Receptor, Endothelin A: A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It has a high affinity for ENDOTHELIN-1 and ENDOTHELIN-2.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Receptors, Endothelin: Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Receptor, Endothelin B: A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the KIDNEY. It may play a role in reducing systemic ENDOTHELIN levels.Endothelins: 21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Endothelin-3: A 21-amino acid peptide that circulates in the plasma, but its source is not known. Endothelin-3 has been found in high concentrations in the brain and may regulate important functions in neurons and astrocytes, such as proliferation and development. It also is found throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in the lung and kidney. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Endothelin-2: A 21-amino acid peptide produced predominantly within the kidney and intestine, with smaller amounts produced in the myocardium, placenta, and uterus, but the cells of origin are not clear. Endothelin-2 has no unique physiologic functions, as compared with endothelin-1. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Viper Venoms: Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.PhenylpropionatesAtherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.PyrrolidinesPrevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases: A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)United StatesHomocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Azepines: Seven membered heterocyclic rings containing a NITROGEN atom.Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Primary Prevention: Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Indans: Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.TriglyceridesAorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.JapanCarotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Protein PrecursorsHyperhomocysteinemia: Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Vascular Stiffness: Loss of vascular ELASTICITY due to factors such as AGING; and ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Increased arterial stiffness is one of the RISK FACTORS for many CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Renal Insufficiency, Chronic: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.SwedenPyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Sodium Chloride, Dietary: Sodium chloride used in foods.TetrazolesPolymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.Fatty Acids, Omega-3: A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.Obesity, Abdominal: A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)DioxolesFinlandWomen's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Diagnostic Techniques, Cardiovascular: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the cardiovascular system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Nuts: Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.
Gray, Gillian A.; Webb, David J. "The endothelin system and its potential as a therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease". ... and thus activate endothelin-receptors, endothelin receptor type A (ETA) and endothelin receptor type B (ETB). These receptors ... doi:10.1016/s0041-0101(97)00019-6. Lüscher, Thomas F.; Barton, Matthias (2000-11-07). "Endothelins and Endothelin Receptor ... "Molecular characterization of endothelin receptors". Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 13: 103-108. doi:10.1016/0165-6147(92) ...
In June 2000, Icos and Texas Biotechnology formed a 50/50 partnership to research endothelin receptor antagonists for use in ... The drug was originally researched as a treatment for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and angina, but focus ... Sitaxentan was designed to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension, and TBC3711 was designed to treat cardiovascular diseases ... Icos was formed with the goal of developing new drugs to treat the underlying causes of inflammatory diseases and halt the ...
Small-molecule endothelin receptor antagonists: a review of patenting activity across therapeutic areas. IDrugs 12(6): 366-75 ( ... initially with a focus on Alzheimer's disease and related neurodegenerative diseases. He directed an R&D program for ... Cardiovascular and renal developments: patent highlights January to June 2006. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 7(9): 792-8 (2006) PMID ... Sitaxentan for the Oral Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Benefits from Endothelin Receptor Subtype Selectivity? ...
An Overview." Renin Angiotensin System and Cardiovascular Disease. New York, NY: Humana, 2009. Jeon, H., Soo Lim, K., Shin, K ... "Fimasartan." (2011) American Journal Cardiovascular Drugs. 11(4): 249-252 Burnier, M. Angiotensin ll Type 1 Receptor Blockers ... Interaction between endothelin and angiotensin II. (1999). Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology. 26(7): 517- ... Through oral administration, fimasartan blocks angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1 receptors), reducing pro-hypertensive ...
... is an endothelin receptor antagonist, and is selective for the type A endothelin receptor (ETA). Ambrisentan significantly ... Pollack, Andrew (2007-06-16). "Gilead's Drug Is Approved to Treat a Rare Disease". New York Times. Archived from the original ... Frampton JE (2011). "Ambrisentan". American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs. 11 (4): 215-26. doi:10.2165/11207340-000000000- ... As such, endothelin receptor antagonists such as Ambrisentan are known to be teratogenic. Ambrisentan has a high risk of liver ...
