Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
Devices for continuously measuring and displaying the arterial blood pressure.
Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.
The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.
Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
Instruments for measuring arterial blood pressure consisting of an inflatable cuff, inflating bulb, and a gauge showing the blood pressure. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
Sodium chloride used in foods.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.
The position or attitude of the body.
Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.
Glucose in blood.
A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A significant drop in BLOOD PRESSURE after assuming a standing position. Orthostatic hypotension is a finding, and defined as a 20-mm Hg decrease in systolic pressure or a 10-mm Hg decrease in diastolic pressure 3 minutes after the person has risen from supine to standing. Symptoms generally include DIZZINESS, blurred vision, and SYNCOPE.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.
A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Blood pressure levels that are between normotension and hypertension. Individuals with prehypertension are at a higher risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Generally, prehypertension is defined as SYSTOLIC PRESSURE of 131-139 mm Hg and/or DIASTOLIC PRESSURE of 81-89 when the optimal is 120/80 mm Hg. For diabetics and other metabolism diseases the prehypertension is around 110-129/70-79 mm Hg.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.
An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.
Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.
Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.
A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Phenomenon where BLOOD PRESSURE readings are elevated only when taken in clinical settings.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.
An alpha-globulin of about 453 amino acids, depending on the species. It is produced by the liver and secreted into blood circulation. Angiotensinogen is the inactive precursor of natural angiotensins. Upon successive enzyme cleavages, angiotensinogen yields angiotensin I, II, and III with amino acids numbered at 10, 8, and 7, respectively.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
The posture of an individual lying face up.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)
An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is used in patients with hypertension and heart failure.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Forced expiratory effort against a closed GLOTTIS.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Loss of vascular ELASTICITY due to factors such as AGING; and ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Increased arterial stiffness is one of the RISK FACTORS for many CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.
Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.
Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
The examination process consisted of two cardiovascular tests including "history and physical, blood pressure determination, ... The total rate of follow-up was 98.8%. Factors assessed at the time of follow-up were systolic and diastolic blood pressure, ... From 1960 to 1962, each participant was given an initial examination in which serum cholesterol, blood pressure, weight, height ... The Evans County Heart Study was a long-term cardiovascular study on residents of Evans County, Georgia. The study, which was ...
... particularly electrocardiograms or blood pressure readings were available for review" and "the best determination is that of ... O'Keefe, James (June 2012). "Potential Adverse Cardiovascular Effects From Excessive Endurance Exercise". Mayo Clinic ... the director of Preventative Cardiology Fellowship Program and the Director of Preventative Cardiology at Cardiovascular ...
After a short time, she was hospitalized due to low blood pressure. Kayacık died in the Koşuyolu Hospital from cardiovascular ... In November 2020, Kayacık was diagnosed with COVID-19, which she recovered from with the determination to live. ...
There have been vasoconstrictor effects observed in some arteries, but elevated blood pressure has not appeared as a ... Johnson BA, Stevens SP, Williamson JM (December 1994). "Determination of the three-dimensional structure of margatoxin by 1H, ... Cardiovascular Research. 89 (2): 282-9. doi:10.1093/cvr/cvq305. PMC 3020133. PMID 20884640. Villalonga N, David M, Bielanska J ... This generates a new inner structure that can block blood flow. This is commonly seen to cause failure of interventional ...
By focusing on the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), systolic blood pressure (SBP) can be used to measure activation that ... Following electrical stimulation, participants exhibited elevated cardiovascular activity and reported a warm feeling in their ... In the essay "College Pressures" by William Zinsser, the pressures faced by college students at Yale are studied. The pressures ... The word determination comes from the Latin word dēterminatiō, meaning "limit" or "determination, end result." It is derived ...
... and so on all affect blood pressure, so the determination is a statistical one. Higher than normal blood pressure is associated ... Diabetics have higher rates of cardiovascular disease and higher rates of high blood pressure. Hives a skin condition caused, ... High blood pressure The pressure of blood in the arteries has normal values in a population. Blood pressure in an individual ... Hypotension Low blood pressure or a sudden drop in blood pressure. A person rising quickly from a sitting or reclining position ...
... where serial measurements of changes in blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiographic (ECG/EKG) changes could be measured ... Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons ... Rest-stress comparisons do not yield adequate determination of either ischemia or infarction. By 1963, Dr. William Bruce, aware ... Studies on the velocity of blood flow: I. The method utilized. J Clin Investigation 1927;4:1-13. Love, William D. (1965). " ...
There is published evidence strongly suggestive of the persistence of brainstem blood pressure control in organ donors. A small ... No testing of testable brain stem functions such as oesophageal and cardiovascular regulation is specified in the UK Code of ... s. 19(1) Controversies In The Determination Of Death (PDF) (Report). Washington, D.C.: President's Council on Bioethics. ... because the cerebral blood flow is inadequate to support synaptic function, although there is still sufficient blood flow to ...
... hence increasing blood pressure and blood flow to the brain. The G-suit was a superior solution to another alternative (a water ... Wood, EH; Geraci, JE; Groom, DL (March 1948). "Photoelectric determination of blood oxygen saturation in man". Fed Proc. 7 (1 ... Wood, EH (Sep 1978). "Evolution of instrumentation and techniques for the study of cardiovascular dynamics from the Thirties to ... Wood, EH; Lambert, EH (1946). "The effect of anti-blackout suits on blood pressure changes produced on the human centrifuge". ...
Paralysis is determined by observing the extremity that the blood pressure cuff is placed on. The blood pressure is inflated to ... Once the determination of muscle paralysis is determined, a mild electrical current is administered to the patient's brain. ... cardiovascular collapse and hyperthermia. As previously stated, ECT is not considered a first-line treatment for depression, ... The client also has a secured peripheral intravenous (IV) access, blood pressure cuff around one extremity, and is connected to ...
The oxygen required by the tissues is carried by the blood, and consequently blood flow rates and blood pressures at the heart ... Determination of age and reconstruction of life history. CRC Press. ISBN 90-5410-621-2. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list ... "Cardiovascular evidence for an intermediate or higher metabolic rate in an ornithischian dinosaur" (PDF). Science. 288 (5465): ... Thus high blood flow rate, high blood pressure, a four-chambered heart and sustained aerobic metabolism are all consistent with ...
This lowers the blood pressure and allows the heart to work more efficiently. The drug acts more slowly than older ... "Simultaneous determination of lercanidipine, benazepril and benazeprilat in plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a ... "Lercanidipine is an effective and well tolerated antihypertensive drug regardless the cardiovascular risk profile: The LAURA ... Lin T, Voon W, Yen H, Huang C, Su H, Lai W, Sheu S (2006). "Lercanidipine and losartan effects on blood pressure and ...
Treatment includes blood pressure control but surgical repair may be needed, especially if the aneurysm ruptures. If unruptured ... The determination to perform surgery is usually based upon the diameter of the aortic root (with 5 centimeters being a rule of ... Ott, David A. (2006). "Aneurysm of the sinus of valsalva". Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Pediatric Cardiac ... Medical therapy of aneurysm of the aortic sinus includes blood pressure control through the use of drugs, such as beta blockers ...
The opening of these channels is central to a neuron's response to pressure, often osmotic pressure and blood pressure, to ... TRPC6 is a calcium-permeable non-selective cation channel expressed in the cardiovascular system. TRPC6 is potentially a sensor ... EPR Molecular dynamics simulation: determination of the atomic fluctuation of the system. Atomic force Microscopy: mechanical ... They can also regulate internal functions of our body including, but not limited to, osmotic pressure in cells, blood pressure ...
She observed their blood pressure, heart rate, facial muscle tension, and sweat gland activity. To deliberate on an old ... They begin to have positive emotions and determinations in life. The correlation between forgiveness and physical health is a ... health discovered that when people think about forgiving an offender it leads to improved functioning in their cardiovascular ... The outcome to the recall of the grudge the candidates' blood pressure and heart rate increased, and they sweated more. ...
Mørkedal B, Romundstad PR, Vatten LJ (2011). "Informativeness of indices of blood pressure, obesity and serum lipids in ... Falhammer, H (2011). "Cardiovascular risk, metabolic profile, and body composition in adult males with congenital adrenal ... "Superiority of skinfold measurements and waist over waist-to-hip ratio for determination of body fat distribution in a ... WHR has been shown to be a better predictor of cardiovascular disease than waist circumference and body-mass index. However, ...
... such as how it affects blood pressure. He spent a couple of months at 9,500 feet (3,000 m.), and then five weeks at elevations ... Cardiovascular mortality of patients over 65 years of age increased by the replacement of saturated fats. The 2016 paper "Re- ... and allowed for more rapid determination of nitrogen content in biological samples. This would prove useful for activities as ... a novel idea in a time when such parameters as blood pressure and resting heart-rate were considered immutable characteristics ...
It is also important to control the blood pressure and the heart rate to treat the heart problems. Atropine has been used ... Cardiac and cardiovascular effects: Arrhythmia, irregular heartbeats leading to lower cardiac output - in itself is a very ... The method of diagnosis is the determination of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol, a product of the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond in ... Respiratory failure, breathing stops Circulatory collapse, the blood pressure drops to the point that not even the most basic ...
This does not treat the aortic aneurysm per se, but control of hypertension within tight blood pressure parameters may decrease ... The determination of surgical intervention is complex and determined on a per-case basis. Risk of aneurysm rupture is weighed ... For example, a small aneurysm in an elderly patient with severe cardiovascular disease would not be repaired. The chance of the ... The risk of aneurysm enlargement may be diminished with attention to the patient's blood pressure, smoking and cholesterol ...
to measure intracardiac and intravascular blood pressures. *to take tissue samples for biopsy ... "Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions: Official Journal of the Society for Cardiac Angiography & Interventions. 87 ( ... Determination of cardiac output can be done by releasing a small amount of normal saline in one area of the heart and measuring ... Right heart catheterization allows the physician to determine the pressures within the heart (intracardiac pressures). In this ...
... heart disease and high blood pressure. Between 1920 until 1940, when baseball was America's most popular sport, every team had ... Copy my hustle, copy my determination. But don't copy my spit-tobacco habit." In addition Major League Baseball has taken ... Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases. 108 (1): 75-83. doi:10.1016/j.acvd.2014.10.003. PMID 25497687. Chiamulera, Cristiano; ...
