A cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.
An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC 2.1.1.63.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
A lignan (LIGNANS) found in PODOPHYLLIN resin from the roots of PODOPHYLLUM plants. It is a potent spindle poison, toxic if taken internally, and has been used as a cathartic. It is very irritating to skin and mucous membranes, has keratolytic actions, has been used to treat warts and keratoses, and may have antineoplastic properties, as do some of its congeners and derivatives.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.
Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)
An alkylating agent of value against both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Teniposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent cells from entering into the mitotic phase of the cell cycle, and lead to cell death. Teniposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cycle.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A state in western Australia. Its capital is Perth. It was first visited by the Dutch in 1616 but the English took possession in 1791 and permanent colonization began in 1829. It was a penal settlement 1850-1888, became part of the colonial government in 1886, and was granted self government in 1890. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1329)
An infant during the first month after birth.
The two dimensional measure of the outer layer of the body.
A standardized nomenclature for clinical drugs and drug delivery devices. It links its names to many of the drug vocabularies commonly used in pharmacy management.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.

Electronic volume analysis of L1210 chemotherapy. (1/816)

The rapid analysis of in vivo chemotherapy on the L1210 ascites tumor grown in C57BL/6 X DBA/2F1 mice has been shown by means of an electronic volume analysis. The drugs were injected on the 4th day of tumor growth, and the cells in the peritoneal cavity were studied at 24-hr intervals on the 5th through 7th day. Using the electronic cell volume distributions, combined with labeling indices, cell morphology, and cell counts, it was found that the alkylating agents. 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and cyclophosphamide, at the dosages used, were more effective than the S-phase-specific drugs, palmitoyl ester of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, vincristine, and methotrexate.  (+info)

The minimum CD34 threshold depends on prior chemotherapy in autologous peripheral blood stem cell recipients. (2/816)

We analysed 57 patients with non-myeloid malignancies who received a non-purged autologous PBSCT. All had similar mobilisation and conditioning regimens. A high prior chemotherapy score and the number of chemotherapy lines used (P = 0.015 and P = 0.01, respectively) were adverse predictors of CD34 cell yields. Lower CD34 values (P = 0.002) were seen in patients treated with potent stem cell toxins (BCNU, melphalan, CCNU and mustine), designated toxicity factor 4 agents (TF4). All patients infused with grafts containing CD34 cell doses between 1.0 and 2.0 x 10(6)/kg (range 1.25-1.90) engrafted by day 51. The only variable associated with slow platelet recovery was exposure to TF4 (P = 0.007). The majority of patients with CD34 >1.0 x 10(6)/kg achieved rapid and sustained engraftment and the only predictive factor of delayed recovery is prior exposure to stem cell toxins. Potential PBSCT candidates should if possible avoid first line and salvage chemotherapy containing TF4 drugs. We therefore advocate a minimum CD34 threshold of >1.0 x 10(6)/kg in patients without extensive prior chemoradiotherapy, and > or = 2.0 x 10(6)/kg in all other patients.  (+info)

Combination of chemotherapy with interleukin-2 and interferon alfa for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. (3/816)

PURPOSE: The primary objective of this clinical study was to assess the feasibility of administering recombinant interleukin-2 and recombinant interferon alfa-2a before and after combination cytotoxic chemotherapy. After encouraging initial responses, the study was expanded to further evaluate the therapeutic potential, clarify the toxicities of this regimen, and explore any associated immunologic changes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-four patients with metastatic melanoma, including patients with brain metastases, were treated on this 6-week protocol. Patients received combination cisplatin (25 mg/m2/d) and dacarbazine (220 mg/m2/d) on days 1 through 3 and 22 through 24 plus carmustine (150 mg/m2) on day 1. Interleukin 2 (13.5 million IU/m2/d) and interferon alfa (6 MU/m2/d) were administered on days 4 through 8 and 17 through 21. RESULTS: Among 83 patients assessable for response, 12 complete and 34 partial responses were documented (55% response rate). The median time to disease progression was 7 months, the median survival from study entry was 12.2 months, and the median survival from diagnosis of metastatic disease was 15.5 months. Although patients were hospitalized to receive treatment, intensive care unit support generally was not needed. Dose-limiting toxicities were related to elevations in serum bilirubin and serum creatinine levels. No patient developed a grade 4 clinical toxicity. Treatment produced a skin depigmentation, which was associated with prolonged survival. CONCLUSION: A plateau in both the survival and time to progression curves beyond 2 years (15% of the patients) and a greater than 10% disease-free survival beyond 4 years indicate that there may be a long-term benefit for some patients. The limited toxicity of this regimen should permit its use in most oncology settings. A randomized trial of chemoimmunotherapy versus chemotherapy should be performed to establish the value of chemoimmunotherapy for melanoma.  (+info)

Early harvest and late transplantation as an effective therapeutic strategy in multiple myeloma. (4/816)

Transplantation after high-dose chemotherapy prolongs survival in patients with multiple myeloma compared with standard therapy. It is unclear whether the optimal timing of transplantation is immediately after induction chemotherapy or whether stem cells may be cryopreserved for transplantation at subsequent progression or relapse. In this study, stem cells were collected within 6 months of diagnosis, followed by transplantation only at progression of myeloma. One hundred and eighteen patients with multiple myeloma had stem cells collected and cryopreserved. Eleven had transplants early in the disease after they demonstrated failure to respond to primary therapy. The remaining 107 were eligible for transplants when there was evidence of progressive disease. Of the 118 patients, 67 had transplants, nine died of progressive disease before transplantation, and 42 remain alive in plateau phase. The median survival of the group is 58.5 months; 67 are alive. Serum beta2-microglobulin, bone marrow labeling index (S phase), and hemoglobin level predicted overall survival (P < 0.006, P < 0.001, and P < 0.01, respectively). We conclude that early cryopreservation of blood stem cells followed by transplantation at progression is a feasible approach to therapy in patients with myeloma. The underlying biology of the disease has a greater impact on survival than the timing of transplantation. A prospective randomized trial is required to answer definitively the question of the optimal timing of blood cell transplantation.  (+info)

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after autologous bone marrow transplantation and alpha-interferon immunotherapy. (5/816)

A patient with a stage IV mantle cell lymphoma (according to the REAL classification) was treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation. One year later while on alpha-interferon immunotherapy she suffered from progressive loss of short-term memory and reported difficulties in recognizing objects. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a vast ring-enhancing lesion of the left postcentral parietal area. Serial stereotactic biopsies disclosed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy without JC-virus in the cerebrospinal fluid. Therapy with subcutaneous interleukin-2 (IL-2) every other day and intrathecal cytarabine once a week was started. After 4 weeks the patient refused further treatment. Nevertheless her condition improved over the next 8 months and MRI scans showed a marked improvement in the lesions.  (+info)

Role of antioxidant defenses against ethanol-induced damage in cultured rat gastric epithelial cells. (6/816)

Reactive oxygen species appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in vivo. Because ingested ethanol diffuses into the gastric mucosa, targeting both epithelium and endothelium, in the present study we examined the possible protective effect of antioxidants on ethanol damage in gastric epithelial cells and endothelial cells in vitro. Cytotoxicity by ethanol was quantified by measuring 51Cr release. The effects of impairment of the glutathione redox cycle and of inhibition of cellular catalase were examined. The generation of superoxide was assessed by the reduction in cytochrome c. Ethanol caused a time- and dose-dependent increase in 51Cr release from epithelial cells. Incubation of cells with DL-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine, while reducing glutathione production, dose dependently enhanced ethanol-induced injury. 1,3-Bis(chloroethyl)-nitrosourea, while inhibiting glutathione reductase activity, also sensitized cells to ethanol. In contrast, the inhibition of catalase with 3-amino-1,2, 4-triazole did not alter the susceptibility of epithelial cells to ethanol. Ethanol induced damage to endothelial cells in a similar fashion. In endothelial cells, however, neither impairment of the glutathione cycle nor inhibition of catalase influenced ethanol-induced damage. Epithelial cells, when exposed to ethanol, increased superoxide production as a function of ethanol concentration, whereas endothelial cells did not. The glutathione redox cycle, but not cellular catalase, plays a critical role in protecting epithelial cells against ethanol damage, whereas neither antioxidant seems to play a role in protection of endothelial cells. The distinct difference in antioxidant protection against ethanol appears to depend on the capability of each cell to produce cytotoxic oxygen species in response to ethanol exposure.  (+info)

Acute encephalopathy: a new toxicity associated with high-dose paclitaxel. (7/816)

The purpose of this study was to describe acute encephalopathy as a new toxicity associated with paclitaxel, when it is delivered at high doses (> or =600 mg/m2) with stem cell support. A total of 129 patients, included in clinical trials of paclitaxel-containing high-dose chemotherapy, were analyzed. A total of 114 patients received paclitaxel at a dose of > or =600 mg/m2. Six patients presented acute encephalopathy starting between 7 and 23 days after paclitaxel treatment; two of them had received prior whole-brain irradiation. Paclitaxel was given alone (one patient), with cyclophosphamide and cisplatin (two patients), and with cyclophosphamide and cisplatin plus 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (three patients). Central nervous system toxicity consisted of rapid obtundation and coma (five patients) and severe confusional picture with paranoid ideations (one patient). Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse white matter atrophy (one patient) or multiple small infarcts (one patient), or it was normal (four patients). Other complementary tests, including cerebrospinal fluid analysis and electroencephalography, were nondiagnostic. An effect from concomitant psychotropic medications or from other organ toxicities was excluded in all patients. Three patients recovered after 8-15 days, either spontaneously (two patients) or after high-dose steroids (one patient). Three patients died of irreversible coma. Necropsy, performed in two patients, showed generalized white matter atrophy and multiple brain parenchymal infarcts, respectively. No pharmacodynamic correlation between the occurrence of encephalopathy and a pharmacokinetic parameter of paclitaxel could be identified. Paclitaxel-containing high-dose chemotherapy can cause severe acute encephalopathy. An aggravating effect from prior brain irradiation or concurrent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea seems possible.  (+info)

Influence of O6-benzylguanine on the anti-tumour activity and normal tissue toxicity of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and molecular combinations of 5-fluorouracil and 2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea in mice. (8/816)