Zhu YC, Zhu YZ, Moore PK (Aug 2006). "The role of urotensin II in cardiovascular and renal physiology and diseases". British ... U-II is an agonist for the urotensin-II receptor which is a G protein-coupled receptor that primarily activates the alpha ... Maguire JJ, Davenport AP (Nov 2002). "Is urotensin-II the new endothelin?". British Journal of Pharmacology. 137 (5): 579-88. ... "Co-expression of urotensin II and its receptor (GPR14) in human cardiovascular and renal tissues". Journal of Hypertension. 19 ...
Agapitov AV, Haynes WG; Haynes (March 2002). "Role of endothelin in cardiovascular disease". J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone ... The precise effects of endothelin B receptor activation depends on the type of cells involved. The ubiquitous distribution of ... Historical background and discovery of endothelin The International Conferences on Endothelin (Est. 1988) Endothelin science ( ... Endothelins are implicated in vascular diseases of several organ systems, including the heart, general circulation and brain. ...
Padmanabhan N, Padmanabhan S, Connell JM (Dec 2000). "Genetic basis of cardiovascular disease--the renin-angiotensin- ... Ariza AC, Bobadilla NA, Halhali A (2007). "[Endothelin 1 and angiotensin II in preeeclampsia]". Revista De Investigación ... Angiotensin II receptor type 1 or AT1 receptor is the best characterized angiotensin receptor. It has vasopressor effects and ... The AT1 receptor mediates the major cardiovascular effects of angiotensin II. Effects include vasoconstriction, aldosterone ...
The multigenic disorder, Hirschsprung disease type 2, is due to mutation in endothelin receptor type B gene. In horses, a ... receptors ETA and ETB". Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. 20 Suppl 12: S1-4. doi:10.1097/00005344-199204002-00002. PMID ... Endothelin receptor type B, also known as ETB is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EDNRB gene. Endothelin receptor ... "Endothelin Receptors: ETB". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
Ngian GS, Sahhar J, Wicks IP, Van Doornum S (August 2011). "Cardiovascular disease in systemic sclerosis--an emerging ... Experimental therapies under investigation include endothelin receptor antagonsits, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, beta-glycan ... Those with localized disease generally have a normal life expectancy. In those with systemic disease typical life expectancy is ... cardiovascular disease. Scleroderma most commonly first presents between the ages of 20 and 50 years, although any age group ...
Braunwald's, Heart Disease A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, Volume II, 1793-1805. Bijl M, Dieleman JP, Simoons M, et al. ... They also secrete TNF-α, intereukin-6 (IL-6) and endothelin-1 which are cytotoxic cytokines causing tissue damage. Zidovudine ... Perhaps this is because immunoglobulins inhibit the cardiac autoantibodies by competing for Fc receptors. Alternatively, the ... Braunwald's, Heart Disease A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, Volume II, 1793-1805. Klatt EC, Nichols L, Noguchi TT. ...
Grubbs AL, Ergul A (2001). "A review of endothelin and hypertension in African-American individuals". Ethnicity & Disease. 11 ( ... October 1977). "The NHLBI twin study of cardiovascular disease risk factors: methodology and summary of results". American ... September 2004). "Decreased susceptibility to renovascular hypertension in mice lacking the prostaglandin I2 receptor IP". J. ... coronary artery disease, stroke, aortic aneurysm, peripheral artery disease, and chronic kidney disease. Cardiac output and ...
This disease affects relatively more men than women. After onset, the disease stabilizes after about 5-20 years. Life of PDP ... an estrogen receptor antagonist. Tamoxifen and several of its metabolites competitively bind to estrogen receptors on tissue ... Other mediators found in increased concentrations in PDP patients, include osteocalcin, endothelin-1, b-thromboglobulin, ... For example, to exclude secondary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, any signs of cardiovascular, pulmonary, hepatic, intestinal ...
May 2017). "Long-Term Effect of Endothelin Receptor Antagonism With Bosentan on the Morbidity and Mortality of Patients With ... Packer, M (July 1992). "The neurohormonal hypothesis: a theory to explain the mechanism of disease progression in heart failure ... "Milton Packer CV" (PDF). FDA Cardiovascular and Renal Drugs Advisory Committee. Retrieved 6 August 2017. Packer, M (November ... Husten, Larry (March 31, 2014). "Novartis Trial Was Stopped Early Because Of A Significant Drop In Cardiovascular Mortality". ...
