Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
An aggregation of cells in the middle hypothalamus dorsal to the ventromedial nucleus and bordering the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
A nucleus of the middle hypothalamus, the largest cell group of the tuberal region with small-to-medium size cells.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
Loose heterogeneous collection of cells in the anterior hypothalamus, continuous rostrally with the medial and lateral PREOPTIC AREAS and caudally with the TUBER CINEREUM.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.
The part of the hypothalamus posterior to the middle region consisting of several nuclei including the medial maxillary nucleus, lateral mammillary nucleus, and posterior hypothalamic nucleus (posterior hypothalamic area). The posterior hypothalamic area is concerned with control of sympathetic responses and is sensitive to conditions of decreasing temperature and controls the mechanisms for the conservation and increased production of heat.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
An imprecise term which may refer to a sense of spatial disorientation, motion of the environment, or lightheadedness.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Porphyrins with four methyl and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.
Middle portion of the hypothalamus containing the arcuate, dorsomedial, ventromedial nuclei, the TUBER CINEREUM and the PITUITARY GLAND.
Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.
Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.
The posture of an individual lying face up.
A standard and widely accepted diagnostic test used to identify patients who have a vasodepressive and/or cardioinhibitory response as a cause of syncope. (From Braunwald, Heart Disease, 7th ed)
Small, nonspecific nerve cells scattered in the periventricular GRAY MATTER, separating the medial part of the thalamus from the EPENDYMA of the THIRD VENTRICLE. The group includes the paraventricular nucleus, paratenial nucleus, reuniens nucleus, rhomboidal nucleus, and subfascular nucleus.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
The front portion of the HYPOTHALAMUS separated into the preoptic region and the supraoptic region. The preoptic region is made up of the periventricular GRAY MATTER of the rostral portion of the THIRD VENTRICLE and contains the preoptic ventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus. The supraoptic region contains the PARAVENTRICULAR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS, the ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
A significant drop in BLOOD PRESSURE after assuming a standing position. Orthostatic hypotension is a finding, and defined as a 20-mm Hg decrease in systolic pressure or a 10-mm Hg decrease in diastolic pressure 3 minutes after the person has risen from supine to standing. Symptoms generally include DIZZINESS, blurred vision, and SYNCOPE.
Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55-kDa protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75-kDa fusion protein.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
The consumption of edible substances.
An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.
STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Area in the hypothalamus bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of the FORNIX (BRAIN). The medial edge of the INTERNAL CAPSULE and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A neuropeptide of 29-30 amino acids depending on the species. Galanin is widely distributed throughout the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and INTESTINES. There are various subtypes of GALANIN RECEPTORS implicating roles of galanin in regulating FOOD INTAKE; pain perception; memory; and other neuroendocrine functions.
A pair of nuclei and associated gray matter in the interpeduncular space rostral to the posterior perforated substance in the posterior hypothalamus.
The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.
The position or attitude of the body.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.
Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.
Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.
Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
"Muscimol acts in dorsomedial but not paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus to suppress cardiovascular effects of stress". The ... The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus receives information from neurons and humors involved in feeding regulation, body weight ... The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus is a nucleus of the hypothalamus. It is involved in feeding, drinking, body-weight ... The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) receives its circadian information from the suprachiasmatic nucleus, both directly ...
It seems that the most essential of all these connections is the SFO's projections to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus ... CVOs also have roles in body fluid regulation, cardiovascular functions, immune responses, thirst, feeding behavior and ... "Region-specific projections from the subfornical organ to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus in the rat". Neuroscience. ... Ventromedial subregions of the bilateral hypothalamic arcuate nucleus display relatively high capillary permeability, ...
Novak CM, Zhang M, Levine JA (September 2007). "Sensitivity of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus to the locomotor- ... Tanida M, Satomi J, Shen J, Nagai K (February 2009). "Autonomic and cardiovascular effects of central neuromedin U in rats". ... body weight regulation, and food consumption. However, the NmUR2 KO mice exhibit reduced pain sensitivity in both hot plate ... It has been suggested that large doses () of NmU inhibits the activity of the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus and/or ...
... paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and the amygdala, all of which are associated with regulation of food intake. This ... After several reports of adverse cardiovascular effects, the FDA banned dexfenfluramine in 1997. It appears that the 5-HT2B ... Serotonin has been implicated as a critical factor in the short-term regulation of food intake and in promoting loss of weight ... Van Oekelen, Dirk; Luyten, Walter H.M.L; Leysen, Josée E (2003). "5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors and their atypical regulation ...
"Role of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in cardiovascular regulation". Autonomic Neuroscience. 175 (1-2): 38-50. doi:10.1016/j ... such as neural projections that influence feeding behavior project to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH), ... The arcuate nucleus provides many physiological roles involved in feeding, metabolism, fertility, and cardiovascular regulation ... the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH, and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). Populations of neurons connect to the ...
... dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus), MPOA (medial preoptic area) and PVN (paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus). VIP neurons ... Henning RJ, Sawmiller DR (January 2001). "Vasoactive intestinal peptide: cardiovascular effects". Cardiovascular Research. 49 ( ... While there is existing conflict in whether down-regulation or up-regulation of VIP contributes to OA, VIP has been shown to ... It is also found in the brain and some autonomic nerves: One region includes a specific area of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN ...
Neurons in the OVLT and SFO project to the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus, and also to preoptic hypothalamic ... Spinazzi R, Andreis PG, Rossi GP, Nussdorfer GG (March 2006). "Orexins in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal ... Cardiovascular stimuli are carried by the vagus nerve. The vagus also conveys a variety of visceral information, including for ... Hypothalamic nuclei Hypothalamic nuclei on one side of the hypothalamus, shown in a 3-D computer reconstruction The ...
Emerging data suggests that THC acts via CB1 receptors in the hypothalamic nuclei to directly increase appetite. It is thought ... Ibrahim BM, Abdel-Rahman AA (2014). "Cannabinoid receptor 1 signaling in cardiovascular regulating nuclei in the brainstem: A ... in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and with the two orexigenic peptides, melanin-concentrating hormone in the ... These receptors have also been implicated in the migration of B cells into the marginal zone and the regulation of IgM levels. ...
"Region-specific projections from the subfornical organ to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus in the rat". Neuroscience. ... This regulation of blood volume affects other aspects of the cardiovascular system. Increased or decreased blood volume ... These neurons project to the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus to regulate the activity of vasopressin-secreting ... The role of the SFO in angiotensin regulation is particularly important, as it is involved in communication with the nucleus ...
... activation of POMC neurons and subsequent activation of MC4 receptors on second order neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of ... Due to the essential role of melanocortins in the regulation of body weight and appetite, they are a target of choice for anti- ... However, it is important to note that this system also elicits effects on cardiovascular and sexual function.[citation needed] ... hypothalamic neuropeptide Y and agouti gene-related protein or proopiomelanocortin and that originate in the arcuate nucleus. ...
... is produced by magnocellular neurosecretory neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN) and ... Lolait SJ, Stewart LQ, Jessop DS, Young WS, O'Carroll AM (February 2007). "The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to ... Knepper MA, Kim GH, Fernández-Llama P, Ecelbarger CA (March 1999). "Regulation of thick ascending limb transport by vasopressin ... and cardiovascular disease. alcohol - may lower the antidiuretic effect carbamazepine, chloropropamide, clofibrate, tricyclic ...
... binds to and activates MC4 receptors in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and in the lateral ... hypothalamic area (LHA), areas involved in the regulation of appetite, and this action is thought to underlie its appetite ... and improves cardiovascular function in diet-induced obese rhesus macaques". Diabetes. 62 (2): 490-7. doi:10.2337/db12-0598. ...
January 2012). "G protein-coupled receptors in the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei--serpentine gateways to ... Once bound to GTP, Rho can then go on to activate various proteins responsible for cytoskeleton regulation such as Rho-kinase ( ... Cardiovascular Prevention. 20 (1): 5-12. doi:10.1007/s40292-013-0001-8. PMID 23532739. S2CID 45674941. Penela P, Ribas C, Mayor ... GPCR regulation is additionally mediated by gene transcription factors. These factors can increase or decrease gene ...