Previous studies have demonstrated that novel molecular combinations of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and 2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (CNU) have good preclinical activity and may exert less myelotoxicity than the clinically used nitrosoureas such as 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). This study examined the effect of O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase (ATase) depletion by the pseudosubstrate O6-benzylguanine (BG) on the anti-tumour activity and normal tissue toxicity in mice of three such molecular combinations, in comparison with BCNU. When used as single agents at their maximum tolerated dose, all three novel compounds produced a significant growth retardation of BCNU-resistant murine colon and human breast xenografts. This in vivo anti-tumour effect was potentiated by BG, but was accompanied by severe myelotoxicity as judged by spleen colony forming assays. However, while tumour resistance to BCNU was overcome using BG, this was at the expense of enhanced bone marrow, gut and liver toxicity. Therefore, although this ATase-depletion approach resulted in improved anti-tumour activity for all three 5-FU:CNU molecular combinations, the potentiated toxicities in already dose-limiting tissues indicate that these types of agents offer no therapeutic advantage over BCNU when they are used together with BG.  (+info)

OBJECTIVES:. I. Determine the maximum tolerated dose and the dose limiting toxicity of carmustine administered after O6-benzylguanine in children with refractory primary CNS tumors.. II. Determine a safe and tolerable dose of carmustine administered after O6-benzylguanine to be used in phase II studies.. III. Determine the pharmacokinetics of O6-benzylguanine and its metabolite, O6-benzyl-8-oxoguanine, in these patients.. IV. Seek preliminary evidence of antitumor activity of this regimen in these patients.. V. Evaluate the acute and chronic toxicities, and describe cumulative toxicity, in patients treated with multiple courses of this regimen.. OUTLINE: This is a dose escalation study of carmustine.. Patients receive O6-benzylguanine IV over 1 hour, then, 1 hour later, carmustine IV is administered over 1 hour. Treatment is repeated every 6 weeks for up to 1 year in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Cohorts of 3-6 patients each receive escalating doses of carmustine ...
CARMUSTINE ASSOCIATED TO VINCRISTINE AND PREDNISONE IN THE TREATMENT OF CANINE LYMPHOMA. LUCAS, S.R.R.1; COELHO, B.M.P1; MARQUEZI, M.L.; FRANCHINI, M.L.; POZZI, D.H.B2. A chemotherapeutic protocol using carmustine-BCNU (50mg/m2 at 6 weeks intervals) associated with vincristine (0,75mg/m2 at 3 weeks intervals) and prednisone (40 mg/m2 each other day) was evaluated in dogs with malignant lymphoma. Carmustine is a highly lipid-soluble chemotherapeutic agent in the nitrosourea subclass that rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier and acts as a nonphase-specific alkylant agent. Seven dogs with multicentric lymphoma, stage III to V according WHO, were admitted and treated at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of the University of S o Paulo, Brazil. The dogs received 2 to 7 cycles chemotherapics with carmustine plus VCR (median 5) and 4 to 8 cycles (median 6) only with VCR. Cumulatives doses of carmustine ranged from 100 to 298 mg/m2. Six dogs (85,7%), achieved complete remission after induction ...
Carmustine with NDC 68475-503 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by Navinta Llc. The generic name of Carmustine is carmustine.
Recent evidence from our laboratory and from others suggested that pretreatment with α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) sensitizes some human and rodent tumor cell lines to l,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-l-nitrosourea (BCNU). Many human tumor cells are resistant to chloroethylnitrosourea-induced DNA interstrand cross-linking and cell kill due to their high levels of the DNA repair protein O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase. We therefore investigated DFMO-mediated sensitization to BCNU in BCNU-sensitive and -resistant cells. Colony formation assays were used to compare BCNU cytotoxicity in DFMO-pretreated and control cultures of two colon tumor lines, HT-29 cells, which have high alkyltransferase levels and thus are BCNU-resistant, and BE cells, which are deficient in this repair capacity and thus are BCNU-sensitive. Polyamine depletion significantly enhanced BCNU cytotoxicity only for the repair-proficient HT-29 cell line. BE cells were 40-fold more sensitive to BCNU than were HT-29 cultures. However, ...
A synthetic, biodegradable wafer containing the agent carmustine with antineoplastic activity. Used to deliver drug directly into a brain tumor site and typically implanted post-surgically, the wafer is made of a biodegradable poly-anhydride copolymer and contains the nitrosourea carmustine.
Risk Summary BiCNU (carmustine for injection) can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman based on the mechanism of action [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)] and findings in animals [see Data]. Limited available data with BiCNU use in pregnant women are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk of major birth defects and miscarriage. Carmustine was embryotoxic in rats and rabbits and teratogenic in rats (thoracoabdominal closure, neural tube, and eye defects and malformations of the skeletal system of the fetus) when given in doses lower than the maximum cumulative human dose based on body surface area. Consider the benefits and risks of BiCNU for the mother and possible risks to the fetus when prescribing BiCNU to a pregnant woman. Adverse outcomes in pregnancy occur regardless of the health of the mother or the use of medications. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the ...
To assess the influence of molecular markers with potential prognostic value to groups of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients were examined: group A with 36 patients (surgical resection plus standard combined chemoradiotherapy) and group B with 36 patients (surgical resection, standard combined chemoradiotherapy plus carmustine wafer implantation). Our aim was to determine chromosomal alterations, methylation status of MGMT, p15, and p16 (CDKN2A) in order to analyse the influence on patient survival time as well as radio- and chemotherapy responses. Promoter hypermethylation of MGMT, p16, and p15 genes were determined by MS-PCR. Comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) analyses were performed with isolated, labelled DNA of each tumor to detect genetic alterations. Age of onset of the disease showed a significant effect on overall survival (OS) (p < 0.0001). Additional treatment with carmustine wafer (group B) compared to the control group (group A) did not result in improved OS (p = 0.562
OUTLINE: This is a dose escalation study.. All patients undergo maximal tumor resection. At the time of surgery, groups of 6 patients receive up to 8 polifeprosan 20 wafers containing increasing doses of carmustine implanted into the resection cavity.. Patients with an intraoperative diagnosis other than glioblastoma multiforme or anaplastic astrocytoma do not receive wafer implantation, and are removed from study.. Patients are followed 3, 6, and 12 months after implantation.. PROJECTED ACCRUAL: A total of 52 patients will be accrued for this study. ...
Easy-to-read patient leaflet for Carmustine Injection. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
Amneal Announces Approval of Carmustine for Injection USP, 100 mg/vial - Preparing for Launch PR Newswire BRIDGEWATER, N.J., Oct. 19, 2018 BRIDGEWATER, N.J., Oct. 19, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Amneal Pharmaceuticals, Inc.(NYSE: AMRX), today announced that it has received FDA app...
Our previous in vitro studies demonstrated that SarCNU was more effective than BCNU against human gliomas (Panasci et al., 1985;Skalski et al., 1988). Using transport studies with radiolabeled SarCNU we have demonstrated that the uptake of SarCNU in SKMG-1 cells was more rapid and there was a greater accumulation of SarCNU in SKMG-1 cells compared with SKI-1 cells. This corresponded to the cytotoxicity results, i.e., SKMG-1 cells were more sensitive to SarCNU (Noë et al., 1994, 1996). Using RT-PCR we have confirmed that SKI-1 cells expressed EMTh much less than SKMG-1 cells (Chen et al., 1999b), supporting that the differential cytotoxicity to SarCNU in these cell lines is due to the presence of the EMTh in SKMG-1 cells.. In the present in vivo study, we did not find a correlation between SarCNU antitumor effect and EMTh expression alone, but instead a significant correlation was found with EMTh expression and MGMT expression together. The absence of a linear correlation between SarCNU ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
S-((2-chloroethyl)carbamoyl)glutathione: structure given in first source; product of reaction between glutathione and the anticancer agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea (BCNU)
After feeling well enough to go for an early morning run yesterday, I was given 6 hours of chemo--Etoposide and Carmustine. Pretty much immediately I felt nauseous, no appetite, hot flashes, dizziness, and I also got the added bonus of a bright red rash caused by the carmustine. I had a few hours off of…
Provides information on usage, precautions, side effects and brand names when available. Data provided by various government agencies and health-related organizations. ...
52320-87-3 - MLZCGCGQWWRMMX-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Alanine, N-(((2-chloroethyl)nitrosoamino)carbonyl)-2-methyl- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule n,n-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1,4-benzenediamine (C10H14Cl2N2) from the PQR.
Kotaktujte nás. REFLEX ELEXOVÁ, Košice. Hodnotenia: ... dobré ceny, príjemný a ústretový personál. Nakupujem u nich pravidelne. Jednoznačne...
The extent of resection by surgery affects survival time in GBM patients (5,6). A better prognosis might therefor be predicted for right temporal lobe localized GBM, since total removal can be carried out.. The present case was initially diagnosed as meningioma, because the tumor stain was clearly seen from the middle meningeal artery but not from the internal carotid artery. Only a few case reports of such GBMs have been described (7,8). The timing of surgical treatment may easily be delayed if the lesion is misdiagnosed as a meningioma, and may be of concern for the prognosis of GBM patients.. Cyst formation is known to occur as an adverse event of carmustine wafer implantation for malignant gliomas (9), and there have been several reports of space-occupying cysts in the cavity, which required additional surgical treatment (10-13). Yoshida et al reported that adverse events associated with implantation of carmustine wafers tend to occur in the repeated surgery for the malignant gliomas (11). ...
The nitrosourea drugs, a class of DNA alkylating agents related to nitrogen mustards, include(BCNU),(CCNU), semustine (methyl CCNU), and chloroethylnitrosourea (Sar-CNU). Nitrosourea drugs are used to treat lymphoma, brain tumors, melanoma, and other
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Kann, H E.; Kohn, K W.; Widerlite, L; and Gullion, D, Effects of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and related compounds on nuclear rna metabolism. (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 1674 ...
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In the November 2006 issue of the Journal of Biology, researchers report that chemotherapy drugs - specifically carmustine, cisplatin, and cytosine arabinoside - were associated with increased cell damage and death in the brains of mice; this effect was seen for weeks after the drugs were administered.2. Researchers also found that neural progenitor cells (sometimes called neural stem cells since they have the ability to restore function in damaged nerve tissues) and oligodendrocytes (a type of cell found in the brain and spinal cord that helps improve the speed and reliability of impulse conductions, allowing faster information processing and better motor control) are exceptionally vulnerable to the action of chemotherapeutic drugs; this is the first study to show definitive evidence of chemotherapys damaging effects on the physical structure of the brain.. What is particularly interesting about this study is that this damage was found both in vitro (cells cultured or tested in the ...
