A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE causing encephalitis and myocarditis in rodents. ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS is the type species.
Infections caused by viruses of the genus CARDIOVIRUS, family PICORNAVIRIDAE.
A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, isolated from rodents and lagomorphs and occasionally causing febrile illness in man.
The type species of CARDIOVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis and myocarditis in rodents, pigs, and monkeys. Infection in man has been reported with CNS involvement but without myocarditis.
A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.
A species of CARDIOVIRUS which contains three strains: Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus, and Rat encephalomyelitis virus.
A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, usually causing an inapparent intestinal infection in mice. A small number of mice may show signs of flaccid paralysis.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
An acute, diffuse, and suppurative inflammation of loose connective tissue, particularly the deep subcutaneous tissues, and sometimes muscle, which is most commonly seen as a result of infection of a wound, ulcer, or other skin lesions.
Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.
Institutions specializing in the care of patients with heart disorders.
Surgery performed on the heart.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An order of CRUSTACEA comprised of shrimp-like organisms containing body trunks with at least 20 segments. The are commonly used as aquarium food.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of DNA plant viruses with bacilliform morphology. Transmission in clonally-propagated plants is by vegetative propagation of infected plant materials. Transmission in nature is by mealybugs, seeds, and pollen. The type species is Commelina yellow mottle virus.
A genus of DNA plant viruses of the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE. The sole species, Rice tungro bacilliform virus, shows 25% identity with BADNAVIRUS. It is transmitted by leafhoppers with the assistance of RICE TUNGRO SPHERICAL VIRUS.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
Relating to the size of solids.
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
A subdiscipline of human genetics which entails the reliable prediction of certain human disorders as a function of the lineage and/or genetic makeup of an individual or of any two parents or potential parents.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Theiler's viruses with mutations in loop I of VP1 lead to altered tropism and pathogenesis. (1/262)

Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis viruses are picornaviruses that can infect the central nervous system. The DA strain produces an acute polioencephalomyelitis followed by a chronic demyelinating disease in its natural host, the mouse. The ability of DA virus to induce a demyelinating disease renders this virus infection a model for human demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Here we describe the generation and characterization of DA virus mutants that contain specific mutations in the viral capsid protein VP1 at sites believed to be important contact regions for the cellular receptor(s). A mutant virus with a threonine-to-aspartate (T81D) substitution in VP1 loop I adjacent to the putative virus receptor binding site exhibited a large-plaque phenotype but had a slower replication cycle in vitro. When this mutant virus was injected into susceptible mice, an altered tropism was seen during the acute stage of the disease and the chronic demyelinating disease was not produced. A virus with a threonine-to-valine substitution (T81V) did not cause any changes in the pattern or extent of disease seen in mice, whereas a virus with a tryptophan substitution at this position (T81W) produced a similar acute disease but was attenuated for the development of the chronic disease. A change in amino acids in a hydrophobic patch located in the wall of the pit, VP1 position 91, to a hydrophilic threonine (V91T) resulted in a profound attenuation of the acute and chronic disease without persistence of virus. This report illustrates the importance of the loop I of VP1 and a site in the wall of the pit in pathogenesis and that amino acid substitutions at these sites result in altered virus-host interactions.  (+info)

Differentiation of M1 myeloid precursor cells into macrophages results in binding and infection by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus and apoptosis. (2/262)

Infection of susceptible mouse strains with BeAn, a less virulent strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), results in immune system-mediated demyelinating lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) similar to those in multiple sclerosis. Since macrophages appear to carry the major detectable antigen burden in vivo, and purification of sufficient cell numbers from the CNS for detailed analysis is difficult, macrophage-like cell lines provide an accessible system with which to study virus-macrophage interactions. The myeloid precursor cell line M1 differentiates in response to cytokines and expresses many characteristics of tissue macrophages. Incubation of TMEV with undifferentiated M1 cells produced neither infection nor apoptosis, whereas differentiated M1 (M1-D) cells developed a restricted virus infection and changes indicative of apoptosis. Virus binding and RNA replication as well as cellular production of alpha/beta interferons increased with differentiation. Although the amount of infectious virus was highly restricted, BeAn-infected M1-D cells synthesized and appropriately processed virus capsid proteins at levels comparable to those for permissive BHK-21 cells. Analysis of Bcl-2 protein family expression in undifferentiated and differentiated cells suggests that susceptibility of M1-D cells to apoptosis may be controlled, in part, by expression of the proapoptotic alpha isoform of Bax and Bak. These data suggest that macrophage differentiation plays a role in susceptibility to TMEV infection and apoptosis.  (+info)

Pimobendan inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines and gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in a murine model of viral myocarditis. (3/262)

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to examine the effects of pimobendan in a murine model of viral myocarditis in relation to proinflammatory cytokine production and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the heart. BACKGROUND: Pimobendan has been recently confirmed to improve both acute and chronic heart failure. Since the modulation of myocardial necrosis and contractile dysfunction by various proinflammatory cytokines may be partially mediated by the production of nitric oxide, the effects of pimobendan on the production ofproinflammatory cytokines and NO were investigated in an animal model of viral myocarditis involving heart failure. METHODS: DBA/2 mice were inoculated with the encephalomyocarditis virus. To observe its effect on survival up to 14 days, pimobendan (0.1 mg/kg or 1 mg/kg) or vehicles were given from the day of virus inoculation (day 0) orally once daily. The effects of pimobendan on histological changes, cytokine production, NO production and iNOS gene expression in the heart were studied in mice treated either with pimobendan, 1 mg/kg or with vehicles only, and sacrificed seven days after virus inoculation. RESULTS: The survival of mice improved in a dose-dependent fashion such that a significant difference (p < 0.02) was found between the higher-dose pimobendan group (20 of 30 [66.7%]) and the control group (11 of 30 [36.7%]). Histological scores for cellular infiltration (1.1+/-0.1 vs. 2.0+/-0.0, p < 0.001), intracardiac tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (18.2+/-1.8 vs. 35.8+/-4.2 pg/mg heart, p < 0.001) and interleukin (IL)-1beta (9.3 +/-1.2 vs. 26.6+/-7.1 pg/mg heart, p < 0.01) were significantly lower in the mice given pimobendan versus those of the control mice. Interleukin-6 levels (7.1+/-0.8 vs. 9.2+/-1.9 pg/mg heart) were also lower in the mice treated with pimobendan. Furthermore, intracardiac NO production was significantly (p < 0.001) less in the pimobendan group (0.165+/-0.004 nmol/mg heart) than in the control group (0.291+/-0.051 nmol/mg heart), and intracardiac iNOS gene expression in the mice given pimobendan was 74% lower than it was in the control animals (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the beneficial effects of pimobendan in viral myocarditis are partially mediated by the inhibition of both proinflammatory cytokine production and NO synthesis by iNOS.  (+info)

Targeted overexpression of elafin protects mice against cardiac dysfunction and mortality following viral myocarditis. (4/262)

Serine elastases degrade elastin, stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, and are associated with myocardial damage. To evaluate the impact of elastase inhibition on cardiovascular development and disease, transgenic mice were created in which the mouse preproendothelin-1 promoter was used to target elafin overexpression to the cardiovascular system. To distinguish the transgene from endogenous elafin, constructs were made incorporating a FLAG sequence; the COOH-terminus FLAG-tagged elafin construct produced a stable, functionally active gene product and was used to create transgenic mice. Consistent with endothelin expression, abundant elafin mRNA was observed in transgenic F1 embryos (embryonic day 13.5) and in adult transgenic mice heart, trachea, aorta, kidney, lung, and skin, but not in liver, spleen, and intestine. Functional activity of the transgene was confirmed by heightened myocardial elastase inhibitory activity. No tissue abnormalities were detected by light microscopy or elastin content. However, injection of 10 plaque-forming units (PFU) of encephalomyocarditis virus resulted in death within 11 days in 10 out of 12 nontransgenic mice compared with one out of nine transgenic littermates. This reduced mortality was associated with better cardiac function and less myocardial inflammatory damage. Thus, elafin expression may confer a protective advantage in myocarditis and other inflammatory diseases.  (+info)

Encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus infection in PC12 and C6 cells. (5/262)

PC12 cells derived rom rat pheochromocytoma and C6 cells derived from rat glioma were infected with 0.3 plaque forming units (PFU)/cell of the D variant of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC-D), after pretreatment with or without nerve growth factor (NGF). The virus titres in medium and cells were investigated at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post infection (HPI), and histopathology and viral antigens in cells were examined at 24 and 48 HPI, respectively. As a result, neither viral replication nor light and electron microscopic changes were observed in PC12 cell cultures without NGF-pretreatment. On the contrary, in PC12 cell cultures with NGF-pretreatment, the virus titre prominently increased at 12 HPI, and peaked at 48 HPI. In addition, distinct histological and ultrastructural changes with viral antigens in cells were observed. C6 cells showed similar morphology and susceptibility to EMC-D-infection irrespective of NGF-pretreatment. Namely, the virus titres in C6 cell cultures increased slightly and viral antigens were found in a small number of C6 cells, but there were no evident histological and ultrastructural changes. These results suggest that PC12 cells pretreated with NGF and C6 cells are susceptible to EMC-D infection in vitro.  (+info)

Interstitial fibrin-fibronectin deposition with T cell infiltrates precedes fibrosis in murine viral myocarditis. (6/262)

This study was carried out to investigate interstitial fibrin and fibronectin deposition and subsequent myocardial connective tissue abnormalities in BALB/c-nu/+ (euthymic and normal T cell function) and BALB/c-nu/nu (athymic and T cell-deficient) mice. Both types of mice were inoculated with encephalomyocarditis virus and sacrificed periodically. Sections of the hearts were stained with haematoxylin-eosin, trichrome, lymphocyte subsets, silver impregnation, and fibrin or fibronectin. In addition, myocardial collagen concentration was measured. Interstitial fibrin and fibronectin appeared in parallel with inflammatory T lymphocytes and myocardial necrosis in the BALB/c-nu/+ mice. The changes increased until 14 days, subsequently decreasing with time. Interstitial fibrosis and abnormal reticulin fibres were absent until 7 days postinfection, and then increased with time until 60 days. In BALB/c-nu/nu mice, in contrast, although myocardial necrosis and fibrin-fibronectin deposition associated with immature T lymphocytes were evident on days 7 and 14, subsequent myocardial fibrosis and reticulin fibre abnormalities were minimal on days 30 and 60. In BALB/c-nu/+ mice, myocardial collagen concentration increased on day 30, but it did not in BALB/c-nu/nu mice. Thus, interstitial fibrin-fibronectin deposition resulting from virus-induced and T lymphocyte-mediated myocyte necrosis precedes the subsequent development of interstitial fibrosis and abnormal reticulin architectures in this model of murine myocarditis.  (+info)

Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus infection induces early expression of c-fos in astrocytes. (7/262)

We have determined whether Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), a picornavirus that produces demyelination in genetically susceptible strains of mice, induces c-fos in pure quiescent cultures of mouse brain astrocytes. As observed in Northern blots, the expression of this immediate early gene increases in a dose-dependent manner, with its expression peaking at a multiplicity of infection of 100. The expression of c-fos is transient, peaking after 30 min and disappearing 2 h after infection. The virus is quickly internalized at 37 degrees C upon binding to its specific receptor located at the cell surface and is actively replicated in the cytoplasm of the astrocytes, as demonstrated by FACS flow cytometry. Using the same technique, nuclear translation of c-fos mRNA is also shown. The specificity of viral induction is demonstrated by its neutralization with TMEV-specific antibodies and by the fact that only viral particles and not purified protein components VP1, VP2, and VP3 induced proto-oncogene expression. This rapid induction of c-fos in astrocytes could be the first stage in the infection of these central nervous system cell populations by TMEV. The biological relevance of these findings is assessed by the demonstration of c-fos activation after viral infection in vivo.  (+info)

Potential role of CD4+ T cell-mediated apoptosis of activated astrocytes in Theiler's virus-induced demyelination. (8/262)

Intracerebral inoculation of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) into susceptible mouse strains results in a chronic, immune-mediated demyelinating disease similar to human multiple sclerosis. Here, we examined the role of astrocytes as an APC population in TMEV-induced demyelination and assessed the potential consequences of T cell activation following Ag presentation. IFN-gamma-pretreated astrocytes were able to process and present all the predominant T cell epitopes of TMEV to virus-specific T cell hybridomas, clones, as well as bulk T cells. Despite low levels of proliferation of T cells due to prostaglandins produced by astrocytes, such Ag presentation by activated astrocytes induced the production of IFN-gamma, a representative proinflammatory cytokine, in TMEV-specific Th cell clones derived from the CNS of virus-infected mice. Furthermore, these Th cell clones mediate lysis of the astrocytes in vitro in a Fas-dependent mechanism. TUNEL staining of CNS tissue demonstrates the presence of apoptotic GFAP+ cells in the white matter of TMEV-infected mice. These results strongly suggest that astrocytes could play an important role in the pathogenesis of TMEV-induced demyelination by activating T cells, subsequently leading to T cell-mediated apoptosis of astrocytes and thereby compromising the blood-brain barrier.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Endogenous presentation of self myelin epitopes by CNS-resident APCs in Theilers virus-infected mice. AU - Katz-Levy, Yael. AU - Neville, Katherine L.. AU - Girvin, Ann M.. AU - Vanderlugt, Carol L.. AU - Pope, Jonathan G.. AU - Tan, Lit Jen. AU - Miller, Stephen D.. PY - 1999/9. Y1 - 1999/9. N2 - The mechanisms underlying the initiation of virus-induced autoimmune disease are not well understood. Theilers murine encephalomyelitis virus- induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, is initiated by TMEV-specific CD4+ T cells targeting virally infected central nervous system-resident (CNS-resident) antigen-presenting cells (APCs), leading-to chronic activation of myelin epitope-specific CD4+ T cells via epitope spreading. Here we show that F4/80+, I-A5+, CD45+ macrophages/microglia isolated from the CNS of TMEV-infected SJL mice have the ability to endogenously process and present virus epitopes at both acute and chronic stages of the disease. ...
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Cardiovirus is a genus of viruses in the order Picornavirales, in the family Picornaviridae. Human and vertebrates serve as natural hosts. There are currently three species in this genus including the type species Cardiovirus A. Diseases associated with this genus include: myocarditis. Cardiovirus A has only one serotype, while Cardiovirus B consists of four viruses which are probably serologically distinct; these are Theilers Murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus (VHEV), a Theiler-like rat virus (TRV) (which has yet to be named) and Saffold virus (SAF-V). Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Picornavirales Family: Picornaviridae Genus: Cardiovirus Cardiovirus A Cardiovirus B Cardiovirus C Viruses in Cardiovirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral, Spherical, and Round geometries, and T=pseudo3 symmetry. The diameter is around 30 nm. Genomes are linear and non-segmented, around 7.8kb in length. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by ...
The first human virus in the genus Cardiovirus was described in 2007 and named Saffold virus (SAFV). Cardioviruses can cause severe infections of the myocardium and central nervous system in animals, but SAFV has not yet been convincingly associated with disease in humans. To study a possible association between SAFV and infections in the human central nervous system, we designed a real-time PCR for SAFV and tested cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from children ...
Viral encephalitis is a dangerous compromise between the need to robustly clear pathogen from the brain and the need to protect neurons from bystander injury. Theilers murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection of C57Bl/6 mice is a model of viral encephalitis in which the compromise results in hippocampal damage and permanent neurological sequelae. We previously identified brain-infiltrating inflammatory monocytes as the primary driver of this hippocampal pathology, but the mechanisms involved in recruiting these cells to the brain were unclear. Chemokine expression levels in the hippocampus were assessed by microarray, ELISA, RT-PCR, and immunofluorescence. Monocyte infiltration during acute TMEV infection was measured by flow cytometry. CCL2 levels were manipulated by immunodepletion and by specific removal from neurons in mice generated by crossing a line expressing the Cre recombinase behind the synapsin promoter to animals with floxed CCL2. Inoculation of the brain with TMEV induced
Multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently starts near the lateral ventricles, which are lined by subventricular zone (SVZ) progenitor cells that can migrate to lesions and contribute to repair. Because MS-induced inflammation may decrease SVZ proliferation and thus limit repair, we studied the role of galectin-3 (Gal-3), a proinflammatory protein. Gal-3 expression was increased in periventricular regions of human MS in post-mortem brain samples and was also upregulated in periventricular regions in a murine MS model, Theilers murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection. Whereas TMEV increased SVZ chemokine (CCL2, CCL5, CCL, and CXCL10) expression in wild type (WT) mice, this was inhibited in Gal-3(-/-) mice. Though numerous CD45+ immune cells entered the SVZ of WT mice after TMEV infection, their numbers were significantly diminished in Gal-3(-/-) mice. TMEV also reduced neuroblast and proliferative SVZ cell numbers in WT mice but this was restored in Gal-3(-/-) mice and was correlated with increased
Free Online Library: New Saffold cardioviruses in 3 children, Canada.(DISPATCHES, Clinical report) by Emerging Infectious Diseases; Health, general Children Care and treatment Diagnosis Risk factors Pediatric diseases Picornavirus infections Picornaviruses Genetic aspects
Although picornavirus RNA genomes contain a 3-terminal poly(A) tract that is critical for their replication, the impact of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection on the host poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) remains unknown. Here, we establish that EMCV infection stimulates site-specific PABP proteolysis, resulting in accumulation of a 45-kDa N-terminal PABP fragment in virus-infected cells. Expression of a functional EMCV 3C proteinase was necessary and sufficient to stimulate PABP cleavage in uninfected cells, and bacterially expressed 3C cleaved recombinant PABP in vitro in the absence of any virus-encoded or eukaryotic cellular cofactors. N-terminal sequencing of the resulting C-terminal PABP fragment identified a 3C(pro) cleavage site on PABP between amino acids Q437 and G438, severing the C-terminal protein-interacting domain from the N-terminal RNA binding fragment. Single amino acid substitution mutants with changes at Q437 were resistant to 3C(pro) cleavage in vitro and in vivo, ...
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Definition of Encephalomyocarditis virus with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Izumi K, Mine K, Inoue Y, Teshima M, Ogawa S, Kai Y, Kurafuji T, Hirakawa K, Miyakawa D, Ikeda H, Inada A, Hara M, Yamada H, Akashi K, Niho Y, Ina K, Kobayashi T, Yoshikai Y, Anzai K, Yamashita T, Minagawa H, Fujimoto S, Kurisaki H, Shimoda K, Katsuta H, Nagafuchi S. Reduced Tyk2 gene expression in ß-cells due to natural mutation determines susceptibility to virus-induced diabetes. Nat Commun. 2015 Apr 07; 6:6748 ...
Definition of Encephalomyocarditis with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
The Cardiovirus genus is divided into two species: the Encephalomyocarditis species, which includes encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and mengovirus, and the Theilovirus species, which includes Theilers murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus (VHEV), and Saffold virus (SAFV). This chapter discusses members of the Cardiovirus genus and distinctive characteristics of these viruses. It focuses on the pathogenesis of TMEV-induced disease because of the extensive investigations of this topic as well as the remarkable ability of this virus to establish lifelong infection of the central nervous system (CNS) and to produce an immune-mediated demyelinating disease. There are many features of cardioviruses, and especially TMEV, that make them attractive for pathogenesis studies, including the following: the unusual and rather unique characteristics of TMEV strains and TMEV-induced diseases (neurovirulent versus persistent strains, acute versus chronic disease, virus-induced
TY - JOUR. T1 - Infiltrating macrophages are key to the development of seizures following virus infection. AU - Cusick, Matthew F.. AU - Libbey, Jane E.. AU - Patel, Dipan C.. AU - Doty, Daniel J.. AU - Fujinamia, Robert S.. PY - 2013/2. Y1 - 2013/2. N2 - Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can trigger an antiviral immune response, which initiates an inflammatory cascade to control viral replication and dissemination. The extent of the proinflammatory response in the CNS and the timing of the release of proinflammatory cytokines can lead to neuronal excitability. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin- 6 (IL-6), two proinflammatory cytokines, have been linked to the development of acute seizures in Theilers murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced encephalitis. It is unclear the extent to which the infiltrating macrophages versus resident CNS cells, such as microglia, contribute to acute seizures, as both cell types produce TNF-α and IL-6. In this study, we show ...