The determination of the type of amyloid can be done by immunohisto-labeling techniques as well as immunofluorescence staining ... Right heart catheterization is the test used to test for elevated diastolic ventricular pressures. This test is more invasive ... Laboratory tests including urea and creatinine levels, liver enzymes, glucose, thyroid function, full blood count, and clotting ... Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine. 28 (1): 10-21. doi:10.1016/j.tcm.2017.07.004. ISSN 1873-2615. PMC 5741539. PMID 28739313. ...
Overall, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure drops 10-15 mm Hg in the first trimester and then returns to baseline in the ... These physiologic changes are entirely normal, and include behavioral (brain), cardiovascular (heart and blood vessel), ... Determinations were via radioimmunoassay. Levels of sex hormones and SHBG during pregnancy in women. The dashed vertical lines ... Women do not show signs of hyperaldosterone, such as hypokalemia, hypernatremia, or high blood pressure. The adrenal gland also ...
"Informativeness of indices of blood pressure, obesity and serum lipids in relation to ischaemic heart disease mortality: the ... WHR has been shown to be a better predictor of cardiovascular disease than waist circumference and body-mass index.[10] However ... "Superiority of skinfold measurements and waist over waist-to-hip ratio for determination of body fat distribution in a ... Falhammer, H (2011). "Cardiovascular risk, metabolic profile, and body composition in adult males with congenital adrenal ...
Heart rate, like other vital signs like blood pressure and respiratory rate, change with age. In adults, a normal heart rate is ... Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine. 56. pp. 315-327. doi:10.1007/978-1-4613-2323-5_15. ISBN 978-1-4612-9428-3. ISSN 0166- ... Determination of rate and rhythm is necessary in order to make sense of further interpretation. ... shunt from blood vessel to blood vessel. systemic circulation to pulmonary artery shunt Blalock-Taussig shunt. SVC to the right ...
to increase blood flow to previously blocked (or occluded) vessels.[citation needed] Measuring pressures in the heart is also ... Determination of cardiac output can be done by releasing a small amount of saline solution (either chilled or at room ... Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions. 87 (2): 291-301. doi:10.1002/ccd.25959. ISSN 1522-726X. PMID 26526181. S2CID ... Right atrial pressure Right ventricular pressure Pulmonary artery pressure Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure Systemic vascular ...
Green tea catechins may improve blood pressure, especially when systolic blood pressure is above 130 mmHg. Due to extensive ... August 2010). "Determination of catechin diastereomers from the leaves of Byrsonima species using chiral HPLC-PAD-CD". ... Aprotosoaie, A. C; Miron, A; Trifan, A; Luca, V. S; Costache, I. I (2016). "The Cardiovascular Effects of Cocoa Polyphenols - ... Ellinger, S; Reusch, A; Stehle, P; Helfrich, H. P. (2012). "Epicatechin ingested via cocoa products reduces blood pressure in ...
Animal studies demonstrate the ability of glaucine to decrease heart rate and lower blood pressure, presumably by the same ... Orallo F, Fernández Alzueta A, Campos-Toimil M, Calleja JM (April 1995). "Study of the in vivo and in vitro cardiovascular ... "HPLC Determination of Glaucine in Yellow Horn Poppy Grass (Glaucium flavum Crantz)". Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 38 (1): ...
A fast heart rate and high blood pressure may occur. Occasionally it may result in an abnormal heart rhythm. While the safety ... Lund, A (1950). "Simultaneous fluorimetric determinations of adrenaline and noradrenaline in blood". Acta Pharmacologica et ... Adrenaline also has significant effects on the cardiovascular system. It increases peripheral resistance via α1 receptor- ... While adrenaline does increase aortic, cerebral, and carotid circulation pressure, it lowers carotid blood flow and end-tidal ...
Vital signs including height, weight, body temperature, blood pressure, pulse, respiration rate, and hemoglobin oxygen ... Surgery has many sub-specialties, including general surgery, ophthalmic surgery, cardiovascular surgery, colorectal surgery, ... Forensic medicine deals with medical questions in legal context, such as determination of the time and cause of death, type of ... After examination for signs and interviewing for symptoms, the doctor may order medical tests (e.g. blood tests), take a biopsy ...
Monitors may measure patient vital signs and other parameters including ECG, EEG, and blood pressure. ... ASTM E2314: Standard Test Method for Determination of Effectiveness of Cleaning Processes for Reusable Medical Instruments ... Of the 113 devices recalled, 35 were for cardiovascular issues.[38] This may lead to a reevaluation of FDA procedures and ... Medical laboratory equipment automates or helps analyze blood, urine, genes, and dissolved gases in the blood. ...
Sodium is an essential nutrient that regulates blood volume, blood pressure, osmotic equilibrium and pH; the minimum ... Dinnebier, R. E.; Behrens, U.; Olbrich, F. (1998). "Lewis Base-Free Phenyllithium: Determination of the Solid-State Structure ... ingestion of large amounts of potassium compounds can lead to hyperkalemia strongly influencing the cardiovascular system.[232] ... 4 ions in a sea of delocalised electrons) at very high pressures (though less than the typical pressure where transitions from ...
Under different conditions, deoxygenated blood can be shunted back to the body or oxygenated blood can be shunted back to the ... "Reptilian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology: evaluation and monitoring (Proceedings)". dvm360.com. Retrieved 2017-04-22.. ... When the turtle protracts its limbs, the pressure inside the lungs is reduced, and the turtle can suck air in. Turtle lungs are ... Some reptiles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TDSD), in which the incubation temperature determines whether a ...
Informativeness of indices of blood pressure, obesity and serum lipids in relation to ischaemic heart disease mortality: the ... Expert review of cardiovascular therapy (Review). 2011-03, 9 (3): 265-77. PMID 21438803. doi:10.1586/erc.10.22.. ... Gray DS, Fujioka K. Use of relative weight and Body Mass Index for the determination of adiposity. J Clin Epidemiol. 1991, 44 ( ... Obesity and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiology, evaluation, and effect of weight loss. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. ( ...
In man, an oral dose of 50 mg produced no effects on blood pressure. Later studies by Lands and Grant on the effects of racemic ... A. M. Lands (1952). "The cardiovascular actions of 1-(3-aminophenyl)-2-aminoethanol and related compounds." J. Pharmacol. Exp. ... "Thin-layer chromatographic and high resolution mass spectrometric determination of β-hydroxyphenylethylamines in tissues as ... on blood pressure in intact dogs showed similar results to those obtained by Chen et al.: 0.41 mg/kg of the drug, given i.v., ...
Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) MIP, also known as negative inspiratory force (NIF), is the maximum pressure that can be ... Forced vital capacity: the determination of the vital capacity from a maximally forced expiratory effort. ... Unstable cardiovascular status (angina, recent myocardial infarction, etc.). *Thoracic, abdominal, or cerebral aneurysms ... pressure measured at the airway opening (PaO) during an occlusion at end-inspiration and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP ...
... has reported that inadequate access to advanced cardiovascular technologies is one of the major contributors to cardiovascular ... Swelling, bruising or bleeding at the generator site, especially if the patient is taking blood thinners.[24] ... Pacing artifact on the ECG and severe muscle twitching may make this determination difficult. External pacing should not be ... These studies demonstrated the restoration of heart rate, cardiac output and mean aortic pressures in animal subjects with ...
Most radiation-induced cardiovascular diseases occur 10 or more years post treatment, making causality determinations more ... heat therapy which dilates blood vessels to the tumor site), blood substitutes that carry increased oxygen, hypoxic cell ... especially where there is pre-existing raised intracranial pressure or where the tumor is causing near-total obstruction of a ... Mahmood SS (2016). "Cardiovascular Complications of Cranial and Neck Radiation". Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular ...
She observed their blood pressure, heart rate, facial muscle tension, and sweat gland activity. To deliberate on an old ... health discovered that when people think about forgiving an offender it leads to improved functioning in their cardiovascular ... They begin to have positive emotions and determinations in life. [122] Forgiveness and physical health[edit]. ... The outcome to the recall of the grudge the candidates' blood pressure and heart rate increased, and they sweated more. ...
Cardiovascular. *Precordial examination. *Peripheral vascular examination. *Heart sounds. *Other *Jugular venous pressure ... comprehensive tests such as radiological studies like magnetic resonance imaging or blood test panels that also include blood ... and then ruling out diagnoses until a final determination can be made.. Diagnostic criteria. Designates the combination of ...
... blood concentrations of triglycerides, normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations, and normal blood glucose concentrations.[ ... Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. This liquid still contains a ... Olive oil consumption is thought to affect cardiovascular health.[109] Epidemiological studies indicate that a higher ... "An opto-electronic system for in-situ determination of peroxide value and total phenol content in olive oil" (Submitted ...
Cardiovascular factors known to be associated with the development of AF include high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, ... The evaluation of atrial fibrillation involves a determination of the cause of the arrhythmia, and classification of the ... High blood pressure[edit]. According to the CHARGE Consortium, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure are predictors of the ... raising blood pressure, lowering the levels of potassium and magnesium in the blood, worsening obstructive sleep apnea, and by ...
... stimulant use in those with ADHD found that cardiovascular side effects were limited to transient increases in blood pressure ... Lillsunde P, Korte T (March 1991). "Determination of ring- and N-substituted amphetamines as heptafluorobutyryl derivatives". ... This leads to effects such as mydriasis, increased heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate and body temperature.[8] When ... and blood pressure, and a diminished desire for food and sleep. Use of stimulants may cause the body to reduce significantly ...
Rebholz CM, Friedman EE, Powers LJ, Arroyave WD, He J, Kelly TN (October 2012). "Dietary protein intake and blood pressure: a ... determination of protein based on total N content by Kjeldahl (AOAC, 2000) or similar method ... is considered acceptable."[17] ... Detrimental effects to cardiovascular activity were not observed in short-term diets of 6 months or less. There is little ... They may include itchiness, swelling of the tongue, vomiting, diarrhea, hives, trouble breathing, or low blood pressure. These ...
Cardiovascular dysfunction (after fluid resuscitation with at least 40 ml/kg of crystalloid) *hypotension with blood pressure ... blood cultures, lactate and hemoglobin determination, urine output monitoring, high-flow oxygen, and intravenous fluids.[52][53 ... After six hours the blood pressure should be adequate, close monitoring of blood pressure and blood supply to organs should be ... high blood lactate, or low urine output may suggest poor blood flow.[10] Septic shock is low blood pressure due to sepsis that ...