2-chloroethyl 4-nitrophenyl propyl phosphate | C11H15ClNO6P | CID 120363 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Boronic acid,B-[3-[[(2-chloroethyl)amino]carbonyl]phenyl]-/ACM874288127 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
2 Answers - Posted in: ativan, klonopin, klonopin wafer, xanax, depression - Answer: Without looking it up, I suspect wafers enter the blood stream ...
A method of inspecting bonded wafers, which involves obtaining a Lang topograph of bonded wafers as a sample by using a Lang camera, or further treating an image thereon, thereby detecting unbonded re
The O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase inactivator O(6)-benzylguanine was administered to BALB/c mice either alone or before exposure to 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea to study the role of the DNA repair protein O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase in the protection of the testis against anti-cancer O(6)-alkylating agents. Exposure of the mice to 1, 3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea or O(6)-benzylguanine alone did not produce any marked testicular toxicity at the times studied. Testicular O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase concentrations were assayed between 0 and 240 min after O(6)-benzylguanine treatment and were shown to be , 95% depleted 15 min after treatment with O(6)-benzylguanine and remained at , 95% at all the times assayed. Histological examination, the reduction in testicular mass and the induction of spermatogenic cell apoptosis showed that this depletion significantly potentiated 1, 3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea-induced testicular damage after treatment. Major ...
The nitrosoureas are alkylating agents that are highly lipid soluble and share similar pharmacological and clinical properties. Carmustine (BCNU), lomustine
PURPOSE This clinical trial evaluated standard-dose radioimmunotherapy with a chemotherapy-based transplantation regimen followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation versus rituximab with the same regimen in patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with chemotherapy-sensitive persistent or relapsed DLBCL were randomly assigned to receive iodine-131 tositumomab (dosimetric dose of 5 mCi on day -19 and therapeutic dose of 0.75 Gy on day -12), carmustine 300 mg/m2 (day -6), etoposide 100 mg/m2 twice daily (days -5 to -2), cytarabine 100 mg/m2 twice daily (days -5 to -2), and melphalan 140 mg/m2 (day -1; B-BEAM) or rituximab 375 mg/m2 on days -19 and -12 and the same chemotherapy regimen (R-BEAM).ResultsTwo hundred twenty-four patients were enrolled, with 113 patients randomly assigned to R-BEAM and 111 patients assigned to B-BEAM. Two-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates, the primary end point, were 48.6% (95% CI, 38.6% to 57.8%) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemotherapy and bio-chemotherapy in patients with advanced melanoma. T2 - Combination therapy with a nitrosourea. AU - Ridolfi, Ruggero. AU - Tanganelli, L.. AU - Scelzi, E.. AU - Manente, P.. AU - Palmeri, S.. AU - Ravaioli, A.. AU - Fiammenghi, L.. AU - Romanini, A.. PY - 2003/4. Y1 - 2003/4. N2 - The treatment of advanced melanoma is still disappointing. In a multicenter randomized clinical trial to compare a chemotherapy (CT) with or without low doses of IL-2 and IFN (Bio-CT), the participating centers chose whether or not to add a nitrosourea, carmustine (BCNU) to the therapy. The aim of the present paper is to report the clinical results of the patients (pts) treated in both arms with BCNU. One hundred and seventy-six pts with advanced melanoma were enrolled in the study from 27 centers and a total of 18 pts also received BCNU in 3 centers. No further changes to the protocol criteria were allowed. One patient refused the treatment. No complete responses were observed. ...
The protein O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (O6-AGT) has been implicated as a major determinant of resistance of diverse tumors to chloroethylnitrosoureas. To evaluate the contribution of O6-AGT to resistance of medulloblastomas to chloroethylnitrosoureas, we assessed the role of O6-AGT in dete …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Toxicity of intracranial and intraperitoneal O6-benzyl guanine in combination with BCNU delivered locally in a mouse model. AU - Guarnieri, Michael. AU - Biser-Rohrbaugh, Ann. AU - Tyler, Betty Mae. AU - Gabikian, Patrik. AU - Bunton, Tracie E.. AU - Ze Wu, Qing. AU - Weingart, Jon David. AU - Solomon, Benjamin. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Purpose: The DNA-repair protein, O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyl transferase, may account for resistance of CNS tumors to DNA-alkylating drugs, such as bis-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). The therapeutic effects of BCNU can be potentiated by inhibiting the repair protein with an alkylated guanine analog, O6-benzyl guanine (O6BG). To investigate potential toxicity of this inhibition, we examined the effects of O6BG in mice treated with intracranial (i.c.) BCNU given via a biodegradable polymer. Methods: Mice were treated with escalating doses of BCNU chronically delivered i.c., and with chronically delivered O6BG. The O6BG was delivered via a ...
Brain tumor news: Guilford Pharmaceuticals Receives European Marketing Authorization for Expanded Use of GLIADEL(R) Wafer - GLIADEL(R) Approved to Treat Newly-Diagnosed Patients with Malignant Glioma
Looking for online definition of BCNU in the Medical Dictionary? BCNU explanation free. What is BCNU? Meaning of BCNU medical term. What does BCNU mean?
The purpose of the PRECISE trial is to determine whether overall survival duration, safety, and quality of life are improved for patients treated with I
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SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1grh.1. INHIBITION OF HUMAN GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE BY THE NITROSOUREA DRUGS 1,3-BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL)-1-NITROSOUREA AND 1-(2-CHLOROETHYL)-3-(2-HYDROXYETHYL)-1-NITROSOUREA
Can Gliadel raise my blood sugar at levels and cause bladder are pain. Specifically, never take effective chew product and Panobinostat biloba, a known interaction sites with serious health insurance risks. We both want to demonstrate fewer episodes of diarrhea and fewer post operatory cardiovascular and subsequent neurologic events in the groups receiving prophylactic Kao -
5-[Bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]-2-methylbenzoic acid | C12H15Cl2NO2 | CID 145818 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
The report generally describes leucine, n-(n-acetyl-3-(p-(bis(2-chloroethyl)amino)phenyl)-dl-alanyl)- , ethyl ester, l-, examines its uses, production
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule n-[(2-chloroethyl)(nitroso)carbamoyl]-l-alanyl-l-alanine (C9H15ClN4O5) from the PQR.
149194-25-2 - ZMDLBLZFZSHVLH-UHFFFAOYSA-N - 1-Acetyl-1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-2-(2-chloroethyl)hydrazine - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
The separation of thin disk-type workpieces from a stack has, as a rule, hitherto been carried out by hand. An apparatus and a corresponding method are now provided which make it possible to lift the wafer off the stack without mechanical contact, and also to convey the separated wafers to the tray and to introduce them in an automated way without damage. In this method, a stack of disk-type workpieces is introduced into a wafer magazine with a feed unit which brings the uppermost wafer of the wafer stack into the sphere of action of a fluid medium which emerges under pressure in a preferred direction from a nozzle system. A dam makes it possible to remove a single wafer. The apparatus and the method make possible separation without damage while increasing the yield. In conjunction with a conveying apparatus, an apparatus for tray filling processing lines can be built up for automatically treating disk-type workpieces without damage.
keď chodím do školy alebo niekde ráno, tak sa snažím medzi 23:00 až 00:00 a keď nie, tak medzi 00:00 až 1:00 ale väčšinou keď mam na ďalší deň skúšku a musím sa učiť a nestíham tak potiahnem aj do druhej a vstávam o piatej káva a ideme sa učiť :D ...
It took a couple weeks but I wanted to wait and see how well the new wafers worked. After a few changings, Im happy to announce that I got some relief and now its staying on for 4 days!!!!!!!!! YYAAYYYY !!! I wouldve loved 5 or more days but whos complaining..haha ...
The tyrosine residue present at position 158 in the human O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase is one of 22 amino acid residues that are conserved in all known alkyltransferase protein sequences. The importance of this amino acid in the reactions brought about by the alkyltransferase was studied by changing this residue to alanine or to phenylalanine. The control and mutant alkyltransferase proteins were expressed in an Escherichia coli strain lacking alkyltransferase activity and the proteins purified to near homogeneity and their activities measured using both methylated DNA and O6-benzylguanine (BG) as substrates. The alteration to alanine led to a very large decrease in activity towards both substrates but removal of O6-methylguanine from DNA and the conversion of BG to guanine could still be detected when large amounts of the protein were used. The activity of the Y158A mutant was at least 800 times less than that of the control alkyltransferase. The change of tyrosine-158 to phenylalanine reduced
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intraarterial O6-benzylguanine enables the specific therapy of nitrosourea resistant intracranial human glioma xenografts in athymic rats with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea. AU - Kurpad, Shekar N.. AU - Dolan, M. Eileen. AU - McLendon, Roger E.. AU - Archer, Gerald E.. AU - Moschel, Robert C.. AU - Pegg, Anthony E.. AU - Bigner, Darell D.. AU - Friedman, Henry S.. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - The prognosis for patients with malignant gliomas continues to be dismal. The high degree of resistance of gliomas to nitrosourea-based chemotherapy is one major factor in poor treatment outcome. The identification of O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGAT) as a major determinant of nitrosourea resistance has resulted in the development of several agents to inactivate this repair protein and counteract tumor cell resistance. However, a major problem in preclinical trials has been the marked nitrosourea dose limitations imposed by the prior administration of AGAT-depleting ...
Nitrosourea represents one of the most active classes of chemotherapeutic alkylating agents for metastatic melanoma. Treatment with nitrosoureas caused severe systemic side effects which hamper its clinical use. Here, we provide pharmacological evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction and IKKβ inhibition cooperatively enhance nitrosourea-induced cytotoxicity in melanoma cells. We identified SC-514 as a ROS-inducing IKKβ inhibitor which enhanced the function of nitrosoureas. Elevated ROS level results in increased DNA crosslink efficiency triggered by nitrosoureas and IKKβ inhibition enhances DNA damage signals and sensitizes nitrosourea-induced cell death. Using xenograft mouse model, we confirm that ROS-inducing IKKβ inhibitor cooperates with nitrosourea to reduce tumor size and malignancy in vivo. Taken together, our results illustrate a new direction in nitrosourea treatment, and reveal that the combination of ROS-inducing IKKβ inhibitors with nitrosoureas can be potentially ...
In vitro chemosensitivity testing of short term primary glioma cultures derived from brain biopsies is still in the research phase and has not yet found a place in clinical use. The main reasons for this slow progression are the small amounts of tissue available and the lack of a suitably sensitive assay capable of use in the clinical setting. This study examines whether the MTS and ATP cell survival assays, which determine cytotoxicity via colorimetric and luminescence analysis respectively, could potentially fulfill this role. Primary glioma cultures were tested for chemosensitivity using the MTS and ATP assays and were found to be generally sensitive to cisplatin and paclitaxel but relatively resistant to carmustine and etoposide. For both assays, LD50 values lay in the range 2 - 130 μg/ml but in the vast majority of cases, those obtained by the ATP assay were markedly lower those obtained by the MTS assay. Moreover, at cell numbers less than 2000 in the cases of paclitaxel and carmustine ...
