Most abundant proteins in COBRA venom; basic polypeptides of 57 to 62 amino acids with four disulfide bonds and a molecular weight of less than 7000; causes skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction, interferes with neuromuscular and ganglionic transmission, depolarizes nerve, muscle and blood cell membranes, thus causing hemolysis.
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Agents that have a damaging effect on the HEART. Such damage can occur from ALKYLATING AGENTS; FREE RADICALS; or metabolites from OXIDATIVE STRESS and in some cases is countered by CARDIOTONIC AGENTS. Induction of LONG QT SYNDROME or TORSADES DE POINTES has been the reason for viewing some drugs as cardiotoxins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).

Skeletal myogenesis by human embryonic stem cells. (1/115)

We have examined the myogenic potential of human embryonic stem (hES) cells in a xeno-transplantation animal model. Here we show that precursors differentiated from hES cells can undergo myogenesis in an adult environment and give rise to a range of cell types in the myogenic lineage. This study provides direct evidences that hES cells can regenerate both muscle and satellite cells in vivo and are another promising cell type for treating muscle degenerative disorders in addition to other myogenic cell types.  (+info)

Beta-cardiotoxin: a new three-finger toxin from Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) venom with beta-blocker activity. (2/115)

Snake venoms have provided a number of novel ligands with therapeutic potential. We have constructed a partial cDNA library from the mRNA of Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) venom gland tissue and identified five new genes encoding proteins belonging to the three-finger toxin family of snake venom proteins. We have isolated and characterized one of these beta-sheet containing proteins with a mass of 7012.43 +/- 0.91 Da from the venom. The protein was nonlethal up to a dose of 10 mg/kg when injected intraperitoneally into Swiss albino mice. However, it induces labored breathing and death at a dose of 100 mg/kg. It does not show any hemolytic or anticoagulant activity. It caused a dose-dependent decrease of heart rate in vivo (anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats) and also ex vivo (Langendorff isolated rat heart). This is in contrast to classical cardiotoxins from snake venom that increase the heart rate in animals. Radioligand displacement studies showed that this protein targets beta-adrenergic receptors with a binding affinity (Ki) of 5.3 and 2.3 microM toward beta1 and beta2 subtypes, respectively, to bring about its effect, and hence, it was named as beta-cardiotoxin. This is the first report of a natural exogenous beta-blocker.  (+info)

Functional analysis of homeodomain-containing transcription factor Lbx1 in satellite cells of mouse skeletal muscle. (3/115)

Satellite cells are usually mitotically quiescent muscle stem cells, located between the sarcolemma and the basement membrane of muscle fibers. When muscles are damaged, satellite cells become activated, proliferate and differentiate to form multinucleate myofibers. The molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are poorly understood. In the present study, we found that, following treatment with cardiotoxin, homeodomain-containing transcription factor Lbx1 was strongly expressed in the satellite cells of regenerating adult skeletal muscle. Our immunohistochemical and northern blot analyses indicate that Lbx1 is expressed in activated but not quiescent satellite cells. In vitro, this Lbx1 expression was gradually downregulated when satellite cells differentiate into mature myofibers. Transfection and forced expression of Lbx1 in satellite-cell-derived C2C12 myoblast cells resulted in severe depression of myogenic differentiation and incomplete myotube formation, concomitantly with the activation of the paired-box transcription factor Pax7 and depression of the myogenic regulatory factor MyoD. Moreover, knockdown of Lbx1 in in-vitro-cultured satellite cells resulted in downregulation of Pax7. These results suggest that Lbx1 plays important roles in differentiation and maintenance of satellite cells of mature myofibers, probably through the regulation of Pax7.  (+info)

Structural reengineering of imatinib to decrease cardiac risk in cancer therapy. (4/115)

Imatinib, a selective, small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has life-saving clinical activity in certain cancers, but questions have been raised about the potential for cardiac toxicity through inhibition of its target, ABL kinase. In this issue of the JCI, Fernandez et al. describe a novel method by which the ABL-inhibitory activity of imatinib was deleted by modifying its chemical structure (see the related article beginning on page 4044). The anticancer activity of the reengineered agent, called WBZ_4, was instead preserved against gastrointestinal stromal tumors in both in vitro and in vivo models via inhibition of KIT tyrosine kinase, and the desired safety was demonstrated with less cardiotoxicity of WBZ_4 compared with imatinib via the inhibition of JNK. The study shows that structural reengineering of a kinase-inhibitory drug to improve tolerability while preserving efficacy is feasible.  (+info)

