnitine acyltransferase is essential for the shuttle of the acetylated fatty acids into the mitochondria and for their subsequent β-oxidation in the matrix ( Figure 1 ) [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Amino acids are typically used by the body for protein synthesis but carnitine is different as it is mainly used to promote the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria for energy production. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • L-Carnitine is primarily involved with transporting long-chain fatty acids from the cell cytosol into the mitochondria. (bodybuildingpro.com)
  • Since long chain fatty acids are oxidized (burned) in the mitochondria, L- Carnitine facilitates production of energy from fat. (bodybuildingpro.com)
  • Most healthy adults with adequate intake of a good variety of food seem to be able to make enough carnitine. (thebody.com)
  • It used to treat people who do not have enough carnitine in their body. (cvs.com)
  • Normal canines appear to make enough carnitine to meet their usual requirements. (healthyhappydogs.com)
  • There are studies that show that some individuals with autism cannot make enough carnitine, as their liver and kidneys don't produce sufficient amounts from the amino acids lysine and methionine. (autismcanada.org)
  • Instead, the problem is that there isn't enough carnitine in the blood. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Most studies have shown significant improvement in the distance walked without pain when a supplement of L-propionyl-carnitine was used. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Individuals taking adefovir dipivoxil (brand name Preveon) also need to take a nutritional supplement known as L-carnitine. (thebody.com)
  • Only the L-carnitine form should be used as a supplement. (thebody.com)
  • L-carnitine is the active form and can be taken as a safe supplement with positive benefits. (healthy.net)
  • A popular doctor with a website sells a supplement for people over 50 who want more energy that has alpha lipoic acid and l-carnitine. (bikeforums.net)
  • However, one particular form, acetyl-L-carnitine, is known to increase chemotherapy side effects, so it is important to discuss any use of this supplement with your oncologist. (mskcc.org)
  • Despite common carnitine supplement consumption among athletes for improved exercise performance or recovery, there is insufficient high-quality clinical evidence to indicate it provides any benefit. (wikipedia.org)
  • L-carnitine has a protective effect on heart muscles and function, thus diabetics may benefit again from this supplement, as diabetes increases the risk of developing heart conditions. (livestrong.com)
  • Older adults are known to be more sensitive to the cold, and new research has found that a nutritional supplement called L-carnitine might one day be used as a way to jump-start the body's central heating. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • To investigate this further, the researchers gave older mice a single dose of the common nutritional supplement L-carnitine, which is known to increase levels of acylcarnitines. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Livon-Lypo-Spheric-ACETYL L-CARNITINE is the leading liposomal supplement that contains ALCAR and helps raise the levels of carnitine in your brain. (authorstream.com)
  • L- carnitine fumarate is a dietary supplement widely used as a weight loss aid, energy booster, and supporter of cardiac, neurological and muscular function. (wisegeek.com)
  • The supplement is a combination of L-carnitine and fumaric acid, both of which purport to have several health related benefits. (wisegeek.com)
  • Based on the beneficial characteristics of its two active ingredients, the supplement may offer a wide spectrum of value for those whose natural intake or production of carnitine and fumaric acid is lacking or compromised. (wisegeek.com)
  • L-carnitine fumarate is a dietary supplement that boasts a number of health benefits. (wisegeek.com)
  • L Carnitine is a high quality supplement providing 1000mg of L Carnitine per serving. (thehut.com)
  • L Carnitine is an ideal supplement for those looking to increase their L Carnitine intake. (thehut.com)
  • A study published in Nature Medicine claims that carnitine, a compound abundant in red meat, sold as a dietary supplement, and present in some energy drinks, may increase the risk of heart disease. (ift.org)
  • L-carnitine is a naturally occurring amino acid derivative that's often taken as a weight loss supplement. (healthline.com)
  • One group took an L-carnitine supplement, while the other did not. (healthline.com)
  • Lonza, which claims to be the world's largest manufacturer of L-Carnitine, has said that extensive scientific research shows the supplement promotes cardiovascular health and that other studies suggest the nutrient may be useful in weight management. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Universal Nutrition Carnitine Liquid is a 100% pharmaceutical grade L-carnitine supplement. (netrition.com)
  • While carnitine can be found in foods like meat and dairy products, a supplement is necessary to obtain therapeutic dosages. (lifescript.com)
  • To get more L-carnitine, AOR I-carnitine supplement, gives you all the L-carnitine your body needs even without the help of red meats. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The researchers found that within 24 hours of carnitine consumption-eating a sirloin steak, taking a carnitine supplement-certain gut bacteria metabolize the carnitine to a toxic substance called trimethylamine, which then gets oxidized in our liver to TMAO, trimethylamine-n-oxide, which then circulates throughout our bloodstream. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • While carnitine is naturally occurring in red meats, including beef, venison, lamb, mutton, duck, and pork, it's also a dietary supplement available in pill form and a common ingredient in energy drinks. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Carnitine supplement risk? (foodnavigator.com)
  • Carnitine is also taken as a weight loss supplement and is added to some energy drinks. (foodnavigator.com)
  • L-carnitine supplement is one of the most beneficial nutrient helping our human body. (sooperarticles.com)
  • For vegans, it is important to know that you probably need to take L-Carnitine supplement. (sooperarticles.com)
  • AllegroMedical.com presents The Nutrakey L-Carnitine 1500 - Grape Crush Amino Acid Supplement. (allegromedical.com)
  • Carnitine is a compound found in energy drinks, nuts, beans, produce and red meat and also is sold as a dietary supplement. (feedstuffs.com)
  • DIRECTIONS: As a dietary supplement, consume 1 tablespoon (Tbsp) of L-Carnitine XS 3000 or as directed by a physician or licensed nutritionist. (prosource.net)
  • Carnitine is involved in transporting fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane, by forming a long chain acetylcarnitine ester and being transported by carnitine palmitoyltransferase I and carnitine palmitoyltransferase II. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diagnosis of CPT1A is established in a proband by the detection of biallelic pathogenic variants in CPT1A on molecular genetic testing or diminished carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT 1) enzyme activity on cultured skin fibroblasts when molecular genetic testing is not definitive. (nih.gov)
