Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Cardiovascular Physiological Processes: Biological actions and events that support the functions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Cardiovascular Abnormalities: Congenital, inherited, or acquired anomalies of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, including the HEART and BLOOD VESSELS.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum: An inherited disorder of connective tissue with extensive degeneration and calcification of ELASTIC TISSUE primarily in the skin, eye, and vasculature. At least two forms exist, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant. This disorder is caused by mutations of one of the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. Patients are predisposed to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION and GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate: A vasodilator with general properties similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a more prolonged duration of action. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1025)Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Marfan Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE with abnormal features in the heart, the eye, and the skeleton. Cardiovascular manifestations include MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE, dilation of the AORTA, and aortic dissection. Other features include lens displacement (ectopia lentis), disproportioned long limbs and enlarged DURA MATER (dural ectasia). Marfan syndrome is associated with mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin, a major element of extracellular microfibrils of connective tissue.Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors: Paracrine substances produced by the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM with VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation (VASODILATION) activities. Several factors have been identified, including NITRIC OXIDE and PROSTACYCLIN.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Hydrogen Sulfide: A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Dianisidine: Highly toxic compound which can cause skin irritation and sensitization. It is used in manufacture of azo dyes.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Carbon Disulfide: A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Blood Circulation: The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Cystathionine gamma-Lyase: A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Valsalva Maneuver: Forced expiratory effort against a closed GLOTTIS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Sympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Urotensins: Teleost hormones. A family of small peptides isolated from urophyses of bony fishes. They have many different physiological effects, including long-lasting hypotensive activity and have been proposed as antihypertensives. There are at least four different compounds: urotensin I, urotensin II, urotensin III, and urotensin IV.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Natriuretic Peptides: Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Receptors, Mineralocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind MINERALOCORTICOIDS and mediate their cellular effects. The receptor with its bound ligand acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of specific segments of DNA.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Urocortins: Neuropeptides of about 40 amino acids which are structurally similar to CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING FACTOR. Unlike CRF acting primarily through type 1 CRF RECEPTORS, urocortins signal preferentially through type 2 CRF receptors. Urocortins have wide tissue distribution from fish to mammals, and diverse functions. In mammals, urocortins can suppress food intake, delays gastric emptying, and decreases heat-induced edema.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Autonomic Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.Arterial Pressure: The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Cordotomy: Any operation on the spinal cord. (Stedman, 26th ed)Fetal Hypoxia: Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.Adrenomedullin: A 52-amino acid peptide with multi-functions. It was originally isolated from PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA and ADRENAL MEDULLA but is widely distributed throughout the body including lung and kidney tissues. Besides controlling fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilator and can inhibit pituitary ACTH secretion.Ductus Arteriosus: A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Hemorheology: The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Nervous System Physiological Phenomena: Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Weightlessness Simulation: Condition under normal Earth gravity where the force of gravity itself is not actually altered but its influence or effect may be modified and studied. (From ASGSB Bull 1992;5(2):27)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Chymases: A family of neutral serine proteases with CHYMOTRYPSIN-like activity. Chymases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.Heart Rate, Fetal: The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.Epoprostenol: A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors: Compounds that suppress the degradation of INCRETINS by blocking the action of DIPEPTIDYL-PEPTIDASE IV. This helps to correct the defective INSULIN and GLUCAGON secretion characteristic of TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS by stimulating insulin secretion and suppressing glucagon release.Bed Rest: Confinement of an individual to bed for therapeutic or experimental reasons.Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Mice, Inbred C57BLVentricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Pulse: The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Hypotension, Orthostatic: A significant drop in BLOOD PRESSURE after assuming a standing position. Orthostatic hypotension is a finding, and defined as a 20-mm Hg decrease in systolic pressure or a 10-mm Hg decrease in diastolic pressure 3 minutes after the person has risen from supine to standing. Symptoms generally include DIZZINESS, blurred vision, and SYNCOPE.Angiotensin I: A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Nitric Oxide Donors: A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Transient Receptor Potential Channels: A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Estrogen Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.KATP Channels: Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Gene Targeting: The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.

Distinct and combined vascular effects of ACE blockade and HMG-CoA reductase inhibition in hypertensive subjects. (1/2013)

Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension are frequently associated with elevated sympathetic activity. Both are independent cardiovascular risk factors and both affect endothelium-mediated vasodilation. To identify the effects of cholesterol-lowering and antihypertensive treatments on vascular reactivity and vasodilative capacity, we studied 30 hypercholesterolemic hypertensive subjects. They received placebo for 4 weeks, either enalapril or simvastatin for 14 weeks, and, finally, both medications for an additional 14 weeks. Postischemic forearm blood flow (MFBF) and minimal vascular resistance (mFVR) were used as indices of vasodilative capacity and structural vascular damage, respectively. Total (resting-stress-recovery phases) cardiovascular (blood pressure [BP] and heart rate [HR]) and regional hemodynamic (FBF and FVR) reactivity to stressful stimuli were calculated as area-under-the-curve (auc) (valuextime). Compared with baseline levels, simvastatin reduced total (TOT-C) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (1.27 mmol/L, P<0.001 and 1.33 mmol/L, P<0.001, respectively). Enalapril also reduced TOT-C and LDL-C (0.6 mmol/L, P<0.001 and 0.58 mmol/L, P<0.05, respectively). MFBF was increased substantially by both treatments (P<0.001). Enalapril had a greater effect (-1.7 arbitrary units (AU), P<0.001) than simvastatin (-0.6 AU, P<0.05) on mFVR. During stress, FBF increased more with enalapril (4.4 FBFxminutes, P<0.001) than with simvastatin (1.8 FBFxminutes, P<0.01). Conversely, FVR stress response was reduced more with enalapril (9.1 FVRxminutes, P<0.001) than with simvastatin (2.9 FVRxminutes, P<0.01). During combination treatment, a significant (0.001>P<0.05) additive effect on hypercholesterolemia, structural vascular damage, BP, and FVR was shown. The findings suggest that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition induces a larger reduction than HMG-CoA reductase blockade in vascular reactivity and structural damage in hypercholesterolemic hypertensive subjects.  (+info)

Cardiovascular and neuronal responses to head stimulation reflect central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine. (2/2013)

Reduction of the threshold of cardiovascular and neuronal responses to facial and intracranial stimulation reflects central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine. Current theories propose that migraine pain is caused by chemical activation of meningeal perivascular fibers. We previously found that chemical irritation of the dura causes trigeminovascular fibers innervating the dura and central trigeminal neurons receiving convergent input from the dura and skin to respond to low-intensity mechanical and thermal stimuli that previously induced minimal or no responses. One conclusion of these studies was that when low- and high-intensity stimuli induce responses of similar magnitude in nociceptive neurons, low-intensity stimuli must be as painful as the high-intensity stimuli. The present study investigates in anesthetized rats the significance of the changes in the responses of central trigeminal neurons (i.e., in nucleus caudalis) by correlating them with the occurrence and type of the simultaneously recorded cardiovascular responses. Before chemical stimulation of the dura, simultaneous increases in neuronal firing rates and blood pressure were induced by dural indentation with forces >/= 2.35 g and by noxious cutaneous stimuli such as pinching the skin and warming > 46 degrees C. After chemical stimulation, similar neuronal responses and blood pressure increases were evoked by much smaller forces for dural indentation and by innocuous cutaneous stimuli such as brushing the skin and warming it to >/= 43 degrees C. The onsets of neuronal responses preceded the onsets of depressor responses by 1.7 s and pressor responses by 4.0 s. The duration of neuronal responses was 15 s, whereas the duration of depressor responses was shorter (5.8 s) and pressor responses longer (22.7 s) than the neuronal responses. We conclude that the facilitated cardiovascular and central trigeminal neuronal responses to innocuous stimulation of the skin indicate that when dural stimulation induces central sensitization, innocuous stimuli are as nociceptive as noxious stimuli had been before dural stimulation and that a similar process might occur during the development of cutaneous allodynia during migraine.  (+info)

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters cardiovascular and craniofacial development and function in sac fry of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (3/2013)

Hallmark signs of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity in rainbow trout sac fry, are yolk sac edema, hemorrhage, craniofacial malformation, and growth retardation culminating in mortality. Our objective was to determine the role of cardiovascular dysfunction in the development of this toxicity. An embryotoxic TCDD dose (385 pg/g egg) caused a progressive reduction in blood flow in rainbow trout sac fry manifested first and most dramatically in the 1st and 2nd branchial arches and vessels perfusing the lower jaw. Blood flow was reduced later in the infraorbital artery and occipital vein of the head as well as segmental vessels and caudal vein of the trunk. Reduced perfusion occurred last in gill branchial arteries involved with oxygen uptake and the subintestinal vein and vitelline vein involved with nutrient uptake. Although heart rate throughout sac fry development was not affected, heart size at 50 days post-fertilization (dpf) was reduced far more than body weight or length, suggesting that the progressive circulatory failure caused by TCDD is associated with reduced cardiac output. Craniofacial development was arrested near hatch, giving rise to craniofacial malformations in which the jaws and anterior nasal structures were underdeveloped. Unlike the medaka embryo, in which TCDD causes apoptosis in the medial yolk vein, endothelial cell death was not observed in rainbow trout sac fry. These findings suggest a primary role for arrested heart development and reduced perfusion of tissues with blood in the early-life stage toxicity of TCDD in trout.  (+info)