When the arcuate nucleus, and the paraventricular nucleus, two different areas of the brain which are known to control blood ... U-II causes an increase in the corticotropin releasing factor by activating the hypothalamic paraventricular neurons. This ... Zhou P, Li ZL, Tang CS (Jun 2002). "Regulative effect of human urotensin-II on cardiovascular system". Di 1 Jun Yi da Xue Xue ... ancient hormone with new functions in vertebrate body fluid regulation". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1040 (1): ...
... tuberomammillary nucleus (the histamine projection nucleus), the arcuate nucleus, and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus ... Ibrahim BM, Abdel-Rahman AA (March 2014). "Cannabinoid receptor 1 signaling in cardiovascular regulating nuclei in the ... Accordingly, orexin plays a role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, reward, and perhaps more generally in emotion. Li J, ... locus ceruleus noradrenergic nucleus, the serotonergic raphe nuclei, and cholinergic pedunculopontine nucleus and laterodorsal ...
The key elements of the HPA axis are: The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, which contains neuroendocrine neurons ... Palumbo, Michelle C.; Dominguez, Sky; Dong, Hongxin (2020). "Sex differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation ... cardiovascular system, immune system, reproductive system and central nervous system. The HPA axis integrates physical and ... The HPA axis, hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG), hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT), and the hypothalamic- ...
... urotensin II it causes an increase of corticotropin releasing factor through the activation of the hypothalamic paraventricular ... While the precise function of the urotensin II receptor is not fully known it has been linked to cardiovascular effects, stress ... and the pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei (PPT) both of which are important for REM sleep. These two different results are ... which is important in the regulation of many important body functions. Rats also exhibit many stress related behaviors when ...
... in nerve terminals innervating thyrotropin-releasing hormone-synthesizing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus ... Although regulation of fat stores is deemed to be the primary function of leptin, it also plays a role in other physiological ... November 2019). "Exercise reduces inflammatory cell production and cardiovascular inflammation via instruction of hematopoietic ... In regard to the hormone leptin, central vs peripheral refers to the hypothalamic portion of the brain vs non-hypothalamic ...
... including the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus. It is speculated that activation of GPER may be the mechanism ... Han G, Li F, Yu X, White RE (May 2013). "GPER: a novel target for non-genomic estrogen action in the cardiovascular system". ... Long N, Long B, Mana A, Le D, Nguyen L, Chokr S, Sinchak K (March 2017). "Tamoxifen and ICI 182,780 activate hypothalamic G ... However, estrogens are also known to have effects that are too fast to be caused by regulation of gene transcription. In 2005, ...
Neurons in the hypothalamus, particularly the paraventricular nucleus, release vasopressin and corticotropin releasing hormone ... results in an up regulation of natural immunity and down regulation of specific immunity. This type of stress saw in increase ... Hypothalamic neurons involved in regulating energy balance also influence HPA axis activity through the release of ... A link has been suggested between chronic stress and cardiovascular disease. Stress appears to play a role in hypertension, and ...
The median preoptic nucleus is highly involved in cardiovascular regulation, including the release of atrial natriuretic ... Activation of the median preoptic nucleus leads to stimulation of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The afferents to this area ... When combined with lesions on other preoptic hypothalamic nuclei, however, damage to the median preoptic nucleus causes an ... such as the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus. Functionally, its importance can be understood because lesions ...
"Evidence that 5-HT2A receptors in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus mediate neuroendocrine responses to (-)DOI". The ... Paradoxical down-regulation of 5-HT2A receptors can be observed with several 5-HT2A antagonists. Thus, instead of tolerance, ... In the periphery, it is highly expressed in platelets and many cell types of the cardiovascular system, in fibroblasts, and in ... June 2015). "Antagonistic regulation of mRNA expression and splicing by CELF and MBNL proteins". Genome Research. 25 (6): 858- ...
Ramot, Assaf (March 2017). "Hypothalamic CRFR1 is essential for HPA axis regulation following chronic stress". Nature ... Neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is released from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, ... cardiovascular disease (e.g. heart attack), pulmonary disease (e.g. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), cancer, and ... Overactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis could provide potential insight into how these sex differences ...
... essential in controlling the transcriptional responses to stressors in both the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus ... Additionally, in the cardiovascular field, a genome-wide analysis of common variants demonstrated a substantial overlap in the ... In addition, the interaction between RASD1 and Ear2 is involved in renin transcriptional regulation. In humans, upregulation of ... a small G protein with a big role in the hypothalamic response to neuronal activation". Molecular Brain. 9: 1. doi:10.1186/ ...
... in the cochlea and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Note that the glucocorticoid hormone is a kind of ... This up regulation of GR thus prevents GR down regulation induced by acoustic trauma The protective effect of noise- ... bad cardiovascular function, insufficient intake of oxygen, a high platelet aggregation rate; and most importantly, a high ... "Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and immune system". Acta Neurologica. 16 (4): 206-13. PMID 7856475. Suckfuell M, Canis M, ...
The neurotransmitter such as nitric oxide (NO) is important in cardiovascular regulation and it is now emerging as a major ... Cham, J 2007, Role of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in the cardiovascular responses to elevations in body ... Role of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in the cardiovascular responses to elevations in body temperature. ... Role of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in the cardiovascular responses to elevations in body temperature ...
Regulation of sympathetic vasomotor activity by the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in normotensive and hypertensive ... II infusion on the cardiovascular response to disinhibition of the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei. 35th ... Regulation of sympathetic vasomotor activity by the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in normotensive and hypertensive ... II infusion on the cardiovascular response to disinhibition of the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei. 35th ...
Normal - in homozygous null mice, the adrenal glands and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus appeared histologically normal ... Normal - overall, homozygous null mice displayed a normal HPA axis structure, normal basal regulation of hypothalamic and ... cardiovascular system phenotype. *abnormal vascular permeability*change in permeability of uterine vasculature following ... PRODUCTS or SERVICES are to be used in a safe manner and in accordance with all applicable governmental rules and regulations. ...
One involves SFO-dependent activation of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, elevations in plasma vasopressin, ... 4E,F). Next, we examined the possibility that plasma AVP alters cerebrovascular regulation acting directly on V1a receptors in ... are thought to activate neural pathways projecting from the SFO to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), which, in ... 2001) Subfornical organ neurons projecting to paraventricular nucleus: whole-cell properties. Brain Res 921:78-85. ...
... neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) (17). Little or no Fos was detected in other cardiovascular CNS ... an autonomic nucleus critical for the secretion of neurohormones and the regulation of sympathetic outflow. In this study, we ... Swanson LW, Sawchenko PE. Hypothalamic integration: organization of the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. Annu Rev ... evidence suggested that the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus might be an important locus for these central cardiovascular ...
... and more specifically hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), Gαi2-subunit proteins in the endogenous GPCR-activated ... As a result, we found that CDP138, a novel phosphoprotein containing C2 domain, is involved in the regulation of GLUT4 ... Cardiovascular Pharmacology Faculty. D. avid Atkinson, Ph.D.. Professor of Physiology and Biophysics.. Research Interests: Dr. ... We have found that adiponectin has beneficial actions on the cardiovascular system by directly acting on the heart and blood ...
Ionotropic glutamate receptors in hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei mediate vasopressin and oxytocin release ... The role of the histaminergic system in the central cardiovascular regulation in haemorrhagic hypotension.. *Jerzy Jochem, ... Cardiovascular effects of histamine H 3 receptor antagonist JNJ 5207852 in haemorrhagic shock in rats. *Jerzy Jochem, Agata ... Influence of centrally acting amitriptyline and citalopram on histamine-induced cardiovascular effects in rats. *Tatjana Irman- ...
... may underlie the onset of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension. Apelin expression is increased in the rostral ... may underlie the onset of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension. Apelin expression is increased in the rostral ... APJ receptor mRNA expression in the rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus: regulation by stress and glucocorticoids. J. ... 2009). Endogenous regulation of cardiovascular function by apelin-APJ. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 297, H1904-H1913. ...