  • The mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase system. (nih.gov)
  • First conceptualized as a mechanism for the mitochondrial transport of long-chain fatty acids in the early 1960s, the carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) system has since come to be recognized as a pivotal component of fuel homeostasis. (nih.gov)
  • For now, don't substitute one form of carnitine for another. (webmd.com)
  • Until more is known, don't substitute one form of carnitine for another. (rxlist.com)
  • Some studies have found evidence that one particular form of carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, might be helpful in Alzheimer's disease , 40-46 but the two most recent and largest studies found no benefit. (lifescript.com)
  • This is the usable form of carnitine. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Additionally, serum NEC and total carnitine concentrations decreased significantly. (nih.gov)
  • Individuals with hepatic encephalopathy typically present with hypoglycemia, absent or low levels of ketones, and elevated serum concentrations of liver transaminases, ammonia, and total carnitine. (nih.gov)
  • vi) during exercise there is a redistribution of free carnitine and acylcarnitines in the muscle but there is no loss of total carnitine. (cptips.com)
  • We report an analysis of plasma carnitine levels in subjects enrolled in a controlled trial of recombinant human nerve growth factor in the treatment of peripheral neuropathy associated with HIV and d-drug therapy. (lww.com)
  • Dogs given a plant protein-based diet had plasma carnitine levels that are 50% of those measured in dogs fed animal-protein based diets. (healthyhappydogs.com)
  • In these studies, 80% of the dogs with DCM had elevated plasma carnitine levels, yet had depressed myocardial concentrations. (healthyhappydogs.com)
  • Heterozygous parents of these children have partially decreased plasma carnitine levels due to increased urinary loss ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • The kidney is able to form carnitine from the amino acids lysine and methionine , in addition to iron and vitamins B 6 , niacin , and C. The function of carnitine is to mobilize long-chain fatty acids into the powerhouse of the cell, where they are used for energy. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Carnitine ( β -hydroxy-y-N-trimethylammonium butyrate) is necessary for the transport of long chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane, where they are used as substrates for the beta-oxidation cycle. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, lower concentrations of carnitine will be available for the transfer of long chain fatty acids [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Carnitine is critically important in the production of energy from fat in the heart and skeletal muscles. (thebody.com)
  • Carnitine is stored primarily in the skeletal muscles and heart, where it is needed to transform fatty acids into energy for muscular activity. (healthy.net)
  • Skeletal and cardiac muscles that use fatty acids as a dietary fuel have high concentrations of carnitine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Given its key metabolic roles, carnitine is concentrated in tissues like skeletal and cardiac muscle that metabolize fatty acids as an energy source. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carnitine is made in the liver and kidneys, then stored in the skeletal muscles, heart, brain and sperm. (hollandandbarrett.com)
  • Bezafibrate therapy resulted in 60-284% improvement in skeletal muscle palmitoyl L-carnitine oxidation levels, 20-93% increase in skeletal muscle CPT2 mRNA, and full correction of the initial defective fatty acid oxidation in myoblasts in vitro . (hindawi.com)
  • Stored in skeletal muscle, the heart and brain, the main dietary sources of L carnitine are red meat and dairy products. (thehut.com)
  • Because of this, when the body is deficient in carnitine, the heart and skeletal muscles are negatively affected. (petmd.com)
  • The heart and skeletal muscles do not synthesize the carnitine nutrient on their own, requiring it to be transported there for use. (petmd.com)
  • Carnitine is critical for normal skeletal muscle bioenergetics. (cptips.com)
  • Skeletal muscle contains 90% of total body carnitine in humans. (bodybuildingpro.com)
  • Given these key functions, carnitine is concentrated in tissues like skeletal and cardiac muscles that utilize fatty acids as a dietary fuel. (autismcanada.org)
  • Undocumented claims for the health benefits of carnitine include treatment of Down's syndrome, muscular dystrophy , some forms of male infertility , chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and alcoholic fatty liver disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Carnitine can also be made in the liver and the kidneys and where vitamin C, niacin, vitamin B6 and the mineral iron, are required for that process. (thebody.com)
  • Some people who do not have a dietary intake of carnitine for an extended period of time -including those with muscle disease, cardiac disease, liver disease and kidney disease- may be at risk for carnitine deficiencies. (thebody.com)
  • Carnitine is not recommended in people with active liver or kidney disease or with diabetes. (healthy.net)
  • Carnitine is a naturally occurring hydrophilic amino acid derivative, produced endogenously in the kidneys and liver and derived from meat and dairy products in the diet. (medscape.com)
  • The tissue distribution of carnitine-biosynthetic enzymes in humans indicates TMLD to be active in the liver, heart, muscle, brain and highest in kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some people take acetyl-L-carnitine by mouth for a variety of mental disorders including Alzheimer's disease , age-related memory loss, depression, thinking problems related to alcoholism, thinking problems related to Lyme disease, and thinking problems related to very poor liver function ( hepatic encephalopathy ). (webmd.com)
  • What Exactly Is Carnitine Carnitine is an amino corrosive framed normally in your liver. (authorstream.com)
  • The defective transporter has high-affinity ( K m = 4-10 μM) for carnitine, as compared with transporters in the liver and the brain that have low affinity ( K m = 2-10 mM) ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • 3. In spite of large variation of carnitine content, neither the exercising capacity nor the rate of muscle or liver glycogenolysis were modified during submaximal exercise. (cptips.com)
  • Acetyl-L-Carnitine is an amino acid found in most cells in the body, including brain, nerve, heart, liver and sperm cells. (jarrow.com)
  • Carnitine, or L-carnitine as it's commonly referred to, is classified as a non-essential amino acid produced in the liver, brain and kidneys from the essential amino acids methionine and lysine. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • In humans, L-carnitine is made in the liver, kidney, and brain, and is transported to other areas of the body. (livingnaturally.com)
