Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Glucose in blood.
Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
All deaths reported in a given population.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.
The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Loss of vascular ELASTICITY due to factors such as AGING; and ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Increased arterial stiffness is one of the RISK FACTORS for many CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the cardiovascular system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.
Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
A diet typical of the Mediterranean region characterized by a pattern high in fruits and vegetables, EDIBLE GRAIN and bread, potatoes, poultry, beans, nuts, olive oil and fish while low in red meat and dairy and moderate in alcohol consumption.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.
A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Abstaining from all food.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.
A group of water-soluble vitamins, some of which are COENZYMES.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
An antilipemic fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Nocardia autotrophica. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES).
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.
A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.
The prevention of recurrences or exacerbations of a disease or complications of its therapy.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).

Dietary intake and practices in the Hong Kong Chinese population. (1/16417)

OBJECTIVES: To examine dietary intake and practices of the adult Hong Kong Chinese population to provide a basis for future public health recommendations with regard to prevention of certain chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis. PARTICIPANTS: Age and sex stratified random sample of the Hong Kong Chinese population aged 25 to 74 years (500 men, 510 women). METHOD: A food frequency method over a one week period was used for nutrient quantification, and a separate questionnaire was used for assessment of dietary habits. Information was obtained by interview. RESULTS: Men had higher intakes of energy and higher nutrient density of vitamin D, monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, but lower nutrient density of protein, many vitamins, calcium, iron, copper, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was an age related decrease in energy intake and other nutrients except for vitamin C, sodium, potassium, and percentage of total calorie from carbohydrate, which all increased with age. Approximately 50% of the population had a cholesterol intake of < or = 300 mg; 60% had a fat intake < or = 30% of total energy; and 85% had a percentage of energy from saturated fats < or = 10%; criteria considered desirable for cardiovascular health. Seventy eight per cent of the population had sodium intake values in the range shown to be associated with the age related rise in blood pressure with age. Mean calcium intake was lower than the FAO/WHO recommendations. The awareness of the value of wholemeal bread and polyunsaturated fat spreads was lower in this population compared with that in Australia. There was a marked difference in types of cooking oil compared with Singaporeans, the latter using more coconut/palm/mixed vegetable oils. CONCLUSION: Although the current intake pattern for cardiovascular health for fat, saturated fatty acid, and cholesterol fall within the recommended range for over 50% of the population, follow up surveys to monitor the pattern would be needed. Decreasing salt consumption, increasing calcium intake, and increasing the awareness of the health value of fibre may all be beneficial in the context of chronic disease prevention.  (+info)

Physician advice and individual behaviors about cardiovascular disease risk reduction--seven states and Puerto Rico, 1997. (2/16417)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) (e.g., heart disease and stroke) is the leading cause of death in the United States and accounted for 959,227 deaths in 1996. Strategies to reduce the risk for heart disease and stroke include lifestyle changes (e.g., eating fewer high-fat and high-cholesterol foods) and increasing physical activity. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and the American Heart Association (AHA) recommend that, as part of a preventive health examination, all primary-care providers counsel their patients about a healthy diet and regular physical activity. AHA also recommends low-dose aspirin use as a secondary preventive measure among persons with existing CVD. To determine the prevalence of physician counseling about cardiovascular health and changes in individual behaviors, CDC analyzed data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for seven states and Puerto Rico. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicate a lower prevalence of counseling and behavior change among persons without than with a history of heart disease or stroke.  (+info)

Respiratory symptoms and long-term risk of death from cardiovascular disease, cancer and other causes in Swedish men. (3/16417)

BACKGROUND: Depressed respiratory function and respiratory symptoms are associated with impaired survival. The present study was undertaken to assess the relation between respiratory symptoms and mortality from cardiovascular causes, cancer and all causes in a large population of middle-aged men. METHODS: Prospective population study of 6442 men aged 51-59 at baseline, free of clinical angina pectoris and prior myocardial infarction. RESULTS: During 16 years there were 1804 deaths (786 from cardiovascular disease, 608 from cancer, 103 from pulmonary disease and 307 from any other cause). Men with effort-related breathlessness had increased risk of dying from all of the examined diseases. After adjustment for age, smoking habit and other risk factors, the relative risk (RR) associated with breathlessness of dying from coronary disease was 1.43 (95% CI : 1.16-1.77), from stroke 1.77 (95% CI: 1.07-2.93), from any cardiovascular disease 1.48 (95% CI : 1.24-1.76), cancer 1.36 (95% CI : 1.11-1.67) and from any cause 1.62 (95% CI: 1.44-1.81). An independent effect of breathlessness on cardiovascular death, cancer death and mortality from all causes was found in life-time non-smokers, and also if men with chest pain not considered to be angina were excluded. An independent effect was also found if all deaths during the first half of the follow-up were excluded. Men with cough and phlegm, without breathlessness, also had an elevated risk of dying from cardiovascular disease and cancer, but after adjustment for smoking and other risk factors this was no longer significant. However, a slightly elevated independent risk of dying from any cause was found (RR = 1.18 [95% CI: 1.02-1.36]). CONCLUSION: A positive response to a simple question about effort related breathlessness predicted subsequent mortality from several causes during a follow-up period of 16 years, independently of smoking and other risk factors.  (+info)

Short stature and cardiovascular disease among men and women from two southeastern New England communities. (4/16417)

BACKGROUND: Short stature has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), although the reason for the association remains unclear. Data on the relation between stature and stroke is more limited. We examined the association between stature and CHD as well as between stature and stroke in men and women from two communities in southeastern New England. METHODS: Coronary heart disease and stroke events were abstracted from medical records between January 1980 and December 1991. An epidemiological diagnostic algorithm developed to measure CHD was used in the present analysis. Unadjusted relative risks (RR) and RR adjusted for age, smoking status, obesity, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol <0.91 mmol/l, total cholesterol >6.21 mmol/l, hypertension, diabetes, education, and being foreign born were computed by gender-specific height categories separately for men (n = 2826) and women (n = 3741). RESULTS: A graded inverse association between stature and risk of CHD was observed among men which persisted after adjustment for confounders. Men >69.75 inches had an 83% lower risk of CHD compared with men < or = 65 inches. In addition, the tallest men had a 67% decreased risk of stroke compared with the shortest men. No significant relation between stature and CHD or stroke was observed among women. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the hypothesis that stature is inversely related to both risk of CHD and stroke at least among men. Factors which might explain this association remain to be determined.  (+info)

Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe. (5/16417)

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

Natural sporting ability and predisposition to cardiovascular disorders. (6/16417)

We tested the hypothesis that people with a natural ability in 'power sports' (a presumed marker for predominance of type 2, glycolytic muscle fibres) might have increased risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) compared to those with a natural ability in 'endurance sports' (as a marker for predominance of type 1, oxidative muscle fibres). We examined subsequent cardiovascular disorders retrospectively in 231 male former soldiers, aged 34-87 years, who had undergone a course in physical training in the Army School of Physical Training, Aldershot, UK, who assessed themselves as having natural ability in either power (n = 107) or endurance (n = 124) sports. The proportion with CHD, defined as angina and/or coronary angioplasty and/or coronary artery bypass graft and/or heart attack was 18.7% in the 'power group' vs. 9.7% in the 'endurance group' (difference: chi 2 = 3.9, p = 0.05). The proportions with CHD and/or risk factors rose to 39.3% in the 'power group' vs. 25.8% in the 'endurance group' (difference: chi 2 = 4.8, p = 0.03). Under logistic regression analysis, compared to the 'endurance group', the 'power group' had 2.2 (95% CI: 1.00-4.63) the risk of developing CHD, and 1.86 (95% confidence interval: 1.06 to 3.25) the risk of developing CHD and/or risk factors. Men with a natural ability in 'power sports' are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disorders, compared to men with a natural ability in 'endurance sports'. A predominance of type 2, glycolytic muscle fibres, presumably of genetic origin, may predispose to cardiovascular disorders.  (+info)

Hypoalbuminemia increases lysophosphatidylcholine in low-density lipoprotein of normocholesterolemic subjects. (7/16417)

BACKGROUND: A phospholipid, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), is the major determinant of the atherosclerotic properties of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Under normal circumstances most LPC is bound to albumin. We hypothesized that lipoprotein LPC concentrations are increased in hypoalbuminemic patients with the nephrotic syndrome, irrespective of their lipid levels. To test this hypothesis, we selected nephrotic and control subjects with matched LDL cholesterol levels. METHODS: Lipoproteins and the albumin-rich lipoprotein-deficient fractions were separated by ultracentrifugation and their phospholipid composition was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. RESULTS: Nephrotic subjects (albumin 23 +/- 2 g/liter and LDL cholesterol 3.1 +/- 0.2 mmol/liter) had a LDL LPC concentration that was increased (P < 0.05) to 66 +/- 7 vs. 35 +/- 6 micromol/liter in matched controls (albumin 42 +/- 5 g/liter and LDL cholesterol 3.1 +/- 0.2 mmol/liter). LPC in very low-density lipoprotein plus intermediate-density lipoprotein (VLDL + IDL) in these subjects was also increased to 33 +/- 7 vs. 9 +/- 2 micromol/liter in controls (P < 0.05). Conversely, LPC was decreased to 19 +/- 4 micromol/liter in the albumin-containing fraction of these hypoalbuminemic patients, as compared to 46 +/- 10 micromol/liter in the controls (P < 0.05). LPC was also low (14 +/- 4 micromol/liter) in the albumin-containing fraction of hypoalbuminemic, hypocholesterolemic patients with nonrenal diseases. In hyperlipidemic nephrotic subjects (albumin 21 +/- 2 g/liter and LDL cholesterol 5.7 +/- 0.5 mmol/liter) the LPC levels in LDL and VLDL + IDL were further increased, to 95 +/- 20 and 56 +/- 23 micromol/liter, respectively (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that in the presence of hypoalbuminemia in combination with proteinuria, LPC shifts from albumin to VLDL, IDL and LDL. This effect is independent of hyperlipidemia. Increased LPC in lipoproteins may be an important factor in the disproportionate increase in cardiovascular disease in nephrotic patients with hypoalbuminemia.  (+info)

Effect of MTHFR 677C>T on plasma total homocysteine levels in renal graft recipients. (8/16417)

BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia is an established, independent risk factor for vascular disease morbidity and mortality. The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism C677T has been shown to result in increased total homocysteine concentrations on the basis of low folate levels caused by a decreased enzyme activity. The effect of this polymorphism on total homocysteine and folate plasma levels in renal transplant patients is unknown. METHODS: We screened 636 kidney graft recipients for the presence of the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism. The major determinants of total homocysteine and folate plasma concentrations of 63 patients, who were identified to be homozygous for this gene polymorphism compared with heterozygotes (N = 63), and patients with wild-type alleles (N = 63), who were matched for sex, age, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and body mass index, were identified by analysis of covariance. The variables included sex, age, GFR, body mass index, time since transplantation, folate and vitamin B12 levels, the use of azathioprine, and the MTHFR genotype. To investigate the impact of the kidney donor MTHFR genotype on total homocysteine and folate plasma concentrations, a similar model was applied in 111 kidney graft recipients with stable graft function, in whom the kidney donor C677T MTHFR gene polymorphism was determined. RESULTS: The allele frequency of the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene was 0.313 in the whole study population [wild-type (CC), 301; heterozygous (CT), 272; and homozygous mutant (TT), 63 patients, respectively] and showed no difference in the patient subgroups with various renal diseases. The MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism significantly influenced total homocysteine and folate plasma concentrations in renal transplant recipients (P = 0.0009 and P = 0.0002, respectively). Furthermore, a significant influence of the GFR (P = 0.0001), folate levels (P = 0.0001), age (P = 0.0001), body mass index (P = 0.0001), gender (P = 0.0005), and vitamin B12 levels (P = 0.004) on total homocysteine concentrations was observed. The donor MTHFR gene polymorphism had no influence on total homocysteine and folate levels. Geometric mean total homocysteine levels in patients homozygous for the mutant MTHFR allele were 18.6 micromol/liter compared with 14.6 micromol/liter and 14.9 micromol/liter in patients heterozygous for the MTHFR gene polymorphism and those with wild-type alleles (P < 0.05 for TT vs. CT and CC). Geometric mean folate levels were lower in CT and TT patients (11.2 and 10.2 nmol/liter) compared with CC patients (13.6 nmol/liter, P < 0.05 vs. CT and TT). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that homozygosity for the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene significantly increases total homocysteine concentrations and lowers folate levels in kidney graft recipients, even in patients with excellent renal function (GFR more than median). These findings have important implications for risk evaluation and vitamin intervention therapy in these patients who carry an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular disease.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - miR-199a-5p is a marker of blood pressure in premature cardiovascular disease patients homozygous for the MTHFR C677T polymorphism.. AU - Lynch, Seodhna. AU - Ward, Mary. AU - McNulty, Helene. AU - Horigan, G. AU - Strain, JJ. AU - purvis, John. AU - tackett, Mike. AU - McKenna, Declan. PY - 2017/9/11. Y1 - 2017/9/11. N2 - Introduction: microRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs which are potentially valuable markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, including hypertension. This novel investigation aims to profile circulating serum concentrations of microRNAs in premature CVD patients to identify microRNAs that correlate best with hypertension.Methods: Serum samples from an existing cohort of 75 premature CVD patients were analysed for expression of 68 CVD-related microRNAs. Patients had been screened for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism C677T, a risk factor for hypertension. Samples had been collected at baseline and following intervention with ...
Overweight in adolescence is considered an important predictor of long-term morbidity and mortality. The impact of adolescent overweight on adult overweight and related multiple cardiovascular risk factors was examined in a biracial (black-white) cohort (N = 783) who participated in two cross-sectio …
© 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Objective: To examine the effect on cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors of interventions to alter consultations between practitioners and patients with type 2 diabetes. Search Strategy: Electronic and manual citation searching to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Inclusion Criteria: RCTs that compared usual care to interventions to alter consultations between practitioners and patients. The population was adults aged over 18 years with type 2 diabetes. Trials were set in primary care. Data extraction and synthesis: We recorded if explicit theory-based interventions were used, how consultations were measured to determine whether interventions had an effect on these and calculated weighted mean differences for CVD risk factors including glycated haemoglobin (HbA 1c ), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C).
Julius S, Kjeldsen SE, Weber M, Brunner HR, Ekman S, Hansson L, Hua T, Laragh J, McInnes GT, Mitchell L, Plat F, Schork A, Smith B, Zanchetti A, VALUE trial group. Outcomes in hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk treated with regimens based on valsartan or amlodipine: the VALUE randomised trial. Lancet. 2004; 363(9426): 2022-31 ...
Background Cardiovascular disease may be the leading cause of increased mortality for adolescents with advanced kidney disease. cardiovascular mortality. Great opportunity exists to improve outcomes for children with kidney disease by improving reliability of preventive care that may include formal transition programs. Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, transition, quality, chronic kidney disease, kidney transplantation, dialysis Intro Outcomes for children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have improved with an increasing number surviving well into adulthood.[1C2] Unfortunately, many of these patients have cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates over 1,000 instances that of their age-matched peers and will experience premature death due to CVD in early adulthood.[3C4] This exceedingly high CVD risk is related to a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) that predict CVD in the general population (such as hypertension, ...
Skeletal muscle mass in relation to 10 year cardiovascular disease incidence among middle aged and older adults: the ATTICA study ...
Methods and Results-In a double-blind controlled trial, we randomized 4110 stable kidney transplant recipients to a multivitamin that included either a high dose (n=2056) or low dose (n=2054) of folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 to determine whether decreasing total homocysteine concentrations reduced the rate of the primary composite arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease outcome (myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular disease death, resuscitated sudden death, coronary artery or renal artery revascularization, lower-extremity arterial disease, carotid endarterectomy or angioplasty, or abdominal aortic aneurysm repair). Mean follow-up was 4.0 years. Treatment with the high-dose multivitamin reduced homocysteine but did not reduce the rates of the primary outcome (n=547 total events; hazards ratio [95% confidence interval]=0.99 [0.84 to 1.17]), secondary outcomes of all-cause mortality (n=431 deaths; 1.04 [0.86 to 1.26]), or dialysis-dependent kidney failure (n=343 events; 1.15 ...
Background: Mild cognitive impairment is a risk factor for dementia. Midlife cardiovascular disease risk factors such as high blood pressure and smoking have strong relationships to both cognitive impairment and dementia in late life. Intakes of several nutrients including fats and alcohol have been found to contribute to both cardiovascular disease and risk of cognitive impairment. Literature shows that cardiovascular disease risk factors at age 50, predict lifetime risk of both cardiovascular disease and dementia. The aim of this study is to investigate relationships between the intake of fats and alcohol in relation to cognitive impairment, and five-year cardiovascular disease risk (fatal and non-fatal) in 50 year old Cantabrians. The hypotheses for this study are: • That fifty year olds with higher five year cardiovascular disease risk have a higher risk of mild cognitive impairment. • Secondly that fifty year olds who consume the recommended proportions of dietary fats and recommended ...
The goal of this work was to perform an exploratory analysis to establish a framework for mt-PheWAS for investigating the relationship between mtDNA variation and a range of phenotypes. We first employed a polygenic approach to investigate the global effect of mtDNA variation on phenotypic variance for eight cardiovascular-related traits. Given the metabolic trait focus of the nuclear SNP content on the Metabochip and the nature of the selected phenotypes in this study, we expected the polygenic analysis would reveal significant proportion of trait variance explained. However, overall, we observed relatively low PVE for both nuclear and mitochondrial genetic variation. Only a single trait, total cholesterol, reached statistical significance in the polygenic analysis, although T2D approached the statistical significance threshold of p , 0.05. The low PVE may be due, in part, to the targeted nature of the Metabochip which does not contain a genome-wide distribution of SNPs that can be found on ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Incidence of new cardiovascular events in patients with and without peripheral arterial disease seen in a vascular surgery clinic. AU - Chhabra, Amit. AU - Aronow, Wilbert S.. AU - Ahn, Chul. AU - Duncan, Kurt. AU - Patel, Jay D.. AU - Papolos, Alexander I.. AU - Sateesh, Babu. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - Background: To investigate the incidence of death and of new cardiovascular events at long-term follow-up of patients with and without PAD seen in a vascular surgery clinic. Material/Methods: We investigated the incidence of death, new stroke/transient ischemic attack, new myocardial infarction, new coronary revascularization, new carotid endarterectomy, new peripheral arterial disease (PAD) revascularization, or at least one of the above outcomes at long-term follow-up of patients with and without PAD followed in a vascular surgery clinic. Results: At least one of the above outcomes occurred in 259 of 414 patients (63%) with PAD at 33-month follow-up and in 21 of 89 ...
Background: It is controversial about the sex differences in the association of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Thus, we examined CVD risk makers of CKD and non-CKD men and women in China, especially some
Comparability of total cardiovascular disease risk estimates using laboratory and non-laboratory based assessments in urban-dwelling South Africans: The CRIBSA study
The ASPEN did not find a significant reduction in the primary composite end point comparing 10 mg of atorvastatin with placebo (13.7 and 15.0%). However, a 27% reduction in fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction, although nonsignificant, is comparable to that found in statin cardiovascular end point trials (19). The result for the primary end point differs from the majority of recent studies showing a significant CHD benefit of treating individuals with type 2 diabetes (13-16), with or without prior CHD. The reasons for this result may relate to the overall study design, the types of subjects recruited, the nature of the primary end point, and the protocol changes required because of changing treatment guidelines.. Equivalent CVD rates in diabetic patients without prior CHD and nondiabetic patients with CHD were reported in at least three observational studies (1-4). However, at least four other studies did not report as high a rate of CHD in diabetic patients without CHD (5-8). Therefore, the ...
The ASPEN did not find a significant reduction in the primary composite end point comparing 10 mg of atorvastatin with placebo (13.7 and 15.0%). However, a 27% reduction in fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction, although nonsignificant, is comparable to that found in statin cardiovascular end point trials (19). The result for the primary end point differs from the majority of recent studies showing a significant CHD benefit of treating individuals with type 2 diabetes (13-16), with or without prior CHD. The reasons for this result may relate to the overall study design, the types of subjects recruited, the nature of the primary end point, and the protocol changes required because of changing treatment guidelines.. Equivalent CVD rates in diabetic patients without prior CHD and nondiabetic patients with CHD were reported in at least three observational studies (1-4). However, at least four other studies did not report as high a rate of CHD in diabetic patients without CHD (5-8). Therefore, the ...
Study documents connection between increased levels of these lipids and cancer growth and metastasis; also opens door to new avenue for cancer treatment. December 19, 2011. Boston, Mass. - A group of small molecules called EETs - currently under scrutiny as possible treatment targets for a host of cardiovascular diseases - may also drive the growth and spread of cancer, according to researchers at the Dana-Farber/Childrens Hospital Cancer Center (DF/CHCC) and other institutions. Their findings also raise the possibility that drugs that block EETs could serve as a new avenue for cancer treatment.. This study, led by Dipak Panigrahy, MD, of DF/CHCC and the Vascular Biology Program at Childrens Hospital Boston, appeared online December 19 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.. EETs (or epoxyeicosatrienoic acids) are small fatty molecules, part of a larger family of lipids normally produced by the endothelial cells that line blood vessels to control inflammation and the response to injury. ...
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of rosiglitazone and/or exercise training on novel cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. One hundred overweight/obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, with inadequ
Introduction: Current calculators to estimate risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease mortality do not include cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) or physical activity (PA) measures. This is problematic as CRF is an independent risk factor for CV mortality. To address this issue, Wickramasinghe et al. developed a calculator which includes CRF along with other traditional CV risk factors. The purpose of the present study is to determine the effect of aerobic (AER), resistance (RES) or combination (COMB) exercise training on 30-year CV mortality risk in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D).. Methods: The present study is an ancillary analysis of the Health Benefits of Aerobic and Resistance Training Study (HART-D). Adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) (n=196) were randomized to 9 months of AER, RES, COMB exercise training or a control group (CON). Thirty-year CV mortality risk was evaluated by entering each participants sex, age, blood pressure, smoking status, T2D status, cholesterol, and BMI into a risk ...
The Framingham Risk Score is a gender-specific algorithm used to estimate the 10-year cardiovascular risk of an individual. The Framingham Risk Score was first developed based on data obtained from the Framingham Heart Study, to estimate the 10-year risk of developing coronary heart disease. In order to assess the 10-year cardiovascular disease risk, cerebrovascular events, peripheral artery disease and heart failure were subsequently added as disease outcomes for the 2008 Framingham Risk Score, on top of coronary heart disease. The Framingham Risk Score is one of a number of scoring systems used to determine an individuals chances of developing cardiovascular disease. A number of these scoring systems are available online. Cardiovascular risk scoring systems give an estimate of the probability that a person will develop cardiovascular disease within a specified amount of time, usually 10 to 30 years. Because they give an indication of the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, they also ...
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in America, with well-established and identifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are the primary driver for first cardiovascular event, and risk factor modification has been a significant driver for reduction of cardiovascular death in certain populations in recent decades.1,2 However, there remains significant opportunity to improve clinician and patient participation in evidence-based screening and preventative care. According to registry-based studies, 40-60% of patients with cardiovascular risk factors are non-adherent to at least one key component of primary prevention.3 Among those with established atherothrombotic disease, up to 90% are taking antiplatelet, lipid-lowering or anti-hypertensive therapy. However, fewer than 50% are fully adherent to all medications with a class 1 indication in secondary prevention, which is associated with marked increase in risk for recurrent events and death.4. The Million Hearts Initiative ...
In order to prevent cardiovascular events, it is essential to effectively manage overall risk of cardiovascular disease. However, despite guideline recommendations to this effect, current management of the major, modifiable cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidemia is disconnected and patient adherence to therapy is poor. This is particularly important for patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, who are often prescribed multiple medications. The JEWEL study program investigated the use of single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin as a strategy to improve management of these patients. The JEWEL program consisted of two 16-week, international, open-label, multicenter, titration-to-goal studies in patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia. The two studies differed based on country of enrollment and certain tertiary endpoints, but the overall designs were very similar. Patients were enrolled from 255 centers across Canada and 13 European countries. The study was designed to
Recent studies in the field demonstrate an increasing impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) on morbidity and mortality in HIV relative to AIDS-related diagnoses. Studies continue to support an approximately 1.5 to two-fold increased risk of IHD conferred by HIV, with specific risk varying by sex and virologic/immunologic status. Risk factors include both traditional CVD risk factors and novel, HIV-specific factors including inflammation and immune activation. Specific antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs may increase CVD risk, yet the net effect of ART with viral suppression is beneficial with regard to CVD risk. Management of cardiovascular risk and prevention of CVD is complex, because current general population strategies target traditional CVD risk factors only. Extensive investigation is being directed at developing tailored CVD risk prediction algorithms and interventions to reduce CVD risk in HIV.. SUMMARY ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nutrition and physical activity interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in health care settings. T2 - A quantitative review with a focus on women. AU - Wilcox, S.. AU - Parra-Medina, D.. AU - Thompson-Robinson, M.. AU - Will, J.. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - The authors conducted a quantitative literature review of the impact of 32 diet and physical activity (PA) interventions delivered in health care settings on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Intervention effects were relatively modest but statistically significant for PA, body mass index or weight, dietary fat, blood pressure, and total and low-density lipoprotein serum cholesterol. Intervention effects were generally larger for samples with a mean age ,50 years and for studies with ,6 months follow-up. Type of comparison group, type of intervention, and use of a behavior theory did not have a consistent impact on intervention effects. Few studies focused on persons of color, although the results from ...
Cardiovascular disease is a major health concern affecting over 80,000,000 people in the U.S. alone. Heart failure, cardiomyopathy, heart rhythm disorders, atherosclerosis and aneurysm formation have significant heritable contribution. Supported by familial aggregation and twin studies, these cardiovascular diseases are influenced by genetic variation. Family-based linkage studies and population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have each identified genes and variants important for the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. The advent of next generation sequencing has ushered in a new era in the genetic diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, and this is especially evident when considering cardiomyopathy, a leading cause of heart failure. Cardiomyopathy is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by morphologically abnormal heart with abnormal function. Genetic testing for cardiomyopathy employs gene panels, and these panels assess more than 50 genes simultaneously. Despite the large
Results Modelbase indicated that baseline age, smoking, hypertension, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and diabetes were all significantly associated with plaque progression; the summarised population attributable risk (PAR) was 28.4%. Modelbase + change indicated that status changes in age, hypertension, and high LDL-C were significant; the summarised PAR was 37.9%. Compared with Modelbase, Modelbase + change exhibited a significant increase in c-statistics (P = 0.001), from 0.668 (95% CI: 0.645-0.691) to 0.688 (95%CI: 0.665-0.710). The NRI was 2.17% (95% CI: 1.29-3.05, P = 0.073) among participants without atherosclerosis progression, and was 6.57% (95% CI: 5.04-8.11, P , 0.001) among those with progression. The summarised NRI was 8.74 (95% CI: 7.51-9.94, P , 0.001). Adverse change in hypertension and elevated LDL-C accelerated atherosclerosis progression, but favourable change in their status failed to slow progression. We ...
Our analysis demonstrates a complex relationship between 10-year total CVD and CVD mortality in the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study, a large European cohort. Men and women showed a decreasing CVD morbidity/mortality ratio with increasing age, and with a greater ratio for women in all age groups. Thus, our results suggest that the ratios of total CVD/CVD mortality are age-dependent and sex-dependent. Furthermore, only 12.9% of first CVD events were fatal. By focusing on CVD mortality only, the overall burden of CVD is seriously underestimated, leaving large numbers of individuals untreated, despite the fact that their risk of CVD events is substantial.. The ESC prevention guidelines use the 10-year cardiovascular mortality risk predictor SCORE as a decision-making tool in primary prevention.2 ,8 Using SCORE risk charts, clinicians can identify individuals with a high risk (≥5%) of 10-year CVD mortality. Based on data from the FINRISK study, it is suggested that at the level at which ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - HOMA insulin sensitivity index and the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease events in the general population: The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab) study. AU - Barr, Elizabeth. AU - Cameron, Adrian. AU - Balkau, Beverley. AU - Zimmet, Paul. AU - Welborn, Timothy. AU - Tonkin, Andrew. AU - Shaw, Jonathan. PY - 2010/1. Y1 - 2010/1. N2 - Aims/hypothesis: We assessed whether the relationships between insulin sensitivity and all-cause mortality as well as fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events are independent of elevated blood glucose, high blood pressure, dyslipidaemia and body composition in individuals without diagnosed diabetes. Methods: Between 1999 and 2000, baseline fasting insulin, glucose and lipids, 2 h plasma glucose, HbA1c, anthropometrics, blood pressure, medication use, smoking and history of CVD were collected from 8,533 adults aged ,35 years from the population-based Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) levels in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) with and without depression. AU - Chang, Jane Pei Chen. AU - Chang, Shih Sheng. AU - Yang, Hui Ting. AU - Palani, Mahalakshmi. AU - Chen, Chun Ping. AU - Su, Kuan Pin. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are commonly comorbid with depression and vice versa. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to mediate in CVDs and depression in cross-sectional and observational studies. With the patients of CVDs, we investigated the role of depression on the effect of PUFAs. Methods: Forty-four patients with CVDs were recruited and assessed with Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD). Patients CVDs markers were measured by electrocardiogram and their red blood cell (RBC) samples were collected for PUFAs analyses. Results: The data of 44 subjects were analyzed; where 10 participants (23%) with CVDs had moderate or severe depression, defined by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - What is the predictive value of established risk factors for total and cardiovascular disease mortality when measured before middle age? Pooled analyses of two propsective cohort studies from Scotland. AU - Gray, L. AU - Hart, CL. AU - Smith, D. AU - Batty, GD. AU - Davey Smith, G. PY - 2010/2. Y1 - 2010/2. N2 - Aims To examine the association of physiological, behavioural and social characteristics in pre-middle age with future total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Methods and results Risk factor data on 1503 individuals aged 16-35 years at baseline were collected in two prospective cohort studies using standard protocols. Their association with total and CVD mortality ascertained during 40 years of follow-up was summarized using Cox proportional hazards regression. A median follow-up of 39.6 years gave rise to 255 deaths (103 from CVD). In age-adjusted and sex-adjusted analyses, impaired lung function [one standard deviation increases in forced expiratory volume in ...