Sex, age, cardiovascular risk factors, and coronary heart disease: a prospective follow-up study of 14 786 middle-aged men and women in Finland. (4/2013)

BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is markedly more common in men than in women. In both sexes, CHD risk increases with age, but the increase is sharper in women. We analyzed the extent to which major cardiovascular risk factors can explain the sex difference and the age-related increase in CHD risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study cohort consists of 14 786 Finnish men and women 25 to 64 years old at baseline. The following cardiovascular risk factors were determined: smoking, serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, body mass index, and diabetes. Risk factor measurements were done in 1982 or 1987, and the cohorts were followed up until the end of 1994. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the relation between risk factors and CHD risk. CHD incidence in men compared with women was approximately 3 times higher and mortality was approximately 5 times higher. Most of the risk factors were more favorable in women, but the sex difference in risk factor levels diminished with increasing age. Differences in risk factors between sexes, particularly in HDL cholesterol and smoking, explained nearly half of the difference in CHD risk between men and women. Differences in serum total cholesterol level, blood pressure, body mass index, and diabetes prevalence explained about one-third of the age-related increase in CHD risk among men and 50% to 60% among women. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in major cardiovascular risk factors explained a substantial part of the sex difference in CHD risk. An increase in risk factor levels was associated with the age-related increase in CHD incidence and mortality in both sexes but to a larger extent in women.  (+info)

Cardiovascular, endocrine, and renal effects of urodilatin in normal humans. (5/2013)

Effects of urodilatin (5, 10, 20, and 40 ng. kg-1. min-1) infused over 2 h on separate study days were studied in eight normal subjects with use of a randomized, double-blind protocol. All doses decreased renal plasma flow (hippurate clearance, 13-37%) and increased fractional Li+ clearance (7-22%) and urinary Na+ excretion (by 30, 76, 136, and 99% at 5, 10, 20, and 40 ng. kg-1. min-1, respectively). Glomerular filtration rate did not increase significantly with any dose. The two lowest doses decreased cardiac output (7 and 16%) and stroke volume (10 and 20%) without changing mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate. The two highest doses elicited larger decreases in stroke volume (17 and 21%) but also decreased blood pressure (6 and 14%) and increased heart rate (15 and 38%), such that cardiac output remained unchanged. Hematocrit and plasma protein concentration increased with the three highest doses. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was inhibited by the three lowest doses but activated by the hypotensive dose of 40 ng. kg-1. min-1. Plasma vasopressin increased by factors of up to 5 during infusion of the three highest doses. Atrial natriuretic peptide immunoreactivity (including urodilatin) and plasma cGMP increased dose dependently. The urinary excretion rate of albumin was elevated up to 15-fold (37 +/- 17 micrograms/min). Use of a newly developed assay revealed that baseline urinary urodilatin excretion rate was low (<10 pg/min) and that fractional excretion of urodilatin remained below 0.1%. The results indicate that even moderately natriuretic doses of urodilatin exert protracted effects on systemic hemodynamic, endocrine, and renal functions, including decreases in cardiac output and renal blood flow, without changes in arterial pressure or glomerular filtration rate, and that filtered urodilatin is almost completely removed by the renal tubules.  (+info)

System identification of closed-loop cardiovascular control mechanisms: diabetic autonomic neuropathy. (6/2013)

We applied cardiovascular system identification (CSI) to characterize closed-loop cardiovascular regulation in patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN). The CSI method quantitatively analyzes beat-to-beat fluctuations in noninvasively measured heart rate, arterial blood pressure (ABP), and instantaneous lung volume (ILV) to characterize four physiological coupling mechanisms, two of which are autonomically mediated (the heart rate baroreflex and the coupling of respiration, measured in terms of ILV, to heart rate) and two of which are mechanically mediated (the coupling of ventricular contraction to the generation of the ABP wavelet and the coupling of respiration to ABP). We studied 37 control and 60 diabetic subjects who were classified as having minimal, moderate, or severe DAN on the basis of standard autonomic tests. The autonomically mediated couplings progressively decreased with increasing severity of DAN, whereas the mechanically mediated couplings were essentially unchanged. CSI identified differences between the minimal DAN and control groups, which were indistinguishable based on the standard autonomic tests. CSI may provide a powerful tool for assessing DAN.  (+info)

Considerations in pharmaceutical conversion: focus on antihistamines. (7/2013)

The practice of pharmaceutical conversion, which encompasses three types of drug interchange (generic, brand, and therapeutic substitution), is increasing in managed care settings. Pharmaceutical conversion has numerous implications for managed care organizations, their healthcare providers, and their customers. Although drug cost may be a driving consideration in pharmaceutical conversion, a number of other considerations are of equal or greater importance in the decision-making process may affect the overall cost of patient care. Among these considerations are clinical, psychosocial, and safety issues; patient adherence; patient satisfaction; and legal implications of pharmaceutical conversion. Patient-centered care must always remain central to decisions about pharmaceutical conversion. This article discusses the issues related to, and implications of, pharmaceutical conversion utilizing the antihistamines class of drugs as the case situation.  (+info)

Connexin 43 expression reflects neural crest patterns during cardiovascular development. (8/2013)

We used transgenic mice in which the promoter sequence for connexin 43 linked to a lacZ reporter was expressed in neural crest but not myocardial cells to document the pattern of cardiac neural crest cells in the caudal pharyngeal arches and cardiac outflow tract. Expression of lacZ was strikingly similar to that of cardiac neural crest cells in quail-chick chimeras. By using this transgenic mouse line to compare cardiac neural crest involvement in cardiac outflow septation and aortic arch artery development in mouse and chick, we were able to note differences and similarities in their cardiovascular development. Similar to neural crest cells in the chick, lacZ-positive cells formed a sheath around the persisting aortic arch arteries, comprised the aorticopulmonary septation complex, were located at the site of final fusion of the conal cushions, and populated the cardiac ganglia. In quail-chick chimeras generated for this study, neural crest cells entered the outflow tract by two pathways, submyocardially and subendocardially. In the mouse only the subendocardial population of lacZ-positive cells could be seen as the cells entered the outflow tract. In addition lacZ-positive cells completely surrounded the aortic sac prior to septation, while in the chick, neural crest cells were scattered around the aortic sac with the bulk of cells distributed in the bridging portion of the aorticopulmonary septation complex. In the chick, submyocardial populations of neural crest cells assembled on opposite sides of the aortic sac and entered the conotruncal ridges. Even though the aortic sac in the mouse was initially surrounded by lacZ-positive cells, the two outflow vessels that resulted from its septation showed differential lacZ expression. The ascending aorta was invested by lacZ-positive cells while the pulmonary trunk was devoid of lacZ staining. In the chick, both of these vessels were invested by neural crest cells, but the cells arrived secondarily by displacement from the aortic arch arteries during vessel elongation. This may indicate a difference in derivation of the pulmonary trunk in the mouse or a difference in distribution of cardiac neural crest cells. An independent mouse neural crest marker is needed to confirm whether the differences are indeed due to species differences in cardiovascular and/or neural crest development. Nevertheless, with the differences noted, we believe that this mouse model faithfully represents the location of cardiac neural crest cells. The similarities in location of lacZ-expressing cells in the mouse to that of cardiac neural crest cells in the chick suggest that this mouse is a good model for studying mammalian cardiac neural crest and that the mammalian cardiac neural crest performs functions similar to those shown for chick.  (+info)

*Cardiovascular System Dynamics Society

The Cardiovascular System Dynamics Society (CSDS), founded in 1976, by organ system physiologist and biomedical engineers, was ... cardiovascular biology, clinical disease, and modeling. The primary theme remains cardiovascular function, its physiologic and ... a historic first in its mathematical and quantitative approach to cardiovascular mechanics. Currently the society includes ...

*Testosterone and the cardiovascular system

Vigna, GB; Bergami, E (2005). "Testosterone replacement, cardiovascular system and risk factors in the aging male". Journal of ... "Testosterone and the Cardiovascular System: A Comprehensive Review of the Clinical Literature". Journal of the American Heart ... Previously, the higher cardiovascular risk in men has been attributed in part to the negative effects of systemic testosterone ... "The risk of Cardiovascular Events in Men Receiving Testosterone Therapy: An Endocrine Society Statement" (PDF). Endocrine ...

*Cardiovascular examination

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*Means-Lerman scratch

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*Effects of cannabis

ISBN 978-1-139-48567-8. Jones, R T (2002). "Cardiovascular system effects of marijuana". Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 42 ( ... Jones, R T (2002). "Cardiovascular system effects of marijuana". Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 42 (11): 58-63. doi:10.1002/ ... effects on the cardiovascular system can include increased heart rate, dilation of blood vessels, and fluctuations in blood ... and recent research has identified the endogenous cannabinoid system to be the first neural system to display complete control ...

*MiR-208

subscription required) Han, M; Toli, J; Abdellatif, M (May 2011). "MicroRNAs in the cardiovascular system". Current Opinion in ... Systems biology and medicine. 3 (2): 183-90. doi:10.1002/wsbm.111. PMC 3058499 . PMID 21305703. Cai, B; Pan, Z; Lu, Y (2010). " ... miR-208 is thought to be dysregulated in various cardiovascular diseases. miR-208 functions in cardiomyocytes regulating the ...

