Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Physiological processes and properties of the DENTITION.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.
Physiology of the human and animal body, male or female, in the processes and characteristics of REPRODUCTION and the URINARY TRACT.
Properties, and processes of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM or their parts.
Functional processes and properties characteristic of the BLOOD; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
The properties and relationships and biological processes that characterize the nature and function of the SKIN and its appendages.
Nutritional physiology related to EXERCISE or ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE.
Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.
The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
Nutritional physiology of adults aged 65 years of age and older.
Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.
Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.

Recent progress in angiotensin II type 2 receptor research in the cardiovascular system. (1/951)

Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays an important role in regulating cardiovascular hemodynamics and structure. Multiple lines of evidence have suggested the existence of Ang II receptor subtypes, and at least 2 distinct receptor subtypes have been defined on the basis of their differential pharmacological and biochemical properties and designated as type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors. To date, most of the known effects of Ang II in adult tissues are attributable to the AT1 receptor. Recent cloning of the AT2 receptor contributes to reveal its physiological functions, but many functions of the AT2 receptor are still an enigma. AT1 and AT2 receptors belong to the 7-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor family. However, accumulating evidence demonstrates that the function and signaling mechanisms of these receptor subtypes are quite different, and these receptors may exert opposite effects in terms of cell growth and blood pressure regulation. We will review the role of the AT2 receptor in the cardiovascular system and the molecular and cellular mechanisms of AT2 receptor action.  (+info)

Cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations in horses competing in cross-country events. (2/951)

The cardiovascular and metabolic response to two cross-country events (CC*: preliminary level and CC*** advanced level) were analysed in 8 male eventing horses (4 Anglo-Hunter and 4 Anglo-Arabian). This study focused on the establishment of the main metabolic pathways involved in the muscle energy resynthesis during the competitions. Heart rate (HR) was recorded throughout the CC events. Jugular venous blood samples were withdrawn before the warm-up period, immediately after the competitions and at 5 and 10 min in the recuperation period. The following haematological parameters were studied: red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cells (WBC), and number and percentages of lymphocytes (LYM) and granulocytes and monocytes (GRAN). One fraction of blood was centrifuged and, in plasma, lactate (LA), total plasma protein (TPP) and the rate of LA disappearance were determined. The competitions induced significant increases in RBC, Hb, PCV, MCV and TPP. Plasma LA response exceeded the anaerobic threshold of 4 mmol/l, reaching a maximum level of 13.3 mmol/l. HR ranged from 140 to more than 200 bpm, peaking at 230 bpm, revealing a limitation in the oxygen supply to the working muscles. It was concluded that muscle energy resynthesis during a CC event is provided both through oxidative processes and glycolysis with LA formation. Therefore, both stamina and power exercises are required for eventing horses.  (+info)

Development of a 12-min treadmill walk test at a self-selected pace for the evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness in adult men. (3/951)

The direct measurement of true maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake corresponding to anaerobic threshold (VO2AT) is not always practical, especially in middle age and older populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a simple test that could accurately estimate cardiorespiratory fitness using a submaximal treadmill walking protocol for middle age, older, sedentary individuals and patients with chronic disease. Subjects for this study were 42 men (44.9 +/- 15.7 years), which included 17 patients with coronary heart disease (57.0 +/- 9.6 years). VO2peak and VO2AT were measured using a treadmill protocol (VO2peak; 38.4 +/- 11.6 ml/kg/min, VO2AT; 22.9 +/- 7.4 ml/kg/min). This simple test assessed the total distance covered in 12 minutes on the treadmill at an intensity corresponding to either 1) 11 on the Borg scale of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE11), 2) 13 on the Borg scale of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE13), or 3) "Optimal" by subjective judgment. The correlation coefficients between VO2peak or VO2AT and total distance at the three intensities (RPE11; 950 +/- 100 m, RPE13; 1080 +/- 140 m Optimal; 1050 +/- 110 m) were statistically significant, ranging from 0.72 to 0.85. The test-retest reliability coefficient on 12 subjects was 0.98. The oxygen uptake (VO2) was measured during the three walk tests on 15 subjects. There were no significant changes in submaximal VO2 values from min 4 to min 12 (RPE11; 19.8 +/- 4.7 ml/kg/min, RPE13; 24.1 +/- 4.9 ml/kg/min, Optimal; 23.1 +/- 4.8 ml/kg/min) in any of the three tests. Similarly, the three submaximal VO2 values did not differ from the VO2AT value (21.2 +/- 8.3 ml/kg/min) obtained in the initial maximal test. These results suggest that the 12-min submaximal treadmill walk test (STWT) is a valid method for the assessment of VO2peak and VO2AT. Therefore, the STWT could be a useful performance test for evaluating cardiorespiratory fitness in middle age, older, sedentary individuals and patients with chronic disease.  (+info)

Effect of working hours on cardiovascular-autonomic nervous functions in engineers in an electronics manufacturing company. (4/951)

A field survey of 147 engineers (23-49 years) in an electronics manufacturing company was conducted to investigate the effect of working hours on cardiovascular-autonomic nervous functions (urinary catecholamines, heart rate variability and blood pressure). The subjects were divided into 3 groups by age: 23-29 (n = 49), 30-39 (n = 74) and 40-49 (n = 24) year groups. Subjects in each age group were further divided into shorter (SWH) and longer (LWH) working hour subgroups according to the median of weekly working hours. In the 30-39 year group, urinary noradrenaline in the afternoon for LWH was significantly lower than that for SWH and a similar tendency was found in the LF/HF ratio of heart rate variability at rest. Because these two autonomic nervous indices are related to sympathetic nervous activity, the findings suggested that sympathetic nervous activity for LWH was lower than that for SWH in the 30-39 year group. Furthermore, there were significant relationships both between long working hours and short sleeping hours, and between short sleeping hours and high complaint rates of "drowsiness and dullness" in the morning in this age group. Summarizing these results, it appeared that long working hours might lower sympathetic nervous activity due to chronic sleep deprivation.  (+info)

Effect of the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 on sympathetic cardiovascular regulation. (5/951)

1. The aim of the present study was to analyse the cardiovascular actions of the synthetic CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2, and specifically to determine its sites of action on sympathetic cardiovascular regulation. 2. Pithed rabbits in which the sympathetic outflow was continuously stimulated electrically or which received a pressor infusion of noradrenaline were used to study peripheral prejunctional and direct vascular effects, respectively. For studying effects on brain stem cardiovascular regulatory centres, drugs were administered into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris in conscious rabbits. Overall cardiovascular effects of the cannabinoid were studied in conscious rabbits with intravenous drug administration. 3. In pithed rabbits in which the sympathetic outflow was continuously electrically stimulated, intravenous injection of WIN55212-2 (5, 50 and 500 microg kg(-1)) markedly reduced blood pressure, the spillover of noradrenaline into plasma and the plasma noradrenaline concentration, and these effects were antagonized by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor-selective antagonist SR141716A. The hypotensive and the sympathoinhibitory effect of WIN55212-2 was shared by CP55940, another mixed CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist, but not by WIN55212-3, the enantiomer of WIN55212-2, which lacks affinity for cannabinoid binding sites. WIN55212-2 had no effect on vascular tone established by infusion of noradrenaline in pithed rabbits. 4. Intracisternal application of WIN55212-2 (0.1, 1 and 10 microg kg(-1)) in conscious rabbits increased blood pressure and the plasma noradrenaline concentration and elicited bradycardia; this latter effect was antagonized by atropine. 5. In conscious animals, intravenous injection of WIN55212-2 (5 and 50 microg kg(-1)) caused bradycardia, slight hypotension, no change in the plasma noradrenaline concentration, and an increase in renal sympathetic nerve firing. The highest dose of WIN55212-2 (500 microg kg(-1)) elicited hypotension and tachycardia, and sympathetic nerve activity and the plasma noradrenaline concentration declined. 6. The results obtained in pithed rabbits indicate that activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors leads to marked peripheral prejunctional inhibition of noradrenaline release from postganglionic sympathetic axons. Intracisternal application of WIN55212-2 uncovered two effects on brain stem cardiovascular centres: sympathoexcitation and activation of cardiac vagal fibres. The highest dose of systemically administered WIN55212-2 produced central sympathoinhibition; the primary site of this action is not known.  (+info)

Cardiopulmonary responses of middle-aged men without cardiopulmonary disease to steady-rate positive and negative work performed on a cycle ergometer. (6/951)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Understanding physiological responses to negative work allows therapists to be more knowledgeable when they prescribe this form of exercise. The physiological responses of 12 men without cardiopulmonary disease, aged 39 to 65 years (X=49.7, SD=9.3), to negative work (eccentric muscle contractions) and to positive work (concentric muscle contractions) were compared. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Subjects performed the 2 types of work on a motorized cycle ergometer at pedaling frequencies of 35, 55, and 75 rpm with a constant power output of 60 W. Steady-rate values of oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), minute ventilation (VE), tidal volume (VT), and breathing frequency (fb) were obtained during 6 test conditions (positive and negative work at each of the 3 pedaling frequencies). RESULTS: Values for all measures were greater during positive work than during negative work, except for fb. During positive work, values for all variables were greatest at 75 rpm, except for fb. During negative work, VO2 and HR were greater at 75 and 35 rpm than at 55 rpm, and VE and VT were greater at 75 rpm than at 55 rpm. Breathing frequency was not different among pedaling frequencies. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: The results confirmed that negative work performed on a cycle ergometer is associated with low metabolic cost in older men without cardiopulmonary disease. Although VE was determined primarily by changes in VT during negative work, a comparable disproportionate increase in fb was observed at the start of negative work. Such changes in breathing patterns have implications for the prescription of negative work for patients with lung disease.  (+info)

Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide induces release of nitric oxide and glutamate and c-fos expression in the nucleus tractus solitarii of rats. (7/951)

There is increasing recognition that communication pathways exist between the immune system and brain, which allows bidirectional regulation of immune and brain responses to infection. The endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been reported to elicit release of cytokines and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in peripheral organs. Whereas LPS given systemically causes endotoxic shock, little is known about its central nervous system action, particularly the induction of iNOS. Nitric oxide (NO) and glutamate in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) are important mediators of central cardiovascular regulation. We have previously demonstrated that intravenous injections of LPS increased the NO precursor L-arginine-induced depressor effect in the NTS. The present study investigated further the effects of LPS on the release of NO and glutamate in the NTS and the expression of c-fos, an immediate early response gene product, in neural substrates for central cardiovascular control. In vivo microdialysis coupled with chemiluminescence and electrochemical detection techniques were used to measure extracellular levels of NO and glutamate in the rat NTS. Immunohistochemistry was used for the examination of c-fos protein expression. We found that intravenous infusion of LPS (10 mg/kg) produced a biphasic depressor effect, with an early, sharp hypotension that partially recovered in 15 minutes and a secondary, more prolonged hypotension. In the NTS, a progressive increase of extracellular glutamate and NO levels occurred 3 and 4 hours after LPS was given, respectively. The effects of LPS on the induction of delayed hypotension and NO formation in the NTS were abolished by pretreatment with the iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine. Finally, c-fos protein expression in the NTS and related structures for cardiovascular regulation was observed after LPS challenge. Taken together, these data suggest that an endotoxin given systemically can elicit delayed increases of glutamate release and iNOS-dependent NO production in the NTS and activate the central neural pathway for modulating cardiovascular function.  (+info)

Variation in physical fitness between ethnic groups in nine year olds. (8/951)

BACKGROUND: There is little information on cardio-respiratory fitness of children, especially in ethnic minorities in Britain. In this study we assess the associations of social factors, ethnicity, parental health related factors, child's anthropometry, blood pressure and cholesterol measurements with cardio-respiratory fitness. METHODS: Power output against load at 85% of the maximum heart rate (PWC85%), was measured, using a cycle-ergometer test, in children aged 8-9 years in 22 randomly selected areas in England, 14 in Scotland and in 20 inner city areas in England. The subjects were 317 boys and 310 girls from the English sample, 152 boys and 140 girls from the Scottish sample and 242 boys and 261 girls from the inner city sample. RESULTS: Short stature (P < 0.001), fatness (P < 0.001), and Indian subcontinent origin (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.68 in boys and OR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.40 in girls) were associated with inability to finish the test. In those who finished the test PWC85% was greater in taller children and in those with lower skinfold values (P < 0.001, except height in boys P = 0.017). The PWC85% in those originating in the Indian continent was lower (-0.17 watt/kg, 95% CI :-0.32, -0.01 in boys and -0.29, 95% CI: -0.43, -0.14 in girls) than in white children. CONCLUSIONS: Shorter and obese children have poorer physical fitness than other children. Physical fitness is lower in children originating in the Indian subcontinent than other British children. This seems to be unrelated to socioeconomic disadvantage. Physical inactivity and lack of cycling skills may explain our findings.  (+info)

Cardiovascular physiological phenomena refer to the various functions and processes that occur within the cardiovascular system, which includes the heart and blood vessels. These phenomena are responsible for the transport of oxygen, nutrients, and other essential molecules to tissues throughout the body, as well as the removal of waste products and carbon dioxide.

Some examples of cardiovascular physiological phenomena include:

1. Heart rate and rhythm: The heart's ability to contract regularly and coordinate its contractions with the body's needs for oxygen and nutrients.
2. Blood pressure: The force exerted by blood on the walls of blood vessels, which is determined by the amount of blood pumped by the heart and the resistance of the blood vessels.
3. Cardiac output: The volume of blood that the heart pumps in one minute, calculated as the product of stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped per beat) and heart rate.
4. Blood flow: The movement of blood through the circulatory system, which is influenced by factors such as blood pressure, vessel diameter, and blood viscosity.
5. Vasoconstriction and vasodilation: The narrowing or widening of blood vessels in response to various stimuli, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and changes in temperature or oxygen levels.
6. Autoregulation: The ability of blood vessels to maintain a constant blood flow to tissues despite changes in perfusion pressure.
7. Blood clotting: The process by which the body forms a clot to stop bleeding after an injury, which involves the activation of platelets and the coagulation cascade.
8. Endothelial function: The ability of the endothelium (the lining of blood vessels) to regulate vascular tone, inflammation, and thrombosis.
9. Myocardial contractility: The strength of heart muscle contractions, which is influenced by factors such as calcium levels, neurotransmitters, and hormones.
10. Electrophysiology: The study of the electrical properties of the heart, including the conduction system that allows for the coordinated contraction of heart muscle.

Dental physiological phenomena refer to the various natural and normal functions, processes, and responses that occur in the oral cavity, particularly in the teeth and their supporting structures. These phenomena are essential for maintaining good oral health and overall well-being. Some of the key dental physiological phenomena include:

1. Tooth formation (odontogenesis): The process by which teeth develop from embryonic cells into fully formed adult teeth, including the growth and mineralization of tooth enamel, dentin, and cementum.
2. Eruption: The natural movement of a tooth from its developmental position within the jawbone to its final functional position in the oral cavity, allowing it to come into contact with the opposing tooth for biting and chewing.
3. Tooth mobility: The normal slight movement or displacement of teeth within their sockets due to the action of masticatory forces and the elasticity of the periodontal ligament that connects the tooth root to the alveolar bone.
4. Salivary flow: The continuous production and secretion of saliva by the major and minor salivary glands, which helps maintain a moist oral environment, neutralize acids, and aid in food digestion, speech, and swallowing.
5. pH balance: The regulation of acidity and alkalinity within the oral cavity, primarily through the buffering capacity of saliva and the action of dental plaque bacteria that metabolize sugars and produce acids as a byproduct.
6. Tooth sensitivity: The normal response of teeth to various stimuli such as temperature changes, touch, or pressure, which is mediated by the activation of nerve fibers within the dentin layer of the tooth.
7. Oral mucosal immune response: The natural defense mechanisms of the oral mucosa, including the production of antimicrobial proteins and peptides, the recruitment of immune cells, and the formation of a physical barrier against pathogens.
8. Tooth wear and attrition: The normal gradual loss of tooth structure due to natural processes such as chewing, grinding, and erosion by acidic substances, which can be influenced by factors such as diet, occlusion, and bruxism.
9. Tooth development and eruption: The growth and emergence of teeth from the dental follicle through the alveolar bone and gingival tissues, which is regulated by a complex interplay of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors.

The digestive system is a series of organs and glands that work together to break down food into nutrients, which the body can absorb and use for energy, growth, and cell repair. The process begins in the mouth, where food is chewed and mixed with saliva, which contains enzymes that begin breaking down carbohydrates.

The oral physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes that occur in the mouth during eating and digestion. These include:

1. Ingestion: The process of taking food into the mouth.
2. Mechanical digestion: The physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces by chewing, which increases the surface area for enzymes to act on.
3. Chemical digestion: The chemical breakdown of food molecules into simpler substances that can be absorbed and utilized by the body. In the mouth, this is initiated by salivary amylase, an enzyme found in saliva that breaks down starches into simple sugars.
4. Taste perception: The ability to detect different flavors through specialized taste buds located on the tongue and other areas of the oral cavity.
5. Olfaction: The sense of smell, which contributes to the overall flavor experience by interacting with taste perception in the brain.
6. Salivation: The production of saliva, which helps moisten food, making it easier to swallow, and contains enzymes that begin the digestion process.
7. Protective mechanisms: The mouth has several defense mechanisms to protect against harmful bacteria and other pathogens, such as the flow of saliva, which helps wash away food particles, and the presence of antibacterial compounds in saliva.

Reproductive physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes related to human reproduction, which include:

1. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis: The regulation of reproductive hormones through a feedback mechanism between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males).
2. Oogenesis/Spermatogenesis: The process of producing mature ova (eggs) or spermatozoa (sperm) capable of fertilization.
3. Menstrual Cycle: A series of events that occur in the female reproductive system over approximately 28 days, including follicular development, ovulation, and endometrial changes.
4. Pregnancy and Parturition: The process of carrying a developing fetus to term and giving birth.
5. Lactation: The production and secretion of milk by the mammary glands for nourishment of the newborn.

Urinary physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes related to the urinary system, which include:

1. Renal Filtration: The process of filtering blood in the kidneys to form urine.
2. Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion: The active transport of solutes and water between the tubular lumen and peritubular capillaries, resulting in the formation of urine with a different composition than plasma.
3. Urine Concentration and Dilution: The ability to regulate the concentration of urine by adjusting the amount of water reabsorbed or excreted.
4. Micturition: The process of storing and intermittently releasing urine from the bladder through a coordinated contraction of the detrusor muscle and relaxation of the urethral sphincter.

Musculoskeletal physiological phenomena refer to the mechanical, physical, and biochemical processes and functions that occur within the musculoskeletal system. This system includes the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilages, and other tissues that provide support, shape, and movement to the body. Examples of musculoskeletal physiological phenomena include muscle contraction and relaxation, bone growth and remodeling, joint range of motion, and the maintenance and repair of connective tissues.

