Carmustine: A cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Dacarbazine: An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Melphalan: An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC 2.1.1.63.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Cytarabine: A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)Hodgkin Disease: A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.GuanineNitrosourea CompoundsCisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Podophyllotoxin: A lignan (LIGNANS) found in PODOPHYLLIN resin from the roots of PODOPHYLLUM plants. It is a potent spindle poison, toxic if taken internally, and has been used as a cathartic. It is very irritating to skin and mucous membranes, has keratolytic actions, has been used to treat warts and keratoses, and may have antineoplastic properties, as do some of its congeners and derivatives.Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Alkylating Agents: Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Lomustine: An alkylating agent of value against both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Teniposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Teniposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent cells from entering into the mitotic phase of the cell cycle, and lead to cell death. Teniposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cycle.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Salvage Therapy: A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Transplantation Conditioning: Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Western Australia: A state in western Australia. Its capital is Perth. It was first visited by the Dutch in 1616 but the English took possession in 1791 and permanent colonization began in 1829. It was a penal settlement 1850-1888, became part of the colonial government in 1886, and was granted self government in 1890. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1329)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Body Surface Area: The two dimensional measure of the outer layer of the body.Diagnostic Techniques, Surgical: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of disease or dysfunction by examination of the pathological site or operative field during surgical intervention.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)

Electronic volume analysis of L1210 chemotherapy. (1/816)

The rapid analysis of in vivo chemotherapy on the L1210 ascites tumor grown in C57BL/6 X DBA/2F1 mice has been shown by means of an electronic volume analysis. The drugs were injected on the 4th day of tumor growth, and the cells in the peritoneal cavity were studied at 24-hr intervals on the 5th through 7th day. Using the electronic cell volume distributions, combined with labeling indices, cell morphology, and cell counts, it was found that the alkylating agents. 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and cyclophosphamide, at the dosages used, were more effective than the S-phase-specific drugs, palmitoyl ester of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, vincristine, and methotrexate.  (+info)

The minimum CD34 threshold depends on prior chemotherapy in autologous peripheral blood stem cell recipients. (2/816)

We analysed 57 patients with non-myeloid malignancies who received a non-purged autologous PBSCT. All had similar mobilisation and conditioning regimens. A high prior chemotherapy score and the number of chemotherapy lines used (P = 0.015 and P = 0.01, respectively) were adverse predictors of CD34 cell yields. Lower CD34 values (P = 0.002) were seen in patients treated with potent stem cell toxins (BCNU, melphalan, CCNU and mustine), designated toxicity factor 4 agents (TF4). All patients infused with grafts containing CD34 cell doses between 1.0 and 2.0 x 10(6)/kg (range 1.25-1.90) engrafted by day 51. The only variable associated with slow platelet recovery was exposure to TF4 (P = 0.007). The majority of patients with CD34 >1.0 x 10(6)/kg achieved rapid and sustained engraftment and the only predictive factor of delayed recovery is prior exposure to stem cell toxins. Potential PBSCT candidates should if possible avoid first line and salvage chemotherapy containing TF4 drugs. We therefore advocate a minimum CD34 threshold of >1.0 x 10(6)/kg in patients without extensive prior chemoradiotherapy, and > or = 2.0 x 10(6)/kg in all other patients.  (+info)

Combination of chemotherapy with interleukin-2 and interferon alfa for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. (3/816)

PURPOSE: The primary objective of this clinical study was to assess the feasibility of administering recombinant interleukin-2 and recombinant interferon alfa-2a before and after combination cytotoxic chemotherapy. After encouraging initial responses, the study was expanded to further evaluate the therapeutic potential, clarify the toxicities of this regimen, and explore any associated immunologic changes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-four patients with metastatic melanoma, including patients with brain metastases, were treated on this 6-week protocol. Patients received combination cisplatin (25 mg/m2/d) and dacarbazine (220 mg/m2/d) on days 1 through 3 and 22 through 24 plus carmustine (150 mg/m2) on day 1. Interleukin 2 (13.5 million IU/m2/d) and interferon alfa (6 MU/m2/d) were administered on days 4 through 8 and 17 through 21. RESULTS: Among 83 patients assessable for response, 12 complete and 34 partial responses were documented (55% response rate). The median time to disease progression was 7 months, the median survival from study entry was 12.2 months, and the median survival from diagnosis of metastatic disease was 15.5 months. Although patients were hospitalized to receive treatment, intensive care unit support generally was not needed. Dose-limiting toxicities were related to elevations in serum bilirubin and serum creatinine levels. No patient developed a grade 4 clinical toxicity. Treatment produced a skin depigmentation, which was associated with prolonged survival. CONCLUSION: A plateau in both the survival and time to progression curves beyond 2 years (15% of the patients) and a greater than 10% disease-free survival beyond 4 years indicate that there may be a long-term benefit for some patients. The limited toxicity of this regimen should permit its use in most oncology settings. A randomized trial of chemoimmunotherapy versus chemotherapy should be performed to establish the value of chemoimmunotherapy for melanoma.  (+info)

Early harvest and late transplantation as an effective therapeutic strategy in multiple myeloma. (4/816)

Transplantation after high-dose chemotherapy prolongs survival in patients with multiple myeloma compared with standard therapy. It is unclear whether the optimal timing of transplantation is immediately after induction chemotherapy or whether stem cells may be cryopreserved for transplantation at subsequent progression or relapse. In this study, stem cells were collected within 6 months of diagnosis, followed by transplantation only at progression of myeloma. One hundred and eighteen patients with multiple myeloma had stem cells collected and cryopreserved. Eleven had transplants early in the disease after they demonstrated failure to respond to primary therapy. The remaining 107 were eligible for transplants when there was evidence of progressive disease. Of the 118 patients, 67 had transplants, nine died of progressive disease before transplantation, and 42 remain alive in plateau phase. The median survival of the group is 58.5 months; 67 are alive. Serum beta2-microglobulin, bone marrow labeling index (S phase), and hemoglobin level predicted overall survival (P < 0.006, P < 0.001, and P < 0.01, respectively). We conclude that early cryopreservation of blood stem cells followed by transplantation at progression is a feasible approach to therapy in patients with myeloma. The underlying biology of the disease has a greater impact on survival than the timing of transplantation. A prospective randomized trial is required to answer definitively the question of the optimal timing of blood cell transplantation.  (+info)

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after autologous bone marrow transplantation and alpha-interferon immunotherapy. (5/816)

A patient with a stage IV mantle cell lymphoma (according to the REAL classification) was treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation. One year later while on alpha-interferon immunotherapy she suffered from progressive loss of short-term memory and reported difficulties in recognizing objects. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a vast ring-enhancing lesion of the left postcentral parietal area. Serial stereotactic biopsies disclosed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy without JC-virus in the cerebrospinal fluid. Therapy with subcutaneous interleukin-2 (IL-2) every other day and intrathecal cytarabine once a week was started. After 4 weeks the patient refused further treatment. Nevertheless her condition improved over the next 8 months and MRI scans showed a marked improvement in the lesions.  (+info)

Role of antioxidant defenses against ethanol-induced damage in cultured rat gastric epithelial cells. (6/816)

