Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)United StatesHomocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Primary Prevention: Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.TriglyceridesCardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.JapanHypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Hyperhomocysteinemia: Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Vascular Stiffness: Loss of vascular ELASTICITY due to factors such as AGING; and ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Increased arterial stiffness is one of the RISK FACTORS for many CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Renal Insufficiency, Chronic: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)SwedenAsian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.Fatty Acids, Omega-3: A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.Obesity, Abdominal: A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)FinlandHeart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Diagnostic Techniques, Cardiovascular: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the cardiovascular system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.Nuts: Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Diet, Mediterranean: A diet typical of the Mediterranean region characterized by a pattern high in fruits and vegetables, EDIBLE GRAIN and bread, potatoes, poultry, beans, nuts, olive oil and fish while low in red meat and dairy and moderate in alcohol consumption.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.American Heart Association: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Estrogen Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Hypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Vitamin B Complex: A group of water-soluble vitamins, some of which are COENZYMES.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.North DakotaHypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Pravastatin: An antilipemic fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Nocardia autotrophica. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES).Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Secondary Prevention: The prevention of recurrences or exacerbations of a disease or complications of its therapy.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.

Dietary intake and practices in the Hong Kong Chinese population. (1/16417)

OBJECTIVES: To examine dietary intake and practices of the adult Hong Kong Chinese population to provide a basis for future public health recommendations with regard to prevention of certain chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis. PARTICIPANTS: Age and sex stratified random sample of the Hong Kong Chinese population aged 25 to 74 years (500 men, 510 women). METHOD: A food frequency method over a one week period was used for nutrient quantification, and a separate questionnaire was used for assessment of dietary habits. Information was obtained by interview. RESULTS: Men had higher intakes of energy and higher nutrient density of vitamin D, monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, but lower nutrient density of protein, many vitamins, calcium, iron, copper, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was an age related decrease in energy intake and other nutrients except for vitamin C, sodium, potassium, and percentage of total calorie from carbohydrate, which all increased with age. Approximately 50% of the population had a cholesterol intake of < or = 300 mg; 60% had a fat intake < or = 30% of total energy; and 85% had a percentage of energy from saturated fats < or = 10%; criteria considered desirable for cardiovascular health. Seventy eight per cent of the population had sodium intake values in the range shown to be associated with the age related rise in blood pressure with age. Mean calcium intake was lower than the FAO/WHO recommendations. The awareness of the value of wholemeal bread and polyunsaturated fat spreads was lower in this population compared with that in Australia. There was a marked difference in types of cooking oil compared with Singaporeans, the latter using more coconut/palm/mixed vegetable oils. CONCLUSION: Although the current intake pattern for cardiovascular health for fat, saturated fatty acid, and cholesterol fall within the recommended range for over 50% of the population, follow up surveys to monitor the pattern would be needed. Decreasing salt consumption, increasing calcium intake, and increasing the awareness of the health value of fibre may all be beneficial in the context of chronic disease prevention.  (+info)

Physician advice and individual behaviors about cardiovascular disease risk reduction--seven states and Puerto Rico, 1997. (2/16417)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) (e.g., heart disease and stroke) is the leading cause of death in the United States and accounted for 959,227 deaths in 1996. Strategies to reduce the risk for heart disease and stroke include lifestyle changes (e.g., eating fewer high-fat and high-cholesterol foods) and increasing physical activity. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and the American Heart Association (AHA) recommend that, as part of a preventive health examination, all primary-care providers counsel their patients about a healthy diet and regular physical activity. AHA also recommends low-dose aspirin use as a secondary preventive measure among persons with existing CVD. To determine the prevalence of physician counseling about cardiovascular health and changes in individual behaviors, CDC analyzed data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for seven states and Puerto Rico. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicate a lower prevalence of counseling and behavior change among persons without than with a history of heart disease or stroke.  (+info)

Respiratory symptoms and long-term risk of death from cardiovascular disease, cancer and other causes in Swedish men. (3/16417)

BACKGROUND: Depressed respiratory function and respiratory symptoms are associated with impaired survival. The present study was undertaken to assess the relation between respiratory symptoms and mortality from cardiovascular causes, cancer and all causes in a large population of middle-aged men. METHODS: Prospective population study of 6442 men aged 51-59 at baseline, free of clinical angina pectoris and prior myocardial infarction. RESULTS: During 16 years there were 1804 deaths (786 from cardiovascular disease, 608 from cancer, 103 from pulmonary disease and 307 from any other cause). Men with effort-related breathlessness had increased risk of dying from all of the examined diseases. After adjustment for age, smoking habit and other risk factors, the relative risk (RR) associated with breathlessness of dying from coronary disease was 1.43 (95% CI : 1.16-1.77), from stroke 1.77 (95% CI: 1.07-2.93), from any cardiovascular disease 1.48 (95% CI : 1.24-1.76), cancer 1.36 (95% CI : 1.11-1.67) and from any cause 1.62 (95% CI: 1.44-1.81). An independent effect of breathlessness on cardiovascular death, cancer death and mortality from all causes was found in life-time non-smokers, and also if men with chest pain not considered to be angina were excluded. An independent effect was also found if all deaths during the first half of the follow-up were excluded. Men with cough and phlegm, without breathlessness, also had an elevated risk of dying from cardiovascular disease and cancer, but after adjustment for smoking and other risk factors this was no longer significant. However, a slightly elevated independent risk of dying from any cause was found (RR = 1.18 [95% CI: 1.02-1.36]). CONCLUSION: A positive response to a simple question about effort related breathlessness predicted subsequent mortality from several causes during a follow-up period of 16 years, independently of smoking and other risk factors.  (+info)

Short stature and cardiovascular disease among men and women from two southeastern New England communities. (4/16417)

BACKGROUND: Short stature has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), although the reason for the association remains unclear. Data on the relation between stature and stroke is more limited. We examined the association between stature and CHD as well as between stature and stroke in men and women from two communities in southeastern New England. METHODS: Coronary heart disease and stroke events were abstracted from medical records between January 1980 and December 1991. An epidemiological diagnostic algorithm developed to measure CHD was used in the present analysis. Unadjusted relative risks (RR) and RR adjusted for age, smoking status, obesity, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol <0.91 mmol/l, total cholesterol >6.21 mmol/l, hypertension, diabetes, education, and being foreign born were computed by gender-specific height categories separately for men (n = 2826) and women (n = 3741). RESULTS: A graded inverse association between stature and risk of CHD was observed among men which persisted after adjustment for confounders. Men >69.75 inches had an 83% lower risk of CHD compared with men < or = 65 inches. In addition, the tallest men had a 67% decreased risk of stroke compared with the shortest men. No significant relation between stature and CHD or stroke was observed among women. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the hypothesis that stature is inversely related to both risk of CHD and stroke at least among men. Factors which might explain this association remain to be determined.  (+info)

Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe. (5/16417)

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

Natural sporting ability and predisposition to cardiovascular disorders. (6/16417)

We tested the hypothesis that people with a natural ability in 'power sports' (a presumed marker for predominance of type 2, glycolytic muscle fibres) might have increased risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) compared to those with a natural ability in 'endurance sports' (as a marker for predominance of type 1, oxidative muscle fibres). We examined subsequent cardiovascular disorders retrospectively in 231 male former soldiers, aged 34-87 years, who had undergone a course in physical training in the Army School of Physical Training, Aldershot, UK, who assessed themselves as having natural ability in either power (n = 107) or endurance (n = 124) sports. The proportion with CHD, defined as angina and/or coronary angioplasty and/or coronary artery bypass graft and/or heart attack was 18.7% in the 'power group' vs. 9.7% in the 'endurance group' (difference: chi 2 = 3.9, p = 0.05). The proportions with CHD and/or risk factors rose to 39.3% in the 'power group' vs. 25.8% in the 'endurance group' (difference: chi 2 = 4.8, p = 0.03). Under logistic regression analysis, compared to the 'endurance group', the 'power group' had 2.2 (95% CI: 1.00-4.63) the risk of developing CHD, and 1.86 (95% confidence interval: 1.06 to 3.25) the risk of developing CHD and/or risk factors. Men with a natural ability in 'power sports' are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disorders, compared to men with a natural ability in 'endurance sports'. A predominance of type 2, glycolytic muscle fibres, presumably of genetic origin, may predispose to cardiovascular disorders.  (+info)

Hypoalbuminemia increases lysophosphatidylcholine in low-density lipoprotein of normocholesterolemic subjects. (7/16417)

BACKGROUND: A phospholipid, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), is the major determinant of the atherosclerotic properties of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Under normal circumstances most LPC is bound to albumin. We hypothesized that lipoprotein LPC concentrations are increased in hypoalbuminemic patients with the nephrotic syndrome, irrespective of their lipid levels. To test this hypothesis, we selected nephrotic and control subjects with matched LDL cholesterol levels. METHODS: Lipoproteins and the albumin-rich lipoprotein-deficient fractions were separated by ultracentrifugation and their phospholipid composition was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. RESULTS: Nephrotic subjects (albumin 23 +/- 2 g/liter and LDL cholesterol 3.1 +/- 0.2 mmol/liter) had a LDL LPC concentration that was increased (P < 0.05) to 66 +/- 7 vs. 35 +/- 6 micromol/liter in matched controls (albumin 42 +/- 5 g/liter and LDL cholesterol 3.1 +/- 0.2 mmol/liter). LPC in very low-density lipoprotein plus intermediate-density lipoprotein (VLDL + IDL) in these subjects was also increased to 33 +/- 7 vs. 9 +/- 2 micromol/liter in controls (P < 0.05). Conversely, LPC was decreased to 19 +/- 4 micromol/liter in the albumin-containing fraction of these hypoalbuminemic patients, as compared to 46 +/- 10 micromol/liter in the controls (P < 0.05). LPC was also low (14 +/- 4 micromol/liter) in the albumin-containing fraction of hypoalbuminemic, hypocholesterolemic patients with nonrenal diseases. In hyperlipidemic nephrotic subjects (albumin 21 +/- 2 g/liter and LDL cholesterol 5.7 +/- 0.5 mmol/liter) the LPC levels in LDL and VLDL + IDL were further increased, to 95 +/- 20 and 56 +/- 23 micromol/liter, respectively (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that in the presence of hypoalbuminemia in combination with proteinuria, LPC shifts from albumin to VLDL, IDL and LDL. This effect is independent of hyperlipidemia. Increased LPC in lipoproteins may be an important factor in the disproportionate increase in cardiovascular disease in nephrotic patients with hypoalbuminemia.  (+info)