Neural physiological phenomena, on the other hand, refer to the electrical and chemical processes and functions that occur within the nervous system. This system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and ganglia that are responsible for processing information, controlling body movements, and maintaining homeostasis. Examples of neural physiological phenomena include action potential generation and propagation, neurotransmitter release and reception, sensory perception, and cognitive processes such as learning and memory.

Musculoskeletal and neural physiological phenomena are closely interrelated, as the nervous system controls the musculoskeletal system through motor neurons that innervate muscles, and sensory neurons that provide feedback to the brain about body position, movement, and pain. Understanding these physiological phenomena is essential for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions that affect the musculoskeletal and nervous systems.

Circulatory and respiratory physiological phenomena refer to the functions, processes, and mechanisms that occur in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to maintain homeostasis and support life.

The circulatory system, which includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood, is responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body. The respiratory system, which consists of the nose, throat, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm, enables the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body and the environment.

Physiological phenomena in the circulatory system include heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, blood flow, and vascular resistance. These phenomena are regulated by various factors such as the autonomic nervous system, hormones, and metabolic demands.

Physiological phenomena in the respiratory system include ventilation, gas exchange, lung compliance, airway resistance, and respiratory muscle function. These phenomena are influenced by factors such as lung volume, airway diameter, surface area, and diffusion capacity.

Understanding circulatory and respiratory physiological phenomena is essential for diagnosing and managing various medical conditions, including cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, and metabolic disorders. It also provides a foundation for developing interventions to improve health outcomes and prevent disease.

The integumentary system is the largest organ system in the human body, responsible for providing a protective barrier against the external environment. The physiological phenomena associated with the integumentary system encompass a range of functions and processes that occur within the skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands. These phenomena include:

1. Barrier Function: The skin forms a physical barrier that protects the body from external threats such as pathogens, chemicals, and radiation. It also helps prevent water loss and regulates electrolyte balance.
2. Temperature Regulation: The integumentary system plays a crucial role in maintaining core body temperature through vasodilation and vasoconstriction of blood vessels in the skin, as well as through sweat production by eccrine glands.
3. Sensory Perception: The skin contains various sensory receptors that detect touch, pressure, pain, heat, and cold. These receptors transmit information to the central nervous system for processing and response.
4. Vitamin D Synthesis: The skin is capable of synthesizing vitamin D when exposed to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation from sunlight. This process involves the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin into previtamin D3, which then undergoes further transformation into vitamin D3.
5. Excretion: Sweat glands within the integumentary system help eliminate waste products and excess heat through the production and secretion of sweat. The two types of sweat glands are eccrine glands, which produce a watery, odorless sweat, and apocrine glands, which produce a milky, odorous sweat primarily in response to emotional stimuli.
6. Immunological Function: The skin serves as an essential component of the immune system by providing a physical barrier against pathogens and housing various immune cells such as Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, and T-cells. These cells help recognize and respond to potential threats, contributing to the body's overall defense mechanisms.
7. Wound Healing: The integumentary system has the remarkable ability to repair itself following injury through a complex process involving inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. This process involves the coordinated efforts of various cell types, including keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells, as well as the production and deposition of extracellular matrix components such as collagen and elastin.
8. Growth and Development: The integumentary system plays a crucial role in growth and development by producing hormones such as vitamin D and melatonin, which contribute to various physiological processes throughout the body. Additionally, the skin serves as an essential sensory organ, providing information about temperature, touch, pain, and pressure through specialized nerve endings called mechanoreceptors.
9. Social Communication: The integumentary system can convey important social signals through changes in coloration, texture, and odor. For example, blushing or sweating may indicate embarrassment or anxiety, while certain skin conditions such as psoriasis or eczema may signal underlying health issues. Additionally, the release of pheromones through sweat glands can influence social behavior and attraction.
10. Aesthetic Appeal: The integumentary system contributes significantly to an individual's appearance and self-esteem. Healthy skin, hair, and nails are often associated with youthfulness, attractiveness, and vitality, while skin conditions such as acne, wrinkles, or discoloration can negatively impact one's self-image and confidence. As a result, maintaining the health and appearance of the integumentary system is an essential aspect of overall well-being and quality of life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It seems to be a broad concept that combines elements from sports nutrition, physiology, and potentially some biochemical phenomena.

1. Sports Nutrition: This involves the study of how diet can impact physical performance during sporting activities. It includes understanding the role of macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) in athletic performance and recovery.

2. Physiological Phenomena: This refers to the functions and activities of living organisms and their parts, including all physical and chemical processes. In the context of sports, this could include how the body responds to exercise, such as increased heart rate, respiratory rate, and metabolism.

If you're looking for a definition that encompasses these areas, it might be something like: "The study of how nutritional intake and physiological responses interact during sporting activities, including the impact on performance, recovery, and overall health." However, this is not a standard medical definition. If you could provide more context or clarify what specific aspects you're interested in, I might be able to give a more precise answer.

Reproductive physiological phenomena refer to the various functional processes and changes that occur in the reproductive system, enabling the production, development, and reproduction of offspring in living organisms. These phenomena encompass a wide range of events, including:

1. Hormonal regulation: The release and circulation of hormones that control and coordinate reproductive functions, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and inhibin.
2. Ovarian and testicular function: The development and maturation of ova (eggs) in females and sperm in males, including folliculogenesis, ovulation, spermatogenesis, and the maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics.
3. Menstrual cycle: The series of events that occur in the female reproductive system over a 28-day period, consisting of the follicular phase, ovulation, and luteal phase, resulting in the shedding of the uterine lining if fertilization does not occur.
4. Fertilization: The process by which a sperm penetrates and fuses with an egg to form a zygote, initiating embryonic development.
5. Implantation: The attachment and embedding of the developing blastocyst (early-stage embryo) into the uterine lining, leading to pregnancy.
6. Pregnancy: The physiological state of carrying a developing offspring within the female reproductive system, characterized by hormonal changes, growth and development of the fetus, and preparation for childbirth.
7. Lactation: The production and secretion of milk from the mammary glands to provide nutrition for newborn offspring.
8. Menopause: The permanent cessation of menstrual cycles and reproductive function in females, typically occurring in the fourth or fifth decade of life, characterized by a decline in hormone production and various physical and emotional symptoms.

These reproductive physiological phenomena are complex and highly regulated processes that ensure the continuation of species and the maintenance of genetic diversity.

Physiological phenomena refer to the functional and mechanical activities that occur within a living organism or in any of its parts. These phenomena are associated with the normal functioning of the body and its organs, including biological processes such as digestion, respiration, circulation, excretion, metabolism, and nerve impulse transmission. They can be studied at different levels, from molecular and cellular to organ system and whole-body levels, and are essential for maintaining homeostasis and promoting the survival and health of the organism.

I cannot provide a medical definition for the term "Elder Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" as it is not a widely recognized or established term in the field of medicine or nutrition. It seems to be a very specific and narrow term that may refer to certain age-related changes in nutritional status and physiological functions among older adults. However, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or geriatric specialist for a more accurate and detailed explanation based on the context and specific phenomena being referred to.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. However, I can provide information about the physiology of the urinary tract, which may be what you are looking for.

The urinary tract is a system responsible for producing, storing, and eliminating urine from the body. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. The physiological phenomena associated with the urinary tract include:

1. Glomerular filtration: In the kidneys, blood is filtered through structures called glomeruli, which remove waste products and excess fluids from the bloodstream to form urine.
2. Tubular reabsorption: As urine moves through the tubules of the nephron in the kidney, essential substances like water, glucose, amino acids, and electrolytes are actively reabsorbed back into the bloodstream.
3. Hormonal regulation: The urinary system plays a role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance through hormonal mechanisms, such as the release of erythropoietin (regulates red blood cell production), renin (activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to regulate blood pressure and fluid balance), and calcitriol (the active form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).
4. Urine storage: The bladder serves as a reservoir for urine, expanding as it fills and contracting during urination.
5. Micturition (urination): Once the bladder reaches a certain volume or pressure, nerve signals are sent to the brain, leading to the conscious decision to urinate. The sphincters of the urethra relax, allowing urine to flow out of the body through the urethral opening.

If you could provide more context about what specific information you're looking for, I would be happy to help further!

Musculoskeletal physiological phenomena refer to the various functions, processes, and responses that occur in the musculoskeletal system. This system includes the muscles, bones, joints, cartilages, tendons, ligaments, and other connective tissues that work together to support the body's structure, enable movement, and protect vital organs.

Musculoskeletal physiological phenomena can be categorized into several areas:

1. Muscle contraction and relaxation: This involves the conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy through the sliding of actin and myosin filaments in muscle fibers, leading to muscle shortening or lengthening.
2. Bone homeostasis: This includes the maintenance of bone mass, density, and strength through a balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts.
3. Joint movement and stability: The movement of joints is enabled by the interaction between muscles, tendons, ligaments, and articular cartilage, while stability is maintained through the passive tension provided by ligaments and the active contraction of muscles.
4. Connective tissue repair and regeneration: This involves the response of tissues such as tendons, ligaments, and muscles to injury or damage, including inflammation, cell proliferation, and matrix remodeling.
5. Neuromuscular control: The coordination of muscle activity through the integration of sensory information from proprioceptors (e.g., muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs) and motor commands from the central nervous system.
6. Skeletal development and growth: This includes the processes of bone formation, mineralization, and modeling during fetal development and childhood, as well as the maintenance of bone mass and strength throughout adulthood.
7. Aging and degeneration: The progressive decline in musculoskeletal function and structure with age, including sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass), osteoporosis (brittle bones), and joint degeneration (osteoarthritis).