Reactive oxygen species appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in vivo. Because ingested ethanol diffuses into the gastric mucosa, targeting both epithelium and endothelium, in the present study we examined the possible protective effect of antioxidants on ethanol damage in gastric epithelial cells and endothelial cells in vitro. Cytotoxicity by ethanol was quantified by measuring 51Cr release. The effects of impairment of the glutathione redox cycle and of inhibition of cellular catalase were examined. The generation of superoxide was assessed by the reduction in cytochrome c. Ethanol caused a time- and dose-dependent increase in 51Cr release from epithelial cells. Incubation of cells with DL-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine, while reducing glutathione production, dose dependently enhanced ethanol-induced injury. 1,3-Bis(chloroethyl)-nitrosourea, while inhibiting glutathione reductase activity, also sensitized cells to ethanol. In contrast, the inhibition of catalase with 3-amino-1,2, 4-triazole did not alter the susceptibility of epithelial cells to ethanol. Ethanol induced damage to endothelial cells in a similar fashion. In endothelial cells, however, neither impairment of the glutathione cycle nor inhibition of catalase influenced ethanol-induced damage. Epithelial cells, when exposed to ethanol, increased superoxide production as a function of ethanol concentration, whereas endothelial cells did not. The glutathione redox cycle, but not cellular catalase, plays a critical role in protecting epithelial cells against ethanol damage, whereas neither antioxidant seems to play a role in protection of endothelial cells. The distinct difference in antioxidant protection against ethanol appears to depend on the capability of each cell to produce cytotoxic oxygen species in response to ethanol exposure.  (+info)

Acute encephalopathy: a new toxicity associated with high-dose paclitaxel. (7/816)

The purpose of this study was to describe acute encephalopathy as a new toxicity associated with paclitaxel, when it is delivered at high doses (> or =600 mg/m2) with stem cell support. A total of 129 patients, included in clinical trials of paclitaxel-containing high-dose chemotherapy, were analyzed. A total of 114 patients received paclitaxel at a dose of > or =600 mg/m2. Six patients presented acute encephalopathy starting between 7 and 23 days after paclitaxel treatment; two of them had received prior whole-brain irradiation. Paclitaxel was given alone (one patient), with cyclophosphamide and cisplatin (two patients), and with cyclophosphamide and cisplatin plus 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (three patients). Central nervous system toxicity consisted of rapid obtundation and coma (five patients) and severe confusional picture with paranoid ideations (one patient). Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse white matter atrophy (one patient) or multiple small infarcts (one patient), or it was normal (four patients). Other complementary tests, including cerebrospinal fluid analysis and electroencephalography, were nondiagnostic. An effect from concomitant psychotropic medications or from other organ toxicities was excluded in all patients. Three patients recovered after 8-15 days, either spontaneously (two patients) or after high-dose steroids (one patient). Three patients died of irreversible coma. Necropsy, performed in two patients, showed generalized white matter atrophy and multiple brain parenchymal infarcts, respectively. No pharmacodynamic correlation between the occurrence of encephalopathy and a pharmacokinetic parameter of paclitaxel could be identified. Paclitaxel-containing high-dose chemotherapy can cause severe acute encephalopathy. An aggravating effect from prior brain irradiation or concurrent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea seems possible.  (+info)

Influence of O6-benzylguanine on the anti-tumour activity and normal tissue toxicity of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and molecular combinations of 5-fluorouracil and 2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea in mice. (8/816)

Previous studies have demonstrated that novel molecular combinations of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and 2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (CNU) have good preclinical activity and may exert less myelotoxicity than the clinically used nitrosoureas such as 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). This study examined the effect of O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase (ATase) depletion by the pseudosubstrate O6-benzylguanine (BG) on the anti-tumour activity and normal tissue toxicity in mice of three such molecular combinations, in comparison with BCNU. When used as single agents at their maximum tolerated dose, all three novel compounds produced a significant growth retardation of BCNU-resistant murine colon and human breast xenografts. This in vivo anti-tumour effect was potentiated by BG, but was accompanied by severe myelotoxicity as judged by spleen colony forming assays. However, while tumour resistance to BCNU was overcome using BG, this was at the expense of enhanced bone marrow, gut and liver toxicity. Therefore, although this ATase-depletion approach resulted in improved anti-tumour activity for all three 5-FU:CNU molecular combinations, the potentiated toxicities in already dose-limiting tissues indicate that these types of agents offer no therapeutic advantage over BCNU when they are used together with BG.  (+info)

*Crosslinking of DNA

Chloro ethyl nitroso urea (CENU), specifically carmustine (BCNU), are crosslinking agents that are widely used in chemotherapy ...

*Lomustine

Unlike carmustine, lomustine is administered orally. It is a monofunctional alkylating agent, alkylates both DNA and RNA, has ...

*Bristol-Myers Squibb

BiCNU (carmustine). *CeeNU (lomustine). *Droxia/Hydrea (hydroxycarbamide). *Empliciti (Elotuzumab). *Erbitux (cetuximab). * ...

*Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

Carmustine (,250 mg/m2). *CBV. *Cyclophosphamide (,1500 mg/m2). *Dacarbazine ...

*Chemotherapy regimen

cyclophosphamide, BCNU (carmustine), VP-16 (etoposide) lymphoma CHOEP cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin (doxorubicin), ...

*Arabinopyranosyl-N-methyl-N-nitrosourea

At therapeutic doses, those side effects are usually relatively milder compared with carmustine and lomustine. Pokrovskiĭ, VS; ...

*Ubiquitin-interacting motif

... carmustine, and etoposide followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation for relapsed Hodgkin's disease". J. Clin. Oncol. 9 ...

*Chemotherapy

Nitrosoureas include N-Nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU), carmustine (BCNU), lomustine (CCNU) and semustine (MeCCNU), fotemustine and ...

*John H. Sampson

Phase II trial of carmustine plus O(6)-benzylguanine for patients with nitrosourea-resistant recurrent or progressive malignant ...

*Pulmonary toxicity

... carmustine). Also, some medicinal drugs used in cardiovascular medicine can lead to pulmonary toxicity frequently or very ...

*Eisai (company)

... carmustine) for brain tumors into the Eisai product portfolio. In 2009, Eisai received the Corporate Award from the National ... carmustine)- Treatment for Brain Tumors Lenvima (lenvatinib) - Thyroid Cancer or Kidney Cancer Aricept accounted for 40% of ...

*Alkylating antineoplastic agent

Uramustine or uracil mustard Melphalan Chlorambucil Ifosfamide Bendamustine Nitrosoureas Carmustine Lomustine Streptozocin ...

*CBV (chemotherapy)

CBV refers to Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide), BCNU (carmustine), and VP-16 (etoposide), three drugs in a chemotherapy regimen ...

*Cutaneous T cell lymphoma

... gel and capsules Carmustine (BCNU, a nitrosourea) Mechlorethamine (Nitrogen Mustard) Phototherapy (Broad & Narrow Band UVB or ...

*List of drugs: C-Ca

... carmustine (INN) Carnation Instant Breakfast carnidazole (INN) carnitine (INN) Carnitor carocainide (INN) Caroid carotegrast ( ...