Looking for online definition of Cardiovirus in the Medical Dictionary? Cardiovirus explanation free. What is Cardiovirus? Meaning of Cardiovirus medical term. What does Cardiovirus mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuronal CCL2 expression drives inflammatory monocyte infiltration into the brain during acute virus infection. AU - Howe, Charles L.. AU - LaFrance-Corey, Reghann G.. AU - Goddery, Emma N.. AU - Johnson, Renee K.. AU - Mirchia, Kanish. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by funding from the NINDS/NIH to CLH (NS064571) and by postdoctoral funding from the Mayo Clinic Center for Multiple Sclerosis and Autoimmune Neurology to KM. ENG was supported by the Mayo Clinic Regenerative Sciences PhD training program.. PY - 2017/12/4. Y1 - 2017/12/4. N2 - Background: Viral encephalitis is a dangerous compromise between the need to robustly clear pathogen from the brain and the need to protect neurons from bystander injury. Theilers murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection of C57Bl/6 mice is a model of viral encephalitis in which the compromise results in hippocampal damage and permanent neurological sequelae. We previously identified brain-infiltrating inflammatory ...
Description: The picornavirus family includes significant human and animal viruses such as poliovirus (PV), human rhinovirus (HRV) and foot-and-mouth-disease virus (FMDV). Current disease treatment and control strategies are limited by an incomplete understanding of the interactions between the non-structural, replicative picornavirus proteins and host cell components. To investigate these interactions, Theilers murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) 2B, 2C, 2BC and 3A proteins were transiently expressed in BHK-21 cells and detected by indirect immunostaining and laser-scanning or epifluorescence microscopy. The signal of the 2B protein overlapped with that of the ER marker protein, ERp60, as well as that of the peripheral Golgi marker protein, β-COP. The 2C protein overlapped with ERp60 in a faint reticular stain, and localised to large punctate structures that partially overlapped with β-COP at higher levels of expression. The 2BC protein located to large perinuclear structures that ...
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is at onset an immune-mediated demyelinating disease. In most cases, it starts as a relapsing-remitting disease with distinct attacks and no symptoms between flares. Over years or decades, virtually all cases transition into a progressive disease in which insidious and slow neurologic deterioration occurs with or without acute flares. Relapsing-remitting disease is often responsive to immune suppressive or modulating therapies, while immune based therapies are generally ineffective in patients with a progressive clinical course. This clinical course and response to immune suppression, as well as neuropathology and neuroimaging studies, suggest that disease progression is associated with axonal atrophy. Disability correlates better with measures of axonal atrophy than immune mediated demyelination. Therefore, immune based therapies, in order to be effective, need to be started early in the disease course while MS is predominately an immune-mediated and inflammatory ...
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disease characterized by central nervous system (CNS) lymphocyte infiltration, abundant production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and inappropriate activation of Th1 and Th17 cells, B cells, and innate immune cells. The etiology of MS is complex, and genetic factors contribute to disease susceptibility. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous MS-risk alleles in the IL-6/STAT3, IL-12/STAT4, and IL-23/STAT3-pathways implicated in the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells. In this study, we investigated the signaling properties of these pathways in T, B, and NK cells from patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and healthy controls, and assessed the genetic contribution to the activity of the pathways. This revealed a great variability in the level of STAT-pathway molecules and STAT activation between the cell types investigated. We also found a strong donor variation in IL-6, IL-12, and IL-23 responsiveness of ...
A single administration of complete Freunds adjuvant (CFA), type 1 carrageenan (Car), or silica 7, 2, and 2 days, respectively, before infection with a low dose (1 × 102 plaque-forming units/mouse) of encephalomyocarditis D (EMC-D) virus resulted in a significant increase in the incidence of diabetes in SJL/J mice (100%) compared with untreated EMC-D virus-infected mice (40%). Peritoneal macrophages were isolated from uninfected SJL/J mice, which had been treated once with silica, and transferred into SJL/J mice 2 days before low-dose EMC-D infection. Approximately 90% of the mice became diabetic, whereas 30% of mice that received virus alone became diabetic. The depletion of macrophages by treatment with the combined anti-Mac-1 and anti-Mac-2 monoclonal antibodies after a single administration of CFA, Car, or silica resulted in almost complete prevention of β-cell destruction in EMC-D virus-infected mice. Furthermore, none of the mice in which macrophages were depleted by long-term treatment ...
In article ,30ncsi$68g at homer.cs.mcgill.ca,, nedellec at binkley.cs.mcgill.ca (Patrick NEDELLEC) wrote: , Hi, , ,I am looking for any information on the Theiler virus (murine ,encephalomyelitis virus) a picornavirus. Hello Patrick: Here at U of Utah , Dr. Robert Fujinami (he has a co-appointment in the Departments of Neurology and Pathology) works on various aspects of Theilers. I rotated with his lab during my first year of Grad School. A few comments from membory, Theilers starts out as an asymptomatic enteric infection that can go on and cause a central nervous system disease. A whole bunch of variants have since then been isolated that are more/less neurovirulent in various strains of mice. I dont know if there is a vaccine available, since (memory time here) unless you are a mouse it probably wont hurt you. As for antibodies, there is at least one neutralizing monoclonal that against viral coat protein 1 (VP-1). I saved some of my background literature he suggested I read, these may ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Persistence of theilers virus infection following promotion of central nervous system remyelination. AU - Patick, Amy K.. AU - Thiemann, Roger L.. AU - OBrien, Peter C.. AU - Rodriguez, Moses. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1991/9. Y1 - 1991/9. N2 - Chronic infection of SJL/J mice with the Daniels strain of Theilers virus develop primary demyelination, viral persistence but minimal central nervous system (CNS)-type remyelination. In contrast, treatment of virus-infected mice with sera or immunoglobulin G (IgG) from mice immunized with homogenized spinal cord (SCH) emulsified in incomplete Freunds adjuvant promotes CNS remyelination. We measured levels of infectious virus, virus antigen and virus-specific antibody to determine if treatments which promote CNS remyelination are able to modulate infection. Levels of virus-specific antibody were higher in mice treated with SCH/IgG than control treatment groups and correlated positively ...
Brain atrophy is a common feature of numerous neurological diseases in which the role of neuroinflammation remains poorly defined. We have previously demonstrated the development of brain and spinal cord atrophy in the Theilers murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) model of multiple sclerosis. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms of brain atrophy remain poorly understood. We therefore evaluated the contribution of major histocompatibility (MHC) class I molecules in atrophy development during TMEV infection. To accomplish this, we created a novel transgenic FVB/NJ mouse by introducing the H-2Db (Db) class I molecule. Expression of Db class I molecule confers resistance to persistent TMEV infection and demyelination in the normally susceptible FVB/NJ strain (H2-Dq class I haplotype). Next, we compared the development of brain atrophy, assessed by volumetric analysis of T2-weighted MRIs, in FVB/Db mice to wild-type FVB/NJ mice following viral infection. FVB/NJ mice did not significant brain ...
Virion. Morphology. The crystal structures of mengovirus (Cardiovirus A) and TMEV and Saffold virus 3 (Cardiovirus B) have been resolved [{Grant et al., 1992:1549565RJOHTXGrant et al., 1992, Three-dimensional structure of Theiler virus, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 89, 6, 2061-5RJOMREFKrishnaswamy and Rossmann 1990:2156078RJOHTXKrishnaswamy and Rossmann 1990, Structural refinement and analysis of Mengo virus, J Mol Biol, 211, 4, 803-44}]. Empty capsids are seen only rarely, if ever. When compared by mean wall thickness, surface unevenness, and chain length of the major proteins, the cardiovirus capsid is intermediate between the enteroviruses and aphthoviruses. In place of a continuous, circular canyon seen in enteroviruses, is a five-fold repeated pit. There is no pocket factor.. Physicochemical and physical properties. Virion buoyant density in CsCl is 1.33-1.34 g cm-3. Virions are moderately stable to acidic pH.. Nucleic acid. Length of genome [{Bae et al., ...
Strains of Theilers murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) were first isolated by Max Theiler at the Rockefeller Foundation during his investigations of yellow fever virus vaccine. The GDVII strain of TMEV was named because this isolate was the seventh made by George, Theilers technician, from an uninoculated mouse that was found to be diseased (paralyzed). The presence of polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) and nPTB binding sites in GDVII affects neurovirulence. The importance of sialic acid binding to virus entry is further supported by studies that showed that a variant of DA that has enhanced binding to L929 cells and has mutations in the VP2 puff B or VP1 loop 2; this region is also one that has been found important in disease pathogenesis. It was found that demyelination can occur when one replaces any part of the DA genome with the corresponding segment from the GDVII genome. In addition, the immune system is believed to mediate the pathology in both diseases. Therefore, it is hoped that
Abstract: Inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) is a complex process that involves a multitude of molecules and effectors, and it requires the transmigration of blood leukocytes across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the activation of resident immune cells. Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotropic cannabinoid constituent of Cannabis sativa, has potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Yet, how this compound modifies the deleterious effects of inflammation in TMEV-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) remains unknown. Using this viral model of multiple sclerosis (MS), we demonstrate that CBD decreases the transmigration of blood leukocytes by downregulating the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5) and the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β, as well as by attenuating the activation of microglia. Moreover, CBD administration at the time of viral infection exerts long-lasting effects, ameliorating motor deficits in the ...
BALB/cJ is a commonly used inbred. Key traits include a susceptibility to developing the demyelinating disease upon infection with Theilers murine encephalomyelitis virus. The BALB/cJ substrain is susceptible to |i|Listeria|/i|, all species of |i|Leishmania|/i|, and several species of |i|Trypanosoma|/i|, but is resistant to experimental allergic orchitis (EAO).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Macrophages and resistance to JHM virus CNS infection.. AU - Stohlman, S. A.. AU - Frelinger, J. A.. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - Thioglycollate elicited peritoneal exudate cells from resistant SJL mice, younger susceptible SJL mice, and susceptible ASW, BALB/c, and C57/BL6 mice all exhibit extrinsic antiviral activity. The active cell was characterized as a Thy 1.2 negative, Ia negative, radiation resistant adherent cell. The antiviral activity was not due to nonspecific cellular cytotoxicity directed against the susceptible cell nor interferon. Adherent PE cells from resistant and susceptible SJL mice were similar with respect to the number of phagocytes, nonspecific esterase containing, Fc, and C3b receptor bearing cells. Finally, extrinsic antiviral activity was not dependent upon intrinsic antiviral activity.. AB - Thioglycollate elicited peritoneal exudate cells from resistant SJL mice, younger susceptible SJL mice, and susceptible ASW, BALB/c, and C57/BL6 mice all exhibit ...