... in cardiovascular function, with a particular emphasis on blood pressure regulation, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and ... The cardiovascular consequences of targeting mPGES-1 and the PGE,sub,2,/sub, receptors are substantially studied. Inhibition of ... In this review, we highlight the most recent advances from our and other studies on the regulation of PGE,sub,2,/sub,, ... This might lead to new avenues to improve cardiovascular disease management strategies and to seek optimized anti-inflammatory ...
... and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), brain regions with key cardiovascular regulatory functions. The ... Together, these results suggest that H2S in the RVLM and PVN does not have a major role in cardiovascular regulation. ... brain regions with key cardiovascular regulatory functions. The cardiovascular role of H2S was investigated by determining the ... We also investigated the cardiovascular responses to NaHS microinjected into the RVLM and PVN in SHR rats. Again, there were no ...
... emphasizing hypothalamic mechanisms in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) involved in controlling sympathetic outflow toward the ... While the systemic actions of the RAS are widely accepted, the role of the RAS in the brain, its regulation of cardiovascular ... Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Prehypertension and the Metabolic Syndrome.. Sergey Kachur, Rebecca Morera, Alban De ... In this report, we discuss the current understanding of central RAS on blood pressure (BP) regulation, in light of recent ...
Furthermore, MA shows a preferential distribution to brainstem nuclei that are associated with cardiovascular regulation. These ... Sympathoexcitation by hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons projecting to the rostral ventrolateral medulla. J. Physiol. ... Li, F.C.; Yen, J.C.; Chan, S.H.; Chang, A.Y. Defunct brain stem cardiovascular regulation underlies cardiovascular collapse ... Future works are required to uncover the nuclei releasing the glutamate in the RVLM. The paraventricular nucleus of ...
BACKGROUND: The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is the center of the regulation of autonomic nervous system ... BACKGROUND: Telomeres are known to provide genomic stability and telomere length has been associated with cardiovascular ... Targeted regulation of sympathetic activity in paraventricular nucleus reduces inducible ventricular arrhythmias in rats after ... This regulation is critical for pathogenic Nav1.5 late current and requires PP2A-B56α. Our study supports B56α as a novel ...
"Muscimol acts in dorsomedial but not paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus to suppress cardiovascular effects of stress". The ... The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus receives information from neurons and humors involved in feeding regulation, body weight ... The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus is a nucleus of the hypothalamus. It is involved in feeding, drinking, body-weight ... The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) receives its circadian information from the suprachiasmatic nucleus, both directly ...
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) plays crucial roles in central cardiovascular regulation. Increasing evidence in ... He was diagnosed with NVCS of the brain stem (most likely of the input to the vestibular nucleus) associated with contact with ... autonomic dysfunction and hypertension by down-regulating inflammation and oxidative stress in the paraventricular nucleus of ... Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/genética , Pressão ...
... especially the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). This brain region integrates neural signals from hypothalamic and ... Ahima RS, Hileman SM: Postnatal regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptide expression by leptin: implications for energy balance ... cardiovascular disease, and other complications (1,2). Diet and exercise remain the cornerstone of obesity management; however ... lateral hypothalamic area; NTS, nucleus tractus solitarius; VMN, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. The response to PVN ...
A number of studies on AVP regulation have been conducted in various metabolic diseases (disorders). In this study, the ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a neuropeptide with vasoconstrictive, antidiuretic, cardiovascular regulative and hepatic ... Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus / Arginine / Rats, Inbred SHR / Supraoptic Nucleus / Blood Glucose / Neuropeptides / Aged ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP) expressional changes in the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of stroke-prone ...
... hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN), central cardiovascular regulation centers. ... Nucleus Accumbens , Orexin Receptors , Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus , Pyramidal Cells , Up-Regulation ... Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Solitary Nucleus , Supraoptic Nucleus , Tooth , Toothache ... The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is a crucial region involved in maintaining homeostasis through the regulation ...
Adrenergic projections from the lower brainstem to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, the lateral hypothalamic area and ... Basic aspects and involvement in cardiovascular and neuroendocrine regulation. Acta Physiol Scand.Suppl, 565, 1-83.. Hentges, S ... Dube, M. G., Kalra, S. P., & Kalra, P. S. (2006). The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus is not essential for orexigenic NPY ... nucleus to neuropeptide-y innervation of corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of the ...
It seems that the most essential of all these connections is the SFOs projections to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus ... CVOs also have roles in body fluid regulation, cardiovascular functions, immune responses, thirst, feeding behavior and ... "Region-specific projections from the subfornical organ to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus in the rat". Neuroscience. ... Ventromedial subregions of the bilateral hypothalamic arcuate nucleus display relatively high capillary permeability, ...
Cardiovascular function of a glutamatergic projection from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus to the nucleus tractus ... Cardiovascular regulation during insulin infusion into the carotid or vertebral artery in dogs. J Hypertens. 1999; 17: 251-260. ... Hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus differentially supports lumbar and renal sympathetic outflow in water-deprived rats. J ... Hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus contributes to the sympathoexcitatory effects of hyperinsulinemia. 61st Annual High Blood ...
Regulation of hypothalamic renin-angiotensin system and oxidative stress by aldosterone. Exp Physiol. 2011;96:1028-1038. ... Cardiovascular effects of angiotensin II and glutamate in the PVN of Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Brain Res. 2012;1447:28-37. ... increases neuronal activation in hypothalamic nuclei, such as the paraventricular nucleus (PVN),1,2 and causes progressive ... Glutamatergic inputs in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus maintain sympathetic vasomotor tone in hypertension. ...
The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) is an important brain site for integration of cardiovascular inputs and a ... Altered GABAA and NMDA receptor expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of hypertensive and pregnant rats. S. C ... The autonomic nervous system plays an essential role in regulation of the cardiovascular system, and over activation of the ... Interestingly however, sympathoexcitation is also required to maintain cardiovascular function vital for foetal development ...
... and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), are important for the autonomic regulation of the blood pressure. In our ... that the high blood pressure is related to sympathoexcitation in cardiovascular regulatory centers such as hypothalamic nuclei ... integration of cardiovascular signals in the brain areas, such as the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) ... and therefore is an important neural substrate for tonic regulation of sympathetic nerve activity and cardiovascular functions ...
5. The glucocorticoid receptors expressed highly in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, subfornical organ, amygdala and ... Publications] Kannan, H.et al.: Changes in renal sympathetic nerve activities in the regulation of body fluid balance with ... and superior laryngeal nerve and their retation to the cardiovascular responses in rats. Neurosci.Lett.219. 49-52 (1996). *. ... on neurons in the magnocellular portion of the rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus(PVN)in vitro. J.Neuroendocrinol.8. 137 ...
"Embryonic Exposure to Dexamethasone Affects Nonneuronal Cells in the Adult Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus, Journal ... affects gene regulation and can have long-lasting physiological and behavioral consequences. Dysregulation of the hypothalamic- ... implicates shared risk for sex differences in depression and cardiovascular disease. Front Neuroendocrinol . 2014; 35( 1): 140 ... Hypothalamic integration: organization of the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. Annu Rev Neurosci . 1983; 6( 1): 269- 324 ...
Involvement of ER subtypes and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the induced cardiovascular effects were studied using ... We investigated in the present study nontranscriptional mechanism on cardiovascular effects following activation of ERβ in the ... Shih CD, Au LC, Chan JYH: Differential role of leptin receptors at the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in tonic regulation ... ION, inferior olivary nucleus; NA, nucleus ambiguous; NTS, nucleus tractus solitarii; RVLM, rostral ventrolateral medulla; V, ...
Ciriello, J.; Calaresu, F.R. Role of paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei in central cardiovascular regulation in the cat. Am ... Shafton, A.D.; Ryan, A.; Badoer, E. Neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus send collaterals to the spinal cord and ... Pyner, S. Neurochemistry of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus: Implications for cardiovascular regulation. J. ... Benarroch, E.E. Paraventricular nucleus, stress response, and cardiovascular disease. Clin. Auton. Res., 2005, 15(4), 254-263. ...
Anorectic effects of estrogen may be mediated by decreased neuropeptide-Y release in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. ... Autonomic neural regulation of the immune system: implications for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Hypertension. 2012; ... Serotonergic projection from nucleus raphe pallidus to rostral ventrolateral medulla modulates cardiovascular reflex responses ... Serotonergic projections from the NRP to the rVLM contribute to the EA-cardiovascular responses [44].. The nucleus ambiguus ( ...