Blood pressure. Hypertension. *Hypertensive heart disease. *Hypertensive emergency. *Hypertensive nephropathy. *Essential ... The determination of whether an aneurysm is ruptured is critical to diagnosis. Lumbar puncture (LP) is the gold standard ... Cardiovascular disease (vessels) (I70-I99, 440-456). Arteries, arterioles. and capillaries. Inflammation. *Arteritis *Aortitis ... Aneurysm means an outpouching of a blood vessel wall that is filled with blood. Aneurysms occur at a point of weakness in the ...
Cardiovascular imaging. 10 (2): 171-184. doi:10.1016/j.jcmg.2016.12.001. ISSN 1876-7591. PMC 5664227 . PMID 28183437.. ... This ranges from arteries serving the brain to those bringing blood to the lungs, kidneys, arms and legs. An example of this ... Radon J (1 December 1986). "On the determination of functions from their integral values along certain manifolds". IEEE ... or intracranial pressure disorders.[21] It also does not carry the risks of exposing the patient to ionizing radiation.[21] CT ...
Blood flow (+¾) and resistance (-¾) scale in the same way, leading to blood pressure being constant across species.[35] ... have the same size respiratory and cardiovascular systems and it turn have the same amount of blood: About 5.5% of body mass. ... Many factors go into the determination of body mass and size for a given animal. These factors often affect body size on an ... That the heart rate is lower means that larger animals can carry more blood, which carries more oxygen. Then in conjuncture ...
... lowering systolic blood pressure by 3-4 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure by 2-3 mm Hg. The effect was larger when the dose ... Spectroscopic determination with Eriochrome Blue SE". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 460 (3): 500-510. doi:10.1016/0005-2728(77 ... Inadequate magnesium intake frequently causes muscle spasms, and has been associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, ... Kass L, Weekes J, Carpenter L (2012). "Effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis". Eur J Clin Nutr ...
... due to reduced blood supply. Smoking also increases blood pressure and weakens blood vessels.[72] ... "Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy. 8 (7): 917-32. doi:10.1586/erc.10.56. PMC 2928253. PMID 20602553.. ... Kataoka H, Sumida A, Makita M (1997). "Determination of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes in cigarette smoke by gas ... blood flows less easily through rigid and narrowed blood vessels, making the blood more likely to form a thrombosis (clot). ...
positive regulation of blood pressure. • heart development. • negative regulation of urine volume. • response to organic cyclic ... Kukucka MA, Misra HP (1992). "HPLC determination of an oxytocin-like peptide produced by isolated guinea pig Leydig cells: ... Carmichael MS, Warburton VL, Dixen J, Davidson JM (February 1994). "Relationships among cardiovascular, muscular, and oxytocin ... negative regulation of blood pressure. • memory. • positive regulation of norepinephrine secretion. • social organism behavior ...
After it reaches the blood stream, it damages the kidneys, the liver and blood cells through oxidation reactions. Hemolysis, ... C and 200 bar pressure. The peroxochromate(V) is another example of the +5 oxidation state. Potassium peroxochromate (K3[Cr(O2) ... the FDA rejected claims for chromium picolinate and cardiovascular disease, retinopathy or kidney disease caused by abnormally ... "Determination of iron using potassium dichromate: Redox indicators". The Department of Chemistry UWI, Jamaica. Retrieved 8 ...
2008). "Quantitative determination of thallium binding to ferric hexacyanoferrate: Prussian blue". International Journal of ... A thallium stress test is a form of scintigraphy, where the amount of thallium in tissues correlates with tissue blood supply. ... Jain, Diwakar; Zaret, Barry L. (2005). "Nuclear imaging in cardiovascular medicine". In Clive Rosendorff. Essential cardiology ... Some mercury-doped thallium-cuprate superconductors have transition temperatures above 130 K at ambient pressure, nearly as ...
Lawes, C. M.; Vander Hoorn, S.; Rodgers, A.; International Society of Hypertension (2008). "Global burden of blood-pressure- ... Barber, H. H.; Kolthoff, I. M. (1929). "Gravimetric Determination of Sodium by the Uranyl Zinc Acetate Method. Ii. Application ... 2016). "Associations of urinary sodium excretion with cardiovascular events in individuals with and without hypertension: a ... Gatti, M.; Tokatly, I.; Rubio, A. (2010). "Sodium: A Charge-Transfer Insulator at High Pressures". Physical Review Letters. 104 ...
... at the effects of CoQ10 on blood pressure provided moderate-quality evidence that coenzyme Q10 does not lower blood pressure.[ ... An important enzyme in this pathway is HMG-CoA reductase, usually a target for intervention in cardiovascular complications. ... developments in analytical chemistry have enabled a more reliable determination of CoQ10 concentrations in various foods: CoQ10 ... Ho, M. J.; Li, E. C.; Wright, J. M. (3 Mar 2016). "Blood pressure lowering efficacy of coenzyme Q10 for primary hypertension". ...
"Blood Harvest: The Slaughter" (PDF). End Organ Pillaging: 428.. *^ Samuels, Gabriel (29 June 2016). "China kills millions of ... "Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery. 10 (6): 1026-1033. doi:10.1510/icvts.2009.229757. PMID 20308266.. CS1 maint: ... Tabarrok found that social pressures resisting the use of transplant organs decreased over time as the opportunity of ... "The circulatory-respiratory determination of death in organ donation*". Critical Care Medicine. 38 (3): 963-970. doi:10.1097/ ...
Most radiation-induced cardiovascular diseases occur 10 or more years post treatment, making causality determinations more ... heat therapy which dilates blood vessels to the tumor site), blood substitutes that carry increased oxygen, hypoxic cell ... especially where there is pre-existing raised intracranial pressure or where the tumor is causing near-total obstruction of a ... "Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease. 11 (11): 297-317. doi:10.1177/1753944717729141. PMC 5933669. PMID 28911261.. ...
... blood pressure measurement, developmental and growth evaluation, orthopedic assessments on joints, muscle tone, and ongoing ... Bruno, E; Rossi, N; Thüer, O; Córdoba, R; Alday, L. E. (2003). "Cardiovascular findings, and clinical course, in patients with ... Schubert, Cornelia; Laccone, Franco (2006). "Williams-Beuren syndrome: Determination of deletion size using quantitative real- ... Suggestions include avoidance of extra calcium and vitamin D, as well as treating high levels of blood calcium. Blood vessel ...
... blood tests, and regular physical examinations.[9] Complications of pregnancy may include disorders of high blood pressure, ... Determination of which time point is to be used as origin for gestational age, as described in section above. ... Gresele, Paolo (2008). Platelets in hematologic and cardiovascular disorders: a clinical handbook. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge ... Miscarriage, high blood pressure of pregnancy, gestational diabetes, iron-deficiency anemia, severe nausea and vomiting[2][3]. ...
THE DETERMINATION OF ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE IN CLINICAL PRACTICE Br Med J 1905; 1 :968 ... THE DETERMINATION OF ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE IN CLINICAL PRACTICE. Br Med J 1905; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.2313.968 ... THE DETERMINATION OF.... *THE DETERMINATION OF ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE IN CLINICAL PRACTICE ...
Blood Pressure Determination * Blood Pressure* * Canada / epidemiology * Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology * ... Hypertension prevalence and blood pressure levels in 6 European countries, Canada, and the United States JAMA. 2003 May 14;289( ... Objective: To determine whether higher blood pressure (BP) levels and hypertension are more prevalent in Europe than in the ... Main outcome measures: Blood pressure levels and prevalence of hypertension in Europe, the United States, and Canada. ...
Ambulatory blood-pressure measurements were a stronger predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality than clinic blood- ... pressure measurements. White-coat hypertension was not benign, and masked hypertension was associated with a greater risk of ... Blood Pressure / physiology * Blood Pressure Determination / methods* * Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory* * Cardiovascular ... clinic blood pressure) and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a large cohort of ...
determination of blood pressure (BP) ,100/60 mmHg. *Hyponatremia with serum Na numbers ,132 Meq / l ... Proportion of patients with increased CD4 in peripheral blood and in lymphatic tissue. [ Time Frame: peripheral blood: 12, 24, ... Proportion of patients with changes in the CD4/CD8 ratio in peripheral blood in different groups. [ Time Frame: 12, 24, 25 and ... Effects of Losartan and Antiretroviral Regimen Containing Raltegravir in Fibrosis Inflammation Mediators, Cardiovascular Risk ...
Cannulation of the radial artery percutaneously or by cut down is frequently used to monitor blood pressure in infants and ... Blood Pressure / physiology. Blood Pressure Determination / instrumentation. Cardiopulmonary Bypass*. Cardiovascular ... was chosen for monitoring arterial blood pressure because of malfunction of the existing posterior tibial arterial pressure ... Cannulation of the radial artery percutaneously or by cut down is frequently used to monitor blood pressure in infants and ...
Blood Pressure / physiology*. Blood Pressure Determination / methods*. Computer Simulation. Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted / ... Models, Cardiovascular*. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Stroke Volume. Grant Support. ... Next Document: Effect of gender on blood flow velocities and blood pressure: role of body weight and height.. ... Previous Document: Study on the microcirculatory blood velocity of acupoint monitored by laser Doppler signal.. ...
Anatomy of Blood Vessels. 22. Human Cardiovascular Physiology-Blood Pressure and Pulse Determinations ...
Anatomy of the Blood Vessels. Exercise 33. Human Cardiovascular Physiology-Blood Pressure and Pulse Determinations. Exercise 34 ... Exercise 5. Cardiovascular Dynamics Exercise 6. Cardiovascular Physiology Exercise 7. Respiratory System Mechanics Exercise 8. ... Frog Cardiovascular Physiology. Exercise 35. The Lymphatic System and Immune Response. The Respiratory System Exercise 36. ... Blood. Exercise 30. Anatomy of the Heart. Exercise 31. Conduction System of the Heart and Electrocardiography. Exercise 32. ...
Anatomy of Blood Vessels. Exercise 33. Human Cardiovascular Physiology-Blood Pressure and Pulse Determinations. Exercise 34. ... Exercise 5. Cardiovascular Dynamics Exercise 6. Cardiovascular Physiology Exercise 7. Respiratory System Mechanics Exercise 8. ... Blood Analysis. Exercise 12: Serological Testing. The CAT version of the lab manual will each have the following additional ... Blood. Exercise 30. Anatomy of the Heart. Exercise 31. Conduction System of the Heart and Electrocardiography. Exercise 32. ...