*Kussmaul's sign

Disorders of the Cardiovascular System; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 17th, and Self-assessment & Board Review ... This impaired filling causes the increased blood flow to back up into the venous system, causing the jugular vein distension ( ... cardiovescular system questions 15, 29 Meyer, Theo E.; Sareli, Pinhas; Marcus, Richard H.; Pocock, Wendy; Berk, Martin R.; ...

*Virtopsy

Visualization of the cardiovascular system. Replacement of manual dexterity by the "virtual knife" of the automatic sectional ... which visualises the cardiovascular system of the deceased with the aid of a peristaltic pump and contrast medium; Image- and ... Ebert LC, Ptacek W, Naether S, Fürst M, Ross S, Buck U, Weber S, Thali M (2010). "Virtobot--a multi-functional robotic system ... It describes a multi-functional robotic system. The Virtangio machine is a device that is trademarked to Prof. R. Dirnhofer and ...

*Long-term effects of cannabis

Cardiovascular consequences of marijuana use. Sidney S J Clin Pharmacol. 2002 Nov;42(11 Suppl):58S-63S. Cardiovascular system ... Cardiovascular effects may not lead to serious health issues for the majority of young, healthy users; on the contrary, heart ... Using Marijuana for people with cardiovascular disease constitutes a health risk because it can lead to increased cardiac work ... Fonseca BM, Correia-da-Silva G, Almada M, Costa MA, Teixeira NA (2013). "The Endocannabinoid System in the Postimplantation ...

*Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

Hamblin M, Chang L, Fan Y, Zhang J, Chen YE (June 2009). "PPARs and the Cardiovascular System". Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11 (6 ... Takano H, Komuro I (2002). "Roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in cardiovascular disease". J. Diabetes ... PPAR-gamma decreases the inflammatory response of many cardiovascular cells, particularly endothelial cells. PPAR-gamma ...

*Anaphylaxis

Triggiani, M; Patella, V; Staiano, RI; Granata, F; Marone, G (September 2008). "Allergy and the cardiovascular system". ... Gylys, Barbara (2012). Medical Terminology Systems: A Body Systems Approach. F.A. Davis. p. 269. ISBN 9780803639133. Archived ... Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction of rapid onset affecting many body systems. It is due to the release of inflammatory ... If death occurs, it is usually due to either respiratory (typically asphyxia) or cardiovascular causes (shock), with 0.7-20% of ...

*Neurokinin A

doi:10.1046/j.1365-2222.2001.00975.x. Walsh, David A.; McWilliams, Daniel F. (2006). "Tachykinins And The Cardiovascular System ... The immune system is a highly integrated system which receives input from many sources, such as sites of injury, nocireceptors ... Neurokinin A is ubiquitous in both the central and peripheral mammalian nervous systems, and seems to be involved in reactions ... Additionally both SP neurokinin A is found in the neurosensory system and modulates a wide range of inflammatory and tissue ...

*Chronic progressive lymphedema

Cardiovascular system and lymphatic vessels. Disorders of horses. Chronic progressive lymphedema in draft horses". In Zachary, ...

*Aortic arch

"The Cardiovascular System (Blood Vessels)". www2.highlands.edu. Retrieved 2017-04-22. [email protected] "Printed ...

*Birth control

ISBN 0-07-171672-6. Brito, MB; Nobre, F; Vieira, CS (April 2011). "Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system". Arquivos ... ISBN 0-7657-6058-4. "Hindu Beliefs and Practices Affecting Health Care". University of Virginia Health System. Archived from ...

*Capillary

"THH:3.09 The cardiovascular system". Retrieved June 3, 2014. Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins; Charles William McLaughlin; Susan ... Those with few vesicles, which are primarily found in the central nervous system. These capillaries are a constituent of the ... ISBN 0-7216-0240-1 Histology image:22401lba from Vaughan, Deborah (2002). A Learning System in Histology: CD-ROM and Guide. ... Reduced capillary density (capillary rarefaction) occurs in association with cardiovascular risk factors and in patients with ...

*Lymphatic vessel

Unlike the cardiovascular system, the lymphatic system is not closed and has no central pump. Lymph movement occurs despite low ... As part of the lymphatic system, lymph vessels are complementary to the cardiovascular system. Lymph vessels are lined by ... "The Cardiovascular System (Chapter 8)". Hollinshead's Textbook of Anatomy (Fifth ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven. pp. 72- ... A valve system in place here prevents the absorbed lymph from leaking back into the ISF. There is another system of semilunar ( ...

*Pallid bat

Cardiovascular Systems Dynamics Lab. 11 Feb 2007 . Rambaldini, Daniela A. 2005. Antrozous pallidus, Pallid bat. WBWG Species ... "California Wildlife Habitat Relationships System -- Pallid Bat". Bunkley, Jessie Patrice; Barber, Jesse Rex (2015-11-01). " ...

*Procainamide

Drugs Acting on the Cardiovascular System. Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Seventh Edition: 451-500 Plumb DC. 1999. ... It is classified by the Vaughan Williams classification system as class Ia; thus it is a Na+ channel blocker of cardiomyocytes ... Cardiovascular Therapeutics: A Companion to Braunwald's Heart Disease. 4th Edition. ISBN 978-1-4557-0101-8. P410 "Procainamide ...

*Orthostatic hypotension

2002). "Cardiovascular system effects of marijuana". J Clin Pharmacol. 42 (11 Suppl): 58S-63S. doi:10.1002/j.1552-4604.2002. ... It is also linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and stroke. There is also observational data ... Quadriplegics and paraplegics also might experience these symptoms due to multiple systems' inability to maintain a normal ... including multiple system atrophy and other forms of dysautonomia. It is also associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and ...

*Mitral valve stenosis

Chapter 1: Diseases of the Cardiovascular system > Section: Valvular Heart Disease in: Elizabeth D Agabegi; Agabegi, Steven S ... To determine which patients would benefit from percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty, a scoring system has been developed. ... Nature Materials 12, 576-583 (2013). Miller, J. D. Cardiovascular calcification: Orbicular origins. Nature Materials 12, 476- ... Nano-analytical electron microscopy reveals fundamental insights into human cardiovascular tissue calcification. ...

*Scutellaria

Huang, Yu; Tsang, Suk-Ying; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Zhen-Yu (2005). "Biological Properties of Baicalein in Cardiovascular System ... Skullcaps are common herbal remedies in systems of traditional medicine. In traditional Chinese medicine they are utilized to " ... Baicalein, one of the important Scutellaria flavonoids, was shown to have cardiovascular effects in in vitro. Research also ... "Scutellaria". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2010-11-12. Scutellaria parvula var. missouriensis. Robert W. ...

*Aortic insufficiency

Chapter 1: Diseases of the Cardiovascular system > Section: Valvular Heart Disease in: Elizabeth D Agabegi; Agabegi, Steven S ... Cardiovascular Interventions in Clinical Practice. John Wiley & Sons. p. 102. ISBN 9781444316711. Retrieved 4 June 2016. " ... Topol, Eric J.; Califf, Robert M. Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 381. ISBN ... Haase, Jürgen; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim; Sievert, Horst; Waksman, Ron (2010-04-01). Cardiovascular Interventions in Clinical ...

*European Physiology Modules

Cardiolab (CDL) - To scan the cardiovascular system. (Built by CADMOS in Toulouse.) The EPM is operated according to ESA's ... and motion sensory coordination Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems - Control of blood volume and distribution; fluid volume ... The EPM rack was built by OHB-System in Bremen. The EPM enables a better understanding of the effects of spaceflight on the ... For this reason, the EPM facility will provide a Baseline Data Collection Model (BDCM) system that includes functional copies ...

*Cameron Prize of the University of Edinburgh

FitzGerald, Garret (2001). "COX-2 inhibitors and the cardiovascular system". Clin Exp Rheumatol. 19: S31-6. ...