Effect of MTHFR 677C>T on plasma total homocysteine levels in renal graft recipients. (8/16417)

BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia is an established, independent risk factor for vascular disease morbidity and mortality. The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism C677T has been shown to result in increased total homocysteine concentrations on the basis of low folate levels caused by a decreased enzyme activity. The effect of this polymorphism on total homocysteine and folate plasma levels in renal transplant patients is unknown. METHODS: We screened 636 kidney graft recipients for the presence of the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism. The major determinants of total homocysteine and folate plasma concentrations of 63 patients, who were identified to be homozygous for this gene polymorphism compared with heterozygotes (N = 63), and patients with wild-type alleles (N = 63), who were matched for sex, age, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and body mass index, were identified by analysis of covariance. The variables included sex, age, GFR, body mass index, time since transplantation, folate and vitamin B12 levels, the use of azathioprine, and the MTHFR genotype. To investigate the impact of the kidney donor MTHFR genotype on total homocysteine and folate plasma concentrations, a similar model was applied in 111 kidney graft recipients with stable graft function, in whom the kidney donor C677T MTHFR gene polymorphism was determined. RESULTS: The allele frequency of the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene was 0.313 in the whole study population [wild-type (CC), 301; heterozygous (CT), 272; and homozygous mutant (TT), 63 patients, respectively] and showed no difference in the patient subgroups with various renal diseases. The MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism significantly influenced total homocysteine and folate plasma concentrations in renal transplant recipients (P = 0.0009 and P = 0.0002, respectively). Furthermore, a significant influence of the GFR (P = 0.0001), folate levels (P = 0.0001), age (P = 0.0001), body mass index (P = 0.0001), gender (P = 0.0005), and vitamin B12 levels (P = 0.004) on total homocysteine concentrations was observed. The donor MTHFR gene polymorphism had no influence on total homocysteine and folate levels. Geometric mean total homocysteine levels in patients homozygous for the mutant MTHFR allele were 18.6 micromol/liter compared with 14.6 micromol/liter and 14.9 micromol/liter in patients heterozygous for the MTHFR gene polymorphism and those with wild-type alleles (P < 0.05 for TT vs. CT and CC). Geometric mean folate levels were lower in CT and TT patients (11.2 and 10.2 nmol/liter) compared with CC patients (13.6 nmol/liter, P < 0.05 vs. CT and TT). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that homozygosity for the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene significantly increases total homocysteine concentrations and lowers folate levels in kidney graft recipients, even in patients with excellent renal function (GFR more than median). These findings have important implications for risk evaluation and vitamin intervention therapy in these patients who carry an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular disease.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - miR-199a-5p is a marker of blood pressure in premature cardiovascular disease patients homozygous for the MTHFR C677T polymorphism.. AU - Lynch, Seodhna. AU - Ward, Mary. AU - McNulty, Helene. AU - Horigan, G. AU - Strain, JJ. AU - purvis, John. AU - tackett, Mike. AU - McKenna, Declan. PY - 2017/9/11. Y1 - 2017/9/11. N2 - Introduction: microRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs which are potentially valuable markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, including hypertension. This novel investigation aims to profile circulating serum concentrations of microRNAs in premature CVD patients to identify microRNAs that correlate best with hypertension.Methods: Serum samples from an existing cohort of 75 premature CVD patients were analysed for expression of 68 CVD-related microRNAs. Patients had been screened for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism C677T, a risk factor for hypertension. Samples had been collected at baseline and following intervention with ...
© 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Objective: To examine the effect on cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors of interventions to alter consultations between practitioners and patients with type 2 diabetes. Search Strategy: Electronic and manual citation searching to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Inclusion Criteria: RCTs that compared usual care to interventions to alter consultations between practitioners and patients. The population was adults aged over 18 years with type 2 diabetes. Trials were set in primary care. Data extraction and synthesis: We recorded if explicit theory-based interventions were used, how consultations were measured to determine whether interventions had an effect on these and calculated weighted mean differences for CVD risk factors including glycated haemoglobin (HbA 1c ), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C).
Julius S, Kjeldsen SE, Weber M, Brunner HR, Ekman S, Hansson L, Hua T, Laragh J, McInnes GT, Mitchell L, Plat F, Schork A, Smith B, Zanchetti A, VALUE trial group. Outcomes in hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk treated with regimens based on valsartan or amlodipine: the VALUE randomised trial. Lancet. 2004; 363(9426): 2022-31 ...
Background Cardiovascular disease may be the leading cause of increased mortality for adolescents with advanced kidney disease. cardiovascular mortality. Great opportunity exists to improve outcomes for children with kidney disease by improving reliability of preventive care that may include formal transition programs. Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, transition, quality, chronic kidney disease, kidney transplantation, dialysis Intro Outcomes for children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have improved with an increasing number surviving well into adulthood.[1C2] Unfortunately, many of these patients have cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates over 1,000 instances that of their age-matched peers and will experience premature death due to CVD in early adulthood.[3C4] This exceedingly high CVD risk is related to a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) that predict CVD in the general population (such as hypertension, ...
Skeletal muscle mass in relation to 10 year cardiovascular disease incidence among middle aged and older adults: the ATTICA study ...
Methods and Results-In a double-blind controlled trial, we randomized 4110 stable kidney transplant recipients to a multivitamin that included either a high dose (n=2056) or low dose (n=2054) of folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 to determine whether decreasing total homocysteine concentrations reduced the rate of the primary composite arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease outcome (myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular disease death, resuscitated sudden death, coronary artery or renal artery revascularization, lower-extremity arterial disease, carotid endarterectomy or angioplasty, or abdominal aortic aneurysm repair). Mean follow-up was 4.0 years. Treatment with the high-dose multivitamin reduced homocysteine but did not reduce the rates of the primary outcome (n=547 total events; hazards ratio [95% confidence interval]=0.99 [0.84 to 1.17]), secondary outcomes of all-cause mortality (n=431 deaths; 1.04 [0.86 to 1.26]), or dialysis-dependent kidney failure (n=343 events; 1.15 ...
Background: Mild cognitive impairment is a risk factor for dementia. Midlife cardiovascular disease risk factors such as high blood pressure and smoking have strong relationships to both cognitive impairment and dementia in late life. Intakes of several nutrients including fats and alcohol have been found to contribute to both cardiovascular disease and risk of cognitive impairment. Literature shows that cardiovascular disease risk factors at age 50, predict lifetime risk of both cardiovascular disease and dementia. The aim of this study is to investigate relationships between the intake of fats and alcohol in relation to cognitive impairment, and five-year cardiovascular disease risk (fatal and non-fatal) in 50 year old Cantabrians. The hypotheses for this study are: • That fifty year olds with higher five year cardiovascular disease risk have a higher risk of mild cognitive impairment. • Secondly that fifty year olds who consume the recommended proportions of dietary fats and recommended ...
The goal of this work was to perform an exploratory analysis to establish a framework for mt-PheWAS for investigating the relationship between mtDNA variation and a range of phenotypes. We first employed a polygenic approach to investigate the global effect of mtDNA variation on phenotypic variance for eight cardiovascular-related traits. Given the metabolic trait focus of the nuclear SNP content on the Metabochip and the nature of the selected phenotypes in this study, we expected the polygenic analysis would reveal significant proportion of trait variance explained. However, overall, we observed relatively low PVE for both nuclear and mitochondrial genetic variation. Only a single trait, total cholesterol, reached statistical significance in the polygenic analysis, although T2D approached the statistical significance threshold of p , 0.05. The low PVE may be due, in part, to the targeted nature of the Metabochip which does not contain a genome-wide distribution of SNPs that can be found on ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Incidence of new cardiovascular events in patients with and without peripheral arterial disease seen in a vascular surgery clinic. AU - Chhabra, Amit. AU - Aronow, Wilbert S.. AU - Ahn, Chul. AU - Duncan, Kurt. AU - Patel, Jay D.. AU - Papolos, Alexander I.. AU - Sateesh, Babu. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - Background: To investigate the incidence of death and of new cardiovascular events at long-term follow-up of patients with and without PAD seen in a vascular surgery clinic. Material/Methods: We investigated the incidence of death, new stroke/transient ischemic attack, new myocardial infarction, new coronary revascularization, new carotid endarterectomy, new peripheral arterial disease (PAD) revascularization, or at least one of the above outcomes at long-term follow-up of patients with and without PAD followed in a vascular surgery clinic. Results: At least one of the above outcomes occurred in 259 of 414 patients (63%) with PAD at 33-month follow-up and in 21 of 89 ...
Comparability of total cardiovascular disease risk estimates using laboratory and non-laboratory based assessments in urban-dwelling South Africans: The CRIBSA study
The ASPEN did not find a significant reduction in the primary composite end point comparing 10 mg of atorvastatin with placebo (13.7 and 15.0%). However, a 27% reduction in fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction, although nonsignificant, is comparable to that found in statin cardiovascular end point trials (19). The result for the primary end point differs from the majority of recent studies showing a significant CHD benefit of treating individuals with type 2 diabetes (13-16), with or without prior CHD. The reasons for this result may relate to the overall study design, the types of subjects recruited, the nature of the primary end point, and the protocol changes required because of changing treatment guidelines.. Equivalent CVD rates in diabetic patients without prior CHD and nondiabetic patients with CHD were reported in at least three observational studies (1-4). However, at least four other studies did not report as high a rate of CHD in diabetic patients without CHD (5-8). Therefore, the ...
Study documents connection between increased levels of these lipids and cancer growth and metastasis; also opens door to new avenue for cancer treatment. December 19, 2011. Boston, Mass. - A group of small molecules called EETs - currently under scrutiny as possible treatment targets for a host of cardiovascular diseases - may also drive the growth and spread of cancer, according to researchers at the Dana-Farber/Childrens Hospital Cancer Center (DF/CHCC) and other institutions. Their findings also raise the possibility that drugs that block EETs could serve as a new avenue for cancer treatment.. This study, led by Dipak Panigrahy, MD, of DF/CHCC and the Vascular Biology Program at Childrens Hospital Boston, appeared online December 19 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.. EETs (or epoxyeicosatrienoic acids) are small fatty molecules, part of a larger family of lipids normally produced by the endothelial cells that line blood vessels to control inflammation and the response to injury. ...
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of rosiglitazone and/or exercise training on novel cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. One hundred overweight/obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, with inadequ