Onodera, T; Jenson, A B.; Yoon, J; and Notkins, A L., Virus-induced diabetes mellitus: reovirus type 1 infection of pancreatic alpha, beta, and d cells in mice. Abstr. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 1650 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antiviral Resistance of Splenocytes in Aged Mice. AU - Zaczyńska, Ewa. AU - Artym, Jolanta. AU - Kocięba, Maja. AU - Burster, Timo. AU - Kruzel, Marian. AU - Paprocka, Maria. AU - Zimecki, Michał. PY - 2017/3/30. Y1 - 2017/3/30. N2 - We compared the susceptibility to viral infection of splenocytes, isolated from young versus old CBA mice, and evaluated the antiviral actions of lactoferrin in splenocytes infected with Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). Recombinant mouse lactoferrin (rmLF) and bovine lactoferrin (bLF) were used. There were no differences in the susceptibility to EMCV infection in the studied age categories. Both types of lactoferrins were protective in young and old mice. The study confirmed the undisturbed viral resistance in old mice and the protective actions of lactoferrin in viral infection. The antiviral action of the homologous mouse lactoferrin was demonstrated for the first time.. AB - We compared the susceptibility to viral infection of splenocytes, ...
A protein factor that specifically binds to the 5-untranslated region of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) RNA has been found in extracts of ascites carcinoma Krebs-2 cells. This was done using UV-irradiation on extracts supplemented with in vitro synthesized 32P-labelled transcripts followed by an …
Cloning and expression of the gene encoding for the major capsid protein, VP-1, of the D-variant of encephalomyocarditis virus in Escherichia ...
Diagnosis of Viral myocarditis (costs for program #213137) ✔ DKD HELIOS Clinic Wiesbaden ✔ Department of Pediatrics ✔ BookingHealth.com
海词词典,最权威的学习词典,专业出版acute viral myocarditis是什么意思,acute viral myocarditis的用法,acute viral myocarditis翻译和读音等详细讲解。海词词典:学习变容易,记忆很深刻。
Yellow fever was a widespread and deadly disease at that time. The disease is caused by a virus. The virus is spread by the bites of certain types of mosquitoes. Theiler and other researchers wanted to find a vaccine for yellow fever. A vaccine is a substance that protects people from a disease. At first, researchers used rhesus monkeys for yellow fever experiments. In 1930 Theiler discovered that the yellow fever virus also affected mice.…
How long should viral myocarditis last - I have viral myocarditis for three weeks. At my last check-up I had sinus tachycardia and ejection fraction of 26%. Im on three different meds but Im not getting better. What is the probability for full recovery? How long does it usually take? Silly patient. The best answer for your question is provided by the treating physicians, who have the benefit of your history, exam and an understanding of the tests you have had to date. While it is understandable you want answers. We have no crystal ball with great incite based on your present ejection fraction. This is a serious illness, pay attention to your docs advise and you might do well.
Diagnosis of Viral myocarditis (costs for program #211813) ✔ University Hospital RWTH Aachen ✔ Department of Gastroenterology, Metabolic Disorders and Internal Intensive Medicine ✔ BookingHealth.com
Question - Done with brain MRI. Diagnosis of demyelinating disease. Suggestion?. Ask a Doctor about when and why MRI is advised, Ask a Neurologist
George suffers from MS, and hopes to help himself and others by sharing information. Contains his story and information about the disease. ...
This is an update of a previous review. Case reports and case series have described dramatic responses to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in people with presumed viral myocarditis, and its administration has become commonplace. The primary objective of this review was to compare transplant-free survival of adults and children with presumed viral myocarditis treated with IVIG versus those who did not receive IVIG. A secondary objective was to determine if a group of patients with presumed viral myocarditis could be identified (on the basis of age, duration of symptoms, acuity of onset of symptoms, cardiac function at presentation, virological results or the presence or absence of histological evidence of acute myocarditis on cardiac biopsy in patients in whom a biopsy was performed) who would be the most likely to benefit from IVIG. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 12 of 12), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (2013, Issue ...
The basis for the resistance of the female and the susceptibility of the male ICR Swiss mouse to the diabetogenicity of the D variant of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV-D) is unknown. This pattern of disease resistance and susceptibility can be reversed if females are treated with testosterone and males are treated with estrogen before virus infection. As a possible explanation for this sex difference in disease development, differences in early antiviral host responses were explored. Cellular antiviral resistance mechanisms operative early in virus infection were evaluated in ICR Swiss mice of both sexes after intraperitoneal infection with virus. No differences were seen in splenic natural killer (NK) cell responses of male and female mice during the 1st wk of infection, during which only the males became diabetic. Depletion of NK cell activity with rabbit anti-asialo GM1 serum did not render the infected ICR Swiss female susceptible to virus-induced diabetes. Treatment of ICR Swiss mice with type I
One of the main roles of myelin in the central nervous system seems to be related to maintaining a low ionic conductivity around axons (1) and a modification of its composition, intermodular...
OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has demyelinating disease? What are the typical findings for this disease? Demyelinating diseases are a class of related disorders in which the immune system, both B- and T-cells, inappropriately targets myelinated neurons and resulting in damage to the myelin sheath around neurons, injury…. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Extensive Replication of a Retroviral Replicating Vector Can Expand the A Bulge in the Encephalomyocarditis Virus Internal Ribosome Entry Site and Change Translation Efficiency of the Downstream Transgene. AU - Lin, Amy H.. AU - Liu, Yanzheng. AU - Burrascano, Cynthia. AU - Cunanan, Kathrina. AU - Logg, Christopher R.. AU - Robbins, Joan M.. AU - Kasahara, Noriyuki. AU - Gruber, Harry. AU - Ibañez, Carlos. AU - Jolly, Douglas J.. PY - 2016/4/1. Y1 - 2016/4/1. N2 - We have developed retroviral replicating vectors (RRV) derived from Moloney murine gammaretrovirus with an amphotropic envelope and an encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-transgene cassette downstream of the env gene. During long-term (180 days) replication of the vector in animals, a bulge of 7 adenosine residues (As) in the J-K bifurcation domain sometimes serially added As. Therefore, vectors with 4-12 As in the A bulge in the J-K bifurcation domain were generated, and the impact ...
The present study shows an inhibitory role of IRAK4 in viral myocarditis. For the first time, we reveal IRAK4 as a double-edged sword in viral myocarditis: It acts as a proinflammatory molecule but also blocks protective cell migration and antiviral responses. The ability of the host to limit viral proliferation while minimizing tissue injury attributable to detrimental proinflammatory responses, thus protecting from autoimmune postviral cardiomyopathy, is a prerequisite of favorable outcome.. IRAK4 is a well-known proinflammatory kinase downstream of all known TLRs except TLR3. It complexes with MyD88, IRAK1, IRAK2, and IRAK-M, phosphorylates IRAK1 and IRAK2, and ultimately contributes to NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation for inflammatory cytokine transcription.5,6,16,17 Accordingly, and as reported by our group earlier, IRAK4-deficient mice showed better survival and lower heart inflammation after experimental myocardial infarction.18 In addition, we recently found that ...
Sorensen, O; Dugre, R; Percy, D; and Dales, S, In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating disease: endogen- ous factors influencing demyelinating disease caused by mouse hepatitis virus in rats and mice. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 4405 ...
Other Primary Demyelinating Diseases - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the Merck Manuals - Medical Consumer Version.
Thien Tuong Nguyen, M.D. - Dr. Thien Nguyen focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of neuromuscular and demyelinating diseases. The collective expe...
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... a Human Theiler's-Like Cardiovirus, is Ubiquitous and Causes Infection Early in Life". PLoS Pathogens. 5 (5): e1000416. doi: ... Infection initiates in astrocytes and microglia, but persists in macrophages. This strain has been used as an acceptable model ... This is the proposed course of disease in TMEV infection in mice. Many bacteria and viruses infect humans without pathology in ... The majority of mouse strains are not susceptible to the pathology associated with TMEV infection. As SJL/J mice are ...
"Cardioviruses Are Genetically Diverse and Cause Common Enteric Infections in South Asian Children". Journal of Virology. 83 (9 ... a Human Theiler's-Like Cardiovirus, is Ubiquitous and Causes Infection Early in Life". PLOS Pathogens. 5 (5): e1000416. doi: ... Discovered in 2007, it is the first human virus in the genus Cardiovirus and may provide a link to the development of multiple ... A poly(A) is located on the 3'UTR side, and contained on the 5'UTR side are internal ribosome entry sites (IRES). Cardiovirus ...
The first infection of cardiovirus in humans was identified in 2007 in a stool sample of an infant that was experiencing fever ... there is Cardiovirus B, Cardiovirus C, Cardiovirus D, Cardiovirus E, and Cardiovirus F. Diseases associated with cardioviruses ... Thus far, cardiovirus C has only been observed in the brown rat. Cardioviruses are single-stranded RNA, non-enveloped viruses ... Cardiovirus A is composed of only one serotype, encephalomycarditis virus (EMCV). Cardiovirus B consists of four viruses that ...
... is a member of the Picornaviridae family. Infection with the virus causes encephalomyocarditis and reproductive ...
The whole of replication occurs within the host cell cytoplasm and infection can even happen in cells that do not contain a ... Notable examples are genera Enterovirus (including Rhinovirus and Poliovirus), Aphthovirus, Cardiovirus, and Hepatovirus. The ... However, as little as 30 minutes after initial infection, cell protein synthesis declines to almost zero output - essentially ... and that is the reason why rhinovirus infections are restricted to the nose and throat. The following genera are recognized: ...
Aditi; Shariff, M. (2019). "Nipah virus infection: A review". Epidemiology and Infection. 147: e95. doi:10.1017/ ... Several genera of picornaviruses have been found in bats, including Kobuvirus, Sapelovirus, Cardiovirus, and Senecavirus. ... In late 2012, a vaccine was released to prevent infection in horses. Vaccine uptake has been low, with an estimated 11-17% of ... Bats' immune systems may have evolved to be more tolerant of stressors such as viral infections compared to other mammals. The ...