Altenburg, Teatske M., Rotteveel, Joost, Dunstan, David W., Salmon, Jo and Chinapaw, Mai J. M. 2013, The effect of interrupting prolonged sitting time with short, hourly, moderate-intensity cycling bouts on cardiometabolic risk factors in healthy, young adults, Journal of applied physiology, vol. 115, no. 12, pp. 1751-1756, doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00662.2013. ...
BACKGROUND: The relationship between macronutrients and cardiovascular disease and mortality is controversial. Most available data are from European and North American populations where nutrition excess is more likely, so their applicability to other populations is unclear.. METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a large, epidemiological cohort study of individuals aged 35-70 years (enrolled between Jan 1, 2003, and March 31, 2013) in 18 countries with a median follow-up of 7·4 years (IQR 5·3-9·3). Dietary intake of 135 335 individuals was recorded using validated food frequency questionnaires. The primary outcomes were total mortality and major cardiovascular events (fatal cardiovascular disease, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure). Secondary outcomes were all myocardial infarctions, stroke, cardiovascular disease mortality, and non-cardiovascular disease mortality. Participants were categorised into quintiles of nutrient intake ...
I would suspect that the different effects of anti-oxidants in healthy and unhealthy individuals may well be attributed to different levels of pro-oxidant activity. Recent studies (e.g. Ristow 2009) have shown that a certain amount of oxidation as induced by resistant exercise is necessary to trigger the health-promoting effects of physical exercise in humans - huge amounts of anti-oxidants will prevent these efffects. If, on the other hand, the oxidation processes exceed a certain level or are induced by an unhealthy diet, the provision of appropriate amounts of anti-oxidants is obviously beneficial for overall health. It is - as always - a matter of keeping things balanced ...
Traditional cardiovascular risk factors had larger associations with cardiovascular mortality than novel risk factors in elderly persons with chronic kidney disease. Future research should investigate whether aggressive lifestyle intervention in patients with chronic kidney disease can reduce their …
Female cardiovascular patients who are depressed amass up to 53 percent higher costs in cardiovascular health care over five years, according to an article in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. C. Noel Bairey Merz, M.D., who led the study and is a nationally recognized expert in womens heart disease, is available to provide details on the relationship between depression and cardiovascular costs.
Perk J., De Backer G., Gohlke H., Graham I., Reiner Z., Verschuren WMM., Albus C., Benlian P., Boysen G., Cifkova R., Deaton C., Ebrahim S., Fisher M., Germano G., Hobbs R., Hoes A., Karadeniz S., Mezzani A., Prescott E., Ryden L., Scherer M., Syvänne M., Scholte Op Reimer WJM., Vrints C., Wood D., Zamorano JL., Zannad F., Fifth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice None., European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation None ...
Omega-3 oil does not reduce serious cardiovascular events for patients with diabetes mellitus (ASCEND) answers are found in the EE+ POEM Archive powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
AIMS: Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are both predictors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We compared absolute risk, hazard ratio (HR), and population attributable risk of nonfatal and fatal CVD for BMI and WC in a large prospective cohort study with an average follow-up of 10 years.. METHODS AND RESULTS: Anthropometric data were measured between 1993 and 1997 in a general population sample of over 20,000 men and women aged 20-65 years in the Netherlands. All risks were adjusted for age and sex. Absolute risk of nonfatal CVD was on average 10 times higher than that of fatal CVD. In obese respondents (BMI ,or=30 kg/m2), relative risk of fatal CVD was four-fold higher [HR=4.0 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.4-6.6], whereas risk of nonfatal CVD was two-fold higher (HR=1.8 95% CI=1.6-2.2) than in normal-weight respondents. Similar associations were observed for WC (,or=88 vs. ,80 cm in women and ,or=102 vs. 94 cm in men). In persons with overweight or obesity (BMI ,or=25 kg/m2), ...
In this issue, 2 articles (5, 6) express widely divergent views regarding the role of CRP in cardiovascular disease risk stratification. Because individuals at greatest risk for disease have the most to gain from medical interventions (7), correctly specifying level of risk is an important clinical task. Both Cook and colleagues (5) and Lloyd-Jones and coworkers (6) investigate whether adding CRP to predictive models could usefully improve the ability of clinicians to target interventions. Lloyd-Jones and coworkers (6), who review the published evidence, show that adding CRP to predictive models containing conventional cardiovascular risk factors leads to minor improvement in measures of discrimination (receiver-operator characteristic curve properties or c-statistics). This finding is in line with the findings of the most recent study on this issue (8). Cook and colleagues (5) argue that these measures of discrimination are not appropriate for evaluating the utility of adding single variables ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Systematic review of cardiovascular disease in women. T2 - Assessing the risk. AU - Worrall-Carter, Linda. AU - Ski, Chantal. AU - Scruth, Elizabeth. AU - Campbell, Michelle. AU - Page, Karen. PY - 2011/12/1. Y1 - 2011/12/1. N2 - Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death for women. In an effort to reduce cardiovascular burden for women, identifying risk factors and increasing awareness of sex differences are fundamental. This systematic review examines cardiovascular disease risk for women. A search of the literature was undertaken using key health databases. Search terms used were cardiovascular disease AND women OR gender. Additional references were manually identified from this literature; 58 articles were reviewed in total. On average, cardiovascular disease presents 10years later in women compared to men. By this time, they are more likely to suffer from more comorbidities, placing them at higher risk. The complexity of cardiovascular disease identification in ...
Background-Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) is a phosphate regulatory hormone that directly stimulates left ventricular hypertrophy in experimental models. The role of FGF-23 in cardiovascular disease development in the general population is unclear. We tested associations of FGF-23 with major subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease outcomes in a large prospective cohort. Methods and Results-We evaluated 6,547 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) who were initially free of cardiovascular disease. We measured serum FGF-23 using the Kainos immunoassay. The MESA measured left ventricular (LV) mass by magnetic resonance imaging, coronary calcium (CAC) by computed tomography, and carotid intima-medial thickness (IMT) by ultrasound. The MESA adjudicated incident heart failure, coronary heart disease, and stoke by medical record review. After adjustment, the highest FGF-23 quartile was associated with an estimated 2.4 gram greater LV mass (95% CI 0.4, 4.5 ...
Adults with late-onset asthma had a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease events such as MI, stroke and heart failure compared with those who did not have asthma even after adjusting for age, sex and cardiovascular disease risk factors.
Cardiovascular diseases constitute one of the major causes of disability and death all over the world. Increased mechanisation, Westernisation of lifestyle and genetic factors, coupled with an increase in life expectancy owing to control of infectious diseases, have contributed to its rise in the developing world as well.. Despite remarkable advances in the identification of various risk factors and our enhanced knowledge regarding the aetiopathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and molecular targeting for drug development, effective drug management of cardiovascular diseases still eludes medical researchers. There continues to be an unmet need for better and safer drugs to treat as well as to prevent cardiovascular diseases. In this regard, it is important to remember that many of the cardiovascular diseases are preventable, either by lifestyle modification and/or by drugs.. The past few decades have witnessed the introduction of a remarkable number of not only new drugs, but also new classes ...
WOODBRIDGE, ON, Oct. 9, 2012/ PRNewswire/- Pivotal Therapeutics Inc., a specialty pharmaceutical company with a focus on cardiovascular disease and overall health, is pleased to announce that the company will be exhibiting at the 2012 Cardiometabolic Health Congress in Boston, MA October 10-13, 2012 Booth #513. The CMHC attracts over 1000 U.S. based practicing clinicians and provides a forum for the most current information on preventing, diagnosing and managing cardiovascular and metabolic disorders.
include being overweight, smoking, diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. Digital health interventions include telemedicine, Web-based (Internet) strategies, e-mail, mobile phones, mobile applications, text messaging, and monitoring sensors. These methods have been used to help people monitor their health and change behaviors, reducing their risk for preventable diseases.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - County-level hispanic ethnic density and cardiovascular disease mortality. AU - Rodriguez, Fatima. AU - Hu, Jiaqi. AU - Kershaw, Kiarri. AU - Hastings, Katherine G.. AU - López, Lenny. AU - Cullen, Mark R.. AU - Harrington, Robert A.. AU - Palaniappan, Latha P.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (R01MD007012) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (F32HL132396).. PY - 2018/10/1. Y1 - 2018/10/1. N2 - Background Hispanics are the fastest growing ethnic group in the United States, and little is known about how Hispanic ethnic population density impacts cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Methods and Results We examined county-level deaths for Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites from 2003 to 2012 using data from the National Center for Health Statistics Multiple Cause of Death mortality files. Counties with more than 20 Hispanic deaths (n=715) were included in the analyses. CVD deaths ...
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are considered to be the predominant reason behind death in the world. of AS initiation and development and find out effective realtors for AS administration recently. 1. Launch Cardiovascular illnesses (CVDs) will be the most common reason behind health loss in the home and overseas, by the actual fact that a lot more than 13 million sufferers expire from CVDs yearly [1]. It is shown that atherosclerosis (AS) is the pivotal pathological basis of CVDs. AS, characterized by formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the KW-6002 inhibition artery intima, could induce lumen stenosis or occlusion, finally leading to the event of CVDs [2]. Thus, in order to reduce the prevalence of life-threatening CVDs, especially ischemic heart disease and stroke, the prevention and treatment of AS are of vital importance. Over the past years, several medicines have been developed as therapeutic providers for While and the representative one is the statin. However, there is evidence ...
Background The presence of pets has been associated with reduction of stress and blood pressure and therefore may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Methods Relative risks (RR) of all deaths, death due to myocardial infarction (MI), cardiovascular diseases (MI or stroke), and stroke during a 20 year follow-up were determined by Cox proportional hazards analysis for categories of cat or dog ownership among participants after adjustment for potential confounding...
This research quantifies the lag effects and vulnerabilities of temperature effects on cardiovascular disease in Changsha-a subtropical climate zone of China. A Poisson regression model within a distributed lag nonlinear models framework was used to examine the lag effects of cold- and heat-related CVD mortality. The lag effect for heat-related CVD mortality was just 0-3 days. In contrast, we observed a statistically significant association with 10-25 lag days for cold-related CVD mortality. Low temperatures with 0-2 lag days increased the mortality risk for those ≥65 years and females. For all ages, the cumulative effects of cold-related CVD mortality was 6.6% (95% CI: 5.2%-8.2%) for 30 lag days while that of heat-related CVD mortality was 4.9% (95% CI: 2.0%-7.9%) for 3 lag days. We found that in Changsha city, the lag effect of hot temperatures is short while the lag effect of cold temperatures is long. Females and older people were more sensitive to extreme hot and cold temperatures than males and
Ageing exerts differential effects on arterial stiffness and wave reflections. However, the impact of cardiovascular risk factors on arterial stiffness and wave reflections and, particularly, how such effects are influenced by ageing has not been assessed within a single large population, covering a sufficiently wide age range. Therefore, we determined the extent to which age alters the impact of traditional cardiovascular risk factors on arterial stiffness and wave reflections. Aortic stiffness and wave reflections were assessed in 4421 individuals (age range 18 to 92 years). When treated as continuous variables, clinic systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressures and glucose levels were independently associated with stiffness, and, with the exception of diastolic pressure, these associations were more marked in older individuals. In contrast, clinic systolic and diastolic pressures and smoking were independently associated with wave reflections, with stronger associations observed in younger ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of supervised exercise therapy on modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in intermittent claudication. AU - Jansen, Sandra C. P.. AU - Hoorweg, Beatrijs B. N.. AU - Hoeks, Sanne E.. AU - van den Houten, Marijn M. L.. AU - Scheltinga, Marc R. M.. AU - Teijink, Joep A. W.. AU - Rouwet, Ellen V.. PY - 2019/4. Y1 - 2019/4. KW - Intermittent claudication. KW - Peripheral artery disease. KW - Supervised exercise therapy. KW - Cardiovascular risk. KW - PERIPHERAL ARTERY-DISEASE. KW - TREADMILL EXERCISE. KW - SECONDARY PREVENTION. KW - ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION. KW - WALKING ABILITY. KW - OLDER PATIENTS. KW - WEIGHT-LOSS. KW - HEART-RATE. KW - REHABILITATION. KW - STRENGTH. U2 - 10.1016/j.jvs.2018.10.069. DO - 10.1016/j.jvs.2018.10.069. M3 - Review article. VL - 69. SP - 1293-1308.e2. JO - Journal of Vascular Surgery. JF - Journal of Vascular Surgery. SN - 0741-5214. IS - 4. ER - ...
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death among homeless people. This study examines CVD risk factors and 30-year CVD risk in a population of homeless individuals with mental illness. CVD risks factors were assessed in 352 homeless individuals with mental illness in Toronto, Canada, at the time of their enrollment in the At Home/Chez Soi Project, a randomized trial of a Housing First intervention. The 30-year risk for CVD (coronary death, myocardial infarction, and fatal or nonfatal stroke) was calculated using published formulas and examined for association with need for mental health services, diagnosis of psychotic disorder, sex, ethnicity, access to a family physician and diagnosis of substance dependence. The 30-year CVD risk for study participants was 24.5 ± 18.4%, more than double the reference normal of 10.1 ± 7.21% (difference = −13.0% 95% CI −16.5% to −9.48%). Univariate analyses revealed 30-year CVD risk was greater among males (OR 3.99, 95% CI 2.47 to 6.56) and those
High tumour burden, delayed diagnosis and history of cardiovascular disease may be associated with carcinoid heart disease Carolina Alves1, Marcell
In this large, representative cohort of very old subjects aged 80 years and older, traditional cardiovascular risk factors did not show an association with all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. This pattern was observed both in subjects with and without cardiovascular disease. The presence of frailty, on the other hand, was able to identify patients at high risk for mortality. However, within the strata of robust and frail subjects, traditional cardiovascular risk factors were not able to further identify patients at risk of mortality. Only a history of cardiovascular disease showed a strong association with mortality in robust subjects.. The current study showed that classic cardiovascular risk factors were not associated with mortality in the oldest old. In the Leiden 85 Plus study, de Ruijter et al. [17] showed that classic risk factors included in the Framingham risk score could not identify patients at risk for cardiovascular mortality. This study was performed on a subpopulation of ...
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For your information, a study entitled Adverse effects of fructose on cardiometabolic risk factors and hepatic lipid metabolism in subjects with abdominal obesity was recently published in the Journal of Internal Medicine. The purpose of this study by Taskinen et al. was to determine the effects of fructose on liver fat development, body composition, dietary intake, cardiometabolic risk markers, hepatic de novo lipogenesis, and postprandial responses to a standardized oral fat tolerance test (OFTT).. Seventy-one obese healthy men between the ages of 20 and 65 for the study at four clinical centers (Helsinki, Finland; Naples, Italy; Quebec, Canada; and Gothenburg, Sweden) completed the study. Inclusion criteria included: large waist circumference (,96 cm), body mass index (BMI) between 27 and 40 kg/m2, stable weight over the preceding 3 months, a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) ,4.5 mmol/L, and serum triglycerides (TG) ,5.5 mmol/L. Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and diagnoses of type 2 ...
Brittney Jackson. Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in the United States and consume a significant amount of healthcare expenditures8. It is well researched and known that gene expression patterns are substantially altered in cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial infarction (MI), and heart failure5. microRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that can target multiple molecules to regulate proteins and are essential for normal development and physiology of the heart. Dysregulation of these miRNAs is linked to CVD and serve as biomarkers1. Methods: Mice were placed under vigorous physical aerobic exercise including swimming and running 5 days per week for 8-10 weeks following an induced MI2,6. miRNA levels were measured and evaluated in regard to increased or decreased expression and their effect on cardiovascular health. This was accomplished by taking left ventricle samples and homogenizing them in TRIZOL. RNA was isolated and specific miRNAs were analyzed ...
This study investigated the associations between circulating plasma biomarkers, which were previously identified by proteomics or immunohistochemistry experiments in human carotid plaques and adverse cardiovascular outcome in patients undergoing coronary angiography. The prognostic value of the majority of these proteins, including OGN and NGAL/MMP9 complex, for MACE had not yet been investigated. Higher circulating OGN and NGAL/MMP9 complex levels were associated with incident MACE during the first year of follow-up, independently of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Adding OGN or NGAL/MMP9 to a model containing conventional cardiovascular risk factors improved risk classification and discriminatory ability, although the latter was not statistically significant. These associations with incident MACE and improvements in predictive ability were independent of CRP.. In previous proteomic experiments, we have identified a series of novel potential markers of vulnerable atherosclerotic ...
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Background and Rationale Cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in the kidney transplant population, accounting for approximately 40% of all deaths and significant morbidity. The morbidity and mortality experienced by kidney transplant recipients results from an excess of pre-transplant risk factors that are exacerbated by kidney transplantation along with the development of novel risk factors. Hypertension (HTN) is the most consistent cardiovascular disease risk factor in transplant recipients. The majority of patients with kidney failure have HTN and close to 30,000 individuals annually have HTN as the primary cause of kidney failure. A number of immunosuppressive medications exacerbate HTN after transplantation. Further, there is a clear effect of declining allograft function on cardiovascular disease risk.. A large number of studies have been done in the general population comparing ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) to casual, office based and home measures of blood pressure ...
Results Carotid plaque was present in 162 (49.1%) of the Spanish patients. The SCORE and Framingham score were each strongly associated with plaque (P ,0.0001). In predicting plaque presence, the area under the curve (AUC) (SE) of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for the Framingham score was larger than for the SCORE (0.799 (0.024) versus 0.747 (0.027), P =0.003). The optimal cut-off value and corresponding sensitivity and specificity for the Framingham score and SCORE were 11.0, 64% and 81% and 0.5, 86% and 58%, respectively. Based on optimal cut-off values, a high Framingham score but not SCORE was associated with carotid plaque independent of age, sex, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein concentrations. Whereas a conventional Framingham score value of ≥20 correctly classified only 25% as being at high CVD risk, this proportion increased to 64% in those with a Framingham score of ,11; the percentage of patients without plaque incorrectly classified as being ...
Background: Job strain is associated with an increased coronary heart disease risk, but few large-scale studies have examined the relationship of this psychosocial characteristic with the biological risk factors that potentially mediate the job strain - heart disease association. Methodology and Principal Findings: We pooled cross-sectional, individual-level data from eight studies comprising 47,045 participants to investigate the association between job strain and the following cardiovascular disease risk factors: diabetes, blood pressure, pulse pressure, lipid fractions, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, obesity, and overall cardiovascular disease risk as indexed by the Framingham Risk Score. In age-, sex-, and socioeconomic status-adjusted analyses, compared to those without job strain, people with job strain were more likely to have diabetes (odds ratio 1.29; 95% CI: 1.11-1.51), to smoke (1.14; 1.08-1.20), to be physically inactive (1.34; 1.26-1.41), and to be obese (1.12; ...