It was estimated that about 44% of deaths in patients with end-stage kidney failure (ESKF) are due to cardiovascular disease. ... Givertz, M. M.; Massie B. M.; Fields T. K.; Pearson L. L. (2007). "The effects of KW-3902 an adenosine A1-receptor antagonist, ... These include increased formation of reactive oxygen species, endothelin, arginine vasopressin, and excessive sympathetic ... "Cardio-Renal Connections in Heart Failure and Cardiovascular Disease". NHLBI Working Group. Retrieved 22 November 2013. [ ...
Atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases are characterized by things like increased platelet aggregation and leukocyte ... and endothelin (ET-1), and controlling local angiotensin-II activity. This allows the endothelium, specifically in the vessels ... such as ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists). Some studies have found the consumption of flavonoid-rich ... "Catheterization Cardiovascular Interventions". Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions. 82: E184-E191. doi:10.1002/ccd ...
Ranexa is a cardiovascular drug used to treat chest pain related to coronary artery disease, with both of these products and ... Additionally, Myogen was developing (in Phase 3 studies) darusentan, also an endothelin receptor antagonist, for the potential ... Its Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) program used small-molecule FXR agonists in the treatment of liver diseases such as nonalcoholic ... Charitable donations to HIV/AIDS and liver disease organizations totaled over 440 million in 2015. In August 2017, the company ...
ANP and related peptides are used as biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases such as stroke, coronary artery disease, myocardial ... ANP binds to a specific set of receptors - ANP receptors. Receptor-agonist binding causes the increase in renal sodium ... though sodium concentration is not the direct stimulus for increased ANP secretion Endothelin, a potent vasoconstrictor Three ... They are all cell surface receptors and designated: guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) also known as natriuretic peptide receptor-A ( ...
Levy BI (January 2004). "Can angiotensin II type 2 receptors have deleterious effects in cardiovascular disease? Implications ... Bosentan belongs to a new class of drug and works by blocking the receptors of the hormone endothelin. It is specifically ... Angiotensin II receptor antagonists work by antagonizing the activation of angiotensin receptors. azilsartan candesartan ... Aldosterone receptor antagonists: eplerenone spironolactone Aldosterone receptor antagonists are not recommended as first-line ...
Tsang S, Woo AY, Zhu W, Xiao RP (2010). "Deregulation of RGS2 in cardiovascular diseases". Front Biosci. 2: 547-57. PMC 2815333 ... Increased stimulation of Gs coupled β1-adrenergic receptors and Gq coupled α1-adrenergic receptors in the heart can result in ... angiotensin II and endothelin-1 signalling". Biochem. J. 371 (Pt 3): 973-80. doi:10.1042/BJ20021769. PMC 1223344 . PMID ... The M3 muscarinic receptor normally activates delayed rectifier potassium channels in the atria, thus increased Gαq activity is ...
Beyond these cardiovascular actions that may prevent various cardiovascular diseases, studies have implicated the EETs in the ... through their respective Bradykinin receptor B2 and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 or muscarinic acetylcholine receptor ... endothelin, contribute to portal hypertension. The forced over-expression of CYP2J2 in or the addition of an EET to cultured ... Bellien J, Joannides R (Mar 2013). "Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid pathway in human health and diseases". Journal of Cardiovascular ...
Cardiovascular diseases, which include diseases of the heart, are the leading cause of death worldwide. The majority of ... These cardiovascular centres receive input from a series of receptors including baroreceptors, sensing stretch the stretching ... The endocardium, by secreting endothelins, may also play a role in regulating the contraction of the myocardium. The middle ... Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most common cause of death globally as of 2008, accounting for 30% of deaths. Of these ...
These are also risk factors for renal disease progression and for cardiovascular disease. Diabetes has several complications of ... Zeng C, Villar VA, Yu P, Zhou L, Jose PA (April 2009). "Reactive oxygen species and dopamine receptor function in essential ... Ergul A (July 2000). "Hypertension in black patients: an emerging role of the endothelin system in salt-sensitive hypertension ... renal disease, and peripheral arterial disease. It is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality ...