There is no specific treatment for a Mengovirus infection; although Persantine has been shown to inhibit its replication. The ... belongs to the genus Cardiovirus which is a member of the Picornaviridae. Its genome is a single stranded positive-sense RNA ...
The low serum antibody response of ERBV appears to allow the continual, seasonal re-infection of horses. Horses are also known ... relationship to each other and to aphthoviruses and cardioviruses". J Gen Virol. 77 ( Pt 8) (8): 1719-30. doi:10.1099/0022-1317 ...
3C and 3D act similarly in rhinovirus as they do in poliovirus because they are both involved in early viral infection of the ... Picornain 3C is encoded by enteroviruses, rhinoviruses, aphtoviruses and cardioviruses. These genera of picoviruses cause a ... Coxsackievirus is shed through stool and bodily fluids and is prevalent in children but can infection occur in adults. Symptoms ... A small amount of poliovirus infections cause paralysis when the virus infects the nervous system. Poliovirus infects host ...
... cardiovirus infections MeSH C02.782.687.207 - common cold MeSH C02.782.687.359 - enterovirus infections MeSH C02.782.687.359. ... deltaretrovirus infections MeSH C02.782.815.200.260 - enzootic bovine leukosis MeSH C02.782.815.200.470 - htlv-i infections ... avulavirus infections MeSH C02.782.580.600.080.600 - newcastle disease MeSH C02.782.580.600.400 - henipavirus infections MeSH ... respiratory syncytial virus infections MeSH C02.782.580.600.680 - rubulavirus infections MeSH C02.782.580.600.680.500 - mumps ...
The TAR-RNA binding protein is required for immunoresponses triggered by Cardiovirus infection. / Komuro, Akihiko; Homma, Yuya ... The TAR-RNA binding protein is required for immunoresponses triggered by Cardiovirus infection. Biochemical and biophysical ... title = "The TAR-RNA binding protein is required for immunoresponses triggered by Cardiovirus infection", ... T1 - The TAR-RNA binding protein is required for immunoresponses triggered by Cardiovirus infection ...
The first infection of cardiovirus in humans was identified in 2007 in a stool sample of an infant that was experiencing fever ... there is Cardiovirus B, Cardiovirus C, Cardiovirus D, Cardiovirus E, and Cardiovirus F. Diseases associated with cardioviruses ... Thus far, cardiovirus C has only been observed in the brown rat. Cardioviruses are single-stranded RNA, non-enveloped viruses ... Cardiovirus A is composed of only one serotype, encephalomycarditis virus (EMCV). Cardiovirus B consists of four viruses that ...
We detected SAFV in 7 (0.5%) patients and identified lineages 1-3. However, because 3 patients had co-infections, we could not ... To clarify the potential for respiratory transmission of Saffold cardiovirus (SAFV) and characterize the pathogen, we analyzed ... Saffold Cardioviruses of 3 Lineages in Children with Respiratory Tract Infections, Beijing, China Lili Ren, Richard Gonzalez, ... Saffold Cardioviruses of 3 Lineages in Children with Respiratory Tract Infections, Beijing, China. ...
We detected SAFV in 7 (0.5%) patients and identified lineages 1-3. However, because 3 patients had co-infections, we could not ... To clarify the potential for respiratory transmission of Saffold cardiovirus (SAFV) and characterize the pathogen, we analyzed ... Saffold Cardioviruses of 3 Lineages in Children with Respiratory Tract Infections, Beijing, China On This Page ... Saffold Cardioviruses of 3 Lineages in Children with Respiratory Tract Infections, Beijing, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases ...
... a Human Theilers-Like Cardiovirus, is Ubiquitous and Causes Infection Early in Life". PLoS Pathogens. 5 (5): e1000416. doi: ... Infection initiates in astrocytes and microglia, but persists in macrophages. This strain has been used as an acceptable model ... This is the proposed course of disease in TMEV infection in mice. Many bacteria and viruses infect humans without pathology in ... The majority of mouse strains are not susceptible to the pathology associated with TMEV infection. As SJL/J mice are ...
Cardiovirus Infections / immunology* * Chlorocebus aethiops * Cross-Priming / immunology* * Dendritic Cells / immunology * ... Here we describe a mechanism that promotes cross-priming during viral infections. We show that murine CD8alpha+ dendritic cells ...
Saffold cardiovirus infection in a 2-year-old boy with acute pancreatitis.. This report presents a unique case which developed ... Abstract The urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections in human, primarily caused by uropathogenic ... Catheter-related bloodstream infection due to Gordonia sputi in a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia: a Case Report.. PMID ... High Rates of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HBV, HCV, HIV) Infections and Their Uncommon HBV ...
Cardiovirus Cardiovirus Infections Child Child, Preschool Feces Gastroenteritis Germany Humans Infant Infant, Newborn Middle ... Saffold Cardioviruses of 3 Lineages in Children with Respiratory Tract Infections, Beijing, China ... The first human virus in the genus Cardiovirus was described in 2007 and named Saffold virus (SAFV). Cardioviruses can cause ... Recently, a human virus isolate obtained 25 years ago, termed Saffold virus, was sequenced and classified as a cardiovirus. We ...
A method of inhibiting viral infection in a mammal in need of same, includes administering an effective amount of at least one ... Hepatovirus, Cardiovirus,. Aphthovirus, Parechovirus,. Erbovirus, Kobuvirus, Teschovirus. 3.. Caliciviridae. Norwalk virus, ... for administration to a human or animal experiencing a viral infection or at risk of a viral infection. Such pharmaceutical ... The infection pathway and timing of RSV is well known, and is set forth in the lower right corner. As can be seen, at any time ...
Cardiovirus Infections/immunology/pathology*. *Hippocampus/immunology/pathology*/virology. *Monocytes/immunology/pathology*/ ... Bottom Line: Identification of the immune effectors responsible for injuring the brain during acute infection is necessary for ... Bottom Line: Identification of the immune effectors responsible for injuring the brain during acute infection is necessary for ... Background: Neuropathology caused by acute viral infection of the brain is associated with the development of persistent ...
List of causes of Calcaneal bone redness and Infection, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and ... Cardiovirus. 192. Caroli Disease. 193. Cartilaginous -- arthritic -- ophthalmic -- deafness syndrome. 194. Caterpillar ... Shigella boydii infection. 1071. Shigella dysenteriae infection. 1072. Shigella flexneri. 1073. Shigella flexneri infection. ... Gnathostoma Infection. 466. Gnathostoma hispidum infection. 467. Gnathostoma spinigerum infection. 468. Gonococcal urethritis. ...
Identification of cardioviruses related to Theilers murine encephalomyelitis virus in human infections.. Chiu CY, Greninger AL ... Utility of DNA microarrays for detection of viruses in acute respiratory tract infections in children.. Chiu CY, Urisman A, ... Pan-Viral Screening of Respiratory Tract Infections in Adults with and without Asthma Reveals Unexpected Diversity. Amy Kistler ... Splenic Red Pulp Macrophages Produce Type I Interferons as Early Sentinels of Malaria Infection... Charles C. Kim, Christopher ...
Cardiovirus explanation free. What is Cardiovirus? Meaning of Cardiovirus medical term. What does Cardiovirus mean? ... Looking for online definition of Cardiovirus in the Medical Dictionary? ... Six genera are associated with human infections: cardiovirus (saffold virus), cosavirus, enterovirus (EV), hepatovirus ( ... Circulation of three lineages of a novel Saffold cardiovirus in humans.. Seroepidemiology of saffold cardiovirus type 2 ...
"Cardioviruses Are Genetically Diverse and Cause Common Enteric Infections in South Asian Children." Journal of Virology 83.9 ( ...
Identification of cardioviruses related to Theilers murine encephalomyelitis virus in human infections PROCEEDINGS OF THE ... pylori infection, when compared with CagA(-) infection or the absence of H. pylori infection, is associated with a higher ... Maternal infection with Helicobacter pylori as a risk factor for infection in children of different ages Tamburini, B. A., Tsai ... THE INCIDENCE OF HELICOBACTER-PYLORI INFECTION Roundtable Meeting on Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection Parsonnet, J ...
BlinkovaOKapoorAVictoriaJJonesMWolfeN 2009 Cardioviruses are genetically diverse and cause common enteric infections in South ... Identification of cardioviruses related to Theilers murine encephalomyelitis virus in human infections. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S ... to the Saffold virus belonging to Cardiovirus genus. Similar to cardioviruses the 2A protein in Mosavirus had the conserved ... prevalence of hantavirus infection in rodents associated with two fatal human infections in California. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52 ...
Cardioviruses are genetically diverse and cause common enteric infections in South Asian children. J. Virol. 83: 4631- 4641.. ... Detection of human rhinovirus C in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections in South Korea. Arch. Virol. 154: 987 ... Epidemiology and clinical associations of human parechovirus respiratory infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 3446- 3453.. ... Evidence of recombination and genetic diversity in human rhinoviruses in children with acute respiratory infection. PLoS One 4: ...
RNA binding protein is required for immunoresponses triggered by Cardiovirus infection. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 480: 187-193 ... Backes S, Langlois RA, Schmid S, Varble A, Shim JV, Sachs D, tenOever BR (2014) The mammalian response to virus infection is ... Matskevich AA, Moelling K (2007) Dicer is involved in protection against influenza A virus infection. J Gen Virol 88: 2627-2635 ... HEK293 cells were transfected with FLAG‐LGP2 for 24 h followed by infection with EMCV at the indicated MOI for 6 h. Cells were ...
Cardioviruses can cause severe infections of the myocardium and central nervous system in animals, but SAFV has not yet been ... Infections caused by enteroviruses (EV) and parechoviruses (PeV), members of the Picornaviridae family, are associated with ... We report a case of myocarditis associated with human parechovirus (HPeV) infection in an adult. HPeV is an emerging pathogen ... Cardioviruses cause serious disease, mainly in rodents, including diabetes, myocarditis, encephalomyelitis, and multiple ...
Notably, an increase in nuclear permeability is also seen in infection with cardioviruses, specifically encephalomyocarditis ... Together these results suggest that apoptosis is induced in response to PV infection but active PV infection is able to inhibit ... Infected cells can undergo apoptosis as a protective response to viral infection, thereby limiting viral infection. As viruses ... Effects of poliovirus infection on nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking and nuclear pore complex composition. EMBO J20:240-249. doi: ...
... response against the capsid protein represents the most active immune pressure and primary weapon to control the infection. ... response against the capsid protein represents the most active immune pressure and primary weapon to control the infection. ... 2016). Structure and genome release mechanism of the human cardiovirus saffold virus 3. J. Virol. 90, 7628-7639. doi: 10.1128/ ... Picornavirus cell infection starts with its attachment to cell receptors (Figure 2). Therefore, virus-receptor usage is ...