  • But in our gut, bacteria take that Carnitine which we want to use and transmute it into something else, something called trimethylamine, which are liver oxidised and there's something called TMAO and that's toxic stuff, what it does is it prevents our bodies from removing cholesterol from our arteries. (sharecare.com)
  • Further, the research finds that a diet high in carnitine promotes the growth of the bacteria that metabolize carnitine, compounding the problem by producing even more of the artery-clogging TMAO. (anabolicminds.com)
  • A diet high in carnitine actually shifts our gut microbe composition to those that like carnitine, making meat eaters even more susceptible to forming TMAO and its artery-clogging effects. (anabolicminds.com)
  • In addition, they found that diets high in carnitine promoted the growth of the bacteria that metabolise it, thereby compounding the effect. (foodnavigator.com)
  • It is the whey portion that contains the main amount of carnitine in dairy products. (thebody.com)
  • There's a small amount of carnitine found in fruits, veggies, and grains as well. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • Remarkably, vegans and vegetarians, even after consuming a large amount of carnitine, did not produce significant levels of the microbe product TMAO, whereas omnivores consuming the same amount of carnitine did. (anabolicminds.com)
  • TMAO levels in vegetarian and vegan participants were significantly lower than in omnivores, and they did not produce significant levels of TMAO even after consuming a large amount of carnitine. (foodnavigator.com)
  • These decrease the amount of carnitine in the body. (ahealthyme.com)
  • L-carnitine increases the amount of carnitine in the blood and inside cells. (ahealthyme.com)
  • In a recent study , participants were divided into two groups: those that ate healthy and exercised moderately in one group and those that ate healthy, exercised moderately, and supplemented with two grams of carnitine daily. (care2.com)
  • Two studies have found that seniors who were given 2 grams of carnitine daily had increases in mental and physical energy, with less fatigue, muscle pain, and sleep problems. (betternutrition.com)
  • For physical fatigue, take 2-3 grams of carnitine daily, with a high-protein meal. (betternutrition.com)
  • The women were allocated to a placebo group, to group A that received 2 or 4 grams of carnitine daily for two months out of the six-month trial period or to group B which received 2 or 4 grams carnitine daily for four months. (yourhealthbase.com)
  • Some groups of people with HIV may be at higher risk for carnitine deficiencies resulting from 'nutritional deficiencies, gastrointestinal disturbances, renal losses or shifts in metabolic pathways. (thebody.com)
  • Moreover, these observations merit additional investigation to determine metabolic and functional consequences of choline and carnitine interactions in humans. (nih.gov)
  • Prolonged fasting resulted in rising levels of carnitine in muscle tissue due to disruption in normal enzymatic metabolic pathways. (healthyhappydogs.com)
  • Recent evidence suggests that a low carnitine availability may limit acetylcarnitine formation, thereby reducing metabolic flexibility. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To provide more direct insight into the effect of carnitine in preventing metabolic inflexibility and insulin resistance and to further explore the mechanism of action is the focus of this research. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Objective: The primary objectives are to investigate whether L-carnitine infusion may rescue lipid-induced insulin resistance and whether L-carnitine infusion is improving metabolic flexibility in the state of lipid-induced insulin resistance. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To investigate whether L-Carnitine infusion may rescue lipid induced insulin resistance and improve metabolic flexibility three intervention trials are included. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • J Nutr 2000 Feb;130(2):152-7 The effect of a combination of caffeine, carnitine and choline with or without exercise on changes in body weight, fat pad mass, serum leptin concentration and metabolic indices was determined in 20 male, 7-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • L-Carnitine plays acritical metabolic role. (bodybuildingpro.com)
  • No recommendations have been established for a daily dietary allowance for carnitine. (thebody.com)
  • According to Recommended Dietary Allowances, published by the National Research Council, the redder the meat, the higher the carnitine concentration. (thebody.com)
  • L-carnitine is used as an additive in animal feed industry, and growing awareness about its animal dietary benefits boosts its demand in the region. (globenewswire.com)
  • One of the most exceptionally looked for after elements of the present dietary enhancements are Carnitine. (authorstream.com)
  • Dogs and cats both make carnitine from the amino acid lysine and, therefore, it is unlikely that simple dietary deficiencies exist in the normal animal. (healthyhappydogs.com)
  • This suggests that plasma levels of carnitine are susceptible to dietary intake. (healthyhappydogs.com)
  • Dietary L-carnitine concentration in dogs. (healthyhappydogs.com)
  • There is no dietary requirement for carnitine. (lifescript.com)
  • Adults whose diets are rich in red meat consume on average around 60 to 180mg of carnitine per day. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Carnitine is a nutrient found naturally in the body and in foods such as meat and dairy products, beans, and avocados. (mskcc.org)
  • Derived from amino acids, carnitine was first extracted from meat extracts in 1905, leading to its name from Latin, "caro/carnis" or flesh. (wikipedia.org)
  • Red meat and dairy produce are the main sources of carnitine in the diet. (hollandandbarrett.com)
  • The individuals who may experience difficulty with Carnitine inadequacy are typically the old and individuals who dont devour meat items. (authorstream.com)
  • Red meat is the strongest source of l-carnitine. (wisegeek.com)
  • L-carnitine is an amino acid found in many food sources such as meat and dairy and is also produced naturally in the body. (aminoz.com.au)
  • This is one reason why vegetarians and individuals who avoid red meat because of health consciousness are L-Carnitine deficient. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • A landmark study in the New England Journal of Medicine shows that choline in eggs, poultry, dairy and fish produces the same toxic TMAO as carnitine in red meat, which may help explain plant-based protection from heart disease. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • The enzyme that uses carnitine to help us burn fat, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, is actually upregulated by about 60 percent in those eating meat-free diets, which may help explain why those eating plant-based diets tend to be slimmer. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • High intakes of red meat repeatedly have been linked to heart disease, but new research suggests that along with saturated fat and certain preservatives, l-carnitine is another red meat constituent that may contribute to cardiovascular risk. (foodnavigator.com)