*Atrioventricular node

The cardiac conduction system (and AV node part of it) coordinates myocyte mechanical activity. A wave of excitation spreads ... Cardiovascular Pathology. 19 (3): e75-8. doi:10.1016/j.carpath.2008.10.011. PMID 19144541. Anatomy figure: 20:06-02 at Human ... The atrioventricular node, or AV node is a part of the electrical conduction system of the heart that coordinates the top of ... This property is important because loss of the conduction system before the AV node should still result in pacing of the ...
Consumption of carbohydrates has been demonstrated to alter resting cardiovascular function and cardiovascular reactions to mental stress (known as cardiovascular reactivity). Previous investigations of the effects of acute carbohydrate administration on cardiovascular reactivity suggest that ingestion of glucose followed by mental stress alters hemodynamic responses by attenuating elevations in cardiac output and increasing total peripheral resistance. However, these prior investigations have utilized tasks which have limited generalizability to real-life stressors and were conducted with participants in a recumbent position. The present study investigated the effects of oral glucose administration on resting cardiovascular parameters and cardiovascular reactivity in twenty four seated healthy male college students. Interpersonal speech and anger recall tasks were utilized to elicit a greater emotional response than those used in previous studies and to more closely mirror stressors encountered ...
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Research in Cardiovascular Biology at UVA focuses on mechanisms that contribute to major cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and stroke.Over 150 former trainees now hold leadership positions in academia, industry, and other biomedical science-related disciplines. Students perform research in one of the many laboratories housed in our world-renowned Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center (CVRC). Training is augmented through our NIH-funded Cardiovascular Research Training Program, which prepares students for highly successful biomedical research careers in a broad range of areas, including studies of basic cardiovascular development and function. Our research also focuses on the development of novel drugs, devices, diagnostic methods, imaging modalities, and other therapeutic approaches to better diagnose, prevent, or treat cardiovascular disease.. ...
Cardiovascular System - Cardiovascular System Diagram - Cardiovascular System Chart - Cardiovascular Diagram - Cardiovascular system is a visual representation of the human organs carrying blood through the body including human heart, veins, arteries and aorta.
There are several possible explanations for the dominant effect of age on the likelihood for occurrence of these cardiovascular diseases. One is that aging is synonymous with disease; however, many people achieve "old age" without evidence of these diseases. Another explanation for the "epidemic" of cardiovascular disease in older persons is that other defined risk factors co-vary in number or severity with increasing age. A related, but distinct, idea is that increasing age contributes to an increased exposure time to these other age-dependent risk factors. According to this view, time indirectly confers an increased risk for the occurrence and increased severity and extent of pathophysiological manifestations of these diseases in older persons. A somewhat different view is that cardiovascular structure and function change with time because an "aging process," and that, over time, this process alters the substrate on which specific pathophysiological disease mechanisms, such as those that have ...
The cardiovascular structures are normal in size. No abnormalities are noted in the pulmonary parenchyma, mediastinum, or pleural space. There is lysis of the spinous process of the second thoracic vertebra. Spine technique radiographs were requested, confirming the finding from the thoracic series. A pathologic fracture is visible on the additional images ...
Study Flashcards On OCR GCSE PE at Cram.com. of exercise on the cardiovascular system. long term effects on the respiratory system and what are the.O2 is carried via circulatory system around the body in the red blood cells.Cardiovascular System. excessive alcohol can have harmful effects on the cardiovascular system.Find PowerPoint Presentations and Slides using the power of.. The Effect of Diet on the Circulatory System. Your diet has a significant effect upon the overall health and.Your diet and exercise level can have a substantial effect on your skeletal system.High-altitude training exerts beneficial effects on your respiratory system. This is done by converting nutrients from your diet to ...
BOSTON , MA - By the beginning of this year, a consensus had developed on the link between COX-2 drugs and heart disease risk: The evidence for cardiovascular…
Capecitabine is a chemotherapy drug used to treat many types of cancer including bowel and stomach cancer. Unfortunately a side effect of this drug is t
Materials and Methods: the functional indices of the cardiovascular system of 61 boys aged 10 to 15 years, who were engaged in karate for more than 2 years (the main group) and 50 boys of the same age, not engaged in sports activities (the control group) were studied. The assessment of the cardiovascular system included heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV) and minute volume (MV) of blood. The indices of cardiovascular system were examined at rest and on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th minute of recovery period after the Harvard step test ...
The Harvard Step Test Procedure to Assess Cardiovascular System. This article will discuss how to assess cardiovascular system capacity? which influence the endurance ability. The objective of this test is to monitor the development of the athletes cardiovascular system ...
Wall Street brokerages expect Cardiovascular Systems Inc (NASDAQ:CSII) to announce earnings per share of ($0.03) for the current quarter, according to Zacks. Four analysts have made estimates for Cardiovascular Systems earnings. The highest EPS estimate is $0.00 and the lowest is ($0.05). Cardiovascular Systems reported earnings per share of $0.01 during the same quarter last […]
Cardiologists and oncologists must work together in an attempt to avoid or prevent adverse cardiovascular effects in patients from certain chemotherapies, especially for those who may be at a higher risk for such effects, according to a new review published online December 10 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.. With an aging population, it is highly probable that an increasing number of people may have both cancer and cardiovascular disease. Many chemotherapeutic and chemoprevention drugs affect the cardiovascular system, making cardiovascular side effects a new challenge in cancer therapy.. In a review of the literature, Adriana Albini, Ph.D., Chief of Oncology Research of the Clinical and Research Institute MultiMedica, Milan, Italy, Francesco Donatelli, Chief of MultiMedica Cardiovascular Department, and others from the Universities of Milan, Genova and Varese, summarize the potential cardiovascular toxicities for a range of cancer chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agents and ...
Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System. Cardiovascular System. Also circulatory system Consists of: the heart , arteries , veins , capil laries. Heart. Four chamber muscular organ Comparable to the size of a closed fist Located in the mediastinum. Heart. Coverings of the Heart....
Research summary:. Lipid mediators as prostanoids and cholesterol derivatives play an essential role in inflammatory processes associated to the onset and development of a number of pathologies as cardiovascular diseases. Prostanoids participate in the inflammatory response and exert important actions in the cardiovascular system, modulating vascular homeostasis and participating in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Their importance in inflammation and in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis is highlighted by clinical experience with drugs inhibiting their production as NSAIDs. In spite of their well-known properties as anti-inflammatory drugs, recent studies have shown that cyclooxygenase-2 selective NSAIDs inhibitors increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular side effects. On the other hand, oxysterols and drugs acting as LXR ligands play a central regulatory role in lipid uptake, metabolism and efflux through their properties as transcriptional regulators of gene expression. In ...
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Natural Nutrition Supplements For Womens Cardiovascular System Health -- The Secrets That Will Provide You Complete Cardiovascular System Health
The Cardiovascular System The cardiovascular system consists of a heart and an enclosed system of blood vessels categories into arteries, capillaries and
Cardiovascular System Exam Review & Test Bank App : 5600 Flashcards, Concepts & Practice Quiz & Study Notes - Cardiovascular System Exam Review : 5600 Quiz & Study Notes With this app you can learn on the Go, Anytime & Everywhere. The learning & understanding process never been so easy like with our 5 study modes embedded in this app. This app is a combin
... : MRI and CT of the Cardiovascular System Pub Date: October 2005 Product Type: Print Author/
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Gary Fishbein, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
There is currently a deficiency in understanding the events that effect proper cardiovascular development. The long-term goal is to define these events in molec...
Questa meta analisi riguarda gli effetti dellesercizio aerobico sulla pressione arteriosa e si basa su ricerche cliniche randomizzate e controllate: abbiamo incluso 54 lavori su 2419 soggetti di un ampio spettro di regioni geografiche e di etnie. Lo studio ha dimostrato che lesercizio fisico ha un impressionante effetto sullabbassamento della pressione arteriosa: mmHg per la sistolica e mmHg per la diastolica. Bisogna distinguere limportanza di questi risultati per i singoli soggetti da quelli sulla salute della popolazione. La riduzione di pressione che abbiamo documentato può essere di scarsa importanza per i medici di singoli pazienti; daltra parte, una piccola riduzione della pressione media in una popolazione può ridurre in maniera eccezionale lincidenza delle malattie cardiovascolari e dei conseguenti decessi in una comunità. Tutti i tipi di esercizio sono efficaci per la riduzione della pressione. Lesercizio aerobico riduce la resistenza allinsulina e i livelli di insulina negli ipertesi.
Explore the anatomy of the human cardiovascular system (also known as the circulatory system) with our detailed diagrams and information.
Background: A tumor cell subset known as stem like cells (SLC) defy conventional therapies, requiring identification of SLC-specific therapeutic targets. We established that elevated COX-2 expression by breast cancer cells promotes tumor progression via inactivation of host immune cells, enhancement of cancer cell migration and invasiveness, and promotion of tumor-associated angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis primarily by activation of the PGE-2 receptor EP4 on tumor and host cells. Cardiovascular side effects of long term use of COX-2 inhibitors argued for an alternative target, potentially EP4. Objectives/approaches: We asked whether COX-2 or EP4 additionally stimulates SLC in breast cancer. COX-2 and HER-2, often co-expressed in human breast cancer, are both major determinants of cancer progression. To define the roles of COX-2 in HER2 +ve and -ve cells, COX-2 cDNA was stably transfected into COX-2-low, HER-2-ve, ER+ve, non-metastatic MCF-7 and COX-2-ve, ER-ve, HER-2-high SKBR-3 human breast ...
NEJM 8/31 - Results of the VIGOR trial in 2001 shook the medical world with controversy as concern over cardiovascular side effects pushed several COX-2 drugs off the market. Cox-2s were not only interesting for their anti-inflammatory effect, but also due to evidence of protection from colorectal adenomas - the precursor to colorectal cancer. But…
..MCQ Physiology Cardiovascular System..Cardiac muscle acts as a functional syncytium because it: a. Has larger T-tubules b. Has gap junctions between adjacent
Anatomy and Physiology of the Cardiovascular System. Prepared by Miss Fatima Hirzallah. The heart is a hollow, muscular organ situated in the space between lungs(mediastinum) , its about 12 cm in length & about 9 cm in width. Cardiac Muscle . Contract as a single unit Slideshow...
Students explore the heart and cardiovascular system by dissecting a sheeps heart, creating a model of coronary artery disease and a poster of a heart attack, and learning about signs and symptoms of a heart attack. (3 activities).
In this chapter, you will discover diseases that affect the cardiovascular system, the treatment of these diseases, and the effects on the clients general health status.
In this section the radiographic appearance of the cardiovascular system is described including changes seen with left- and right-sided congestive heart failure, and the normal size and shape of the heart followed by the radiographic features of individual chamber enlargement. ...
Its a result to make every regular theatregoer rejoice: watching a live theatre performance can stimulate your cardiovascular system like healthy cardio exercise, a new study suggests.
Cardiovascular Systems is focused on the development and commercialization of interventional treatment systems for vascular disease.
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Cardiovascular Systems, a developer of interventional treatment systems for vascular disease, has reported financial results for its fiscal first quarter of 2010, which ended Sept. 30.
The Cardiovascular System David Clarke is 30 years old, stands 6 and weights 225 lbs. He commutes between Miami where he is a full time student, and
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On Wednesday, June 21, 2017, Cardiovascular Systems (NASDAQ: CSII) Chief Financial Officer, Larry Betterley, will present at the JMP Securities Life
Watch the video lecture Components of the Cardiovascular System - Introduction to the Cardiovascular System and prepare for your medical exams with high-yield content ✓ & quiz questions ✓ now!