The invention provides for a continuous measure of blood pressure in a non-invasive, cuffless manner. ... Methods are disclosed for determining diastolic pressure, systolic and mean arterial pressure. In another aspect, artifact ... The arterial pressure is computed from pulse arrival time, volumetric wave shape and instantaneous heart rate for each pulse. ... This time difference depends on the arrival time of the pulse at the distal location in addition to the shape of the blood ...
Key words: Blood pressure determination; Cardiovascular diseases; Hypertension; Preventive medicine; Primary health care ... Patients with blood pressures of 140/90 mm Hg or above recorded twice (at triage and discharge) with no previous history of ... Patients were issued a referral by the discharge nurse to follow-up for blood pressure monitoring in primary care. ... Of 245 patients with asymptomatic elevated blood pressure, we were able to contact 222 for follow-up, of whom 136 (61%) claimed ...
Our mission is to build healthier lives, free of cardiovascular diseases and stroke. That single purpose drives all we do. The ... Update: Recommendations for human blood pressure determination by sphygmomanometers.. V Strugo, F J Glew, J Davis, L H Opie ... Update: Recommendations for human blood pressure determination by sphygmomanometers.. V Strugo, F J Glew, J Davis and L H Opie ... Update: Recommendations for human blood pressure determination by sphygmomanometers.. V Strugo, F J Glew, J Davis and L H Opie ...
... blood pressure or blood flow; Combined pulse/heart-rate/blood pressure determination; Evaluating a cardiovascular condition not ... blood pressure or blood flow; Combined pulse/heart-rate/blood pressure determination; Evaluating a cardiovascular condition not ... arterial blood pressure; arterial blood gases; left arterial pressure and right arterial pressure; right atrial, left atrial ... Detection of drastic blood pressure changes EP1804853A1 (en) * 2004-09-13. 2007-07-11. Gambro Lundia AB. Detection of drastic ...
Risk assessment of acute kidney injury in patients with acute cardiovascular disease without invasive intervention]. ... The Blood Pressure in a Population: Blood Pressure Readings and Height and Weight Determinations in the Adult Population of the ... The Blood Pressure in a Population: Blood Pressure Readings and Height and Weight Determinations in the Adult Population of the ... In Bergen, Norway, blood pressure determinations were done incident to compulsory mass chest radiography. Of the 80,000 adults ...
This combined approach could similarly detect high blood pressure or a rapid change in BP as a result of cardiovascular ... Blood Pressure Determination. Additional relevant MeSH terms:. Layout table for MeSH terms. ... Accuracy of Non-Invasive Blood Pressure Measurements at the Arm, Calf , and Finger (PANIC). The safety and scientific validity ... The measurement of arterial blood pressure (BP) is of paramount importance when caring for critically ill patients, as BP, ...
Perloff D, Grim C, Flack J, Frohlich ED, Hill M, McDonald M, Morgenstern BZ: Human blood pressure determination by ... blood chemistry tests, and blood pressure measurement. Trained technicians administered these evaluations following ... Blood pressures were measured using mercury column sphygmomanometers following the American Heart Association protocol (13). ... systolic and diastolic blood pressure; BMI; smoking status; alcohol intake; and prior history of CVD. All P values are two ...
Exercise 21: Anatomy of Blood Vessels Exercise 22: Human Cardiovascular Physiology-Blood Pressure and Pulse Determinations ...
Blood Pressure Determination. *Blood Glucose. *Cardiovascular Diseases. *kidney. Introduction. Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is ... Cardiovascular outcomes in action to control cardiovascular risk in diabetes: Impact of blood pressure level and presence of ... Follow-up of blood-pressure lowering and glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 371: 1392-1406, 2014pmid:25234206. ... Effects of intensive blood-pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 362: 1575-1585, 2010pmid:20228401. ...
... determination of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and (4) electrocardiogram (A1). ... Proposed plan for pre-transplant cardiological assessment according to cardiovascular risk.. Notes: Cardiovascular risk factors ... Proposed plan for pre-transplant cardiological assessment according to cardiovascular risk.. Notes: Cardiovascular risk factors ... including cardiovascular disease (CVD).140 Most of the increase in the mortality rate is accounted for by cardiovascular causes ...
Determination of Blood Pressure and Heart Rate. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured non-invasively every month using a ... DBP: diastolic blood pressure. HOMA: homeostatic model assessment. SBP: systolic blood pressure ... and high blood pressure.6 Such patients are at increased risk of suffering a cardiovascular event7,8; they also suffer ... Blood Pressure and Paseline Heart Rate. After 6 months on the fructose-rich diet, the SBP of the rats was 152.0 (2.0) mm Hg ...
Rafati S. [Determination of normal percentile of blood pressure in 7-11-year-old primary school children in Tehran]. Journal of ... Nutrition, metabolism and cardiovascular diseases, 2006, 16(4):239-48.. *Subhi MB. Blood pressure profiles and hypertension in ... There are few data about blood pressure patterns and the prevalence of high blood pressure in Iranian children. A study ... Lotfizadeh M, Yadolahi H. Determination of blood pressure percentile of children in Shahrekord city. Journal of Shahrekord ...
At each examination, the participants underwent a physical examination, blood pressure determination and phlebotomy for ... Blood pressure was measured in a sitting position on the left arm. Serum total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels ... 15-year longitudinal study of blood pressure and dementia. Lancet 1996;347:1141-5. ... A 10-year cardiovascular risk score was applied based on the primary care formula from the Framingham Heart Study.20 High CVD ...
The initial cardiovascular protocol includes family and personal history, physical examination (with determination of blood ... pressure), and basal 12 lead ECG. Additional tests are requested only for athletes who have a positive family history of ... Cardiovascular preparticipation evaluation offers the potential to identify athletes with life threatening cardiovascular ... Some cardiovascular disorders at risk of sudden death are not associated with ECG changes (Marfan syndrome, premature coronary ...
Cardiovascular and total mortality in men and women with different blood pressure levels - a 26-year follow-up. Blood Press ... Human blood pressure determination by sphygmomanometry. Circulation 1993;88(5 Pt 1):2460-70. CrossRefexternal icon PubMed ... Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure: an evaluation of their joint effect on mortality. Ann ... Abbreviations: DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure. [A text version of this figure is available.] ...
Cardiovascular Diseases, White Coat Hypertension, Blood Pressure Determination, Hypertension, United States ... Home blood pressure measurements were provided at least three times per week. Clinic blood pressure measurements were performed ... Is clinic or home measurement of blood pressure more accurate in classifying patients blood pressure control, and what is the ... Data for 444 veterans with hypertension, providing 111,181 systolic blood pressure measurements (systolic blood pressure) over ...
A highly selective and sensitive, spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of Mercury(II) in environmental ... Article Determination of trace amounts of mercury (II) by catalytic kinetic method in environmental samples. ... Blood pressure-lowering effect of orally ingested nitrite is abolished by a proton pump inhibitor. Oct. 31, 2016. Abstract ... we tested the effects of a proton pump inhibitor on the acute cardiovascular effects of nitrite. Fifteen healthy nonsmoking,... ...
Among cardiovascular benefits of exercise, the post-exercise blood pressure reduction has been considered an important tool for ... All 268 women had a blood collection for the determination of their I/D polymorphism of ACE gene. After that, 30 volunteers ... The systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) are presented on table 2 as ... systolic blood pressure, DBP - diastolic blood pressure, NO2- - nitrite concentration, VO2peak: peak oxygen consumption reached ...
The study may be underpowered for determination of blood pressure and cholesterol outcomes. Data collection was not blinded as ... and the mean number of hospital admissions for cardiovascular events per patient. The mean number of cardiovascular hospital ... Blood pressure-Based on previous reports, 44% of patients were likely to have a baseline systolic blood pressure greater than ... systolic blood pressure 231/765 (30.2%, 26.9% to 33.4%), diastolic blood pressure 72/765 (9.4%, 7.3% to 11.5%), and cholesterol ...
2006;8(5):200-8. Determination of risk factors en patients with different values of arterial pressure.Google Scholar ... Relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and high blood pressure by community pharmacists in Spain. ... A statement from the American Heart Association Councils on Kidney in cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure research, ... American Heart Association Councils on Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, High Blood Pressure Research, Clinical Cardiology, and ...
Automated determination of the ankle-brachial index using an oscillometric blood pressure monitor: validation vs. Doppler ... measurement and cardiovascular risk factor profile, Kollias, 2011 Jan 17., 2020 Anastasios Kollias, Apostolos Xilomenos, ... Accuracy validation of the Microlife 3AS1-2 blood pressure device in a pregnant population with low blood pressure, Nathan, ... Accuracy validation of the Microlife 3AS1-2 blood pressure device in a pregnant population with low blood pressure, Nathan, ...