DNA is considered to be an important target for the antitumor and toxic properties of the chloroethylnitrosoureas. Since the main target for their dose-limiting toxicity and the antileukemic efficacy is believed to be the bone marrow, we have compared the formation and subsequent removal of DNA-DNA interstrand cross-links in the bone marrow of rats which had received a single i.p. injection (100 µmol/kg) of four chloroethylnitrosoureas. The kinetics of cross-link removal was identical for chlorozotocin, which is known to have low chemical carbamoylating activity, to that of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea, a drug with a relatively high carbamoylating capacity. The differential bone marrow toxicity exhibited by these two agents could not, therefore, be explained by a carbamoylation-mediated difference in the rate and extent of DNA-DNA interstrand cross-link removal. The peak level and overall magnitude of cross-links were, however, found to vary considerably with the chemical structure of ...
The protein O 6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase(alkyltransferase) is involved in the repair of O 6-alkylguanine and O 4-alkylthymine in DNA and plays an important role in most organisms in attenuating the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of certain classes of alkylating agents. A genomic clone encompassing the Drosophila melanogaster alkyltransferase gene ( DmAGT ) was identified on the basis of sequence homology with corresponding genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and man. The DmAGT gene is located at position 84A on the third chromosome. The nucleotide sequence of DmAGT cDNA revealed an open reading frame encoding 194 amino acids. The MNNG-hypersensitive phenotype of alkyltransferase-deficient bacteria was rescued by expression of the DmAGT cDNA. Furthermore, alkyltransferase activity was identified in crude extracts of Escherichia coli harbouring DmAGT cDNA and this activity was inhibited by preincubation of the extract with an oligonucleotide containing a single O6-methylguanine lesion. ...
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BACKGROUND. Temozolomide (TMZ) is one of the most potent chemotherapy agents for the treatment of glioblastoma. Unfortunately, almost half of glioblastoma tumors are TMZ resistant due to overexpression of methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMThi). Coadministration of O6-benzylguanine (O6BG) can restore TMZ sensitivity, but causes off-target myelosuppression. Here, we conducted a prospective clinical trial to test whether gene therapy to confer O6BG resistance in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) improves chemotherapy tolerance and outcome.. METHODS. We enrolled 7 newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients with MGMThi tumors. Patients received autologous gene-modified HSCs following single-agent carmustine administration. After hematopoietic recovery, patients underwent O6BG/TMZ chemotherapy in 28-day cycles. Serial blood samples and tumor images were collected throughout the study. Chemotherapy tolerance was determined by the observed myelosuppression and recovery following each cycle. Patient-specific ...
This pivotal trial will compare the efficacy and safety of trabedersen and standard chemotherapy regimens (temozolomide, carmustine, or lomustine), in patients
A 63 year old man with IgG myeloma was found to have hypercalcaemia; specific hypocalcaemic measures such as intravenous fluids and pamidronate 60 mg followed by 1.6 g of oral sodium clodronate daily in addition to antimyeloma agents such as prednisolone, Adriamycin, and carmustine were unsuccessful in restoring eucalcaemia (fig 1). ...
Although a flat mild abdominal cramping and/or burning (severe) while on Dexamethasone is usually not made serious, you have to report it pushed right away to your primary healthcare provider. In particular, studies cited in rats, dogs snarl and monkeys which showed that the renal toxic renal effects of prescription cough medicine maleate are increased aggression when the drug is given in combination with Hepatitis b adult vaccine.. Continue reading weight-loss drug Carmustine seems safe for heart, study finds →. ...
Akaike, Y; Arai, Y; Taguchi, H; and Satoh, H, Effect of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-isobutyl-3-(beta-maltosyl)-1- -nitrosourea on experimental tumors. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3216 ...
A wafer processing system for performing horizontal transport of vertically-oriented wafers into one or more process cells to perform vertical processing on the wafers. The wafer processing system includes a loading station for loading wafers onto respective carriers in a horizontal fashion and for rotating the carriers to orient the wafers in a vertical orientation for transport and processing, one or more process cells for processing the wafers in a vertical orientation respectively therein, and an unloading station for rotating the carriers to orient the wafers from a vertical orientation to a horizontal orientation and for unloading the wafer off the carriers in a horizontal fashion. Additionally, the wafer processing system includes a carrier transport system for transporting carriers horizontally from the loading station, to one or more process cells, then to the unloading station, and additionally to a carrier process section for processing of empty carriers.
In order to obtain new compounds with antitumoural action the N-(metaacylaminobenzoyl)-α-acylaminobenzoyl)-α-aminoacids 4-9 were prepared. Thesecompounds were subsequently converted into the corresponding δ2-oxazolin-5-ones 10-15,which in turn were submitted to a ring opening reaction with di-(β-chloroethyl)amine toafford the peptide supported N-mustards 16-21, which showed low toxicity and cytostaticactivity similar to that of sarcolisine against the Ehrlich ascite and Walker 253carcinosarcoma.
Sigma-Aldrich offers Aldrich-301485, 1-Chloroethyl chloroformate for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
chemBlink provides information about CAS # 182507-83-1, N,N-Bis(phenanthren-9-yl)-N,N-diphenylbenzidine, molecular formula: C56H38N2.
An ultrasonic bath (30) is arranged below a wafer processing bath (10). Wafers (40) are processed while ultrasonic waves are transmitted from the ultrasonic bath (30) to the wafer processing bath (10). The wafers (40) are processed while being entirely dipped into the wafer processing bath (10) and rotated by wafer rotating rods (53).
The orientation of a wafer with respect to the surface of an electrolyte is controlled during an electroplating process. The wafer is delivered to an electrolyte bath along a trajectory normal to the surface of the electrolyte. Along this trajectory, the wafer is angled before entry into the electrolyte for angled immersion. A wafer can be plated in an angled orientation or not, depending on what is optimal for a given situation. Also, in some designs, the wafers orientation can be adjusted actively during immersion or during electroplating, providing flexibility in various electroplating scenarios.
Majestys Kalm+ Wafers calming supplement is available in an easy-to-use wafer form to support balanced behavior, promote relaxation and reduce hyperactivity, especially during travelling or competitive situations.Kalm Plus Wafers are very helpful for horses that are anxious, nervous, distracted or that exhibit behavioral problems. Plus, theyre si
The present invention provides systems and methods for classifying defects detected on a wafer. One method includes detecting defects on the wafer based on an output produced by a verification system for a wafer. The method also includes determining one or more attributes of the at least one of the defects based on a portion of the standard reference image corresponding to at least one of the defects. The method further includes classifying the at least one of the defects based at least in part on the one or more determined attributes.
Majesty’s Kalm+ Wafers are especially helpful when your horse is anxious, nervous, distracted, or exhibits behavioral problems. These wafers support balanced behavior and a r...
Ето и един сладкиш, който моята съквартирантка - италианка приготвяше преди години и го наричаше торта. Нека всеки да го нарича както иска, но десертът е с изключително интересен вкус. Плодчетата арония носят свежест на тортата, а силният аромат на кафето е силно тонзииращ. Аронията придава лека екзотичност на сладкиша и го прави изключително полезен (няма да се спирам на полезните действия на аронията - по гръцка митология в подготвителен клас учителката ни отдели предостатъчно време на питието от арония, което пиели боговете на Олимп). ...
Chloro ethyl nitroso urea (CENU), specifically carmustine (BCNU), are crosslinking agents that are widely used in chemotherapy ...
... carmustine) for brain tumors into the Eisai product portfolio. In 2009, Eisai received the Corporate Award from the National ... carmustine) - Treatment for Brain Tumors Lenvima (lenvatinib) - Thyroid Cancer or Kidney Cancer Aricept accounted for 40% of ...
90Y-Daclizumab (Anti-CD25), High-Dose Carmustine, Etoposide, Cytarabine, and Melphalan Chemotherapy and Autologous ...
Several drugs such as procarbazine, streptozotocin, BCNU (carmustine), and temozolamide are designed to remodel DNA to reverse ...
... carmustine, melphalan, and prednisone alternating with vincristine, carmustine, doxorubicin, and prednisone. The treatment of ...
... carmustine - carnitine - carotenoid - carzelesin - case report - case series - case-control study - caspofungin acetate - ... polifeprosan 20 carmustine implant - poly-ICLC - polyglutamate camptothecin - polyglutamate paclitaxel - polymerase chain ...
"Carmustine". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Carmustine Implant". MedlinePlus. Medicine portal. ... "Bicnu- carmustine kit". DailyMed. Retrieved 27 February 2021. "Gliadel- carmustine wafer". DailyMed. Retrieved 27 February 2021 ... Carmustine, sold under the brand name BiCNU among others, is a medication used mainly for chemotherapy. It is a nitrogen ... Carmustine for injection was marketed under the name BiCNU by Bristol-Myers Squibb and now[when?] by Emcure Pharmaceuticals. In ...
Unlike carmustine, lomustine is administered orally. It is a monofunctional alkylating agent, alkylates both DNA and RNA, has ...
BiCNU (carmustine). *CeeNU (lomustine). *Droxia/Hydrea (hydroxycarbamide). *Empliciti (Elotuzumab). *Erbitux (cetuximab). * ...
Carmustine (,250 mg/m2). *CBV. *Cyclophosphamide (,1500 mg/m2). *Dacarbazine ...
cyclophosphamide, BCNU (carmustine), VP-16 (etoposide) lymphoma CHOEP cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin (doxorubicin), ...
... carmustine). Also, some medicinal drugs used in cardiovascular medicine can lead to pulmonary toxicity frequently or very ...
InChI=1S/C55H83N17O21S3/c1-20-33(69-46(72-44(20)58)25(12-31(57)76)64-13-24(56)45(59)82)50(86)71-35(41(26-14-61-19-65-26)91-54-43(39(80)37(78)29(15-73)90-54)92-53-40(81)42(93-55(60)88)38(79)30(16-74)89-53)51(87)66-22(3)36(77)21(2)47(83)70-34(23(4)75)49(85)63-10-8-32-67-28(18-94-32)52-68-27(17-95-52)48(84)62-9-7-11-96(5)6/h14,17-19,21-25,29-30,34-43,53-54,64,73-75,77-81H,7-13,15-16,56H2,1-6H3,(H13-,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,65,66,69,70,71,72,76,82,83,84,85,86,87,88)/p+1/t21-,22+,23+,24-,25-,29-,30+,34-,35-,36-,37+,38+,39-,40-,41?,42-,43-,53+,54-/m0/s1 ...
... is a drug used in chemotherapy. It is a semi-synthetic camptothecin analogue indicated for Small Cell Lung Cancer and Ovarian Cancer, approved in South Korea under the trade name Camtobell(R), presented in 2 mg vials for injection.[1] The drug is marketed by ChongKunDang Pharmaceuticals [2] since 2003 [3] Belotecan blocks topoisomerase I with a pIC50 of 6.56,[4] stabilizing the cleavable complex of topoisomerase I-DNA, which inhibits the religation of single-stranded DNA breaks generated by topoisomerase I; lethal double-stranded DNA breaks occur when the topoisomerase I-DNA complex is encountered by the DNA replication machinery, DNA replication is disrupted, and the tumor cell undergoes apoptosis. Topoisomerase I is an enzyme that mediates reversible single-strand breaks in DNA during DNA replication. ...