... a nonhuman pathogen belonging to the Cardiovirus genus of Picornaviridae. However, AUF1 does not negatively regulate infection ... Virus infections.293-shCtrl or -shAUF1 cells were infected with wild-type or Δ3′ NCR poliovirus at a multiplicity of infection ... 1A). Following infection by poliovirus at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1, an approximately 10-fold increase in ... Proposed model for AUF1 negative regulation of poliovirus and CVB3 infection. Following poliovirus and CVB3 infection, ...
Prevention and Control of Cardiovirus Infections Thu, 20 Jul 2017 , Mosaic Virus ... Viruses may cause acute infection (hepatitis A virus) or acute infection with the possibility for chronic liver infection ... Clinical Features of Enteric Infection. *Clinical Features of Infection - 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 ... Industries Affected by Phage Infection Thu, 27 Apr 2017 , Mosaic Virus Reliable data on the severity of phage infection of ...
The peak activity of HPeV infection was in fall. Of the 3 children with AiV infection, the 3 AiV strains were found to belong ... The epidemiology of HPeV, AiV and SalV infections was analyzed. Among 1,708 fecal samples subjected to RT-PCR using primers ... but their roles in enteric infections are not fully understood. In addition, no report on the circulation of these viruses in ... Identification of cardioviruses related to Theilers murine encephalomyelitis virus in human infections. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S ...
... infection in the mouse, which is the virus natural host. The recent identification of SAFV infection as a frequent one in ... There are many features of cardioviruses, and especially TMEV, that make them attractive for pathogenesis studies, including ... Furthermore, the identification of the human SAFV indicates that efforts investigating the involvement of cardioviruses as a ... This chapter discusses members of the Cardiovirus genus and distinctive characteristics of these viruses. It focuses on the ...
Lastly, we showed that SAFV infection does not show any signs of gross demyelination in the brain. Overall, our results provide ... is a human cardiovirus that is suspected of causing infection of the central nervous system (CNS) in children. While recent ... Identification of cardioviruses related to Theilers murine encephalomyelitis virus in human infections. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S ... Cardioviruses are genetically diverse and cause common enteric infections in South Asian children. J Virol. 2009;83:4631-41. ...
Cardiovirus Infections 1 0 Endometrial Neoplasms 1 0 Gastritis 1 0 Neoplasm Metastasis 1 0 ...
  • A high belonging to the genus Cardiovirus our laboratory and others, grow poorly prevalence of SAFV-2 antibodies was of the family Picornaviridae ( 1 - 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Consistent with the previous findings (1), all SVA isolates from different countries clustered together under the genus Senecavirus, which is most closely related to the genus Cardiovirus of the family Picornaviridae (Figure). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Encephalomyocarditis virus belongs to the genus Cardiovirus of the Picornaviridae family. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) family Picornaviridae, genus Cardiovirus , is a group of closely related virus species with a wide host range. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Cardiovirus genus is divided into two species: the Encephalomyocarditis species, which includes encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and mengovirus, and the Theilovirus species, which includes Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus (VHEV), and Saffold virus (SAFV). (asmscience.org)
  • This chapter discusses members of the Cardiovirus genus and distinctive characteristics of these viruses. (asmscience.org)
  • Phylogenetic tree of the P1 capsid coding sequences of the Cardiovirus genus. (asmscience.org)
  • The nt sequence identity over the entire genome for different species of the genus Cardiovirus is more than 50% (e.g. (ictvonline.org)
  • The genus Cardiovirus is divided into 2 species: Theiler viruses and the encephalomyocarditis viruses (EMCVs) (2-5). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Top quality sequences had been set alongside the GenBank nr data source by BLASTx and one 395 bp series read was determined in this test that had just 55% identity on the amino acidity level to its best strike, the VP3 proteins of Theiler's-like pathogen, a murine picornavirus in the genus cardiovirus. (capecodmushroom.org)
  • Newly-identified human viruses genetically related to members of the Cardiovirus genus (thought to contain only rodent viruses) have recently been recognised as ubiquitous human enteric pathogens, providing evidence for the alarming evolution of picornaviral (and other viral) genomes. (ru.ac.za)
  • Relationship of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis viruses to the cardiovirus genus of picornaviruses. (uchicago.edu)
  • Mengovirus is a prototypical member of the cardiovirus genus of the family Picornaviridae . (springer.com)
  • We identified sequences distantly related to Seneca Valley virus and cardioviruses that were then used as genetic footholds to characterize multiple viral species within a previously unreported genus of the Picornaviridae family. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A genetically diverse and highly prevalent enteric viral infection, characteristics similar to the Enterovirus genus, was therefore identified substantially expanding the genetic diversity of the RNA viral flora commonly found in children. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Senecavirus A (SVA), a member of the family Picornaviridae, genus Senecavirus, is a recently identified single-stranded RNA virus closely related to members of the Cardiovirus genus. (umnswinenews.com)
  • Results: The most significant viruses involved in central nervous system infections are: Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV), West Nile Virus (WNV), Enterovirus 71 (EV71), Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), and Dengue Virus (DENV). (eurekaselect.com)
  • The infection of cells by enterovirus is an efficient and productive event. (biomedcentral.com)
  • recognized genera are Enterovirus ( poliovirus es), Cardiovirus , Rhinovirus (common cold viruses), and Aphthovirus (foot-and-mouth disease virus). (britannica.com)
  • Qiu J. Enterovirus 71 infection: a new threat to global public health? (medscape.com)
  • The cellular mRNA decay protein AUF1 acts as a restriction factor during infection by picornaviruses, including poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and human rhinovirus. (asm.org)
  • There are no specific treatments for infection, and vaccines exist for only two picornaviruses: poliovirus and hepatitis A virus. (asm.org)
  • Given the worldwide distribution and prevalence of picornaviruses, it is important to gain insight into the host mechanisms used to restrict infection. (asm.org)
  • Emerging human picornaviruses, including human parechovirus (HPeV), Aichi virus (AiV) and salivirus (SalV) were found to be associated with gastroenteritis, but their roles in enteric infections are not fully understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The neurotropic picornaviruses can induce acute or late recurrent seizures following central nervous system infection, by infecting the peripheral nerve, crossing the blood-brain barrier and migrating in the Trojan-horse method. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review, we will summarize the clinical characteristics of seizures induced by picornaviruses and the mechanisms of epileptogenesis triggered by TMEV infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Picornaviruses are non-enveloped infections with an individual stranded positive-sense RNA genome that encodes an individual polyprotein [11]. (capecodmushroom.org)
  • Picornaviruses are among the oldest viruses, dating back to 1400 B.C., when a temple record tells of poliovirus infections in ancient Egypt. (kenyon.edu)
  • Picornaviruses are also among the most diverse viruses, with over 200 serotypes causing infections such as Polio, Hepatitis A, and the common cold. (kenyon.edu)
  • Less -common picornaviruses associated with human illness include hepatitis A virus, parechovirus, cardiovirus, and Aichi virus. (mhmedical.com)
  • Picornaviruses and RNA Metabolism: Local and Global Effects of Infection. (nih.gov)
  • Cardiovirus are a group of viruses within order Picornavirales, family Picornaviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiovirus B consists of four viruses that are most probably serologically distinct. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardioviruses are single-stranded RNA, non-enveloped viruses with icosahedral or spherical geometries, and a T=pseudo3 icosahedral capsid protein geometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Picornaviridae is a large family of vertebrate viruses that produce both clinically asymptomatic infections but often mild and fatal disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • AUF1 relocalizes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during infection by these viruses due to the disruption of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking by viral proteinases. (asm.org)
  • Binding to different sites within the viral RNA suggests that AUF1 may negatively regulate infection by these viruses using different mechanisms. (asm.org)
  • EMC viruses have a poly(C) tract of variable length (usually 80-250 nt) about 150 nt from the 5′-terminus of the viral RNA, while the other cardioviruses lack this feature. (ictvonline.org)
  • The species Cardiovirus A consists of a two types [{*** 1949:18133621RJOHTXDick 1949, The relationship of Mengo encephalomyelitis, encephalomyocarditis, Columbia-SK and M.M. viruses, J Immunol, 62, 4, 375-86RJOMREFWarren et al. (ictvonline.org)
  • The data presented here show that the IFN-γ mimetic peptide IFN-γ(95-133) prevents EMC virus infection in vivo and in vitro and may have potential against other lethal viruses, such as the smallpox virus, which encodes the B8R protein. (asm.org)
  • Background and Objective: Infectious diseases are amongst the leading causes of death in the world and central nervous system infections produced by viruses may either be fatal or generate a wide range of symptoms that affect global human health. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Although effective vaccines for viruses such as FMDV, PV and HAV have been developed there are currently no antivirals available for the treatment of picornavirus infections. (seals.ac.za)
  • The incidence of acute seizures in encephalitis patients following the infection of neurotropic viruses varies from 7 to 67%, depending on the type of virus [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to initiate an infection, viruses need to deliver their genomes into cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Cardioviruses are positive-strand RNA viruses in the Picornaviridae family that can cause enteric infection in rodents and also been detected at lower frequencies in other mammals such as pigs and human beings. (bvsalud.org)
  • The coxsackieviruses (CV) are small, icosahedral positive single-stranded RNA viruses that cause common enteric infections in human populations throughout the world. (springer.com)
  • We also identified a wide range of known and novel viruses from groups that contain important human pathogens, including sapoviruses, cardioviruses, kobuviruses, parechoviruses, rotaviruses, and hepaciviruses. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Viruses mutate faster than other microorganisms, and such mutations often lead to malignant infections in humans, animals, and plants. (genominfo.org)
  • For a long time, the number of respiratory infections with clinical symptoms caused by respiratory viruses had no detectable causative agent. (datexis.com)