  • To determine whether higher blood pressure (BP) levels and hypertension are more prevalent in Europe than in the United States and Canada. (nih.gov)
  • Blood pressure levels and prevalence of hypertension in Europe, the United States, and Canada. (nih.gov)
  • Clinic and 24-hour ambulatory blood-pressure data were examined in the following categories: sustained hypertension (elevated clinic and elevated 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure), "white-coat" hypertension (elevated clinic and normal 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure), masked hypertension (normal clinic and elevated 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure), and normotension (normal clinic and normal 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure). (nih.gov)
  • Patients with blood pressures of 140/90 mm Hg or above recorded twice (at triage and discharge) with no previous history of hypertension. (hkmj.org)
  • Of 245 patients with asymptomatic elevated blood pressure, we were able to contact 222 for follow-up, of whom 136 (61%) claimed to have been followed up for their blood pressure, and 48 (22%) were diagnosed to have hypertension. (hkmj.org)
  • The implementation of a simple nurse-led hypertension referral system is a cost-effective way to screen asymptomatic subjects with elevated blood pressures in the accident and emergency department. (hkmj.org)
  • What Should Be the Target Blood Pressure for This Older Patient With Hypertension? (annals.org)
  • As secondary objectives, the investigators will assess the ability of combined continuous (ClearSight™) and intermittent (automatic cuff) non-invasive monitoring to detect stage 2 hypertension, and to detect changes in BP during a cardiovascular intervention (as clinically indicated but not imposed by the study protocol). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • ABSTRACT This study determined the percentiles of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the prevalence of hypertension among 789 primary-school children aged 7-12 years in the city of Eghbalieh, Islamic Republic of Iran. (who.int)
  • Our study aimed to assess the sex-specific association of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and 2017 United States hypertension guidelines with all-cause mortality in China. (cdc.gov)
  • Elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 hypertension were positively associated with all-cause mortality for men but not women in rural China. (cdc.gov)
  • The phenomenon of 'white coat hypertension,' and its potential to misclassify many patients' blood pressure control, is well-known. (acc.org)
  • The hypertension community, represented by the American Society of Hypertension and the European Society of Hypertension, has long recognized the inferiority of clinic blood pressure measurements, especially when not repeated, and has called for greater use of home blood pressure monitoring in position statements. (acc.org)
  • Objectives The aim of this study is to determine the influence that different risk factors (age, gender, obesity, smoking, inactivity, diabetes mellitus and previous diagnosis of arterial hypertension) have on arterial pressure, and to determine the prevalence of patients that have high blood pressure and hypertension but have not received drug-treatment for arterial hypertension. (springer.com)
  • It was found that an increase in the number of risk factors led to a corresponding rise in the percentage of patients with high blood pressure and arterial hypertension. (springer.com)
  • It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy. (umassmed.edu)
  • In addition, children with hypertension (3.4%) or pre-hypertensive levels (6.6%) also had comorbidity for overweight and blood lipid abnormalities (14% for triglycerides, 44.7% for TC, 25.9% for LDL-C, 52% for low HDL-C). The present study shows for the first time high correlations between prehypertensive blood pressure levels and the cardiovascular risk factors high TC, high LDL-C, low HDL-C in schoolchildren. (scielo.br)
  • Clinical and epidemiological studies have suggested that periodic blood pressure (BP) and biochemical determinations in schoolchildren permit the early detection of risk factors and treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases (1,2). (scielo.br)
  • Hypertension (HTN) affects 1 out of 3 adults in the United States and is a major risk factor for stroke and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • One of the most important applications of BP measurements is the screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of hypertension, a condition that affects almost one third of the U.S. adult population and is one of the leading causes of the cardiovascular disease. (jove.com)
  • Singer P, Berger J, Luck K, Tauber CH, Naumann E, Gödicke W (1986) Long-term effect of mackerel diet on blood pressure serum lipids and thromboxane formation in patients with mild essential hypertension. (springer.com)
  • Hypertension affects 32.6% of the U.S. adult population and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular events and death. (heart.org)
  • 2 Over time, a compensatory increase in blood pressure (BP) and, consequently, an increase in renal perfusion pressure increase sodium excretion but also induce hypertension. (heart.org)
  • Overwhelming evidence supports the conclusion that cigarette smoking causes various adverse cardiovascular events 1 2 and acts synergistically with hypertension and dyslipidemia to increase the risk of coronary heart disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Smoking causes an acute increase in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate and has been found to be associated with malignant hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • Seated peripheral (brachial) and central (aortic) blood pressures were assessed, and the ratio between aortic and brachial pulse pressure (pulse pressure ratio, ie, 1/amplification) was calculated in healthy individuals, diabetic subjects, patients with cardiovascular disease, and in individuals with only 1 of the following: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or smoking. (nih.gov)
  • 70% of individuals with high-normal brachial pressure had similar aortic pressures as those with stage 1 hypertension. (nih.gov)
  • We must to investigate with serious attitude in our medical practice, the hypertensive pregnant patients also in the direction of secondary hypertension and we have possibility to found unexpected others causes of high blood pressure, like in the clinical case follow to present. (omicsonline.org)
  • Heightened cardiovascular responses to mental stressors are associated with future risk of hypertension. (nih.gov)
  • Participants included 479 initially healthy men and women (mean age, 62.7 ± 5.6 yr), without history or objective signs of cardiovascular disease or hypertension at study entry. (nih.gov)
  • Blood pressure was measured at study entry and at 3 yr follow-up for the determination of hypertension. (nih.gov)
  • Hypertension is a powerful, consistent and independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and renal disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Managing cardiovascular disease risk in hypertension. (nihr.ac.uk)
  • We first used linear regression models to report crude data and then, multivariate adjustment for sociodemographic (age, sex, and race) and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoking, body mass index, use of alcohol, and leisure physical activity) using the euthyroid group as reference. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hypertension is high blood pressure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hypertension is serious because people with the condition have a higher risk for heart disease and other medical problems than people with normal blood pressure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Serious complications can be avoided by getting regular blood pressure checks and treating hypertension as soon as it is diagnosed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hypertension makes the heart work harder to pump blood through the body. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If hypertension thickens the arteries to the kidneys, less waste can be filtered from the blood. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Blood pressure in adults will be categorized as normal, elevated, stage 1 hypertension or stage 2 hypertension. (heart.org)
  • Causes for secondary hypertension could be classified as renal, endocrine, cardiovascular causes. (medicaljoyworks.com)
  • Our mission is to build healthier lives, free of cardiovascular diseases and stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • The study took place in Evans Country because the area had a high death count due to heart complications, such as heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain adverse health effects, from high blood pressure to cardiovascular diseases, are directly linked to a high sodium intake. (mt.com)
  • It is accepted that risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, when detected in schoolchildren, are predictive of coronary disease. (scielo.br)
  • If initiated during early childhood, appropriate changes in lifestyle patterns should be able to reduce the later incidence and severity of cardiovascular diseases (4,5). (scielo.br)
  • Young MS patients are at risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with the variability of blood pressure and indexes of daily arterial vascular stiffness. (thisisms.com)
  • Cardiovascular conditions are as common in those with demyelinating diseases (multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica and transverse myelitis). (thisisms.com)
  • The purposes of this study is to examine whether there are between-arm differences in simultaneous BP measurements obtained from ambulatory patients without cardiovascular diseases and to identify the factors associated these differences. (kjfm.or.kr)
  • The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a prospective cohort study that investigates cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and associated factors, including non-classical cardiovascular risk factors such as thyroid function. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is highly effective as secondary prevention for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). (jmir.org)
  • Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide ( http://www.who.int /), and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the major cardiovascular diseases that leads to a high mortality and morbidity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The logarithms of blood pressures were found to be normally distributed, except for diastolic pressures in the older age groups which were somewhat more skewed than in a log-normal distribution. (annals.org)
  • Effect of microinjecting 2 µL of 1.5 M NaCl into the anteroventral third ventricular region on diastolic blood pressure in the control rats (n=12) and in those fed the rich-rich diet (n=12). (revespcardiol.org)
  • Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased with increasing age in both sexes. (who.int)
  • The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure of boys and girls in all age groups were significantly lower than the Second Task Force on Blood Pressure Control in Children scale. (who.int)
  • Epidemiologic evidence has indicated a U- or J-shaped association of systolic blood pressure (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with all-cause mortality (2-4). (cdc.gov)
  • Factors assessed at the time of follow-up were systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol level, cigarette smoking, body weight, hematocrit value, ECG abnormalities and diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blood pressure is measured in mmHg and recorded as a fraction (systolic BP/ diastolic BP). (jove.com)
  • An auscultatory gap is an intermittent disappearance of Korotkoff sounds after their initial appearance before the true diastole, which may seriously underestimate the systolic pressure or overestimate the diastolic pressure. (jove.com)
  • No such differences were seen among younger men or for diastolic blood pressure in either age group. (ahajournals.org)
  • there is at least 20 mm Hg difference in the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 10 mm Hg difference in the diastolic blood pressure (DBP). (kjfm.or.kr)
  • All BP determinations (systolic and diastolic) are taken in the Mobile Examination Center (MEC). (cdc.gov)
  • The relationship of left ventricular mass with the stage of sexual maturation and with systolic and diastolic blood pressure was also evaluated. (ahajournals.org)
  • Blood pressure when the heart is at rest is called diastolic pressure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When blood pressure is measured, the systolic pressure is stated first and the diastolic pressure second. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For example, if a person's systolic pressure is 120 and diastolic pressure is 80, it is written as 120/80 mm Hg. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Diastolic function was categorised as mild (impaired relaxation without increased filling pressures), moderate (impaired relaxation associated with moderate elevation of filling pressures or pseudonormal filling), or severe (advanced reduction in compliance or reversible or fixed restrictive filling). (bmj.com)
  • Diastolic dysfunction increased with increasing age and the presence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and systolic dysfunction. (bmj.com)
  • After resting quietly in a sitting position for 5 minutes and determining the maximum inflation level (MIL), three and sometimes 4 BP determinations (systolic and diastolic) are taken in the mobile examination center (MEC). (cdc.gov)
  • The program includes a didactic section, audio-video practice watching and listening to systolic and diastolic blood pressure sounds, and measuring blood pressures of volunteers concurrently with a certified, gold standard BP instructor. (cdc.gov)