Introduction: Current calculators to estimate risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease mortality do not include cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) or physical activity (PA) measures. This is problematic as CRF is an independent risk factor for CV mortality. To address this issue, Wickramasinghe et al. developed a calculator which includes CRF along with other traditional CV risk factors. The purpose of the present study is to determine the effect of aerobic (AER), resistance (RES) or combination (COMB) exercise training on 30-year CV mortality risk in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D).. Methods: The present study is an ancillary analysis of the Health Benefits of Aerobic and Resistance Training Study (HART-D). Adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) (n=196) were randomized to 9 months of AER, RES, COMB exercise training or a control group (CON). Thirty-year CV mortality risk was evaluated by entering each participants sex, age, blood pressure, smoking status, T2D status, cholesterol, and BMI into a risk ...
The Framingham Risk Score is a gender-specific algorithm used to estimate the 10-year cardiovascular risk of an individual. The Framingham Risk Score was first developed based on data obtained from the Framingham Heart Study, to estimate the 10-year risk of developing coronary heart disease. In order to assess the 10-year cardiovascular disease risk, cerebrovascular events, peripheral artery disease and heart failure were subsequently added as disease outcomes for the 2008 Framingham Risk Score, on top of coronary heart disease. The Framingham Risk Score is one of a number of scoring systems used to determine an individuals chances of developing cardiovascular disease. A number of these scoring systems are available online. Cardiovascular risk scoring systems give an estimate of the probability that a person will develop cardiovascular disease within a specified amount of time, usually 10 to 30 years. Because they give an indication of the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, they also ...
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in America, with well-established and identifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are the primary driver for first cardiovascular event, and risk factor modification has been a significant driver for reduction of cardiovascular death in certain populations in recent decades.1,2 However, there remains significant opportunity to improve clinician and patient participation in evidence-based screening and preventative care. According to registry-based studies, 40-60% of patients with cardiovascular risk factors are non-adherent to at least one key component of primary prevention.3 Among those with established atherothrombotic disease, up to 90% are taking antiplatelet, lipid-lowering or anti-hypertensive therapy. However, fewer than 50% are fully adherent to all medications with a class 1 indication in secondary prevention, which is associated with marked increase in risk for recurrent events and death.4. The Million Hearts Initiative ...
In order to prevent cardiovascular events, it is essential to effectively manage overall risk of cardiovascular disease. However, despite guideline recommendations to this effect, current management of the major, modifiable cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidemia is disconnected and patient adherence to therapy is poor. This is particularly important for patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, who are often prescribed multiple medications. The JEWEL study program investigated the use of single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin as a strategy to improve management of these patients. The JEWEL program consisted of two 16-week, international, open-label, multicenter, titration-to-goal studies in patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia. The two studies differed based on country of enrollment and certain tertiary endpoints, but the overall designs were very similar. Patients were enrolled from 255 centers across Canada and 13 European countries. The study was designed to
Recent studies in the field demonstrate an increasing impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) on morbidity and mortality in HIV relative to AIDS-related diagnoses. Studies continue to support an approximately 1.5 to two-fold increased risk of IHD conferred by HIV, with specific risk varying by sex and virologic/immunologic status. Risk factors include both traditional CVD risk factors and novel, HIV-specific factors including inflammation and immune activation. Specific antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs may increase CVD risk, yet the net effect of ART with viral suppression is beneficial with regard to CVD risk. Management of cardiovascular risk and prevention of CVD is complex, because current general population strategies target traditional CVD risk factors only. Extensive investigation is being directed at developing tailored CVD risk prediction algorithms and interventions to reduce CVD risk in HIV.. SUMMARY ...
Cardiovascular disease is a major health concern affecting over 80,000,000 people in the U.S. alone. Heart failure, cardiomyopathy, heart rhythm disorders, atherosclerosis and aneurysm formation have significant heritable contribution. Supported by familial aggregation and twin studies, these cardiovascular diseases are influenced by genetic variation. Family-based linkage studies and population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have each identified genes and variants important for the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. The advent of next generation sequencing has ushered in a new era in the genetic diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, and this is especially evident when considering cardiomyopathy, a leading cause of heart failure. Cardiomyopathy is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by morphologically abnormal heart with abnormal function. Genetic testing for cardiomyopathy employs gene panels, and these panels assess more than 50 genes simultaneously. Despite the large
Results Modelbase indicated that baseline age, smoking, hypertension, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and diabetes were all significantly associated with plaque progression; the summarised population attributable risk (PAR) was 28.4%. Modelbase + change indicated that status changes in age, hypertension, and high LDL-C were significant; the summarised PAR was 37.9%. Compared with Modelbase, Modelbase + change exhibited a significant increase in c-statistics (P = 0.001), from 0.668 (95% CI: 0.645-0.691) to 0.688 (95%CI: 0.665-0.710). The NRI was 2.17% (95% CI: 1.29-3.05, P = 0.073) among participants without atherosclerosis progression, and was 6.57% (95% CI: 5.04-8.11, P , 0.001) among those with progression. The summarised NRI was 8.74 (95% CI: 7.51-9.94, P , 0.001). Adverse change in hypertension and elevated LDL-C accelerated atherosclerosis progression, but favourable change in their status failed to slow progression. We ...
Our analysis demonstrates a complex relationship between 10-year total CVD and CVD mortality in the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study, a large European cohort. Men and women showed a decreasing CVD morbidity/mortality ratio with increasing age, and with a greater ratio for women in all age groups. Thus, our results suggest that the ratios of total CVD/CVD mortality are age-dependent and sex-dependent. Furthermore, only 12.9% of first CVD events were fatal. By focusing on CVD mortality only, the overall burden of CVD is seriously underestimated, leaving large numbers of individuals untreated, despite the fact that their risk of CVD events is substantial.. The ESC prevention guidelines use the 10-year cardiovascular mortality risk predictor SCORE as a decision-making tool in primary prevention.2 ,8 Using SCORE risk charts, clinicians can identify individuals with a high risk (≥5%) of 10-year CVD mortality. Based on data from the FINRISK study, it is suggested that at the level at which ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) levels in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) with and without depression. AU - Chang, Jane Pei Chen. AU - Chang, Shih Sheng. AU - Yang, Hui Ting. AU - Palani, Mahalakshmi. AU - Chen, Chun Ping. AU - Su, Kuan Pin. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are commonly comorbid with depression and vice versa. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to mediate in CVDs and depression in cross-sectional and observational studies. With the patients of CVDs, we investigated the role of depression on the effect of PUFAs. Methods: Forty-four patients with CVDs were recruited and assessed with Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD). Patients CVDs markers were measured by electrocardiogram and their red blood cell (RBC) samples were collected for PUFAs analyses. Results: The data of 44 subjects were analyzed; where 10 participants (23%) with CVDs had moderate or severe depression, defined by ...
Altenburg, Teatske M., Rotteveel, Joost, Dunstan, David W., Salmon, Jo and Chinapaw, Mai J. M. 2013, The effect of interrupting prolonged sitting time with short, hourly, moderate-intensity cycling bouts on cardiometabolic risk factors in healthy, young adults, Journal of applied physiology, vol. 115, no. 12, pp. 1751-1756, doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00662.2013. ...
BACKGROUND: The relationship between macronutrients and cardiovascular disease and mortality is controversial. Most available data are from European and North American populations where nutrition excess is more likely, so their applicability to other populations is unclear.. METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a large, epidemiological cohort study of individuals aged 35-70 years (enrolled between Jan 1, 2003, and March 31, 2013) in 18 countries with a median follow-up of 7·4 years (IQR 5·3-9·3). Dietary intake of 135 335 individuals was recorded using validated food frequency questionnaires. The primary outcomes were total mortality and major cardiovascular events (fatal cardiovascular disease, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure). Secondary outcomes were all myocardial infarctions, stroke, cardiovascular disease mortality, and non-cardiovascular disease mortality. Participants were categorised into quintiles of nutrient intake ...
I would suspect that the different effects of anti-oxidants in healthy and unhealthy individuals may well be attributed to different levels of "pro-oxidant" activity. Recent studies (e.g. Ristow et.al. 2009) have shown that a certain amount of oxidation as induced by resistant exercise is necessary to trigger the health-promoting effects of physical exercise in humans - huge amounts of anti-oxidants will prevent these efffects. If, on the other hand, the oxidation processes exceed a certain level or are induced by an unhealthy diet, the provision of appropriate amounts of anti-oxidants is obviously beneficial for overall health. It is - as always - a matter of keeping things balanced ...
Female cardiovascular patients who are depressed amass up to 53 percent higher costs in cardiovascular health care over five years, according to an article in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. C. Noel Bairey Merz, M.D., who led the study and is a nationally recognized expert in womens heart disease, is available to provide details on the relationship between depression and cardiovascular costs.
In this issue, 2 articles (5, 6) express widely divergent views regarding the role of CRP in cardiovascular disease risk stratification. Because individuals at greatest risk for disease have the most to gain from medical interventions (7), correctly specifying level of risk is an important clinical task. Both Cook and colleagues (5) and Lloyd-Jones and coworkers (6) investigate whether adding CRP to predictive models could usefully improve the ability of clinicians to target interventions. Lloyd-Jones and coworkers (6), who review the published evidence, show that adding CRP to predictive models containing conventional cardiovascular risk factors leads to minor improvement in measures of discrimination (receiver-operator characteristic curve properties or c-statistics). This finding is in line with the findings of the most recent study on this issue (8). Cook and colleagues (5) argue that these measures of discrimination are not appropriate for evaluating the utility of adding single variables ...
Background-Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) is a phosphate regulatory hormone that directly stimulates left ventricular hypertrophy in experimental models. The role of FGF-23 in cardiovascular disease development in the general population is unclear. We tested associations of FGF-23 with major subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease outcomes in a large prospective cohort. Methods and Results-We evaluated 6,547 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) who were initially free of cardiovascular disease. We measured serum FGF-23 using the Kainos immunoassay. The MESA measured left ventricular (LV) mass by magnetic resonance imaging, coronary calcium (CAC) by computed tomography, and carotid intima-medial thickness (IMT) by ultrasound. The MESA adjudicated incident heart failure, coronary heart disease, and stoke by medical record review. After adjustment, the highest FGF-23 quartile was associated with an estimated 2.4 gram greater LV mass (95% CI 0.4, 4.5 ...