*Plasma cell leukemia

... carmustine, melphalan, and prednisone alternating with vincristine, carmustine, doxorubicin, and prednisone. The treatment of ...

*ATC code L01

Busulfan L01AB02 Treosulfan L01AB03 Mannosulfan L01AC01 Thiotepa L01AC02 Triaziquone L01AC03 Carboquone L01AD01 Carmustine ...

*Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

Carmustine (>250 mg/m2) Mechlorethamine Streptozocin ABVD MOPP/COPP/BEACOPP CBV VIP BEP AC Some moderately emetogenic agents ...

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... carmustine MeSH D02.654.692.300 --- ethylnitrosourea MeSH D02.654.692.440 --- lomustine MeSH D02.654.692.440.700 --- semustine ... carmustine MeSH D02.948.594.310 --- ethylnitrosourea MeSH D02.948.594.440 --- lomustine MeSH D02.948.594.440.700 --- semustine ...

*National Cancer Institute

Carmustine) (1977) Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (Cisplatin) (1978) Mitoxantrone (Novantrone) (1988) Carboplatin (Paraplatin) ( ...

*Index of oncology articles

... carmustine - carnitine - carotenoid - carzelesin - case report - case series - case-control study - caspofungin acetate - ... polifeprosan 20 carmustine implant - poly-ICLC - polyglutamate camptothecin - polyglutamate paclitaxel - polymerase chain ...

*Nitrosourea

Arabinopyranosyl-N-methyl-N-nitrosourea Carmustine Chlorozotocin Ethylnitrosourea Fotemustine Lomustine N-Nitroso-N-methylurea ... Examples include: Arabinopyranosyl-N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (Aranose) Carmustine (BCNU, BiCNU) Chlorozotocin Ethylnitrosourea ( ...

*Southern Research

... including carmustine, lomustine, dacarbazine, fludarabine, amifostine, clofarabine and the latest pralatrexate (approved in ...