  • RESULTS: In PBC patients, 1 month's treatment with UDCA significantly reduced diastolic volume without changing systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures, heart rate, systolic and stroke volumes, ejection fraction, cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance. (elsevier.com)
  • In PNC patients, UDCA significantly reduced cardiac output, with a tendency to reduce left ventricular volumes, without any changes in systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures. (elsevier.com)
  • We describe a child in whom the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) was chosen for monitoring arterial blood pressure because of malfunction of the existing posterior tibial arterial pressure line after cardiopulmonary bypass. (biomedsearch.com)
  • When standard arterial monitoring sites are not accessible, internal mammary artery cannulation can provide reliable access for prolonged arterial blood pressure monitoring in the postoperative period in children. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The measurement of arterial blood pressure (BP) is of paramount importance when caring for critically ill patients, as BP, especially mean BP, is the driving force of blood flow through all the organs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Arterial blood pressure (BP) measurement in children is one of the most important tools in diagnosing their physical health. (who.int)
  • Two measurements of arterial pressure were taken from each patient on the first day of the study and two other measurements on a later day. (springer.com)
  • The average of these four measurements was taken as the arterial pressure value for the patient. (springer.com)
  • The measurements were noted in the patients' records along with data about the seven risk factors being studied, allowing them to be related with the patient's arterial pressure value. (springer.com)
  • The first audible Korotkoff sound signifies the maximum arterial pressure during systole. (jove.com)
  • When the pressure in the cuff is reduced further and falls below the minimal arterial pressure (during diastole), the Korotkoff sounds become no longer audible. (jove.com)
  • Neurological and cardiologic examinations included 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring and 24-hour blood pressure monitoring with determination of the daily arterial vascular stiffness, echocardiography, laser doppler flowmetry followed by an occlusive test to assess the state of microvasculation, levels of serum vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). (thisisms.com)
  • The first attempt to measure arterial blood pressure in human beings is credited to Karl von Vierendt (1818-1884). (annals.org)
  • Pulse pressure varies throughout the arterial tree, resulting in a gradient between central and peripheral pressure. (nih.gov)
  • After intravenous administration of the compounds to rats, heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure were monitored continuously, and serial arterial blood samples were drawn for determination of the pharmacokinetics. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were slightly higher for SBP and PP compared with mean arterial pressure and DBP for major cardiovascular and coronary events. (edu.au)
  • Collete, M., Leftheriotis, G. and Humeau, A. (2009) Modeling and Interpretation of the Bioelectrical Impedance Signal for the Determination of the Local Arterial Stiffness. (scirp.org)
  • Mansouri, S., Mahjoubi, H. and Ben Salah, R. (2010) Determination of Instantaneous Arterial Blood Pressure from Bio-Impedance Signal. (scirp.org)
  • Epidemiology of arterial blood pressure / edited by H. Kesteloot and J. V. Joossens. (who.int)
  • Arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow variability: friend or foe? (frontiersin.org)
  • Variability in arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow has traditionally been interpreted as a marker of cardiovascular decompensation, and has been associated with negative clinical outcomes across varying time scales, from impending orthostatic syncope to an increased risk of stroke. (frontiersin.org)
  • Traditionally, clinicians have assessed the cardiovascular status of their patients with static "snapshot" techniques, such as radial pulse for heart rate, brachial sphygmomanometry for arterial pressure, and chest excursions for respiration rate. (frontiersin.org)
  • While the notion that arterial blood pressure is not constant, but fluctuates dynamically over time has been known since the 18th century, the clinical importance of this phenomenon is only now being recognized. (frontiersin.org)
  • With advances both in monitoring technologies and data analysis capabilities, we now have the capacity to capture dynamic changes in patient status by recording and analyzing non-invasive, high frequency hemodynamic waveform data, including ECG, arterial pressure, and most recently, cerebral blood flow and oxygenation. (frontiersin.org)
  • 8 The shape of the arterial pressure waveform provides a measure of systemic arterial stiffness 9 and can be assessed noninvasively by using the technique of pulse-wave analysis (PWA). (ahajournals.org)
  • Geographic variations in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated risk factors have been recognized worldwide. (nih.gov)
  • Risk assessment of acute kidney injury in patients with acute cardiovascular disease without invasive intervention]. (annals.org)
  • OBJECTIVE -Heart rate recovery (HRR) is an independent prognostic indicator for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in healthy men. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The purpose of the current research was to evaluate whether slow HRR after maximal exercise predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality among these diabetic men. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The reverse is also applicable, as the presence of cardiovascular disease increases the incidence of creatinine doubling and ESKD ( 7 , 8 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is the most widely prescribed drug to prevent cardiovascular disease. (bmj.com)
  • OBJECTIVE -To determine in normal weight, overweight, and obese men the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The aggressive treatment of MetS is important because it is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes ( 3 , 4 ), cardiovascular disease (CVD) ( 3 , 5 ), and premature mortality ( 5 - 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The study aimed to determine how cardiovascular disease affected different races among a specific population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Racial impact of diurnal variations in blood pressure on cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease. (umassmed.edu)
  • A trial of 2 strategies to reduce nocturnal blood pressure in blacks with chronic kidney disease. (umassmed.edu)
  • If rapid strength and mass gains can be achieved using low cuff pressure-small cuff width BFR methods it represents an intriguing rehabilitation strategy for disuse, injury, and some muscular disease treatments with less concern for patient safety. (omicsonline.org)
  • An inverse relationship between plasma BNP level and endothelial function has been reported in patients with CVD (cardiovascular disease), including patients with heart failure [ 4 - 7 ]. (clinsci.org)
  • In a prospective Dutch study, the magnitude of the enhanced cardiovascular risk in RA was investigated by comparing prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) with that of diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • Heart disease and disease of the entire cardiovascular system are the causes of more disability and death than any other disease. (annals.org)
  • However, the relative impact of cardiovascular risk factors and atheromatous disease on central pressure and the normal variation in central pressure in healthy individuals are unclear. (nih.gov)
  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of hospitalization and death in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. (who.int)
  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause was thought before now to cause gouty nephropathy of hospitalization and death in chronic kidney by causing deposition of urate crystals in the kidney, disease (CKD) patients at all stages[1] and accounts but recent studies have now shown that uric acid can for about 50% mortality in this group of patients. (who.int)
  • CKD to endstage renal disease, reduce cardiovascular uric acid, creatinine, and fasting serum lipids. (who.int)
  • Use of thoracic impedance sensors to screen for sleep-disordered breathing in patients with cardiovascular disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The classification of anonymous individuals is based on the determination of Fisher distance between anonymous disease and class Yk using Fischer formula. (scirp.org)
  • Racial Differences in Associations of Blood Pressure Components in Young Adulthood With Incident Cardiovascular Disease by Middle Age: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. (cdc.gov)
  • It's not a new epidemic or disease - it's high blood pressure, the "silent killer. (heart.org)
  • Many more people than previously believed are at risk for this far too common condition that increases the chance for heart disease and stroke, according to a new guideline for high blood pressure prevention, detection, evaluation and management released Monday by the American Heart Association. (heart.org)
  • Determination of eligibility for blood pressure-lowering medication treatment is no longer based solely on blood pressure level, but now also considers cardiovascular disease risk level. (heart.org)
  • Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of death for men in the U.S. Both cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and the blood triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein ratio (TG:HDL ratio) are strong predictors of death from CHD. (news-medical.net)
  • While it is still extremely important to measure traditional risk factors such as resting blood pressure, blood cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose levels, having a measure or estimate of the patient's cardiorespiratory fitness level gives us additional information regarding cardiovascular disease risk,' explained Dr. Farrell. (news-medical.net)
  • Higher ratios also indicate an increased risk of future prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. (news-medical.net)
  • When used in combination with other risk factors, such as the patient's blood pressure, bloodwork, family history, etc., measuring or estimating the patient's level of CRF can result in a much more accurate determination of their cardiovascular disease risk status. (news-medical.net)
  • They describe how measuring CRF in 6- to 10-year-olds and later in 8- to 12-year-olds can reveal indicators of increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk later in life. (news-medical.net)
  • 1 Endothelial dysfunction is associated with a range of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including hypercholesterolemia, 2,3 and some therapies that improve clinical outcome also reverse endothelial dysfunction. (ahajournals.org)
  • Look for the presence of other cardiovascular risk factor such as diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, smoking & family history of early onset cardiovascular disease. (medicaljoyworks.com)
  • The patient may have a previous history of cardiovascular disease. (medicaljoyworks.com)
  • This study examined the associations of blood pressure measured in the clinic (clinic blood pressure) and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a large cohort of patients in primary care. (nih.gov)
  • Results for cardiovascular mortality were similar to those for all-cause mortality. (nih.gov)
  • Ambulatory blood-pressure measurements were a stronger predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality than clinic blood-pressure measurements. (nih.gov)
  • Increased risk of all-cause mortality is associated with nonoptimal blood pressure. (cdc.gov)
  • However, studies of the relationship between blood pressure categories and all-cause mortality in the Chinese adult population are limited, and sex-specific studies of these associations are not available. (cdc.gov)
  • The relationship between blood pressure categories and all-cause mortality has not been fully addressed in cohort studies, especially in the general Chinese population. (cdc.gov)
  • We analyzed the blood pressure-mortality relationship by using restricted cubic splines and Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis, estimating hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). (cdc.gov)
  • Nonoptimal blood pressure, which caused over 10 million deaths worldwide in 2016, is the leading cause of global mortality (1,2). (cdc.gov)
  • Also, to our knowledge, no other general population-based studies have been made of the relationship between blood pressure categories and all-cause mortality in China except for 2 cohort studies, 1 of adults aged 40 or older and 1 of urban women (6,9). (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, studies of Chinese adults that consider the potential sex difference in the blood pressure-mortality relationship are lacking (9,10). (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, there is no direct and prospectively collected information available on the result of treatment of a "low" blood pressure on neonatal morbidity and mortality. (aappublications.org)
  • Salt sensitivity of BP is a quantitative trait in which an increase in dietary sodium intake engenders an increase in BP .3,4 Salt sensitivity occurs in normotensive as well as hypertensive humans and predicts increased cardiovascular events and mortality, irrespective of unchallenged BP levels. (heart.org)
  • Background Left ventricular hypertrophy has been established as an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 Obviously, management of patients with inflammatory arthritis focuses not on cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. (bmj.com)
  • Multivariate regression analyses show that age, the total cholesterol/HDL (high-density lipoprotein) ratio, glucose and BNP were independent predictors of endothelial function, and BNP remained an independent predictor ( P =0.009) in a binary logistic regression analysis using FBF (forearm blood flow) as a dichotomous variable based on the median value. (clinsci.org)