  • A retrospective study revealed 17 (3.1 %) out of 540 NPAs positive for HBoV, with 14 specimens tested negative for other viruses, giving the suggestion that HBoV is a causative agent of respiratory tract infections. (datexis.com)
  • Cardiovirus A is composed of only one serotype, encephalomycarditis virus (EMCV). (wikipedia.org)
  • the experimental model system of TMEV (and EMCV) infection in the mouse, which is the virus' natural host. (asmscience.org)
  • Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a cardiovirus of Picornaviridae family. (jle.com)
  • The result also identified that this EMCV infection could cause severe clinical signs in a local aardvark population, and enriches the molecular epidemiological data of EMCV in China. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, the cross-infection and transmission of EMCV between aardvark and mice appears most likely. (bvsalud.org)
  • By employing various knockout cells, we confirmed the importance of the identified host factors for EMCV infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • Moreover, reconstitution of inactive ADAM9 in knockout cells restored susceptibility to EMCV, pointing to a proteinase-independent role of ADAM9 in mediating EMCV infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • Together, our findings reveal a role for ADAM9 as a novel receptor or cofactor for EMCV.IMPORTANCE EMCV is an animal pathogen that causes acute viral infections, usually myocarditis or encephalitis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Experimental EMCV infection in pigs showed that virus could no longer be isolated after 3 days post-infection (Foni et al. (zoologix.com)
  • EMCV detection by PCR is a rapid, sensitive and specific method for the diagnosis of this infection. (zoologix.com)
  • Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of EMCV infection. (zoologix.com)
  • We identified and characterized 7 SAFV strains, which belonged to 3 distinct lineages, from respiratory samples of children with lower and upper respiratory tract infections (LRTIs and URTIs, respectively). (cdc.gov)
  • 2006. Frequent detection of human rhinoviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses, and bocavirus during acute respiratory tract infections. (asmscience.org)
  • 2012). Characterization of the viral microbiome in patients with severe lower respiratory tract infections, using metagenomic sequencing . (lnu.se)
  • Human bocavirus (HBoV) was first found in children with acute respiratory tract infections in 2005. (datexis.com)
  • It was then detected in children with respiratory tract infections in addition to gastroenteritis worldwide-[12]. (datexis.com)
  • These are Theiler's Murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus (VHEV), a Theiler-like rat virus (TRV) (which has yet to be named) and Saffold virus (SAF-V). Of these 4, only VHEV and SAF-V are thought to cause infection in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other pathogenic cardioviruses isolated from humans include the Syr-Darya valley fever virus and Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus (TMEV) is a single-stranded RNA murine cardiovirus from the family Picornaviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The identity of brain-infiltrating leukocytes was determined using microscopy and flow cytometry at several acute time points following intracranial infection of mice with the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. (nih.gov)
  • However, the species Cardiovirus B comprises 15 genetic types, Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus (VHEV), thera virus (formerly named Theiler-like virus of rats), Saffold virus (SAFV) types 1 to 11, and genet fecal theilovirus (from Geneta geneta ) [{Ohara et al. (ictvonline.org)
  • CXCL-1, also called keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC), is a predominant chemokine produced in glial cells upon infection with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV). (frontiersin.org)
  • My research utilises a model picornavirus, Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), which is non-infectious for humans and livestock, and for which we have successfully developed a cell-culture infection system. (ru.ac.za)
  • Michiels, " Cardiovirus leader proteins are functionally interchangeable and have evolved to adapt to virus replication fitness," Journal of General Virology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Inflammatory monocytes damage the hippocampus during acute picornavirus infection of the brain. (nih.gov)
  • Specific depletion of neutrophils with the 1A8 antibody failed to preserve neurons, suggesting that inflammatory monocytes are the key effectors of brain injury during acute picornavirus infection of the brain. (nih.gov)
  • The cardiovirus L protein is a unique picornavirus protein with Zn-finger domain (C-x-H-x 6 -C-x 2 -C) playing key roles in (i) the regulation of virus translation, (ii) phosphorylation of nucleoporins, and (iii) inhibition of interferon synthesis. (ictvonline.org)
  • As capsid assembly is critical to the viral life-cycle, the principle interacting motifs may serve as novel drug targets for the antiviral treatment of picornavirus infections. (seals.ac.za)
  • In this review, we summarize the clinical characteristics of picornavirus infection, and the immunopathology involved in the TMEV-induced epilepsy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We subsequently discovered that picornavirus-encoded 3CD proteinases cleave PCBP2 during poliovirus, coxsackievirus, or human rhinovirus infections to mediate, in part, the switch from viral translation to RNA replication. (uci.edu)
  • Picornavirus - the Most Common Respiratory Virus Infection among Patients of All Ages Hospitalized with Acute Respiratory Illness. (medscape.com)
  • Jag undervisar i ämnena cell- och molekylärbiologi, genteknik, mikrobiologi samt virologi och leder en forskargrupp som studerar hur virus från familjen Picornavirus växelverkar med den infekterade cellen. (lnu.se)
  • The first infection of cardiovirus in humans was identified in 2007 in a stool sample of an infant that was experiencing fever of unknown origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Saffold cardiovirus in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • 6. Nielsen ACY, Böttiger B, Banner J, In addition to the fact that (Promega, Charbonnières-les-Bains, Hoffmann T, Nielsen LP. Serious invasive incidence rates vary among humans, Saffold virus infections in children, 2009. (cdc.gov)
  • The frequent interactions of rodents with humans make them a common source of zoonotic infections. (prolekare.cz)
  • The recent identification of SAFV infection as a frequent one in humans has focused attention on whether this virus causes disease in humans. (asmscience.org)
  • Although rats and mice are the natural hosts for EMCVs, these cardioviruses have been found to infect many animal species including pigs, rodents, elephants, macaques, and humans (6-9). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Drexler JF, Luna LK, Stöcker A, Almeida PS, Ribeiro TC, Petersen N. Circulation of 3 lineages of a novel Saffold cardiovirus in humans. (medscape.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of Saffold cardiovirus (SAFV) strains obtained in Beijing, China, 2007-2009, based on viral protein (VP) 1 (A), P1 capsid proteins (B), and full-length genomes (C). The trees, with 500 bootstrap replicates, were generated by using the neighbor-joining algorithm in MEGA 4.0 ( 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • To clarify the potential for respiratory transmission of Saffold cardiovirus (SAFV) and characterize the pathogen, we analyzed respiratory specimens from 1,558 pediatric patients in Beijing. (cdc.gov)
  • However, because 3 patients had co-infections, we could not definitively say SAFV caused disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Saffold cardiovirus (SAFV) is a new piconavirus, originally identified from fecal samples of a female infant with fever of unknown origin ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Although serologic surveys have shown that SAFV-3 infection occurs early in life ( 7 ), the pathogenicity of SAFV is still unclear. (cdc.gov)
  • SAFV-3 infections are ubiquitous and in infants. (cdc.gov)
  • This high seroprevalence of antibodies was to that for human parechoviruses conclusion was based on antibody found in the Netherlands for SAFV-2 and enteroviruses, which are found testing by virus neutralization, a highly and -3, pointing to early acquisition of in 15%-18% of stool samples from specifi c test that can discriminate infection with both strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, the identification of the human SAFV indicates that efforts investigating the involvement of cardioviruses as a cause of Vilyuisk encephalomyelitis should be renewed. (asmscience.org)
  • Saffold Virus (SAFV) is a human cardiovirus that is suspected of causing infection of the central nervous system (CNS) in children. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lastly, we showed that SAFV infection does not show any signs of gross demyelination in the brain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Saffold Virus (SAFV) is a novel human cardiovirus identified in 2007 from the stool sample of a child with a fever of unknown origin [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to do that, we used AG129 mice which we have previously shown to be a good model for SAFV infection in the CNS [ 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many children and adults worldwide have antibodies to a SAFV, indicating past infection. (virologydownunder.com)
  • We address this gap in our current knowledge by studying the uncoating of the nonenveloped human cardiovirus Saffold virus 3 (SAFV-3) of the family Picornaviridae. (diva-portal.org)
  • Therefore, compounds specifically disrupting or binding to the disulfide bond might limit SAFV infection. (diva-portal.org)
  • Organs were collected in the fi eld and enteric infections in South Asian children. (cdc.gov)
  • 2010. Human bocaviruses are highly diverse, dispersed, recombination prone, and prevalent in enteric infections . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Frequent detection of highly diverse variants of cardiovirus , cosavirus, bocavirus, and circovirus in sewage samples collected in the United States. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This is the proposed course of disease in TMEV infection in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • the GDVII strain causes acute fatal poliomyelitis, killing all infected mice within 2 weeks, while DA strain causes milder encephalomyelitis, which then progresses to persistent infection and progressive demyelination reminiscent of multiple sclerosis [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mice were sacrificed on day 6 or 35 (days post infection) dpi as described below. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results indicate that the level of KC produced after infection with TMEV or stimulation with various TLRs is significantly higher in various cells from susceptible SJL mice compared to those in cells from resistant B6 mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, infection of susceptible SJL mice with recombinant KC-TMEV produced biologically active KC, which resulted in the accelerated pathogenesis of demyelinating disease and elevated T cell responses to viral antigens compared to mice infected with control recombinant HEL-TMEV. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ohguchi A, Yamauchi H, Doi K, Nakayama H. Activation of type I interferon signaling in the parotid and exorbital lachrymal glands during the acute phase of encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus infection in mice. (uchicago.edu)