Understanding these physiological phenomena is essential for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders and injuries.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Virus Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term or concept. It seems to be a combination of two concepts: "virus" and "physiological phenomena."

1. A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates inside the living cells of an organism. Viruses can cause many different types of illnesses, from the common cold to more serious diseases like HIV/AIDS or hepatitis.

2. Physiological phenomena refer to the functions and activities of living organisms and their parts, including cells, tissues, and organs.

If you're looking for information about how viruses affect physiological processes in the body, I would be happy to help provide some general information on that topic! However, it would be best to consult a specific medical text or expert for more detailed or specialized knowledge.

The digestive system is a complex network of organs and glands that work together to break down food into nutrients, which are then absorbed and utilized by the body for energy, growth, and cell repair. The physiological phenomena associated with the digestive system include:

1. Ingestion: This is the process of taking in food through the mouth.
2. Mechanical digestion: This involves the physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces through processes such as chewing, churning, and segmentation.
3. Chemical digestion: This involves the chemical breakdown of food molecules into simpler forms that can be absorbed by the body. This is achieved through the action of enzymes produced by the mouth, stomach, pancreas, and small intestine.
4. Motility: This refers to the movement of food through the digestive tract, which is achieved through a series of coordinated muscle contractions called peristalsis.
5. Secretion: This involves the production and release of various digestive juices and enzymes by glands such as the salivary glands, gastric glands, pancreas, and liver.
6. Absorption: This is the process of absorbing nutrients from the digested food into the bloodstream through the walls of the small intestine.
7. Defecation: This is the final process of eliminating undigested food and waste products from the body through the rectum and anus.

Overall, the coordinated functioning of these physiological phenomena ensures the proper digestion and absorption of nutrients, maintaining the health and well-being of the individual.

"Blood physiological phenomena" is a broad term that refers to various functions, processes, and characteristics related to the blood in the body. Here are some definitions of specific blood-related physiological phenomena:

1. Hematopoiesis: The process of producing blood cells in the bone marrow. This includes the production of red blood cells (erythropoiesis), white blood cells (leukopoiesis), and platelets (thrombopoiesis).
2. Hemostasis: The body's response to stop bleeding or prevent excessive blood loss after injury. It involves a complex interplay between blood vessels, platelets, and clotting factors that work together to form a clot.
3. Osmoregulation: The regulation of water and electrolyte balance in the blood. This is achieved through various mechanisms such as thirst, urine concentration, and hormonal control.
4. Acid-base balance: The maintenance of a stable pH level in the blood. This involves the balance between acidic and basic components in the blood, which can be affected by factors such as respiration, metabolism, and kidney function.
5. Hemoglobin function: The ability of hemoglobin molecules in red blood cells to bind and transport oxygen from the lungs to tissues throughout the body.
6. Blood viscosity: The thickness or flowability of blood, which can affect its ability to circulate through the body. Factors that can influence blood viscosity include hematocrit (the percentage of red blood cells in the blood), plasma proteins, and temperature.
7. Immunological function: The role of white blood cells and other components of the immune system in protecting the body against infection and disease. This includes the production of antibodies, phagocytosis (the engulfing and destruction of foreign particles), and inflammation.

I cannot provide a specific medical definition for the term "Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" as it is quite broad and can encompass various aspects related to nutrition and physiological changes that occur during adolescence. However, I can provide some insight into the nutritional and physiological changes that typically occur during adolescence.

Adolescence is a critical period of growth and development, and proper nutrition is essential to support these changes. During this time, adolescents experience significant increases in height, weight, and muscle mass, as well as sexual maturation and reproductive development. As a result, their nutrient needs are higher than those of children or adults.

Some key nutritional physiological phenomena that occur during adolescence include:

1. Increased energy needs: Adolescents require more calories to support their rapid growth and development. The estimated daily calorie needs for boys aged 14-18 years are 2,500-3,000 calories, while for girls aged 14-18 years, the estimated daily calorie needs are 2,200-2,400 calories.
2. Increased protein needs: Protein is essential for building and repairing tissues, including muscle mass. Adolescents require more protein to support their growth and development, with an estimated daily need of 46 grams for girls aged 14-18 years and 52 grams for boys aged 14-18 years.
3. Increased calcium needs: Calcium is essential for building and maintaining strong bones and teeth. Adolescents undergo significant bone growth during this time, making it crucial to meet their increased calcium needs. The recommended daily intake of calcium for adolescents is 1,300 milligrams.
4. Increased iron needs: Iron is essential for the production of red blood cells and the transport of oxygen throughout the body. Adolescent girls, in particular, have increased iron needs due to menstruation. The recommended daily intake of iron for adolescents is 8 mg for boys aged 14-18 years and 15 mg for girls aged 14-18 years.
5. Increased nutrient needs: Adolescents require a variety of vitamins and minerals to support their growth and development, including vitamin D, vitamin B12, folate, and magnesium. A balanced diet that includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and dairy products can help meet these needs.

In summary, adolescents have increased nutrient needs to support their growth and development. Meeting these needs requires a balanced diet that includes a variety of foods from all food groups. It is essential to ensure adequate intake of protein, calcium, iron, and other vitamins and minerals during this critical period of growth and development.

"Ocular physiological phenomena" is not a standardized medical term with a specific definition. However, I can provide some examples of ocular physiological phenomena, which refer to various normal functions and processes that occur in the eye. Here are a few examples:

1. Accommodation: The ability of the eye to change optical power to maintain a clear image or focus on an object as its distance varies. This is primarily achieved by changing the curvature of the lens through the action of the ciliary muscles.
2. Pupillary reflex: The automatic adjustment of the pupil's size in response to changes in light intensity. In bright light, the pupil constricts (miosis), while in dim light, it dilates (mydriasis). This reflex helps regulate the amount of light that enters the eye.
3. Tear production: The continuous secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands to keep the eyes moist and protected from dust, microorganisms, and other foreign particles.
4. Extraocular muscle function: The coordinated movement of the six extraocular muscles that control eyeball rotation and enable various gaze directions.
5. Color vision: The ability to perceive and distinguish different colors based on the sensitivity of photoreceptor cells (cones) in the retina to specific wavelengths of light.
6. Dark adaptation: The process by which the eyes adjust to low-light conditions, improving visual sensitivity primarily through changes in the rod photoreceptors' sensitivity and pupil dilation.
7. Light adaptation: The ability of the eye to adjust to different levels of illumination, mainly through alterations in pupil size and photoreceptor cell response.

These are just a few examples of ocular physiological phenomena. There are many more processes and functions that occur within the eye, contributing to our visual perception and overall eye health.

'Nervous system physiological phenomena' refer to the functions, activities, and processes that occur within the nervous system in a healthy or normal state. This includes:

1. Neuronal Activity: The transmission of electrical signals (action potentials) along neurons, which allows for communication between different cells and parts of the nervous system.

2. Neurotransmission: The release and binding of neurotransmitters to receptors on neighboring cells, enabling the transfer of information across the synapse or junction between two neurons.

3. Sensory Processing: The conversion of external stimuli into electrical signals by sensory receptors, followed by the transmission and interpretation of these signals within the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).

4. Motor Function: The generation and execution of motor commands, allowing for voluntary movement and control of muscles and glands.

5. Autonomic Function: The regulation of internal organs and glands through the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system, maintaining homeostasis within the body.

6. Cognitive Processes: Higher brain functions such as perception, attention, memory, language, learning, and emotion, which are supported by complex neural networks and interactions.

7. Sleep-Wake Cycle: The regulation of sleep and wakefulness through interactions between the brainstem, thalamus, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain, ensuring proper rest and recovery.

8. Development and Plasticity: The growth, maturation, and adaptation of the nervous system throughout life, including processes such as neuronal migration, synaptogenesis, and neural plasticity.

9. Endocrine Regulation: The interaction between the nervous system and endocrine system, with the hypothalamus playing a key role in controlling hormone release and maintaining homeostasis.

10. Immune Function: The communication between the nervous system and immune system, allowing for the coordination of responses to infection, injury, or stress.

Cell physiological phenomena refer to the functional activities and processes that occur within individual cells, which are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and normal physiology. These phenomena include various dynamic and interrelated processes such as:

1. Cell membrane transport: The movement of ions, molecules, and nutrients across the cell membrane through various mechanisms like diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, active transport, and endocytosis/exocytosis.
2. Metabolism: The sum of all chemical reactions that occur within cells to maintain life, including catabolic (breaking down) and anabolic (building up) processes for energy production, biosynthesis, and waste elimination.
3. Signal transduction: The process by which cells receive, transmit, and respond to external or internal signals through complex signaling cascades involving various second messengers, enzymes, and transcription factors.
4. Gene expression: The conversion of genetic information encoded in DNA into functional proteins and RNA molecules, including transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational modifications.
5. Cell cycle regulation: The intricate mechanisms that control the progression of cells through various stages of the cell cycle (G0, G1, S, G2, M) to ensure proper cell division and prevent uncontrolled growth or cancer development.
6. Apoptosis: Programmed cell death, a physiological process by which damaged, infected, or unwanted cells are eliminated in a controlled manner without causing inflammation or harm to surrounding tissues.
7. Cell motility: The ability of cells to move and change their position within tissues, which is critical for various biological processes like embryonic development, wound healing, and immune responses.
8. Cytoskeleton dynamics: The dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton (microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments) that provides structural support, enables cell shape changes, and facilitates intracellular transport and organelle positioning.
9. Ion homeostasis: The regulation of ion concentrations within cells to maintain proper membrane potentials and ensure normal physiological functions like neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and enzyme activity.
10. Cell-cell communication: The exchange of signals between neighboring or distant cells through various mechanisms like gap junctions, synapses, and paracrine/autocrine signaling to coordinate cellular responses and maintain tissue homeostasis.