An anticancer C-Kit kinase inhibitor is reengineered to make it more active and less cardiotoxic. (5/115)

Targeting kinases is central to drug-based cancer therapy but remains challenging because the drugs often lack specificity, which may cause toxic side effects. Modulating side effects is difficult because kinases are evolutionarily and hence structurally related. The lack of specificity of the anticancer drug imatinib enables it to be used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia, where its target is the Bcr-Abl kinase, as well as a proportion of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), where its target is the C-Kit kinase. However, imatinib also has cardiotoxic effects traceable to its impact on the C-Abl kinase. Motivated by this finding, we made a modification to imatinib that hampers Bcr-Abl inhibition; refocuses the impact on the C-Kit kinase; and promotes inhibition of an additional target, JNK, a change that is required to reinforce prevention of cardiotoxicity. We established the molecular blueprint for target discrimination in vitro using spectrophotometric and colorimetric assays and through a phage-displayed kinase screening library. We demonstrated controlled inhibitory impact on C-Kit kinase in human cell lines and established the therapeutic impact of the engineered compound in a novel GIST mouse model, revealing a marked reduction of cardiotoxicity. These findings identify the reengineered imatinib as an agent to treat GISTs with curbed side effects and reveal a bottom-up approach to control drug specificity.  (+info)

Comparative genomics identifies genes mediating cardiotoxicity in the embryonic zebrafish heart. (6/115)

 (+info)

Atrial dysfunction as a marker of iron cardiotoxicity in thalassemia major. (7/115)

 (+info)

Mechanisms responsible for reduced cardiotoxicity of mitoxantrone compared to doxorubicin examined in isolated guinea-pig heart preparations. (8/115)

We reported previously that doxorubicin, an anticancer agent that has an anthracycline structure, alters Ca2+ releasing and uptake mechanisms in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of myocardial cells. These effects of doxorubicin are apparently related to its cardiotoxicity. Mitoxantrone is a similar anticancer agent with an anthracenedion structure that has been shown to be significantly less cardiotoxic. In the present study, the effects of mitoxantrone on the functions of the sarcoplasmic reticulum were examined in isolated muscle preparations obtained from the guinea-pig heart. In electrically-stimulated left atrial muscle preparations, incubation in vitro for 4 hr with 30 or 100 microM mitoxantrone significantly prolonged the time to the peak of twitch tension, markedly increased the developed tension observed at lower stimulation frequencies, thereby attenuating the slope of positive force-frequency relationships, and increased the postrest contraction observed after a 60-sec quiescent period. In myocytes isolated from ventricular muscles, 30 microM mitoxantrone increased the peak and the size of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+] i), and prolonged the time to peak [Ca2+]i. In skinned muscle fiber preparations obtained from the left ventricular muscle, 30 muM mitoxantrone significantly increased the caffeine-induced contraction without affecting the Ca2+ sensitivity of contractile proteins. These results suggest that mitoxantrone enhances Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in isolated atrial muscle preparations obtained from the guinea-pig heart. Apparent enhancement of the sarcoplasmic reticulum functions, in contrast to anthracyclines that has been shown to suppress these functions, seems to explain the relative lack of marked cardiotoxicity of mitoxantrone.  (+info)

Cobra cardiotoxin proteins are a type of toxin found in the venom of some cobra snakes. These toxins belong to a larger group of proteins known as three-finger toxins, due to their distinctive three-dimensional shape. Cardiotoxins are so named because they specifically target and disrupt the function of heart muscle cells, leading to serious cardiovascular symptoms such as abnormal heart rhythms, low blood pressure, and even heart failure in severe cases.

Cardiotoxins work by binding to and inserting themselves into the membrane of heart muscle cells, where they form pores that disrupt the electrical activity of the cells. This can lead to arrhythmias, or abnormal heart rhythms, which can be life-threatening in severe cases. Cardiotoxins can also cause direct damage to heart muscle cells, leading to decreased contractility and reduced pumping efficiency of the heart.

Cobra cardiotoxin proteins are being studied for their potential therapeutic uses, particularly in the development of new drugs for the treatment of heart disease. However, they are also a significant medical concern in areas where cobra snakes are common, as their venom can cause serious and potentially fatal symptoms in humans and animals.