Adults with late-onset asthma had a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease events such as MI, stroke and heart failure compared with those who did not have asthma even after adjusting for age, sex and cardiovascular disease risk factors.
Cardiovascular diseases constitute one of the major causes of disability and death all over the world. Increased mechanisation, Westernisation of lifestyle and genetic factors, coupled with an increase in life expectancy owing to control of infectious diseases, have contributed to its rise in the developing world as well.. Despite remarkable advances in the identification of various risk factors and our enhanced knowledge regarding the aetiopathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and molecular targeting for drug development, effective drug management of cardiovascular diseases still eludes medical researchers. There continues to be an unmet need for better and safer drugs to treat as well as to prevent cardiovascular diseases. In this regard, it is important to remember that many of the cardiovascular diseases are preventable, either by lifestyle modification and/or by drugs.. The past few decades have witnessed the introduction of a remarkable number of not only new drugs, but also new classes ...
WOODBRIDGE, ON, Oct. 9, 2012/ PRNewswire/- Pivotal Therapeutics Inc., a specialty pharmaceutical company with a focus on cardiovascular disease and overall health, is pleased to announce that the company will be exhibiting at the 2012 Cardiometabolic Health Congress in Boston, MA October 10-13, 2012 Booth #513. The CMHC attracts over 1000 U.S. based practicing clinicians and provides a forum for the most current information on preventing, diagnosing and managing cardiovascular and metabolic disorders.
include being overweight, smoking, diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. Digital health interventions include telemedicine, Web-based (Internet) strategies, e-mail, mobile phones, mobile applications, text messaging, and monitoring sensors. These methods have been used to help people monitor their health and change behaviors, reducing their risk for preventable diseases.. ...
Background The presence of pets has been associated with reduction of stress and blood pressure and therefore may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Methods Relative risks (RR) of all deaths, death due to myocardial infarction (MI), cardiovascular diseases (MI or stroke), and stroke during a 20 year follow-up were determined by Cox proportional hazards analysis for categories of cat or dog ownership among participants after adjustment for potential confounding...
Over the past few years, weve seen an increased focus on health problems associated with cardiovascular disease in people with HIV. Theres still ...
Over the past few years, weve seen an increased focus on health problems associated with cardiovascular disease in people with HIV. Theres still ...
Multiple cardiovascular-related gene sequencing tests can be performed on a single specimen after a single extraction. See Multiple Cardiovascular-Related Gene Sequencing Tests in Special Instructions for a list of tests that can be ordered together.. Container/Tube: Lavender top (EDTA). Specimen Volume: 3 mL. Collection Instructions: Send specimen in original tube.. Additional Information: Include physician name and phone number with the specimen.. ...
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE : THE COMPLETE INTRODUCTION (Book) : Juneau, Martin : A complete guide to the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Being diagnosed with a cardiovascular disease seems unlikely to many, yet cardiovascular diseases are actually the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The good news is that by modifying our lifestyle habits, its possible to increase both our number of healthy years and our lifespan. While modern medicine has an impressive arsenal of drugs, imaging techniques, and intervention procedures and can usually save patients in the acute phase of a heart attack, heart specialists recommend that we adopt a proactive attitude with respect to disease prevention.In a simple, easy-to-read style, Dr. Martin Juneau examines specific case studies from his own extensive clinical practice to explain new issues in heart health. From the incredible importance of exercise and diet to the unsuspected role ofstress and air pollution, Cardiovascular Health explains how the
Main results. 46% of patients with RA and 36% of those without RA had a first CV event during follow-up. Patients with RA were more likely to have been current or former smokers at baseline (52% vs 43%, P = 0.004). Absolute 10-year CV risk varied with age and was 10% to 56% in those with RA and 2% to 37% in those without RA (Table). For patients with RA and 5 traditional CV risk factors, 10-year CV risk was 2 to 5 times higher than for those with RA and no risk factors (Table). ...
TY - JOUR UR - http://lib.ugent.be/catalog/pug01:7030484 ID - pug01:7030484 LA - eng TI - Combined influence of healthy diet and active lifestyle on cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents PY - 2014 JO - (2014) SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE & SCIENCE IN SPORTS SN - 0905-7188 PB - 2014 AU - Cuenca-García, M AU - Ortega, FB AU - Ruiz, JR AU - Gónzalez-Gross, M AU - Labayen, I AU - Jago, R AU - Martínez-Gómez, D AU - Dallongeville, J AU - Bel-Serrat, S AU - Marcos, A AU - Manios, Y AU - Breidenassel, C AU - Widhalm, K AU - Gottrand, F AU - Ferrari, M AU - Kafatos, A AU - Molnár, D AU - Moreno, LA AU - De Henauw, Stefaan GE12 801000760293 0000-0003-4141-5432 AU - Castillo, MJ AU - Sjöström, M AB - To investigate the combined influence of diet quality and physical activity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adolescents, adolescents (n=1513; 12.5-17.5 years) participating in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study were studied. Dietary intake ...
Healio brings you the highlights from the Cardiometabolic Health Congress. Refer back to this page often for the latest news from CMHC, perspectives and interviews with leading researchers and clinicians, and to review archives of past meetings.
The primary findings from this large, prospective, population‐based cohort study showed that higher visit‐to‐visit variability of FPG was associated with an increased risk for CVD events and all‐cause mortality over a 4.93‐year follow‐up. These findings were obtained after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors, including a history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and mean FPG levels.. In accordance with our findings, the Verona Diabetes study16 and a dynamic cohort study in China9 reported that fasting glycemic variability may be an independent predictor of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, multiple studies from the intensive care unit setting have shown a strong relationship between glycemic variability and mortality.17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Critically ill patients with a wide glycemic variation appear to be at significantly higher risk for death, regardless of whether they are hospitalized in medical, surgical, pediatric, ...
2 people interested. Check out who is attending ✭ exhibiting ✭ speaking ✭ schedule & agenda ✭ reviews ✭ timing ✭ entry ticket fees. 2020 edition of ASPC Congress on CVD Prevention will be held at Online starting on 25th July. It is a 2 day event organised by ASPC and will conclude on 26-Jul-2020.
BackgroundMild to moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The burden of cardiovascular disease risk
There were 3 major findings from this study (Central Illustration). First, runners had consistently lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality compared with nonrunners. Second, running even at lower doses or slower speeds was associated with significant mortality benefits. Third, persistent running over time was more strongly associated with mortality reduction.. An earlier study found a 39% lower risk of all-cause mortality in 538 runners who were ≥50 years of age from the Runners Association database compared with 423 matched nonrunners from the Lipid Research Clinics database after adjustment for baseline age, sex, and functional ability (12). In our subsample of runners ≥50 years of age, we found 29% lower mortality risk, compared with nonrunners. The somewhat greater mortality benefits of running in the earlier study may be because runners from a running club were more likely to be health conscious, and physical activities other than running were not adjusted for in the ...
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On September 13, 2011, this report was posted as an MMWR Early Release on the MMWR website (http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr).. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) causes one in three (approximately 800,000) deaths reported each year in the United States (1). Annual direct and overall costs resulting from CVD are estimated at $273 billion and $444 billion, respectively (2). Strategies that address leading CVD risk factors, such as hypertension, high cholesterol levels, and smoking, can greatly reduce the burden of CVD (3). To estimate the U.S. prevalence of these three risk factors, CDC analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) on uncontrolled hypertension, uncontrolled high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and current smoking. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that 49.7% of U.S. adults aged ≥20 years (an estimated 107.3 million persons) have at least one of the three risk factors. To reduce the prevalence of CVD risk ...
Race- and sex-specific Pooled Cohort Equations to predict 10-year risk for a first hard ASCVD (atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease) event
Results 24,989 subjects followed for a median of 2.3 years were included in these analyses. During follow-up, we observed 422 CV endpoints for an incidence rate of 9.08 (95% confidence interval, CI, 7.90 - 10.26) per 1,000 person-years. In models adjusting for age, gender, known CV disease, other traditional CV risk factors, and baseline medications, a 10-point reduction in cumulative CDAI was associated with a 26% reduction in CV risk (95% confidence interval 17-34%). These results were robust in sensitivity analyses (see Fig. 1) stratified by known CV disease, use of corticosteroids, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or selective COX-2 inhibitors, and change in RA treatment.. ...
Our objective was to assess the link between season of birth, neonatal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and adult cardiovascular disease; we report higher neonatal 25(OH)D3 associated with higher levels of cholesterol (in women), fasting insulin, and triglyceride, and with a higher risk of overweight at 35 years of age, but not with other adult cardiovascular disease risk factors ...
Information on heart disease and related cardiovascular conditions includes medications, procedures and tests, symptoms, and treatment.
Information on heart disease and related cardiovascular conditions includes medications, procedures and tests, symptoms, and treatment.
Free NCLEX-PN flashcards - Conditions and Treatments - Cardiovascular Conditions. Work through hundreds of free flashcards and see your grades and test scores i
BACKGROUND: The level of mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD) and from all causes varies considerably within Oslo. The purpose of this study was to examine these differences according to cardiovascular risk factors and socioeconomic variables at the district level. METHODS: Total mortality rates and cardiovascular mortality rates for subjects aged 45-74 years in 1991-1995, and their relationship to cardiovascular risk factors and socioeconomic indicators in the 25 districts of Oslo were studied. Cardiovascular risk factors were based on data from 40 year olds in 1985-1988. The following variables were used as independent variables in the regression analyses to explain differences between the districts: daily smoking, cholesterol level, systolic blood pressure, education and income. RESULTS: Mortality rates were strongly related to cardiovascular risk factors and to socio-economic indicators, with correlation coefficients (Pearson) of 0.74 for smoking and CVD ...
Organized by Dr. Michael Ozner, the Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Symposium is an annual gathering of visionary cardiologists focused on conquering heart disease. Topics included PCSK9 to reduce cholesterol, benefits of fish oil and biomarkers of coronary artery disease.
Body Composition Indices and Single and Clustered Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Adolescents: Providing Clinical-Based Cut- ...
Citizenship Status and the Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among Adults in the United States, 2011- ...