  • The American Meat Institute (AMI) Foundation's chief scientist Dr Betsy Booren issued a statement in response to the study, in which she said that linking carnitine in red meat to heart disease was an oversimplification of a complex disease. (foodnavigator.com)
  • 5. Even strict and devout vegetarians generally make enough in their bodies, that they don't need to eat meat to have the needed L-carnitine. (sooperarticles.com)
  • Dr. Stanley Hazen, chief of cellular and molecular medicine at Lerner, said carnitine may be compounding the negative effects of the cholesterol and saturated fat found in beef, pork and other red meat. (feedstuffs.com)
  • pointed out an article in The Huffington Post that was critical of the Cleveland Clinic study suggesting carnitine causes cardiovascular disease (see Carnitine, Red Meat, TMAO & CVD ). (jacknorrisrd.com)
  • Just before going on my break, I wrote about a recent study showing that meat-eaters have bacteria in their digestive tracts that turn carnitine (found in high amounts in red meat) into TMAO which causes atherosclerosis (see Carnitine, Red Meat, TMAO & CVD ). (jacknorrisrd.com)
  • Does that meant that red meat actually prevents heart disease via it's carnitine content? (jacknorrisrd.com)
  • The meta-analysis showed that supplementing with large doses of carnitine (an optimal dosage of 6-9 g/day, many times more than one could get from eating red meat) can reduce mortality, particularly in the first 5 days after the heart attack. (jacknorrisrd.com)
  • L-carnitine is an important nutrient that acts as a transport for fatty acids, essential for the cellular production of energy. (petmd.com)
  • Carnitine is the powerful nutrient that transports fat to your cells energy centers to burn it for energy. (care2.com)
  • Choose carnitine tartrate for the best results, since it is the purest and most effective form of the nutrient. (care2.com)
  • Carnitine is a nutrient that is taken in in the diet but also can be made in the body. (autismspeaks.org)
  • L-Carnitine, a vitamin-like nutrient, occurs naturally in the human body and is essential for turning fat into energy. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Carnitine is considered a 'conditionally essential' nutrient-although our bodies can make it, they often don't produce enough. (betternutrition.com)
  • Carnitine can help put the pep back in your step, but that's just the tip of the iceberg for this versatile nutrient. (betternutrition.com)
  • Acetyl L-Carnitine (ALC) is a delivery form for L-carnitine, a vitamin-like nutrient that is responsible for transporting long chain fatty acid 'fuel' into the cells' energy producing mitrochondria. (prohealth.com)
  • For these individuals, carnitine is a conditionally essential nutrient. (autismcanada.org)
  • Those of us who are looking to derive nutritional benefits, it is better if we all took some time to break out of our nutritional plateaus and learn about one key nutrient, L-Carnitine that some of us may very well be deficient in. (sooperarticles.com)
  • The dysfunction leads to high renal loss of carnitine and lower concentrations of carnitine in blood and tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • We conclude that supplementary choline maintained serum carnitine concentrations by conserving urinary carnitine. (nih.gov)
  • Fasting increased plasma carnitine concentrations without corresponding changes in the levels of carnitine found in muscle tissue. (healthyhappydogs.com)
  • One of the effects of DCM is a loss of appetite and decreased food intake, implying one possible explanation for the apparent changes in tissue carnitine concentrations in DCM as a result of fasting. (healthyhappydogs.com)
  • However, critical reflections and current scientific-based knowledge are important because the implications of reduced or increased carnitine concentrations in vivo are not thoroughly understood. (cptips.com)
  • They were given free access to a nonpurified diet without or with caffeine, carnitine and choline at concentrations of 0.1, 5 and 11.5 g/kg diet, respectively. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Carnitine is a compound necessary for the transport of acyl-CoA across the inner mitochondrial membrane for their beta-oxidation. (bikeforums.net)
  • Carnitine is a critical substrate in the production of energy during the beta-oxidation of free fatty acids. (lww.com)
  • But researchers at the Cleveland Clinic found that in both humans and mice, certain bacteria in the digestive tract convert carnitine to another metabolite, called TMAO, which promotes atherosclerosis, or a thickening of the arteries. (ift.org)
  • The researchers tested the carnitine and TMAO levels of omnivores, vegans, and vegetarians, and examined records of 2,595 patients undergoing cardiac evaluations. (ift.org)
  • In patients with high TMAO levels, the more carnitine in their blood, the more likely they were to develop cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, stroke, and death. (ift.org)
  • There's a diagram in my 9-min video Carnitine, Choline, Cancer and Cholesterol: The TMAO Connection . (nutritionfacts.org)
  • The problem is that the bodies of other animals also make all that they need so when we eat them, their carnitine can end up in our gut for those bacteria to feast upon, resulting in TMAO. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • Of course it's not the carnitine itself we're worried about, but the toxic TMAO, and you can feed a vegan a steak without getting a TMAO spike. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • The vegan got the whopping carnitine load, but hardly any TMAO was produced. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • The study shows that bacteria living in the human digestive tract metabolize the compound carnitine, turning it into trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite the researchers previously linked in a 2011 study to the promotion of atherosclerosis in humans. (anabolicminds.com)
  • The researchers found that increased carnitine levels in patients predicted increased risks for cardiovascular disease and major cardiac events like heart attack, stroke and death, but only in subjects with concurrently high TMAO levels. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Meanwhile, vegans and vegetarians have a significantly reduced capacity to synthesize TMAO from carnitine, which may explain the cardiovascular health benefits of these diets. (anabolicminds.com)
  • In a study published in Nature Medicine ​, researchers from Cleveland Clinic found specific bacteria in the gut that metabolise l-carnitine into trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a substance that has been linked to hardening of the arteries. (foodnavigator.com)
  • They examined carnitine levels in 2,595 heart patients, and found high levels were associated with increased risk of heart disease, heart attack and stroke - but only when TMAO levels were also high. (foodnavigator.com)