... this receptor's ortholog in humans would be isolated.[7] Using the identified receptors, endogenous ligands were isolated from ... "The kisspeptin-GnRH pathway in human reproductive health and disease". Human Reproduction Update. 20 (4): 485-500. doi:10.1093 ... "Kisspeptins: a multifunctional peptide system with a role in reproduction, cancer and the cardiovascular system". British ... kisspeptin receptor binding. Cellular component. • extracellular region. • apical plasma membrane. • cytoplasm. • neuronal cell ...
... is associated with an increased risk of psoriatic arthritis, lymphomas, cardiovascular disease, Crohn's disease and ... which expresses the interleukin-23 receptor, and is involved in T cell differentiation. Interleukin-23 receptor and IL12B have ... elevated levels of endothelin 1 in the blood, and increased oxidative stress. The incidence of the heart rhythm abnormality ... Topical agents are typically used for mild disease, phototherapy for moderate disease, and systemic agents for severe disease. ...
... receptor antagonists in animal models of Parkinson's disease". Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 248 (1-2): 9-15. doi: ... Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy. 21 (3): 171-94. doi:10.1007/s10557-007-6014-6. PMID 17373584.. ... The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors[1]) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as the ... A2A adenosine receptor[edit]. Main article: Adenosine A2A receptor. As with the A1, the A2A receptors are believed to play a ...
Expression of endothelin-1, endothelin-converting enzyme and endothelin receptors in chronic heart failure. Circulation. 1999; ... ET Receptor Blockade for Cardiovascular Disease. Antagonists have been developed that can selectively block ETA or ETB ... Role of endothelin in cardiovascular disease. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2002; 3: 1-15. ... ET receptor antagonists, however, have been studied in clinical trials involving a wide spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. ...
Role of endothelin in cardiovascular disease.. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 3 1-15 2002 ... Two endothelin receptor subtypes have been isolated and identified, endothelin A receptor(ETA) and endothelin B receptor (ETB ... G protein-coupled receptor, rhodopsin-like (IPR000276) *Endothelin receptor family (IPR000499) *Endothelin receptor A ( ... Endothelins and endothelin receptor antagonists: therapeutic considerations for a novel class of cardiovascular drugs.. ...
cardiovascular disease; ET-1, endothelin-1; ETAR, endothelin type-A receptor; ETBR, endothelin type-B receptor; NO, nitric ... Endothelin type B (ETB) receptors: friend or foe in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia and future cardiovascular disease (CVD) ... Alterations in endothelin type B receptor contribute to microvascular dysfunction in women who have had preeclampsia. Anna E. ... Alterations in endothelin type B receptor contribute to microvascular dysfunction in women who have had preeclampsia ...
Endothelin receptor eta; Endothelin receptor type A; Endothelin type A receptor; Endothelin-A receptor; ETA; ETA receptor; ETA ... Contrasting actions of endothelin ET(A) and ET(B) receptors in cardiovascular disease. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;47:731- ... A-type endothelin receptor; EDNRA; Endothelin receptor eta; Endothelin receptor type A; Endothelin type A receptor; Endothelin- ... A receptor; ETA; ETA receptor; ETA type endothelin receptor; ETAR; ETA-R; ETR; ETR ETA; ETRA; Type A endothelin receptor ...
Vascular Diseases. Cardiovascular Diseases. Darusentan. Endothelin Receptor Antagonists. Molecular Mechanisms of ... A selective endothelin-receptor antagonist to reduce blood pressure in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension: a ... Subjects with diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease must have a mean systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg ...
Cardiovascular Diseases. Hypertension, Pulmonary. Lung Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Endothelin Receptor Antagonists. ... Patients who have received any endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) and/or any phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor within 28 ... Currently Not Treated With Endothelin Receptor Antagonists, Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitors or Prostacyclines. ... Currently Not Treated With Endothelin Receptor Antagonists, Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitors or Prostacyclines ...
Our mission is to build healthier lives, free of cardiovascular diseases and stroke. That single purpose drives all we do. The ... Endothelin receptor antagonism and renin inhibition as treatment options for scleroderma kidney. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009; Epub ... Effects of Endothelin Receptor Antagonism Relate to the Degree of Renin-Angiotensin System Blockade in Chronic Proteinuric ... Effects of Endothelin Receptor Antagonism Relate to the Degree of Renin-Angiotensin System Blockade in Chronic Proteinuric ...