... is neuronal substrate of integration and regulation of the cardiovascular functions. Some efferent RVL neurons project to the ... Few double-projecting neurons were distributed in the middle third of RVL nucleus, their size was 30-40 μm. The results ... Different findings indicate that rostral ventrolateral reticular nucleus (RVL) ... from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus [3], the lateral hypothalamic area [4], the dorsal raphe nucleus [5] and from ...
  • One of the most striking accumulations of NO containing-neurons is in the PVN where it appears to be playing an important role in cardiovascular regulation and body fluid homeostasis. (edu.au)
  • 3. The present study also illustrates that these PVN neurons projecting to the RVLM may make a smaller contribution than the spinal-projecting neurons in the PVN to the cardiovascular responses initiated by heat. (edu.au)
  • Collectively, these data provide evidence for a disinhibitory role of NPFF and NPVF in the hypothalamic PVN via an attenuation of GABAergic inhibitory input to parvocellular neurons of this nucleus and explain the central autonomic effects of NPFF. (physiology.org)
  • In the brain, NPFF has been shown to influence the secretion of vasopressin from the hypothalamus and activate neurons of cardiovascular centers in the brain stem that regulate sympathetic autonomic outflow ( 2 , 16 ). (physiology.org)
  • First, using detection of the Fos protein, we observed that intracerebroventricular NPFF causes an activation of parvocellular, but not magnocellular, neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) ( 17 ). (physiology.org)
  • Studies utilizing patch-clamp recordings in the hypothalamic brain slices permit a reliable identification of parvocellular neurons of the PVN from their magnocellular counterparts on the basis of their distinct electrophysiological properties ( 4 , 26 , 37 ). (physiology.org)
  • The importance of inhibitory inputs to PVN neurons is highlighted by anatomical data, which show that ∼50% of all synaptic connections made in the PVN are GABAergic in nature ( 7 ) and serve to mediate peripheral cardiovascular- and energy balance-related signals to this hypothalamic nucleus ( 27 , 31 ). (physiology.org)
  • The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus receives information from neurons and humors involved in feeding regulation, body weight and energy consumption, and then passes this information on to brain regions involved in sleep and wakefulness regulation, body temperature and corticosteroid secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DMH sends information to the ventrolateral preoptic area, locus coeruleus, and orexinergic neurons in order to aid in the regulation of wakefulness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frahm, Krystle A;Handa, Robert J;Tobet, Stuart A 2018-02-01 00:00:00 Abstract Neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) integrate peripheral signals and coordinate responses that maintain numerous homeostatic functions. (deepdyve.com)
  • Few double-projecting neurons were distributed in the middle third of RVL nucleus, their size was 30-40 μm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The brainstem neurons may be involved in simultaneous transmission of autonomic-related signals, in fact catecholaminergic and non-catecholaminergic neurons were found to provide branching collaterals to the central nucleus of the amygdala and to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a neuropeptide expressed in neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), a region implicated in satiety and stress. (jneurosci.org)
  • In particular, there is clear evidence that arginine vasopressin, oxytocin, dynorphin, and enkephalin are released from the somatodendritic compartments of neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. (jneurosci.org)
  • Oxytocin (OT) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide synthesized and secreted by OT neurons. (scirp.org)
  • It has been suggested that large doses () of NmU inhibits the activity of the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus and/or the sympathetic preganglionic neurons , thus controlling the activity. (wikidoc.org)
  • The paraventricular nucleus, for instance, contains oxytocin and vasopressin neurons which project to the posterior pituitary , but also contains neurons that regulate adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion (which project to the anterior pituitary), gastric reflexes, maternal behavior, blood pressure, food and liquid uptake, immune responses , and temperature. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The present study monitored Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos) to assess the effect of WR-induced drinking on the activity of vasopressin (VP)-positive magnocellular and parvocellular neurons and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-positive parvocellular neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. (physiology.org)
  • the hypothalamic -pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to stress is initiated by the activation of hypophysiotrophic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. (physiology.org)
  • Drinking after water restriction also may reduce HPA activity by inhibiting magnocellular neurons in the PVN and the supraoptic nucleus (SON). (physiology.org)
  • This protein (82 aac) is not only expressed in peripheral organs but it is also found in neurons located in specific structures including the hypothalamus and the brainstem, two sites strongly involved in food intake regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neurons expressing nesfatin-1 are found located in various areas including the brainstem (NTS, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus: DMNX) and hypothalamic nuclei (ARC, PVN, SON). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Central command regulation of circulatory function mediated by descending pontine cholinergic inputs to sympathoexcitatory rostral ventrolateral medulla neurons. (ac.ir)
  • Nitric oxide (NO), an important neuromodulator in these hypothalamic nuclei, contributes to tonic inhibition of neurosecretory and pre-autonomic neurons. (nebraska.edu)
  • The HPA axis is controlled by neurons within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in the hypothalamus (see figure 1). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Interventions to the aging process involve early calorie restriction with appetite regulation connected to appropriate genetic mechanisms that involve mitochondrial biogenesis and DNA repair in neurons. (scirp.org)
  • Arcuate nucleus neurons at the bottom of the hypothalamus near the third ventricle have direct contact with peripheral satiety factors like leptin and insulin. (scirp.org)
  • The HPA axis begins at the level of the hypothalamic PVN where the CRH neurons are located. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • Although leptin is secreted primarily from adipocytes while insulin is released from the endocrine pancreas, both circulate at levels proportionate to body fat mass and exert relatively long-lived inhibitory effects on food intake via actions on a common set of hypothalamic neurons ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Hypothalamic paraventricular, but not supraoptic neurons, mediate the serotonergic stimulation of oxytocin secretion. (nih.gov)
  • Supraspinal afferents to the pontine micturition center, Barrington's nucleus, were investigated in the rat by visualization of the retrograde tracer, cholera-toxin subunit B, in neurons following iontophoretic injection into Barrington's nucleus. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • Tissue sections from five rats with injections primarily localized in Barrington's nucleus revealed numerous retrogradely labeled neurons throughout all rostrocaudal levels of the periaqueductal gray (particularly its ventrolateral division), in the lateral hypothalamic area (particularly medial to the fornix), and in the medial preoptic nucleus. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • Retrogradely labeled neurons were also consistently found in the nucleus of the solitary tract, in the vicinity of the lateral reticular nucleus, nucleus paragigantocellularis, parabrachial nucleus, Kölliker-Fuse nucleus, cuneiform nucleus, raphe nucleus and zona incerta. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • In the hypothalamus, in addition to the perifornical region, retrogradely labeled neurons were found in all cases in the tuberomammillary nucleus, premammillary nucleus, dorsal hypothalamic area, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, and the paraventricular nucleus. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • At more rostral levels, in addition to the medial preoptic area, retrogradely labeled neurons were seen in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and in a region just lateral to the supraoptic nucleus near the medial amygdaloid nucleus. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • As previously reported, numerous neurons in Barrington's nucleus were immunoreactive for corticotropin-releasing hormone. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • Double-labeling studies revealed afferent fibers from the periaqueductal gray and lateral hypothalamic area overlapping the corticotropin-releasing hormone- immunoreactive neurons of Barrington's nucleus, and in some cases anterogradely labeled fibers with varcosities appeared to target these neurons. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • Additionally, as neurons in Barrington's nucleus are immunoreactive for the stress-related neurohormone, corticotropin-releasing hormone, these diverse inputs may regulate stress-related functions of this nucleus. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • Exercise-training Normalizes an Increased Neuronal Excitability of NTS-projecting neurons of the Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus in Hypertensive rats. (gsu.edu)
  • A reduction in SK channels contributes to increased activity of hypothalamic magnocellular neurons during heart failure. (gsu.edu)
  • The data also identify extensive projections from the MVe to regions mediating arousal and sleep-related functions, most of which receive immunohistochemically identified projections from the lateral hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) neurons. (modiushealth.com)
  • These data are transmitted to the central nervous system and affect the discharge rate of set point neurons in hypothalamic nuclei . (wisemindbodyhealing.com)
  • These two tracts connect the hypothalamus with the major parasympathetic nuclei in the brain stem and the preganglionic (central) neurons of the thoracolumbar spinal cord . (wisemindbodyhealing.com)
  • The hypothalamic mHypoA-2/10 cell line was recently established and resembles appetite-regulating hypothalamic neurons of the paraventricular nucleus ( PVN ), where 5-HT 2C R have been detected in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