Elapidae is a family of venomous snakes, also known as elapids. This family includes many well-known species such as cobras, mambas, death adders, and sea snakes. Elapids are characterized by their fixed fangs, which are located at the front of the upper jaw and deliver venom through a hollow canal. The venom of these snakes is typically neurotoxic, causing paralysis and respiratory failure in prey or attackers.

Elapids are found throughout the world, with the greatest diversity occurring in tropical regions. They vary widely in size, from small species like the death adders that measure only a few inches long, to large species like the king cobra, which can reach lengths of up to 18 feet (5.5 meters).

Elapids are generally shy and avoid confrontations with humans whenever possible. However, they will defend themselves aggressively if threatened or cornered. Bites from elapid snakes can be medically significant and may require antivenom treatment.

Cobra venoms are a type of snake venom that is produced by cobras, which are members of the genus Naja in the family Elapidae. These venoms are complex mixtures of proteins and other molecules that have evolved to help the snake immobilize and digest its prey.

Cobra venoms typically contain a variety of toxic components, including neurotoxins, hemotoxins, and cytotoxins. Neurotoxins target the nervous system and can cause paralysis and respiratory failure. Hemotoxins damage blood vessels and tissues, leading to internal bleeding and organ damage. Cytotoxins destroy cells and can cause tissue necrosis.

The specific composition of cobra venoms can vary widely between different species of cobras, as well as between individual snakes of the same species. Some cobras have venoms that are primarily neurotoxic, while others have venoms that are more hemotoxic or cytotoxic. The potency and effects of cobra venoms can also be influenced by factors such as the age and size of the snake, as well as the temperature and pH of the environment.

Cobra bites can be extremely dangerous and even fatal to humans, depending on the species of cobra, the amount of venom injected, and the location of the bite. Immediate medical attention is required in the event of a cobra bite, including the administration of antivenom therapy to neutralize the effects of the venom.

Elapid venoms are the toxic secretions produced by elapid snakes, a family of venomous snakes that includes cobras, mambas, kraits, and coral snakes. These venoms are primarily composed of neurotoxins, which can cause paralysis and respiratory failure in prey or predators.

Elapid venoms work by targeting the nervous system, disrupting communication between the brain and muscles. This results in muscle weakness, paralysis, and eventually respiratory failure if left untreated. Some elapid venoms also contain hemotoxins, which can cause tissue damage, bleeding, and other systemic effects.

The severity of envenomation by an elapid snake depends on several factors, including the species of snake, the amount of venom injected, the location of the bite, and the size and health of the victim. Prompt medical treatment is essential in cases of elapid envenomation, as the effects of the venom can progress rapidly and lead to serious complications or death if left untreated.

Cardiotoxins are substances or drugs that have a toxic effect on the heart muscle (myocardium), leading to impaired cardiac function and potentially causing serious complications such as arrhythmias, reduced contractility, and decreased cardiac output. Cardiotoxins can be found in certain animals, plants, and medications.

Animal-derived cardiotoxins include some venoms from snakes, spiders, and scorpions. For example, the venom of the Australian taipan snake contains a powerful cardiotoxin that can cause rapid heart rate, low blood pressure, and even cardiac arrest in severe cases.

Plant-derived cardiotoxins are found in some species of digitalis (foxglove), which have been used traditionally to treat heart conditions but can also be toxic if not administered correctly. The active compounds in digitalis, such as digoxin and digitoxin, affect the electrical activity of the heart by inhibiting the sodium-potassium pump in cardiac muscle cells, leading to increased contractility and potentially causing arrhythmias.

Medications can also have cardiotoxic effects when used inappropriately or at high doses. Certain chemotherapeutic agents, such as doxorubicin and daunorubicin, are known to cause cardiac damage and dysfunction, particularly with long-term use or when administered in high cumulative doses. These drugs can lead to a condition called "chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy," which is characterized by reduced heart function and increased risk of congestive heart failure.

Other medications that may have cardiotoxic effects include certain antibiotics (such as erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin), antifungal agents (such as amphotericin B), and illicit drugs (such as cocaine and methamphetamine).