  • In omnivores, however, carnitine consumption promoted TMAO production. (foodnavigator.com)
  • However, the researchers found that, in both humans and mice , bacteria in the digestive tract can convert carnitine into a metabolite called TMAO that promotes atherosclerosis. (feedstuffs.com)
  • This is true - when the researchers corrected for a number of conditions, including kidney function and TMAO levels, the association of carnitine with major adverse cardiac events (MACE) disappeared. (jacknorrisrd.com)
  • The researchers used that model to say that it proved that TMAO was the problem, not carnitine, and it didn't occur to me in my first analysis that perhaps TMAO levels were high simply because the kidneys couldn't clear the TMAO. (jacknorrisrd.com)
  • Only L-isomer of carnitine is biologically active. (bikeforums.net)
  • Carnitine exists as one of two stereoisomers (the two enantiomers d-carnitine (S-(+)-) and l-carnitine (R-(-)-)). Both are biologically active, but only l-carnitine naturally occurs in animals, and d-carnitine is toxic as it inhibits the activity of the l-form. (wikipedia.org)
  • L-carnitine is the biologically active form of the nonessential amino acid carnitine. (livestrong.com)
  • I've been taking L-Carnitine capsules before work out, as it enhance my performance. (drugs.com)
  • Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of supplementary choline and/or pantothenate on the carnitine and lipid status of free-living humans. (nih.gov)
  • Relation between choline and carnitine homeostasis. (nih.gov)
  • Unlike carnitine, we do need to take in some choline, so should vegans be worried about the modest amounts of choline they're getting from beans, veggies, grains, and fruit? (nutritionfacts.org)
  • GAT Sport Liquid L-Carnitine is perfect for sport enthusiasts, weightlifters, athletes and anyone trying to improve their fitness and conditioning. (netrition.com)
  • Best Liquid L Carnitine! (gnc.com)
  • It is synthesized naturally from the amino acids methionine and lysine, but good external sources of carnitine are milk products and meats. (fsu.edu)
  • This bottom line monograph focuses on supplemental sources of carnitine, and not the forms of carnitine that are made in the body. (livingnaturally.com)
  • The therapeutic effects of carnitine and acetylcarnitine are discussed. (bikeforums.net)
  • at the time of publication, there was no definitive proof of the effects of carnitine on hypothyroidism. (livestrong.com)
  • Research is ongoing regarding other potential benefits of carnitine, such as: heart health, brain health and infant nutrition, among others. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • L-carnitine also shows promise as a pharmaceutical agent in the treatment of cardiac conditions, type 2 diabetes , renal disease, and male infertility. (wisegeek.com)
  • The feasibility of adding L-carnitine to the peritoneal dialysis (PD) solution in APD-treated end-stage renal disease patients is investigated. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • One small study demonstrated a beneficial effect of L-carnitine on anemia and high cholesterol in patients on hemodialysis for chronic renal failure. (lifescript.com)
  • Novel OCTN2 mutations: no genotype-phenotype correlations: early carnitine therapy prevents cardiomyopathy. (medscape.com)
  • To treat it, the physician will prescribe pharmacological doses of carnitine, to correct the problems of cardiomyopathy and muscle weakness. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Myocardial L-carnitine in a family of dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy. (healthyhappydogs.com)
  • Case report: efficacy of oral carnitine therapy for dilated cardiomyopathy in boxer dogs. (healthyhappydogs.com)
  • L-Carnitine is effective for the treatment of primary and secondary carnitine deficiencies. (bikeforums.net)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of intravenous (IV) L-carnitine for treating primary and secondary carnitine deficiencies. (globenewswire.com)
  • L-carnitine is an amino acid (a building block for proteins) that is naturally produced in the body. (webmd.com)
  • L-carnitine is an amino acid that is naturally produced in the body. (rxlist.com)
  • The intake of L-carnitine is prescribed by medical professionals to individuals with inherited disability to naturally synthesize carnitine. (globenewswire.com)
  • Naturally occurring, l -carnitine is a quaternary amine (3-hydroxy-4- N -trimethylaminobutyrate) found in all mammalian species. (mdpi.com)
  • Usefulness of L-carnitine, a naturally occurring peripheral antagonist of thyroid hormone action, in iatrogenic hyperthyroidism: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. (yourhealthbase.com)
  • What it means is if your body has all the essential amino acids, your body-system will naturally synthesize Carnitine on its own. (sooperarticles.com)
  • Furthermore, a secondary objective is to examine the molecular pathways of carnitine and acetylcarnitine, responsible for muscle insulin sensitivity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Blood pressure was a secondary efficacy variable of the study and mechanisms underlying the antihypertensive effect of Acetyl-L-Carnitine (such as reduced peripheral resistances, decreased cardiac output, increased artery compliance and/or enhanced sodium excretion), in this population were not assessed. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • L-carnitine also helps with weight loss, usually improves our exercise capacities (possibly through the oxidation of amino acids), and may possibly enhance our muscle building and endurance. (healthy.net)
  • Acetyl-L-carnitine improves cognition in the brain, significantly reversed age-associated decline in mitochondrial membrane potential and improved ambulatory activity. (bikeforums.net)
  • In relation to diabetes, researchers concluded that there is increased evidence that supplementing with L-carnitine helps improve cardiovascular conditions, may help reduce obesity and improves glucose intolerance. (livestrong.com)
  • Taking acetyl-L-carnitine improves memory and mental function in older people with some memory loss. (webmd.com)
  • Taking acetyl-L-carnitine improves feelings of mental and physical tiredness in older people. (webmd.com)
  • Carnitine improves fatigue, quality of life, lean body mass and appetite in advanced cancer patients undergoing anticancer therapy. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Carnitine improves fatigue, sleep quality, depression in advanced cancer patients. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Carnitine therapy improves the condition of hemodialysis patients. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are carnitine and NAD + , whereas its 3 products are 3-dehydrocarnitine , NADH , and H + . (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is carnitine:NAD + 3-oxidoreductase . (wikipedia.org)