*Stomach cancer

Some drugs used in stomach cancer treatment have included: 5-FU (fluorouracil) or its analog capecitabine, BCNU (carmustine), ...
OBJECTIVES:. I. Determine the maximum tolerated dose and the dose limiting toxicity of carmustine administered after O6-benzylguanine in children with refractory primary CNS tumors.. II. Determine a safe and tolerable dose of carmustine administered after O6-benzylguanine to be used in phase II studies.. III. Determine the pharmacokinetics of O6-benzylguanine and its metabolite, O6-benzyl-8-oxoguanine, in these patients.. IV. Seek preliminary evidence of antitumor activity of this regimen in these patients.. V. Evaluate the acute and chronic toxicities, and describe cumulative toxicity, in patients treated with multiple courses of this regimen.. OUTLINE: This is a dose escalation study of carmustine.. Patients receive O6-benzylguanine IV over 1 hour, then, 1 hour later, carmustine IV is administered over 1 hour. Treatment is repeated every 6 weeks for up to 1 year in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Cohorts of 3-6 patients each receive escalating doses of carmustine ...
CARMUSTINE ASSOCIATED TO VINCRISTINE AND PREDNISONE IN THE TREATMENT OF CANINE LYMPHOMA. LUCAS, S.R.R.1; COELHO, B.M.P1; MARQUEZI, M.L.; FRANCHINI, M.L.; POZZI, D.H.B2. A chemotherapeutic protocol using carmustine-BCNU (50mg/m2 at 6 weeks intervals) associated with vincristine (0,75mg/m2 at 3 weeks intervals) and prednisone (40 mg/m2 each other day) was evaluated in dogs with malignant lymphoma. Carmustine is a highly lipid-soluble chemotherapeutic agent in the nitrosourea subclass that rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier and acts as a nonphase-specific alkylant agent. Seven dogs with multicentric lymphoma, stage III to V according WHO, were admitted and treated at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of the University of S o Paulo, Brazil. The dogs received 2 to 7 cycles chemotherapics with carmustine plus VCR (median 5) and 4 to 8 cycles (median 6) only with VCR. Cumulatives doses of carmustine ranged from 100 to 298 mg/m2. Six dogs (85,7%), achieved complete remission after induction ...
Recent evidence from our laboratory and from others suggested that pretreatment with α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) sensitizes some human and rodent tumor cell lines to l,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-l-nitrosourea (BCNU). Many human tumor cells are resistant to chloroethylnitrosourea-induced DNA interstrand cross-linking and cell kill due to their high levels of the DNA repair protein O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase. We therefore investigated DFMO-mediated sensitization to BCNU in BCNU-sensitive and -resistant cells. Colony formation assays were used to compare BCNU cytotoxicity in DFMO-pretreated and control cultures of two colon tumor lines, HT-29 cells, which have high alkyltransferase levels and thus are BCNU-resistant, and BE cells, which are deficient in this repair capacity and thus are BCNU-sensitive. Polyamine depletion significantly enhanced BCNU cytotoxicity only for the repair-proficient HT-29 cell line. BE cells were 40-fold more sensitive to BCNU than were HT-29 cultures. However, ...
A synthetic, biodegradable wafer containing the agent carmustine with antineoplastic activity. Used to deliver drug directly into a brain tumor site and typically implanted post-surgically, the wafer is made of a biodegradable poly-anhydride copolymer and contains the nitrosourea carmustine.
Risk Summary BiCNU (carmustine for injection) can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman based on the mechanism of action [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)] and findings in animals [see Data]. Limited available data with BiCNU use in pregnant women are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk of major birth defects and miscarriage. Carmustine was embryotoxic in rats and rabbits and teratogenic in rats (thoracoabdominal closure, neural tube, and eye defects and malformations of the skeletal system of the fetus) when given in doses lower than the maximum cumulative human dose based on body surface area. Consider the benefits and risks of BiCNU for the mother and possible risks to the fetus when prescribing BiCNU to a pregnant woman. Adverse outcomes in pregnancy occur regardless of the health of the mother or the use of medications. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the ...
To assess the influence of molecular markers with potential prognostic value to groups of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients were examined: group A with 36 patients (surgical resection plus standard combined chemoradiotherapy) and group B with 36 patients (surgical resection, standard combined chemoradiotherapy plus carmustine wafer implantation). Our aim was to determine chromosomal alterations, methylation status of MGMT, p15, and p16 (CDKN2A) in order to analyse the influence on patient survival time as well as radio- and chemotherapy responses. Promoter hypermethylation of MGMT, p16, and p15 genes were determined by MS-PCR. Comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) analyses were performed with isolated, labelled DNA of each tumor to detect genetic alterations. Age of onset of the disease showed a significant effect on overall survival (OS) (p < 0.0001). Additional treatment with carmustine wafer (group B) compared to the control group (group A) did not result in improved OS (p = 0.562
OUTLINE: This is a dose escalation study.. All patients undergo maximal tumor resection. At the time of surgery, groups of 6 patients receive up to 8 polifeprosan 20 wafers containing increasing doses of carmustine implanted into the resection cavity.. Patients with an intraoperative diagnosis other than glioblastoma multiforme or anaplastic astrocytoma do not receive wafer implantation, and are removed from study.. Patients are followed 3, 6, and 12 months after implantation.. PROJECTED ACCRUAL: A total of 52 patients will be accrued for this study. ...
Easy-to-read patient leaflet for Carmustine Injection. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
Our previous in vitro studies demonstrated that SarCNU was more effective than BCNU against human gliomas (Panasci et al., 1985;Skalski et al., 1988). Using transport studies with radiolabeled SarCNU we have demonstrated that the uptake of SarCNU in SKMG-1 cells was more rapid and there was a greater accumulation of SarCNU in SKMG-1 cells compared with SKI-1 cells. This corresponded to the cytotoxicity results, i.e., SKMG-1 cells were more sensitive to SarCNU (Noë et al., 1994, 1996). Using RT-PCR we have confirmed that SKI-1 cells expressed EMTh much less than SKMG-1 cells (Chen et al., 1999b), supporting that the differential cytotoxicity to SarCNU in these cell lines is due to the presence of the EMTh in SKMG-1 cells.. In the present in vivo study, we did not find a correlation between SarCNU antitumor effect and EMTh expression alone, but instead a significant correlation was found with EMTh expression and MGMT expression together. The absence of a linear correlation between SarCNU ...
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S-((2-chloroethyl)carbamoyl)glutathione: structure given in first source; product of reaction between glutathione and the anticancer agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea (BCNU)
After feeling well enough to go for an early morning run yesterday, I was given 6 hours of chemo--Etoposide and Carmustine. Pretty much immediately I felt nauseous, no appetite, hot flashes, dizziness, and I also got the added bonus of a bright red rash caused by the carmustine. I had a few hours off of…
Provides information on usage, precautions, side effects and brand names when available. Data provided by various government agencies and health-related organizations. ...
52320-87-3 - MLZCGCGQWWRMMX-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Alanine, N-(((2-chloroethyl)nitrosoamino)carbonyl)-2-methyl- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule n,n-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1,4-benzenediamine (C10H14Cl2N2) from the PQR.
The extent of resection by surgery affects survival time in GBM patients (5,6). A better prognosis might therefor be predicted for right temporal lobe localized GBM, since total removal can be carried out.. The present case was initially diagnosed as meningioma, because the tumor stain was clearly seen from the middle meningeal artery but not from the internal carotid artery. Only a few case reports of such GBMs have been described (7,8). The timing of surgical treatment may easily be delayed if the lesion is misdiagnosed as a meningioma, and may be of concern for the prognosis of GBM patients.. Cyst formation is known to occur as an adverse event of carmustine wafer implantation for malignant gliomas (9), and there have been several reports of space-occupying cysts in the cavity, which required additional surgical treatment (10-13). Yoshida et al reported that adverse events associated with implantation of carmustine wafers tend to occur in the repeated surgery for the malignant gliomas (11). ...
The nitrosourea drugs, a class of DNA alkylating agents related to nitrogen mustards, include(BCNU),(CCNU), semustine (methyl CCNU), and chloroethylnitrosourea (Sar-CNU). Nitrosourea drugs are used to treat lymphoma, brain tumors, melanoma, and other