... was first reported in the scientific literature in 1994, by a team of researchers from Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Company (now Astellas Pharma) in Tsukuba, Japan, who isolated it in a culture of Chromobacterium violaceum from a soil sample obtained in Yamagata Prefecture.[3] It was found to have little to no antibacterial activity, but was potently cytotoxic against several human cancer cell lines, with no effect on normal cells; studies on mice later found it to have antitumor activity in vivo as well.[3]. The first total synthesis of romidepsin was accomplished by Harvard researchers and published in 1996.[4] Its mechanism of action was elucidated in 1998, when researchers from Fujisawa and the University of Tokyo found it to be a histone deacetylase inhibitor with effects similar to those of trichostatin A.[5]. ...
Nitrosoureas include N-Nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU), carmustine (BCNU), lomustine (CCNU) and semustine (MeCCNU), fotemustine and ...
Nitrogen mustards arose from the derivatization of sulphur mustard gas after military personnel exposed to it during World War I were observed to have decreased white blood cell counts.[15] Since the sulphur mustard gas was too toxic to be used in humans, Gilman hypothesized that by reducing the electrophilicity of the agent, which made it highly chemically reactive towards electron-rich groups, then less toxic drugs could be obtained. To this end, he made analogues that were less electrophilic by exchanging the sulphur with a nitrogen, leading to the nitrogen mustards.[16] With an acceptable therapeutic index in humans, nitrogen mustards were first introduced in the clinic in 1946.[17] Aliphatic mustards were developed first, such as mechlorethamine hydrochloride (mustine hydrochloride) which is still used in the clinic today. In the 1950s, aromatic mustards like chlorambucil were introduced as less toxic alkylating agents than the aliphatic nitrogen mustards, proving to be less electrophilic ...
The decision to start cladribine in MS depends on the degree of disease activity (as measured by number of relapses in the past year and T1 gadolinium-enhancing lesions on MRI), the failure of previous disease-modifying therapies, the potential risks and benefits and patient choice. In the UK, the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommends cladribine for treating highly active RRMS in adults if the persons has: rapidly evolving severe relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, that is, at least 2 relapses in the previous year and at least 1 T1 gadolinium-enhancing lesion at baseline MRI or relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis that has responded inadequately to treatment with disease-modifying therapy, defined as 1 relapse in the previous year and MRI evidence of disease activity.[40] People with MS require counselling on the intended benefits of cladribine in reducing the risk of relapse and disease progression, versus the risk of adverse effects such as headaches, nausea and ...
There are several ways molecules (in this case, also known as ligands) can interact with DNA. Ligands may interact with DNA by covalently binding, electrostatically binding, or intercalating.[1] Intercalation occurs when ligands of an appropriate size and chemical nature fit themselves in between base pairs of DNA. These ligands are mostly polycyclic, aromatic, and planar, and therefore often make good nucleic acid stains. Intensively studied DNA intercalators include berberine, ethidium bromide, proflavine, daunomycin, doxorubicin, and thalidomide. DNA intercalators are used in chemotherapeutic treatment to inhibit DNA replication in rapidly growing cancer cells. Examples include doxorubicin (adriamycin) and daunorubicin (both of which are used in treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma), and dactinomycin (used in Wilm's tumour, Ewing's Sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma). Metallointercalators are complexes of a metal cation with polycyclic aromatic ligands. The most commonly used metal ion is ruthenium(II), ...
where CL is total body clearance (L/h), BSA is total body surface area (m2), AAG and ALB represent alpha1 acid glycoprotein and albumin plasma concentrations (g/L) respectively, and AGE is the patients age (years).[13] HEP12 represents a measure of hepatic dysfunction, affecting clearance of docetaxel. This final model accounted for a modest proportion of patients and identified most of the patients varying from the model (population median of CL = 35.6 L/h) as having hepatic dysfunction, indicating hepatic function as the most unpredictable factor with regards to clearance variability.[13] Patients with significant hepatic dysfunction had an approximately 30% decrease in clearance of docetaxel and were also at a higher risk of toxicity poisoning from docetaxel treatment.[13] Clearance has been shown from population pharmacokinetic studies to decrease significantly with age, increased alpha1 acid glycoprotein and albumin concentrations and decreased body surface area.[13] Renal impairment is ...
In the late nineteenth century. Finsen successfully demonstrated phototherapy by employing heat-filtered light from a carbon-arc lamp (the "Finsen lamp") in the treatment of a tubercular condition of the skin known as lupus vulgaris, for which he won the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.[5] In 1913 another German scientist, Meyer-Betz, described the major stumbling block of photodynamic therapy. After injecting himself with haematoporphyrin (Hp, a photosensitiser), he swiftly experienced a general skin sensitivity upon exposure to sunlight-a recurrent problem with many photosensitisers.[5] The first evidence that agents, photosensitive synthetic dyes, in combination with a light source and oxygen could have potential therapeutic effect was made at the turn of the 20th century in the laboratory of Hermann von Tappeiner in Munich, Germany. Germany was leading the world in industrial dye synthesis at the time.[5] While studying the effects of acridine on paramecia cultures, Oscar Raab, a ...
During the 1950s and 1960s, the National Cancer Institute carried out a wide-ranging program of screening plant and marine organism material. As part of that program extract from the sea squirt Ecteinascidia turbinata was found to have anticancer activity in 1969.[1] Separation and characterisation of the active molecules had to wait many years for the development of sufficiently sensitive techniques, and the structure of one of them, Ecteinascidin 743, was determined by KL Rinehart at the University of Illinois in 1984.[2] Rinehart had collected his sea squirts by scuba diving in the reefs of the West Indies.[3] Recently, the biosynthetic pathway responsible for producing the drug has been determined to come from Candidatus Endoecteinascidia frumentensis, a microbial symbiont of the tunicate.[4] The Spanish company PharmaMar licensed the compound from the University of Illinois before 1994[citation needed] and attempted to farm the sea squirt with limited success.[3] Yields from the sea squirt ...
... was first made in 1963 by Ozegowski and Krebs in East Germany (the former German Democratic Republic).[9] Until 1990 it was available only in East Germany. East German investigators found that it was useful for treating chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma and lung cancer. Bendamustine received its first marketing approval in Germany, where it is marketed under the tradename Ribomustin, by Astellas Pharma GmbH's licensee, Mundipharma International Corporation Limited. It is indicated as a single-agent or in combination with other anti-cancer agents for indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. SymBio Pharmaceuticals Ltd. holds exclusive rights to develop and market bendamustine HCl in Japan and selected Asia Pacific Rim countries. In March 2008, Cephalon received approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration to market bendamustine in the US, where it is sold under the ...
Research on this class of drugs began in the 1950s at SRI International, where scientists were focused on developing new chemotherapies and antifolates that would be effective against tumor cells.[1] In the late 1970s, researchers at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center discovered that cancerous cells take in natural folate through a protein identified as plasma membrane transporter (now referred to as "reduced folate carrier type 1" or "RFC-1"). Further research showed that when normal cells evolve into cancerous cells they often overproduce RFC-1 to ensure they get enough folate.[6] A subsequent scientific collaboration was ultimately formed among SRI International, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and the Southern Research Institute with the intention of developing an antifolate with greater therapeutic selectivity - an agent that could be more effectively internalized into tumors (transported into the cells through RFC-1) and would be more toxic to cancer cells than normal cells.[6] ...
Another amino acid-like drug is the antineoplastic agent melphalan. Tumor cells spend less time in resting phases than normal cells so at any given time, they are more likely to be metabolically active than most normal host cells. The rationale behind incorporating an alkylating function in a molecule resembling a primary cellular metabolite was to get a greater safety margin by fooling tumor cells into taking up the toxin preferentially. ...
... (NVB), sold under the brand name Navelbine among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.[3] This includes breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer.[3] It is given by injection into a vein or by mouth.[3][1] Common side effects include bone marrow suppression, pain at the site of injection, vomiting, feeling tired, numbness, and diarrhea.[3] Other serious side effects include shortness of breath.[3] Use during pregnancy may harm the baby.[3] Vinorelbine is in the vinca alkaloid family of medications.[1] It is believed to work by disrupting the normal function of microtubules and thereby stopping cell division.[3] Vinorelbine was approved for medical use in the United States in 1994.[3] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[4] The wholesale price in the developing world as of 2014 is between 18.10 and 42.82 USD per 50 mg vial.[5] This amount in ...
Clinical symptoms include diarrhea, fever, fatigue, nausea, cough, pneumonia, abdominal pain, chills and rash. Laboratory abnormalities may include: neutropenia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia and elevated levels of liver enzymes. Idelalisib's safety and effectiveness to treat relapsed FL and relapsed SLL were established in a clinical trial with 123 participants with slow-growing (indolent) non-Hodgkin lymphomas. All participants were treated with idelalisib and were evaluated for complete or partial disappearance of their cancer after treatment (objective response rate, or ORR). Results showed 54% of participants with relapsed FL and 58% of participants with SLL experienced ORR.[7] The U.S. label for idelalisib has a boxed warning describing toxicities that can be serious and fatal, including liver toxicity, severe diarrhea, colon inflammation, lung tissue inflammation (pneumonitis) and intestinal perforation, and the manufacturer was required to put in place a Risk Evaluation and ...
... can lower the body's ability to fight off infection. Those taking it should get permission from a doctor to receive immunizations and vaccinations. It is also recommended that, while on the drug, one should avoid those having recently received oral polio vaccine. This drug was formerly not recommended during pregnancy and early evidence indicated pregnant women on the drug (or the related azathioprine) showed a seven-fold incidence of fetal abnormalities as well as a 20-fold increase in miscarriage.[12] There were also anecdotal reports linking mercaptopurine with spontaneous abortion, leading to the US FDA rating both AZA and mercaptopurine as category D drugs. However, Davis et al. 1999 found mercaptopurine, compared to methotrexate, was ineffective as a single-agent abortifacient; every woman in the mercaptopurine arm of the study had fetal cardiac activity at follow-up (two weeks later) and was given a suction abortion.[13] A more recent, larger study, however, performed by ...
