Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Dental Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the DENTITION.Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena: Physiology of the human and animal body, male or female, in the processes and characteristics of REPRODUCTION and the URINARY TRACT.Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena: Properties, and processes of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM or their parts.Circulatory and Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Functional processes and properties characteristic of the BLOOD; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.Integumentary System Physiological Phenomena: The properties and relationships and biological processes that characterize the nature and function of the SKIN and its appendages.Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology related to EXERCISE or ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE.Reproductive Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.Physiological Phenomena: The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.Elder Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of adults aged 65 years of age and older.Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena: Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Virus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Blood Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Nervous System Physiological Phenomena: Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cell Physiological Phenomena: Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Raynaud Disease: An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Hypericum: Genus of perennial plants in the family CLUSIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypericaceae). Herbal and homeopathic preparations are used for depression, neuralgias, and a variety of other conditions. Hypericum contains flavonoids; GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, TANNINS; volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), hypericin and hyperforin.IndiaHistory, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.ConnecticutWilliams Syndrome: A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Schools: Educational institutions.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.

Recent progress in angiotensin II type 2 receptor research in the cardiovascular system. (1/951)

Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays an important role in regulating cardiovascular hemodynamics and structure. Multiple lines of evidence have suggested the existence of Ang II receptor subtypes, and at least 2 distinct receptor subtypes have been defined on the basis of their differential pharmacological and biochemical properties and designated as type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors. To date, most of the known effects of Ang II in adult tissues are attributable to the AT1 receptor. Recent cloning of the AT2 receptor contributes to reveal its physiological functions, but many functions of the AT2 receptor are still an enigma. AT1 and AT2 receptors belong to the 7-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor family. However, accumulating evidence demonstrates that the function and signaling mechanisms of these receptor subtypes are quite different, and these receptors may exert opposite effects in terms of cell growth and blood pressure regulation. We will review the role of the AT2 receptor in the cardiovascular system and the molecular and cellular mechanisms of AT2 receptor action.  (+info)

Cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations in horses competing in cross-country events. (2/951)

The cardiovascular and metabolic response to two cross-country events (CC*: preliminary level and CC*** advanced level) were analysed in 8 male eventing horses (4 Anglo-Hunter and 4 Anglo-Arabian). This study focused on the establishment of the main metabolic pathways involved in the muscle energy resynthesis during the competitions. Heart rate (HR) was recorded throughout the CC events. Jugular venous blood samples were withdrawn before the warm-up period, immediately after the competitions and at 5 and 10 min in the recuperation period. The following haematological parameters were studied: red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cells (WBC), and number and percentages of lymphocytes (LYM) and granulocytes and monocytes (GRAN). One fraction of blood was centrifuged and, in plasma, lactate (LA), total plasma protein (TPP) and the rate of LA disappearance were determined. The competitions induced significant increases in RBC, Hb, PCV, MCV and TPP. Plasma LA response exceeded the anaerobic threshold of 4 mmol/l, reaching a maximum level of 13.3 mmol/l. HR ranged from 140 to more than 200 bpm, peaking at 230 bpm, revealing a limitation in the oxygen supply to the working muscles. It was concluded that muscle energy resynthesis during a CC event is provided both through oxidative processes and glycolysis with LA formation. Therefore, both stamina and power exercises are required for eventing horses.  (+info)

Development of a 12-min treadmill walk test at a self-selected pace for the evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness in adult men. (3/951)