Our analysis demonstrates that participants with persistent CAC = 0 had an overall lower cardiovascular risk factor profile. The healthy arterial aging group had a significantly lower level for all of the individual cardiovascular risk factors and a higher level for all of the healthy lifestyle factors, except Mediterranean diet. The absence of traditional CVD risk factors was also associated with persistent CAC = 0 when compared with participants with ≥3 CVD risk factors. However, there was no single modifiable traditional cardiovascular risk factor whose absence was strongly associated with healthy arterial aging. This is similar to a large cross-sectional cohort study of almost 17,000 participants by Boutouyrie et al. (19) in which sex, dyslipidemia, and smoking were not significantly associated with arterial aging, which was classified as an increased central arterial stiffness. In addition, Lehmann et al. (20) found a significant inverse trend between the number of cardiovascular risk ...
OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery fluorine-18-sodium fluoride (F-NaF) uptake reflects coronary artery calcification metabolism and is considered to be an early prognostic marker of coronary heart disease. This study evaluated the relationship between coronary artery F-NaF uptake and cardiovascular risk in healthy adults at low cardiovascular risk. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Study participants ... read more underwent blood pressure measurements, blood analyses, and coronary artery F-NaF PET/CT imaging. In addition, the 10-year risk for the development of cardiovascular disease, on the basis of the Framingham Risk Score, was estimated. Multivariable linear regression evaluated the dependence of coronary artery F-NaF uptake on cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: We recruited 89 (47 men, 42 women) healthy adults aged 21-75 years. Female sex (0.34 kBq/ml; P=0.009), age (0.16 kBq/ml per SD; P=0.002), and BMI (0.42 kBq/ml per SD; P,0.001) were independent determinants of increased coronary artery F-NaF ...
All-Cause Mortality and Serious Cardiovascular Events in People with Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis: A Population Based Cohort Study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Dive into the research topics of Projected impact of polypill use among US adults: Medication use, cardiovascular risk reduction, and side effects. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Positive cardiometabolic health for adults with intellectual disability. T2 - An early intervention framework. AU - Trollor, Julian. AU - Salomon, Carmela. AU - Curtis, Jackie. AU - Watkins, Andrew. AU - Rosenbaum, Simon. AU - Samaras, Katherine. AU - Ward, Philip B.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Cardiometabolic morbidity is a significant contributor to the poorer health outcomes experienced by people with intellectual disability (ID). Tailoring cardiometabolic monitoring tools developed for the general population to better fit the altered risk profiles and extra needs of people with ID may help to improve health outcomes. This paper describes a new cardiometabolic monitoring framework designed to address the extra needs of people with ID. The framework was adapted from a generalist guideline after a process of extensive consultation with the original authors and over 30 ID and cardiometabolic experts. In addition to standard cardiometabolic monitoring practice, the framework ...
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world, and patients with diabetes have a 2- to 3-fold greater risk of CVD death than those without. This suggests an interaction between diabetes and other CVD risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidaemia. The treatment of CVD risk factors in patients with diabetes reduces the incidence of CVD death but macrovascular damage is present in patients prior to the onset of overt diabetes, so the early identification and treatment of patients at risk of diabetes is essential for the primary prevention of CVD. Risk factors for diabetes and CVD are more likely to occur simultaneously than would be expected by chance, and this cluster of disorders is collectively called the metabolic syndrome. Individuals with the metabolic syndrome have an increased risk of CVD prior to the development of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes, and patients with both the metabolic syndrome and diabetes are at greater risk ...
Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been shown to predict occurrence of cardiovascular events in the general population. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of NLR to predict major cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in HIV-infected subjects. We performed a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients residing in the Local Health Authority (LHA) of Brescia, northern Italy, from 2000 to 2012. The incidence of CVD events in HIV-positive patients was compared with that expected in the general population living in the same area, computing standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). To evaluate the predictive role of NLR, univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were applied, computing hazard ratios (HRs). A total of 3766 HIV-infected patients (mean age 38.1 years, 71.3% males) were included (person-years 28768.6). A total of 134 CVD events occurred in 119 HIV-infected patients. A 2-fold increased risk (SIR 2.02) of CVD was found in HIV-infected patients compared to the ...
Results suggest that HIIT is an effective intervention to improve cardiometabolic health in overweight/obese populations. Specifically, ST-HIIT beneficially influenced WC, VO2 max, fasting glucose and DBP, whereas LT-HIIT was found to beneficially influence WC, % body fat, VO2 max, resting HR, SBP and DBP in overweight/obese populations.. Meta-analysis of ST-HIIT revealed no significant effect on body composition in normal weight populations, whereas too few studies are currently available examining the effect of LT-HIIT in normal weight populations. ST-HIIT reduced WC in overweight/obese populations and LT-HIIT significantly improved WC and % body fat in overweight/obese populations. The average change in WC was 2.13 cm for ST-HIIT and 2.23 cm for LT-HIIT, both above the cut-off value of ,2 cm WC decrease which is suggested to confer improvements in metabolic syndrome risk factors.98 These findings suggest that HIIT is an effective stimulus for reducing body fat levels (even in the absence of ...
The simple assessment of atherosclerotic risk factors is not an accurate tool to predict the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults without past history of atherosclerotic disease. Preclinical atherosclerotic increases the global cardiovascular risk and should be evaluated for a better risk stratification. Intima-media thickness (IMT), reduced ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) and impaired flow mediated dilatation (FMD) are independent markers of multifocal but subclinical atherosclerosis and result associated with an increased rate of cardiovascular events. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) may be a useful non-invasive technique to detect silent coronary disease (CAD) in patients with peripheral preclinical atherosclerosis. This ebook outlines preclinical athersclerosis and its markers in clinical practice. The ebook gives simple but clear information for a better stratification of global cardiovascular risk. The text serves as an important guide for medical professionals ...
There were 48.7% of participants in the high risk group (SCORE≥5%), 24.3% aged 45-54 and more than half aged 55-64 years. Nearly a quarter of the sample had a total cardiovascular risk of over 10% (SCORE≥10%), whereas 10.1% of the sample had excessively high cardiovascular risk (SCORE≥15%). In the 65-75 age group, the prevalence of men with excessively high risk was 46.6%, compared with 6.0% in women (P,0.001). Most of the main cardiovascular risk factors were slightly increased or borderline in comparison with clinical thresholds ...
The Joint 2016 European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice are published today. In this sixth Guidelines update, experts from 10 Societies have taken into account recently published evidence and now clinicians throughout Europe will be interested to know how they need to modify the advice and treatment they give to their patients. View the Guidelines in full :: Web addenda to the Guidelines. ...
Cardiovascular disease, comprising mainly heart attack and stroke, is Australias greatest health problem. Despite great improvements in death rates in recent decades, cardiovascular disease is still the major cause of death in Australia. Cardiovascular disease also places a heavy burden on society in terms of illness, disability and economic cost. However, there are serious gaps in our knowledge about cardiovascular disease and the groups it affects. This limits our capacity to develop and evaluate cost-effective and equitable strategies for community prevention and treatment. Major health agencies have been concerned about this situation for some time. In 1993 the Cardiovascular Disease Implementation Working Group was established by the Australian Health Ministers Advisory Council to consider information on the state of knowledge and practice related to the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, and to develop a set of goals, targets and strategies based on this knowledge. This ...
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of both a low and a high ankle-brachial index (ABI) with incident cardiovascular events in a multiethnic cohort.. BACKGROUND: Abnormal ABIs, both low and high, are associated with elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, it is unknown whether this association is consistent across different ethnic groups, and whether it is independent of both newer biomarkers and other measures of subclinical atherosclerotic CVD.. METHODS: A total of 6,647 non-Hispanic white, African-American, Hispanic, and Chinese men and women age 45 to 84 years from free-living populations in 6 U.S. field centers and free of clinical CVD at baseline had extensive measures of traditional and newer biomarker risk factors, and measures of subclinical CVD, including the ABI. Incident CVD, defined as coronary disease, stroke, or other atherosclerotic CVD death, was determined over a mean follow-up of 5.3 years.. RESULTS: Both a low (,1.00) and a high ...
Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine is a monthly publication of the Italian Federation of Cardiology. It publishes original research articles, epidemiological studies, new methodological clinical approaches, case reports, design and goals of clinical trials, review articles, points of view, editorials and Images in cardiovascular medicine.. ...
Obesity is a leading cause of preventable death, a growing epidemic, and a major contributor to cardiovascular disease risk and mortality in the U.S. (1-6). Although obesitys adverse effect on cardiovascular disease risk is well established, it is less clear whether obesity predicts adverse outcomes after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (7,8).. In addition to its association with traditional cardiovascular factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, obesity leads to metabolic changes that precipitate an atherogenic milieu (9). Adipose tissue is a major producer of proinflammatory cytokines and hormones and is thought to induce low-grade systemic inflammation that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (10). Few studies have been able to examine the impact of obesity on atherogenic outcomes after CABG surgery, however. Earlier studies that examined the impact of obesity after CABG surgery have primarily focused on post-operative complications ...
Dartmouth-Hitchcock Concord | Cardiovascular Medicine is a Cardiologist at 253 Pleasant Street, Concord, NH 03301. provides reviews, contact information, driving directions and the phone number for Dartmouth-Hitchcock Concord | Cardiovascular Medicine in Concord, NH.
Background Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to investigate whether lipoprotein metabolism indicators can improve cardiovascular risk prediction and therapy management. Methods and Results We calculated lipoprotein metabolism indicators for 1981 subjects (145 cases, 1836 controls) from the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort in which NMR lipoprotein profiles were measured. We applied a statistical learning algorithm using a support vector machine to select conventional risk factors and lipoprotein metabolism indicators that contributed to predicting risk for general cardiovascular disease. Risk prediction was quantified by the change in the Area-Under-the-ROC-Curve (ΔAUC) and by risk reclassification (Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI) and Integrated
Green spaces such as public parks are increasingly regarded as important correlates of cardiovascular health by the scientific community.1 This is based on mounting evidence not only from small-scale experiments,2 ,3 but also large observational studies.4-6 As a result, there is also rising interest among urban planning and health policy decision makers in the opportunities for constructing and targeting green spaces to make more liveable neighbourhoods that actively promote mental and cardiometabolic health, physical recreation and overall quality of life.7 ,8. A challenge with this wave of optimism, however, is the quality of the observational evidence underpinning it.9 The vast majority of studies have been cross-sectional, which means that putative interventions, such as an increase in the quantity or quality of green space available locally, cannot be rigorously evaluated for their impact on health. Even with multivariate adjustment for income and other factors which determine where a ...
CONTEXT: The value of assessing various emerging lipid-related markers for prediction of first cardiovascular events is debated. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adding information on apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A-I, lipoprotein(a), or lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 to total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Individual records were available for 165,544 participants without baseline CVD in 37 prospective cohorts (calendar years of recruitment: 1968-2007) with up to 15,126 incident fatal or nonfatal CVD outcomes (10,132 CHD and 4994 stroke outcomes) during a median follow-up of 10.4 years (interquartile range, 7.6-14 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Discrimination of CVD outcomes and reclassification of participants across predicted 10-year risk categories of low (|10%), intermediate (10%-|20%), and high (≥20%) risk. RESULTS: The addition of information on various lipid
Vegetarian diet and clinical impact on cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic literature review of randomized controlled trials ...
It is well established that hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), and routine screening is recommended for standard lipids and other major modifiable risk factors, including blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, and lifestyle habits.1 Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of CHD have led to the discovery of several nonlipid risk factors that may enhance our ability to identify and manage patients who are most likely to have a future cardiovascular event. Information about a constellation of risk factors provides better predictive power than a single risk factor, but whether novel markers should be added to conventional risk factor screening is debated. Three candidate markers have potential use in practice to alter strategies for the prevention of CHD: C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, and lipoprotein A.. There is increasing recognition that the underpinnings of atherosclerosis involve chronic inflammation and the deposition of cholesterol in ...
Sir, say, A (Framingham scores in type II diabetics), B [Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risks in type II diabetics] and C (diabetic retinopathy) are three entities and if one wants to correlate B with C by measuring A, then A and B must have undoubted pre-existing correlation. But in the said study, it was admitted There is no longitudinal study from India which can suggest whether the scores underestimate or overestimate the CVD risk among subjects with type II diabetes. It was even not mentioned whether the cross-sectional data obtained in the study were in conformity with the Framingham study or not. Therefore when the standard (Framingham scores) was not standardized (validated) for CVD risks in Indian diabetic population, how can Framingham scores and/or CVD risks be correlated to diabetic retinopathy ...
Purpose of Review: Prolonged sitting (sedentary behavior) has deleterious cardiovascular and metabolic correlates; however, little is known about the associations of too much sitting with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. In addition to the adverse effects of total sitting time, the manner in which it is accumulated has also been postulated to be important for cardiovascular health. Recent Findings: We describe recent evidence from several research papers published in the last 12-18 months, showing deleterious relationships of sedentary behavior with mortality outcomes. We also explore emerging findings on breaking up sedentary time and its potential beneficial impact on cardiovascular health. Summary: Consistent independent associations have been observed between sitting time/sedentary behaviors and elevated all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality risk. Generally, these associations have persisted following adjustment for physical activity. Furthermore, total sedentary time ...
Certain biomarkers of cardiovascular disease may be risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), according to Andrew K. Vine, MD, FRCSC, who presented the results of a case-control study during the American Academy of Ophthalmology annual meeting.
Results 5638 patients with RA and no prior CVD were included (mean age: 55.3 (SD: 14.0) years, 76% women). During mean follow-up of 5.8 (SD: 4.4) years, 148 men and 241 women developed a CVD event (10-year cumulative incidence 20.9% and 11.1%, respectively). Men had a higher burden of CVD risk factors, including increased blood pressure, higher total cholesterol and smoking prevalence than women (all p,0.001). Among the traditional CVD risk factors, smoking and hypertension had the highest population attributable risk (PAR) overall and among both sexes, followed by total cholesterol. The PAR for Disease Activity Score and for seropositivity were comparable in magnitude to the PAR for lipids. A total of 70% of CVD events were attributable to all CVD risk factors and RA characteristics combined (separately 49% CVD risk factors and 30% RA characteristics). ...
Cardiovascular disease is largely preventable and is associated with inequalities. Find out our position on shared decision making in the context of cardiovascular risk assessment and management.
This is the first study on children concerning the changes of the cardiovascular risk factor profile in obesity in relation to the degree of weight reduction. In agreement with previous reports,7,8 our study showed that up to two thirds of our obese children already had one or more unfavourable cardiovascular risk factors.. In our sample, a significant improvement of cardiovascular risk factor profile associated with obesity (hypertension, increase in LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, decrease in HDL cholesterol) was shown due to a reduction of SDS-BMI of at least 0.5 over the time period of one year, while a reduction of SDS-BMI below showed no significant improvement except a lowering of LDL cholesterol in the group of children with a reduction of SDS-BMI of at least 0.25. A reduction of LDL cholesterol despite an improvement of other cardiovascular risk factors is probably caused by diet and not due to effective weight loss. Since hypertriglyceridaemia and decreased HDL cholesterol are ...
Principal Investigator: Dugald Seely ND, MS. Co-Investigator: Ryan Bradley ND, MPH. Background: Although cardiovascular disease may be partially preventable through dietary and lifestyle-based interventions, few individuals at risk receive intensive dietary and lifestyle counseling. We performed a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of naturopathic care in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.. Methods: We performed a multisite randomized controlled trial of enhanced usual care (usual care plus biometric measurement; control) compared with enhanced usual care plus naturopathic care (hereafter called naturopathic care). Postal workers aged 25-65 years in Toronto, Vancouver and Edmonton, Canada, with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease were invited to participate. Participants in both groups received care by their family physicians.. Those in the naturopathic group also received individualized care (health promotion counseling, nutritional medicine or dietary ...
Cardiovascular disease[edit]. A 2013 meta-analysis found no evidence that vitamin C supplementation reduces the risk of ... Other diseases[edit]. Studies examining the effects of vitamin C intake on the risk of Alzheimer's disease have reached ... A few years later he proposed that vitamin C would prevent cardiovascular disease, and that 10 grams/day, initially (10 days) ... cardiovascular disease, or dementia.[8][9] It may be taken by mouth or by injection.[2] ...
Cardiovascular disease[edit]. Evidence suggests that dietary vitamin D may be carried by lipoprotein particles into cells of ... This raises questions regarding the effects of vitamin D intake on atherosclerotic calcification and cardiovascular risk as it ... "Vascular calcification: pathobiology of a multifaceted disease". Circulation. 117 (22): 2938-48. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA. ...
Cardiovascular disease[edit]. Main article: Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease. There are strong, consistent, and graded ... "Chapter 17 What Causes Cardiovascular Diseases?". Epidemiology and prevention of cardiovascular disease: a global challenge (2 ... "Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors". Retrieved 2012-05-03.. *^ "Lower your cholesterol". National Health Service. Retrieved ... Many review articles also recommend a diet low in saturated fat and argue it will lower risks of cardiovascular diseases[5], ...
Cardiovascular disease[edit]. Smoking can cause atherosclerosis, leading to coronary artery disease and peripheral arterial ... cardiovascular disease, and a list of other diseases which lengthened as the studies continued.[13] (the British Doctors Study ... cardiovascular disease, and a list of other diseases which lengthened as the studies continued[13] ... Smoking also increases the chance of heart disease, stroke, atherosclerosis, and peripheral vascular disease.[62][63] Several ...
Cardiovascular disease[edit]. In preliminary long-term clinical studies, black tea consumption showed evidence for providing a ... "Green and black tea for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (Systematic Review and ... In regions without access to safe drinking water, boiling water to make tea is effective for reducing waterborne diseases by ... "Black and green tea consumption and the risk of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis". The American Journal of Clinical ...
Cardiovascular disease[edit]. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death (30%) amongst women in the United States, ... While the rates of the leading causes of death, cardiovascular disease, cancer and lung disease, are similar in women and men, ... Comorbidity from other non reproductive disease such as cardiovascular disease contribute to both the mortality and morbidity ... Overall the lifetime risk of stroke in women exceeds that in men.[27][28] The risk of cardiovascular disease amongst those with ...
"The role of dietary n-6 fatty acids in the prevention of cardiovascular disease". Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine. 8 Suppl 1 ... "The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases". Experimental ... Cardiovascular disease[edit]. Moderate and high quality evidence from a 2020 Cochrane Systematic Review has shown that EPA and ... Rizos EC, Elisaf MS (June 2017). "Does Supplementation with Omega-3 PUFAs Add to the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease?". ...