Studies show that increased exposure to a number of airborne pollutants increases the risk for cardiovascular disease ... Exposure to air pollution negatively impacts cardiovascular health. ... Pathophysiological roles of endothelin receptors in cardiovascular diseases. Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, 119, 302-313. ... The importance of endothelin-1 for vascular dysfunction in cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular Research, 76, 8-18.PubMed ...
Our mission is to build healthier lives, free of cardiovascular diseases and stroke. That single purpose drives all we do. The ... Miyauchi T, Masaki T. Pathophysiology of endothelin in the cardiovascular system. Annu Rev Physiol. 1999; 61: 391-415. ... Endothelin-1-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy Is Inhibited by Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-α Partly Via ... Endothelin-1-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy Is Inhibited by Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-α Partly Via ...
Our mission is to build healthier lives, free of cardiovascular diseases and stroke. That single purpose drives all we do. The ... which bear endothelin type A (ETA) and endothelin type B (ETB) receptors.4 Both receptor subtypes may mediate the ... receptors, endothelin. Endothelins are potent vasoconstrictors1 endowed with hypertrophic and mitogenic potential.2 3 Of the ... Treatment with the combined endothelin type A/endothelin type B receptor antagonist bosentan moderately reduced blood pressure ...
Vascular Diseases. Cardiovascular Diseases. Lung Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Sitaxsentan. Endothelin Receptor ... Previous exposure to an endothelin receptor antagonist (ETRA) such as sitaxsentan, bosentan or ambrisentan. ... Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Pulmonary Hypertension Drug: Sitaxsentan Drug ... associated with connective tissue diseases. Has WHO functional class III symptoms. ...
... and clinical studies related to the identification of disease markers, the elucidation of their role and mechanism, as well as ... Disease Markers is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... their application in the prognosis, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. ... Endothelin is a peptide that plays a critical role in cardiovascular regulation. Endothelin receptors mediate vasoconstriction ...
... suggesting a role for the AhR in cardiovascular physiology and disease; however, the pathways involved in the development of ... Thus, we investigated the role of (1) pressure overload using indwelling catheters and (2) vasoactive peptides endothelin-1 (ET ... The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates toxicity of xenobiotics, such as 2 ... Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor: A New Player of Pathogenesis and Therapy in Cardiovascular Diseases. *Tao Yi, Jinxia Wang, +6 ...
Our mission is to build healthier lives, free of cardiovascular diseases and stroke. That single purpose drives all we do. The ... Fenofibrate Inhibits Endothelin-1 Expression by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α-Dependent and Independent ... Fenofibrate Inhibits Endothelin-1 Expression by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α-Dependent and Independent ... Fenofibrate Inhibits Endothelin-1 Expression by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α-Dependent and Independent ...
Our mission is to build healthier lives, free of cardiovascular diseases and stroke. That single purpose drives all we do. The ... over the endothelin-3 isoform, while the ETB receptor has similar affinities for all endothelin isoforms.4 Endothelin binding ... Characterization of contractile endothelin and angiotensin receptors in human resistance arteries: evidence for two endothelin ... Winkles JA, Alberts GF, Brogi E, Libby P. Endothelin-1 and endothelin receptor mRNA expression in normal and atherosclerotic ...
... endothelin (ET) has been widely implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. ET antagonists have favourable ... Expression of endothelin-1, endothelin-3, endothelin-converting enzyme-1, and endothelin- A and endothelin-B receptor mRNAs ... Endothelin as a regulator of cardiovascular function in health and disease. J Hypertens 1998; 16 (8): 1081-98PubMedCrossRef ... Cardiovascular and renal actions of the endothelin (B) receptor in pigs. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1997; 29 (6): 704-12PubMed ...
... the role of endothelin in cardiovascular disease has been intensively studied. Activation of the endothelin system is ... The rise and fall of endothelin receptor antagonists in congestive heart failure. M.L. Handoko, F.S. de Man, A. Vonk- ... Short-term oral endothelin-receptor antagonist therapy in conventionally treated patients with symptomatic severe chronic heart ... Chronic endothelin receptor blockade attenuates progressive ventricular dilation and improves cardiac function in rats with ...