After and/or before[11] the curative resection of colorectal cancer, chemotherapy based on 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid reduces the risk of relapse. The benefit is clinically relevant when cancer has spread to locoregional lymph nodes or penetrated through the wall of the rectum or colon (stage III, Dukes C). The addition of oxaliplatin improves relapse-free survival, but data on overall survival have not yet been published in extenso. When cancer has not spread to the locoregional lymph nodes, nor penetrated through the wall of the rectum or colon (stage II, Dukes B) the benefit of chemotherapy is marginal[citation needed] and the decision on whether to give adjuvant chemotherapy should be carefully evaluated by discussing with the patient the realistic benefits and the possible toxic side effects of treatment. This is even more relevant when the oncologist proposes treatment with oxaliplatin.[why?] ...
... (DTIC), also known as imidazole carboxamide, is a chemotherapy medication used in the treatment of melanoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma.[1] For Hodgkin's it is often used together with vinblastine, bleomycin, and doxorubicin.[1] It is given by injection into a vein.[1] Common side effects include loss of appetite, vomiting, low white blood cell count, and low platelets.[1] Other serious side effects include liver problems and allergic reactions.[1] It is unclear if use in pregnancy is safe for the baby.[1] Dacarbazine is in the alkylating agent and purine analog families of medication.[1] Dacarbazine was approved for medical use in the United States in 1975.[1] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[2] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$7.45-18.24 per 200 mg vial.[3] In the United Kingdom this dose costs the NHS about 7.50 pounds.[4] ...
CARMUSTINE (UNII: U68WG3173Y) (CARMUSTINE - UNII:U68WG3173Y). CARMUSTINE. 100 mg in 30 mL. ... BiCNU® (carmustine for injection). Each package includes a vial containing 100 mg carmustine and a vial containing 3 mL sterile ... The mechanism of action of carmustine is not fully understood. While carmustine alkylates DNA and RNA, it is not cross- ... BiCNU®(carmustine for injection) is indicated as palliative therapy as a single agent or in established combination therapy in ...
... biodegradable wafer containing the agent carmustine with antineoplastic activity. Used to deliver drug directly into a brain ... the wafer is made of a biodegradable poly-anhydride copolymer and contains the nitrosourea carmustine. ... carmustine implant A synthetic, biodegradable wafer containing the agent carmustine with antineoplastic activity. Used to ... Carmustine also carbamoylates proteins, including DNA repair enzymes, resulting in an enhanced cytotoxic effect. Carmustine is ...
Drug Information available for: Carmustine Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Glioblastoma Glioma Brain ... Dose escalation of carmustine in surgically implanted polymers in patients with recurrent malignant glioma: a New Approaches to ... Carmustine in Treating Patients With Recurrent Malignant Glioma. This study has been completed. ... At the time of surgery, groups of 6 patients receive up to 8 polifeprosan 20 wafers containing increasing doses of carmustine ...
Carmustine (BCNU) is an anticancer drug known to produce pulmonary fibrosis as a side effect within three years of treatment. ... Carmustine chemotherapy in childhood causes lung fibrosis that may remain asymptomatic for many years or become symptomatic at ... Active lung fibrosis up to 17 years after chemotherapy with carmustine (BCNU) in childhood.. ODriscoll BR1, Hasleton PS, ... To investigate the clinical range of this side effect, we studied the survivors among 31 children treated with carmustine for ...
Amneal Announces Approval of Carmustine for Injection USP, 100 mg/vial - Preparing for Launch PR Newswire BRIDGEWATER, N.J., ... carmustine) for injection, 100 mg. The Company is planning to commercialize its Carmustine for Injection in November 2018. ... According to IQVIA™, U.S. market annual sales for the 12 months ended August 2018 for Carmustine for Injection USP, 100 mg/vial ... Amneal Announces Approval of Carmustine for Injection USP, 100 mg/vial - Preparing for Launch PR Newswire ...
Carmustine can be an alternative option in the treatment of canine lymphoma. ... Cumulatives doses of carmustine ranged from 100 to 298 mg/m2. Six dogs (85,7%), achieved complete remission after induction ... Carmustine is a highly lipid-soluble chemotherapeutic agent in the nitrosourea subclass that rapidly crosses the blood-brain ... The dogs received 2 to 7 cycles chemotherapics with carmustine plus VCR (median 5) and 4 to 8 cycles (median 6) only with VCR. ...
Carmustine with NDC 68475-503 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by Navinta Llc. The generic name of Carmustine is ... Carmustine with NDC 68475-503 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by Navinta Llc. The generic name of Carmustine is ... 7.2 Effects Of Carmustine For Injection, Usp On Other Drugs. Phenytoin: Carmustine for injection, USP when coadministered with ... Carmustine for injection, USP. Each package includes a vial containing 100 mg carmustine and a vial containing 3 mL sterile ...
A clinical benefit for the widespread use of additional carmustine wafer implantation could not be found. However, carmustine ... In cases of 4q12 amplification and in cases of a methylated p15 promotor, the use of carmustine wafers is especially not ... Additional treatment with carmustine wafer (group B) compared to the control group (group A) did not result in improved OS (p ... In patients additionally treated with carmustine wafer an amplification of 4q12 showed a significant impact on a reduced OS (p ...
"Carmustine". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Carmustine Implant". MedlinePlus. Medicine portal. ... "Bicnu- carmustine kit". DailyMed. Retrieved 27 February 2021. "Gliadel- carmustine wafer". DailyMed. Retrieved 27 February 2021 ... Carmustine, sold under the brand name BiCNU among others, is a medication used mainly for chemotherapy. It is a nitrogen ... Carmustine for injection was marketed under the name BiCNU by Bristol-Myers Squibb and now[when?] by Emcure Pharmaceuticals. In ...
Carmustine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before receiving carmustine injection,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to carmustine or any of the ... Carmustine injection is used to treat certain types of brain tumors. Carmustine injection is also used along with prednisone to ... You should not become pregnant while you are receiving carmustine injection. If you become pregnant while receiving carmustine ...
Carmustine Implant: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before receiving carmustine implant,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to carmustine or any of the ... If you become pregnant while receiving carmustine implant, call your doctor. Carmustine may harm the fetus. ... Carmustine implant comes as a small wafer that is placed in the brain by a doctor during surgery to remove the brain tumor. The ...
This page contains brief information about carmustine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug ... Carmustine is also available in a different form called carmustine implant. For more information, see the Drug Information ... More About Carmustine. Definition from the NCI Drug Dictionary - Detailed scientific definition and other names for this drug. ... This page contains brief information about carmustine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug ...
Find information about Carmustine including usage and side effects. Browse our Drug Dictionary for generic drug names and brand ... Carmustine may damage some tissues and cause scarring around the injection site if it seeps out of the vein into which it is ... Carmustine is FDA approved to treat people who have myeloma (in combination with prednisone); relapsed or refractory Hodgkin ... Patients Disease Information Treatment Types of Treatment Chemotherapy and Other Drug Therapies Drug Listings Carmustine ...
CARMUSTINE, BCNU (kar MUS teen) is a chemotherapy drug. It interferes with the growth of rapidly growing cells like cancer ... Carmustine, BCNU injection. What is this medicine?. CARMUSTINE, BCNU (kar MUS teen) is a chemotherapy drug. It interferes with ... an unusual or allergic reaction to carmustine, BCNU, other chemotherapy, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives ...
Easy-to-read patient leaflet for Carmustine Intracranial Implant. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, ... Carmustine Intracranial Implant. Generic Name: Carmustine Intracranial Implant (kar MUS teen). Brand Name: Gliadel ... What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Carmustine Intracranial Implant?. *If you have an allergy to carmustine or any ... How do I store and/or throw out Carmustine Intracranial Implant?. *If you need to store carmustine intracranial implant at home ...
Carmustine is a chemotherapy drug used mostly for brain tumours. Find out about how you have it, possible side effects and ... Carmustine (BCNU). Carmustine is a chemotherapy drug and is also known by its brand name, BCNU. ... You usually have carmustine as a course of several cycles of treatment. Your treatment plan depends on what type of cancer you ... You have carmustine into your bloodstream (intravenously). Drugs into your bloodstream You have the treatment through a drip ...
Detailed Carmustine dosage information for adults. Includes dosages for Multiple Myeloma, Brain/Intracranial Tumor, non- ... polifeprosan 20 with carmustine implant (brand name = Gliadel Wafer):. Each wafer contains 7.7 mg of carmustine, resulting in a ... polifeprosan 20 with carmustine implant (brand name = Gliadel Wafer):. Each wafer contains 7.7 mg of carmustine, resulting in a ... Local soft tissue toxicity has been reported following extravasation of carmustine. Infiltration of carmustine may result in ...
Carmustine injection is used alone or together with other medicines to treat certain type of brain tumors (eg, glioblastoma, ... Carmustine belongs to the group of alkylating agents. It interferes with the growth of cancer cells, which are eventually ... Since the growth of normal body cells may also be affected by carmustine, other effects may occur. Some of these may be serious ... Before you begin treatment with carmustine, you and your doctor should talk about the benefits this medicine will do as well as ...
Read the side effects of Polifeprosan 20 with Carmustine as described in the medical literature. In case of any doubt consult ... Side effect(s) of Polifeprosan 20 with Carmustine Read the side effects of Polifeprosan 20 with Carmustine as described in the ... Polifeprosan 20 with Carmustine - Information. Polifeprosan 20 with Carmustine is an antineoplastic agent, prescribed for brain ...
The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during carmustine therapy and for 1 month after the last dose. ... No information is available on the use of carmustine during breastfeeding. Most sources consider breastfeeding to be ... contraindicated during maternal antineoplastic drug therapy, especially alkylating agents such as carmustine.[1] ... Carmustine - Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed). Carmustine - Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed). ...
Carmustine is used to treat brain tumors, Hodgkins disease, multiple myeloma, and non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Carmustine is ... Carmustine may also be used for purposes not listed... ... Carmustine is a cancer medicine that interferes with the growth ... What is carmustine?. Carmustine is a cancer medicine that interferes with the growth and spread of cancer cells in the body. ... How is carmustine given?. Carmustine is injected into a vein through an IV. A healthcare provider will give you this injection ...
Carmustine Implants in Treating Patients With Brain Metastases. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Carmustine. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating. Alkylating Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. ... PURPOSE: Phase II trial to study the effectiveness of implanted carmustine wafers in treating patients who have brain ... OUTLINE: Patients receive up to 8 polifeprosan 20 with carmustine implants (Gliadel wafers) implanted in the resected tumor ...