Cardiovascular diseases[edit]. Caveolins are thought to play an important role during the development of atherosclerosis.[5] ... Role in disease[edit]. Cancer[edit]. Caveolins have a paradoxical role in the development of this disease. They have been ...
Cardiovascular disease[edit]. Adult exposure to PAHs has been linked to cardiovascular disease.[84] PAHs are among the complex ... Korashy, H. M.; El-Kadi, A. O. S. (2006). "The Role of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in the Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Diseases ... Oxidative stress following PAH exposure could also result in cardiovascular disease by causing inflammation, which has been ... Eighty Years from Discovery to Emergence as a Major Risk Marker for Cardiovascular Disease". Clinical Chemistry. 55 (2): 209- ...
Role in cardiovascular disease[edit]. Higher levels of circulating "endothelial progenitor cells" were detected in the ... 2007). "Endothelial progenitor cells in cardiovascular disorders". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 49 (7): 741- ... Aird, William C. "Blood Endothelial Cells" in Endothelial Cells In Health and Disease. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis, 2005. ... 2005). "Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Cardiovascular Outcomes". New England Journal of Medicine. 353 (10): 999- ...
Cardiovascular disease. Evidence for health effects from vitamin D supplementation for cardiovascular health is poor.[12] ... And we found no evidence that Vitamin D had effects on other disease states.. RAZ: Like cancer.. Dr. ROSEN: Like cancer or ... cardiovascular disease and hypertension,diabetes and metabolic syndrome, falls and physical performance, immune functioning and ... Moderate to high doses may reduce cardiovascular disease risk but are of questionable clinical significance.[13][12] ...
Cardiovascular disease[edit]. A 2015 meta-analysis comparing HIIT to moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) in people ... of individuals with lifestyle-induced chronic cardiovascular or metabolic diseases (including high blood pressure, obesity, ... Cardiovascular fitness[edit]. A 2015 systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials found that HIIT ... This article is about the cardiovascular exercise made popular in the 2010s. For the 1970s weight training, see High intensity ...
Cardiovascular diseases. *Alcoholic cardiomyopathy. *Alcohol flush reaction (AFR). Gastrointestinal diseases. *Alcoholic liver ...
Cardiovascular diseases. *Alcoholic cardiomyopathy. *Alcohol flush reaction (AFR). Gastrointestinal diseases. *Alcoholic liver ... Failure in diagnosis of WE and thus treatment of the disease leads to death in approximately 20% of cases, while 75% are left ... Sergei Korsakoff was a Russian physician after whom the disease "Korsakoff's syndrome" was named. In the late 1800s Korsakoff ... Wernicke believed these hemorrhages were due to inflammation and thus the disease was named polioencephalitis haemorrhagica ...
Cardiovascular disease[edit]. Main articles: Occupational stress and Cardiovascular disease. Research has identified health- ... In Schnall, P., Belkić, K., Landsbergis, P., et al (Eds.), The workplace and cardiovascular disease. Occupational Medicine, ... In P. Schnall, K. Belkić, P.A. Landsbergis, & D. Baker (Eds.), The workplace and cardiovascular disease. Occupational Medicine ... Murphy, L.R. (1991). Job dimensions associated with severe disability due to cardiovascular disease. Journal of Clinical ...
certain cardiovascular diseases. *women who are pregnant. *deep vein thrombosis. *cognitive impairment ... an overview of the disease and its treatment strategies". Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 35 (1 Suppl 1): 1-10. doi: ... including the use of electrical devices such as deep brain stimulators for neurological disease. The term has also been applied ...
3. Cardiovascular diseases: *Congenital heart disease (e.g. Tetralogy of Fallot, right to left shunts in heart or great vessels ... The name cyanosis literally means the blue disease or the blue condition. It is derived from the color cyan, which comes from ... Combination of clubbing and cyanosis suggests congenital heart disease and occasionally pulmonary disease. ... Patients with a large ductus develop progressive pulmonary vascular disease, and pressure overload of the right ventricle ...
Cardiovascular diseases, which include diseases of the heart, are the leading cause of death worldwide.[53] The majority of ... Ischaemic heart disease. Main article: Coronary artery disease. Coronary artery disease, also known as ischaemic heart disease ... Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most common cause of death globally as of 2008, accounting for 30% of deaths.[11][12] Of ... "Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016. Retrieved 9 March 2016 ...
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. 52 (6): 467-484. doi:10.1016/j.pcad.2010.02.003. PMID 20417340.. ...
"Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: a perspective and future directions". Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. ... Other well known causes include diseases of the kidney. This includes diseases such as polycystic kidney disease which is a ... Escher G (April 2009). "Hyperaldosteronism in pregnancy". Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease. 3 (2): 123-32. doi: ... It has many different causes including endocrine diseases, kidney diseases, and tumors. It also can be a side effect of many ...
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. 49 (6): 396-413. doi:10.1016/j.pcad.2007.02.006. PMID 17498520.. ... and Peripheral Vascular disease.[52] Research has shown that CD34+ hematopoietic Stem Cells are relatively more numerous in men ... CD34+ hematopoietic Stem Cells have been clinically applied to treat various diseases including spinal cord injury,[50] liver ... "Stem cells application in regenerative medicine and disease threpeutics". International Journal of Cell Biology. 2016 (7): 19 ...
Rosenberg, Gary (1999). "Ischemic Brain Edema". Progress in cardiovascular diseases. 42 (3): 209-16. doi:10.1016/s0033-0620(99) ...
"Fibroblast growth factors in cardiovascular disease: The emerging role of FGF21". American Journal of Physiology. Heart and ... For the last two decades, growth factors have been increasingly used in the treatment of hematologic and oncologic diseases [4] ... "Growth factors for angiogenesis in peripheral arterial disease". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 6: CD011741. doi ...
Willis, Monte; Homeister, Jonathon W.; Stone, James R. (2013). Cellular and Molecular Pathobiology of Cardiovascular Disease. ... Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases. 108 (4): 258-68. doi:10.1016/j.acvd.2015.01.006. PMID 25858537.. ... the term has been confused with other cardiovascular conditions, such as hypertension and ischemic heart disease.[33] Following ... Protozoan (Trypanosoma cruzi causing Chagas disease and Toxoplasma gondii). *Bacterial (Brucella, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, ...
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. 60 (1): 67-77. doi:10.1016/j.pcad.2017.03.006. ISSN 0033-0620. PMID 28385556.. ... cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes.[5][13] It does this by improving insulin action and sensitivity. Generating ... which reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease.[15] [16] This type of training also decreases waist circumference, waist-to- ... Interval training can refer to the organization of any cardiovascular workout (e.g., cycling, running, rowing). It is prominent ...
Leung RS (2009). "Sleep-disordered breathing: autonomic mechanisms and arrhythmias". Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. 51 (4 ... Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, high blood pressure, ... "Symptoms of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease". Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 50 (12 ... "Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease. 6 (5): 273-85. doi:10.1177/2040622315590318. PMC 4549693. PMID 26336596.. ...
"Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. 56 (3): 261-9. doi:10.1016/j.pcad.2013.10.015. PMC 3894250. PMID 24267433.. ... Cardiovascular disease[edit]. Taking vitamin D supplements does not meaningfully reduce the risk of stroke, cerebrovascular ... A 2012 meta-analysis showed that the risk of cardiovascular diseases increases when blood levels of vitamin D are lowest in a ... A United States Institute of Medicine (IOM) report states: "Outcomes related to cancer, cardiovascular disease and hypertension ...
"Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases. 24 (4): 337-43. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2013.12.008. PMC 4351995. PMID ... As of 2014 it appeared that with respect to the risk of death for people with cardiovascular disease, the kind of carbohydrates ... diets relatively higher in fiber and whole grains lead to reduced risk of death from cardiovascular disease compared to diets ... suggesting that low-carbohydrate diets are a viable option alongside low-fat diets for people at risk of cardiovascular disease ...
... may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease in later life, as indicated by lower cholesterol and C-reactive ... Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, childhood lymphoma, allergic diseases, digestive diseases,[34] obesity, develop diabetes, ... Allergic diseases[edit]. In children who are at risk for developing allergic diseases (defined as at least one parent or ... Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). "Strategies to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases: The CDC Guide to ...
Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 28 (1): 3-13. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2017.09.007. ISSN 0939-4753. PMID 29153856.. ... Plantago wilt (Fusarium oxysporum) and downy mildew (Peronospora alta) are the major diseases of Isabgol. White grubs and ... 101.81 Health claims: Soluble fiber from certain foods and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) U.S. Food and Drug ... The American Review of Respiratory Disease. 135 (5): 1033-1038. doi:10.1164/arrd.1987.135.5.1033 (inactive 2020-05-21). PMID ...
Pollack, Andrew (29 January 2013) F.D.A. Approves Genetic Drug to Treat Rare Disease The New York Times, Retrieved 31 January ... cardiovascular risk, and the liver and kidney functions of the patient, evaluated against the balancing of risks and benefits ... the cholesterol with the strongest links to vascular diseases. In studies using standard doses, statins have been found to ...
... two to four times the risk of cardiovascular disease, including ischemic heart disease and stroke; a 20-fold increase in lower ... Diseases of the endocrine system (ICD-10 Chapter IV: Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases - Endocrine diseases, E00- ... cardiovascular outcomes and adverse events in patients with diabetes and cardiovascular disease or risk: A systematic review ... The use of aspirin to prevent cardiovascular disease in diabetes is controversial.[114] Aspirin is recommended in people at ...
The nuclear envelope in muscular dystrophy and cardiovascular diseases. Traffic. 2002, 2 (10): 675-83. PMID 11576443. doi: ... The A-type lamins: nuclear structural proteins as a focus for muscular dystrophy and cardiovascular diseases. Trends Cardiovasc ... Dense Deposit Disease/Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis Type II. 19 May 2011. PMID 20301598. NBK1425.. In GeneReviews ... Life at the edge: the nuclear envelope and human disease. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2002, 3 (8): 575-85. PMID 12154369. doi: ...
"Intercessory Prayer and Cardiovascular Disease Progression in a Coronary Care Unit Population: A Randomized Controlled Trial". ... while imbalance results in disease. Such disease-inducing imbalances can be adjusted and balanced using traditional herbs, ... A belief that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people cures similar symptoms in sick people.[n 8] ... Treatments for severe diseases such as cancer and HIV infection have well-known, significant side-effects. Even low-risk ...
... chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), renal failure, and severe burns; patients who have "cachexia" in these disease settings ... and decrease cardiovascular risks (Nissen et al., 2000). For all these reasons, HMB should be routinely used in muscle-wasting ... There are many diseases and conditions which cause a decrease in muscle mass, known as atrophy, including activity, as seen ... Muscle atrophy results from a co-morbidity of several common diseases, including cancer, AIDS, congestive heart failure, COPD ( ...
Cardiovascular. *Pneumopericardium. *Persistent fetal circulation. Haemorrhagic and. hematologic disease. *Vitamin K deficiency ... List of systemic diseases with ocular manifestations. References[edit]. *^ a b c Matejcek, A; Goldman, RD (November 2013). " ... The disease incidence varies widely depending on the geographical location. The most extensive epidemiological survey on this ... "Red Book-Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 29th Edition. The American Academy of Pediatrics". Retrieved 2007-07- ...
Graft-versus-host disease[edit]. Main article: Graft-versus-host disease. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is an inflammatory ... and found a serious cardiovascular adverse reaction rate of about 1 in 1500.[44] This study reported a cardiovascular-related ... Veno-occlusive disease[edit]. Severe liver injury can result from hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Elevated levels of ... Major complications are veno-occlusive disease, mucositis, infections (sepsis), graft-versus-host disease and the development ...
... cardiovascular diseases, weight and eating disorders, allergies, malnutrition, and neoplastic diseases. ... listen)) is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.[4][5] The word "medicine" is ... Preventive medicine is the branch of medicine concerned with preventing disease. *Community health or public health is an ... Surgery has many sub-specialties, including general surgery, ophthalmic surgery, cardiovascular surgery, colorectal surgery, ...
Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) found out that there are cardiovascular effects ... cardiovascular disease, and lung ailments such as emphysema, bronchitis, and asthma.[7] Specifically, meta-analyses show that ... heart disease and other smoking related diseases") See also WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; First international ... which include an increased risk of heart disease, cancer, emphysema, and other diseases. Laws implementing bans on indoor ...
... a research institute for cardiovascular disease. ...
Significant diseases. Cancer, bone fractures. Significant tests. screening tests, X-ray, CT, MRI, PET, bone scan, ... Angiography is the use of fluoroscopy to view the cardiovascular system. An iodine-based contrast is injected into the ...
Of the 113 devices recalled, 35 were for cardiovascular issues.[38] This may lead to a reevaluation of FDA procedures and ... Intended for use in the diagnosis of disease or other conditions, or in the cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of ... diagnosis, prevention, monitoring, treatment or alleviation of disease,. *diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, alleviation of or ... cure or prevention of diseases in humans or other animals; intended to affect the structure or functions of the body of man or ...
... ingestion of large amounts of potassium compounds can lead to hyperkalemia strongly influencing the cardiovascular system.[232] ... "Global burden of blood-pressure-related disease, 2001" (PDF). Lancet. 371 (9623): 1513-1518. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60655-8 ...
Colorectal Disease. 10 (8): 789-792. doi:10.1111/j.1463-1318.2007.01381.x. PMID 17868406.. ... Cardiovascular. *Cardiac examination. *Peripheral vascular examination. *Heart sounds. *Other *Abdominojugular test. *Ankle- ... which may be useful in case of fecal incontinence or neurologic diseases, including traumatic spinal cord injuries; ... acute abdominal symptoms indicating a serious underlying disease). Although a Journal of Emergency Medicine paper concludes: " ...
"Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 17 (2): 125-139. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2006.10.005. PMC 4426988. PMID ... Mixed connective tissue disease - a disease of the autoimmune system, also undifferentiated connective tissue disease. ... Congenital diseases include Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.. *Myxomatous degeneration - a pathological weakening of ... Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) - a major autoimmune disease of connective tissue. *Scurvy, caused by a deficiency of ...
One data set went to the FDA's Division of Neurology Drug Products for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, while the other ... blood pressure or other cardiovascular side effects". In April 2007 Cortex Pharmaceuticals submitted two large data packages to ... 2006 by the Neurology Division a dose was permitted for continuing a study in patients with Alzheimer's disease, but that dose ... and continue its study of CX717 in its Alzheimer's disease PET scan study. Cortex believes that the IND application previously ...
"In Bao Y, Fenwick R. Phytochemicals in health and disease. New York, NY: Dekker. pp. 50-67. ISBN 0-8247-4023-8.. ... "cardiovascular system" (ID 1844), "mental state and performance" (ID 1845), and "liver, kidneys" (ID 1846) pursuant to Article ... or any disease.[2][32] The US Food and Drug Administration has issued warning letters to several manufacturers advertising ... or prevention of disease and/or articles intended to affect the structure or any function of the human body."[33][34] ...
Cardiovascular complications. Mitral valve dysfunction, congestive heart failure. Most severe. Common. Premature death. ... Symptoms of disease are more severe in males, who are generally diagnosed in early childhood. Children afflicted by CLS display ... The prevalence of CLS is uncertain due to the rarity of the disease, but CLS is estimated to affect between 1 in 50,000 and 1 ... In 20-30% of cases, however, there is a family history of disease. In these cases, the disorder is typically inherited from the ...
"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 6 (9): e1839. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001839. PMC 3459880 . PMID 23029594.. ... Descriptions of the disease date from the 1950s.[1] The virus was first described in 1969 from a case in the town of Lassa, in ... The disease is usually initially spread to people via contact with the urine or feces of an infected multimammate rat.[1] ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Lassa Fever, Signs and Symptoms" Archived 9 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine. ...
Although death by suicide in schizophrenia has received much needed attention, death from cardiovascular disease is far more ... Schizophrenia and increased risks of cardiovascular disease. Am Heart J 2005; 150(6): 1,115-21. Phelan, M; et al. (2001). " ... link) McCreadie R. Diet, smoking and cardiovascular risk in people with schizophrenia" Br J Psychiatry 2003; 183: 534-39. ... The request for the schizophrenia sufferer to exercise for cardiovascular health then give medications (originally named "major ...
"Polycystic Kidney Disease". Retrieved 2016-07-08.. *^ a b c Tave D (1999). Inbreeding and brood stock ... Fareed M, Afzal M (April 2016). "Increased cardiovascular risks associated with familial inbreeding: a population-based study ... "Polycystic kidney disease , International Cat Care". Retrieved 2016-07-08.. ... There may also be other deleterious effects besides those caused by recessive diseases. Thus, similar immune systems may be ...
A common example of pleiotropy is the human disease phenylketonuria (PKU). This disease causes mental retardation and reduced ... cardiovascular, and nervous system, as well as the eyes and lungs.[36] ... "Complications and Treatments , Sickle Cell Disease". CDC. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. *^ a b c d "Marfan Syndrome". National ... "sickle cell disease". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. *^ MD, Kenneth R. Bridges. "How Does Sickle Cell Cause ...
"Reptilian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology: evaluation and monitoring (Proceedings)". Retrieved 2017-04-22.. ... Paterson, Sue (December 17, 2007). Skin Diseases of Exotic Pets. Blackwell Science, Ltd. pp. 74-79. ISBN 9780470752432. .. ... Hicks, James (2002). "The Physiological and Evolutionary Significance of Cardiovascular Shunting Patterns in Reptiles". News in ... Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank; Haesbrouck, Freddy; Martel, An (July 2012). "Dermatological Diseases in Lizards". The ...
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. 91 (3): 389-396. PMID 3951243. Reynen, K. (1995). "Cardiac Myxomas". New ... endocrine gland manifestation is an ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease ...
2006). "Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary ... "Effect of a 21 day Daniel Fast on metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women" (PDF). Lipids in Health ... is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.[30] A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials by the ... "Low carbohydrate-high protein diet and incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Swedish women: prospective cohort study". ...
Rhabdomyolysis means a disease where muscle cells are damaged and die. Statins can cause damage to muscle cells. This can cause ... Severe niacin deficiency in the diet can cause a disease called Pellagra. This is rare in the developed world today. However, ... This is an inflammatory disease of artery walls in which white blood cells invade the vessel wall and become engorged with ... If both diabetes and hypercholesterolemia happen in the same person the problems from these diseases can be much worse. ...
Tikal K, Hrabánková M (June 1993). "[Indications for antidepressive agents in relation to diseases of the cardiovascular system ... cognitive and psychomotor impairments moclobemide is advantageous in the elderly as well as those with cardiovascular disease.[ ... No evidence for a possible hepatic or cardiovascular toxicity was found.. History[edit]. Irreversible MAOI antidepressants were ... Heinonen EH, Myllylä V (July 1998). "Safety of selegiline (deprenyl) in the treatment of Parkinson's disease". Drug Saf. 19 (1 ...
Pages in category "Cardiovascular disease deaths in Los Angeles". The following 56 pages are in this category, out of 56 total ... Category:Cardiovascular disease deaths in Los Angeles. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ... Retrieved from " ...
"Introduction to Respiratory & Cardiovascular Physiology. University of the West of England, Bristol. 2016. Retrieved January 29 ... For example, people with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often use an inhaler when they have trouble ...
... received a large grant from the NIH to study a possible link between post-traumatic stress disorder and cardiovascular disease. ... GW Researcher Awarded More Than $1.5 Million to Study PTSD and Cardiovascular Disease. The newly funded research will look at a ... The renin angiotensin system has been widely implicated in cardiovascular disease and has also been identified in the stress ... in assessing a possible connection between high stress and cardiovascular disease.. The National Institutes of Health recently ...
... and Cardiovascular Disease in Women".. More about this publication? *. Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications (CVIA) ... prevention of cardiovascular disease with a heavy emphasis on risk factor modification. Cardiovascular Innovations and ... effective control and rehabilitation in cardiovascular disease, and promote cardiovascular innovations and applications for the ... Keywords: Women; anxiety; cardiovascular disease; depression; life history theory; psychological stress; psychosocial stress; ...
Heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular (blood vessel) diseases are among the leading cause of death and now kill more ... These diseases are also two of the leading causes of health disparities in the US. Treatment of these diseases accounts for 1 ... Preventable Deaths from Heart Disease & Stroke. Nearly 1 in 3 deaths in the US each year is caused by heart disease and stroke ... High blood pressure can lead to heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, and death. About 70% of US adults age 65 or older have ...