  • For example, signals from adiponectin and leptin act on the arcuate nucleus to produce reciprocal activation or inhibition of the proopiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript neurons while also inhibiting or activating the neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide neurons. (jaoa.org)
  • Signals from the arcuate nucleus neurons are subsequently transmitted to several other hypothalamic nuclei (eg, paraventricular nucleus and lateral hypothalamus), which also play a role in energy regulation. (jaoa.org)
  • In the lateral hypothalamus, two groups of neurons participate in the regulation of feeding: the orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone neurons. (jaoa.org)
  • Ablation of NK1 receptor bearing neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract blunts cardiovascular reflexes in awake rats. (atsbio.com)
  • Up-regulation of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor and endosomal-lysosomal markers in surviving neurons after 192-IgG-saporin administrations into the adult rat brain. (atsbio.com)
  • The hypothalamus and autonomic regulation: An overview. (edu.au)
  • The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus is a nucleus of the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Almost all major nuclei and areas of the hypothalamus feed information to the DMH. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DMH is also a part of the pathway corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) takes when it is secreted by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and it is involved in the flow from the sympathetic nervous system to the adrenal gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, the immunoreactivities of AVP in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) and mRNA expressions in the hypothalamus were investigated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats at different ages (i.e., at postnatal months [PM] 1, 8, and 12). (bvsalud.org)
  • The vascular organ is further characterized by the afferent inputs from the subfornical organ (SFO), the median pre-optic nucleus (MnPO) region, the brainstem, and even the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) is an important brain site for integration of cardiovascular inputs and a known site for autonomic regulation3. (physoc.org)
  • In response to physical or emotional stress, neuroendocrine cells within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) release corticotropin-releasing hormone/factor and arginine vasopressin, which stimulates cells within the anterior pituitary to secrete adrenocorticotropin hormone. (deepdyve.com)
  • The expression of NmUR2 in the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN), a major site for the release of Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), suggests an alternative role in mediating stress response. (wikidoc.org)
  • The hypothalamus is a very complex region, and even small nuclei within the hypothalamus are involved in many different functions. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus are important CNS sites for control of sympathetic nerve activity and vasopressin secretion. (nebraska.edu)
  • The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is an important integrative site of neuroendocrine control of the circulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the brain, the preoptic area and the paraventricular hypothalamus are part of a neuronal network mediating sympathetic activation underlying fever while brainstem circuits play a role in the reduction of food intake after systemic exposure to bacterial fragments. (springermedizin.de)
  • A certain residual function of the hypothalamus could not be excluded because the substantia grisea centralis behind the 3rd ventricle contained well-formed neuronal nests however without resemblance to known neuronal nuclei. (baillement.com)
  • Vestibular system is having extensive interactions with hypothalamus, dorsal raphe nucleus, nucleus tractus solitarius, locus coeruleus, hippocampal formation and regulates food intake. (modiushealth.com)
  • The hypothalamus has the greatest concentration of nuclei at which set points are encoded , monitored and controlled , and so can be considered as the key brain region for the control of homeostasis . (wisemindbodyhealing.com)
  • The olfactory cortex, the septal nuclei of the basal forebrain, and the amygdala project into the hypothalamus through the medial forebrain bundle. (wisemindbodyhealing.com)
  • The role of the hypothalamus in regulation of homeostasis is essential for survival and reproduction of the species. (wisemindbodyhealing.com)
  • Also visible on the medial surface of the brain is the hypothalamic sulcus, which is the rostral continuation of the sulcus limitans that defines the superior boundary of the hypothalamus. (wisemindbodyhealing.com)
  • Role of 5-HT1A receptors in the lower brainstem on the cardiovascular response to dorsomedial hypothalamus activation. (edu.au)
  • This regulation occurs through a complex pathway via afferent signals from the periphery to the hypothalamus. (jaoa.org)
  • Noradrenergic inputs to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus underlie hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis but not hypophagic or conditioned avoidance responses to systemic yohimbine. (atsbio.com)
  • Neurotoxic lesions centered on the perifornical hypothalamus abolish the cardiovascular and behavioral responses of conditioned fear to context but not of restraint. (atsbio.com)
  • At present, the research has mainly focused on several central nuclei, such as the dorsal vagus complex (DVC), nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), locus coeruleus (LC), subnucleus reticularis dorsalis (SRD), hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN), central amygdala (CeA), etc. (bvsalud.org)
  • 5. The glucocorticoid receptors expressed highly in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, subfornical organ, amygdala and hippocampus. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The NRM receives descending afferents from the periaqueductal gray (PAG), hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), central nucleus of the amygdala, lateral hypothalamic area, parvocellular reticular nucleus and the prelimbic, infralimbic, medial and lateral precentral cortices [2], which brain areas influence the main function of NRM [3]. (scirp.org)
  • In the normoxic adult mouse, neuroglobin expression was observed in focal regions of the brain, including the lateral tegmental nuclei, the preoptic nucleus, amygdala, locus coeruleus, and nucleus of the solitary tract. (jove.com)
  • Ionotropic glutamate receptors in hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei mediate vasopressin and oxytocin release in unanesthetized rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We also investigated the cardiovascular responses to NaHS microinjected into the RVLM and PVN in spontaneously hypertensive rats. (frontiersin.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate whether calcitriol, an active form of vitamin D, improves autonomic and cardiovascular function in hypertensive rats and whether PVN oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in these beneficial effects. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study was designed to determine whether MET has anti-hypertensive effects in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats by inhibiting oxidative stress in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). (bvsalud.org)
  • Huber MJ, Basu R, Cecchettini C, Cuadra AE, Chen QH, Shan Z. Activation of the (pro)renin receptor in the paraventricular nucleus increases sympathetic outflow in anesthetized rats. (mtu.edu)
  • Sympathoexcitation and pressor responses induced by ethanol in the central nucleus of amygdale (CeA) involves local activation of NMDA receptors in anesthetized rats. (mtu.edu)
  • ICV injections of NmU in rats and mice induce behavior responses associated with activation of the nociceptive pathways, for example it will increase plasma levels of corticosterone , and stimulates the release of CRH from hypothalamic explants in vitro . (wikidoc.org)
  • Nitric oxide synthase activity and expression are decreased in the paraventricular nucleus of pregnant rats. (ac.ir)
  • Cardiovascular effects of nitric oxide and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarii of rats. (ac.ir)
  • The rats on high-salt diet for 1 month were administered a specific NLRP3 blocker in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) for 4 weeks. (springer.com)
  • The PCO rats had significantly higher MSAP than controls, higher levels of alpha 1a adrenoceptor mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and lower levels of alpha 2a adrenoceptor mRNA in the PVN and adrenal medulla. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Imbalanced K+ And Ca2+ Subthreshold Interactions Contribute To Increased Hypothalamic Presympathetic Neuronal Excitability In Hypertensive Rats. (gsu.edu)
  • The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus and perifornical area modulate rather than inhibit the baroreflex in rats. (edu.au)
  • in the left and right BNST, rats displayed a marked decrease in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to YO administration. (atsbio.com)
  • We tested the hypothesis that free radical production in the SFO is involved in the alterations in cerebrovascular regulation produced by hypertension. (jneurosci.org)
  • The findings implicate for the first time the SFO and its efferent hypothalamic pathways in the cerebrovascular alterations induced by AngII, and identify vasopressin and endothelin-1 as potential therapeutic targets to counteract the devastating effects of hypertension on the brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Dysfunction of the apelinergic system, comprised of the neuropeptide apelin mediating its effects via the G protein-coupled apelin receptor (APJ), may underlie the onset of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, clinical trials have revealed that these inhibitors predisposed patients to a significantly increased cardiovascular risk, consisting of thrombosis, hypertension, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. (hindawi.com)
  • However, placebo-controlled trials revealed that these drugs predisposed patients to a series of cardiovascular hazards, including hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death, affecting ~1-2% of patients exposed per year [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Methamphetamine (MA) is a popular and highly addictive psychostimulant that not only affects neurobehavior but also causes cardiovascular dysfunctions including tachycardia, myocardial ischemia, and hypertension [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, our findings suggest that increased AVP expressions in the hypothalamic PVN and SON are associated with hypertension by age. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study was designed to determine whether inhibition of Ang-(1-7) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates sympathetic activity and elevates blood pressure by modulating pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and oxidative stress in the PVN in salt-induced hypertension. (bvsalud.org)