TY - CHAP. T1 - The Cardiovascular System. AU - Michael, Lloyd H.. AU - Taffet, George E.. AU - Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G.. AU - Entman, Mark L.. AU - Hartley, Craig J.. PY - 2004/10/28. Y1 - 2004/10/28. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84884460754&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84884460754&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/B978-012336425-8/50066-2. DO - 10.1016/B978-012336425-8/50066-2. M3 - Chapter. AN - SCOPUS:84884460754. SN - 9780080542539. SN - 0123364256. SN - 9780123364258. SP - 207. EP - 224. BT - The Laboratory Mouse. PB - Elsevier Inc.. ER - ...
Study Flashcards On Drugs that affect the circulatory and cardiovascular system at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Cardiovascular Systems Inc located at Saint Paul, MN - find the revenue, phone#, the employees list and their detailed information including the job titles and emails, and much more on LeadFerret.com.
The cardiovascular system pumps blood through your body to keep you alive. Do you want to learn more about the cardiovascular system? Check out our video collection on the cardiovascular system.
Video created by Duke University for the course Introductory Human Physiology. Welcome back! In this module we consider how the circulatory system works to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the specific organs. We start with a discussion of the ...
Video created by Universidad Duke for the course Introductory Human Physiology. Welcome back! In this module we consider how the circulatory system works to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the specific organs. We start with a discussion of the ...
Repository of Research and Investigative Information Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences نصب و خصوصی سازی توسط نیکتا سامانه افزار شریف (www.niktasoft.com-09189099251) ...
This training activates the whole body, pushing the limit of physical, as well as mental strenght. To stay vital and fit you have to properly engage your muscular and cardiovascular system. This training is a combination of strenght, muscle definition, endurance and cardiovascular system vitality ...
The human body has different systems for handling different functions. All of these systems are vital for health and life. Your heart and arteries are part of t
This time of year is hard for a lot of us. Temperatures constantly fluctuate and were not getting as much sunshine as we need. So, it should come as no surprise that more people become Read more…. ...
Informal evaluation 3 What additional information do you need?  Subjective information  Objective information  Psychosocial information
Large search returns make our pages slow to load. Therefore, some functionality has been disabled until you refine your search to bring the number of returned assay results under TBD ...
غريب يسعى الى أن يكون ممن قال فيهم الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم: (طوبى للغرباء ...
Saturday, August 25, 2007 , Labels: cv, lab test , This entry was posted on Saturday, August 25, 2007 and is filed under cv , lab test . You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site. ...
Compare, buy and sell e-learning courses from a huge range of suppliers. We guarantee to sell these courses at the best price they can be found.. ...
Onderzoek naar de effecten van ioniserende straling op de inductie van senescentie bij endotheelcellen en mogelijke beschermende geneesmiddelen.
Circulatory system task cards. This set of 80 circulatory system task cards with EDITABLE TEMPLATE is a fun and effective way for student to review the circulatory system. These task cards will support individual review (especially for
This complete Circulatory System unit is packed with activities, diagrams, foldables, worksheets, circulatory system task cards, interactive notebook, word wall, anchor chart, assessment, powerpoint and more on the circulatory system. Everything you need ready to go.
We explain Cardiovascular Health with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p|This lesson will identify various diseases and disorders of the cardiovascular system as well as steps that can be taken to maintain your cardiovascular health.|/p|
We explain Cardiovascular Health with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p|This lesson will identify various diseases and disorders of the cardiovascular system as well as steps that can be taken to maintain your cardiovascular health.|/p|
The article suggests ways to maintain the proper functioning of circulatory system. It reports that the problems associated with the circulatory system include spasms and arteriosclerosis and men.... ...
CryoLife, Inc. (NYSE: CRY), an implantable biological medical device and cardiovascular tissue processing company, announced today that it filed an emergency motion for a preliminary
How to combine health care, the desire to be beautiful, constant lack of time, lack of exercise and a strict budget? Lets not reinvent the wheel: many have solved this problem through the purchase of cardio equipment. This type of simulator is created, primarily, to train the cardiovascular and respiratory system (hence the common name of this type of simulators). It improves health, allows you to lose weight or simply stay in shape, without wasting time to go to gyms.. Of course, the purchase of cardio equipment requires a serious approach. Below we will discuss various types of cardio equipment on several parameters that are particularly important when it is selected for the house is:. • The effect of training. Information about which muscle group is developing a simulator, which givespower to the load. Because all of the cardio equipment is, by definition, strengthens the body, train the cardiovascular system and respiration. Therefore, the "pumping" of the muscles is secondary. But it is, ...
Human cardiovascular system, organ system that carries bloodstream by way of blood vessels to and from almost all components of the entire body.
In this chapter, you will learn about the vascular part of the cardiovascular system, that is, the vessels that transport blood throughout the body and provide the physical site where gases, nutrients, and other substances are exchanged with body cells. When vessel functioning is reduced, blood-borne substances do not circulate effectively throughout the body. As a result, tissue injury occurs, metabolism is impaired, and the functions of every bodily system are threatened.. ...
The Best Nitric Oxide Supplement" in the marketplace now comes in a 180 serving container at a substancially reduced price to give you the best value on this key product to improve the health of your cardiovascular system ...
Study of structure and function of the following systems: endocrine, digestive, urinary, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Integration and regulation of system function from an applied perspective through clinical applications ...
Angioprim is an effective method in cleaning blocked arteries and veins. Plaque prevention promotes a healthy cardiovascular system and can lead to a healthier, longer life. Its powerful chelating action helps remove plaque from the arteries quicker.
Stationary jogging is one of the most convenient and effective cardiovascular exercises you can perform. You can do stationary jogging in any environment, it requires little preparation and it offers benefits to both your musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems.
This paper deals with solving of a century-old paradox of linear stability for the Hagen-Poiseuille flow. A new mechanism of dissipative hydrodynamic instability has been established herein, and a basis for the forming of helical structural organization of bloodstream and respective energy effectiveness of the cardiovascular system functioning has been defined by the authors. ...
Keep your arteries clear for another 50 without drugs or surgery with Arterial Cleansing Formula; time-tested, safe method to remove the buildup of atheromatous plaque - desposits or blockages in your cardiovascular system. ...
We explain an overview of the circulatory system including its functions, how it transports oxygen & other nutrients around the body.
In this lesson, you will explore open and closed circulatory systems. You will also learn what these two systems have in common and what makes them...
The human circulatory system functions to transport blood and oxygen from the lungs to the various tissues of the body. The heart pumps the blood throughout the
Learn BIO - Circulatory System facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
Looking for online definition of Gerbode cardiovascular tissue forceps in the Medical Dictionary? Gerbode cardiovascular tissue forceps explanation free. What is Gerbode cardiovascular tissue forceps? Meaning of Gerbode cardiovascular tissue forceps medical term. What does Gerbode cardiovascular tissue forceps mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cardiovascular toxicity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. AU - Mouhayar, Elie. AU - Durand, Jean Bernard. AU - Cortes, Jorge. PY - 2013/9/1. Y1 - 2013/9/1. N2 - Introduction: Small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have revolutionized the management of many malignancies. However, they also have been shown to be associated with a certain degree of cardiovascular side effects that are often reversible. Areas covered: As the number of new TKIs continues to grow, it is expected that clinicians will be facing the challenge of early detection and 10 management of these side effects while balancing the risk-benefit ratios of continuing with life-saving cancer therapy medications. This review will present the current knowledge related to incidence and proposed mechanisms of cardiovascular side effects of TKIs and also discuss treatment recommendations when available Expert opinion: We will present and discuss available data and suggest recommendations related to patient monitoring ...
Daniela Ravizzoni Dartora, Université de Montréal. Supervisor: Anne Monique Nuyt, Université de Montréal. Nearly 10% of Canadian children are born preterm each year. Improvements in neonatal intensive care have resulted in survival of the vast majority of these infants. Preterm birth results in ex utero development of an immature cardiovascular system. Studies now support a direct causal association between preterm birth and adverse changes in cardiovascular structure and function, which persist into adulthood, and are associated with hypertension, metabolic disorders and stroke. Clinical and experimental studies have shown how preterm birth and the pro- inflammatory and pro-oxidative nature of its related conditions (such as O2 toxicity), contribute to altered cardiac development (hypertrophy, fibrosis), vascular dysfunction, defective vascular growth with small vessels rarefaction and activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which are all involved in the programming of hypertension ...
Background and Aims: The fact that growth hormone (GH) influences cardiovascular structure and function is well established through both human and animal studies. Despite being secreted in a pulsatile fashion, only the impact of peak GH concentrations on cardiac parameters has previously been reported, and the time-dependency of cardiovascular effects during GH treatment has not been detailed. The aims of this pediatric study were (i) to establish the expression of GH-receptor (GH-R) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) mRNA locally in the heart in children of different ages, (ii) to study in detail the relationship between the heart and endogenous GH secretion pattern, (iii) to study the cardiovascular effects of GH treatment and (iv) to examine organ/tissue-specific responses to GH. Patients & Methods: Two trials were conducted. In the first, a cardiac biopsy was taken from 18 children undergoing heart surgery. GH-R and IGF-I mRNA were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In ...
Current estimates indicate that in excess of 65 percent of adults in the United States are overweight (BMI ,25.0 kg/m2) with at least 30 percent of adults classified as obese (BMI ,30 kg/m2). Overweight and obesity have been linked to numerous chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease. The application of cardiac MRI (CMRI) allows for direct measurement of the cardiac structure, and left ventricular mass (LVM) assessed by CMRI has been shown to be predictive of cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have shown that LVM is decreased with weight loss; however, there is a lack of information on the added benefit of physical activity to weight loss on these direct measures of cardiovascular structure and function. Thus, consistent with PA-09-243, this study will examine the effect of two recommended doses of physical activity combined with a dietary intervention on changes in the proposed outcomes of cardiovascular disease risk in overweight adults.. The primary aim of this study is to ...
A Cardiovascular Biology Project page has been created to describe the long-standing collaboration between CBIL and Prof. Peter Davies group. The project page also provides a table with links to publications, related functional genomics data and supplementary data and information.. ...
Diffuse patchy alveolar infiltrates are seen throughout both hemithoraces. The pattern is present in all lung lobes with many indistinct air bronchograms. The pulmonary vasculature is poorly visualized; however, the cardiovascular structures appear to be within normal limits. An endotracheal tube is present within the trachea to the level of the carina. An esophageal feeding tube is also seen extending to the level 3rd ribs before folding back on itself on the initial lateral projections. A final left lateral projection reveals the esophageal tube passing through the length of the esophagus and into the gastric fundus where it again curves backwards but remains within the gastric lumen. A few anomalous vertebrae are present within the thoracic spine and are likely within normal limits given the breed of the patient ...