  • The aim of the study was to phenotypically characterize two strains of mice with differential Chagas infection susceptibility and correlate strain myocarditis phenotypes with heart tissue gene expression. (omicsdi.org)
  • We previously showed that macrophages in the spleen are phenotypically distinct in male compared to female mice at 12 hours (h) after infection. (omicsdi.org)
  • To understand the host genetic factors of different mouse strains in response to ECTV infection, we carried out a microarray analysis using Affymetrix Gene-Chip Mouse Genome Arrays of spleen tissues from BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice at 3 and 10 days post-ECTV infection. (omicsdi.org)
  • Here we describe a mechanism that promotes cross-priming during viral infections. (nih.gov)
  • Among viral infections in which a protective role for IFN-γ is clearly demonstrated are infection with hepatitis B virus, herpes simplex virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and some poxviruses ( 1 , 2 , 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Ramamurthy M, Sankara S, Arumugam I, Nandagopal B, Srikanth P, Gopalan S. Viral infections of the CNS: the unraveling of the mystery. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Illuminating viral infections in the nervous system. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that AUF1 binds to poliovirus and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) RNA during infection, with binding shown to occur within the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of the 5′ noncoding region (NCR) or the 3′ NCR, respectively. (asm.org)
  • AUF1 is shown to negatively regulate translation of a poliovirus and CVB3 IRES reporter RNA during infection but not in uninfected cells. (asm.org)
  • The work presented here seeks to define the mechanism of action for the host restriction factor AUF1 during infection by poliovirus and CVB3. (asm.org)
  • Fitzgerald, K. D., and Semler, B. L. Re-localization of cellular protein SRp20 during poliovirus infection: bridging a viral IRES to the host cell translation apparatus. (uci.edu)
  • Fecal samples positive for Saffold cardiovirus , Beijing, People's Republic of China, March 2006-November 2007 * Sample no. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of Saffold cardiovirus from children with exudative tonsillitis in Yamagata, Japan. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the case of Cardiovirus A, the virus can cause encephalitis and myocarditis, mostly in rodents, which are natural hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • 7 ). In rodents, however, cardioviruses testing ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • 1. The type species of cardiovirus causing encephalomyelitis and myocarditis in rodents, pigs, and monkeys. (lexic.us)
  • Doi K. Experimental encephalomyocarditis virus infection in small laboratory rodents. (uchicago.edu)
  • Herein, we present a background to viral central nervous system (CNS) infections, followed by a review of medicinal plants and bioactive compounds that are effective against viral pathogens in CNS infections. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Viral encephalitis: familiar infections and emerging pathogens. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Rotaviruses are prime causative agents of gastrointestinal infections in southern Africa, but routine screening of stool samples from infants with acute gastroenteritis at the MRC Diarrhoeal Pathogen Research Unit based at MEDUNSA has revealed that a significant number of specimens test negative for this pathogen each year, suggesting the possible presence of novel or unrecognised viral pathogens. (ru.ac.za)
  • Furthermore, several direct and indirect arguments, suggest that human infections cannot be discarded. (jle.com)
  • Infection in man has been reported with CNS involvement but without myocarditis. (lexic.us)
  • Acute Chagasic myocarditis is consistently found in acute infections but little is known about its contribution to chronic cardiomyopathy. (omicsdi.org)
  • When compared by mean wall thickness, surface unevenness, and chain length of the major proteins, the cardiovirus capsid is intermediate between the enteroviruses and aphthoviruses. (ictvonline.org)
  • Understanding how cellular proteins interact with viral RNA or viral proteins, as well as the roles of each in viral infection, will provide insights for the design of novel antiviral agents based on these interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The capsid proteins mediate the initiation of infection by binding to a receptor on the host membrane. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Upon infection, the viral RNA is translated as a single, long open reading frame into a polyprotein that is cotranslationally processed by three virus-encoded proteinases, leader (L pro ), 2A, and 3C pro , into the four structural proteins and a number of nonstructural proteins, which function in various aspects of the replication cycle ( 31 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • The results show that protein 169 inhibits the synthesis of host proteins in cells and thereby provides a broad inhibition of the host innate immune response to infection. (prolekare.cz)
  • 2019). Slow Infection due to Lowering the Amount of Intact versus Empty Particles Is a Characteristic Feature of Coxsackievirus B5 Dictated by the Structural Proteins . (lnu.se)
  • Horvath, Curt M. / The TAR-RNA binding protein is required for immunoresponses triggered by Cardiovirus infection . (elsevier.com)
  • Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in pigs, characterized by severe reproductive failure in sows and sudden death in less than 7 day-old-piglets, a period of several months from October to December of 1989, in Korea was occurred. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • This outbreak represents the first case of encephalomyocarditis virus infection of pigs in Korea. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Experimental Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in pigs. (zoologix.com)
  • In Canada, cardiovirus isolates related to Saffold virus were detected in nasopharyngeal aspirates from 3 children with respiratory symptoms. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The current study aims to screen the epidemiological status and molecular phylogeny of HBoV isolates prevailing in pediatric patients with respiratory infection in Saudi Arabia. (datexis.com)
  • Theiler's-like cardiovirus, is ubiquitous introduced to Madagascar suggests and causes infection early in life. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, the Theiler's-like cardiovirus ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes rapidly and robustly responded to Theiler's virus infection by infiltrating the brain. (nih.gov)
  • Theiler's Virus Central Nervous System Infection, p 411-428. (asmscience.org)
  • 2018). It is also interesting to note that blood vessels of medium and small size show most involvement in case of infection due to NiV, which results in development of syncytia (multinucleated) along with fibrinoid necrosis (Ang et al. (datexis.com)
  • The majority of mouse strains are not susceptible to the pathology associated with TMEV infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • It focuses on the pathogenesis of TMEV-induced disease because of the extensive investigations of this topic as well as the remarkable ability of this virus to establish lifelong infection of the central nervous system (CNS) and to produce an immune-mediated demyelinating disease. (asmscience.org)
  • The crystal structures of mengovirus ( Cardiovirus A ) and TMEV and Saffold virus 3 ( Cardiovirus B ) have been resolved [{Grant et al. (ictvonline.org)
  • These results strongly suggest that both the lack of KC during TMEV infection and the excessive presence of the chemokine promote the pathogenesis of demyelinating disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, a balance in the level of KC during TMEV infection appears to be critically important in controlling the pathogenesis of demyelinating disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • TMEV infection activates the production of various proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in these cell types ( Palma and Kim, 2001 , 2004 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Extrapolated suggests somewhat lower infection rate to other genotypes, the fi nding would similar to what has been reported for Type 2 indicate a high infection rate for enteroviruses ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Abstract Adenoviruses are responsible for approximately 5-10% of acute respiratory infections globally. (medworm.com)
  • Of the 3 children with AiV infection, the 3 AiV strains were found to belong to genotype A based on the phylogenetic analysis of their partial VP1 and 3CD regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Replication of cardioviruses is dependent on a structured RNA element called the Cardiovirus cis-acting replication element (CRE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus infection or accumulated virus replication intermediates like double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can trigger IFN biosynthesis in most cells irrespective of the presence of Toll-like receptor systems. (grantome.com)
  • The 2A protein of members of the species Cardiovirus A and B has a length of c. 140 aa and causes NPG↓P-mediated polypeptide chain interruption at its C-terminus. (ictvonline.org)
  • They all belong to the species, Cardiovirus B . (virologydownunder.com)
  • However, when a virus enters a cell the virus genome has to be released from the capsid in order to initiate infection. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our study was part of a systematic prospective study to assess the epidemiology of respiratory virus infections in children admitted to the Severo Ochoa Hospital (Legan?s, Madrid Province, Spain).We conducted a specific study to determine the incidence of respiratory virus infections in all infants admitted after ALTEs during November 2004?December 2008. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In contrast, rhinoviruses are acid-labile (inactivated or destroyed by low pH conditions) and that is the reason why rhinovirus infections are restricted to the nose and throat. (wikipedia.org)
  • siRNA knockdown experiments indicate that TRBP is important for Cardiovirus-triggered interferon responses, but TRBP is not involved in Sendai virus-triggered interferon response that is mediated mainly by RIG-I. To support functional interaction with LGP2, overexpressed TRBP increased Cardiovirus-triggered interferon promoter activity only when LGP2 and MDA5 are co-expressed but not MDA5 alone. (elsevier.com)
  • A major contribution to host immune responses to virus infection is the production of and response to type I interferon (IFN). (grantome.com)
  • Aichi virus infection in elderly people in Sweden. (lnu.se)
  • Current clinical diagnoses of influenza infections are based on serologic testing, polymerase chain reaction, direct specimen immunofluorescence and cell culture 1,2 . (jove.com)
  • She has a particular interest in gastrointestinal infections, including H. pylori infection and diarrheal diseases, tuberculosis and illnesses with prolonged fever. (stanford.edu)
  • Dr. Parsonnet also has an active research enterprise in which she studies the way infections contribute to the development of chronic diseases including cancer, allergy and obesity. (stanford.edu)
  • Identification and characterization of SVA as a cause of IVD will help to quickly rule out infection by foreign animal diseases. (umnswinenews.com)
  • Duke GM, Palmenberg AC (1989) Cloning and synthesis of infectious cardiovirus RNAs containing short, discrete poly(C) tracts. (springer.com)