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between wealth and cardiovascular disease risk factors among Hispanic/Latinos of diverse backgrounds.
Georgousopoulou, Ekavi, Mellor, Duane, Naumovski, Nenad, Polychronopoulos, Evangelos, Tyrovolas, Stefanos, Piscopo, Suzanne, Valacchi, Giuseppe, Anastasiou, Foteini, Zeimbekis, Akis, Bountziouka, Vassiliki, Gotsis, Efthimios, Metallinos, George, Tyrovola, Dimitra, Foscolou, Alexander, Tur, Josep-Antoni, Matalas, Antonia-Leda, Lionis, Christos, Sidossis, Labros and Panagiotakos, Demosthenes 2017, Mediterranean lifestyle and cardiovascular disease prevention, Cardiovascular diagnosis and therapy, vol. 7, no. Sup 1, pp. S39-S47, doi: 10.21037/cdt.2017.03.11. ...
CME Program sponsored by International Society for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Cardiovascular Center of Sarasota ABC members receive 50% discount…
Both, ADMA, and CRP predict the occurrence of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. Combining both parameters showed that ADMA augments the predictive value of CRP as a cardiovascular risk marker. Patients with ADMA or CRP in the highest tertile, and none of these parameters in the lowest tertile, had a 4.5-times increased risk for the occurrence of cardiovascular events compared with those with neither ADMA nor CRP in the highest tertile. This imposes an important role of ADMA for cardiovascular risk stratification, adding to determination of CRP and traditional cardiovascular risk markers. A significant additional predictive value of ADMA to CRP for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease already has been shown in a previous study (19). Our study extends these findings to patients with type 2 diabetes. Risk stratification in patients with type 2 diabetes is of particular relevance. Patients with type 2 diabetes are prone to a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Periodontal infections and cardiovascular disease. T2 - Is it a mere association?. AU - Humagain, Manoj. AU - Nayak, D. G.. AU - Uppoor, A. S.. PY - 2006/7/1. Y1 - 2006/7/1. N2 - The oral cavity is a major site of chronic infection and inflammation, particularly periodontal or chronic gum diseases. In recent years there has been increasing interest in the "periodontal systemic connection" between periodontal health parameters and risks of cardiovascular disease. Given that poor oral health and cardiovascular disease are major worldwide health problems, their association are potentially important. The article summarizes the evidences from epidemiologic studies and studies that focused on potential contributing mechanisms to provide an insight of this association.. AB - The oral cavity is a major site of chronic infection and inflammation, particularly periodontal or chronic gum diseases. In recent years there has been increasing interest in the "periodontal systemic connection" ...
Chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients are at a significantly higher risk of atherosclerotic complications when compared to normal population. In this study, baseline serum concentrations of CRP and PAPP-A were significantly higher in HD patients than in healthy controls. This is in accordance with our previous results and suggests chronic inflammation and increased cardiovascular risk in HD patients.. ...
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History of established coronary artery disease (CAD)as defined by coronary stenosis in one or more vessels greater than or equal to 70% by coronary angiography or CT angiogram OR abnormal stress test (at least medium-sized, moderate reversible defect) OR a presence of a CAD risk equivalent as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Panel (NCEP)III as: Framingham risk score ≥ 20%, diabetes, or peripheral arterial disease(4 ...
History of established coronary artery disease (CAD)as defined by coronary stenosis in one or more vessels greater than or equal to 70% by coronary angiography or CT angiogram OR abnormal stress test (at least medium-sized, moderate reversible defect) OR a presence of a CAD risk equivalent as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Panel (NCEP)III as: Framingham risk score ≥ 20%, diabetes, or peripheral arterial disease(4 ...
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and an estimated 17.5 million people died from CVD in 2012 representing 31% of all global deaths.1 In the UK, the total CVD mortality declined by 68% between 1980 and 2013, while the hospital admissions increased by over 46 000 between 2010/2011 and 2013/2014.2 Current statistics of premature deaths due to CVD ranges from 4% in high-income countries to an astonishing estimate of 80% of the total CVD mortality in developing countries.3 In addition, the disease burden on the individual and society comes from deaths and also from those living with CVD. The American Heart Association estimated that the total direct and indirect cost of CVD in the USA alone for 2010 was in excess of US$500 billion.4 According to the WHO,1 the major risk factors of CVD are related to lifestyles, including tobacco smoking, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and alcohol abuse. These factors may lead to other contributing risk ...
What began as molecular switches linking cell surface receptors to the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton has now emerged as an important mediator of cardiovascular disease. The low-molecular-weight GTPases of the Rho family have appeared with increasing frequency in the cardiovascular literature. This interest stems from two seemingly opposite disciplines. From a basic science perspective, increasing evidence suggests a central role of Rho-dependent actin cytoskeleton in mediating changes in cell shape, contractility, and motility.1 However, how these actin cytoskeletal effects of Rho translate into cardiovascular pathophysiology is not entirely evident. From a clinical perspective, large prospective trials with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors or statins suggest that these agents may have beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease in addition to their cholesterol-lowering effects.2 The realization that statins also inhibit isoprenoid synthesis,3 which is required for ...
Clinical trial for Statin Adverse Reaction | Cardiovascular Disease , Evaluation of Major Cardiovascular Events in Patients With or at High Risk for Cardiovascular Disease Who Are Statin Intolerant Treated With Bempedoic Acid (ETC-1002) or Placebo
Trials to date have found that statins reduce all-cause mortality, composite cardiovascular outcomes, and revascularization. However, most trials included large numbers of persons with known CVD. Clear evidence of the effectiveness of statins to prevent a first cardiovascular event is lacking.
Cardiovascular disease is any disease of the heart or blood vessels. It can take many forms, but in many cases, it is preventable. To learn how to keep your heart healthy and prevent development of cardiovascular disease, see a healthcare professional in Tarzana, CA.
Editors Note: This is Part I (Pros) of a two-part Expert Analysis. Go to Part II (Cons).. The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) was designed to test the hypothesis that systolic blood pressure (SBP) reduction to a goal of less than 120 mm Hg had a greater impact on fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events than reducing SBP to the goal of ,140 mm Hg,1 the current guideline recommendation in the U.S. and Europe for persons ,60 years old and those with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus (DM).2,3 Although these SBP goals were similar to those in the BP-lowering arm of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial that enrolled only patients with diabetes,4 SPRINT enrolled considerably more hypertensive patients ≥50 years old without diabetes (n = 9,361) who were at increased cardiovascular risk because of pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD), CKD stage II-III, age ,75 years, or a Framingham 10-year CVD risk score of ≥15%.5 At ...
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Despite worldwide extensive research in the past several decades, effective therapeutic interventions reducing cardiovascular mortality are limited. It is increasingly recognized by the cardiovascular community that eliminating the risk factors and preventing the development of cardiovascular disease is a much better strategy in our battle against cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. The central focus of our laboratory is to identify the mechanisms responsible for myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, for the ultimate purpose of clinical translational benefit. We currently work upon research directions attempting to identify new therapeutic targets at the molecular, cellular, organ and in vivo animal model levels that may block cardiovascular complications caused by the metabolic syndrome, the number one risk factor for cardiovascular disease.. ...
This unit will enhance students understanding of cardiovascular risk, and the cardiovascular complications that may occur in metabolic disease. It will facilitate increased confidence in the assessment, prevention and practical medical management of cardiovascular disease in its broadest sense. Epidemiology and pathophysiology of atherogenesis and cardiovascular disease, will be addressed followed by an intensive focus on characterisation and patient-centred management of common modifiable cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, lipoprotein disorders, diabetes and liftestyle factors pertinent to cardiovascular health. Evidence based screening and diagnostic methods, lifestyle interventions, pharmacotherapy and non-invasive monitoring will be covered. This will be followed by a detailed exploration of large and small vessel disease and implications of metabolic disease for brain, kidney and heart function (including ischaemic cardiomyopathy, diabetic cardiomyopathy and hypertensive ...
This video is available to view via Safari on iPad.. Professor Julie Lovegrove (Deputy Director, Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, University of Reading) gives an overview of the role of dietary lipids in cardiovascular disease risk, with reference to her own research, as well as international studies.. This lecture was filmed at an event called: Nutritional approaches to cardiovascular health.. RSM event description: Despite recent improvements, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide. In England and Wales CVD currently accounts for some 37% of deaths. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) up to 80% of these cases can be avoided by changing to a healthier diet, increasing physical activity and stopping smoking. As evidence to support this, a lifestyle intervention in Finland led to a 68% reduction in premature deaths from CVD in the period 1970 to 1995.. The intention of this conference is to highlight nutritional strategies ...
The 2013 ACC/AHA Cholesterol Guidelines expand the recommendations for statin use to populations previously felt to be at lower risk. Central to risk-estimation in these guidelines is a new equation for determination of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. However, this risk model has been criticized overestimating ASCVD risk in validation studies of the model. Using the Womens Health Study, Cook et al. sought to determine the reasons for risk-overestimation by the ACC/AHA model. Among 27,542 women, 632 experienced an ASCVD event, defined as any myocardial infarction, any stroke, or death from a cardiovascular cause. The average 10-year predicted risk was 3.6% in comparison to an observed risk of 2.2%. When stratified by risk, the ratio between predicted to actual rates was greater for lower risk groups (less than 7.5% risk; ratio 1.90 or higher) than higher risk groups (greater than or equal to 7.5% risk; ratio over 1.4). Statin use and revascularization rates increased over ...
Matthew D. Ritchey, DPT1, Hilary K. Wall, MPH1, Cathleen Gillespie, MS1, Mary G. George, MD1, Ahmed Jamal, MBBS2 (Author affiliations at end of text). Each year, approximately 1.5 million U.S. adults have a heart attack or stroke, resulting in approximately 30 deaths every hour and, for nonfatal events, often leading to long-term disability (1). Overall, an estimated 14 million survivors of heart attacks and strokes are living in the United States (1). In 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, in collaboration with nonprofit and private organizations, launched Million Hearts (http://www.millionhearts.hhs.gov), an initiative focused on implementing clinical and community-level evidence-based strategies to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and prevent a total of 1 million heart attacks and strokes during the 5-year period 2012-2016 (2,3). From 2005-2006 to the period with the most current data, analysis of the Million Hearts four "ABCS" clinical measures (for ...