Introduction. Assignment Title: The effects of body position and incremental exercise on cardiovascular function. Introduction: It is through the cardiovascular system that a number of actions take place, like the transport of O2 and nutrients to tissues, and removal of waste and the regulation of temperature takes place. (Powers & Howley, 2001) People everyday are virtually in some form or another taking part in physical activity. Unknowingly to them this physical activity involves responses from the cardiovascular system to the actual physical activity. Responses that occur could be short-lived and slight, and can include a rise in heart rate (HR) whilst getting up from a chair and walking from one room to another. On the other hand, responses could be more specific, if a person took part in a marathon you could see a rise in blood flow directed to the active skeletal muscles (Foss & Keteyian, 1998). During exercise, factors like cardiac output, HR, diastolic and systolic blood pressure are ...
s many of you know, Trenbolone is one of, if not THE strongest steroid that is available today. The drastic changes that occur with it?s usage are ?superman like? to say the least. The problem with tren being as strong as it is comes in the form of the many negative side effects that it can produce. The list is long and extreme when it comes to side effects associated with tren usage. Here is list of possible and probably side effects: Increase in prolactin, acne, hair loss, insomnia,
Cardiovascular System Arteries And Veins Labeled - See more about Cardiovascular System Arteries And Veins Labeled, cardiovascular system arteries and veins labeled
Get information, facts, and pictures about cardiovascular system at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about cardiovascular system easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide and other reactive nitrogen species (RNS), are produced by the cells of the cardiovascular system. Oxidative and nitrosative stress may induce damage leading to a variety of diseases, but controlled ROS/RNS generation play a role in redox-sensitive gene expression and cell signaling regulating a plethora of physiological processes. Redox and nitrosative signaling is involved in the control of a large number of vascular functions. Among them the regulation of the vascular tone by the endothelium and smooth muscle cells or the control of blood pressure. Also cardiac functions such as excitation-contraction coupling or myocyte force development are redox signaling-dependent events. Of note, during exercise bursts of ROS and RNS are produced by the cells of the cardiovascular system, which seem essential for the induction of beneficial effects of training. However, ROS/RNS may have damaging effects in various cardiac and vascular disorders such as coronary heart
At present, there are millions of people across the globe looking for heart transplants. But with a huge shortage of donor, most of these patients dont survive. Growing transplantable hearts in the laboratory is actually a quite old dream within the entire medical community and recently a study published in the journal namely Circulation Research has moved things one step closer to the reality. As mentioned in that study, a team of researchers has become successful in growing a beating human heart in the laboratory from the stem cells.. After that, two teams of scientists have published another study mentioning that it is actually possible to create the main elements of the human cardiovascular system from the pluripotent stem cells. This knowledge is not only important for reproducing the entire cardiovascular system, but also for transplantable and developing tissues to care for the patients with vascular or cardiovascular diseases.. Developing replacement tissues from the stem cells is one ...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, has requested Cardiovascular Systems Inc. to recall its ViperSheath catheter introducers made by Thomas Medical Products after receiving reports that the device had fractured inside a patient. This is the second medical recall of a catheter sheath. Johnson & Johnsons (JNJ) Cordis Corp recalled is Crossover sheath introducers, also made by Thomas Medical Products, in October.. Sheath introduces are large, gradually tapered tubes that create an entry point in to arties and veins. The recalled catheter introducers fracture inside the patients body. The fractured pieces have the potential to become lodged inside blood vessels, causing distal ischemia or infarctions.. So far three patients have had to undergo surgery to have the broken pieces removed after their ViperSheath device fractured.. Cardiovascular Systems Inc. is asking customers to return the dangerous medical devices and the FDA is watching the recall through their MedWatch program.. If you ...
Cardiovascular Systems Inc (NASDAQ:CSII) - Stock analysts at Leerink Swann decreased their Q3 2018 earnings per share (EPS) estimates for shares of Cardiovascular Systems in a note issued to investors on Wednesday. Leerink Swann analyst D. Antalffy now anticipates that the medical device company will post earnings per share of ($0.01) for the quarter, down […]
Cardiovascular Systems has a : (CSII). Cardiovascular Systems description, competitive comparison data, historical data and more.
Guidance of Cardiovascular Tissue Regeneration via Novel Synthetic & Natural Matrix Approaches: Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of mortality in
Systems and methods for securing cardiovascular tissue, including via asymmetric inflatable members, are disclosed. A device in accordance with one embodiment includes a catheter having a proximal end and a distal end, with a working portion positioned toward the distal end and being elongated along a terminal axis. An energy transmitter and an inflatable member are positioned at the working portion, with the inflatable member being inflatable under fluid pressure from a generally collapsed configuration to an inflated configuration. In the inflated configuration, the inflatable member can be asymmetric relative to the terminal axis.
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NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Cardiovascular Cell Therapy Research Network RFA-HL-06-001. NHLBI
Citation Machine™ helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use. Cite your thesis in Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease format for free.
A substantial number of scientific studies indicate that significant changes occur throughout the nervous, cardiovascular, and hematological systems when people speak (Floyd & Afifi, 2011; Lynch, 1985; Matthews, Owens, Allen, & Stoney, 1992; Sawyer & Behnke, 2009; Steptoe, Hamer, & Chida, 2007). For example, pulse, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and cardiac output increase while changes also occur in ejection time, atrial wall movements, and vasculature (e.g., Krantz et al., 1991; Waldstein, Neuman, & Merrill, 1998). These changes occur not only when people speak in public to an audience but also occur when talking with friends, coworkers, and loved ones (e.g., Smith et al., 2009). They can occur even when people imagine interacting with others (Honeycutt, 2010). ← 33 , 34 ...
Role of androgens in cardiovascular pathology Dimitry A Chistiakov,1 Veronika A Myasoedova,2 Alexandra A Melnichenko,2 Andrey V Grechko,3 Alexander N Orekhov2,4 1Department of Neurochemistry, Division of Basic and Applied Neurobiology, Serbsky Federal Medical Research Center of Psychiatry and Narcology, Moscow, Russia; 2Laboratory of Angiopathology, Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Moscow, Russia; 3Federal Scientific Clinical Center for Resuscitation and Rehabilitation, Moscow, Russia; 4Institute for Atherosclerosis Research, Skolkovo Innovative Center, Moscow, Russia Abstract: Cardiovascular effects of android hormones in normal and pathological conditions can lead to either positive or negative effects. The reason for this variation is unknown, but may be influenced by gender-specific effects of androids, heterogeneity of the vascular endothelium, differential expression of the androgen receptor in endothelial cells (ECs) and route of androgen administration. Generally, androgenic
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cardiovascular toxicities associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. AU - Hu, Jiun Ruey. AU - Florido, Roberta. AU - Lipson, Evan. AU - Naidoo, Jarushka. AU - Ardehali, Reza. AU - Tocchetti, Carlo G.. AU - Lyon, Alexander R.. AU - Padera, Robert F.. AU - Johnson, Douglas B.. AU - Moslehi, Javid. PY - 2019/4/15. Y1 - 2019/4/15. N2 - Cardiovascular toxicities associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been reported in case series but have been underappreciated due to their recent emergence, difficulties in diagnosis and non-specific clinical manifestations. ICIs are antibodies that block negative regulators of the T cell immune response, including cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), and PD-1 ligand (PD-L1). While ICIs have introduced a significant mortality benefit in several cancer types, the augmented immune response has led to a range of immune-related toxicities, including cardiovascular toxicity. ...
294966285 - EP 0996737 A1 2000-05-03 - SEMLIKI FOREST VIRUS VECTORS FOR GENE TRANSFER INTO NON-ENDOTHELIAL CARDIOVASCULAR CELLS - [origin: WO9909192A1] The invention provides methods of transducing non-endothelial cardiovascular cells with a recombinant Togavirus vector, vector kits, and vectors.[origin: WO9909192A1] The invention provides methods of transducing non-endothelial cardiovascular cells with a recombinant Togavirus vector, vector kits, and vectors.
The Cardiovascular Research Institute (CVRI) was established in 1998 when The Texas A&M University System Board of Regents approved changing the name from the Microcirculation Research Institute, which was established in 1981. The name change reflected the expanding scope and role of the scientists work. The purpose of the cardiovascular science faculty is to foster communication and collaboration among faculty involved in cardiovascular research, education and training.. The major objective of this institute is to discover and disseminate new knowledge about the heart, blood vessels and lymphatics in normal and disease states.. Discovery with an emphasis on human health requires basic and clinical research, therefore our research team consists of basic scientists and physician/scientists from a wide variety of fields and disciplines. To facilitate research today and for future generations, the CVRI provides an environment for the training of undergraduates, medical students, graduate students, ...
Rationale: Omics sciences enable a systems-level perspective in characterizing cardiovascular biology. Integration of diverse proteomics data via a computational strategy will catalyze the assembly of contextualized knowledge, foster discoveries through multidisciplinary investigations, and minimize unnecessary redundancy in research efforts. Objective: The goal of this project is to develop a consolidated cardiac proteome knowledgebase with novel bioinformatics pipeline and Web portals, thereby serving as a new resource to advance cardiovascular biology and medicine. Methods and results: We created Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB; www.HeartProteome.org), a centralized platform of high-quality cardiac proteomic data, bioinformatics tools, and relevant cardiovascular phenotypes. Currently, COPaKB features 8 organellar modules, comprising 4203 LC-MS/MS experiments from human, mouse, drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans, as well as expression images of 10 924 proteins in ...
Background: It has been demonstrated that preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific hypertension disorder, is characterized by high blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic overactivity. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a key region for controlling sympathetic tone, has been reported to contribute to high level of BP and sympathetic outflow. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of the RVLM ROS in mediating the preeclampsia-associated cardiovascular dysfunction.Methods: The animal model of preeclampsia was produced by administration of desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) to pregnant rats. Results: Compared with normal pregnant rats without DOCA treatment (NP), the protein concentration and norepinephrine excretion in 24-hour urine, as well as BP in pregnant rats with DOCA treatment (PDS) were significantly increased. The levels of superoxide anion and the protein expression of NADPH oxidase subtype (NOX4) in the RVLM were significantly increased
Perludil is an injectable contraceptive that is administered intramuscularly once a month. It consists of two main assets: a progestin (acetophenide algestone) and an estrogen (estradiol enanthate).. The main mode of action is in the contraceptive progestogen agent, which produces a anovulatory effect by inhibiting the secretion of pituitary gonadotropins. Estrogen ensures cyclic endometrial development and predictable bleeding patterns are generally similar to those that occur naturally in menstruation.. PRECAUTIONS: Before treatment and every year for this, it is recommended to perform the medical examination of the drug users, including complete gynecological Pap.. Smoking increases the risk of cardiovascular side effects. The total risk increases with patient age, especially after age 35. It is highly recommended that women who start a hormonal contraceptive therapy of any kind to refrain from smoking.. Perlutal ® has a transient inhibitory effect on ovulation, which does not lead to ...
Background: In the past 37 years, increased efforts have been directed toward a better understanding of the importance of Hcy in disease and it has now become clear that hyperhomocysteinemia is a major independent risk factor for CVD. Extensive research on the influence of vitamin supplementation leading to reductions in Hcy levels and improvements in cardiovascular function has been done. The importance of exercise in the lowering of cardiovascular risk factors, as well as its favourable influence on cardiovascular function has also been indicated in several studies, however, the limited number of studies investigating the effect of exercise on Hcy concentrations revealed contradicting results. Furthermore, a relationship between Hcy concentration and cardiovascular function with the intervention of an exercise training and a vitamin supplementation programme respectively has also not been investigated. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a 12-week exercise ...