  • Gamma-butyrobetaine is then hydroxylated by gamma butyrobetaine hydroxylase (a zinc binding enzyme) into l-carnitine, requiring iron in the form of Fe2+. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a carnitine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.42) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction carnitine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2-methylcholine + CO2 Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, carnitine, and two products, 2-methylcholine and CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is carnitine carboxy-lyase (2-methylcholine-forming). (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme is also called carnitine carboxy-lyase. (wikipedia.org)
  • An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Carnitine, a natural substance acquired mostly through the diet, is used by cells to process fats and produce energy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Without carnitine, fats cannot enter the cell, and so no fat can be oxidized, or burned. (aminoz.com.au)
  • Carnitine is a natural substance that the body uses to process fats and produce energy. (ahealthyme.com)
  • at the same time, carnitine can raise the HDL portion of the cholesterol, which reduces cardiovascular disease risk. (healthy.net)
  • In a 2011 Nature study, they first discovered that people are not predisposed to cardiovascular disease solely because of their genetic make-up, but also based on how the micro-organisms in their digestive tracts metabolize lecithin, a compound with a structure similar to carnitine. (anabolicminds.com)
  • RESEARCH conducted at the Cleveland Clinic's Lerner Research Institute has pinpointed carnitine for playing a role in the development of cardiovascular disease. (feedstuffs.com)
  • Carnitine, which can be synthesized by the higher animals, is associated with the transfer of fatty substances from the bloodstream to active sites of fatty-acid oxidation within muscle cells. (britannica.com)
  • Theoretically, carnitine availability may become limiting for either fatty acid oxidation or the removal of acyl-CoAs during exercise. (cptips.com)
  • In the second reaction, acyl-CoA is transiently attached to the hydroxyl group of carnitine to form fatty acyl-carnitine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fatty acyl-carnitine ester formed then diffuses across the intermembrane space and enters the matrix by facilitated diffusion through carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) located on inner mitochondrial membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protective carbonyl group is hydrolyzed during the reaction, and the isolated raw material comprises the desired acyl carnitine. (google.com)
  • Many eukaryotes have the ability to synthesize carnitine, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans synthesize carnitine from the substrate TML (6-N-trimethyllysine), which is in turn derived from the methylation of the amino acid lysine. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, supplemental carnitine could in theory improve the ability of certain tissues to produce energy. (lifescript.com)
  • Octanoyl-L-carnitine is a medium-chain endogenous ester of L-carnitine, obtained via acylcarnitine family transferase. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In a previous pilot study in healthy subjects with decreased insulin sensitivity, the investigators found that 6-month treatment with Acetyl-L-Carnitine - an ester of l-carnitine - improved the glucose disposal rate, taken as a marker of insulin sensitivity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Acetyl L-Carnitine is the acetyl ester of carnitine, an amino acid derivative, and is distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous system. (ralphs.com)
  • Carnitine is a natural substance found in food and made from the essential amino acids, lysine and methionine. (thebody.com)
  • The body creates carnitine from the amino acids lysine and methionine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Carnitine is produced in your body from the two amino acids methionine and lysine, and also is found in foods such as dairy products, meats and avocados. (livestrong.com)
  • Your body can actually produce L-carnitine out of the amino acids lysine and methionine. (healthline.com)
  • L-Carnitine is a dipeptide made up of two other essential amino acids: L-methionine and L-lysine. (wegmans.com)
  • THE BASICS: L-carnitine is a constituent of protein synthesized from the amino acids lysine and methionine. (betternutrition.com)
  • Carnitine is synthesized from amino acids, primarily lysine and methionine. (netrition.com)
  • Acetyl L-carnitine is created in the body from the amino acids lysine and methionine, and our super-convenient powder helps you even in your most rigorous workouts. (myprotein.com)
  • Carnitine RX is an amino acid derivative biosynthesized from the amino acids lysine and methionine. (australiansportsnutrition.com.au)
  • The heart is the most carnitine-rich organ in the body, and there are several heart or circulatory conditions that may benefit from more carnitine than is normally in the diet. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Carnitine works mostly in the muscle cells of the body. (thebody.com)
  • Carnitine is present in almost every cell in the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Carnitine helps the body metabolize fat and may be effective in treating a host of illnesses, including heart disease, diabetic neuropathy and hyperthyroidism, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center. (livestrong.com)
  • The researchers found that the subjects who took both Orlistat and L-carnitine had better improvement in body weight, inflammatory markers, glucose and lipid profiles compared to the subjects who took the conventional drug alone. (livestrong.com)
  • In the body, acetyl-L-carnitine is made from L-carnitine. (webmd.com)
  • The body can convert L-carnitine to acetyl-L-carnitine and vice versa. (webmd.com)
  • Acetyl-L-carnitine helps the body produce energy. (webmd.com)
  • L-carnitine helps the body turn fat into energy. (rxlist.com)
  • The consumption of L-carnitine is also increasing in people with wasting syndrome to improve lean body mass. (globenewswire.com)
  • Once delivered by your body Carnitine is put away in your heart and cerebrum. (authorstream.com)
  • Carnitine is basic for some essential capacities inside the body however its most generally identified with a creation of cell vitality. (authorstream.com)
  • Advantages of Carnitine In the event that you are focused on the wellness way of life Carnitine is likely not major for your wellbeing as youve presumably structured your eating routine arrangement in such manner that it empowers your body to keep up a sufficiently high degree of Carnitine all alone. (authorstream.com)
  • Carnitine typically helps the body transport fatty acids into cells to be used as energy. (ift.org)
  • L-carnitine is an amino acid derivative that can be produced in the body or obtained by eating animal flesh. (healthline.com)
  • Old rats were fed a control diet and supplemented with L-carnitine (30 mg/kg body weight) for 12 weeks. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Within the body, Acetyl L-Carnitine transports fatty acids to be used for extra energy. (chainreactioncycles.com)