The direct measurement of true maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake corresponding to anaerobic threshold (VO2AT) is not always practical, especially in middle age and older populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a simple test that could accurately estimate cardiorespiratory fitness using a submaximal treadmill walking protocol for middle age, older, sedentary individuals and patients with chronic disease. Subjects for this study were 42 men (44.9 +/- 15.7 years), which included 17 patients with coronary heart disease (57.0 +/- 9.6 years). VO2peak and VO2AT were measured using a treadmill protocol (VO2peak; 38.4 +/- 11.6 ml/kg/min, VO2AT; 22.9 +/- 7.4 ml/kg/min). This simple test assessed the total distance covered in 12 minutes on the treadmill at an intensity corresponding to either 1) 11 on the Borg scale of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE11), 2) 13 on the Borg scale of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE13), or 3) "Optimal" by subjective judgment. The correlation coefficients between VO2peak or VO2AT and total distance at the three intensities (RPE11; 950 +/- 100 m, RPE13; 1080 +/- 140 m Optimal; 1050 +/- 110 m) were statistically significant, ranging from 0.72 to 0.85. The test-retest reliability coefficient on 12 subjects was 0.98. The oxygen uptake (VO2) was measured during the three walk tests on 15 subjects. There were no significant changes in submaximal VO2 values from min 4 to min 12 (RPE11; 19.8 +/- 4.7 ml/kg/min, RPE13; 24.1 +/- 4.9 ml/kg/min, Optimal; 23.1 +/- 4.8 ml/kg/min) in any of the three tests. Similarly, the three submaximal VO2 values did not differ from the VO2AT value (21.2 +/- 8.3 ml/kg/min) obtained in the initial maximal test. These results suggest that the 12-min submaximal treadmill walk test (STWT) is a valid method for the assessment of VO2peak and VO2AT. Therefore, the STWT could be a useful performance test for evaluating cardiorespiratory fitness in middle age, older, sedentary individuals and patients with chronic disease.  (+info)

Effect of working hours on cardiovascular-autonomic nervous functions in engineers in an electronics manufacturing company. (4/951)

A field survey of 147 engineers (23-49 years) in an electronics manufacturing company was conducted to investigate the effect of working hours on cardiovascular-autonomic nervous functions (urinary catecholamines, heart rate variability and blood pressure). The subjects were divided into 3 groups by age: 23-29 (n = 49), 30-39 (n = 74) and 40-49 (n = 24) year groups. Subjects in each age group were further divided into shorter (SWH) and longer (LWH) working hour subgroups according to the median of weekly working hours. In the 30-39 year group, urinary noradrenaline in the afternoon for LWH was significantly lower than that for SWH and a similar tendency was found in the LF/HF ratio of heart rate variability at rest. Because these two autonomic nervous indices are related to sympathetic nervous activity, the findings suggested that sympathetic nervous activity for LWH was lower than that for SWH in the 30-39 year group. Furthermore, there were significant relationships both between long working hours and short sleeping hours, and between short sleeping hours and high complaint rates of "drowsiness and dullness" in the morning in this age group. Summarizing these results, it appeared that long working hours might lower sympathetic nervous activity due to chronic sleep deprivation.  (+info)

Effect of the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 on sympathetic cardiovascular regulation. (5/951)

1. The aim of the present study was to analyse the cardiovascular actions of the synthetic CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2, and specifically to determine its sites of action on sympathetic cardiovascular regulation. 2. Pithed rabbits in which the sympathetic outflow was continuously stimulated electrically or which received a pressor infusion of noradrenaline were used to study peripheral prejunctional and direct vascular effects, respectively. For studying effects on brain stem cardiovascular regulatory centres, drugs were administered into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris in conscious rabbits. Overall cardiovascular effects of the cannabinoid were studied in conscious rabbits with intravenous drug administration. 3. In pithed rabbits in which the sympathetic outflow was continuously electrically stimulated, intravenous injection of WIN55212-2 (5, 50 and 500 microg kg(-1)) markedly reduced blood pressure, the spillover of noradrenaline into plasma and the plasma noradrenaline concentration, and these effects were antagonized by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor-selective antagonist SR141716A. The hypotensive and the sympathoinhibitory effect of WIN55212-2 was shared by CP55940, another mixed CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist, but not by WIN55212-3, the enantiomer of WIN55212-2, which lacks affinity for cannabinoid binding sites. WIN55212-2 had no effect on vascular tone established by infusion of noradrenaline in pithed rabbits. 4. Intracisternal application of WIN55212-2 (0.1, 1 and 10 microg kg(-1)) in conscious rabbits increased blood pressure and the plasma noradrenaline concentration and elicited bradycardia; this latter effect was antagonized by atropine. 5. In conscious animals, intravenous injection of WIN55212-2 (5 and 50 microg kg(-1)) caused bradycardia, slight hypotension, no change in the plasma noradrenaline concentration, and an increase in renal sympathetic nerve firing. The highest dose of WIN55212-2 (500 microg kg(-1)) elicited hypotension and tachycardia, and sympathetic nerve activity and the plasma noradrenaline concentration declined. 6. The results obtained in pithed rabbits indicate that activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors leads to marked peripheral prejunctional inhibition of noradrenaline release from postganglionic sympathetic axons. Intracisternal application of WIN55212-2 uncovered two effects on brain stem cardiovascular centres: sympathoexcitation and activation of cardiac vagal fibres. The highest dose of systemically administered WIN55212-2 produced central sympathoinhibition; the primary site of this action is not known.  (+info)