It is synthesized and released from endothelial cells and acts upon two receptor subtypes designated as ETA and ETB. In this ... Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent mitogen and modulator of vascular tone. ... Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases Research, Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research, Summit, NJ 07901, USA. gary.ksander ... Receptor, Endothelin A. Receptor, Endothelin B. Receptors, Endothelin / antagonists & inhibitors*, metabolism. Sulfonamides / ...
... including in the prevention and/or treatment of the cardiovascular risk factors. Several compounds including peptides, ... increase of adipogenesis and thus promotion of systemic dysfunction that leads to clinical manifestations of cardiovascular ... diseases. Seaweeds, in addition to their use as food, are now unanimously acknowledged as an invaluable source of new natural ... Nasser, S.A.; El-Mas, M.M. Endothelin ETA receptor antagonism in cardiovascular disease. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2014, 737, 210-213 ...
... endothelin-1; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; IFI, IFN-inducible; IFNAR, IFNα receptor; IFN, interferon; IL, interleukin; IL-1RA, IL-1 ... Abbreviations: CCP, cyclic citrullinated peptide; CV, cardiovascular; DAS, disease activity score; DC, dendritic cell; EPC, ... they could probably account for the increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality of these patients. The main aim of ... Toll-like receptor; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; TRAF, TNF receptor-associated factor; TYK2, tyrosine kinase 2; VEGF, vascular ...
Endothelin receptor blockers in cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2003;108(18):2184-90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Lead exposure and cardiovascular disease--a systematic review. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115(3):472-82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle ... Metal pollutants and cardiovascular disease: mechanisms and consequences of exposure. Am Heart J. 2014;168(6):812-22.CrossRef ... Brown MC, Best KE, Pearce MS, Waugh J, Robson SC, Bell R. Cardiovascular disease risk in women with pre-eclampsia: systematic ...
Localisation of Endothelin-1 and its Receptors in Vascular Tissue as Seen at the Electron Microscopic Level. Current Vascular ... Gene Therapy in Cardiovascular Diseases. Current Gene Therapy. *Statins and Inflammation in Cardiovascular Disease. Current ... Endothelin Receptor Antagonists - An Overview. Current Medicinal Chemistry. * Cytokine Gene Polymorphism in Heart ... Recent Advances in Image-Based Stem-Cell Labeling and Tracking, and Scaffold-Based Organ Development in Cardiovascular Disease ...
Our mission is to build healthier lives, free of cardiovascular diseases and stroke. That single purpose drives all we do. The ... Endothelin-stimulated secretion of natriuretic peptides by rat atrial myocytes is mediated by endothelin A receptors. Circ Res. ... Endothelin-1 and Angiotensin II Receptors in Cells From Rat Hypertrophied Heart. Receptor Regulation and Intracellular Ca2+ ... Functional endothelin/sarafotoxin receptors in rat heart myocytes: structure-activity relationships and receptor subtypes. ...
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide and poses a considerable public health burden. Recent ... Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide and poses a considerable public health burden. Recent ... to close the gap from initial genetic discovery to clinical translation for many patients affected by this common disease. ... to close the gap from initial genetic discovery to clinical translation for many patients affected by this common disease. ...
Endothelin receptors. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug ... 2007) Contrasting Actions of Endothelin ET(A) and ET(B) Receptors in Cardiovascular Disease. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, 47: ... is a dual endothelin receptor antagonist [5] with higher affinity for the ETA receptor than for the ETB receptor (IC50 0.5nM ... 2001) Endothelin converting enzymes and endothelin receptor localisation in human tissues. Handb. Exp. Pharmacol., 152: 209-237 ...