Cardiovascular disease is actually a general term used for conditions that affect the heart or even the blood vessels. CVD is associated usually with the accumulation of fatty deposits right inside your arteries, called atherosclerosis. There would certainly be a rise in the risk of blood clotting. CVD could be related to the damage to your arteries present in the heart, brain, eyes, and kidneys. Cardiovascular disease is actually one of the major causes of disability and death in many nations today. Here are some kinds of cardiovascular diseases.. Ischemic Heart Disease. Ischemic Heart Disease is supposed to be the most common kind of CVD in many industrialized nations across the globe. It is associated with blood circulation issues to your heart muscle. A partial blockage present in one or even more of your coronary arteries could lead to a short supply of oxygenated blood (ischemia) resulting in symptoms like dyspnea or shortness of breath and angina or chest pain. A full blockage of one of ...
Background: This study was performed to evaluate periodontal status in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and assessment of periodontal diseases prevalence in these patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data on 100 patients were collected with mean age of 51 ± 11 years. The case group included of ...
A method for evaluating cardiovascular health of a patient includes receiving a log of use dataset associated with patient digital communication behavior at a mobile computing device, wherein the log of use dataset is associated with a time period, receiving a supplementary dataset associated with the time period, generating a survey dataset based on a patient response to a survey, generating a cardiovascular health predictive model based upon at least one of the log of use dataset, the supplementary dataset, and the survey dataset, extracting a cardiovascular health metric from at least one of an output of the cardiovascular health predictive model, the log of use dataset, the supplementary dataset, and the survey dataset, wherein the cardiovascular health metric is associated with the time period; providing a cardiovascular-related notification to the patient; and automatically providing a cardiovascular therapeutic intervention at a cardiovascular device for the patient.
Background: Conventional factors do not fully explain the distribution of cardiovascular outcomes. Biomarkers are known to participate in well-established pathw
Ambrosio G, Tritto I, Golino P. Reactive oxygen metabolites and arterial thrombosis. Cardiovasc. Research 34:445-452, 1997 Medline. Berenson GS, Srinivasan SR, Bao W, Newman WP III, Tracy RE, Wattigney WA. Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. New England Journal of Medicine 338: 1650-1656, 1998 Medline. Breslow JL, Azrolan N, Bostom A. N-acetylcysteine and lipoprotein. Lancet 339: 126-127, 1992 Medline. Ceconi C, Curello S, Cargnoni A, et al. The role of glutathione status in the protection against ischaemic and reperfusion damage: effects of N-acetylcysteine. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 20: 5-13, 1988 Medline. Cheng KM, Aggrey SE, Nichols CR, Garnett ME, Godin DV. Antioxidant enzymes and atherosclerosis in Japanese quail: Hereditability and genetic correlation estimates. Canadian Journal of Cardiology 13:669-676, 1997 Medline. Dhalla NS, Golfman L, Takeda S, et al. Evidence for the role of oxidative stress in acute ischemic heart ...
New research has found that poorer well-being or health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescence could be an indicator of future cardiovascular disease risk. Researchers at The Westmead Institute for Medical Research found that adolescents with poorer scores in the social and mental well-being domains of HRQoL have structural changes in their retinal blood vessels that could be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life.
Today results from a new sub-analysis of the EMPHASIS-HF study showed significant reductions in death and hospitalization for five pre-defined high-risk patient sub-groups with chronic heart failure (CHF) and mild symptoms ...
Nearly six in ten deaths are caused by cancer or cardiovascular diseases. Cancer has been the main cause of death in the male population for many years now. Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death for women.
Multiple population based analyses have demonstrated a high incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular (CV) mortality in subjects with T2DM that reduces life expectancy by as much as 15 years. Importantly, the CV system is particularly sensitive to the metabolic and immune derangements present in obese pre-diabetic and diabetic individuals; consequently, CV dysfunction is often the initial CV derangement to occur and promotes the progression to end organ/tissue damage in T2DM. Specifically, diabetic CVD can manifest as microvascular complications, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy, as well as, macrovascular impairments, including ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Despite some progress in prevention and treatment of CVD, mainly via blood pressure and dyslipidemia control strategies, the impact of metabolic disease on CV outcomes is still a major challenge and persists in proportion to the epidemics of obesity and diabetes.
Modest weight losses of 5-10% have been associated with significant improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors (ie, decreased HbA1c levels, reduced blood pressure, increase in HDL cholesterol... more
What is associated with significantly increased risk of stroke and total cardiovascular disease? Many of us are consuming far too much salt and its taking a
En blodprop i hjertet er en alvorlig livsbegivenhed, og mange påvirkes psykisk efterfølgende. Dette studie viser, at hver anden patient, som har haft en blodprop i hjertet, og som har et svækket mentalt helbred, dør eller får et nyt tilfælde af hjertekarsygdom i løbet af de efterfølgende tre år, mens dette kun er tilfældet for hver syvende af dem med et godt mentalt helbred. Den øgede risiko hænger sammen med forskelle i sværhedsgraden af hjertesygdom, men fysisk aktivitet og depressions- og angstsymptomer synes også at spille en rolle. Selv når forskerne tager højde for disse faktorer, har hjertepatienter med et svækket mentalt helbred en over dobbelt så stor risiko for at dø eller få et nyt tilfælde af hjertekarsygdom sammenlignet med hjertepatienter med et godt mentalt helbred. Årsagerne til denne sammenhæng kendes ikke. Nogle af forklaringerne kunne være, at mennesker med et svækket mentalt helbred ikke får de samme behandlingstilbud som mere ressourcestærke ...
Good morning class You are asked to evaluate a patient pre-operatively. They have multiple cardiovascular risk factors including a significant smoking history and hypertension. 16 weeks ago they were hospitalised with central chest pain and they tell you they spent some time in the coronary care unit. You are aware that they are awaiting cancer…
Course Description:. This introductory course for fitness professionals will teach individuals how to safely work with clients with cardiovascular risk factors or diagnosed cardiovascular disease. Health professionals need to be able to identify those at risk for CVD and develop exercise programs and recommend lifestyle changes that will reduce the risk of CVD. Exercise and fitness professional also need to be able to program exercise for those with cardiovascular disease or individuals who has suffered myocardial infarctions or have had procedures, such as bypass surgery. This course introduces professionals to the fundamentals of being physically active with CVD and what types of training may be appropriate or contraindicated.. CVD is the leading cause of death in the United States and has been for many years. Most fitness professionals have a limited knowledge of the different types of CVD and the symptoms that go along with them. They need to understand which activities and exercises are ...
1. INTRODUCTION Most people assume that wellness, which actually entails taking care of ourselves, indicates the absence of illness. In recent years, a drastic change has been experienced in the lifestyle of people worldwide in reference to the shift in their gastronomic patterns from consuming healthy to street foods and transitioning from fit to fat. This habit has increased the risk of many maladies, chief among which are cardiovascular diseases (CVDs).. With the loss of an estimated 17.9 million lives per year, CVDs are the primary cause of death globally. The menace of CVDs remains escalating, with more than 75% of these deaths occurring in developing countries [1]. CVD does not connote a single disease, but it is an illness that includes all the issues related to the heart and blood vessels of an individual. Some of the diseases under the umbrella of CVDs include arrhythmias and congestive heart failure. Although there are several approaches to detect these types of disease, the most ...
Nutritional exposures in early life can have a long-lasting effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. However, few specific dietary factors have...
... are conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke. Many risk factors can be treated, such as tobacco exposure, high blood pressure (hypertension), high cholesterol, obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes, unhealthy diets, and harmful use of alcohol.
Source: SeanPavonePhoto / Getty Images20. Maine | Prevalence of major cardiovascular disease: 7.5% | Adults who report healthy weight: 32.2% (22nd highest) | Adults who report fair or poor health: 16.4% (23rd lowest) | Median household income: $56,277 (20th lowest)Source: Thinkstock19. Florida | Prevalence of major cardiovascular disease: 7.6% | Adults who report healthy weight: […]
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:. The study aimed to assess the relative importance of the control of HbA(1c) and total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio (TC/HDL) on risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).. METHODS:. In 22,135 participants with type 2 diabetes (age 30-75 years, 15% with previous CVD) followed for 5 years, baseline and annually updated mean HbA(1c) and TC/HDL were analysed and also categorised in combinations of quartiles. Outcomes were fatal/non-fatal CHD, stroke, CVD and total mortality.. RESULTS:. In all participants, HRs per 1 SD increase in updated mean HbA(1c) or TC/HDL using Cox regression analysis were 1.13 (95% CI 1.07, 1.19) and 1.31 (1.25, 1.37) for CHD, 1.15 (1.06, 1.24) and 1.25 (1.17, 1.34) for stroke, 1.13 (1.08, 1.18) and 1.29 (1.24, 1.34) for CVD (all p , 0.001), and 1.07 (1.02, 1-13; p = 0.01) and 1.18 (1.12, 1.24; p , 0.001) for total mortality, respectively, adjusted for clinical characteristics and traditional risk factors. The p value for the interaction between HbA(1c) and ...
European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (version 2012). http://www.escardio.org/guidelines-surveys/esc-guidelines/Pages/cvd-prevention.aspx The Fifth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts). Perk J., De Backer G., Gohlke H., Graham I., Reiner Z., Verschuren M., Albus C, Benlian P, Boysen G, Cifkova R, Deaton C, Ebrahim S, Fisher M, Germano G, Hobbs R, Hoes A, Karadeniz S, Mezzani A, Prescott E, Ryden L, Scherer M, Syvänne M, Scholte op Reimer WJ, Vrints C, Wood D, Zamorano JL, Zannad F. European Heart Journal (2012) 33, 1635- ...
A retrospective analysis of a large U.S. managed care database showed that patients who took Pfizers cholesterol-lowering medicine
With a little effort on each of our parts and a willingness to change, we can make a big difference in the incidence of this nations number one killer, cardiovascular disease (CVD). Heart and blood vessel disease are not inevitable; in fact, they are preventable in most cases.
VIA Pharmaceuticals, Inc. today announced the results of a sub-study of patients in its acute coronary syndrome (ACS) Phase 2 trial who received serial 64 slice
Cardiovascular disease[edit]. A 2013 meta-analysis found no evidence that vitamin C supplementation reduces the risk of ... Other diseases[edit]. Studies examining the effects of vitamin C intake on the risk of Alzheimer's disease have reached ... A few years later he proposed that vitamin C would prevent cardiovascular disease, and that 10 grams/day, initially (10 days) ... cardiovascular disease, or dementia.[8][9] It may be taken by mouth or by injection.[2] ...
Cardiovascular disease[edit]. Evidence suggests that dietary vitamin D may be carried by lipoprotein particles into cells of ... This raises questions regarding the effects of vitamin D intake on atherosclerotic calcification and cardiovascular risk as it ... "Vascular calcification: pathobiology of a multifaceted disease". Circulation. 117 (22): 2938-48. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA. ...
Cardiovascular disease[edit]. Main article: Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease. There are strong, consistent, and graded ... "Chapter 17 What Causes Cardiovascular Diseases?". Epidemiology and prevention of cardiovascular disease: a global challenge (2 ... "Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors". Retrieved 2012-05-03.. *^ "Lower your cholesterol". National Health Service. Retrieved ... Many review articles also recommend a diet low in saturated fat and argue it will lower risks of cardiovascular diseases[5], ...