  • A chronic increase in circulating angiotensin II (Ang II) activates an aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor-ouabain neuromodulatory pathway in the brain that increases neuronal activation in hypothalamic nuclei, such as the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and causes progressive hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • A chronic increase in circulating angiotensin II (Ang II) increases neuronal activation in hypothalamic nuclei, such as the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), 1 , 2 and causes progressive hypertension, 2 , 3 presumably by increasing sympathetic activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • These findings suggest that a chronic increase in circulating Ang II increases local hypothalamic aldosterone production, and activates an MR-EO pathway in the brain, which is essential for the Ang II-induced hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • Sympathoexcitation in AngII-salt hypertension involves reduced SK channel function in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. (mtu.edu)
  • Related conditions such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension, as well as the presence of renal dysfunction per se lead to oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation, dyslipidaemia, elevated circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may all play a role in the association of renal and cardiovascular disease. (dissertationtopic.net)
  • Hypertension is also a significant independent risk factor for cardiovascular events in patients with CKD, the leading cause of their morbidity and mortality. (dissertationtopic.net)
  • The trial of hypertension prevention studies (TOPH I and II), involving2,382prehypertensive participants, reported that dietary sodium restriction (which had been previously shown to lower blood pressure) demonstrated highly significant cardiovascular risk reduction (by) than those individuals not receiving such a diet. (dissertationtopic.net)
  • 3) the cardiovascular hypertension from PVN activation, the bone and other peripheral aging by psychological stress, and that of kidney by vasopressin. (cdc.gov)
  • Red wine polyphenols prevent cardiovascular alterations in L-NAME-induced hypertension. (ac.ir)
  • Obesity is a multi-factorial disorder, which is often associated with many other significant diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, osteoarthritis and certain cancers. (obesitynetwork.info)
  • The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) receives its circadian information from the suprachiasmatic nucleus, both directly and via subparaventricular zone, and senses leptin and other feeding cues, but it is also possible that it contains its own feeding-entrained oscillator (FEO). (wikipedia.org)
  • The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), a region implicated in satiety and stress, offers an opportunity to study putative interactions between autocrine and retrograde transmitters. (jneurosci.org)
  • Modulation of the baroreceptor reflex by the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus and perifornical area. (edu.au)
  • This brain region integrates neural signals from hypothalamic and brain stem nuclei and regulates feeding behavior, autonomic function, and neuroendocrine function. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the sustained effect of MSI-1436 on body weight and determine whether the biological activity of MSI-1436 in the brain is mediated by well-known hypothalamic neuronal pathways that mediate feeding behavior and energy balance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CVOs also have roles in body fluid regulation, cardiovascular functions, immune responses, thirst, feeding behavior and reproductive behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new paper 1 propose that activation of cholinergic interneurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and cholinergic projections to the ventral tegmetal area affect feeding behavior. (life-enhancement.com)
  • The effects of these peptides are mediated via NPFF1 and NPFF2 receptors that are abundantly expressed in the rat brain, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), an autonomic nucleus critical for the secretion of neurohormones and the regulation of sympathetic outflow. (physiology.org)
  • While the systemic actions of the RAS are widely accepted, the role of the RAS in the brain, its regulation of cardiovascular function, and sympathetic outflow remain controversial. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • We present recent advances in understanding of the role of vasopressin as a neurotransmitter in autonomic nervous system control of the circulation, emphasizing hypothalamic mechanisms in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) involved in controlling sympathetic outflow toward the cardiovascular system. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The DMH is also involved in the regulation of hypothalamic outflow to the autonomic nervous and endocrine systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under normal physiological conditions, GABAergic inhibition suppresses autonomic outflow from this nuclei. (physoc.org)
  • These changes in discharge rate result in altered hypothalamic efferent (outwardly) outflow and hence change in the functions of regulatory systems that counteract the stress stimulus and restore homeostasis. (wisemindbodyhealing.com)
  • The brainstem plays a vital role in blood pressure (BP) regulation through an intricate signaling network that modulates sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and secretes hormones into the circulation to maintain a homeostatic BP ( Fisher and Paton, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Loewy, A.D. Paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus: axonal projections to the brainstem. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Yawning is a clinical sign of the activity of various supra- and infratentorial brain regions including the putative brainstem motor pattern, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, probably the insula and limbic structures that are interconnected via a fiber network. (baillement.com)
  • The present results suggest that Barrington's nucleus in the rat receives neuronal inputs from brainstem nuclei as well as from forebrain limbic structures including hypothalamic nuclei, the medial preoptic nucleus, and cortical areas involved in fluid balance or blood pressure regulation. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • One involves SFO-dependent activation of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, elevations in plasma vasopressin, upregulation of endothelin-1 in cerebral resistance arterioles and activation of endothelin type A receptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Third, the hypothalamic PVN is enriched in NPFF binding sites and receptors ( 6 , 11 ). (physiology.org)
  • The cardiovascular consequences of targeting mPGES-1 and the PGE 2 receptors are substantially studied. (hindawi.com)
  • The modulation of the four EP receptors in cardiovascular system is diversely reported as well. (hindawi.com)
  • In this review, we highlight the most recent advances from our and other studies on the regulation of PGE 2 , particularly mPGES-1 and the four PGE 2 receptors, in cardiovascular function, with a particular emphasis on blood pressure regulation, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and myocardial infarction. (hindawi.com)
  • We investigate the role of oxytocin receptors (OTRs) in PVN in cardiovascular homeostasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Bledsoe AC, Oliver KM, Scholl JL, Forster GL (2011) Anxiety states induced by post-weaning social isolation are mediated by CRF receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus. (springer.com)
  • Cooper MA, Huhman KL (2005) Corticotropin-releasing factor type II (CRF-sub-2) receptors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis modulate conditioned defeat in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). (springer.com)
  • Cooper MA, Huhman KL (2007) Corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus modulate social behavior in Syrian hamsters. (springer.com)
  • Activation of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1a receptors suppresses cardiovascular responses evoked from the paraventricular nucleus. (edu.au)
  • Vasopressin, Central Autonomic Control and Blood Pressure Regulation. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a neuropeptide with vasoconstrictive, antidiuretic, cardiovascular regulative and hepatic glycogenolysis effects, that also affects other behaviors including modulating learning. (bvsalud.org)
  • Since the discovery of vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) in 1953, considerable knowledge has been gathered about their roles in cardiovascular homeostasis. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Japundžić-Žigon, N. Vasopressin and oxytocin in control of the cardiovascular system. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Alterations in NO within the PVN and SON could contribute to changes in regulation of vasopressin and sympathetic nerve activity in pregnancy. (nebraska.edu)
  • Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular effects of serotonin: selective role of brain angiotensin on vasopressin. (nih.gov)
  • The hypothalamic nuclei that are involved in food intake include the arcuate nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus, the lateral hypothalamic area, the ventromedial nucleus and dorsomedial nucleus. (scirp.org)
  • Injections of anterograde tracers (cholera-toxin subunit B or Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin) into the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus, the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, lateral hypothala- mic area, or medial preoptic area, resulted in fiber labeling within Barrington's nucleus, confirming the retrograde tracing studies. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • The bed nuclei lie lateral to the columns of the fornix and dorsal to the anterior commissure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These include the locus coeruleus, dorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei, dorsal raphe, and lateral preoptic area. (modiushealth.com)
  • Research Interests: Dr. Hamilton's laboratory is developing and applying novel physical approaches to study of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. (bu.edu)