  • Studies in older adults further showed that l -carnitine intake can lead to increased muscle mass accompanied by a decrease in body weight and reduced physical and mental fatigue. (mdpi.com)
  • The effect of l-carnitine on fat oxidation, protein turnover, and body composition in slightly overweight subjects. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • The main function of L-carnitine is to transfer certain molecules across cell membranes so that they can be broken down and used by the body. (livingnaturally.com)
  • Carnitine is a substance used by the body uses to turn fat into energy. (lifescript.com)
  • L-Carnitine helps the body convert food to energy, providing support for endurance exercise (aerobic) and during recovery from high-intensity activities such as weightlifting and sprinting (anaerobic). (netrition.com)
  • Once Pantothenic Acid is converted into Coenzyme A in the body, it works directly with Carnitine to convert food to energy, providing synergistic support. (netrition.com)
  • Carnitine is found in nearly all cells of the body and plays a critical role in energy production. (autismcanada.org)
  • Only L-carnitine is active in the body and is the form found in food. (autismcanada.org)
  • So what L-Carnitine does in our body, is it helps us produce energy. (sharecare.com)
  • Supplementing with Carnitine RX may support optimum vitality by supplying amino acids necessary for body function. (australiansportsnutrition.com.au)
  • Tamai I. Pharmacological and pathophysiological roles of carnitine/organic cation transporters (OCTNs: SLC22A4, SLC22A5 and Slc22a21). (medscape.com)
  • The gene for this condition maps to 5q31.2-32 and OCTN2, an organic cation/carnitine transporter, also maps to the same chromosomal region. (pnas.org)
  • Abnormally low levels of carnitine are most commonly associated with a few rare genetic diseases. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Acetyl-L-carnitine is used for tiredness related to getting older, tiredness related to a disease called multiple sclerosis, a muscle wasting disease called amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , high levels of activity in children with the genetic condition fragile-X syndrome, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (webmd.com)
  • However, a few individuals have a genetic defect that hinders the body's ability to make carnitine. (lifescript.com)
  • Acetyl-L-carnitine is a substance that reduces blood and brain ammonium levels and may act as a brain-protective agent. (cochrane.org)
  • The gene causes a problem with a substance that carries carnitine inside cells from the blood. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Wilcken B, Wiley V, Sim KG, Carpenter K. Carnitine transporter defect diagnosed by newborn screening with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. (medscape.com)
  • Vijay S, Patterson A, Olpin S, Henderson MJ, Clark S, Day C. Carnitine transporter defect: diagnosis in asymptomatic adult women following analysis of acylcarnitines in their newborn infants. (medscape.com)
  • Evidence indicates that the causal factor is a defect in the muscle carnitine transporter. (medscape.com)
  • It is also called carnitine uptake defect. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Deficiencies of carnitine have been noted, more so recently with people avoiding red meats in the diet. (healthy.net)
  • Anyone with a protein deficient diet may have inadequate levels of the building blocks for carnitine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cancer and aging reduce carnitine levels. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Biologic effects of low carnitine levels may not be clinically significant until they reach less than 10-20% of normal. (medscape.com)
  • In clinical trials, cancer patients who have higher blood levels of carnitine generally have higher functioning and more energy. (mskcc.org)
  • Carnitine also plays a role in stabilizing Acetyl-CoA and coenzyme A levels through the ability to receive or give an acetyl group. (wikipedia.org)
  • In clinical research, L-carnitine has been found to enhance the efficacy of conventional drugs in improving glucose and lipid levels in diabetics. (livestrong.com)
  • A study that was published in the November 2010 issue of "Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology" evaluated the benefits of using L-carnitine in combination with the conventional drug Orlistat to improve sugar and fat levels as well as for weight management. (livestrong.com)
  • Some men take acetyl-L-carnitine by mouth for infertility, symptoms of "male menopause" (low testosterone levels due to aging), and a disease of the penis called Peyronie's disease. (webmd.com)
  • People in the last stage of long-term, serious kidney disease need to undergo hemodialysis, which can lower L-carnitine levels. (rxlist.com)
  • There is mixed evidence about the effects of L-carnitine in treating disorders caused by low carnitine levels in people with serious kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis. (rxlist.com)
  • Taking L-carnitine seems to improve symptoms such as rapid or pounding heartbeat, nervousness, and weakness in people with high thyroid hormone levels. (rxlist.com)
  • [2] reported that serum acetyl carnitine levels are depressed in HIV-infected patients with neuropathy associated with didioxynucleoside (`d-drug') ARV. (lww.com)
  • The association of carnitine levels with markers of neuropathy was measured by the Spearman correlation coefficient. (lww.com)
  • Mean carnitine levels were compared between subgroups determined by the severity of neuropathy using the non-parametric Wilcoxon two-sample and Kruskal-Wallis tests. (lww.com)
  • Mean levels of the other neuropathic markers were compared between groups with abnormal and normal carnitine. (lww.com)
  • Because of its capacity to upgrade the insulin activity on muscle cells L-Carnitine helps keep glucose levels low. (authorstream.com)
  • There does, however, appear to be a connection between diet and plasma levels of carnitine. (healthyhappydogs.com)
  • The L-carnitine levels in the muscles of young and old rats were found to be 34 per cent lower in the elderly animals. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Demarquoy and his co-workers report that this led to a restoration of L-carnitine levels in muscle cells. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation cause extreme fatigue, but L-carnitine may boost energy levels in cancer patients. (betternutrition.com)
  • A study found that taking 2 grams daily of acetyl-L-carnitine led to significant improve- ments in energy levels over a period of three months. (betternutrition.com)
  • Carnitine and selenium levels are decreased in children with celiac disease. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Whether blood pressure reduction reflected the amelioration of insulin sensitivity or, rather, a direct, specific effect of Acetyl-L-Carnitine is still unknown.The antihypertensive effect ensued progressively and slowly waned after treatment withdrawal as documented by a slow and progressive increase in blood pressure levels toward baseline levels over the recovery period. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Soy-based infant formulas are fortified with carnitine to levels found in breast milk. (livingnaturally.com)