  • High-growth segments of the market include whole blood glucose testing products for both personal and professional use, POC cardiac marker test kits and systems and POC coagulation monitoring systems. (bioworld.com)
  • When he accompanied some colleagues to a session for free biometric screenings, Conti learned that his blood pressure and glucose levels were elevated. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that a judicious diet, regular physical activity and blood pressure (BP) monitoring must start in early childhood to minimize the impact of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. (scielo.br)
  • For practical and epidemiological reasons, childhood represents a good opportunity for studies regarding the detection/prevention of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, including sedentary lifestyle, hypercaloric food intake and overweight/obesity. (scielo.br)
  • Secondary outcomes included measures of physical fitness, modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, endothelial function, intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery, and quality of life. (jmir.org)
  • NAFLD could influence liver transplantation, as a growing indication, the impact of steatosis in the graft viability, de novo NAFLD rate after OLT and a raised cardiovascular risk that modify the management of this entity. (elsevier.es)
  • Abstract Inorganic nitrate and nitrite from dietary and endogenous sources are metabolized to NO and other bioactive nitrogen oxides that affect blood pressure. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Evidence for the influence of ambulatory blood pressure on prognosis derives mainly from population-based studies and a few relatively small clinical investigations. (nih.gov)
  • Update: ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in children and adolescents: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. (umassmed.edu)
  • Although this study suggests similar variability among home and clinic blood pressure measurements, and a similar need for repeated measurements with either method, it is much easier to obtain the five or six measurements necessary to maximize precision with home blood pressure measurements. (acc.org)
  • Central pressure: variability and impact of cardiovascular risk factors: the Anglo-Cardiff Collaborative Trial II. (nih.gov)
  • Is clinic or home measurement of blood pressure more accurate in classifying patients' blood pressure control, and what is the optimal number of measurements? (acc.org)
  • Clinic blood pressure measurements were performed at routine clinic visits using automated devices (IVAC San Diego, CA). The percentage of subjects with blood pressure in control by each method of measurement was reported, as well as a coefficient of variation, and the effect of multiple measurements. (acc.org)
  • A single clinic systolic blood pressure could not classify subjects as in or out of control with 80% certainty, unless the measurement was 120 mm Hg or less to correctly classify a patient as in control, or higher than 157 mm Hg to correctly classify a patient as out of control. (acc.org)
  • The authors concluded that clinicians who want to have 80% or more certainty that they are correctly classifying patients' blood pressure control should use an average of several measurements, and that quality metrics or clinical decisions based on a single clinic blood pressure measurement would potentially misclassify a large proportion of patients. (acc.org)
  • The current study suggests that, by simply recording three blood pressure measurements at home per week, the method of home measurement would almost double the number of patients identified as having their blood pressure in control, compared with a single clinic blood pressure measurement. (acc.org)
  • Measurement accuracy of a stand-alone oscillometric central blood pressure monitor: a validation report for Microlife WatchBP Office Central. (microlife.com)
  • The physician may choose to repeat the vital signs and blood pressure measurement after completion of the patient interview. (jove.com)
  • Repeated measurement of blood pressure is especially important given the potential measurement errors and blood pressure variations. (jove.com)
  • Obtaining the pulse-obliterating pressure prior to measurement of blood pressure by auscultation allows avoiding measurement error due to the auscultatory gap. (jove.com)
  • Unfortunately, today's clinical and industry standards for blood pressure monitoring still require the inflation of a pneumatic cuff around a limb each time a measurement is taken. (springer.com)
  • Validity of cardiac output measurement by computer-averaged impedance cardiography, and comparison with simultaneous thermodilution determinations. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 2013) Continuous Measurement of Hemodynamic Alterations during Pharmacologic Cardiovascular Stress Using Automated Impedance Cardiography. (scirp.org)
  • If a blood pressure measurement is interrupted or incomplete, a fourth attempt may be made. (cdc.gov)
  • The BP examiners are certified for blood pressure measurement through a training program from Shared Care Research and Education Consulting. (cdc.gov)
  • Ostchega Y, Prineas RJ, Paulose-Ram R, Grim CM, Willard C, Collins C. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2000: Effect of observer training and protocol standardization on reducing blood pressure measurement error. (cdc.gov)
  • The exam included a maximal treadmill exercise test to measure cardiorespiratory fitness level, and also included measurement of the blood TG:HDL ratio. (news-medical.net)
  • Both control and BFR exercise used training loads of 20% of maximal voluntary contraction, however, control had free limb blood flow and BFR exercise was implemented using a 5 cm external cuff around the proximal thigh inflated to 140 mmHg. (omicsonline.org)
  • Her blood pressure value was determined as being BP=220/130 mmHg. (omicsonline.org)
  • A hypotensive treatment was innitiated with allowed medication during the pregnancy, but the blood pressure values do not completely normalize BP=160/90 mmHg. (omicsonline.org)
  • Nevertheless, with this treatment pulmonary artery pressure rarely returns to normal values and the structural abnormalities of pulmonary vessels remain unaltered. (ersjournals.com)
  • Anatomy of the Blood Vessels. (wepas.co.kr)
  • 4. Dissection of the Blood Vessels of the Fetal Pig. (wepas.co.kr)
  • Arteries are the blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the body's tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There are also some studies that indicate that the TG:HDL ratio can be a proxy for LDL particle size, whereby small dense LDL particles are more likely to form plaques in blood vessels than large, less-dense particles. (news-medical.net)
  • The common organs which are affected are central nervous system, heart, blood vessels, retina and kidney. (medicaljoyworks.com)
  • Prolonged cannulation of the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) for blood pressure monitoring in a child after cardiopulmonary bypass. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Patients were issued a referral by the discharge nurse to follow-up for blood pressure monitoring in primary care. (hkmj.org)
  • Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory" by people in this website by year, and whether "Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
  • Tirabassi J, Fang J, Ayala C. Attitudes of primary care providers and recommendations of home blood pressure monitoring--DocStyles, 2010. (umassmed.edu)
  • Can a program that combines home blood pressure monitoring with pharmacist management improve blood pressure (BP) control? (acc.org)
  • This book is the first comprehensive overview of the emerging field of cuffless blood pressure monitoring. (springer.com)
  • Over the last decades clinicians, scientists and device manufacturers have explored the feasibility of technologies that reduce or even completely eliminate the need of cuffs, initiating the era of cuffless blood pressure monitoring. (springer.com)
  • The chapters of the handbook have been elaborated by experts and key opinion leaders in the domain, and will guide the reader along the clinical, scientific, technical, and regulatory aspects of cuffless blood pressure monitoring. (springer.com)
  • Passionate about the intersection of engineering and clinical work, Josep has spent 15 years doing research and development in the field of cuffless blood pressure monitoring. (springer.com)
  • Interested in signal processing problems for non-invasive cardiovascular monitoring, he started exploring and benchmarking sensing modalities that could potentially lead to more widespread use of cuffless blood pressure devices. (springer.com)
  • In 2012 he completed his PhD thesis at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETHZ), titled "Continuous blood pressure monitoring. (springer.com)
  • In 2018 he co-founded Aktiia, a tech company that aims at bringing blood pressure monitoring to daily life. (springer.com)
  • Kubicek, W.G., Patterson, R.P. and Witsoe, D.A. (1970) Impedance Cardiography as a Non Invasive Method of Monitoring Cardiac Function and Other Parameters of the Cardiovascular System. (scirp.org)
  • The essentials in pressure monitoring : blood and other body fluids / Jozef Cywinski and Bernard Tardieu. (who.int)
  • and, in combination with non-invasive cerebral oxygen monitoring technologies (e.g., near infra-red spectroscopy, NIRS), continuous assessment of both cerebral blood flow and oxygenation are possible. (frontiersin.org)
  • In another study researchers from several universities and institutes in Spain highlight the importance of monitoring CRF for early detection of present and future cardiovascular risk in youth. (news-medical.net)
  • Carotid artery assessment by ultrasound is a non-invasive evaluation of subclinical atherosclerosis and a predictor of cardiovascular events. (bvsalud.org)
  • In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, we tested the effects of a proton pump inhibitor on the acute cardiovascular effects of nitrite. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Hackney KJ, Olson BM, Schmidt AJ, Nelson AH, Zacharias EL (2016) Acute Muscular, Metabolic, Cardiovascular, and Perceptual Responses to Low Cuff Pressure-small Cuff Width Blood Flow Restricted Exercise Prescription. (omicsonline.org)
  • Low-load blood flow restricted (BFR) exercise represents a novel method of rehabilitative exercise , however, little is known about variables that may influence the acute physiological response to BFR exercise prescription. (omicsonline.org)
  • This study explored the muscular, metabolic, cardiovascular, and perceptual responses to acute blood flow restricted exercise and compared it to traditional exercise using a Biodex dynamometer. (omicsonline.org)
  • Cigarette smoking causes acute blood pressure (BP) elevation, although some studies have found similar or lower BPs in smokers compared with nonsmokers. (ahajournals.org)
  • Continuous ejection fraction estimation by model-based analysis of an aortic pressure waveform: comparison to echocardiography. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To this end, we have recently developed a novel technique to continuously (i.e., automatically) estimate EF by model-based analysis of an aortic pressure waveform. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Impact of radial artery pressure waveform calibration on estimated central pressure using a transfer function approach. (nih.gov)
  • The Blood Pressure in a Population: Blood Pressure Readings and Height and Weight Determinations in the Adult Population of the City of Bergen. (annals.org)
  • Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. (umassmed.edu)
  • Next, the examiner places a stethoscope over the brachial artery of the patient, inflates the cuff above the expected systolic pressure, and then auscultates while deflating the cuff and observing the manometer readings. (jove.com)
  • Determinations of blood pressure were made by Stephen Hales in 1733, 1 by direct readings on the open artery in large animals. (annals.org)
  • After resting quietly in a sitting position for 5 minutes and determining the maximum inflation level (MIL), three consecutive blood pressure readings are obtained. (cdc.gov)
  • The impact of multiple single day blood pressure readings on cardiovascular risk estimation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in Bethesda, Maryland released new clinical guidelines for blood pressure in 2003, lowering the standard normal readings. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Home blood pressure measurements were provided at least three times per week. (acc.org)
  • The data from the current study strongly support the superiority of repeated home blood pressure measurements over single or even duplicated clinic blood pressure measurements for correctly classifying blood pressure control in our patients. (acc.org)
  • Direct measurements of pulmonary artery pressure ( P pa ) obtained at right-heart catheterisation have been conducted only in small series of patients. (ersjournals.com)
  • Cross-sectional study of 888 subjects aged 30 to 60 years characterized using anthropometric measurements and blood sample analyses. (arvojournals.org)
  • Data collection involves an interviewer's visit (which includes height and weight measurements), followed by a visit from a nurse, who measures BP, records current use of prescribed medicines, and takes a blood sample. (ahajournals.org)
  • Increasing clinical evidence proves that longitudinal measurements of blood pressure allow for earlier detection and better management of multiple medical conditions and for superior prediction of cardiovascular events. (springer.com)
  • The plasma renin level must be performed as a screening test in young pregnant patients, because the blood pressure, as a real cancer marker can draw the attention upon a renal cell tumour diagnosis, not being interpreted only as high blood pressure in the pregnancy context as possible preeclampsia-eclampsia imminence. (omicsonline.org)