Coronary artery diseases (CAD) and heart failure have high mortality rate in the world, although much progress has been made in ... Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), especially coronary artery diseases (CAD) are the leading cause of death in the developed world ... MicroRNAs and Cardiovascular Diseases. Tsuyoshi Nishiguchi. ,1 Toshio Imanishi. ,2 and Takashi Akasaka1. 1Department of ... MicroRNAs and Cardiovascular Diseases,. BioMed Research International,. vol. 2015. ,. Article ID 682857. ,. 14. pages. ,. 2015 ...
... atherosclerosis and vascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias and associated disorders. ... Cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic diseases are now the worlds top killers, even in developing nations, where they have ... But the fight against CV and metabolic diseases would be incomplete without a focus on the main driving force behind these ... Approximately one-third of all deaths globally are attributed to CV disease, and 9% of adults have diabetes.1 ...
... plus icon * Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Networkplus icon * ... Cardiovascular (or heart) disease is the leading killer of Americans, accounting for approximately 960,000 deaths each year. ... CDCs Cardiovascular Disease Biomarker Standardization programs help ensure tests used to identify these people are accurate ... CDCs Reference Laboratory and Clinical Standardization Programs improve the detection and diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases ...
Cardiovascular disease - Diseases of the arteries: There are many types of arterial diseases. Some are generalized and affect ... These diseases are frequently divided into those that result in arterial occlusion (blockage) and those that are nonocclusive ... Atherosclerosis, the most common form of arteriosclerosis, is a disease found in large and medium-sized arteries. It is ... Occlusive disease. Atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis, the most common form of arteriosclerosis, is a disease found in large and ...
... can be useful in patients with a strong family history of cardiovascular disease or if risk of cardiovascular disease is ... Lipoprotein(a) in Cardiovascular Diseases. Michele Malaguarnera,1 Marco Vacante,2 Cristina Russo,2 Giulia Malaguarnera,1 Tijana ... Cardiovascular diseases cause 3% of all deaths in North America being the most common cause of death in European men under 65 ... Figure 1: Mechanisms underlying the Lp(a)-induced cardiovascular disease. Lp(a) inhibits the activation of TGF and promotes the ...
Patient Studies in Valvular, Congenital and Rarer Forms of Cardiovascular Disease: An Integrative Approach ... Management of Complex Cardiovascular Problems, 4th Edition. by Thach N. Nguyen (Editor), Dayi Hu (Editor), Shao Liang Chen ( ... Cardiovascular Effects of Inhaled Ultrafine and Nano-Sized Particles. by Flemming R. Cassee (Editor), Nicholas L. Mills (Editor ... Echocardiography in Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease: From Fetus to Adult, 2nd Edition ...
Trainees are also exposed to Cardiac Rehabilitation services and special clinic settings for Congenital Heart disease and ...
The burden of cardiovascular diseases is largely preventable by a healthy diet and lifestyle. The Interheart study (Yusuf et al ... Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in western societies, and strongly increasing in low- and middle-income ... Cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in western societies, and strongly increasing in ... Cardiovascular disease comprises coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure and other disorders that affect the heart and ...
Multiple factors contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases, with oxidative stress being one of the most ... Redox-Related Genetic Markers of Cardiovascular Diseases. In: Sauer H., Shah A., Laurindo F. (eds) Studies on Cardiovascular ... Glutathione peroxidase 1 activity and cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 349:1605- ... Multiple factors contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases, with oxidative stress being one of the most ...
... cardiovascular disease doesnt go away. Life Line Screenings tests for cardiovascular disease treatment and prevention are ... Newsweek Amplify AMPLIFY - Medical Diseases Testing Cardiovascular disease. Research has shown that nearly 50% of all American ... Additionally, those with COVID-19 and pre-existing cardiovascular disease have an increased risk of severe disease and death. ... Why You Should Get Screened for Cardiovascular Diseases. While COVID-19 is concerning, the risk of Stroke & Cardiovascular ...
Long noncoding RNAs in cardiovascular diseases.. Uchida S1, Dimmeler S2. ... in mouse and human and highlights identified cardiovascular lncRNAs that might play a role in cardiovascular diseases. Although ... these examples may provide helpful insights how lncRNAs interfere with cardiovascular diseases. ... In the cardiovascular system, studies have detected and characterized the expression of lncRNAs under normal physiological ...
Emerging as a leading cause of death in the early 20th century and peaking in incidence in the 1960s, cardiovascular disease ( ... Predicting cardiovascular disease. BMJ 2016; 353 doi: (Published 16 May 2016) Cite this as: ...
... Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in the US. About 1,400,000 ... Research Interests: Genetic epidemiology with emphasis on cardiovascular/asthma/lung disease and other chronic disease ... Cardiovascular and genetic epidemiology, Association of mental stress and cardiovascular disease ... Research Interests: Cardiovascular disease epidemiology, Epidemiologic methods, Polyunsaturated fatty acids, Fish oils, Heavy ...
In this Review, Steptoe and Kivimäki summarize the evidence for the association between stress and cardiovascular disease, with ... but its link to cardiovascular disease risk is not well understood. Epidemiological data show that chronic stress predicts the ... although the importance of stress management is highlighted in European guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention. ... They also discuss the effects of stress-management strategies on cardiovascular health. The physiological reaction to ...
Cardiovascular disease; Left ventricular hypertrophy; Myocardial infarction; Peripheral vascular disease; Vitamin D deficiency ... both strong risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs, including coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, ... Role of Vitamin D in Cardiovascular Diseases.. Rai V1, Agrawal DK2. ... cardiovascular disease/s). Vitamin D deficiency results in increased inflammation, increased expression of inflammatory ...
Altered non-coding RNA expression is often associated with various diseases. ... This book provides the latest research progress on non-coding RNAs in cardiovascular diseases. Non-coding RNAs play important ... Non-coding RNA regulation in cardiovascular system, 4) Non-coding RNAs and cardiovascular diseases, 5) Potential biomarkers and ... Non-coding RNAs in Cardiovascular Diseases. Editors. * Junjie Xiao Series Title. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology ...
Find cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular surgery Physicians at your nearest Mayo Clinic location. Learn about the ... Structural heart disease, Patent foramen ovale, Heart disease, Coronary artery disease, Heart failure, Atrial septal defect ... Stress echocardiogram, Echocardiogram, Coronary artery disease, Carcinoid syndrome, Aortic valve stenosis, Heart disease ... Heart disease, Bicuspid aortic valve, Heart murmur, Heart valve disease ...
Find cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular surgery Physicians at your nearest Mayo Clinic location. Learn about the ... Mitral valve disease, Heart failure, Aortic valve disease, Pericardial disease, Coronary artery disease, Thoracic aortic ... Mitral valve disease, Aortic ulcer, Thoracic aortic aneurysm, Aortic dissection, Aortic valve disease, Coronary artery disease ... Cardiovascular disease prevention, Mechanical circulatory support device implantation, Heart transplant, High blood pressure, ...
Nonocclusive disease: A penetrating injury such as that caused by a bullet or a sharp instrument may result in an arteriovenous ... childhood diseases (in childhood disease and disorder: Cardiovascular disorders) (in childhood disease and disorder: ... British Heart Foundation - Cardiovascular Disease * - Cardiovascular Disease 101: Know Your Heart and Blood ... excretory system disorders (in renal system disease: Vascular disease) *nutritional disease (in nutritional disease: ...
Association between clinically recorded alcohol consumption and initial presentation of 12 cardiovascular diseases: population ... Alcohol and cardiovascular disease. BMJ 2017; 356 doi: (Published 22 March 2017) Cite this as ... Relations of alcoholic beverage use to subsequent coronary artery disease hospitalization. Am J Cardiol1986;356:710-4. doi: ... and colleagues went on to show that alcohol consumption has diverse associations with various forms of cardiovascular disease ...
The evidence for cardiovascular risk stratification in kidney transplant recipients is lacking in this population. Might more ... Cardiovascular disease in the kidney transplant recipient: epidemiology, diagnosis and management strategies. Nephrol Dial ... Established (upper part) and upcoming (lower part) cardiovascular risk factors in KTRs. Red arrows reflect negative effects of ... Established (upper part) and upcoming (lower part) cardiovascular risk factors in KTRs. Red arrows reflect negative effects of ...
... to help you lower your risk for cardiovascular disease. During this visit, your doctor may discuss aspirin use (if appropriate ... Cardiovascular disease (behavioral therapy). How often is it covered?. Medicare covers one visit per year to help you lower ... your risk for cardiovascular disease. The visit must be with your primary care doctor in a primary care setting (like your ...
... and cardiovascular disease by comparing residents in the noisiest areas with those living farther from the airport. ... and colleagues looked at hospitalization for cardiovascular disease among subjects 65 years or older according to "contours of ... higher rate of hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease. The observation held up after they controlled for other ... from some of the worlds busiest airports is linked to an increased risk of hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease, ...
... coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, and stroke.... ... OSA: the new cardiovascular disease. Part II: overview of cardiovascular diseases associated with obstructive sleep apnea ... association between OSA and cardiovascular disease and present an argument for approaching OSA as a cardiovascular disease. We ... Peters RW (2005) Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease. Chest 127(1):1-3. doi: 10.1378/chest.127.1.1 PubMedGoogle ...
  • With regard to cerebral vascular disease, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have found that routine use of prolonged anti platelet treatment (aspirin 75 mg) is beneficial unless there is a clear contraindication for the prevention of vascular events in people with a prior (presumed ischaemic) stroke. (
  • Reduces the risk of disease and death from stroke, with risk approaching that of never smokers after cessation. (
  • The most important NCD cluster is cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the first cause of mortality globally resulting in 17 million deaths per year via its main manifestations of myocardial infarction and stroke. (
  • Diagnosing and treating hypertension plays an important role in minimising the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. (
  • Cardiovascular disease comprises coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure and other disorders that affect the heart and blood vessels. (
  • Stroke and Cardiovascular diseases can wreak havoc on your health and life. (
  • Life Line Screening, who has screened over 9 million people over 20 years , provides a testing service that can detect the risk of stroke and cardiovascular diseases before any visible symptoms come into play. (
  • This group includes people who are above the age of 50 or suffering from any other chronic illnesses such as diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, obesity, or a family history of stroke and cardiovascular disease. (
  • As you age, plaque develops in your arteries and can make you more vulnerable to stroke, cardiovascular disease, and aneurysms. (
  • Diet is a major lifestyle factor in the primary and secondary prevention of numerous chronic diseases, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and diabetes. (
  • Diet is a lifestyle factor that plays a major role in the primary and secondary prevention of several chronic diseases, including certain cancers, coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, and diabetes. (
  • [ 2 ] While there is compelling epidemiological evidence that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables lowers the risk of heart disease and stroke, [ 3 , 4 ] the mechanisms by which these diets mediate their beneficial health effects are unclear. (
  • Emerging as a leading cause of death in the early 20th century and peaking in incidence in the 1960s, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a major global threat despite a progressively reducing incidence and case fatality for myocardial infarction and stroke. (
  • High blood pressure (hypertension) is a cardiovascular disease that can lead to other problems, such as heart attack, heart failure, and stroke. (
  • Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), present in 5-15% of adults, is strongly associated with the incidence and poor outcome of hypertension, coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, and stroke. (
  • Smokers not only have increased risk of lung disease, including lung cancer and emphysema, but also have increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and oral cancer. (
  • When it comes to reducing inflammation to decrease the risk of heart disease and stroke, results from the much-anticipated Cardiovascular Inflammation Reduction Trial indicate that targeting the right inflammatory pathways in at-risk patients is crucial. (
  • I'm not talking about chocolate and Valentines Day, but I am talking about preventing high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke! (
  • Heart attack, stroke, and other results of cardiovascular disease (like Peripheral Arterial Disease or PAD) are among the most prevalent causes of death worldwide. (
  • The participants, aged between 30 and 79, had no history of heart disease or stroke when the study commenced. (
  • Those who reported trouble focusing during the day were 13% more likely to develop heart attack, stroke, and comparable diseases than people who did not have problems focusing. (
  • Researchers identified that the people who found it difficult to fall asleep or stay asleep had a 9% higher chance of developing these diseases, while those who woke up too early were 7% more likely to experience a stroke, heart attack, or similar. (
  • These results suggest that if we can target people who are having trouble sleeping with behavioral therapies, it's possible that we could reduce the number of cases of stroke, heart attack, and other diseases later down the line. (
  • Those with coronary heart disease, diabetes, kidney disease or stroke need tight blood pressure control. (
  • The term commonly includes diseases such as coronary heart disease, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease, peripheral vascular disease and stroke. (
  • Stroke is a type of cerebrovascular disease and occurs when an artery supplying blood to the brain either suddenly becomes blocked or begins to bleed. (
  • In 2014-15, approximately 4.2 million Australian adults (18.3%) reported having a disease of the circulatory system, including around 1.2 million people with cardiovascular conditions such as stroke and heart disease. (
  • However, in the case of both heart disease and stroke, there was an equal split between direct and indirect expenses. (
  • For all types of CVD, of the $33 billion spent on prescription drugs, 3.6% was for the treatment of stroke, 27.3% was for heart disease, and 64.5% was for hypertension. (
  • Of the $19.5 billion cost of providing home health care to all CVD patients, 39% was for heart disease, 30% was for stroke, and 26% was for hypertension. (
  • A record 48 percent of U.S. adults - 121.5 million people - have some form of cardiovascular ailment, which includes coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and high blood pressure, according to a new report from the American Heart Association (AHA). (
  • Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including heart diseases and stroke, account for one-third of deaths throughout the world, according to a new scientific study that examined every country over the past 25 years. (
  • 2. Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is caused by disorders of the heart and blood vessels, and includes coronary heart disease (heart attacks), cerebro-vascular disease (stroke), raised blood pressure (hypertension), peripheral artery disease, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease and heart failure. (
  • The major types of CVD prevalent in Australia are coronary heart disease and stroke, together with heart failure/cardiomyopathy. (
  • Three studies presented at the annual meeting of the European Society of Cardiology last September found getting between six to eight hours of sleep a night could lower the risk of heart disease and stroke. (
  • A schema of the progression from lifestyle behaviors to the onset of stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD) is shown in the Figure . (
  • Atherosclerosis and its most disabling morbidities, coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke, are leading causes of death in Europe. (
  • High levels of salt in the diet are linked with high blood pressure which, in turn, can lead to stroke and coronary heart disease. (
  • Cardiovascular disease includes heart attacks (myocardial infarction), angina pectoris, heart failure, stroke and other diseases of the heart and blood vessels. (
  • Several clinical studies demonstrate that hyperleptinemia predicts acute cardiovascular events, restenosis after coronary injury such as angioplasty, and cerebral stroke independent of traditional risk factors. (
  • Cigarette smoking is the No. 1 preventable cause of death in the United States and greatly increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. (
  • Patients who have metabolic syndrome are at higher risk of multiple chronic conditions, including diabetes, coronary heart disease, and cancer, as well as stroke. (
  • The American Heart Association gauges the cardiovascular health of the US by tracking 7 key factors and behaviors that increase the risk for heart disease and stroke. (
  • Diabetes is one of these key factors.1 Quest offers a full range of Cardio IQ® testing options to evaluate patients' metabolic and cardiovascular risk so you can take action to prevent or delay onset of chronic conditions, and to prevent adverse events such as stroke. (
  • Heart disease and stroke statistics 2018 update: a report from the American Heart Association. (
  • Our mission is to build healthier lives, free of cardiovascular diseases and stroke. (
  • Coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease involve atherosclerosis. (
  • Coronary artery disease and stroke account for 80% of CVD deaths in males and 75% of CVD deaths in females. (
  • Coronary artery disease (also known as coronary heart disease and ischemic heart disease) Peripheral arterial disease - disease of blood vessels that supply blood to the arms and legs Cerebrovascular disease - disease of blood vessels that supply blood to the brain (includes stroke) Renal artery stenosis Aortic aneurysm There are also many cardiovascular diseases that involve the heart. (
  • 6 In a retrospective cohort study of about two million adults seen in general practices throughout England, they linked alcohol information coded by treating clinicians in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink with cardiovascular outcomes identified in a series of British health registers to ascertain the dose-response relations between alcohol consumption and first incidence of several cardiovascular conditions. (
  • Marin JM et al (2005) Long-term cardiovascular outcomes in men with obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea with or without treatment with continuous positive airway pressure: an observational study. (
  • Doherty LS et al (2005) Long-term effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in sleep apnea syndrome. (
  • In the largest trial to date to assess cardiovascular outcomes for an important class of diabetes medications, researchers have found that dapagliflozin markedly reduced the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in a broad population of patients with diabetes. (
  • Assess the current state of knowledge to identify readiness for the development and conduct of rigorous randomized controlled trials testing stress management interventions for cardiovascular risk and outcomes. (
  • In this issue of Circulation , Stewart and colleagues, 1 from a number of military medical organizations, report on the relationship between markers of injury severity and subsequent chronic cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes. (
  • Although the relationship between the ISS and cardiovascular outcomes was small to modest across 5-point increments of the ISS, across the span of critical injury severity the impact has quantitative relevance relative to other common cardiovascular risk factors. (
  • According to a report by Dr. Jack Tu it was found that geography played a vital role in determining the risk factors, treatments, and outcomes of heart disease for the more than 1.2 million Canadians. (
  • Dr Tu is the Canadian Cardiovascular Outcomes Research Team (CCORT) Atlas Editor and Senior Scientist at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences said that there is an East to West gradient in terms of the death rate from heart disease. (
  • Hence to set right things the Canadian Cardiovascular Outcomes Research Team issued several guidelines such as the implementation of a national cardiovascular surveillance system, funding should be made available to improve the quality and quantity of health system and joint effort should be taken by the federal and provincial governments to ensure all Canadians have similar levels of access to current cardiovascular treatments. (
  • It is estimated that some 40% of the adult population around the world will have high blood pressure, and it is well established that hypertension is strongly associated with other cardiovascular outcomes. (
  • In support of the Stanford University School of Medicine mission, DISCOVeR Lab, led by Dr. Latha Palaniappan, a physician scientist, conducts research that seeks to investigate racial/ethnic health disparities in cardiometabolic disease risk, burden, screening, treatment and outcomes in multiethnic populations. (
  • DISCOVeR research projects seek to address the gap in knowledge of health and health-related patient centered outcomes, specifically exploring gender and racial/ethnic disparities in obesity, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. (
  • The journal publishes basic research that has clinical applicability in order to promote timely communication of the latest insights relating to coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia, prevention of cardiovascular disease with a heavy emphasis on risk factor modification. (
  • May reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation, sudden cardiac death, heart failure, venous thromboembolism, and peripheral arterial disease. (
  • Trainees are also exposed to Cardiac Rehabilitation services and special clinic settings for Congenital Heart disease and Device clinics. (
  • Research also indicates that smoking cessation is crucial to the management of many conditions: heart attack, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, coronary artery disease, and cardiac arrhythmias. (
  • If the UK is a leader among European countries in statin treatment and cardiac rehabilitation, it lags behind in addressing the behavioural causes of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), such as child obesity. (
  • Founded in 1979, the Cardiac Rehabilitation Program is nationally certified by the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation (AACVPR). (