Respiratory physiological phenomena refer to the various mechanical, chemical, and biological processes and functions that occur in the respiratory system during breathing and gas exchange. These phenomena include:

1. Ventilation: The movement of air into and out of the lungs, which is achieved through the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.
2. Gas Exchange: The diffusion of oxygen (O2) from the alveoli into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide (CO2) from the bloodstream into the alveoli.
3. Respiratory Mechanics: The physical properties and forces that affect the movement of air in and out of the lungs, such as lung compliance, airway resistance, and chest wall elasticity.
4. Control of Breathing: The regulation of ventilation by the central nervous system through the integration of sensory information from chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors in the respiratory system.
5. Acid-Base Balance: The maintenance of a stable pH level in the blood through the regulation of CO2 elimination and bicarbonate balance by the respiratory and renal systems.
6. Oxygen Transport: The binding of O2 to hemoglobin in the red blood cells and its delivery to the tissues for metabolic processes.
7. Defense Mechanisms: The various protective mechanisms that prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens and foreign particles into the respiratory system, such as mucociliary clearance, cough reflex, and immune responses.

"Skin physiological phenomena" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, I can provide some information about the general concepts that might be encompassed by this term.

Physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes that occur in living organisms. When it comes to the skin, there are many different physiological phenomena that take place, including:

1. Barrier function: The skin acts as a barrier to protect the body from external elements such as bacteria, viruses, chemicals, and UV radiation.
2. Temperature regulation: The skin helps regulate body temperature through sweat production and blood flow.
3. Sensation: The skin contains nerve endings that allow us to feel touch, pressure, pain, and temperature.
4. Vitamin D synthesis: The skin can produce vitamin D when exposed to sunlight.
5. Moisture regulation: The skin helps maintain the body's moisture balance by producing sweat and preventing water loss.
6. Immunological function: The skin plays a role in the immune system by providing a physical barrier and containing immune cells that help fight off infections.
7. Excretion: The skin eliminates waste products through sweat.
8. Wound healing: The skin has the ability to repair itself after injury, through a complex process involving inflammation, tissue regeneration, and remodeling.

Therefore, "skin physiological phenomena" could refer to any or all of these functions and processes that take place in the skin.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a standard or widely recognized medical term. It seems to be a rather broad and vague phrase that combines several concepts: prenatal (occurring before birth), nutritional (relating to nutrition), physiological (relating to the functioning of living organisms and their parts), and phenomena (observable events or occurrences).

If you're interested in a specific aspect of maternal and fetal nutrition, physiology, or related processes during pregnancy, I would be happy to help further if you could provide a more precise term or question. For example, prenatal nutritional physiological phenomena could refer to the process of how certain nutrients are transported across the placenta, how maternal nutrition affects fetal growth and development, or how various hormonal and metabolic changes occur during pregnancy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Physiological Phenomena" is not a standard medical term. It falls more within the domain of botany, which is a branch of biology focused on the study of plants.

However, I can provide a general explanation: Plant physiological phenomena refer to the functional processes and activities that occur within plants. This includes various aspects such as photosynthesis (the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy to fuel their growth), respiration, plant nutrition (the uptake and assimilation of nutrients from the soil), water relations (how plants absorb, transport, and use water), plant hormone functions, and many other processes.

If you have a term that is used in a medical context which you would like defined, I'd be happy to help with that!

Bacterial physiological phenomena refer to the various functional processes and activities that occur within bacteria, which are necessary for their survival, growth, and reproduction. These phenomena include:

1. Metabolism: This is the process by which bacteria convert nutrients into energy and cellular components. It involves a series of chemical reactions that break down organic compounds such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins to produce energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
2. Respiration: This is the process by which bacteria use oxygen to convert organic compounds into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy in the form of ATP. Some bacteria can also perform anaerobic respiration, using alternative electron acceptors such as nitrate or sulfate instead of oxygen.
3. Fermentation: This is a type of anaerobic metabolism in which bacteria convert organic compounds into simpler molecules, releasing energy in the form of ATP. Unlike respiration, fermentation does not require an external electron acceptor.
4. Motility: Many bacteria are capable of moving independently, using various mechanisms such as flagella or twitching motility. This allows them to move towards favorable environments and away from harmful ones.
5. Chemotaxis: Bacteria can sense and respond to chemical gradients in their environment, allowing them to move towards attractants and away from repellents.
6. Quorum sensing: Bacteria can communicate with each other using signaling molecules called autoinducers. When the concentration of autoinducers reaches a certain threshold, the bacteria can coordinate their behavior, such as initiating biofilm formation or producing virulence factors.
7. Sporulation: Some bacteria can form spores, which are highly resistant to heat, radiation, and chemicals. Spores can remain dormant for long periods of time and germinate when conditions are favorable.
8. Biofilm formation: Bacteria can form complex communities called biofilms, which are composed of cells embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Biofilms can provide protection from environmental stressors and host immune responses.
9. Cell division: Bacteria reproduce by binary fission, where the cell divides into two identical daughter cells. This process is regulated by various cell cycle checkpoints and can be influenced by environmental factors such as nutrient availability.

Maternal nutritional physiological phenomena refer to the various changes and processes that occur in a woman's body during pregnancy, lactation, and postpartum periods to meet the increased nutritional demands and support the growth and development of the fetus or infant. These phenomena involve complex interactions between maternal nutrition, hormonal regulation, metabolism, and physiological functions to ensure optimal pregnancy outcomes and offspring health.

Examples of maternal nutritional physiological phenomena include:

1. Adaptations in maternal nutrient metabolism: During pregnancy, the mother's body undergoes various adaptations to increase the availability of essential nutrients for fetal growth and development. For instance, there are increased absorption and utilization of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids, as well as enhanced storage of glycogen and lipids in maternal tissues.
2. Placental transfer of nutrients: The placenta plays a crucial role in facilitating the exchange of nutrients between the mother and fetus. It selectively transports essential nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals from the maternal circulation to the fetal compartment while removing waste products.
3. Maternal weight gain: Pregnant women typically experience an increase in body weight due to the growth of the fetus, placenta, amniotic fluid, and maternal tissues such as the uterus and breasts. Adequate gestational weight gain is essential for ensuring optimal pregnancy outcomes and reducing the risk of adverse perinatal complications.
4. Changes in maternal hormonal regulation: Pregnancy is associated with significant changes in hormonal profiles, including increased levels of estrogen, progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and other hormones that regulate various physiological functions such as glucose metabolism, appetite regulation, and maternal-fetal immune tolerance.
5. Lactation: Following childbirth, the mother's body undergoes further adaptations to support lactation and breastfeeding. This involves the production and secretion of milk, which contains essential nutrients and bioactive components that promote infant growth, development, and immunity.
6. Nutrient requirements: Pregnancy and lactation increase women's nutritional demands for various micronutrients such as iron, calcium, folate, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids. Meeting these increased nutritional needs is crucial for ensuring optimal pregnancy outcomes and supporting maternal health during the postpartum period.

Understanding these physiological adaptations and their implications for maternal and fetal health is essential for developing evidence-based interventions to promote positive pregnancy outcomes, reduce the risk of adverse perinatal complications, and support women's health throughout the reproductive lifespan.

"Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is a broad term that refers to various physical and biological processes related to nutrition in children. While I couldn't find a precise medical definition for this specific phrase, I can provide you with some key physiological phenomena associated with child nutrition. These include:

1. Growth and Development: Proper nutrition is crucial for normal growth and development in children. Adequate intake of essential nutrients, vitamins, and minerals supports physical growth, brain development, and overall well-being.
2. Digestion and Absorption: The gastrointestinal tract undergoes significant changes during childhood, affecting the ability to digest and absorb various nutrients. For example, lactase production decreases in some children after weaning, leading to lactose intolerance.
3. Energy Metabolism: Children have higher energy requirements per unit of body weight compared to adults due to their rapid growth and development. Proper nutrition ensures efficient energy metabolism and prevents issues like obesity or undernutrition.
4. Immune Function: Nutrition plays a vital role in supporting the immune system. Adequate intake of nutrients like vitamin C, vitamin D, iron, zinc, and protein helps maintain immune function and resistance to infections.
5. Micronutrient Deficiencies: Inadequate nutrition can lead to micronutrient deficiencies, which may impair children's growth, cognitive development, and overall health. Examples include iron deficiency anemia, vitamin A deficiency, and iodine deficiency disorders.
6. Overnutrition and Obesity: Excessive energy intake, coupled with reduced physical activity, can lead to overweight and obesity in children. This increases the risk of developing non-communicable diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer later in life.
7. Food Allergies and Intolerances: Children are more prone to food allergies and intolerances than adults. These can manifest as various symptoms, such as skin rashes, digestive issues, or respiratory problems, and may require dietary modifications.
8. Eating Behaviors and Preferences: Childhood is a critical period for shaping eating behaviors and food preferences. Exposure to a variety of healthy foods during this stage can help establish lifelong healthy eating habits.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It seems to be a very specific phrase that may refer to the physiological processes and phenomena related to nutrition.

Nutrition, in a medical context, refers to the process of providing or obtaining food necessary for health and growth. Physiological phenomena, on the other hand, refer to the functional manifestations of living organisms and their parts.

So, "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" could hypothetically refer to the various physiological processes that occur in the body in relation to nutrition, such as digestion, absorption, metabolism, transportation, and storage of nutrients. However, I would recommend consulting the specific source or context where this term was used for a more accurate definition.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a standard or widely recognized medical term. It seems to be a very specific phrase that may relate to various physiological processes and phenomena related to infant nutrition.