Carmustine, BCNU injection. What is this medicine?. CARMUSTINE, BCNU (kar MUS teen) is a chemotherapy drug. It interferes with ... an unusual or allergic reaction to carmustine, BCNU, other chemotherapy, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives ...
No known hypersensitivity to carmustine or Gliadel wafers. - No other serious concurrent medical illness or infection. PRIOR ... OUTLINE: Patients receive up to 8 polifeprosan 20 with carmustine implants (Gliadel wafers). implanted in the resected tumor ... tumors undergoing surgical resection treated with polifeprosan 20 with carmustine. implant (Gliadel wafers).. - Determine the ...
Evidence-based recommendations on carmustine implants Gliadel) and temozolomide (Temodal) for newly diagnosed high-grade glioma ... Carmustine implants and temozolomide for the treatment of newly diagnosed high-grade glioma. Technology appraisal guidance [ ... Evidence-based recommendations on carmustine implants (Gliadel) and temozolomide for treating newly diagnosed high-grade glioma ...
Carmustine applied locally in a biodegradable polymer at the time of primary operation, seems to have a favorable effect on the ... Interstitial chemotherapy with carmustine-loaded polymers for high-grade gliomas: a randomized double-blind study Neurosurgery ... Conclusion: Carmustine applied locally in a biodegradable polymer at the time of primary operation, seems to have a favorable ... Objective: To find out the effect of carmustine (bischloroethyl-nitrosourea) combined with a biodegradable polymer in the ...
Combination Therapy with AKT3 and PI3KCA siRNA Enhances the Antitumor Effect of Temozolomide and Carmustine in T98G ...
Evidence-based recommendations on carmustine implants Gliadel) and temozolomide (Temodal) for newly diagnosed high-grade glioma ... Carmustine implants. 3.1 Carmustine implants (Gliadel, Link Pharmaceuticals) are biodegradable copolymer discs impregnated with ... Carmustine implants and temozolomide for the treatment of newly diagnosed high-grade glioma. Technology appraisal guidance [ ... 3.2 Carmustine implants have a UK marketing authorisation for the treatment of newly diagnosed high-grade malignant glioma as ...
90 minutes weekly on weeks 1-4 and carmustine IV over 1 hour on weeks 1-6. Treatment. continues in the absence of disease ... Determine the toxic effects of irinotecan and carmustine in these patients.. OUTLINE: This is a dose escalation study of ... since prior chemotherapy No prior irinotecan or carmustine treatment failure No more than. 1 prior chemotherapy regimen ... combination with a fixed dose of carmustine in patients with recurrent primary malignant. glioma. II. ...
Carmustine Administer carmustine (irritant):. *via IV infusion over 2 hours *infusion of less than 2 hours may lead to ... Carmustine. 100 mg/m2 IV infusion. 4. Filgrastim ****. 5 micrograms/kg Subcut. 5 and 16 and continue daily until ANC> 1 x 109/L ... Carmustine. 100 mg/m2 IV infusion. 4. Filgrastim ****. 5 micrograms/kg Subcut. 5 and 16 and continue daily until ANC> 1 x 109/L ... Carmustine. 100 mg/m2 (IV infusion) in 500 mL glucose 5% over 2 hours (in non-PVC containers only). ...
... What is this medicine?. CARMUSTINE, BCNU (kar MUS teen) is a chemotherapy drug. It interferes ... an unusual or allergic reaction to carmustine, BCNU, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives ...
The present study aimed to explore the effect of MT induction on carmustine (BCNU)-induced hippocampal cognitive dysfunction in ... The present study aimed to explore the effect of MT induction on carmustine (BCNU)-induced hippocampal cognitive dysfunction in ... Reduces Caspase-3 Activity and Tnfα Levels with Preservation of Cognitive Function and Intact Hippocampal Neurons in Carmustine ...
  • Determine the safety of polifeprosan 20 with carmustine implant (GLIADEL) in patients undergoing surgery for recurrent malignant glioma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • At the time of surgery, groups of 6 patients receive up to 8 polifeprosan 20 wafers containing increasing doses of carmustine implanted into the resection cavity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Cumulatives doses of carmustine ranged from 100 to 298 mg/m 2 . (vin.com)
  • Active lung fibrosis up to 17 years after chemotherapy with carmustine (BCNU) in childhood. (nih.gov)
  • Carmustine chemotherapy in childhood causes lung fibrosis that may remain asymptomatic for many years or become symptomatic at any time. (nih.gov)
  • BRIDGEWATER, N.J., Oct. 19, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Amneal Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NYSE: AMRX), today announced that it has received FDA approval for a generic version of BiCNU® (carmustine) for injection, 100 mg. (pharmiweb.com)
  • In cases of 4q12 amplification and in cases of a methylated p15 promotor, the use of carmustine wafers is especially not recommended. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Amneal Announces Approval of Carmustine for Injection USP. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The Company is planning to commercialize its Carmustine for Injection in November 2018. (pharmiweb.com)
  • According to IQVIA™, U.S. market annual sales for the 12 months ended August 2018 for Carmustine for Injection USP, 100 mg/vial is estimated to be approximately $84 million. (pharmiweb.com)
  • See the Full Prescribing Information and Instructions for Use for Carmustine for Injection USP at https://www.amneal.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/Carmustine-for-Injection-USP-PI.pdf . (pharmiweb.com)
  • Carmustine for injection, USP is indicated as palliative therapy as a single agent or in established combination therapy in the following: Brain tumors glioblastoma, brainstem glioma, medulloblastoma, astrocytoma, ependymoma, and metastatic brain tumors. (ndclist.com)
  • PURPOSE: Phase I trial to study the effectiveness of carmustine in treating patients who are undergoing surgery for recurrent malignant glioma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To assess the influence of molecular markers with potential prognostic value to groups of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients were examined: group A with 36 patients (surgical resection plus standard combined chemoradiotherapy) and group B with 36 patients (surgical resection, standard combined chemoradiotherapy plus carmustine wafer implantation). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In patients additionally treated with carmustine wafer an amplification of 4q12 showed a significant impact on a reduced OS ( p = 0.00835). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Whether carmustine wafer implantation is recommendable or not could depend on patients' individual (genetic) characteristics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A synthetic, biodegradable wafer containing the agent carmustine with antineoplastic activity. (cancer.gov)
  • Used to deliver drug directly into a brain tumor site and typically implanted post-surgically, the wafer is made of a biodegradable poly-anhydride copolymer and contains the nitrosourea carmustine. (cancer.gov)
  • As an antineoplastic nitrosourea, carmustine alkylates and cross-links DNA during all phases of the cell cycle, resulting in disruption of DNA function, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. (cancer.gov)
  • Carmustine is a highly lipid-soluble chemotherapeutic agent in the nitrosourea subclass that rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier and acts as a nonphase-specific alkylant agent. (vin.com)
  • After feeling well enough to go for an early morning run yesterday, I was given 6 hours of chemo-Etoposide and Carmustine. (wordpress.com)
  • A chemotherapeutic protocol using carmustine-BCNU (50mg/m 2 at 6 weeks intervals) associated with vincristine (0,75mg/m 2 at 3 weeks intervals) and prednisone (40 mg/m 2 each other day) was evaluated in dogs with malignant lymphoma. (vin.com)
  • Phenobarbital: Induces carmustine metabolism, reducing exposure. (nih.gov)
  • However, carmustine wafer implantation shows a significantly improved overall survival if parts of chromosome 10 or chromosome 13 are deleted. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Carmustine (BCNU) is an anticancer drug known to produce pulmonary fibrosis as a side effect within three years of treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Carmustine can be an alternative option in the treatment of canine lymphoma. (vin.com)
  • Additional treatment with carmustine wafer (group B) compared to the control group (group A) did not result in improved OS ( p = 0.562). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Carmustine is highly lipophilic and crosses the blood-brain barrier readily. (cancer.gov)
  • To investigate the clinical range of this side effect, we studied the survivors among 31 children treated with carmustine for brain tumors between 1972 and 1976. (nih.gov)
  • A clinical benefit for the widespread use of additional carmustine wafer implantation could not be found. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The generic name of Carmustine is carmustine. (ndclist.com)
  • CARMUSTINE, BCNU (kar MUS teen) is a chemotherapy drug. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • Carmustine is a chemotherapy drug and is also known by its brand name, BCNU. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Active lung fibrosis up to 17 years after chemotherapy with carmustine (BCNU) in childhood. (nih.gov)
  • Carmustine (BCNU) is an anticancer drug known to produce pulmonary fibrosis as a side effect within three years of treatment. (nih.gov)
  • The current study was undertaken to examine the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the AKT3 and PIK3CA genes on the susceptibility of T98G cells to temozolomide (TMZ) and carmustine (BCNU). (springer.com)
  • The present study aimed to explore the effect of MT induction on carmustine (BCNU)-induced hippocampal cognitive dysfunction in rats. (hindawi.com)
  • Combination of both treatment strategies, local chemotherapy with BCNU wafer and concomitant radiochemotherapy, appears attractive in aggressive multimodal treatment schedules and may utilize the sensitizing effect of TMZ and carmustine on MGMT and AGT on their respective drug resistance genes. (virtualtrials.com)
  • A chemotherapeutic protocol using carmustine-BCNU (50mg/m 2 at 6 weeks intervals) associated with vincristine (0,75mg/m 2 at 3 weeks intervals) and prednisone (40 mg/m 2 each other day) was evaluated in dogs with malignant lymphoma. (vin.com)
  • Carmustine (BCNU), lomustine (CCNU), and semustine (methyl-CCNu) are chemically unstable, forming highly reactive decomposition products. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Chloro ethyl nitroso urea (CENU), specifically carmustine (BCNU), are crosslinking agents that are widely used in chemotherapy, particularly for brain tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • These wafers have concentrated doses of the drug carmustine (BiCNU, BCNU), which is released into the brain tissue as the wafers break down. (cancer.ca)
  • Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate strategies to overcome the resistance of anaplastic gliomas of the brain to external beam radiotherapy (ERT) plus carmustine (BCNU). (elsevier.com)
  • What are the possible side effects of carmustine? (peacehealth.org)
  • Common side effects of carmustine include nausea, vomiting, and headache. (rxwiki.com)
  • The side effects of carmustine and their severity depend on how much of the drug is given. (chemocare.com)
  • A synthetic, biodegradable wafer containing the agent carmustine with antineoplastic activity. (cancer.gov)
  • Used to deliver drug directly into a brain tumor site and typically implanted post-surgically, the wafer is made of a biodegradable poly-anhydride copolymer and contains the nitrosourea carmustine. (cancer.gov)
  • For more detail, see "How carmustine wafer works" section below). (chemocare.com)
  • Gliadel® wafer is a form of the medication carmustine that can be placed and left in the cavity after surgical removal of a brain tumor. (chemocare.com)
  • The carmustine wafer allows for delivery of the drug directly to the site of the brain tumor. (chemocare.com)
  • Most people will not experience all of the carmustine wafer side effects listed. (chemocare.com)
  • Carmustine wafer side effects are often predictable in terms of their onset and duration. (chemocare.com)
  • Carmustine wafer side effects will improve after therapy is complete. (chemocare.com)
  • Carmustine wafer side effects may be quite manageable. (chemocare.com)