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Kann, H E.; Kohn, K W.; Widerlite, L; and Gullion, D, "Effects of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and related compounds on nuclear rna metabolism." (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 1674 ...
Find quality suppliers and manufacturers of 5081-87-8(2,4(1H,3H)-Quinazolinedione,3-(2-chloroethyl)-) for price inquiry. where to buy 5081-87-8(2,4(1H,3H)-Quinazolinedione,3-(2-chloroethyl)-).Also offer free database of 5081-87-8(2,4(1H,3H)-Quinazolinedione,3-(2-chloroethyl)-) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards and safety),chemical properties,Formula, density and structure, solution etc.
2-chloroethyl 4-nitrophenyl propyl phosphate | C11H15ClNO6P | CID 120363 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Boronic acid,B-[3-[[(2-chloroethyl)amino]carbonyl]phenyl]-/ACM874288127 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
A method of inspecting bonded wafers, which involves obtaining a Lang topograph of bonded wafers as a sample by using a Lang camera, or further treating an image thereon, thereby detecting unbonded re
2 Answers - Posted in: ativan, klonopin, klonopin wafer, xanax, depression - Answer: Without looking it up, I suspect wafers enter the blood stream ...
The O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase inactivator O(6)-benzylguanine was administered to BALB/c mice either alone or before exposure to 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea to study the role of the DNA repair protein O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase in the protection of the testis against anti-cancer O(6)-alkylating agents. Exposure of the mice to 1, 3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea or O(6)-benzylguanine alone did not produce any marked testicular toxicity at the times studied. Testicular O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase concentrations were assayed between 0 and 240 min after O(6)-benzylguanine treatment and were shown to be , 95% depleted 15 min after treatment with O(6)-benzylguanine and remained at , 95% at all the times assayed. Histological examination, the reduction in testicular mass and the induction of spermatogenic cell apoptosis showed that this depletion significantly potentiated 1, 3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea-induced testicular damage after treatment. Major ...
The nitrosoureas are alkylating agents that are highly lipid soluble and share similar pharmacological and clinical properties. Carmustine (BCNU), lomustine
PURPOSE This clinical trial evaluated standard-dose radioimmunotherapy with a chemotherapy-based transplantation regimen followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation versus rituximab with the same regimen in patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with chemotherapy-sensitive persistent or relapsed DLBCL were randomly assigned to receive iodine-131 tositumomab (dosimetric dose of 5 mCi on day -19 and therapeutic dose of 0.75 Gy on day -12), carmustine 300 mg/m2 (day -6), etoposide 100 mg/m2 twice daily (days -5 to -2), cytarabine 100 mg/m2 twice daily (days -5 to -2), and melphalan 140 mg/m2 (day -1; B-BEAM) or rituximab 375 mg/m2 on days -19 and -12 and the same chemotherapy regimen (R-BEAM).ResultsTwo hundred twenty-four patients were enrolled, with 113 patients randomly assigned to R-BEAM and 111 patients assigned to B-BEAM. Two-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates, the primary end point, were 48.6% (95% CI, 38.6% to 57.8%) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemotherapy and bio-chemotherapy in patients with advanced melanoma. T2 - Combination therapy with a nitrosourea. AU - Ridolfi, Ruggero. AU - Tanganelli, L.. AU - Scelzi, E.. AU - Manente, P.. AU - Palmeri, S.. AU - Ravaioli, A.. AU - Fiammenghi, L.. AU - Romanini, A.. PY - 2003/4. Y1 - 2003/4. N2 - The treatment of advanced melanoma is still disappointing. In a multicenter randomized clinical trial to compare a chemotherapy (CT) with or without low doses of IL-2 and IFN (Bio-CT), the participating centers chose whether or not to add a nitrosourea, carmustine (BCNU) to the therapy. The aim of the present paper is to report the clinical results of the patients (pts) treated in both arms with BCNU. One hundred and seventy-six pts with advanced melanoma were enrolled in the study from 27 centers and a total of 18 pts also received BCNU in 3 centers. No further changes to the protocol criteria were allowed. One patient refused the treatment. No complete responses were observed. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Toxicity of intracranial and intraperitoneal O6-benzyl guanine in combination with BCNU delivered locally in a mouse model. AU - Guarnieri, Michael. AU - Biser-Rohrbaugh, Ann. AU - Tyler, Betty Mae. AU - Gabikian, Patrik. AU - Bunton, Tracie E.. AU - Ze Wu, Qing. AU - Weingart, Jon David. AU - Solomon, Benjamin. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Purpose: The DNA-repair protein, O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyl transferase, may account for resistance of CNS tumors to DNA-alkylating drugs, such as bis-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). The therapeutic effects of BCNU can be potentiated by inhibiting the repair protein with an alkylated guanine analog, O6-benzyl guanine (O6BG). To investigate potential toxicity of this inhibition, we examined the effects of O6BG in mice treated with intracranial (i.c.) BCNU given via a biodegradable polymer. Methods: Mice were treated with escalating doses of BCNU chronically delivered i.c., and with chronically delivered O6BG. The O6BG was delivered via a ...
The purpose of the PRECISE trial is to determine whether overall survival duration, safety, and quality of life are improved for patients treated with I
We manufacture Acetic Acid 2-Chloroethyl Ester CAS:542-58-5 from China India,Ethanol, 2-chloro-, acetate factory and Acetic Acid 2-Chloroethyl Ester producer,Acetic Acid 2-Chloroethyl Ester manufacturer and supplier
5-[Bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]-2-methylbenzoic acid | C12H15Cl2NO2 | CID 145818 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule n-[(2-chloroethyl)(nitroso)carbamoyl]-l-alanyl-l-alanine (C9H15ClN4O5) from the PQR.
149194-25-2 - ZMDLBLZFZSHVLH-UHFFFAOYSA-N - 1-Acetyl-1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-2-(2-chloroethyl)hydrazine - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
The separation of thin disk-type workpieces from a stack has, as a rule, hitherto been carried out by hand. An apparatus and a corresponding method are now provided which make it possible to lift the wafer off the stack without mechanical contact, and also to convey the separated wafers to the tray and to introduce them in an automated way without damage. In this method, a stack of disk-type workpieces is introduced into a wafer magazine with a feed unit which brings the uppermost wafer of the wafer stack into the sphere of action of a fluid medium which emerges under pressure in a preferred direction from a nozzle system. A dam makes it possible to remove a single wafer. The apparatus and the method make possible separation without damage while increasing the yield. In conjunction with a conveying apparatus, an apparatus for tray filling processing lines can be built up for automatically treating disk-type workpieces without damage.
keď chodím do školy alebo niekde ráno, tak sa snažím medzi 23:00 až 00:00 a keď nie, tak medzi 00:00 až 1:00 ale väčšinou keď mam na ďalší deň skúšku a musím sa učiť a nestíham tak potiahnem aj do druhej a vstávam o piatej káva a ideme sa učiť :D ...
It took a couple weeks but I wanted to wait and see how well the new wafers worked. After a few changings, Im happy to announce that I got some relief and now its staying on for 4 days!!!!!!!!! YYAAYYYY !!! I wouldve loved 5 or more days but whos complaining..haha ...
The tyrosine residue present at position 158 in the human O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase is one of 22 amino acid residues that are conserved in all known alkyltransferase protein sequences. The importance of this amino acid in the reactions brought about by the alkyltransferase was studied by changing this residue to alanine or to phenylalanine. The control and mutant alkyltransferase proteins were expressed in an Escherichia coli strain lacking alkyltransferase activity and the proteins purified to near homogeneity and their activities measured using both methylated DNA and O6-benzylguanine (BG) as substrates. The alteration to alanine led to a very large decrease in activity towards both substrates but removal of O6-methylguanine from DNA and the conversion of BG to guanine could still be detected when large amounts of the protein were used. The activity of the Y158A mutant was at least 800 times less than that of the control alkyltransferase. The change of tyrosine-158 to phenylalanine reduced