To try and provide some clarity, I can offer a brief explanation of the individual terms:

1. Infant: A young child, typically under one year of age.
2. Nutritional: Relating to food or nourishment, particularly in relation to energy and the balance of essential nutrients required for growth, repair, and maintenance of bodily functions.
3. Physiological: Describing processes and functions that occur within a living organism as part of normal bodily function, including biochemical reactions, organ function, and responses to environmental stimuli.
4. Phenomena: Observable events or occurrences.

So, "Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" could refer to observable events or processes related to an infant's nutrition and physiology. However, without further context, it is difficult to provide a more precise definition. Examples of such phenomena might include the development of feeding skills, growth patterns, or changes in metabolism related to dietary intake.

Raynaud's disease, also known as Raynaud's phenomenon or syndrome, is a condition that affects the blood vessels, particularly in the fingers and toes. It is characterized by episodes of vasospasm (constriction) of the small digital arteries and arterioles, which can be triggered by cold temperatures or emotional stress. This results in reduced blood flow to the affected areas, causing them to become pale or white and then cyanotic (blue) due to the accumulation of deoxygenated blood. As the episode resolves, the affected areas may turn red as blood flow returns, sometimes accompanied by pain, numbness, or tingling sensations.

Raynaud's disease can be primary, meaning it occurs without an underlying medical condition, or secondary, which is associated with connective tissue disorders, autoimmune diseases, or other health issues such as carpal tunnel syndrome, vibration tool usage, or smoking. Primary Raynaud's is more common and tends to be less severe than secondary Raynaud's.

Treatment for Raynaud's disease typically involves avoiding triggers, keeping the body warm, and using medications to help dilate blood vessels and improve circulation. In some cases, lifestyle modifications and smoking cessation may also be recommended to manage symptoms and prevent progression of the condition.