  • Despite the existence of published studies dealing with the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and/or the correlation among atherosclerosis risk factors in Brazil (6-8), population studies in schoolchildren in our region are lacking. (scielo.br)
  • This lower threshold increases the prevalence of high blood pressure among U.S. adults 20 and older from 32 percent to 46 percent. (heart.org)
  • The appropriate determination of adequate tissue perfusion and the best approach to treatment of perceived abnormalities in blood pressure in the neonate remain controversial. (aappublications.org)
  • Few aspects of neonatal care have generated more controversy than those surrounding the appropriate determination of adequate tissue perfusion and the best approach to treatment of perceived abnormalities in blood pressure. (aappublications.org)
  • During a median follow-up of 4.7 years, 3808 patients died from any cause, and 1295 of these patients died from cardiovascular causes. (nih.gov)
  • Proportion of patients with increased CD4 in peripheral blood and in lymphatic tissue. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Proportion of patients with changes in the CD4/CD8 ratio in peripheral blood in different groups. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To determine the characteristics of asymptomatic elevated blood pressure patients in an accident and emergency setting and assess the effect of a nurse-led intervention system. (hkmj.org)
  • Main outcome measures The proportion of patients at 18 month follow-up above target levels for blood pressure and total cholesterol concentration, and those admitted to hospital, and changes in physical and mental health status (SF-12). (bmj.com)
  • However, nearly half of hypertensive patients do not have their blood pressure (BP) under control [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • To study the state of the cardiovascular system and peripheral microcirculation in young patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). (thisisms.com)
  • 4 5 If confirmed, then this may underpin the need for cardiovascular risk prevention and management in patients with RA, and a possible approach towards achieving this in everyday practice. (bmj.com)
  • The prospective part of the investigation showed cardiovascular events in 9% of the RA patients and in 4% of the individuals without diabetes from the general population. (bmj.com)
  • Altogether, the CARRÉ study suggests that the cardiovascular risk in RA is increased to an extent that is comparable to that of diabetes, but confirmatory data from larger groups of patients are clearly needed. (bmj.com)
  • Postthrombectomy Systolic Blood Pressure and Clinical Outcome among Patients with Successful Recanalization. (annals.org)
  • However, assessment of central pressure may improve the identification and management of patients with elevated cardiovascular risk. (nih.gov)
  • Gangneung Asan Hospital clinical series of patients showed that the absolute IAD in SBP had a significant correlation with cardiovascular risk factors such as the 10-year Framingham cardiac risk scores and higher BP in men and higher BP in women. (kjfm.or.kr)
  • In all, 43 patients (14 men and 29 women = 201 pairs) were studied by simultaneously performed impedance and thermal determinations. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In about 95% of patients diagnosed with elevated blood pressure, a specific aetiology cannot be found. (medicaljoyworks.com)
  • To develop evidence-based EULAR recommendations for cardiovascular (CV) risk management in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). (bmj.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of 1 month's UDCA therapy on cardiovascular function in cirrhotic patients. (elsevier.com)
  • Although a number of factors including the baseline characteristics such as age, heart rate, blood pressure, and Killip classification have been shown to be independent predictors of long-term death of AMI patients [ 8 , 9 ], the factors that may be used to predict the short-term prognosis, i.e., in-hospital outcomes of STEMI patients after PCI, have not been systemically explored. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biologically, the regulation of BP consists of complex physiological pathways, which include the cardiovascular, neural, renal, endocrine system and local tissue [ 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The AHA, the American College of Cardiology and nine other health professional organizations followed a rigorous review and approval process to develop this first update since 2003 to comprehensive U.S. high blood pressure guidelines. (heart.org)
  • To elucidate the relationship between plasma BNP and endothelial function, we have investigated the relationship between BNP and endothelial function in a cohort of subjects comprising healthy subjects as well as at-risk subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. (clinsci.org)
  • Endothelial function was assessed by PWA and forearm blood flow in 27 subjects. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4 Vasomotor responses in the peripheral and coronary circulations are correlated, 5 and coronary endothelial dysfunction is associated with cardiovascular risk. (ahajournals.org)
  • and University College London (UCL) Institute of Cardiovascular Science and the National Institute for Health Research UCL Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, London (B.W. (nih.gov)
  • Centre for Cardiovascular and Lung Biology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 9SY, U.K. (clinsci.org)
  • Chmiel H, Anadere I, Walitza E (1990) The determination of blood viscoelasticity in clinical hemorheology. (springer.com)
  • A large body of clinical trial data indicates that a given difference in blood pressure (BP), as measured in the clinic, results in a given difference in outcome. (elsevier.com)
  • This indicates that fat mass and blood pressure would be expected to be of only minor clinical importance in determining left ventricular mass in normal children and adolescents. (ahajournals.org)
  • Intervention must involve multi-sector collaboration - such as connecting clinical and community settings that harness technology platforms, healthcare providers, community organizations and volunteer health mentors to help people manage blood pressure. (heart.org)
  • Our collaborative programs that integrate community and clinical health resources have indeed improved blood pressure control. (heart.org)
  • The relative importance of various blood pressure indices on cardiovascular risk in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus has not been established. (edu.au)
  • It also has not been clearly demonstrated that bringing systemic blood pressure to a "normal" range improve outcomes. (aappublications.org)
  • From 1960 to 1962, each participant was given an initial examination in which serum cholesterol, blood pressure, weight, height and the participant's responses to a number of health behavior and medical history questions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purposes of this study were to analyze the post-exercise salivary nitrite (NO 2 - ) and blood pressure (BP) responses to different exercise intensities in elderly women divided according to their ACE genotype. (springer.com)
  • However, transitory increases of pulmonary artery pressure may occur during exacerbations, exercise and sleep. (ersjournals.com)
  • Low cuff pressure-small cuff width BFR exercise does not result greater muscular swelling or alter metabolic, cardiovascular , or perceptual responses relative to low-intensity exercise alone. (omicsonline.org)
  • There is strong evidence to support low-load (20-30% maximum strength) blood flow restricted resistance exercise as a training method to increase muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and strength [ 1 , 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Available through HR departments throughout the enterprise, benefits include health screenings, health education seminars, tobacco cessation programs, ways to reduce cardiovascular risk, and exercise programs. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Five years ago, unhealthy eating habits and lack of exercise had caused the medical gas technician at Johns Hopkins Bayview to take medication for diabetes and high blood pressure. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The cardioautonomic reflexes of 82 diabetic subjects and 40 age and sex matched healthy controls were studied using blood pressure and heart rate variation in response to standing, deep breathing, isometric exercise, cold pressor test and determination of QTc interval. (psu.edu)
  • This combined approach could similarly detect high blood pressure or a rapid change in BP as a result of cardiovascular intervention. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.04, after adjustment for 24-hour blood pressure). (nih.gov)
  • Corresponding hazard ratios per 1-SD increase in pressure were 1.55 (95% CI, 1.53 to 1.57, after adjustment for clinic and daytime blood pressures) for nighttime ambulatory systolic pressure and 1.54 (95% CI, 1.52 to 1.56, after adjustment for clinic and nighttime blood pressures) for daytime ambulatory systolic pressure. (nih.gov)
  • 13 . The system according to claim 9 , wherein responsive to said cardiovascular parameter an adjustment to be made in said output rate is transmitted in said control signal. (google.es)
  • Adjustment for (other) cardiovascular risk factors only slightly attenuated the OR, indicating that RA itself is an independent CVD risk factor. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS -Among men with diabetes, a decreased HRR, even measured as long as 5 min after recovery, was independently predictive of cardiovascular and all-cause death. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • During follow-up, 1000 major cardiovascular events, 559 major coronary events, and 468 cardiovascular deaths were recorded. (edu.au)
  • Now I'm more focused, have more energy and don't feel doomed for future cardiovascular complications. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The accuracy and reproducibility of noninvasive cardiac output determinations by computer-averaged impedance cardiography were compared with those of simultaneously performed thermodilution cardiac output. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cardiovascular function was assessed by determination of blood pressure, heart rate, and by two-dimensional and pulsed Doppler echocardiography. (elsevier.com)
  • An immature myocardium, the sudden presence of high vascular resistance, shunts through fetal channels, cytokine release causing vasodilatation, and the impact of positive-pressure ventilation on venous return and cardiac output can all contribute to inadequate systemic perfusion. (aappublications.org)
  • Determination of the pulse-obliterating pressure by palpation is done prior to auscultation to give a rough estimate of the target systolic pressure. (jove.com)
  • These data demonstrate that cardiovascular risk factors affect the pulse pressure ratio, and that central pressure cannot be reliably inferred from peripheral pressure. (nih.gov)
  • Update: Recommendations for human blood pressure determination by sphygmomanometers. (ahajournals.org)
  • Methods and Results The study was a cross-sectional evaluation of the relationship of left ventricular mass determined by echocardiography with lean body mass and fat mass determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, which is the most valid and reliable method for determination of body composition in children and adolescents. (ahajournals.org)
  • The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of lean body mass, fat mass, blood pressure, and sexual maturation on left ventricular mass in children and adolescents. (ahajournals.org)
  • BP can be measured automatically by oscillometry or manually by auscultation utilizing a sphygmomanometer, a device with an inflatable cuff to collapse the artery and a manometer to measure the pressure. (jove.com)
  • Close the valve on the pressure bulb (by turning it clockwise with your thumb) and inflate the cuff by squeezing the pressure bulb rapidly. (jove.com)
  • Measuring Blood Pressure: from Cuff to Smartphone. (utoronto.ca)
  • We endorse use of such a systematic approach to improve recognition and care for this vulnerable patient group that is at high risk for future kidney and cardiovascular events. (asnjournals.org)
  • Kidney Blood Press Res 2019. (annals.org)
  • Central aortic blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: a paradigm shift? (nih.gov)
  • The extent to which other factors, such as obesity, stage of sexual maturation, and level of blood pressure, determine left ventricular mass has been controversial. (ahajournals.org)
  • Among all participants, 95.4% (N=601) had a high cardiovascular risk (CVD), defined as 10% or higher 10-year risk of any CVD event according to the Framingham heart study and 129 used low-dose ASA (75-160 mg daily) at baseline. (bmj.com)
  • the CARdiovascular research in RhEumatoid arthritis (CARRÉ) study), and participants of a population-based cohort study on CVD and its risk factors (Hoorn study). (bmj.com)
  • Data obtained from participants included demographics, body mass index, blood pressure reading, and etiology of CKD. (who.int)
  • The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. (springer.com)
  • Usually, in the last weeks of the pregnancy presence of the proteinuria and high blood pressure and bilateral symmetric white and soft oedema of the legs should not be interpreted only within the pregnancy context, as these could have also other causes, as the renal cell tumour just like in the above mentioned case. (omicsonline.org)
  • In the United States, about 50 million people age six and older have high blood pressure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • High blood pressure can make the artery walls thicken and harden. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • High blood pressure, previously defined as ≥140/90 mm Hg, is now defined as ≥130/80 mm Hg. (heart.org)
  • Even with the new threshold for high blood pressure, the percentage of U.S. adults for whom medication is recommended along with lifestyle management will only increase slightly. (heart.org)