  • In pathological states, however, there could be upregulation of the ET B receptors located on smooth muscle cells that function similar to the ET A receptor, which amplify the vasoconstrictive and mitogenic effects of ET-1. (ahajournals.org)
  • Late cerebral ischaemia after subarachnoid haemorrhage: is cerebrovascular receptor upregulation the mechanism behind? (springer.com)
  • Upregulation of endothelin-1 binding in tissues of salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensi. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cytokines and growth factors modify the upregulation of contractile endothelin ET(A) and ET(B) receptors in rat cerebral arteries after organ culture. (lu.se)
  • The present study was designed to examine if low density lipoprotein (LDL) induces upregulation of vasoconstrictive ET(B) receptor expression and if extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathways are involved in this process. (regionh.dk)
  • The upregulation of vasoconstrictive ET(B) receptor expression was studied using a sensitive myograph, real-time PCR and Western blot. (regionh.dk)
  • In conclusion, LDL induces upregulation of vasoconstrictive ET(B) receptor expression through activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signal pathway-dependent transcriptional mechanisms. (regionh.dk)
  • The Tango™ EDNRA-bla U2OS cells contain the human Endothelin Receptor A (EDNRA) linked to a TEV protease site and a Gal4-VP16 transcription factor stably integrated into the Tango™ GPCR-bla U2OS parental cell line. (thermofisher.com)
  • To date, two subtype of endothelin receptors have been identified from mammalian cells, EDNRA (ETA) and EDNRB (ETB). (creative-biogene.com)
  • The Multispan ETA receptor cell line expresses EDNRA cDNA that is identical to GenBank NM_001957.1 except for 1 mutation that results in a change in amino acid Leu → Val at position 322, which has been reported as a natural variant. (multispaninc.com)
  • Endothelin ETA receptor regulates signaling and ANF gene expression via multiple G protein-linked pathways. (springer.com)
  • With the development of new modalities to target these pathways, (e.g., antisense oligonucleotides, CRISPR/Cas9, and RNA interference) as well as the computational frameworks to prioritize or reposition therapeutics, there is great opportunity to close the gap from initial genetic discovery to clinical translation for many patients affected by this common disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • In conclusion, D2 receptor stimulation inhibits AngII-induced hypertrophy of cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes via inhibition of MAPK, PKC and [Ca 2+ ] i signalling pathways. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Background- Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) is a lipid-activated nuclear receptor that negatively regulates the vascular inflammatory gene response by interacting with transcription factors, nuclear factor-κB, and AP-1. (ahajournals.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 3p21 that encodes a member of the beta chemokine receptor family, whose ligands include macrophage inflammatory protein 1 (MIP-1) alpha, regulated on activation normal T expressed and secreted protein (RANTES), monocyte chemoattractant protein 3 (MCP-3) and myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor-1 (MPIF-1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Icos was formed with the goal of developing new drugs to treat the underlying causes of inflammatory diseases and halt the disease process in the early stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic inflammatory conditions involving primarily the gastrointestinal tract. (hindawi.com)
  • Mucosal immunity and gastrointestinal physiology are modified in inflammatory bowel diseases, and these modifications are mainly sustained by alterations of endothelial function. (hindawi.com)
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory pathologies that primarily involve the gastrointestinal tract associated with a combination of environmental, genetic, and immunological pathogenetic factors. (hindawi.com)
  • thumb]] In some diseases, however, the body's defense system (immune system) inappropriately triggers an inflammatory response when there are no foreign substances to fight off, these are called autoimmune diseases, where the body's normally protective immune system causes damage to its own tissues. (dolcera.com)
  • 600 px]] Chronic inflammatory diseases afflict millions of people across the world leading to untold suffering, economic loss and premature death. (dolcera.com)
  • Various inflammatory diseases=== * '''Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)''' is a disease that most commonly affects the joints, but can sometimes also cause damage to other organs. (dolcera.com)
  • Cloning of a cDNA encoding a non-isopeptide selective subtype of the endothelin receptor. (springer.com)
  • In conclusion, ET-1 receptor proportion is cell specific, with cardiomyocytes possessing predominantly the ET A subtype and fibroblasts possessing both ET A and ET B receptors. (ahajournals.org)
  • 16 19 20 Various cardiac effects, such as trophic effects, 21 collagen deposition in hypertrophied hearts, 22 and induction of ANP secretion, 20 are mediated via ET A subtype receptors. (ahajournals.org)
  • ET-1 treatment of cardiomyocytes increased constitutive NO synthase activity and induced NO production via the stimulation of ET-receptor subtype ET B . Using Northern blot analysis and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay, we found that NO suppressed the ET-1-induced increase in c- fos mRNA level and promoter activity. (aspetjournals.org)