  • There is no relationship between the presence or severity of side effects and the effectiveness of carmustine wafer. (chemocare.com)
  • These side effects may occur after brain surgery alone, however, they may occur more frequently when carmustine wafer is used. (chemocare.com)
  • Before receiving treatment with carmustine wafer, make sure you tell your doctor about any other medications you are taking (including prescription, over-the-counter, vitamins, herbal remedies, etc. (chemocare.com)
  • The effects of carmustine wafer on the developing fetus are unknown. (chemocare.com)
  • Implantation of carmustine wafer can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. (chemocare.com)
  • See separate listing "carmustine wafer" for more details regarding this formulation). (chemocare.com)
  • Read the side effects of Polifeprosan 20 with Carmustine as described in the medical literature. (medindia.net)
  • Other medications may also interact with carmustine, so be sure to tell your doctor about all the medications you are taking, even those that do not appear on this list. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Other drugs may interact with carmustine, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. (peacehealth.org)
  • Other medications may interact with carmustine. (rxwiki.com)
  • Parameters used to populate the Markov model were derived from the extant primary literature for patients undergoing surgical resection with either carmustine or placebo for glioblastoma multiforme. (arizona.edu)
  • As an antineoplastic nitrosourea, carmustine alkylates and cross-links DNA during all phases of the cell cycle, resulting in disruption of DNA function, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. (cancer.gov)
  • Carmustine alkylates and cross-links DNA strands, inhibiting cell proliferation. (medscape.com)
  • If you become pregnant while receiving carmustine, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The disc allows for controlled release of carmustine in the extracellular fluid of the brain, thus eliminating the need for the encapsulated drug to cross the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence-based recommendations on carmustine implants (Gliadel) and temozolomide for treating newly diagnosed high-grade glioma in adults. (nice.org.uk)
  • OBJECTIVES: I. Determine the maximum tolerated dose of irinotecan administered in combination with a fixed dose of carmustine in patients with recurrent primary malignant glioma. (knowcancer.com)
  • The recommended dose of Carmustine as a single agent in previously untreated patients is 150 to 200 mg/m 2 intravenously every 6 weeks. (imedi.co.uk)
  • The AGT-inhibitors increase the efficacy of carmustine by inhibiting the direct reversal pathway of DNA repair, which will prevent formation of the interstrand crosslink between the N1 of guanine and the N3 of cytosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • PURPOSE: Phase I trial to study the effectiveness of carmustine in treating patients who are undergoing surgery for recurrent malignant glioma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This mostly happens when you have high doses of carmustine. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Carmustine can also cause serious lung problems, especially if you receive high doses. (peacehealth.org)
  • Cumulatives doses of carmustine ranged from 100 to 298 mg/m 2 . (vin.com)
  • Pulmonary toxicity (damage to the lungs) is uncommon in low doses of carmustine. (chemocare.com)
  • Your doctor will check your lung function prior to the start of carmustine and will order periodic checks (pulmonary function tests), particularly if you are receiving high doses of carmustine. (chemocare.com)
  • citation needed] Carmustine is used as an alkylating agent to treat several types of brain cancer including glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, medulloblastoma and astrocytoma), multiple myeloma, and lymphoma (Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin). (wikipedia.org)
  • Carmustine is used to treat brain tumors, Hodgkin's disease, multiple myeloma, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (peacehealth.org)
  • Carmustine is a prescription medication used to treat certain types of brain tumors, multiple myeloma (cancer of the bone marrow), and Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (cancers of the immune system). (rxwiki.com)
  • Other cancers treated with carmustine include multiple myeloma, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and may be used on the skin (topically) for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. (chemocare.com)
  • Carmustine can be an alternative option in the treatment of canine lymphoma. (vin.com)
  • The Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has recommended approval of the generic medication Carmustine Obvius (carmustine) for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma , Hodgkin's lymphoma , and brain tumors. (lymphomanewstoday.com)
  • As an alkylating agent, carmustine can form interstrand crosslinks in DNA, which prevents DNA replication and DNA transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to compare toxicity of single agent carmustine and carmustine plus bevacizumab for patients with HGGs. (springer.com)
  • The addition of bevacizumab to carmustine did not increase incidence or grade of hematologic toxicity when compared to single agent carmustine. (springer.com)
  • At the recommended dosage, courses of Carmustine would not be given more frequently than every 6 weeks. (imedi.co.uk)
  • 3.2 Carmustine implants have a UK marketing authorisation for the treatment of newly diagnosed high-grade malignant glioma as an adjunct to surgery and radiation, and for the treatment of recurrent GBM as an adjunct to surgery. (nice.org.uk)
  • First-line treatment of malignant glioma with carmustine implants followed by concomitant radiochemotherapy: a mu lticenter experience. (virtualtrials.com)
  • External beam irradiation and the combination of cisplatin and carmustine followed by carmustine alone for the treatment of high-grade glioma: a phase 2 Southwest Oncology Group trial. (virtualtrials.com)
  • This single center retrospective study at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center included pathologically confirmed HGG with age ≥ 18 years who received carmustine between January 2003 and May 2017. (springer.com)
  • You should not be treated with carmustine if you are allergic to it. (peacehealth.org)
  • Before receiving carmustine, tell your doctor if you are allergic to it. (rxwiki.com)
  • Carmustine also can cause lung damage, even years after treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The lung damage can cause death, especially in patients treated with carmustine as children. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Carmustine can also cause serious lung problems. (peacehealth.org)
  • Carmustine chemotherapy in childhood causes lung fibrosis that may remain asymptomatic for many years or become symptomatic at any time. (nih.gov)
  • Carmustine can cause lung damage that may be revealed years after treatment. (rxwiki.com)
  • The risk of lung damage, which has caused death in people who received this medication as children, is increased in people who receive carmustine treatments lasting for a long duration. (rxwiki.com)
  • Before receiving carmustine, tell your doctor if you have lung disease, or if you have ever had lung disease. (rxwiki.com)
  • Carmustine also carbamoylates proteins, including DNA repair enzymes, resulting in an enhanced cytotoxic effect. (cancer.gov)
  • Carmustine is an anti-cancer ("antineoplastic" or "cytotoxic") chemotherapy drug. (chemocare.com)
  • It is important for you to tell your doctor how you are feeling during your treatment with carmustine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Carmustine is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer . (cancer.gov)
  • You usually have carmustine as a course of several cycles of treatment. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Carmustine treatment into your bloodstream usually takes 1 or 2 hours, sometimes longer. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Before you begin treatment with carmustine, you and your doctor should talk about the benefits this medicine will do as well as the risks. (mayoclinic.org)
  • This is the first study to report the toxicity of carmustine with or without bevacizumab for the treatment of recurrent and refractory HGG. (springer.com)
  • The agency proposes prescription of Carmustine Obvius by experienced physicians in the treatment of cancer patients. (lymphomanewstoday.com)
  • Male patients should use adequate contraceptives measures during treatment with Carmustine for at least 6 months to prevent their partners becoming pregnant. (imedi.co.uk)
  • This page contains brief information about carmustine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials. (cancer.gov)
  • Most sources consider breastfeeding to be contraindicated during maternal antineoplastic drug therapy, especially alkylating agents such as carmustine. (nih.gov)
  • This is not a complete list of carmustine drug interactions. (rxwiki.com)
  • Carmustine with NDC 70710-1525 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by Zydus Pharmaceuticals Usa Inc.. The generic name of Carmustine is carmustine. (ndclist.com)
  • Carmustine with NDC 68475-503 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by Navinta Llc. (ndclist.com)
  • Carmustine (kar-MUS-teen) is a drug that is used to treat many types of cancer. (leukemiabmtprogram.org)
  • SWOG 9016 study included 59 eligible patients with grade III or IV astrocytoma who received radiotherapy concurrently with carmustine/cisplatin chemotherapy. (virtualtrials.com)
  • Carmustine is a highly lipid-soluble chemotherapeutic agent in the nitrosourea subclass that rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier and acts as a nonphase-specific alkylant agent. (vin.com)
  • Carmustine belongs to a group of anticancer substances known as nitrosourea that act by slowing the growth of cancer cells. (imedi.co.uk)
  • Carmustine will always be given to you by a healthcare professional with experience in the use of anticancer agents. (imedi.co.uk)
  • Your doctor or pharmacist can provide more information about carmustine. (peacehealth.org)
  • Talk to your doctor, pharmacist or nurse before using Carmustine. (imedi.co.uk)
  • The generic name of Carmustine is carmustine. (ndclist.com)
  • To investigate the clinical range of this side effect, we studied the survivors among 31 children treated with carmustine for brain tumors between 1972 and 1976. (nih.gov)
  • Tagged brain tumors , Carmubris , carmustine , Carmustine Obvius , Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) , European Medicines Agency (EMA) , Obvius Investment B.V. . (lymphomanewstoday.com)
  • After determination of safety and distribution, mice bearing VUMC-DIPG-3 and E98FM-DIPG brainstem tumors were treated with carmustine dissolved in DW 5% or carmustine dissolved in 10% ethanol. (qxmd.com)
  • CED of carmustine dissolved in 5% DW increased median survival of mice with VUMC-DIPG-3 and E98FM-DIPG tumors with 35% and 25% respectively. (qxmd.com)
  • Dissolving carmustine in 10% ethanol further improved survival to 45% in mice with E98FM-DIPG tumors. (qxmd.com)
  • The active ingredient of Carmustine Obvius, carmustine, prevents DNA replication (making a copy of a DNA strand during cell division) and transcription (the first step of gene expression), in which DNA in converted into messenger RNA. (lymphomanewstoday.com)
  • Find Clinical Trials for Carmustine - Check for trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials now accepting patients. (cancer.gov)
  • Carmustine works by stopping the cancer cells from dividing into 2 new cells. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Carmustine is a cancer medicine that interferes with the growth and spread of cancer cells in the body. (peacehealth.org)
  • Carmustine is sometimes given with other cancer medicines. (peacehealth.org)
  • Carmustine treats certain types of cancer. (rxwiki.com)
  • The amount of carmustine that you will receive depends on many factors, including your height and weight, your general health or other health problems, and the type of cancer or condition being treated. (chemocare.com)
  • There is a slight risk of developing a blood cancer such as leukemia after taking carmustine. (chemocare.com)