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intraarterial O6-benzylguanine enables the specific therapy of nitrosourea resistant intracranial human glioma xenografts in athymic rats with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea. AU - Kurpad, Shekar N.. AU - Dolan, M. Eileen. AU - McLendon, Roger E.. AU - Archer, Gerald E.. AU - Moschel, Robert C.. AU - Pegg, Anthony E.. AU - Bigner, Darell D.. AU - Friedman, Henry S.. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - The prognosis for patients with malignant gliomas continues to be dismal. The high degree of resistance of gliomas to nitrosourea-based chemotherapy is one major factor in poor treatment outcome. The identification of O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGAT) as a major determinant of nitrosourea resistance has resulted in the development of several agents to inactivate this repair protein and counteract tumor cell resistance. However, a major problem in preclinical trials has been the marked nitrosourea dose limitations imposed by the prior administration of AGAT-depleting ...
Nitrosourea represents one of the most active classes of chemotherapeutic alkylating agents for metastatic melanoma. Treatment with nitrosoureas caused severe systemic side effects which hamper its clinical use. Here, we provide pharmacological evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction and IKKβ inhibition cooperatively enhance nitrosourea-induced cytotoxicity in melanoma cells. We identified SC-514 as a ROS-inducing IKKβ inhibitor which enhanced the function of nitrosoureas. Elevated ROS level results in increased DNA crosslink efficiency triggered by nitrosoureas and IKKβ inhibition enhances DNA damage signals and sensitizes nitrosourea-induced cell death. Using xenograft mouse model, we confirm that ROS-inducing IKKβ inhibitor cooperates with nitrosourea to reduce tumor size and malignancy in vivo. Taken together, our results illustrate a new direction in nitrosourea treatment, and reveal that the combination of ROS-inducing IKKβ inhibitors with nitrosoureas can be potentially ...
In vitro chemosensitivity testing of short term primary glioma cultures derived from brain biopsies is still in the research phase and has not yet found a place in clinical use. The main reasons for this slow progression are the small amounts of tissue available and the lack of a suitably sensitive assay capable of use in the clinical setting. This study examines whether the MTS and ATP cell survival assays, which determine cytotoxicity via colorimetric and luminescence analysis respectively, could potentially fulfill this role. Primary glioma cultures were tested for chemosensitivity using the MTS and ATP assays and were found to be generally sensitive to cisplatin and paclitaxel but relatively resistant to carmustine and etoposide. For both assays, LD50 values lay in the range 2 - 130 μg/ml but in the vast majority of cases, those obtained by the ATP assay were markedly lower those obtained by the MTS assay. Moreover, at cell numbers less than 2000 in the cases of paclitaxel and carmustine ...
DNA is considered to be an important target for the antitumor and toxic properties of the chloroethylnitrosoureas. Since the main target for their dose-limiting toxicity and the antileukemic efficacy is believed to be the bone marrow, we have compared the formation and subsequent removal of DNA-DNA interstrand cross-links in the bone marrow of rats which had received a single i.p. injection (100 µmol/kg) of four chloroethylnitrosoureas. The kinetics of cross-link removal was identical for chlorozotocin, which is known to have low chemical carbamoylating activity, to that of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea, a drug with a relatively high carbamoylating capacity. The differential bone marrow toxicity exhibited by these two agents could not, therefore, be explained by a carbamoylation-mediated difference in the rate and extent of DNA-DNA interstrand cross-link removal. The peak level and overall magnitude of cross-links were, however, found to vary considerably with the chemical structure of ...
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BACKGROUND. Temozolomide (TMZ) is one of the most potent chemotherapy agents for the treatment of glioblastoma. Unfortunately, almost half of glioblastoma tumors are TMZ resistant due to overexpression of methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMThi). Coadministration of O6-benzylguanine (O6BG) can restore TMZ sensitivity, but causes off-target myelosuppression. Here, we conducted a prospective clinical trial to test whether gene therapy to confer O6BG resistance in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) improves chemotherapy tolerance and outcome.. METHODS. We enrolled 7 newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients with MGMThi tumors. Patients received autologous gene-modified HSCs following single-agent carmustine administration. After hematopoietic recovery, patients underwent O6BG/TMZ chemotherapy in 28-day cycles. Serial blood samples and tumor images were collected throughout the study. Chemotherapy tolerance was determined by the observed myelosuppression and recovery following each cycle. Patient-specific ...
A 63 year old man with IgG myeloma was found to have hypercalcaemia; specific hypocalcaemic measures such as intravenous fluids and pamidronate 60 mg followed by 1.6 g of oral sodium clodronate daily in addition to antimyeloma agents such as prednisolone, Adriamycin, and carmustine were unsuccessful in restoring eucalcaemia (fig 1). ...
Although a flat mild abdominal cramping and/or burning (severe) while on Dexamethasone is usually not made serious, you have to report it pushed right away to your primary healthcare provider. In particular, studies cited in rats, dogs snarl and monkeys which showed that the renal toxic renal effects of prescription cough medicine maleate are increased aggression when the drug is given in combination with Hepatitis b adult vaccine.. Continue reading "weight-loss drug Carmustine seems safe for heart, study finds" →. ...
Akaike, Y; Arai, Y; Taguchi, H; and Satoh, H, "Effect of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-isobutyl-3-(beta-maltosyl)-1- -nitrosourea on experimental tumors." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3216 ...
A wafer processing system for performing horizontal transport of vertically-oriented wafers into one or more process cells to perform vertical processing on the wafers. The wafer processing system includes a loading station for loading wafers onto respective carriers in a horizontal fashion and for rotating the carriers to orient the wafers in a vertical orientation for transport and processing, one or more process cells for processing the wafers in a vertical orientation respectively therein, and an unloading station for rotating the carriers to orient the wafers from a vertical orientation to a horizontal orientation and for unloading the wafer off the carriers in a horizontal fashion. Additionally, the wafer processing system includes a carrier transport system for transporting carriers horizontally from the loading station, to one or more process cells, then to the unloading station, and additionally to a carrier process section for processing of empty carriers.
In order to obtain new compounds with antitumoural action the N-(metaacylaminobenzoyl)-α-acylaminobenzoyl)-α-aminoacids 4-9 were prepared. Thesecompounds were subsequently converted into the corresponding δ2-oxazolin-5-ones 10-15,which in turn were submitted to a ring opening reaction with di-(β-chloroethyl)amine toafford the peptide supported N-mustards 16-21, which showed low toxicity and cytostaticactivity similar to that of sarcolisine against the Ehrlich ascite and Walker 253carcinosarcoma.
Sigma-Aldrich offers Aldrich-301485, 1-Chloroethyl chloroformate for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
An ultrasonic bath (30) is arranged below a wafer processing bath (10). Wafers (40) are processed while ultrasonic waves are transmitted from the ultrasonic bath (30) to the wafer processing bath (10). The wafers (40) are processed while being entirely dipped into the wafer processing bath (10) and rotated by wafer rotating rods (53).
The orientation of a wafer with respect to the surface of an electrolyte is controlled during an electroplating process. The wafer is delivered to an electrolyte bath along a trajectory normal to the surface of the electrolyte. Along this trajectory, the wafer is angled before entry into the electrolyte for angled immersion. A wafer can be plated in an angled orientation or not, depending on what is optimal for a given situation. Also, in some designs, the wafers orientation can be adjusted actively during immersion or during electroplating, providing flexibility in various electroplating scenarios.
Majestys Kalm+ Wafers calming supplement is available in an easy-to-use wafer form to support balanced behavior, promote relaxation and reduce hyperactivity, especially during travelling or competitive situations.Kalm Plus Wafers are very helpful for horses that are anxious, nervous, distracted or that exhibit behavioral problems. Plus, theyre si
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Ето и един сладкиш, който моята съквартирантка - италианка приготвяше преди години и го наричаше торта. Нека всеки да го нарича както иска, но десертът е с изключително интересен вкус. Плодчетата арония носят свежест на тортата, а силният аромат на кафето е силно тонзииращ. Аронията придава лека екзотичност на сладкиша и го прави изключително полезен (няма да се спирам на полезните действия на аронията - по гръцка митология в подготвителен клас учителката ни отдели предостатъчно време на питието от арония, което пиели боговете на Олимп). ...