  • The participants included national experts in clinical trials methodology, basic and translational science as well as in cardiac rehabilitation, electrophysiology and cardiac arrhythmias, cardiovascular epidemiology, clinical cardiology, medical psychology, and behavioral medicine. (
  • A cardiovascular disease specialist is an internist who specializes in diseases of the heart and blood vessels and manages complex cardiac conditions such as heart attacks and life-threatening, abnormal heart rhythms. (
  • ACE inhibitors like Enalapril, Captopril, Lsinopril and Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARA) like Losartan, Candesartan, Telmesartan - these help in cardiac remodelling and prevent cardiovascular events like heart attacks, kidney damage etc. (
  • Advanced certification is available in Interventional Cardiology (diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease with invasive methods), Cardiac Electrophysiology (evaluation treatment of dysrhythmias), and Heart Failure and Transplant Cardiology (management of advanced heart failure) following additional training beyond the basic cardiovascular disease fellowship. (
  • The Editor and the contributors not only discuss important issues on hypertension management and its deleterious consequences if it is not well‐controlled, but also highlight the important signaling pathways involved in the pathogenesis of hypertensive heart disease and cardiac hypertrophy. (
  • They also had 3D heart ultrasound and cardiac CT scans performed to look for heart disease. (
  • There are several types of cardiac disease. (
  • Different types of cardiac diseases have different symptoms. (
  • Publication date: January 2020Source: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases Supplements, Volume 12, Issue 1Author(s): B. PavyIntroductionThere are few data about the follow-up in coronary patients after cardiac rehabilitation (CR). (
  • Featured within are three research articles on lipids and cardiovascular disease which provide balance on the role of high density lipoproteins in cardiovascular disease, and on statins in prevention of cardiac events. (
  • Several aspects of the sex-MI relationship will be discussed here, including the cardiovascular effects of sexual activity, the association between sex and MI, modulating factors that may decrease the risk of MI following sexual activity, and the treatment options for cardiac patients with sexual dysfunction. (
  • This article presents a brief review on the roles of these miRNAs in cardiac development and diseases along with their potential in heart regeneration. (
  • An imbalance or downregulation of the crucial miRNAs is associated with the development of cardiac diseases. (
  • Darukeshwara J, Rajarajan AT, Sahana SB and Prasanna K (2014) Small engine, big power: MicroRNAs as regulators of cardiac diseases and regeneration. (
  • Hynes CJ, Clancy JL and Preiss T (2012) miRNAs in cardiac disease: Sitting duck or moving target? (
  • Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications is the official journal of the Great Wall International Congress of Cardiology (GW-ICC). (
  • We have a strong history of preparing leaders in the field of academic cardiology, providing them with the tools to become skilled clinicians as well as providing outstanding experience in the field of cardiovascular research. (
  • Cardiovascular disease (typically referred to as "cardiology") focuses on prevention, diagnosis, and management of disorders of the cardiovascular system. (
  • Management of risk factors for cardiovascular disease prevention, and early diagnosis and intervention for established disease are important elements of cardiology. (
  • Dr. Roth is the lead author of the paper, "Global, Regional, and National Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases for 10 Causes, 1990-2015," which was published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology . (
  • Getting less than six hours of sleep a night increases your risk for cardiovascular disease, said a study published in a cardiology journal. (
  • Dr. Blair O'Neill, head of cardiology at the Queen Elizabeth II hospital in Halifax agreed to Tu statement that certain regions have the highest heart disease mortality rates due to the factors such as high smoking rates, high obesity rates, higher rates of diabetes, those who lead a very low socio-economic lifestyle and hypertension. (
  • Natural News) A recent study, presented in the European Society of Cardiology Congress 2019, revealed that lifestyle habits play a more decisive role in early coronary artery disease than genetics. (
  • This book has been developed from the editors' experiences teaching an advanced cardiovascular pathology course for PhD trainees in the biomedical sciences, and trainees in cardiology, pathology, public health, and veterinary medicine. (
  • No other single text-reference combines clinical cardiology and cardiovascular pathology with enough molecular content for graduate students in both biomedical research and clinical departments. (
  • It is uniquely useful to a wide audience of graduate students and post-doctoral fellows in areas from pathology to physiology, genetics, pharmacology, and more, as well as medical residents in pathology, laboratory medicine, internal medicine, cardiovascular surgery, and cardiology. (
  • He is a past member of the Board of the American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography and the Intersocietal Accreditation Council. (
  • Clinical evidence over the last 20 years has shown a link between individuals with post-traumatic stress and their incidence of cardiovascular disease, including coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis, and high blood pressure," Marvar said. (
  • Among the most important are atherosclerosis, rheumatic heart disease, and vascular inflammation. (
  • Atherosclerosis , the most common form of arteriosclerosis , is a disease found in large and medium-sized arteries. (
  • The prevalence of atherosclerosis increases with age, and young children with evidence of fatty streaks are very likely to develop the disease when they are older. (
  • In addition, occurrence of atherosclerosis in some families is linked to a genetic component, and family history serves as a useful predictor for the course of development of the disease, particularly if it is evident at a young age. (
  • 2011) with atherosclerosis as a key mechanism of disease (Libby, 2006). (
  • With these concerns in mind, a team of NIDCR grantees and colleagues recently looked again at the possible periodontal-cardiovascular disease link in almost 7,000 adult participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. (
  • Interestingly, some of the identified loci were associated with other diseases or traits, warranting further investigation into the implication of the observed pleiotropy in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and ischaemic events. (
  • 4-6 Leptin has peripheral actions to stimulate vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy that may contribute to pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and coronary heart disease. (
  • Insulin resistance, 8 systemic hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia 9 all contribute independently to vascular endothelial dysfunction that promotes atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. (
  • In this review, we discuss cardiovascular actions of leptin related to atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and hypertension. (
  • Elevated serum Lp(a) is an independent predictor of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. (
  • Among non-smokers, the odds of myocardial infarction were about twice as high among non-drinkers as among drinkers, raising the possibility that alcohol consumption could lower risk of coronary heart disease. (
  • Cardiovascular disease has a number of forms but the most common are myocardial infarction and angina pectoris which affect the heart itself. (
  • The two major forms of coronary heart disease are heart attack (also known as acute myocardial infarction) and angina. (
  • CVD includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). (
  • Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications (CVIA) publishes focused articles and original clinical research that explore novel developments in cardiovascular disease, effective control and rehabilitation in cardiovascular disease, and promote cardiovascular innovations and applications for the betterment of public health globally. (
  • CDC's Reference Laboratory and Clinical Standardization Programs improve the detection and diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases by ensuring laboratory measurements that test patients' blood for cholesterol levels are accurate and reliable. (
  • Delles C, Dominiczak AF (2006) Vascular failure or sick vessel syndrome: The cardiovascular continuum is a useful concept for clinical research. (
  • Thus, while the literature regarding flavanols and vascular health is encouraging, more in-depth and well-controlled clinical and experimental studies are needed to better define the potential protective vascular effects of these nutrients and their therapeutic value in cardiovascular medicine. (
  • Applications of the 'stress concept' (the understanding of stress as a risk factor and the use of stress management) in the clinical settings have been relatively limited, although the importance of stress management is highlighted in European guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention. (
  • In this review, we discuss the clinical evidence for the strong association between OSA and cardiovascular disease and present an argument for approaching OSA as a cardiovascular disease. (
  • Fellows will develop and demonstrate competence in basic and clinical knowledge, procedural skills, clinical judgment, professionalism and interpersonal skills required as a specialist in cardiovascular diseases. (
  • and key randomized controlled trials of stress reduction for decreasing cardiovascular morbidity and relevant clinical endpoints. (
  • Each Workshop participant led an empirically-focused overview and discussion regarding the evidence in specific areas of the literature, each related to psychosocial stress, cardiovascular disease risk, prevention, and clinical endpoints. (
  • Entry into a cardiovascular specialty training program is highly competitive and the intense training in the subspecialty is designed for the acquisition of the required scientific knowledge and mastery of clinical skills necessary for independent practice. (
  • This study tests the acceptability and feasibility of an electronic medical record based clinical decision support tool for the evaluation of absolute cardiovascular disease risk in general practice. (
  • Interestingly, the group found that clinical signs of periodontal disease were not associated with coronary heart disease. (
  • We believe that these findings are relevant for future research in that they indicate that clinical measures of periodontitis may not adequately represent the systemic burden of periodontal disease. (
  • OBJECTIVE -Our objective was to compare the performance of oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) and multivariate models incorporating commonly available clinical variables in their ability to predict future cardiovascular disease (CVD). (
  • The main challenge of cardiovascular research is to bridge the gap between the molecular mechanisms driving a disease and the patient's clinical signs and symptoms. (
  • But while the two inflammatory skin ailments share some clinical similarities, he said, they work differently at the molecular level, which might explain why only one may be associated with cardiovascular disease. (
  • Circulation Peer-reviewed reports on clinical and laboratory research relevant to cardiovascular disease. (
  • Here, we review the evidence that environmental influences during mammalian development lead to stable changes in the epigenome that alter the individual's susceptibility to chronic metabolic and cardiovascular disease, and discuss the clinical implications. (
  • In recent years, the steep rise in these diseases-intimately linked to the global obesity epidemic-has vastly outpaced efforts to develop effective therapies. (
  • But the fight against CV and metabolic diseases would be incomplete without a focus on the main driving force behind these diseases-obesity. (
  • Our efforts in this area also aim to reduce cholesterol and triglycerides, thwart damaging reactive oxygen species common in CV and metabolic diseases, and alleviate heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, a condition associated with obesity. (
  • At Johns Hopkins, faculty with a particular interest in cardiovascular disease are approaching both primary and secondary prevention modalities in high risk populations, including families with premature coronary disease, people with hypertension and or obesity, and an urban community population. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency is associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, including diabetes and obesity, both strong risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). (
  • Vitamin D (vitamin D) deficiency is associated with many diseases such as diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypercholesterolemia, and hypoparathyroidism, and CVD (cardiovascular disease/s). (
  • The therapeutic approach is unique because it deals with the global cardiovascular risk (treatment of diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, obesity, ischemic heart disease, etc. (
  • 10,11 Relationships among obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and their cardiovascular complications are well established. (
  • 1 Leptin may participate in several mechanisms of disease associated with obesity. (
  • Because most of the work on insulin resistance has focused on its role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus, a brief review of the history of the link between cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance is in order. (
  • The generated information advances our understanding of cardiovascular disease pathophysiology and opens new roads for the development of novel therapies. (
  • Cellular and Molecular Pathobiology of Cardiovascular Disease focuses on the pathophysiology of common cardiovascular disease in the context of its underlying mechanisms and molecular biology. (
  • 17 Thus, the net effects of leptin on cardiovascular pathophysiology are complex and not completely understood. (
  • He co-directs the first-year medical student cardiovascular pathophysiology module at Emory's School of Medicine, and is a small group faculty advisor there as well. (
  • Traditionally, the majority of these people are labeled as "ischemic" in etiology, though recent reports from independent research suggest that perhaps all patients have ischemia as a driver of disease, either due to coronary artery disease or microvessel induced ischemia. (
  • Of the cardiovascular conditions studied, ischemic heart disease, also known as coronary artery or heart artery disease, was the leading cause of health loss in every region of the world except sub-Saharan Africa. (
  • Small, dense low-density lipoprotein particles as a predictor of the risk of ischemic heart disease in men. (
  • [ 1 ] With respect to vascular disease initiation and progression, current dietary recommendations are aimed at optimizing lipid and lipoprotein profiles, blood pressure, blood glucose levels, and body weight. (
  • Flavonoids have generated considerable interest as epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse association between the dietary intake of flavonoids and the risk for vascular disease (refs [ 6-9 ] and references therein). (
  • Studies range from genetic and molecular studies of the mechanisms of cardiovascular disease to studies of vascular properties, lifestyle interventions, and responsiveness to preventive pharmacotherapy. (
  • Researchers at New York Institute of Technology have secured a grant for $391,041 from the National Institutes of Health that may allow for improved understanding of vascular calcification and prevent heart disease in chronic kidney disease patients. (
  • Cardiovascular diseases is the medical subspecialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the heart and vascular system. (
  • Functions of a cardiovascular specialist include the management, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease, vascular disease, heart rhythm abnormalities, adult congenital heart disease and heart failure. (
  • OHSU Knight Cardiovascular Institute partners with providers around the region to care for patients with heart and vascular conditions. (
  • South Asians (people from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives, and Sri Lanka) have a higher risk of heart and vascular disease than any other ethnic groups. (
  • They are known as vascular diseases. (
  • Cardiovascular disease in the kidney transplant recipient: epidemiology, diagnosis and management strategies. (
  • Novel synthetic lignans to affect inflammatory processes related to surgical cardiovascular intervention have been identified. (
  • Several extensive studies have demonstrated the powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of these substances, and have documented a significant statistical correlation between flavanol intake and risk for cardiovascular disease. (
  • Affective disorders and cardiovascular disease likely share underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that are potentiated among women ‐ especially younger women. (
  • Multiple factors contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases, with oxidative stress being one of the most important pathogenetic mechanisms. (
  • McNicholas WT, Bonsigore MR (2007) Sleep apnoea as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: current evidence, basic mechanisms and research priorities. (
  • The underlying mechanisms vary depending on the disease. (
  • One systematic review of primary and secondary prevention trials has reported that statins constitute the single most effective type of treatment for reducing fatal and non fatal myocardial infarctions and cardiovascular deaths. (
  • Approximately one-third of all deaths globally are attributed to CV disease, and 9% of adults have diabetes. (
  • Cardiovascular (or heart) disease is the leading killer of Americans, accounting for approximately 960,000 deaths each year. (
  • Cardiovascular diseases cause 3% of all deaths in North America being the most common cause of death in European men under 65 years of age and the second most common cause in women. (
  • Around 35 percent of these deaths were cardiovascular related. (
  • Cardiovascular disease involves the heart and vessels and is the number one killer in the U.S. accounting for nearly 30-percent of all deaths. (
  • In 2015, 45,392 (29%) of deaths had an underlying cause of cardiovascular disease. (
  • In addition, the AHA reports that the number of deaths annually from cardiovascular disease has increased to 840,678 after decades of decline. (
  • Countries with the greatest number of cardiovascular deaths, after accounting for population size, are found throughout Eastern Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East, South America, sub-Saharan Africa, and Oceania. (
  • According to the Center for Disease Control, over 600,000 people in the United States die a year from CVD which accumulates to one in four deaths each year (CDC, 2014). (
  • Despite the significant number of deaths, progress has been made over the past 50 years to define, identify, and modify risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CDC, 2014). (
  • 2011). Of all CVD deaths, coronary heart disease (CHD) and stoke account for more than 80% of deaths (Mendis et al. (
  • Tu said that it was shocking to find that cardiovascular disease is still the leading cause of death in Canada contributing to about 37 % of all deaths in the country. (
  • Smoking and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Smoking is a deadly habit to keep, literally. (
  • Furthermore, apo(a) has also been reported to be correlated to coronary artery disease as well as renal disease [ 14 - 16 ]. (
  • It is closely related to other chronic diseases, such as renal disease, diabetes, and dementia. (
  • Also, prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses are performed to quantify the associations between diet and cardiovascular disease, including renal impairment. (
  • They have the hypertension of the insulin resistance syndrome, which becomes exacerbated with renal disease (and diabetic patients with renal disease have extraordinarily high rates of CVD). (
  • SMi's inaugural Diabetes, Cardiovascular & Renal Complications conference will be held on 28th & 29th November in London is the perfect forum to assess the changing spectrum of therapies in development for treating diabetes. (
  • These facts suggested us to consider new strategies for prediction, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular disease [ 1 ]. (
  • However, small sample sizes and variation in the patient population, eligibility criteria and components of the interventions prevent a definitive causal conclusion regarding the role of stress management in the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular disease. (
  • This study investigates the specific needs for physical activity and dietary education in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in the Caribbean. (
  • define differential diagnosis, complications, and management of cardiovascular disease. (
  • define the potential benefits and limitations of current treatment strategies in the management of cardiovascular disease. (
  • However, it is recognised that nutrition and physical activity can play a great role in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. (
  • Coronary artery diseases (CAD) and heart failure have high mortality rate in the world, although much progress has been made in this field in last two decades. (
  • High work demands and daily stress have also been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality, with carotid artery intima-media thickness progression, and with recurrent events. (
  • Since cardiovascular diseases continue to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, there is a great opportunity for a cardiovascular specialist to impact the lives of patients and the health status of our communities. (
  • To me, on the other hand, insulin resistance represents a major underlying abnormality driving cardiovascular disease, the major cause of morbidity and mortality in much of the world. (
  • Provincial cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates ranged from a high of 320.6 out of every 100,000 to 196.9 out of every 100,000. (
  • 16 Moreover, in 207 women with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, or type 2 diabetes mellitus, low plasma leptin predicted cardiovascular mortality during a 7-year follow-up period. (
  • Prevent cardiovascular disease among men and women without symptoms, but whose family history, physical condition and other factors place them at higher risk for developing coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, or diabetes mellitus type 2 (primary prevention). (
  • If you want to prevent cardiovascular disease, consider juicing fresh fruits and vegetables in innovative ways. (
  • Many lifestyle illnesses can be controlled by a dietary change and although we think juicing is a great way to prevent cardiovascular disease, be sure to run this idea before your doctor first if you have a cardiovascular condition. (
  • Researchers at the George Washington University (GW) have begun to explore the psychological components of anxiety disorders, such as PTSD, in assessing a possible connection between high stress and cardiovascular disease. (
  • Depression/anxiety-related disorders and psychosocial stress have been implicated as cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. (
  • In recent years, a large number of data suggest that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), which are not responsible for protein coding, play an important role in development of various disorders, including cardiovascular disease. (
  • Our programs support patients through lifestyle changes and help patients understand the connection between cardiovascular diseases and certain behaviors or psychosocial issues, such as depression and stress-related disorders. (
  • The term cardiovascular disease refers to range of disorders of the heart and blood vessels, usually caused by restrictions to blood flow in arteries. (
  • Each issue of Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases comprehensively covers a single topic in the understanding and treatment of disorders of the heart and circulation . (
  • Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a group of disorders that affect the heart in its entirety. (