... (QTV) refers to the physiological phenomenon of beat-to-beat fluctuations in QT interval of ... Increased QTV appears to be a marker of arrhythmic and cardiovascular death; it may also play a role for noninvasive assessment ... physiological basis, and clinical value: position statement and consensus guidance endorsed by the European Heart Rhythm ... Physiological Measurement. 38 (7): 1472-1489. doi:10.1088/1361-6579/aa6e95. PMID 28430108. S2CID 3435105. (Cardiac ...
ESA Study of the evolution of cardiovascular deconditioning phenomena under weightless conditions (CARDIOSCIENCE) - ESA Bone ... ESA Physiological parameters that predict orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight (AORTA) - ESA Physiological parameters that ... Study of the evolution of cardiovascular deconditioning phenomena under weightless conditions (CARDIOSCIENCE) Bone cell ... Observation of environmental phenomena (IMEDIAS) A demonstration of physical phenomena in space. (VIDEO) Amateur Radio on ISS ( ...
"Towards a physical understanding of physiological excitation as a cooperative specific adsorption phenomenon.", Bulletin of ... physiological irritability, mathematical and systems analysis of cardiovascular and other biosystems, cooperativity, threshold ... Karreman was also a member of several prestigious scientific societies, including the American Physiological Society, the New ... "Mathematical Biology of Physiological Excitation", Synthese 9, no. 3-5 (1953): 248. George Karreman. " ...
Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use. Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and ... A phenomenon improving pulmonary gas exchange and circulatory efficiency". Circulation. 94 (4): 842-7. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.94.4. ... RSA is less prominent in individuals with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Vagal tone research has the potential to offer ... A phenomenon improving pulmonary gas exchange and circulatory efficiency". Circulation. 94 (4): 842-7. doi:10.1161/01.cir.94.4. ...
... and physiological approaches (i.e., cardiovascular, hormonal). Combining different kinds of measures-often in the same study- ... This phenomenon, which she and her collaborators call "twokenism", is seen in corporate boards and is particularly pronounced ...
Part of the physiological process of vasodilatation involves the release of nitric oxide (NO) by vascular endothelial cells ... PDE5 inhibitors have been used as a second line therapy in severe cases of Raynaud phenomenon when it is related to systemic ... As of 2019, the wider cardiovascular benefits of PDE5 inhibitors are being appreciated. Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors ... Despite initial concerns of adverse cardiovascular events in patients prescribed PDE5 inhibitors, several long-term studies ...
Seasonal variation in human birth rate has been found to be a nearly universal phenomenon. Also, birth seasonality has been ... In addition, they uncovered an association between cardiovascular diseases and birth month. This was subsequently confirmed in ... found to be correlated with certain physiological and psychological traits of humans and animals[citation needed]. Evidence for ... Li L, Boland MR, Miotto R, Tatonetti NP, Dudley JT (September 2016). "Replicating Cardiovascular Condition-Birth Month ...
... as a physiological phenomena - they also studied the psychological and sociological effects by which workers are subject to in ... cardiovascular and haemodynamic responses to exercise. This was a direct result of Henderson and Mayo's holistic approach to ... This was taken as physiological evidence that fatigue was more psychological than physiological. It was later theorised by a ... Another use of the laboratory was to study the physiological impacts of suddenly breathing air with low levels of oxygen to ...
... s have been used both as an instrument in the study of interesting physiological phenomena (e.g. pharyngeal ... An Introduction to Cardiovascular Physiology. Hodder Arnold. ISBN 0-340-80921-3. Conrad, W. A. (1969). "Pressure-flow ... collapse during obstructed breathing or OSA) and as a rich source of physical phenomena in their own right. Two non-linear ...
His research activities in these fields can be categorized into two main areas: the fluid dynamics of physiological machines ( ... cardiovascular health monitoring devices, and drug delivery systems). Professor Gharib is the recipient of the 2016 G. I. ... and engineering of bioinspired devices and phenomena. Professor Gharib's research interests cover a range of topics in ...
Program Project that began in 1993 and has investigated several phenomena related to the behavioral causes and physiological ... Pickering T. Cardiovascular pathways: socioeconomic status and stress effects on hypertension and cardiovascular function. Ann ... His research focused on his core belief that much of cardiovascular disease arises from psychosocial factors, and is hence ... Ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure as a predictor of cardiovascular risk. Am Heart J. 1987;114(4 Pt 2):925-928. Pickering ...
Cardiovascular disease It has been found that older age does increase the risk factor of contracting cardiovascular disease. ... Physiological abnormalities associated with AD include neurofibrillary plaques and tangles. Neuritic plaques, that target the ... These same external factors also influence genetic expression throughout adult life - a phenomenon known as genetic plasticity ... Cardiovascular diseases include a variety of heart conditions that may induce a heart attack or other heart-related problems. ...
This phenomenon is known as a form of post-zygotic reproductive isolation. Inherited epigenetic effects on phenotypes have been ... These harmful traits range from increased risk of disease, such as cardiovascular disease, to premature death. However, this ... In all 19 informative cases, the epimutations that, together with physiological imprinting and therefore silencing of the other ... The increased risk factors to the health of F1 and F2 generations during the Dutch hunger winter is a known phenomenon called " ...
The most common reason is cardiovascular disease, which is a disease that affects the heart. Many cultures and religions have a ... The concept of death is a key to human understanding of the phenomenon. There are many scientific approaches and various ... Physiological death is now seen as a process, more than an event: conditions once considered indicative of death are now ... a phenomenon known as pro-aging trance. The average lifespan is determined by vulnerability to accidents and age or lifestyle- ...
... this phenomenon is also referred to as physiological arousal. Psychophysiological economics researchers directly measure the ... Clinical and experimental research uses the following tools to evaluate stress responses: Cardiovascular activity: heart rate ... As such, some levels of physiological stress may benefit the decision making processes, but there may be a threshold as to how ... As a new field of study, psychophysiological economics tends to be focused on evaluating and assessing physiological aspects of ...
To date, no physiological parameter has been linked in a quantitative manner to turbulence slope[citation needed], whereas ... HRT is widely considered[by whom?] to be a baroreflex phenomenon. A PVC interrupts the normal cardiac cycle, so the ventricles ... Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. 56 (2): 160-171. doi:10.1016/j.pcad.2013.08.002. ISSN 1873-1740. PMID 24215748. Barthel P ... this phenomenon might also be an indicator of a healthy control of heart rate in such patients. They proceeded to test this ...
Iberall, A.S. Flow and pressure regulation in the cardiovascular system. In: W. Vannah and H. Wayland (eds.). Flow, Its ... In: A. Iberall, A. Guyton (eds.). Regulation and Control in Physiological Systems, ISA, Pittsburgh, 1973. Iberall, A.S. On the ... Iberall, A.S. (1970). "Regarding periodic phenomena". Science. 168 (3927): 152. Bibcode:1970Sci...168..152I. doi:10.1126/ ... At General Technical Services, Iberall and Cardon solved problems such as physiological responses of mammals to high pressure ...
One potential reason for this phenomenon is that these mice, which exhibit hypermetabolic behavior, rely more on glucose than ... Furthermore, PC made via PEMT plays a wide range of physiological roles, utilized in choline synthesis, hepatocyte membrane ... Refsum H, Ueland PM, Nygård O, Vollset SE (1998). "Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease". Annual Review of Medicine. 49: 31- ... High levels of homocysteine are linked to cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis, particularly coronary artery disease. ...
Narcosis is a phenomenon that occurs when a combination of organic toxicants, each at low concentrations, have a toxic effect ... Use of respiratory-cardiovascular responses of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in identifying acute toxicity syndromes in fish ... Additional combinations of effects may result from contaminants and pathogens or contaminants and physiological effects. As ... Narcosis can also result in respiratory-cardiovascular responses to fish. Pre-spawn mortality may be attributed to a mixture of ...
It has been implicated in several phenomena, including cardiovascular function, schizophrenia, clinical depression, the effects ... A variety of specific physiological functions have been attributed to the σ1 receptor. Chief among these are modulation of Ca2+ ... from discovery to highlights of their implications in the cardiovascular system". Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology. 16 (1): ...
Furedy, J.J. (1998). On the predictive value of TWA for cardiovascular disease. Biological Psychology, 48, 301-303. Kanit, I., ... Furedy, J.J., & Champion, R.A. (1963). Cognitive and S-R interpretations of incentive-motivational phenomena. American Journal ... Elected Fellow of the Physiological and Comparative Division of the American Psychological Association, 1978. Elected Fellow of ... Furedy, J.J. (2000) A Pavlovian in spirit: Richard Annels Champion (1925-1999). Integrative Physiological and Behavioral ...
Phenomena such as emotional lateralization may help describe how emotions arise, persist, and alter our behavior. Understanding ... Particularly, cardiovascular function appears to be lateralized and tied to emotional stress. Intense emotional stimuli that ... short period of time such that subjects were not consciously aware of the stimuli but were still able to show physiological ... The right insular cortex probably plays the most significant role in these phenomena. Similar lateralization is probably ...
The physiological reactions that are induced by stereotype threat can often be subconscious, and can distract and interrupt ... One study found increased cardiovascular activation amongst women who watched a video in which men outnumbered women at a math ... 513-515, ISBN 9780275961039, the phenomenon of stereotype threat can be explained in terms of a more general construct, test ... However they also point to ways in which the phenomenon defies over-simplistic characterization. For instance, one meta- ...
The physiological response to a sudden immersion in cold water may be divided in three or four discrete stages, with different ... Death which occurs in such scenarios is complex to investigate and there are several possible causes and phenomena that can ... For people with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, the additional workload can result in myocardial infarction and/or acute ... Diving reflex - The physiological responses to immersion of air-breathing vertebrates Hypothermia - Human body core temperature ...
The phenomenon builds on existing research connecting African Americans and other people of color with oppression and ... Physiological symptoms such as high blood pressure, headaches, increased breathing and heart rate in anticipation of racial ... Clark and colleagues proposed that these stress responses are also related to cardiovascular reactivity and higher rates of ... A 2014 research study assessed if Latino/a/x students experience similar psychological and physiological stress responses on ...
Prolonged usage of loop diuretics will also contributes to resistance through "braking phenomenon". This is the body ... of less 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 due to lack of long term cardiovascular outcome data and appropriate dosing regimen of its use. The ... physiological response to reduced extracellular fluid volume, where renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system will be activated ...
... cell phenomena, and immunity G05 - genetic processes G06 - biochemical phenomena, metabolism, and nutrition G07 - physiological ... cardiovascular system A08 - nervous system A09 - sense organs A10 - tissues A11 - cells A12 - fluids and secretions A13 - ... chemical and pharmacologic phenomena G13 - genetic phenomena G14 - genetic structures H - Physical Sciences H01 - natural ... cardiovascular diseases C15 - hemic and lymphatic diseases C16 - congenital, hereditary, and neonatal diseases and ...
The band Bakers Pink is named after the Baker-Miller pink phenomenon. A 2013 book, entitled Drunk Tank Pink, is named for the ... Lüscher noticed that color preferences shifted according to psychological and physiological fluctuations in his patients. ... and even influenced the cardiovascular system. Schauss began to experiment on himself, with the help of his research assistant ... studied psychological and physiological responses to the color pink. Schauss had read studies by the Swiss psychiatrist Max ...
"Novel photoplethysmography cardiovascular assessments in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon and systemic sclerosis: a pilot ... "Photoplethysmography and its application in clinical physiological measurement". Physiological Measurement. 28 (3): R1-39. doi: ... Because blood flow to the skin can be modulated by multiple other physiological systems, the PPG can also be used to monitor ... remote photoplethysmography allows physiological processes such as blood flow to be determined without skin contact. This is ...
... is responsible for physiological production of prostacyclin in the cardiovascular system". Proceedings of the National Academy ... as a vasodilator in severe Raynaud's phenomenon or ischemia of a limb; in pulmonary hypertension. in primary pulmonary ... Even at physiological pH, prostacyclin can rapidly form the inactive hydration product 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α. As mentioned ... These strongly suggest a mechanism of cardiovascular homeostasis between these two hormones in relation to vascular damage. It ...
Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena * Cough / epidemiology * Delirium / epidemiology * Female * Health Personnel* * ...
QT interval variability (QTV) refers to the physiological phenomenon of beat-to-beat fluctuations in QT interval of ... Increased QTV appears to be a marker of arrhythmic and cardiovascular death; it may also play a role for noninvasive assessment ... physiological basis, and clinical value: position statement and consensus guidance endorsed by the European Heart Rhythm ... Physiological Measurement. 38 (7): 1472-1489. doi:10.1088/1361-6579/aa6e95. PMID 28430108. S2CID 3435105. (Cardiac ...
e. Other cardiac and cardiovascular findings: If there are significant cardiac or cardiovascular findings for which there are ... Focal phenomena, e.g., one extremity cyanotic should be recorded under Other findings.) b. Irregular pulse: Record any ... irregularities of pulse except physiological variations. c. Cardiac murmur: Record all murmurs. Grade, location, radiation, and ... 5. Cardiovascular examination: While the examinee is sitting, & then when he is supine, palpate & auscult the heart. Check ...
Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena 13 * Geriatrics 13 Thematic area. * SMS-SP (BR) 70 ... Cardiology, Congresses as Topic, Nursing, Physical Education and Training, Cardiovascular Diseases World Congress of Cardiology ...
Cardiovascular, Cardiovascular System, Cardiovascular Diseases, Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena, Aneurysm, Aortic ... Cardiovascular System, Cardiovascular Diseases, Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena, Coronary Disease, Acute Coronary ... Cardiovascular System, Cardiovascular Diseases, Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena, Coronary Disease, Acute Coronary ... Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena, Laboratory and Fieldwork Analytical Methods, Acute Disease, Chronic Disease, Clinical ...