The Role of High Dose Chemotherapy With Autologous Stem Cell Rescue in Multiple Myeloma in the Era of Conventional Cytotoxic Chemotherapy. Before the introduction of proteasome inhibitors (PIs) and immunomodulatory agents (IMiDs), high dose melphalan with ASCT following induction therapy was considered the standard approach for transplant-eligible patients with newly diagnosed MM. The first randomized controlled trial from the Intergroupe Francais du Myelome (IFM90), published in 1996, randomized newly diagnosed MM patients to an older chemotherapy regimen (vincristine/carmustine, cyclophosphamide, prednisone alternating with carmustine, vincristine, adriamycin, prednisone; VMCP/BVAP) for 12 cycles versus 4 to 6 cycles of VMCP/BVAP followed by high dose therapy with autologous bone marrow transplant.1 Those patients randomized to the transplant arm compared with the high dose chemotherapy arm had a superior 5-year event-free survival (EFS) (28% versus 10%, respectively, P = .01) and OS (52% ...
The aggressive behavior of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is mainly due to high invasiveness and proliferation rate as well as to high resistance to standard chemotherapy. Several chemotherapeutic agents like temozolomide (TMZ), carmustine (BCNU) or doxorubicin (DOXO) have been employed for treatment of GBM, but they display limited efficacy. Therefore, it is important to identify new treatment modalities to improve therapeutic effects and enhance GBM chemosensitivity. Recently, activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 2 (TRPV2) has been found to inhibit human GBM cell proliferation and overcome BCNU resistance of GBM cells. Herein, we evaluated the involvement of cannabidiol (CBD)-induced TRPV2 activation, in the modulation of glioma cell chemosensitivity to TMZ, BCNU and DOXO. We found that CBD increases TRPV2 expression and activity. CBD by triggering TRPV2-dependent Ca2+ influx increases drug uptake and synergizes with cytotoxic agents to induce apoptosis of glioma cells, ...
BCNU (carmustine), 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and Vidarabin-monophosphate (ARA-A5P) were compared in their activities against 30 cell lines of primary (n = 21) and metastatic (n = 9) brain tumors, which were characterized in tissue culture by cytochemical, immunological and cytogenetic criteria. In vivo achievable concentration-time products were correlated with in vitro pharmacokinetic data. A micro assay was employed to screen for drug toxicity in individual tumor cell lines; cells were exposed to the drugs at exposure doses relevant to in vivo pharmacokinetics. After 5-8 population doubling times of untreated controls, RNA-synthesis, as a parameter of cell metabolism and proliferation, was determined by incorporation of (5, 6-3H)-uridine into cellular RNA (liquid scintillation counting protocol). A tumor stem cell assay was performed under similar conditions. The cytotoxic effect of each drug on individual cell lines was expressed in terms of a sensitivity index SI (SI = 1 indicating complete ...
advancements in technology. The results have been nothing but positive since an estimated 1 million people survive from colorectal cancer in the United States annually. Medications Becenun, Bicnu, provera, Capecitabine, Carmubris, Carmustin, Carmustine, Cetuximab, Cytarabine, Epirubicin, Erbitux, Filgrastim, Fulvestrant, Gliadel, Idarubicin, Megace, Cytoxan, Neosar, Nitrumon, Ondansetron ...
Antimotility drugs, euphoria, non-ST-segment- elevation of 168 can you take a muscle relaxer and vicodin together months later than the uK. The presence of pCI showed that co-proxamol should start at risk is seldom pathognomonic and thrombosis. 6mmol/L and occasional patients who was deficient then depressing luteinizing hormone. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and as a contraindication to avoid exacerbating fluid. It is to clomifene include carmustine and counters diuretic-induced hypokalaemia. G-CSF may precipitate renal failure or paints are implicated Substitution of primed cD41. Mild gastro-intestinal upsets, so that 38 3110, or cellular receptors. Retinol is important consequences in strenuous activity against a glove and rilmenidine. From the dextropropoxyphene that elevate blood flow monitoring serum transferrin It is around the possibility of long-lasting bronchodilatation. Chloroquine or urethral application of the management of complement Mineralocorticoid effects on replacement ...
A system for semiconductor wafer processing including wafer measurement and characterization having vertical wafer processing apparatus with which only the edge of a wafer is contacted. A wafer processing station is provided having a support bridge to which a rotor subassembly is attached. The rotor subassembly includes a housing and a rotor having a central aperture and a retention mechanism for retaining a wafer in a measurement position. A pair of pivotable probe arms includes one probe arm positioned on either side of the wafer. A sensor provides an image of a wafer prior to its retention by the retention mechanism in the measurement position in order to permit the retention mechanism to avoid any flat on the wafer. Additional sensors eliminate the effect of wobble or vibration of the rotor on wafer measurement results. Artifact removal processors are provided for removing errors in the measured wafer data and a database stores the uncorrupted and corrected data. The system couples with a data
8-[5-(diethylamino)pentylamino]quinolin-6-ol,8-[5-(propan-2-ylamino)pentan-2-ylamino]quinolin-6-ol,8-(5-azanylpentylamino)quinolin-6-ol,8-acetamidooctadecanoic acid,8-heptylselanyloctanoic acid,8-methyl-3-phenyl-1,4-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane,8-methyl-5-nitro-quinoline,8-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione,8,10-bis(oxidanylidene)-9-azaspiro[5.5]undecane-11-carbonitrile,8-fluoranylbenzo[e][2]benzofuran-1,3-dione,8-fluoranyl-4,5-dihydrobenzo[e][2]benzofuran-1,3-dione,8-fluoranyl-3,3-diphenyl-benzo[g][2]benzofuran-1-one,8-[[1,3-dimethyl-2,6-bis(oxidanylidene)-7H-purin-8-yl]methoxymethyl]-1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione,8-chloranyl-7-(chloromethyl)-1,3-dimethyl-purine-2,6-dione,8-[bis(2-chloroethyl)aminomethyl]-1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione,8-[bis(2-chloroethyl)aminomethyl]-3,7-dimethyl-purine-2,6-dione,8-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]-3,7-dimethyl-purine-2,6-dione,8-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]-1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione,8-(diethylaminomethyl)-1,3,7-trimethyl-purine-2,6-dione,8
New research from the University of Adelaide has shown for the first time that the growth of brain tumors can be halted by a drug currently being used to help patients recover from the side effects of chemotherapy.
The rapid spread of a common and deadly brain tumor has been slowed down significantly in a mouse model by cutting off the way some cancer cells communicate, according to a team of researchers that includes UF Health faculty.
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CLS weist eine Sammlung von insgesamt 30 verschiedenen Tumorzellen des Gehirns auf (Stand: Dezember 2016). Eine bersicht ber alle derzeitigen Zelllinien isoliert aus Hirntumoren k nnen Sie unter Panel Brain Tumor cell lines. als PDF herunterladen. Die Informationen sind unterteilt in Tabelle 1, die allgemeine Daten enth lt, sowie in Tabelle 2, die Zellmarker, Tumorantigene, Mutationen sowie Zytokine, soweit bekannt, auflistet. ...
CLS weist eine Sammlung von insgesamt 30 verschiedenen Tumorzellen des Gehirns auf (Stand: Dezember 2016). Eine bersicht ber alle derzeitigen Zelllinien isoliert aus Hirntumoren k nnen Sie unter Panel Brain Tumor cell lines. als PDF herunterladen. Die Informationen sind unterteilt in Tabelle 1, die allgemeine Daten enth lt, sowie in Tabelle 2, die Zellmarker, Tumorantigene, Mutationen sowie Zytokine, soweit bekannt, auflistet. ...
0058] The additional layer 510 may be p-doped. A dopant provided for the additional layer 510 in various working examples is a copper complex. In various working examples, the additional layer 510 is doped with the dopant with a dopant concentration within a range from about 1% to about 20%, for example within a range from about 1% to about 15%, for example within a range from about 2% to about 8%. The following materials may be used as part of the matrix material of the additional layer 110: NPB (N,N-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N-bis(phenyl)benzidine), β-NPB (N,N-bis(naphthalen-2-yl)-N,N-bis(phenyl)benzidine), TPD (N,N-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N-bis(phenyl)benzidine), N,N-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N-bis(phenyl)-2,2-dimethylbenzidine, spiro-TPD (N,N-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N-bis(phenyl)-9,9-spirobifluorene), spiro-NPB (N,N-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N-bis(phenyl)-9,9-spirobifluorene), DMFL-TPD (N,N-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N-bis(phenyl)-9,9-dimethylfluorene, DMFL-NPB ...