  • There is disease of the heart muscle called cardiomyopathy, disease of the heart valves, and coronary artery disease (CAD), which is obstruction in the arteries to the heart that can lead to a heart attack. (
  • 2013) Cardiovascular dysregulation of miR‐17‐92 causes a lethal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenesis. (
  • Carotid and peripheral arterial diseases, and aortic aneurysms can be detected through ultrasounds. (
  • Peripheral artery disease occurs when the arteries to your legs and feet become narrow due to a buildup of plaque. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 700,000 people die annually of cardiovascular disease. (
  • Please follow the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for the most up-to-date information on the virus. (
  • The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Congenital heart disease is a problem with the heart's structure and function that is present at birth. (
  • Congenital heart disease can describe a number of different problems affecting the heart. (
  • Living with congenital heart disease means you often face unique health challenges. (
  • The Adult Congenital Heart Disease program offers comprehensive care to enhance your quality of life. (
  • Congenital heart disease is the most common birth defect in the U.S., but due to major advances in medical and surgical care, more than 90% of these patients are surviving into adulthood. (
  • There are over 1 million adults in the U.S. with congenital heart disease, but many are not keeping up with routine, follow-up care. (
  • There are many types of congenital heart disease. (
  • Our experts will work with you to help you manage the health risks associated with congenital heart disease. (
  • Valvular heart disease Congenital heart disease - heart structure malformations existing at birth Rheumatic heart disease - heart muscles and valves damage due to rheumatic fever caused by Streptococcus pyogenes a group A streptococcal infection. (
  • Cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic diseases are now the world's top killers, even in developing nations, where they have eclipsed starvation and infectious diseases as the most critical health concerns. (
  • With recent successes and a pipeline of investigational drugs, we see a renaissance on the horizon for the treatment of CV and metabolic diseases. (
  • Ultimately, we hope to help stem the rising tide of CV and metabolic diseases around the world. (
  • SMi is pleased to confirm Phil Ambery, Medical director, Cardiovascular and Metabolic R&D from GlaxoSmithKline as a speaker at their upcoming conference. (
  • Dewpoint believes that a vast range of conditions have pathways that are regulated by condensates or arise from the dysfunction of condensates - including cancer, neurodegeneration, and metabolic disease. (
  • Developmental plasticity evolved to match an organism to its environment, and a mismatch between the phenotypic outcome of adaptive plasticity and the current environment increases the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. (
  • The workshop focused on bringing key decision leaders together to consider the state of the science concerning the role of psychosocial stress reduction on cardiovascular disease risk, and providing recommendations regarding conceptualization, measurement, and design strategies for conducting rigorous research in this area. (
  • Significant evidence has accumulated that psychosocial stress contributes to the etiology and pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. (
  • several large and international studies have shown that individuals reporting high levels of psychosocial stress have significantly elevated risk of cardiovascular diseases. (
  • This book will help patients, physicians, and ancillary staff to articulate their understanding of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, delineate their knowledge and skills, and become well versed in decision making. (
  • Cardiovascular disease, any of the diseases, whether congenital or acquired, of the heart and blood vessels. (
  • Cardiovascular disease is the broad term for problems with the heart and blood vessels. (
  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a collective term for diseases of the heart and blood vessels. (
  • Dr. Mariana Kaplan and her team at the University of Michigan Health Systems in Ann Arbor studied the abnormal function of stem cells that repair damaged blood vessels, an important factor implicated in heart disease in lupus. (
  • Cardiovascular diseases are usually caused by blocked or narrowed blood vessels which in turn prevents blood flow to the heart and other parts of the body. (
  • Background and Literature Review Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) The phrase cardiovascular disease encompasses all ailments involving the conditions of the heart as well as those of the blood vessels. (
  • Another cardiovascular condition - endothelium - also triggers the dysfunction of the inside lining of the blood vessels and smooth muscles. (
  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. (
  • There are many cardiovascular diseases involving the blood vessels. (
  • Occupational cardiovascular disease is disease of the heart or blood vessels that are caused by working conditions, making them a form of occupational illness. (
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities have some of the highest rates of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in the world. (
  • Rheumatic heart disease may follow untreated strep throat. (
  • Treating people who have strep throat with antibiotics can decrease the risk of rheumatic heart disease. (
  • Over a 9-year period, 3846 individuals sustaining critical injuries in Iraq or Afghanistan were identified and followed through administrative databases retrospectively for the incidence of 4 conditions-diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), and chronic kidney disease. (
  • Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), especially coronary artery diseases (CAD) are the leading cause of death in the developed world. (
  • They are also prevalent in the coronary arteries , where they cause coronary artery disease . (
  • Plasma LDL cholesterol is a well-established predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD), and many observations have pointed out that Lp(a) and apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) levels may be risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) [ 6 - 8 ]. (
  • Less robust data are available for the relationship between variants of redox-related genes and advanced cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease. (
  • Dzau V, Braunwald E (1991) Resolved and unresolved issues in the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease: a workshop consensus statement. (
  • Heitzer T, Schlinzig T, Krohn K, Meinertz T, Münzel T (2001) Endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and risk of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. (
  • CHD is also called coronary artery disease (CAD). (
  • Peker Y, Carlson J, Hedner J (2006) Increased incidence of coronary artery disease in sleep apnoea: a long-term follow-up. (
  • A revolutionary new medical device able to predict coronary artery disease using artificial intelligence (AI) has been developed by a UK health-tech firm, the first such technology of its kind. (
  • Prevent a recurrence of symptoms and ensure the safe recovery of individuals who have experienced a heart attack or other symptoms of coronary artery disease (secondary prevention). (
  • The most common risk is family history, if you have someone in your immediate family who has experienced a heart attack or have had bypass surgery at an early age in their fifties or earlier then that is considered a risk factor for developing coronary artery disease. (
  • The average age of death from coronary artery disease in the developed world is around 80 while it is around 68 in the developing world. (
  • Large-scale genome-wide association studies are expected to deliver results on the role of redox-related genes in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, but future strategies will also involve more systematic and integrative approaches, including transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic strategies. (
  • you should have your homocysteine levels, cardioCRP, insulin and hemoglobin A1c to better understand overall cardiovascular risk factors. (
  • Firefighting has also shown to increase arterial stiffness and overall cardiovascular strain. (
  • The number of people living with cardiovascular disease is increasing due to factors including population ageing and improved treatments that have resulted in people living longer with CVD. (
  • Schema of the progression from lifestyle changes to the incidence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). (
  • These include advancing age, male sex and women after menopause and genetic disposition to acquire heart diseases. (
  • miRNAs involvement in heart failure and heart diseases. (
  • The time has come to liberate cardiovascular guidance and literature in KTRs away from general population recommendations and evolve into a field-specific approach with integration of genetic and immunological aspects relevant for both diagnosis and treatment. (
  • Cardiovascular disease can be reduced by controlling environmental factors and understanding the genetic factors that put people at greater risk for heart disease. (
  • Conduct research to probe the genetic basis of cardiometabolic disease and improve preventive measures. (
  • Lifestyle (modifiable) and genetic (unmodifiable) factors are key cardiovascular risk factors, especially higher BP (the primary stage of CVD prevention). (
  • The EU-funded CVGENES-AT-TARGET collaborative project exploited existing population genetic studies to fill in the gap with respect to identification and characterisation of therapeutically relevant targets for atherosclerotic disease. (
  • The disease condition is associated with both lifestyle and genetic factors. (
  • The burden of cardiovascular diseases is largely preventable by a healthy diet and lifestyle. (
  • Research has shown that nearly 50% of all American adults suffer from some form of cardiovascular disease at one point or another in their life. (
  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of death among homeless adults, at rates that exceed those in nonhomeless individuals. (
  • According to a CDC report, high blood pressure, high LDL cholesterol, and smoking are key risk factors for heart disease, and 49% of adults have at least one of these three risk factors. (
  • Chronic heart disease limited activity in 4.2 million adults. (
  • How much cardiovascular disease among black adults is attributable to hypertension? (
  • Estimating the proportion of cardiovascular disease (CVD) cases among black adults associated with hypertension was the focus of this observational study. (
  • Without taking high blood pressure into account, the prevalence of cardiovascular disease among U.S. adults was 9 percent overall, or about 24 million people, the study says. (
  • Adults with Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular disease (CVD), also known as heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. (
  • For the roughly 7 percent of adults who live with atopic dermatitis, a common form of eczema , a new study reports a little good news: Despite recent findings to the contrary, the skin condition is likely not associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk factors or diseases. (
  • Most cardiovascular disease affects older adults. (
  • Secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease includes treatment with aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and lipid lowering drugs, especially statins. (
  • This report highlights that people with cardiovascular disease require aggressive management of their risk factors to prevent secondary cardiovascular events. (
  • define primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. (
  • Furthermore, cardiovascular risk factors, especially hypertension, are key factors for the prevention of CVD (the secondary stage of CVD prevention). (
  • Hypertension, congestive heart failure, and coronary heart disease were the three most frequent cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) affecting the U.S. population (76.4 million, 16.3 million, and 16.3 million, respectively) in 2009. (
  • Savage pointed out that persons with diabetes and CVD have poorer overall prognosis, with poorer short-term survival, increased risk of recurrent disease, poorer response to surgery, and increased risk of congestive heart failure (CHF). (
  • The cost of cardiovascular disease in the United States continues to rise. (
  • Fellows receive training and supervised experience in the evaluation and management of a wide variety of patients with acute and chronic cardiovascular conditions. (
  • A subspecialty program in cardiovascular diseases provides training and supervised experience in the evaluation, diagnosis and management of a variety of acute and chronic cardiovascular conditions. (
  • A supplemental observation included a 5-fold increase in the risk for chronic kidney disease if acute kidney injury occurred in the context of the trauma. (
  • People who are socioeconomically disadvantaged have, on average, greater levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). (
  • Dr. Paulo Lotufo with the University of São Paulo in Brazil, one of the paper's co-authors, noted: "High levels of cardiovascular disease can be especially problematic for low-resource countries with limited access to or availability of effective treatments. (
  • High levels of cardiovascular disease are seen throughout the world, both in high-income countries and those with more limited access to effective and inexpensive treatments," Dr. Roth said. (
  • What is the evidence base for diagnosing hypertension and for subsequent blood pressure treatment targets in the prevention of cardiovascular disease? (
  • Many novel post-infarct therapies are designed to inhibit the inflammation," says Professor Oliver Söhnlein of the Institute for Cardiovascular Prevention at LMU. (
  • Through our Cleveland HeartLab Cardiometabolic Center of Excellence, Quest offers expanded, unique inflammation testing that may provide additional and complementary insight into cardiovascular risk beyond lipid testing alone. (
  • A 2017 SBU report found evidence that workplace exposure to silica dust, engine exhaust or welding fumes is associated with heart disease. (
  • Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of health problems and death in developed. (
  • The World Health Organization has implemented a global action plan for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCD) with an aim to reduce these by 25% in the next 5 years. (
  • At the Division of Human Nutrition and Health, the effect of nutrient and food intake on classical and emerging risk factors and underlying pathophysiological processes for cardiovascular disease are studied in randomized controlled trials. (
  • Data from the World Health Organization shows that cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death around the world (approximately 18 million lives every year), and the primary reason for the high fatalities is that these diseases are not detected until it's already too late. (
  • Epidemiological studies suggest that the beneficial cardiovascular health effects of diets rich in fruits and vegetables are in part mediated by their flavonoid content, with particular benefits provided by one member of this family, the flavanols. (
  • Patients hospitalized with a cardiovascular event are more likely to die within one year if they have low health literacy, according to a Vanderbilt University Medical Center study released today in Mayo Clinic Proceedings. (
  • Recent research from the Harvard School of Public Health has shown that tea is full of antioxidants and flavonoids that can be good for you health and help protect against disease! (
  • Early prevention is the name of the game these days for the UK's National Health Service (NHS) when it comes to tackling cardiovascular disease (CVD). (
  • Made up of three unique programs, the Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Center offers care for patients of all risk levels who wish to improve their heart health. (
  • This report examined the health services used by more than 37,300 people with coronary heart disease (CHD) who were discharged from a public hospital in New South Wales or Victoria between April 2012 and June 2013. (
  • The objective of this research was to construct and compare a 2013 New Zealand population derived from Statistics New Zealand's Integrated Data Infrastructure (IDI) with the 2013 census population and a 2013 Health Service Utilisation population, and to ascertain the differences in cardiovascular disease prevalence. (
  • The second paradox is that medicine remains very expensive, yet we don't put efforts into promoting health at younger ages, which could be a cost-effective method to preventing the onset of the disease. (
  • Many nations are now dealing with a 'double burden' of chronic and infectious disease, which puts additional strain on health systems. (
  • The Cardiovascular Health Study showed that rates of glucose, blood pressure, and lipid control, and of aspirin administration for older persons with diabetes, are less likely to be at goal than for those without diabetes (recognizing that goals are stricter for persons with diabetes) ( 2 ). (
  • The information should not be used for either diagnosis or treatment or both for any health related problem or disease. (
  • The researchers behind the study said that their results emphasize the importance of improving cardiovascular health in middle age to prevent age-related cognitive decline. (
  • If you have cardiovascular disease, you and your health care provider should focus on managing your risk factors, maintaining an ideal body weight with diet and exercise. (
  • The results of the new paper suggest that identifying insomnia, particularly in young people, may reduce cardiovascular disease risk later on in life. (
  • A number of these risk factors are shared with other chronic diseases, such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease. (
  • Despite advancements in prevention, diagnosis and treatment, cardiovascular disease (CVD) still remains the leading cause of death in industrialized countries and creates an immense economic burden (Mendis et al. (
  • Diagnosis of disease typically occurs seven to ten years earlier in men as compared to women. (
  • KaNa trial), cardiovascular patients (e.g. (
  • Kaneko Y et al (2003) Cardiovascular effects of continuous positive airway pressure in patients with heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea. (
  • Doctors are already able to calculate patients' risk of getting cardiovascular disease based on their electronic medical records, including age, gender and smoking habits. (
  • The Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Center at the Massachusetts General Hospital Corrigan Minehan Heart Center provides a unique, prevention-as-treatment approach for patients who have heart disease or who are at risk for developing heart disease. (
  • Our physicians are international leaders in their fields, and they treat heart disease by giving patients strategies and tools that are necessary to reduce their risks. (
  • Educate patients on how to best prevent heart disease from developing or worsening. (
  • Specialists within the Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Center at Mass General work with encourage patients to make lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of developing heart disease or prevent existing conditions from becoming worse. (
  • The Heart Attack Primary Prevention Program treats patients who are at risk for developing heart disease due to family history. (
  • Evaluate existing stress management interventions and their components to identify the most promising approaches for coronary heart disease patients. (
  • describe and compare the diagnostic procedures performed in the management of patients with cardiovascular disease. (
  • The new blind, randomized, placebo study looked at 12,536 patients of at least 50 years of age with a high risk for cardiovascular events that has impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes. (
  • Researchers concluded daily supplementation with 1 g of n-3 fatty acids did not reduce the rate of cardiovascular events in patients at high risk for cardiovascular events. (
  • Peter Savage (Ellicott City, MD) discussed secular trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) among patients with diabetes. (
  • In response to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease discovered for psoriasis, clinicians and psoriasis patients have been encouraged to more actively screen for and manage cardiovascular disease," Drucker said. (
  • Sexual activity is an important component of quality of life and thus is of great concern for both patients with heart disease and their physicians. (
  • Another component of this problem is that patients seeking medical attention for sexual dysfunction often have concomitant cardiovascular disease. (
  • The risk in patients with other cardiovascular diseases will also be mentioned. (
  • Advanced biomarkers have been shown to help identify residual risk and have been adopted by several guidelines and societies.4,5 With deeper insights, you can take further action to help reduce your patients' risk for adverse cardiovascular events. (
  • For certifying as a specialist in cardiovascular diseases, a medical school graduate will require six to eight additional years of training (three years of internal medicine residency and three to five years of cardiovascular disease fellowship training). (
  • Once training is completed, cardiovascular specialists are certified by one of the boards of the American Board of Medical Specialties (such as the American Board of Internal Medicine) or the Advisory Board for Osteopathic Specialists of the American Osteopathic Association. (
  • Cardiovascular fellowship training requires three years of accredited training beyond the three year categorical internal medicine residency. (
  • Board certification in cardiovascular disease through the American Board of Internal Medicine is available following completion of this fellowship. (
  • Dr. Garcia is board certified in Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Disease and Echocardiography. (
  • He is presently Chair of the American Board of Internal Medicine Cardiovascular Board Cardiovascular Disease Exam Committee, National Board of Echocardiography, Montefiore Accountable Care Organization, American Heart Association - Founder Affiliate, Centro de Diagnóstico y Medicina Avanzada, and Conferencias Médicas y Telemedicina (Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic). (
  • Dr. Cassimatis is board certified in Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Transthoracic Echocardiography. (
  • Dr. Cassimatis is a member of the American Board of Internal Medicine Cardiovascular Board Cardiovascular Disease Exam Committee. (
  • The association of these diseases with vitamin D deficiency and improvement with vitamin D supplementation suggest its therapeutic benefit. (
  • The book consists of six parts: 1) An overview of non-coding RNAs and cardiovascular system, 2) Bioinformatics and interactions, 3) Non-coding RNA regulation in cardiovascular system, 4) Non-coding RNAs and cardiovascular diseases, 5) Potential biomarkers and therapeutic implications, 6) Future prospects. (
  • Particular emphasis is given to insights derived from therapeutic interventions with lifestyle modification, cardiovascular drugs, antidiabetic drugs, and other related treatments. (
  • Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of heart disease, is when plaque builds up in the arteries leading to the heart. (
  • This term refers to disease of large arteries that supply blood to the peripheries and can be caused by blockage of arteries due to cholesterol or fatty substances, or caused by widening of the arteries such as the aorta, which in severe cases can lead to rupture of the arterial wall. (
  • Treatment options for diseases of arteries supplying blood to the intestines and kidneys include open surgical (bypass) and endovascular treatment (angioplasty and stents). (
  • Realizing this, Kamagra Kaufensie has offered the report, which reveals the link between cardiovascular diseases and erectile dysfunction. (
  • Mechanistically, short-term effects on endothelium-dependent vasodilation following the consumption of flavanol-rich foods, as well as purified flavanols, have been linked to an increased nitric oxide bioactivity in healthy humans, and those with increased cardiovascular risk. (