Cardiovascular System | Encyclopedia.comCardiovascular System | Encyclopedia.com

... circulatory system [1]*) (kar-di-oh-*vas*-kew-ler) n.* the heart together with two networks of blood vessels - the systemic ... Cardiovascular System World of Sports Science COPYRIGHT 2007 Thomson Gale. Cardiovascular System. The cardiovascular system is ... Cardiovascular System. Definition. The cardiovascular system includes the heart and the blood vessels and is responsible for ... the cardiovascular system is interconnected with two other heart-centered systems: the cardiopulmonary system, which controls ...
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Cardiovascular System | CurrikiCardiovascular System | Curriki

... identify parts of the cardiovascular system and examine blood flow. Be sure to click heart (it beats) for an enlarged view of ... Animation: identify parts of the cardiovascular system and examine blood flow. Be sure to click heart (it beats) for an ... Animation: identify parts of the cardiovascular system and examine blood flow. Be sure to click heart (it beats) for an ... describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of regulation, nutrient absorption, reproduction ...
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Drugs: cardiovascular system | CMAJDrugs: cardiovascular system | CMAJ

Impact of the National Health Service Health Check on cardiovascular disease risk: a difference-in-differences matching ...
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Cardiovascular System - Human Veins, Arteries, HeartCardiovascular System - Human Veins, Arteries, Heart

... also known as the circulatory system) with our detailed diagrams and information. ... Explore the anatomy of the human cardiovascular system ( ... Cardiovascular System. The cardiovascular system consists of ... Cardiovascular System Physiology. Functions of the Cardiovascular System. The cardiovascular system has three major functions: ... Cardiovascular System Anatomy. The Heart. The heart is a muscular pumping organ located medial to the lungs along the bodys ...
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Cardiovascular system - Health Video: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaCardiovascular system - Health Video: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart and the network of arteries, veins, and capillaries that transport blood ... The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart and the network of arteries, veins, and capillaries that transport blood ... and also carries waste products from the tissues to the systems of the body through which they are eliminated. ...
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Cardiovascular system | Smore NewslettersCardiovascular system | Smore Newsletters

Your bodys transportation system by Elizabeth Bailey , This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is a long system of veins, arteries, arterioles, venules, and capillaries ... Almost everything uses the cardiovascular system as a transportation system. As the blood loses oxygen it goes from high ... Cardiovascular Respiratory deals with oxygen exchange and heart circulates blood throughout body. *Both have a vital sign ...
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Cardiovascular system--Diseases | APOCardiovascular system--Diseases | APO

This reports purpose is to detail the cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden on remote and rural Australia, and to propose action ... How can you moderate dietary fat intake to protect against cardiovascular disease? This review examined the evidence for the ... This report highlights that people with cardiovascular disease require aggressive management of their risk factors to prevent ... Electronic clinical decision support tool for the evaluation of cardiovascular risk in general practice: a pilot study ...
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Cardiovascular Systems: Fiscal 4Q Earnings SnapshotCardiovascular Systems: Fiscal 4Q Earnings Snapshot

Cardiovascular Systems shares have increased 41 percent since the beginning of the year. In the final minutes of trading on ... AP) _ Cardiovascular Systems Inc. (CSII) on Monday reported fiscal fourth-quarter profit of $3.7 million. ... Cardiovascular Systems expects full-year revenue in the range of $240 million to $250 million. ...
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cardiovascular system | Nova Science Publisherscardiovascular system | Nova Science Publishers

New Research in Cardiovascular Health Cardiology Research and Clinical Developments, Cardiovascular System, Medicine and Health ... Fitness and Cardiovascular Risk Factors - What Everyone Should Know Physical Fitness, Diet and Exercise, Cardiovascular System ... Cardiovascular Health and Chronomics Cardiology Research and Clinical Developments, Cardiovascular System, Medicine and Health ... Horizons in World Cardiovascular Research (Numbered Series), Cardiovascular System, Medicine and Health ...
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Cardiovascular System | Nova Science PublishersCardiovascular System | Nova Science Publishers

Current Trends in Cardiovascular Research Cardiology Research and Clinical Developments, Cardiovascular System, Medicine and ... Horizons in World Cardiovascular Research (Numbered Series), Cardiovascular System, Medicine and Health ... Horizons in World Cardiovascular Research (Numbered Series), Cardiovascular System, Medicine and Health ... Horizons in World Cardiovascular Research (Numbered Series), Cardiovascular System, Medicine and Health ...
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The Cardiovascular System
	The Cardiovascular System