Physiological-factors; Physiological-response; Cardiovascular-system; Cardiovascular-system-disorders; Animal-studies; Eye- ... reviews practical means employed for assessing such phenomena, including psychophysical (e.g., threshold and suprathreshold ... perceptual measures), physiological (e.g., cardiovascular responses), electrophysiological (e.g., event-related potentials), ... Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Chemical-properties; Physiological-disorders; ...
Cardiovascular System & Hematology. *Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena. *Cardiovascular Diseases. *Adaptation, ...
Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena, Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomenon, Cardiovascular Physiological Physiological ... Physiological Phenomena, Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomenon, Cardiovascular Physiology, Cardiovascular Cardiovascular ... Concepts, Cardiovascular Physiological. Phenomena, Cardiovascular Physiological. Phenomenon, Cardiovascular Physiological. ... Physiological Concepts, Cardiovascular. Physiological Phenomena, Cardiovascular. Physiological Phenomenon, Cardiovascular. ...
Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena (MeSH) * Cardiovascular System & Hematology (Science Metrix) * Epinephrine (MeSH) * ... Acute cardiovascular responses to leg-press resistance exercise in heart transplant recipients Journal Articles ... The purpose of this study was to describe the cardiovascular responses of heart transplant patients to a single, prolonged bout ... set of single leg-press exercise at a moderate lifting intensity can be performed within safe and acceptable physiological ...
Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena, Frontal Lobe, Humans, Hypothalamus, Limbic System, Respiratory Physiological Phenomena ... Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena, Frontal Lobe, Humans, Hypothalamus, Limbic System, Respiratory Physiological Phenomena ... cardiovascular, and micturition centres of the brain stem. ... KW - Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena. KW - Frontal Lobe ... cardiovascular, and micturition centres of the brain stem.", ... KW - Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena. KW - Frontal Lobe ...
Circulatory and Respiratory Physiological Phenomena [G09]. *Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena [G09.330]. *Capillary ...
Circulatory and Respiratory Physiological Phenomena [G09]. *Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena [G09.330]. *Vascular ...
... one of the most prestigious annual awards given to an Israeli scientist for his lifetime achievements in cardiovascular ... The focus of work in his Stony Brook Biomedical Engineering laboratory is investigation of basic physiological flow phenomena ... Among the cardiovascular medical devices and systems created by Dr. Einav are heart valves, ventricular assist devices, total ... Einav and his team apply their methods to the physiological flow in the heart, arteries, veins, and microcirculation, as well ...
This article is part of the theme issue The heartbeat: its molecular basis and physiological mechanisms. ... Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena ... Issue of Developmental Dynamics on Mechanisms of Cardiovascular ... This article is part of the theme issue The heartbeat: its molecular basis and physiological mechanisms. ...
... increased cardiovascular risk and alterations of the glycometabolic profile. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) shows ... Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease. Testosterone has an important role in cardiovascular homeostasis, with a cardio- ... Stewart, C.E.; Pell, J.M. Point: IGF is the major physiological regulator of muscle mass. J. Appl. Physiol. 2010, 108, 1820- ... those phenomena could be further accelerated and influenced by the co-occurrence of different morbidities, such as diabetes, ...
... in findings across laboratory and naturalistic physiological responses highlight the value of testing physiological phenomena ... Cardiovascular reactivity during spousal conflict is considered to be one of the main pathways for relationship distress to ... Ambulatory cardiovascular reactivity data were collected from 20 couples during two relationship conflicts in a research ... Cardiovascular Reactivity During Marital Conflict in Laboratory and Naturalistic Settings: Differential Associations with ...
One of the ways the human body reacts to the reduced physiological and mechanical demands of micro-gravity is by a ... Deconditioning presents operational problems during spaceflight and upon return to I-G. Muscular and cardiovascular ... phenomenon; and finally, decreased vascular compliance can lead to syncopal episodes upon re-entry and landing. Extravehicular ... deconditioning of the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuromuscular systems. Deconditioning produces a multitude of ...
Aging is a physiological process that involves all living things and is connected to the loss of skills, the way of life in the ... Aging is a biological and psychological phenomenon that affects the family and social level. It is a process in which there is ... A broad class of these medicines reduces the cardiovascular risk in the elderly and in most cases, the association of drugs ... The oral cavity is a major tool for social interaction, through speech, and the physiological comfort, through feeding. The ...
... physiological phenomenon appearing in human beings, but also offer a potential method for noninvasive diagnostic by studying ... Potential of thermal imaging as a tool for prediction of cardiovascular disease. ... Skin Reactions after Breast-conserving Therapy and Prediction of Late Complications Using Physiological Functions. Sekine H, ... This phenomenon is the basis for the concealed information test, in which rarely occurring crime-related details are embedded ...
This phenomenon may be related to the types of adverse conditions, but more detailed reasons need to be further explored. ... The TIDE (Thrombus and Inflammation in sudden DEath) study," European Heart Journal Acute Cardiovascular Care, vol. 4, no. 1, ... It will help people understand the physiological and pathological effects of MVs and use them as diagnostic tools for diseases ... A. Saraste and K. Pulkki, "Morphologic and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis," Cardiovascular Research, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. ...
Amongst the category of drugs known as psychotropics, metabolic and cardio-vascular adverse effects are the major cause of ... Quite possibly, all accounts of self healing- in all categories of physiological disease and impairment, is a spiritual/mind ... I wonder if the adverse effects on sugar metabolism affect this alcohol phenomenon? ... Unfortunately, many Lyme patients are prescribed antidepressants as a panacea for mental, emotional and physiological symptoms ...
These are physiological effects from psychosocial factors. On the other hand, psychological effects may derive from both ... Today, I am going to be talking about stress as a phenomenon that includes both physical and psychological outcomes. Another ... His major areas of research are the cardiovascular effects of occupational stress and the social and organizational factors ... The other contributing line of research has been physiological stress theories. These focus on what is happening in the brain ...
A number of studies have reported on the effect of age on physiological and cognitive responses to caffeine. Arciero et al. ( ... However, recent information on adverse car- diovascular and central nervous system events resulting from the use of ephedra- ... This withdrawal phenomenon could lead to decrements in performance during military operations and thus should be avoided. ... Caffeine consumed both at rest and during exercise increases a variety of physiological processes (heart rate, respiratory rate ...
The WCE and WCH differ in their definitions, physiological mechanisms and clinical significance [14]. WCE is a phenomenon which ... WCH can itself carry an increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular events [2,3]. It is also frequent in patients with ... This phenomenon remains a consideration even among patients who are poorly controlled with antihypertensive treatment. We ... Predicting cardiovascular risk using conventional vs ambulatory blood pressure in older patients with systolic hypertension. ...
Furthermore, artery needs also immune cells recruitment in many phenomena, sometimes physiological as remodeling or sometimes ... Keywords : cardiovascular system, arteries, veins, hypertension, aneurysm, atherosclerosis.. Preclinical Team:. Laurent ... Nevertheless, mitochondrial involvement in the cardiovascular system and its pathophysiological role in systemic hypertension ... this project should lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of arterial and cardiovascular ...
While we normally think of our heart rate as a steady phenomenon, in actuality the interval varies and is somewhat irregular - ... Heart rate variability is a normal physiological process of the heart. It makes possible a testing method as noninvasive as ... High heart rate variability is an indicator of sound cardiovascular health. Higher levels of variability indicate that ... More importantly, though, the researchers observed a positive physiological response to the task in the form of increased heart ...
Various changes throughout the manual place subtle emphasis on medico-physiological theory. DSMs III and IV were said to be " ... cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases.. • The proposed reclassification of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ... we are concerned that these reconceptualizations of mental disorder as primarily medical phenomena may have scientific, ... Though such a redefinition may appear to lend these symptoms a solid medico-physiological foundation, we believe that the lack ...
This phenomenon extends beyond physiological concerns, and as indicated by recent studies, reveals a troubling link between ... Tag: Cardiovascular. Unravelling the mystery of smaller lungs in low- and middle-income countries. Andre F.S. Amaral, Lecturer ... Academic life Alcohol Blood Brain science Cancer Cardiovascular Career Clinical research Clinical trials COPD COVID19 Diet ... Dr André Amaral, an epidemiologist at the National Heart and Lung Institute (NHLI), explores this phenomenon. ...
A phenomenon common to multiple physiologic states; in Proceedings comp in Cardiology 15. Los Alamitos, IEEE Computer Society, ... Heart rate variability; standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use. Circulation 1996;93:1043-1065 ... A noninvasive probe of cardiovascular regulation in critically ill children with heart disease. Pediatr Cardiol 1988;9:69-77. ...
  • The focus of my research has been on hypertension and cardiovascular disease, where there have been documented associations between occupational stress and cardiovascular disease. (
  • Au total, 2 462 sujets ont fait l'objet d'une mesure ambulatoire de la pression artérielle, en raison d'une hypertension légère (groupe 1), aux fins de l'évaluation d'un traitement antihypertenseur (groupe 2), ou en raison d'une hypotension (groupe 3). (
  • 2. One of the reasons for increased cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) worldwide is the increase in aged populations. (
  • The most important cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the African Region are those related to atherosclerosis, cardiomyopathies and rheumatic heart disease. (
  • 5. The WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable diseases in general and cardiovascular disease in particular (otherwise known as STEPS) is based on community evaluation of eight risk factors (see Figure 1). (
  • ABSTRACT Associations of oral diseases with noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, osteoporosis and chronic renal failure are widely reported in the literature from developed countries. (
  • Examples of autoimmune conditions include the following: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) Type 1 diabetes Crohn's Disease Hashimoto's thyroiditis Neurological diseases Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Glomerulanephritis Pernicious Anaemia Goodpasture's syndrome Scleroderma Raynaud's Phenomenon Lupus (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE]) Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). (
  • Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts. (
  • The body's biology and chemistry directly influence our state of mind , and our emotions, thoughts, and beliefs strongly affect the processes associated with physiological well-being . (
  • B. Examination by physician A physician performed and recorded the results of a medical examination giving special attention to specified findings related to nutrition, to hearing, to the thyroid gland,and to the cardiovascular, respiratory, neurological and musculoskeletal systems. (
  • Gemeprost is a silastic naso-jejunal tube insertion that you feel comfortable with a compound fractures maybe removed when given a physiological role of renal or nodular regeneration. (
  • To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies assessing the influence of the clinical environment on cardiovascular responses to dental procedures. (
  • Anxiety is often observed in dental procedures and may cause promote alteration in the physiological responses during implant surgeries. (
  • The literature has already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. (
  • As a result of his numerous investigations, he, with the help of his collaborators, has discovered changes that occur in the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems in chronically lonely individuals. (
  • Following the pairing of apelin peptides with cognate ligands, they have been identified to serve various roles in physiological and pathophysiological states, including effects on the cardiovascular system ( 6 - 8 ), fluid equilibrium ( 9 , 10 ), the adipoinsular signaling pathway ( 11 , 12 ), the immune system ( 13 ) and neuroprotection ( 14 ). (
  • Another reason is exposure to behavioural and physiological risk factors (Figure 1) which are responsible for 75% of CVDs.1 These risk factors have been prioritized according to their impact on mortality and morbidity, possibility of modification through primary prevention, and quantification by available easy standardized methods. (
  • His major areas of research are the cardiovascular effects of occupational stress and the social and organizational factors that play a role in indoor air quality problems. (
  • Psychosocial factors, such as stress and threat, can cause both psychological and physiological outcomes. (
  • These are physiological effects from psychosocial factors. (
  • Biological actions and events that support the functions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM. (
  • 1. The burden of cardiovascular disease is increasing rapidly in Africa, and it is now a public health problem throughout the African Region. (
  • Cardiovascular disease has a major socioeconomic impact on individuals, families and societies in terms of health-care costs, absenteeism and national productivity. (
  • Therefore, various separation control methods have been proposed, but none have been fully implemented to date due to the uncertainties associated with modeling and predicting the flow phenomena. (
  • Now, based on the phenomenon that the fourth component is not a minimum item but an ideal item that the items have been developed, following the original site there is a process that combines the category function and the category operation which is termed the analysis into six methods in the quantitative evaluation. (
  • Shortcomings in micro nutrients represents a public health problem with important economic and the physiological consequences. (
  • A balanced workout program should include three major components: cardiovascular exercise, strength training, and stretching. (
  • The physiological properties of flesh after digestion are: moderately cold (na ati sheeta), heavy to digest (na ati guru), and unctuous (na ati snigdha). (
  • Considering the importance of cardiovascular function in surgical trauma 11 , the objective of the present study was to evaluate BP and HR in two different dental settings in patients who underwent dental implant surgery or a related procedure. (
  • 3. An important phenomenon of CVD in developing countries is the trend of complications occurring at younger ages. (
  • It is a quite normal and natural phenomenon. (
  • The power of self-efficacy as explained by Social Cognitive Theory is what health psychologists call the phenomenon of "a new normal. (