Cardiopulmonary responses of middle-aged men without cardiopulmonary disease to steady-rate positive and negative work performed on a cycle ergometer. (6/951)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Understanding physiological responses to negative work allows therapists to be more knowledgeable when they prescribe this form of exercise. The physiological responses of 12 men without cardiopulmonary disease, aged 39 to 65 years (X=49.7, SD=9.3), to negative work (eccentric muscle contractions) and to positive work (concentric muscle contractions) were compared. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Subjects performed the 2 types of work on a motorized cycle ergometer at pedaling frequencies of 35, 55, and 75 rpm with a constant power output of 60 W. Steady-rate values of oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), minute ventilation (VE), tidal volume (VT), and breathing frequency (fb) were obtained during 6 test conditions (positive and negative work at each of the 3 pedaling frequencies). RESULTS: Values for all measures were greater during positive work than during negative work, except for fb. During positive work, values for all variables were greatest at 75 rpm, except for fb. During negative work, VO2 and HR were greater at 75 and 35 rpm than at 55 rpm, and VE and VT were greater at 75 rpm than at 55 rpm. Breathing frequency was not different among pedaling frequencies. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: The results confirmed that negative work performed on a cycle ergometer is associated with low metabolic cost in older men without cardiopulmonary disease. Although VE was determined primarily by changes in VT during negative work, a comparable disproportionate increase in fb was observed at the start of negative work. Such changes in breathing patterns have implications for the prescription of negative work for patients with lung disease.  (+info)

Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide induces release of nitric oxide and glutamate and c-fos expression in the nucleus tractus solitarii of rats. (7/951)

There is increasing recognition that communication pathways exist between the immune system and brain, which allows bidirectional regulation of immune and brain responses to infection. The endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been reported to elicit release of cytokines and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in peripheral organs. Whereas LPS given systemically causes endotoxic shock, little is known about its central nervous system action, particularly the induction of iNOS. Nitric oxide (NO) and glutamate in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) are important mediators of central cardiovascular regulation. We have previously demonstrated that intravenous injections of LPS increased the NO precursor L-arginine-induced depressor effect in the NTS. The present study investigated further the effects of LPS on the release of NO and glutamate in the NTS and the expression of c-fos, an immediate early response gene product, in neural substrates for central cardiovascular control. In vivo microdialysis coupled with chemiluminescence and electrochemical detection techniques were used to measure extracellular levels of NO and glutamate in the rat NTS. Immunohistochemistry was used for the examination of c-fos protein expression. We found that intravenous infusion of LPS (10 mg/kg) produced a biphasic depressor effect, with an early, sharp hypotension that partially recovered in 15 minutes and a secondary, more prolonged hypotension. In the NTS, a progressive increase of extracellular glutamate and NO levels occurred 3 and 4 hours after LPS was given, respectively. The effects of LPS on the induction of delayed hypotension and NO formation in the NTS were abolished by pretreatment with the iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine. Finally, c-fos protein expression in the NTS and related structures for cardiovascular regulation was observed after LPS challenge. Taken together, these data suggest that an endotoxin given systemically can elicit delayed increases of glutamate release and iNOS-dependent NO production in the NTS and activate the central neural pathway for modulating cardiovascular function.  (+info)

Variation in physical fitness between ethnic groups in nine year olds. (8/951)