Cardiovascular disease[edit]. Smoking can cause atherosclerosis, leading to coronary artery disease and peripheral arterial ... cardiovascular disease, and a list of other diseases which lengthened as the studies continued.[13] (the British Doctors Study ... cardiovascular disease, and a list of other diseases which lengthened as the studies continued[13] ... Smoking also increases the chance of heart disease, stroke, atherosclerosis, and peripheral vascular disease.[62][63] Several ...
Cardiovascular disease[edit]. In preliminary long-term clinical studies, black tea consumption showed evidence for providing a ... "Green and black tea for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (Systematic Review and ... In regions without access to safe drinking water, boiling water to make tea is effective for reducing waterborne diseases by ... "Black and green tea consumption and the risk of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis". The American Journal of Clinical ...
Cardiovascular disease[edit]. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death (30%) amongst women in the United States, ... While the rates of the leading causes of death, cardiovascular disease, cancer and lung disease, are similar in women and men, ... Comorbidity from other non reproductive disease such as cardiovascular disease contribute to both the mortality and morbidity ... Overall the lifetime risk of stroke in women exceeds that in men.[27][28] The risk of cardiovascular disease amongst those with ...
"The role of dietary n-6 fatty acids in the prevention of cardiovascular disease". Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine. 8 Suppl 1 ... "The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases". Experimental ... Cardiovascular disease[edit]. Evidence in the population generally does not support a beneficial role for omega−3 fatty acid ... Rizos EC, Elisaf MS (June 2017). "Does Supplementation with Omega-3 PUFAs Add to the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease?". ...
Cardiovascular diseases[edit]. Caveolins are thought to play an important role during the development of atherosclerosis.[5] ... Role in disease[edit]. Cancer[edit]. Caveolins have a paradoxical role in the development of this disease. They have been ...
Cardiovascular disease[edit]. Adult exposure to PAHs has been linked to cardiovascular disease.[63] PAHs are among the complex ... Oxidative stress following PAH exposure could also result in cardiovascular disease by causing inflammation, which has been ... "The Role of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in the Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Diseases". Drug Metabolism Reviews. 38 (3): 411-450 ... Eighty Years from Discovery to Emergence as a Major Risk Marker for Cardiovascular Disease". Clinical Chemistry. 55 (2): 209- ...
Cardiovascular disease. Evidence for health effects from vitamin D supplementation for cardiovascular health is poor.[12] ... And we found no evidence that Vitamin D had effects on other disease states.. RAZ: Like cancer.. Dr. ROSEN: Like cancer or ... cardiovascular disease and hypertension,diabetes and metabolic syndrome, falls and physical performance, immune functioning and ... Moderate to high doses may reduce cardiovascular disease risk but are of questionable clinical significance.[13][12] ...
Cardiovascular disease[edit]. A 2015 meta-analysis comparing HIIT to moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) in people ... of individuals with lifestyle-induced chronic cardiovascular or metabolic diseases (including high blood pressure, obesity, ... Cardiovascular fitness[edit]. A 2015 systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials found that HIIT ... This article is about the cardiovascular exercise made popular in the 2010s. For the 1970s weight training, see High intensity ...
Cardiovascular diseases. *Alcoholic cardiomyopathy. *Alcohol flush reaction (AFR). Gastrointestinal diseases. *Alcoholic liver ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (63): 1108-1112. 2014.. *^ Weinberger, AH; Pilver, CE; Mazure, CM; McKee, SA ( ... Nicotine dependence[notes 1] is a state of dependence upon nicotine.[1] Nicotine dependence is a chronic, relapsing disease ... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Health Promotion ...
Cardiovascular disease[edit]. Main articles: Occupational stress and Cardiovascular disease. Research has identified health- ... In Schnall, P., Belkić, K., Landsbergis, P., et al (Eds.), The workplace and cardiovascular disease. Occupational Medicine, ... In P. Schnall, K. Belkić, P.A. Landsbergis, & D. Baker (Eds.), The workplace and cardiovascular disease. Occupational Medicine ... Murphy, L.R. (1991). Job dimensions associated with severe disability due to cardiovascular disease. Journal of Clinical ...
3. Cardiovascular diseases: *Congenital heart disease (e.g. Tetralogy of Fallot, right to left shunts in heart or great vessels ... The name cyanosis literally means the blue disease or the blue condition. It is derived from the color cyan, which comes from ... Combination of clubbing and cyanosis suggests congenital heart disease and occasionally pulmonary disease. ... Patients with a large ductus develop progressive pulmonary vascular disease, and pressure overload of the right ventricle ...
Cardiovascular diseases, which include diseases of the heart, are the leading cause of death worldwide.[53] The majority of ... Ischaemic heart disease. Main article: Coronary artery disease. Coronary artery disease, also known as ischaemic heart disease ... Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most common cause of death globally as of 2008, accounting for 30% of deaths.[11][12] Of ... "Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016. Retrieved 9 March 2016 ...
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. 52 (6): 467-484. doi:10.1016/j.pcad.2010.02.003. PMID 20417340.. ...
"Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: a perspective and future directions". Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. ... Other well known causes include diseases of the kidney. This includes diseases such as polycystic kidney disease which is a ... Escher G (April 2009). "Hyperaldosteronism in pregnancy". Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease. 3 (2): 123-32. doi: ... It has many different causes including endocrine diseases, kidney diseases, and tumors. It also can be a side effect of many ...
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. 49 (6): 396-413. doi:10.1016/j.pcad.2007.02.006. PMID 17498520.. ... and Peripheral Vascular disease.[52] Research has shown that CD34+ hematopoietic Stem Cells are relatively more numerous in men ... CD34+ hematopoietic Stem Cells have been clinically applied to treat various diseases including spinal cord injury,[50] liver ... "Stem cells application in regenerative medicine and disease threpeutics". International Journal of Cell Biology. 2016 (7): 19 ...
Rosenberg, Gary (1999). "Ischemic Brain Edema". Progress in cardiovascular diseases. 42 (3): 209-16. doi:10.1016/s0033-0620(99) ...
"Fibroblast growth factors in cardiovascular disease: The emerging role of FGF21". American Journal of Physiology. Heart and ... For the last two decades, growth factors have been increasingly used in the treatment of hematologic and oncologic diseases [4] ... "Growth factors for angiogenesis in peripheral arterial disease". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 6: CD011741. doi ...
Willis, Monte; Homeister, Jonathon W.; Stone, James R. (2013). Cellular and Molecular Pathobiology of Cardiovascular Disease. ... Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases. 108 (4): 258-68. doi:10.1016/j.acvd.2015.01.006. PMID 25858537.. ... the term has been confused with other cardiovascular conditions, such as hypertension and ischemic heart disease.[33] Following ... Protozoan (Trypanosoma cruzi causing Chagas disease and Toxoplasma gondii). *Bacterial (Brucella, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, ...
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. 60 (1): 67-77. doi:10.1016/j.pcad.2017.03.006. ISSN 0033-0620. PMID 28385556.. ... cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes.[5][13] It does this by improving insulin action and sensitivity. Generating ... which reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease.[15] [16] This type of training also decreases waist circumference, waist-to- ... Interval training can refer to the organization of any cardiovascular workout (e.g., cycling, running, rowing). It is prominent ...
Leung RS (2009). "Sleep-disordered breathing: autonomic mechanisms and arrhythmias". Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. 51 (4 ... Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, high blood pressure, ... "Symptoms of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease". Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 50 (12 ... "Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease. 6 (5): 273-85. doi:10.1177/2040622315590318. PMC 4549693. PMID 26336596.. ...
"Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases. 24 (4): 337-43. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2013.12.008. PMC 4351995. PMID ... As of 2014 it appeared that with respect to the risk of death for people with cardiovascular disease, the kind of carbohydrates ... diets relatively higher in fiber and whole grains lead to reduced risk of death from cardiovascular disease compared to diets ... suggesting that low-carbohydrate diets are a viable option alongside low-fat diets for people at risk of cardiovascular disease ...
... may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease in later life, as indicated by lower cholesterol and C-reactive ... Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, childhood lymphoma, allergic diseases, digestive diseases,[34] obesity, develop diabetes, ... Allergic diseases[edit]. In children who are at risk for developing allergic diseases (defined as at least one parent or ... Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). "Strategies to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases: The CDC Guide to ...
Pollack, Andrew (29 January 2013) F.D.A. Approves Genetic Drug to Treat Rare Disease The New York Times, Retrieved 31 January ... cardiovascular risk, and the liver and kidney functions of the patient, evaluated against the balancing of risks and benefits ... the cholesterol with the strongest links to vascular diseases. In studies using standard doses, statins have been found to ...
The objective of the project is to assist Member States to strengthen health care for those with coronary heart disease and ... Cardiovascular disease Menu. *Cardiovascular disease *Strategic priorities *Global Hearts Initiative *Research and global ... The WHO MONICA Study, monitored trends in coronary heart disease across 38 populations in 21 countries over 10 years. Data from ... Although the role of exercise alone in reducing cardiovascular outcomes is not clear, systematic reviews of RCTs have found ...
... received a large grant from the NIH to study a possible link between post-traumatic stress disorder and cardiovascular disease. ... GW Researcher Awarded More Than $1.5 Million to Study PTSD and Cardiovascular Disease. The newly funded research will look at a ... The renin angiotensin system has been widely implicated in cardiovascular disease and has also been identified in the stress ... in assessing a possible connection between high stress and cardiovascular disease.. The National Institutes of Health recently ...
Interventions may be used alone, or they may be part of a broader intervention to reduce patients cardiovascular disease risk. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control ... 2019). Cardiovascular disease: tailored pharmacy-based interventions to improve medication adherenceexternal icon. ... Tailored pharmacy-based interventions aim to help patients who are at risk for cardiovascular disease take their medications as ...
Cardiovascular disease is the broad term for problems with the heart and blood vessels. These problems are often due to ... Cardiovascular disease is the broad term for problems with the heart and blood vessels. These problems are often due to ... Cardiovascular disease. In: Rakel RE, Rakel DP, eds. Textbook of Family Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ... Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of heart disease, is when plaque builds up in the arteries leading to the ...
... and Cardiovascular Disease in Women".. More about this publication? *. Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications (CVIA) ... prevention of cardiovascular disease with a heavy emphasis on risk factor modification. Cardiovascular Innovations and ... effective control and rehabilitation in cardiovascular disease, and promote cardiovascular innovations and applications for the ... Keywords: Women; anxiety; cardiovascular disease; depression; life history theory; psychological stress; psychosocial stress; ...
Heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular (blood vessel) diseases are among the leading cause of death and now kill more ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control ... These diseases are also two of the leading causes of health disparities in the US. Treatment of these diseases accounts for 1 ... Preventable Deaths from Heart Disease & Stroke. Nearly 1 in 3 deaths in the US each year is caused by heart disease and stroke ...