Repairing the Cardiovascular System. (H.M. Blau, N. Rosenthal, C.E. Murry, E. Marbán, A.R. Marks). Summary: Coming of Age of ... Development of the Cardiovascular System. (M. Frasch, T. Mohun, D. Yelon, M. Rebagliati, H.J. Yost, A.B. Lassar, D.Y.R. ... Genetics and Genomics of the Cardiovascular System. (Y. Kim, M.C. Fishman, R.J. Roman, S. Izumo, A. Baldini, M. Eldar). ... The Cardiovascular System. (Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology LXVII). Book Series: Cold Spring Harbor ...
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The Cardiovascular System
	The Cardiovascular System

Repairing the Cardiovascular System. (H.M. Blau, N. Rosenthal, C.E. Murry, E. Marbán, A.R. Marks). Summary: Coming of Age of ... Development of the Cardiovascular System. (M. Frasch, T. Mohun, D. Yelon, M. Rebagliati, H.J. Yost, A.B. Lassar, D.Y.R. ... Genetics and Genomics of the Cardiovascular System. (Y. Kim, M.C. Fishman, R.J. Roman, S. Izumo, A. Baldini, M. Eldar). ... The Cardiovascular System. (Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology LXVII). Book Series: Cold Spring Harbor ...
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Biomedicine and Health: The Cardiovascular System | Encyclopedia.comBiomedicine and Health: The Cardiovascular System | Encyclopedia.com

Source for information on Biomedicine and Health: The Cardiovascular System: Scientific Thought: In Context dictionary. ... The Cardiovascular SystemIntroductionIn modern science the brain is the key to our identity. The head is the seat of thought ... Cardiovascular Components: The Pulmonary System The pulmonary circulatory system delivers deoxygenated blood from the right ... Cardiovascular Components: Veins and the Venous System Veins are vessels designed to collect and return blood, including ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science/science-magazines/biomedicine-and-health-cardiovascular-system

The Cardiovascular System | Smore NewslettersThe Cardiovascular System | Smore Newsletters

The Cardiovascular System - Blood! Yuck!! by Khanijah Coleman , This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for ... The Structures & Functions of the Cardiovascular System The structures of the cardiovascular system are the heart, blood ... Diseases and Disorders of the Cardiovascular System Three common cardiovascular diseases and disorders are heart failure, ... The function of the cardiovascular system is to deliver nutrients to the body and remove byproducts from the tissues. ...
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Taking Stock of Cardiovascular Systems - AOL FinanceTaking Stock of Cardiovascular Systems - AOL Finance

Add Cardiovascular Systems to My Watchlist.. The article Taking Stock of Cardiovascular Systems originally appeared on Fool.com ... Is Cardiovascular Systems the best health care stock for you? Learn how to maximize your investment income and "Secure Your ... How is Cardiovascular Systems doing by this quick checkup? At first glance, pretty well. Trailing-12-month revenue increased ... Is the current inventory situation at Cardiovascular Systems (NAS: CSII) out of line? To figure that out, start by comparing ...
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Cardiovascular Systems Unveils Favorable LIBERTY 360 DataCardiovascular Systems Unveils Favorable LIBERTY 360 Data

Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. (CSII) : Free Stock Analysis Report. Lantheus Holdings, Inc. (LNTH) : Free Stock Analysis Report. ... Medical device manufacturer Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. CSII recently released one-year data from its LIBERTY 360° clinical ... Since 1988, the Zacks system has more than doubled the S&P 500 with an average gain of +25% per year. With compounding, ... But heres something even more remarkable: You can master this proven system without going to a single class or seminar. And ...
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Cardiovascular System Information DiagramsCardiovascular System Information Diagrams

This file is a learning material for the cardiovascular system. It contains 10+ sheets of information diagram, flow charts and ... Cardiovascular System Information Diagrams This file is a learning material for the cardiovascular system. It contains 10+ ... flow charts and discussion of the elements that comprises the cardiovascular/circulatory system. In addition, activity sheets ... To see how we used this material, please check our blog post on The Human Heart and Circulatory System. - http://www. ...
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Histology flashcards: The cardiovascular System by Kenhub on Apple BooksHistology flashcards: The cardiovascular System by Kenhub on Apple Books

The cardiovascular System by Kenhub. You can read this book with Apple Books on your iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, or Mac. ... Histology flashcards: The cardiovascular System is available for download from Apple Books.. Apple Books is an amazing way to ... Histology flashcards: The cardiovascular System. Book 31, Kenhub Flashcards - Learn all tissues, veins, arteries and organs on ... Histology flashcards: The cardiovascular System is available for download from Apple Books.. ...
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Heart Electrical Activity - Cardiovascular System | CourseraHeart Electrical Activity - Cardiovascular System | Coursera

In this module we consider how the circulatory system works to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the specific organs. We start ... Cardiovascular System. Welcome back! In this module we consider how the circulatory system works to deliver oxygen and ... Greetings, so today we wanted to start a discussion about the cardiovascular system, and in particular were going to talk ... This is under the control of the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system speeds up the heart rate then by ...
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Terumo Cardiovascular Systems Contractor Salaries | GlassdoorTerumo Cardiovascular Systems Contractor Salaries | Glassdoor

6 contractor salaries for 5 jobs at Terumo Cardiovascular Systems. Contractor Salaries posted anonymously by Terumo ... A free inside look at Terumo Cardiovascular Systems contractor salary trends. ... See Terumo Cardiovascular Systems Salaries, Terumo Cardiovascular Systems Hourly Pay, Terumo Cardiovascular Systems Bonuses, or ... check out salaries for Terumo Cardiovascular Systems Internship.. Terumo Cardiovascular Systems Salaries by Location ...
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Search Results - Cardiovascular system DiseasesSearch Results - 'Cardiovascular system Diseases'

Cardiovascular system 1 Diseases 1 Filipino Americans 1 Health and hygiene Mortality ... Showing 1 - 1 results of 1 for search Cardiovascular system Diseases Skip to content Cardiovascular system Diseases, query time: 0.35s ...
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Your Cardiovascular SystemYour Cardiovascular System

All of these systems are vital for health and life. Your heart and arteries are part of t ... All of these systems are vital for health and life. Your heart and arteries are part of t ... The human body has different systems for handling different functions. ... The human body has different systems for handling different functions. ...
more infohttp://www.scai.org/SecondsCount/Resources/Detail.aspx?cid=a5d3eafc-6b29-4bbf-80bb-ca06db1d207d

Cardiovascular system - DocCheck FlexikonCardiovascular system - DocCheck Flexikon

Cardiovascular system. From Greek: καρδία ( "cardiac") - heart Synonyms: circulatory system, circulatory organs German: ... The cardiovascular system is a complex transport system of the human body, which ensures the maintenance of blood circulation. ... One can subdivide the cardiovascular system functionally into a low and a high pressure system. ... The cardiovascular system is anatomically made up of the heart and the blood vessels. ...
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Drugs: cardiovascular system | BMJ OpenDrugs: cardiovascular system | BMJ Open

... trial of a text message-based intervention for ongoing prevention of cardiovascular disease in people with coronary disease: a ...
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Xconomy: Cardiovascular Systems Receives $3,500,000 New RoundXconomy: Cardiovascular Systems Receives $3,500,000 New Round

Feed Type Link http://www.venturedeal.com/Search/SearchResultTransactionDetail.aspx?TransactionId=d766531c-fcf2-4482-a333-e8acd3bc0978&Preview=1 Date
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  • A new approach to learning anatomy: Use your favorite ebook device and learn the most relevant anatomical structures of the The cardiovascular System on the go. (apple.com)
  • Responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and cellular waste products throughout the body, the cardiovascular system is powered by the body's hardest-working organ - the heart, which is only about the size of a closed fist. (innerbody.com)
  • In this course, students learn to recognize and to apply the basic concepts that govern integrated body function (as an intact organism) in the body's nine organ systems. (coursera.org)
  • Having a user-friendly device available to effectively treat severe coronary calcium may increase the safety of CAD interventions for this difficult to treat population, while improving long-term patient prognoses," said Dr. Gregg Stone, Professor of Medicine, Columbia University, Director of Cardiovascular Research and Education Center for Interventional Vascular Therapy New York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center and Co-Director of The Cardiovascular Research Foundation New York, N.Y. (businesswire.com)
  • The human body has different systems for handling different functions. (scai.org)
  • The Cardiovascular System Dynamics Society (CSDS), founded in 1976, by organ system physiologist and biomedical engineers, was a historic first in its mathematical and quantitative approach to cardiovascular mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cardiovascular system effects the circulation of blood around the body, which brings about transport of nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and the removal of waste products. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The blood carries oxygen and essential nutrients to all of the living cells in the body, and also carries waste products from the tissues to the systems of the body through which they are eliminated. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The function of the cardiovascular system is to deliver nutrients to the body and remove byproducts from the tissues. (smore.com)
  • The genetic basis of cardiovascular function, development, and disease is an area of intense investigation, in the hope of significant insights into the heart and vessels? (cshlpress.com)
  • The primary theme remains cardiovascular function, its physiologic and molecular mechanisms, with an aim to understand how these features integrate to achieve overall performance. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to accomplish this task, the components of the low-pressure system possess an appropriate absorption capacity, which exists among other things due to the elasticity of its vessels. (doccheck.com)
  • In this section the radiographic appearance of the cardiovascular system is described including changes seen with left- and right-sided congestive heart failure, and the normal size and shape of the heart followed by the radiographic features of individual chamber enlargement. (provet.co.uk)
  • Histology flashcards: The cardiovascular System is available for download from Apple Books. (apple.com)