BACKGROUND: There is little information on cardio-respiratory fitness of children, especially in ethnic minorities in Britain. In this study we assess the associations of social factors, ethnicity, parental health related factors, child's anthropometry, blood pressure and cholesterol measurements with cardio-respiratory fitness. METHODS: Power output against load at 85% of the maximum heart rate (PWC85%), was measured, using a cycle-ergometer test, in children aged 8-9 years in 22 randomly selected areas in England, 14 in Scotland and in 20 inner city areas in England. The subjects were 317 boys and 310 girls from the English sample, 152 boys and 140 girls from the Scottish sample and 242 boys and 261 girls from the inner city sample. RESULTS: Short stature (P < 0.001), fatness (P < 0.001), and Indian subcontinent origin (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.68 in boys and OR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.40 in girls) were associated with inability to finish the test. In those who finished the test PWC85% was greater in taller children and in those with lower skinfold values (P < 0.001, except height in boys P = 0.017). The PWC85% in those originating in the Indian continent was lower (-0.17 watt/kg, 95% CI :-0.32, -0.01 in boys and -0.29, 95% CI: -0.43, -0.14 in girls) than in white children. CONCLUSIONS: Shorter and obese children have poorer physical fitness than other children. Physical fitness is lower in children originating in the Indian subcontinent than other British children. This seems to be unrelated to socioeconomic disadvantage. Physical inactivity and lack of cycling skills may explain our findings.  (+info)