  • The rise in obesity and its complications has generated enormous interest in the regulation of feeding and body weight. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This epidemic has serious public health consequences because obesity is associated with excess mortality and morbidity from type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other complications ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Hyperinsulinemia increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and has been linked to cardiovascular morbidity in obesity. (ahajournals.org)
  • Obesity plays a major role in the development of illnesses such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease and some cancers. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • Over the last years, hypothalamic inflammation has been linked to the development and progression of obesity and its sequelae. (jci.org)
  • An understanding of the contributions of different neuronal and non-neuronal cell types to hypothalamic inflammatory processes, and delineation of the differences and similarities between acute and chronic activation of these inflammatory pathways, will be critical for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. (jci.org)
  • Over the last years, hypothalamic inflammation has been linked to the development and progression of obesity and its sequelae and has emerged not only as an important driver of impaired energy balance, but also as a contributor to obesity-associated insulin resistance via altered neurocircuit functions. (jci.org)
  • Recently, it was hypothesized by Cai the decrease in slow-wave sleep (SWS) resulting from skin aging as responsible for the degeneration of hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). (cdc.gov)
  • The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that coordinate the neuronal, humoural systems and the circadian rhythms activate the arcuate nucleus that releases neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti related protein (AgRP) that control physiological functions (body) temperature, melatonin release, glucocorticoid secretion and behavioural functions (feeding and memory). (scirp.org)
  • Virus tracing confirmed and extended the MVe afferent connections identified with CTB and additionally demonstrated transneuronal connectivity with the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the medial habenular nucleus. (modiushealth.com)
  • hence, these projections are likely to mediate the effects of the PVN on sympathetic nerve activity and hence may contribute to the cardiovascular changes induced by physiological stimuli such as elevations in body temperature. (edu.au)
  • Products from pro-uroguanylin may mediate natriuresis following oral consumption of a salt load through both GC-C (guanylate cyclase C)-dependent and -independent mechanisms, and recent evidence suggests a role in appetite regulation. (portlandpress.com)
  • Cardiovascular function is largely controlled by the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS). (atsbio.com)
  • The cardiovascular role of H 2 S was investigated by determining the BP, heart rate (HR), and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA) responses elicited by a H 2 S donor sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) or inhibitors of CBS, microinjected into the RVLM and PVN. (frontiersin.org)
  • He is a leading investigator in the study of the functional organization of central cardiovascular pathways, with a particular interest in the mechanisms by which the brain produces highly coordinated cardiorespiratory changes that are appropriate for different behaviours, such as exercise and defensive behaviour. (edu.au)
  • After a brief overview on VP, OT and their peripheral action on the cardiovascular system, this review focuses on newly discovered hypothalamic mechanisms involved in neurogenic control of the circulation in stress and disease. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Neural mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. (mtu.edu)
  • Neural mechanisms of exercise training in regulating autonomic and cardiovascular function. (mtu.edu)
  • Turnbull, A.V. and Rivier, C.L. (1999) Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by cytokines: Actions and mechanisms of action. (scirp.org)
  • A long-term goal in the Stern's laboratory is to understand the cellular mechanisms underlying neuronal excitability, synaptic connectivity, and plasticity in hypothalamic neuronal circuits. (gsu.edu)
  • Hypothalamic mechanisms coordinating cardiorespiratory function during exercise and defensive behaviour. (edu.au)
  • Topographical specificity of regulation of respiratory and renal sympathetic activity by the midbrain dorsolateral periaqueductal gray. (edu.au)
  • In the present study we have demonstrated the presence of the H 2 S-producing enzyme, cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), brain regions with key cardiovascular regulatory functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) plays a key role in the regulation of SNA and arterial blood pressure (ABP). (ahajournals.org)
  • Different findings indicate that rostral ventrolateral reticular nucleus (RVL) is neuronal substrate of integration and regulation of the cardiovascular functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Evidence for a cholinergic projection from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus to the rostral ventrolateral medulla in the rat. (ac.ir)
  • Nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), located directly rostral to the raphe obscurus, is afferently stimulated from axons in the spinal cord and cerebellum [1]. (scirp.org)
  • The most rostral of the thalamic nuclei. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • i.e. paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON), arcuate nucleus (ARC) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The arcuate nucleus produces inhibiting and releasing factors (adrenocorticotrophic hormone, beta-lipotrophic hormone, and beta-endorphin) for pituitary hormones. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Long-term regulation of arterial blood pressure by hypothalamic nuclei: some critical questions. (edu.au)
  • Prostaglandin (PG) E 2 is an important lipid mediator that regulates diverse and important physiological processes, such as gastric epithelial cytoprotection, renal blood flow maintenance, cardiovascular tone and blood pressure regulation, reproduction and parturition, bone formation, sleep, and neuroprotection. (hindawi.com)
  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the most important reason for death in patients with chronic renal failure, is the main factor affecting the prognosis of chronic kidney disease, and the mortality of CVD is47%in patients with dialysis.The spectrum of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with chronic renal insufficiency includes left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and dilatation, ischemic heart disease, and peripheral vascular disease. (dissertationtopic.net)
  • End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is always associated with cardiovascular disease, however, CVD is not found only in patients with ESRD. (dissertationtopic.net)
  • Dietary sodium restriction will prevent cardiovascular and renal outcomes through structural and functional pathophysiologic changes induced by sodium that are independent of the RAS, and will further diminish that risk by reversing those structural and functional derangements. (dissertationtopic.net)
  • Drugs inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) to decrease angiotensin II (AngII) production or antagonizing AT1 receptor lower blood pressure and improve outcomes in patients with cardiovascular and renal diseases [ 1-4 ]. (bioscirep.org)
  • The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in modulating cardiovascular function and fluid homeostasis. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • After many years of research and experimental studies concerning the biological activity of peptides and their fragments, scientists of different countries came to a new comprehension of homeostasis-maintenance system regulation in the human organism. (medline.ru)
  • Clearly there are central nervous system (CNS) adaptations in systems for regulation of cardiovascular and body fluid homeostasis in pregnant animals. (nebraska.edu)
  • In light of the role of Barrington's nucleus in micturition, the integration of these various inputs may be important for co-ordinating urinary function with fluid and cardiovascular homeostasis. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • Afferent projections to the cholinergic pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and adjacent midbrain extrapyramidal area in the albino rat. (ac.ir)
  • In this study, afferent and efferent subcortical connectivity of the medial vestibular nucleus of the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) was evaluated using cholera toxin subunit-B (retrograde), Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (anterograde), and pseudorabies virus (transneuronal retrograde) tract-tracing techniques. (modiushealth.com)
  • Inhibition of mPGES-1 has displayed a relatively innocuous or preferable cardiovascular profile. (hindawi.com)
  • Baroreflex modulation rather than inhibition by disinhibition of nuclei in the vicinity of the hypothalamic defence area. (edu.au)
  • The mechanism of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis inhibition by DMI in humans is unknown. (wikigenes.org)
  • We hypothesise that projections from the PVN to the spinal cord and the RVLM contribute to the reflex cardiovascular responses. (edu.au)
  • This displays that the DMH also plays a role in the increase of heart rate and blood pressure as cardiovascular responses to stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional topography of respiratory, cardiovascular and pontine-wave responses to glutamate microstimulation of the pedunculopontine tegmentum of the rat. (ac.ir)
  • Altered nitric oxide mechanism within the paraventricular nucleus contributes to the augmented carotid body chemoreflex in heart failure. (ac.ir)
  • There are also a number of reports, particularly in hypothalamic nuclei, that somatodendritically released neuropeptides also control synaptic function. (jneurosci.org)
  • median preoptic nucleus. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • It was soon hypothesized by the European people in television that the increase in body fat as responsible for the degeneration of male preoptic sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN-POA), via the aromatase converting testosterone to estradiol as proposed by Cohen. (cdc.gov)
  • The sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area in the human brain: a comparative morphometric study. (cdc.gov)