Seizures: Seizures occurred in 37% of patients treated with GLIADEL Wafers in the recurrent disease trial. New or worsening (treatment emergent) seizures occurred in 20% of patients; 54% of treatment-emergent seizures occurred within the first 5 post-operative days. The median time to onset of the first new or worsened post-operative seizure was 4 days. Institute optimal anti-seizure therapy prior to surgery. Monitor patients for seizures postoperatively.. Intracranial Hypertension: Brain edema occurred in 23% of patients treated with GLIADEL Wafers in the initial surgery trial. Additionally, one GLIADEL-treated patient experienced intracerebral mass effect unresponsive to corticosteroids which led to brain herniation. Monitor patients closely for intracranial hypertension related to brain edema, inflammation, or necrosis of the brain tissue surrounding the resection. In refractory cases, consider re-operation and removal of GLIADEL Wafers or Wafer remnants.. Impaired Neurosurgical Wound ...
A number of clinically important antitumor agents such as cisplatin, cyclophosphamide (a nitrogen mustard) or carmustine (BCNU, a chloro ethyl nitroso urea) for...
Alkylating agents exert a wide range of biological effects in both pro- and eukaryotes and there is ever increasing evidence that these effects are mediated via alkylation at the O6position of...
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Hello E.T., Here is my attempt in responding to your questions. Question # 1: In 1860 (or any other year) BEFORE The U.S. Civil War, Were There More Free African Americans In The North Or The South? Answer #1 - Starting with the 1830 US Federal Cenus Population Schedules up to the 1860 Census there
A big topic at this years EuroPCR, held in Paris on 19-22 May, was drug-coated balloons (DCBs). One of the leaders in the field, Medtronic, presented positive data from two studies of its IN.PACT Admiral balloon, which could support an expanded indication for the device.. ...
Consumer Medicine InformationWhat is in this leaflet?Please read this leaflet carefully before you start taking Zofran Zydis wafers.This leaflet answers some common questions about Zofran Zydis wafers. It does not contain all of the available information.It does not take the place of talking to your doctor or pharmacist.All medicines have risks and benefits. Your doctor has weighed the risks of you taking Zofran Zydis wafers against the benefits this medicine is expected to have for you.If you have..
A matched set of integrated circuit chips (34, 38) includes a chip (34) from a first wafer (22) and a chip (38) from a second wafer (24). The chips (34, 38) of the first and second wafers (22, 24) are tested together as part of a wafer-interposer assembly (10). The matched set comprises a first chip assembly diced from the wafer-interposer assembly (10) having one of the chips (34) from the first wafer (22) and a second chip assembly diced from the wafer-interposer assembly (10) having one of the chips (38) from the second wafer (24). A substrate is electrically coupled to the first and second chip assemblies, the first and second chip assemblies being selected for the matched set based upon sorting of the chips (34, 38) of the first and second wafers (22, 24) as a result of the testing.
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Lomeguatrib (CAS: 192441-08-0) is a modified guanine base, which can repress the activity of DNA repair protein O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (MGMT) with an IC50 value of 6 nM.
AA-CW236 is a novel non-pseudosubstrate inhibitor of human O(6)-alkylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) by targeting MGMT active site Cys145 for covalent modification.
View Notes - Lab Notes from BIOL 1208 at LSU. What Is An Enzyme? Organic catalyst o Most are proteins o Increases the rate of reaction o Not consumed Main function: to increase chemical reaction
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The invention relates to a method for production of at least one thermoelectric apparatus with the steps of: preparation of a first wafer (1) which is formed from a thermoelectric material of a first conductivity type; preparation of a second wafer which is formed from a thermoelectric material of a second conductivity type; structuring of the first wafer (1) so that a group of first thermoelectric structures (7) is produced; structuring of the second wafer so that a group of second thermoelectric structures is produced; and linking of the first to the second wafer in such a manner that the first and the second thermoelectric structures are electrically connected together and thus form the thermoelectric apparatus. According to the invention, before the structuring of the first wafer (1), a first contact material (3) is deposited on the first wafer (1) and/or before the structuring of the second wafer, a second contact material is deposited onto the
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Ako chcem vedieť hlavne ten systém :D Ako je to napr. tak že len chodím na prednášky učiteľ niečo vysvetluje a z toho všetkého vlastne ja potom na kocni semestra robím tú skúšku ? Či on sa ma aj niečo pýta počas prednášok alebo ako to je ?:D Dalej v čom som úplne mimo sú tie kredity :D...Mohol by mi to prosím niekto vysvetliť lebo ja som úplne mimo v tom :D Dík ...
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Consistent results from three case-control studies and a pooled analysis, totaling 555 head and neck cancer cases and 792 controls, suggest that genetic variations in MGMT84, MGMT143, and XRCC1399 influence susceptibility to head and neck cancer. Moreover, the MGMT143 variant may modify alcohol-related risk.. MGMT encodes O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase, which preferentially removes O6-guanine alkyl adducts caused by carcinogens, such as 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone found in tobacco smoke (40), and the Val143 allele has previously been related to increased lung cancer risk in two small studies (each with ∼130 cases; refs. 28, 41). In our study, Val143 was associated with reduced head and neck cancer risk, particularly among heavy drinkers. In vivo and in vitro experiments show that MGMT-mediated repair of alkylated DNA is reduced by treatment with ethanol or its primary metabolite, acetaldehyde (42, 43), possibly due to MGMT inhibition (44). Although the functional ...
3-hydroxy-13-amino-13,17-secoandrostan-17-oic-13,17-lactam p-bis(2-chloroethyl)amino phenyl acetate: an alkylating agent for treating breast cancer; lactandrate is the (5alpha)-isomer; structure in first source
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High-dose cyclophosphamide induces specific tumor immunity with concomitant recruitment of LAMP1/CD107a- expressing CD4-positive T cells into tumor sitesHigh-dose cyclophosphamide induces specific tumor immunity with concomitant recruitment of LAMP1/CD107a- expressing CD4-positive T cells into tumor sites ...
Combined Methionine Deprivation and Chloroethylnitrosourea Have Time-Dependent Therapeutic Synergy on Melanoma Tumors That NMR Spectroscopy-Based Metabolomics Explains by Methionine and Phospholipid Metabolism Reprogramming. Methionine (Met) deprivation stress (MDS) is proposed in association with chemotherapy in the treatment of some cancers. A synergistic effect of this combination is generally acknowledged. Howeve.... ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase repairs platinum-DNA adducts following cisplatin treatment and predicts prognoses of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. AU - Chen, Shang Hung. AU - Kuo, Ching Chuan. AU - Li, Chien Feng. AU - Cheung, Chun Hei Antonio. AU - Tsou, Tsui Chun. AU - Chiang, Huai Chih. AU - Yang, Yun Ning. AU - Chang, Shin Lun. AU - Lin, Li Ching. AU - Pan, Hsin Yi. AU - Chang, Kwang Yu. AU - Chang, Jang Yang. PY - 2015/9/1. Y1 - 2015/9/1. N2 - Cisplatin (CDDP) is an important anti-cancer drug commonly used in various human cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). How to overcome the drug resistance of CDDP provides opportunities to improve clinical outcomes of NPC. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) has been well-characterized to be a therapeutic determinant of O6-alkylguanine alkylating drugs. However, the underlying mechanism and clinical relevance between MGMT and CDDP remain poorly defined in NPC. In this study, we showed that MGMT-proficient ...
This is one of the two European registration procedures used to obtain marketing authorization in Europe. Consequently, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Austria, Greece, Ireland, Luxembourg, Portugal, Spain, and the Netherlands are expected to grant national marketing authorization within the next six months. "The successful outcome of the European Mutual Recognition Procedure is the result of excellent teamwork by both RPR and Guilford," said Max Talbott, RPR Worldwide Vice President, Regulatory Affairs. "We look forward to making Gliadel available in Europe as an important new treatment option for patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme, once any required pricing and/or labeling approvals are obtained." Gliadel will be used as an adjunct to surgery in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme for whom surgical resection is indicated. Glioblastoma multiforme is one of the most common and rapidly fatal forms of malignant brain cancer. In this European Mutual Recognition ...
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