  • Standard functional assessment of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity on cardiovascular control relies on spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) series. (
  • A key role is played by the autonomic nervous system (ANS), whose modulation regulates cardiovascular functions during sleep onset and different sleep stages. (
  • Obesity is a major health care problem and is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity. (
  • Another reason is exposure to behavioural and physiological risk factors (Figure 1) which are responsible for 75% of CVDs.1 These risk factors have been prioritized according to their impact on mortality and morbidity, possibility of modification through primary prevention, and quantification by available easy standardized methods. (
  • Sfriso R, Zhang S, Bichsel CA, Steck O, Despont A, Guenat OT, Rieben R. 3D artificial round section micro-vessels to investigate endothelial cells under physiological flow conditions. (
  • An imbalance between ROS and antioxidants, termed oxidative stress, can contribute to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular remodeling. (
  • The regulation of this biological activity is the result of a balance between oxidants and the buffering action of antioxidants, such that an imbalance between ROS or RNS and antioxidants (called "oxidative stress"), wherein ROS or RNS is increased, contributes to cellular signaling that leads to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular remodeling. (
  • The organization and function of the central and peripheral nervous systems will be presented from a correlated anatomical, physiological, and pharmacological perspective by means of lectures and conferences, and by laboratory exercises that incorporate dissection of the brain. (
  • Higher levels of variability indicate that physiological processes are better controlled and functioning as they should, such as during stressful (both physical and challenging mental tasks) or emotional situations. (
  • This reflex involves a variety of cardiovascular and neurological processes, which can be summarized as follows: Prolonged upright posture results in some degree of pooling of blood in the lower extremities that can lead to diminished intracardiac volume. (
  • Medex Test exploits a well-known biological phenomenon: Due to different physiological and pathophysiological processes within the object (cells/tissues/internal organs), changes occur to the inter/extra cellular balances of ions, fluids, metabolic substances, neuropeptides and inflammatory mediators. (
  • 3-7 Studies have consistently demonstrated elevated blood pressure (BP), a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular adverse outcomes, in children 4 6 8 9 and adults 10 with OSA. (
  • Researchers analysed the association between noise exposure and major cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks and strokes, among 499 people (average age 56 years). (
  • Notably, these people also had a greater than three-fold risk of suffering a heart attack or a stroke and other major cardiovascular events, compared with people who had lower levels of noise exposure. (
  • The results showed that participants with the highest levels of chronic noise exposure, such as noise from highways and airports, had more than a three-fold risk of suffering a heart attack, a stroke or other major cardiovascular event, compared with people who had lower levels of noise exposure. (
  • Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • 11 Therefore, prevention of BP abnormalities and non-dipping is important to reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular adverse events. (
  • Consensus criteria and recommendations for eligibility and disqualification of athletes with HCM (and other cardiovascular abnormalities) have proved useful to the practising community. (
  • Angiotensin (Ang) II exerts its important physiological functions through 2 distinct receptor subtypes, type 1 (AT 1 ) and type 2 (AT 2 ) receptors. (
  • The goal of PhysGen, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded Program for Genomic Applications (PGA) study at the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW), is to link genes to physiological function to identify chromosomes that contain a gene or genes that code for proteins that are involved in the regulation of cardiovascular phenomena. (
  • If blood pressure is not being maintained within normal limits, it must be assumed that those physiological factors which are responsible for the regulation of blood pressure are dysfunctional. (
  • 2-9 Therefore, recent advances in studies of Ang II receptors could prove the existence of a variety of new players and targets in addition to the traditional "Ang II world" and provide a new insight into cardiovascular biology. (
  • However, long-term cardiovascular outcomes in children with OSA remain unexplored. (
  • This is the first longitudinal 10-year follow-up study to evaluate the effects of childhood OSA on long-term cardiovascular outcomes in adulthood. (
  • Q-PULS, a new quasi-physiological pulsatile extracorporeal model to simulate heart function. (
  • This paper therefore looks at the physiological evidence that spinal manipulation can impact visceral function. (
  • The corpus of literature is not large, and the greatest number of papers concerns cardiovascular function. (
  • In particular, the oldest group showed protein changes reflective of altered extracellular matrix turnover and declining immune function, in which changes corresponded to reported changes in cardiovascular tissue remodeling and immune disorders in the elderly. (
  • When astronauts and scientists work for extended periods in the manned stations that function in the weightless environment of space, the most common observable physical phenomenon in the space station inhabitants is a pronounced loss of muscle mass, reduced cardiovascular function, and reductions in bone density. (
  • The decline in cardiovascular function stems from the same reason. (
  • Chromosomal substitution strains afford the opportunity to discover regions of the rat genome that contain genes related to cardiovascular traits with the long-range goal of linking these genes to physiological function. (
  • The syndrome of RED-S refers to impaired physiological function including, but not limited to, metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, cardiovascular health caused by relative energy deficiency. (
  • Psychological consequences can either precede RED-S or be the result of RED-S. The clinical phenomenon is not a 'triad' of the three entities of energy availability, menstrual function and bone health, but rather a syndrome that affects many aspects of physiological function, health and athletic performance. (
  • Whilst models of programming of physiological and metabolic function are well-characterized, the underlying mechanisms involved remain unresolved . (
  • This review focuses on the clinical, physiological, and biochemical mechanisms involved in fluid overload of patients with CKD undergoing PD. (
  • Technical and experimental variations in published gastric bypass rat models complicate the comparison and identification of potential physiological mechanisms involved in gastric bypass. (
  • The relationships among these risk factors may be attributable to a small number of physiological phenomena, perhaps even a single phenomenon. (
  • To capture cardiovascular risk, the researchers examined the participants' medical records following the initial imaging studies. (
  • The researchers caution that more research is needed to determine whether reduction in noise exposure could meaningfully lower cardiovascular risk and reduce the number of cardiovascular events on a population-wide scale. (
  • However, "Patients and their physicians should consider chronic noise exposure when assessing cardiovascular risk and may wish to take steps to minimise or mitigate such chronic exposure," Radfar said. (
  • To assess cardiovascular risk the team looked at data from the participants' medical records, while participants' home addresses and noise level estimates from the Department of Transportation's Aviation and Highway Noise Map were used to estimate their exposure to noise. (
  • The platform is additionally useful in conjunction with a physiological monitor to rapidly shake the subject when an adverse event occurs to wake the subject and terminate the adverse event. (
  • 5. The platform assembly of claim 4, wherein said physiological monitor is operable for monitoring the subject to detect an adverse event and the controlled movement of the movable part effects on the platform a shaking motion for waking the subject in response to detection of the adverse event. (
  • Although the period within which deconditioning will occur varies from athlete to athlete, a measurable loss of muscular and cardiovascular fitness will be observed in most athletes after a period of inactivity of 14 days or longer. (