  • These findings indicate that MSI-1436 acts in the brain to regulate food intake and energy expenditure, likely through suppression of orexigenic hypothalamic pathways. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Barley with preventive inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases has exhibited activities against all human platelet agonists inhibited both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism, which elevated the SOD and GSH-Px activities [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Schematic representation of medullary and supramedullary nuclei and pathways involved in ANS control. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • This activation of hypothalamic inflammatory pathways results in the uncoupling of caloric intake and energy expenditure, fostering overeating and further weight gain. (jci.org)
  • A number of studies on AVP regulation have been conducted in various metabolic diseases (disorders). (bvsalud.org)
  • The autonomic nervous system plays an essential role in regulation of the cardiovascular system, and over activation of the sympathetic branch has been shown to be characteristic of many cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension1. (physoc.org)
  • Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is important in the association of adult diseases and disorders stemming from disrupted fetal development. (deepdyve.com)
  • There are still unexplored actions of VP and OT on the cardiovascular system, both at the periphery and in the brain that may open new venues in treatment of cardiovascular diseases. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Invited featured faculty talk in China Heart Congress (2017CHC) Sponsored by Chinese Medical Association and National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases. (mtu.edu)
  • Disruptions of phosphorylation signaling have been linked to several cardiovascular diseases such as ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and cardiac hypertrophy, and thus protein phosphorylation signaling modulators have emerged as critical targets of cardiovascular drugs. (dissertationtopic.net)
  • Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) and neuropeptide VF (NPVF) are octapeptides belonging to the RFamide family of peptides that have been implicated in a wide variety of physiological functions in the brain, including central autonomic and neuroendocrine regulation. (physiology.org)
  • Neuromedin U (or NmU) is a neuropeptide found in the brain of humans and other mammals, which has a number of diverse functions including contraction of smooth muscle, regulation of blood pressure , pain perception, appetite, bone growth, and hormone release. (wikidoc.org)
  • The intake of the nutrients is under complex control involving signals from both the periphery and central nervous system The purpose of this article is to review research reports related to vestibular stimulation and its role in regulation of food intake and to suggest translational research in this area. (modiushealth.com)
  • The specific role of the apelinergic system in neural control of cardiovascular function however, remains unclear. (frontiersin.org)
  • Does other nuclei have direct or indirect neural circuit with DVC to participate in the regulation of gastric function by acupuncture, such as the possibility of CeA-DVC neural loop in acupuncture regulating gastric function. (bvsalud.org)
  • The middle part of the nose contains olfactory nerve terminal radicals, or neural patches, which are known to have no synapses en route to the CNS. (medline.ru)
  • We investigated the effects of caloric stimulation on neuronal activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in anesthetized guinea pigs. (modiushealth.com)
  • Local paracrine effects in the gut through GC-C stimulation may have tumour-suppressing actions through the regulation of cell proliferation and metabolism. (portlandpress.com)
  • Recent progress in cardiovascular therapy suggests that stimulation of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), production of Angiotensin-(1-7) Ang-(1-7), and activation of the Ang-(1-7) receptor, Mas, are viable targets for disease prevention and treatment. (ufl.edu)
  • In MetS, excess weight potentiates hyperglycemia and insulin resistance which causes positive feedback into the RAAS system, activates an inflammatory cascade that potentiates atherosclerosis, and causes lipid dysregulation which together contribute to cardiovascular disease, especially coronary heart disease (CHD) and heart failure (HF). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The role of the histaminergic system in the central cardiovascular regulation in haemorrhagic hypotension. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) plays crucial roles in central cardiovascular regulation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) is an important neurotransmitter in central nervous system involved in central cardiovascular regulation. (ac.ir)
  • The mammalian medial vestibular nucleus (MVe) receives input from all vestibular endorgans and provides extensive projections to the central nervous system. (modiushealth.com)
  • Roger Dampney is an Emeritus Professor in Cardiovascular Neuroscience in the Discipline of Physiology and Bosch Institute, an Honorary Professor at the University of NSW, and an Adjunct Professor in the Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Macquarie University. (edu.au)
  • Cardiovascular and Respiratory Reflexes: Physiology and Pharmacology. (edu.au)
  • Cardiovascular physiology, neurophysiology and exercise science. (mtu.edu)
  • To understand why these proteins may be linked to migraine, the physiology of adipose tissue and the central and peripheral regulation of feeding must be understood. (jaoa.org)
  • Together, these results suggest that H 2 S in the RVLM and PVN does not have a major role in cardiovascular regulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Jankowski, M. Oxytocin revisited: its role in cardiovascular regulation. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Serotonergic regulation of renin and prolactin secretion. (nih.gov)
  • 1- Intrinsic ion channels and their contribution to regulation of hypothalamic neuronal activity in health and disease conditions. (gsu.edu)
  • Increasing evidence in humans and rodents shows that vitamin D intake is important for achieving optimal cardiovascular function. (bvsalud.org)
  • There is overwhelming evidence from epidemiological, intervention and genetic studies in humans and animals that indicate a strong dependence of the blood pressure on the salt intake, Salt-sensitive individuals have a greater rate of cardiovascular complications than salt-resistant individuals independently from classic cardiovascular risk factors.Prolonged dietary salt-loading promoted structural and function derangements of the target organs of hypertensive disease independent of its pressor action. (dissertationtopic.net)
  • A growing body of evidence suggests that salt intake reduction confers a risk reduction effect on cardiovascular disease end points.Proteomics is used to study the complexity of proteins, their roles, and biological functions. (dissertationtopic.net)
  • has found that there are many OXT recaptors in the raphe nuclei including NRM [9]. (scirp.org)
  • The nucleus accumbens is part of the ventral striatum nuclei. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Synapses in the nucleus accumbens use dopamine as their neurotransmitter. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This is thought to partly explain the addictive effect of those drugs, such as cocaine and amphetamine, that increase the level of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Inflammation has been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease. (springer.com)
  • Gainer, H. Gene regulation in the magnocellular hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Oxytocin (OXT), a nonapeptide posterior hormone of the pituitary, is mainly synthesized and secreted in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) and PVN. (scirp.org)
  • 2 Intracerebroventricular infusion of an aldosterone synthase (AS) inhibitor prevents increase in hypothalamic, but not in plasma aldosterone, and intracerebroventricular infusion of an AS inhibitor or a mineralocortoicod receptor (MR) blocker markedly attenuate the neuronal activation in the PVN. (ahajournals.org)
  • We investigated in the present study nontranscriptional mechanism on cardiovascular effects following activation of ERβ in the RVLM, and delineated the involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/serine/threonine kinase (Akt) signaling pathway in the effects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Coping with Dehydration: Sympathetic Activation and Regulation of Glutamatergic Transmission in the Hypothalamic PVN. (mtu.edu)
  • Adverse events, often denoted as "stressors," initiate a diverse physiological response from multiple sources, including activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • An organism is chronically stressed when there is long-term activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) caused by unpredictable or uncontrollable stimuli (stressors) in its environment. (wiley.com)
  • Therefore, small molecule ACE2 activators are promising compounds for ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis activation and treatment of cardiovascular disease. (ufl.edu)
  • Based on previous studies indicating the presence of ACE2 and Mas in the brain as well as a protective role for ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis during cardiovascular disease, we have developed the general hypothesis that activation of the brain ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis will have cerebroprotective action during ischemic stroke. (ufl.edu)
  • 12 Likewise, functional imaging has implicated the hypothalamic activation in acute migraine. (jaoa.org)
  • Baroreflex regulation of blood pressure is important for maintaining appropriate tissue perfusion. (biologists.org)
  • Although temperature affects heart rate ( f H ) reflex regulation in some reptiles and toads, no data are available on the influence of temperature-independent metabolic states on baroreflex. (biologists.org)
  • The neurotransmitter such as nitric oxide (NO) is important in cardiovascular regulation and it is now emerging as a major focus of investigation in thermoregulation. (edu.au)
  • 6. The production of nitric oxide (NO) and NO synthase were increased in the paraventricular nucleus and decreased in the posterior pituitary. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Central actions of nitric oxide in regulation of autonomic functions. (ac.ir)
  • 9. Umans JG, Levi R. Nitric oxide in the regulation of blood flow and arterial pressure. (ac.ir)
  • Several lines of evidence suggested that the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus might be an important locus for these central cardiovascular effects of NPFF. (physiology.org)
  • After intranasal application the preparation reaches thalamic nuclei in approximately 1.5-2 minutes. (medline.ru)