  • Taking carnitine by mouth has been shown to increase blood levels of carnitine in people undergoing hemodialysis. (livingnaturally.com)
  • Our 100% Acetyl L-Carnitine Amino Acid powder is perfect for boosting your carnitine levels -great when added to your favourite shake. (myprotein.com)
  • A reduction in blood ammonium levels favoured participants receiving acetyl-L-carnitine, but study authors observed no clinical benefits. (cochrane.org)
  • In some cases, the condition only leads to low carnitine levels in muscle. (ahealthyme.com)
  • These are done to check the levels of carnitine in the blood. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Towards the very end of the article, Dr. Gaby says, "It is noteworthy that the observed association between heart disease and carnitine levels disappeared completely when the researchers corrected for differences in kidney function. (jacknorrisrd.com)
  • After reading Dr. Gaby's article I downloaded the online supplementary material and found that kidney function did progressively get worse as carnitine levels increased among the subjects, and this trend was statistically significant. (jacknorrisrd.com)
  • When someone has a heart attack, their carnitine levels become depleted. (jacknorrisrd.com)
  • Acetyl-L-Carnitine ALCAR - this type of L-Carnitine experienced a procedure called 'acetylating' which empowers it to pass the mind hindrance. (authorstream.com)
  • SLC22A5 mutations can affect carnitine transport by impairing maturation of transporters to the plasma membrane. (medscape.com)
  • Novel human cDNAs homologous to Drosophila Orct and mammalian carnitine transporters. (nih.gov)
  • Here we report the cloning of two novel putative organic ion transporters with 12 predicted membrane spanning segments that are most homologous to mammalian OCTNs (carnitine transporters) and to the Drosophila putative transporter, Orct, an intriguing correspondence that led us to name our sequences Fly-like putative transporters (Flipts). (nih.gov)
  • Reasonable intake of L-carnitine is two to four grams in divided doses. (aminoz.com.au)
  • But before the target cells can use the fatty acids for ATP production and β oxidation, the fatty acids with chain lengths of 14 or more carbons must be activated and subsequently transported into mitochondrial matrix of the cells in three enzymatic reactions of the carnitine shuttle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first reaction of the carnitine shuttle is a two-step process catalyzed by a family of isozymes of acyl-CoA synthetase that are found in the outer mitochondrial membrane, where they promote the activation of fatty acids by forming a thioester bond between the fatty acid carboxyl group and the thiol group of coenzyme A to yield a fatty acyl-CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carnitine is more potent in restoring mitochondrial energy production. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Based on current animal studies, a role of l -carnitine in the prevention of age-associated muscle protein degradation and regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis is suggested. (mdpi.com)
  • Doctors at Mercy Hospital and Medical Center in Chicago used either 3 grams of carnitine or drugs to treat 28 people diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). (betternutrition.com)
  • After four weeks, the women who received carnitine had reductions in fatigue, improved appetites, increased muscle mass, and better overall quality of life. (betternutrition.com)
  • For mental fatigue or cognitive problems, try 1-2 grams of acetyl-L-carnitine daily. (betternutrition.com)
  • RESULTS: Testosterone and carnitines significantly improved the peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, resistive index, nocturnal penile tumescence, International Index of Erectile Function score, Depression Melancholia Scale score, and fatigue scale score. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Carnitine versus androgen administration in the treatment of sexual dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue associated with male aging. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Carnitine has also shown promise for improving male sexual function 81,82,93 and improving mental and physical fatigue in seniors. (lifescript.com)
  • We found no clear differences in effect between acetyl-L-carnitine and placebo regarding quality of life, fatigue, and non-serious adverse events. (cochrane.org)
  • Carnitine appears to help the heart, a muscle that requires a lot of energy, function better. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Carnitine may prove helpful in alleviating the symptoms of CFS, perhaps by increasing the efficiency of energy production. (encyclopedia.com)
  • adults need a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet to provide a constant supply of carbohydrate energy and medium-chain triglycerides to provide approximately one third of total calories (C6-C10 fatty acids do not require the carnitine shuttle for entry into the mitochondrion). (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, the benefits of L-carnitine in improving endurance, weight management, and promoting efficient conversion of food into energy are encouraging its consumption. (globenewswire.com)
  • Avoid taking carnitine after 3pm since it may give you more energy than you d like when you re ready to sleep. (care2.com)
  • Because carnitine helps us to burn fat more efficiently, it helps the heart to get sufficient energy for proper functioning. (care2.com)
  • Tip: Consider combining carnitine with alpha-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 because all three nutrients play important roles in energy production. (betternutrition.com)
  • This formula combines three nutrients involved in energy production: KanekaQH ubiquinol, alpha-lipoic acid, and carnitine. (betternutrition.com)
  • The primary benefit is that carnitine helps burn fat for energy, contributing towards fat loss and muscular energy. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • As you read about carnitine and it's role in energy production, you may be wondering how it ties into the discussion regarding creatine. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Oxidation (combining with oxygen) of the BCAAs is facilitated by L- Carnitine, providing a link between protein catabolism and cellular energy. (bodybuildingpro.com)
  • It is important to note that L-Carnitine, is an amino-acid that is very important in burning excess fat and also in the production of energy. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • In fact, Hazen said some energy drinks contain more carnitine than a large steak. (feedstuffs.com)
  • Carnitine RX plays a critical role in energy production. (australiansportsnutrition.com.au)
  • By converting the body's existing fat stores into energy, Carnitine RX is a must-have for anyone looking for more visible muscle definition, or those looking to accelerate burning those stubborn last few kilos. (australiansportsnutrition.com.au)