Cardiovascular Diseases: Hypertension, Raynaud syndrome, Atherosclerosis, Aneurysm, Coronary heart disease, Cardiovascular ... disease, Cardiomyopathy, Aortic stenosis, Arteriovenous fistula, Mitral stenosis ... Cardiovascular Diseases. Cardiovascular Diseases. Cardiovascular disease, any of the diseases, whether congenital or acquired, ... Cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease, any of the diseases, whether congenital or acquired, of the heart and blood ...
... atherosclerosis and vascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias and associated disorders. ... Cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic diseases are now the worlds top killers, even in developing nations, where they have ... But the fight against CV and metabolic diseases would be incomplete without a focus on the main driving force behind these ... Approximately one-third of all deaths globally are attributed to CV disease, and 9% of adults have diabetes.1 ...
... Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most important cause of premature death and ... US that focus on cardiovascular diseases have recently updated their guidelines on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases ... screening and policies in order to reduce the burden of heart disease and to lower global and regional cardiovascular disease ... Is statin-modified reduction in lipids the most important preventive therapy for cardiovascular disease? A pro/con debate The ...
... Every year, an estimated 17 million people globally die of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), particularly ... The percentage of deaths caused by cardiovascular disease in the European Region ... Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases in the WHO European Region 2016-2025 ...
Cardiovascular Diseases List. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death, not only in the United States, but the ... Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most prevalent cause of many deaths all across the ... Cardiovascular Diseases. Cardiovascular diseases is a matter of heart which can prove really fatal. It pertains to a group of ... Cardiovascular System Diseases. Cardiovascular system diseases are conditions that affect the heart and the blood vessels, ...
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control ... Cardiovascular Disease Biomarker Standardization Programsplus icon * Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Networkplus icon * ... Cardiovascular (or heart) disease is the leading killer of Americans, accounting for approximately 960,000 deaths each year. ... CDCs Cardiovascular Disease Biomarker Standardization programs help ensure tests used to identify these people are accurate ...
Cardiovascular diseases are difficult to screen for, but the practice of doing so is critical to ensure safe athletic ... "Screening For Cardiovascular Diseases Difficult, But Necessary." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 30 Oct. 2009. Web.. 20 ... Cardiovascular diseases are difficult to screen for, but the practice of doing so is critical to ensure safe athletic ... "This statistic should impress upon us the need for cardiovascular disease screening in our athletes. It is important to ...
Formerly Archives des Maladies du Cœur et des Vaisseaux.Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases is a monthly publication of the ...
... can be useful in patients with a strong family history of cardiovascular disease or if risk of cardiovascular disease is ... Lipoprotein(a) in Cardiovascular Diseases. Michele Malaguarnera,1 Marco Vacante,2 Cristina Russo,2 Giulia Malaguarnera,1 Tijana ... Cardiovascular diseases cause 3% of all deaths in North America being the most common cause of death in European men under 65 ... Figure 1: Mechanisms underlying the Lp(a)-induced cardiovascular disease. Lp(a) inhibits the activation of TGF and promotes the ...
Masironi, R. (‎1969)‎. Trace elements and cardiovascular diseases.. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 40 (‎2)‎, 305 - ...
Animal models of cardiovascular disease yield important insights into the genetic basis of human cardiovascular diseases and ... Diabetes is a high risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The cardiovascular complications of diabetes are manifested primarily ... The development of animal models of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including cardiac and atherothrombotic diseases, has provided ... Animal Models of Cardiovascular Diseases. Carlos Zaragoza,1 Carmen Gomez-Guerrero,2 Jose Luis Martin-Ventura,2 Luis Blanco- ...
Is cardiovascular disease screenings coverage something you need? See if costs for High Blood Pressure or behavior therapy are ... Cardiovascular disease screenings Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) covers cardiovascular screening blood tests once every 5 ...
Patient Studies in Valvular, Congenital and Rarer Forms of Cardiovascular Disease: An Integrative Approach ... Management of Complex Cardiovascular Problems, 4th Edition. by Thach N. Nguyen (Editor), Dayi Hu (Editor), Shao Liang Chen ( ... Cardiovascular Effects of Inhaled Ultrafine and Nano-Sized Particles. by Flemming R. Cassee (Editor), Nicholas L. Mills (Editor ... Echocardiography in Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease: From Fetus to Adult, 2nd Edition ...
Trainees are also exposed to Cardiac Rehabilitation services and special clinic settings for Congenital Heart disease and ...
"Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors". Retrieved 2012-05-03.. *^ "Eat less saturated fat". National Health Service. Retrieved ... Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease[edit]. The hypothesis that saturated fat has a detrimental effect on human health ... Cholesterol and cardiovascular disease[edit]. The initial connection between arteriosclerosis and dietary cholesterol was made ... Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Saturated fat and ...
Cardiovascular diseases are diseases of the heart, veins and arteries. Cardiovascular diseases include: Aneurysm, Angina, ... Causes of Cardiovascular heart disease (Bad life habits). The biggest cause of coronary heart disease is unhealthy food. ... Cardiovascular diseases are diseases that are very dangerous. They dont infect only middle aged people and elderly but also ... How To Reverse Cardiovascular And Heart Disease. by Charles Russell Stockdale. 68 ...
Multiple factors contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases, with oxidative stress being one of the most ... Redox-Related Genetic Markers of Cardiovascular Diseases. In: Sauer H., Shah A., Laurindo F. (eds) Studies on Cardiovascular ... Glutathione peroxidase 1 activity and cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 349:1605- ... Multiple factors contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases, with oxidative stress being one of the most ...
Long noncoding RNAs in cardiovascular diseases.. Uchida S1, Dimmeler S2. ... in mouse and human and highlights identified cardiovascular lncRNAs that might play a role in cardiovascular diseases. Although ... these examples may provide helpful insights how lncRNAs interfere with cardiovascular diseases. ... In the cardiovascular system, studies have detected and characterized the expression of lncRNAs under normal physiological ...
... Contents De klinische module wordt opgedeeld in drie delen: de ...
  • Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering the study of cardiovascular diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large-scale genome-wide association studies are expected to deliver results on the role of redox-related genes in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, but future strategies will also involve more systematic and integrative approaches, including transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic strategies. (springer.com)
  • Significant evidence has accumulated that psychosocial stress contributes to the etiology and pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. (nih.gov)
  • 3) In an interventional trial, more aggressive cardiac rehabilitation in 25 firefighters using forearm immersion in cold water at the fire scene, in comparison to 25 firefighters going through standard rehabilitation, was tested to determine the effectiveness in reducing core body temperature and adverse cardiovascular effects. (nfpa.org)
  • Studies published in 2013 indicate that high levels of TMAO in the blood are associated with an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Athletes are two and a half times as likely to experience Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) than nonathletes," explains study author Sharlene M. Day, MD, Assistant Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine, and Director of the Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Program at the University of Michigan. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some argue that only left main- or proximal-left anterior descending artery disease is relevant to the diagnostic criteria for ischemic cardiomyopathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The screening challenges arise, the study notes, from trying to identify very rare and often clinically silent, but potentially fatal cardiac diseases in a large number of athletes competing at various levels. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In some individuals the damage caused by the infarction may interfere with the functioning of the mitral valve , the valve between the left upper and lower chambers, and result in a form of valvular heart disease. (britannica.com)
  • Mitral stenosis is a valvular heart disease characterized by the narrowing of the orifice of the mitral valve of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] It is the most common valvular heart disease in pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stenosis and insufficiency/regurgitation represent the dominant functional and anatomic consequences associated with valvular heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The findings are suggestive of a small but potentially important reduction in cardiovascular risk on modification of dietary fat, but not reduction of total fat, in longer trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reasons for these negative findings are the complexity of the disease and insufficient characterisation of the phenotype and environmental factors. (springer.com)
  • As a result of these preliminary findings, PHDs is attracting increasing interest as potential therapeutic targets in a wide range of diseases. (nih.gov)
  • These findings are similar to several earlier reports of job strain predicting recurrent MI in both men and women (3), as well as with studies in humans and non-human primate investigations that identified a number of specific biologic and behavioral pathways through which stress promotes the progression of cardiovascular disease. (nih.gov)
  • A 2014 systematic review looking at observational studies of dietary intake of fatty acids, observational studies of measured fatty acid levels in the blood, and intervention studies of polyunsaturated fat supplementation concluded that the findings ″do not support cardiovascular guidelines that promote high consumption of long-chain omega-3 and omega-6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids and suggest reduced consumption of total saturated fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency or Cholesteryl ester storage disease Certain medications e.g. isotretinoin, estrogen, hydrochlorothiazide diuretics, beta blockers, protease inhibitors Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and associated autoimmune responses Glycogen storage disease type 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2017 SBU report found evidence that workplace exposure to silica dust, engine exhaust or welding fumes is associated with heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • 10 microm) is most consistently linked with acute and chronic cardiovascular effects. (nih.gov)
  • Water temperature affects the disease seasonally as the climate changes, specifically when the water temperature is over 18 °C (64 °F). Infection is linked to water temperatures over 18 °C, although acute outbreaks have been discovered in water temperatures of 14-15 °C. Low water quality caused by poor sanitary conditions has been shown to influence evolution of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis of heart disease is often done by the taking of a medical history, listening to the heart-sounds with a stethoscope, ECG, and ultrasound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Donald Fredrickson, then head of the Molecular Disease Branch, became aware of the case and had a hunch that the original diagnosis was incorrect. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be difficult to make a vascular disease diagnosis since there are a variety of symptoms that a person can have, also family history and a physical examination are important. (wikipedia.org)