It is essential to use cardiotoxic substances with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as improper use or overexposure can lead to severe heart complications.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Secondary protein structure refers to the local spatial arrangement of amino acid chains in a protein, typically described as regular repeating patterns held together by hydrogen bonds. The two most common types of secondary structures are the alpha-helix (α-helix) and the beta-pleated sheet (β-sheet). In an α-helix, the polypeptide chain twists around itself in a helical shape, with each backbone atom forming a hydrogen bond with the fourth amino acid residue along the chain. This forms a rigid rod-like structure that is resistant to bending or twisting forces. In β-sheets, adjacent segments of the polypeptide chain run parallel or antiparallel to each other and are connected by hydrogen bonds, forming a pleated sheet-like arrangement. These secondary structures provide the foundation for the formation of tertiary and quaternary protein structures, which determine the overall three-dimensional shape and function of the protein.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Protein conformation refers to the specific three-dimensional shape that a protein molecule assumes due to the spatial arrangement of its constituent amino acid residues and their associated chemical groups. This complex structure is determined by several factors, including covalent bonds (disulfide bridges), hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and ionic bonds, which help stabilize the protein's unique conformation.

Protein conformations can be broadly classified into two categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The primary structure represents the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The secondary structure arises from local interactions between adjacent amino acid residues, leading to the formation of recurring motifs such as α-helices and β-sheets. Tertiary structure refers to the overall three-dimensional folding pattern of a single polypeptide chain, while quaternary structure describes the spatial arrangement of multiple folded polypeptide chains (subunits) that interact to form a functional protein complex.

Understanding protein conformation is crucial for elucidating protein function, as the specific three-dimensional shape of a protein directly influences its ability to interact with other molecules, such as ligands, nucleic acids, or other proteins. Any alterations in protein conformation due to genetic mutations, environmental factors, or chemical modifications can lead to loss of function, misfolding, aggregation, and disease states like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

... (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. ... Su, Shu-Hui; Su, Shu-Jem; Lin, Shinne-Ren; Chang, Kee-Lung (November 2003). "Cardiotoxin-III selectively enhances activation- ... Ménez, A.; Gatineau, E.; Roumestand, C.; Harvey, A.L.; Mouawad, L.; Gilquin, B.; Toma, F. (August 1990). "Do cardiotoxins ... Su, Shu-Hui; Su, Shu-Jem; Lin, Shinne-Ren; Chang, Kee-Lung (2003-11-15). "Cardiotoxin-III selectively enhances activation- ...
... and cardiotoxins. Two forms of "cytotoxin II" (cardiotoxin) were found in the venom of this species. The crude venom of this ... Its venom consists mainly of postsynaptic neurotoxins and cardiotoxins. Four cardiotoxin-analogues I, II, III, and IV, account ... The venom of this species also contains myotoxins and cardiotoxins. The median lethal dose (LD50) is 0.28-0.33 mg per gram of ... Research has shown its venom is purely a neurotoxin, with no apparent necrotizing components and no cardiotoxins. These snakes ...
Its venom consists of both neurotoxins and cardiotoxins. Symptoms of envenomation include swelling of the injection site, ...
Cardiotoxins represented 40% of the snake's venom protein, higher than sympatric cobras: N. sputatrix (35%), N. siamensis (30 ... The venom also consists of cardiotoxins and cytotoxins. Although the venom of the Equatorial spitting cobra (N. sumatrana) ...
Although cardiotoxins have been isolated in higher proportions from its venom than other mamba species, their role in toxicity ... Its venom consists of both neurotoxins and cardiotoxins. Symptoms of envenomation in humans include pain and swelling at the ... Other toxins of the three-finger family present include alpha-neurotoxin, cardiotoxins and fasciculins. Dendrotoxins are akin ...
These cardiotoxins also often have generalized cytotoxic effects and are sometimes known as cytolysins. The protein targets in ... The cardiotoxin/cytolysin 3FTx subgroup has a somewhat different set of functionally significant residues due to its distinct ... Lee SC, Lin CC, Wang CH, Wu PL, Huang HW, Chang CI, Wu WG (July 2014). "Endocytotic routes of cobra cardiotoxins depend on ... Rajagopalan N, Pung YF, Zhu YZ, Wong PT, Kumar PP, Kini RM (November 2007). "Beta-cardiotoxin: a new three-finger toxin from ...
Fletcher, J. E.; Jiang, M.-S.; Gong, Q.-H.; Yudkowsky, M.L.; Wieland, S.J. (1991). "Effects of a cardiotoxin from Naja kaouthia ... The venom of this species also contains myotoxins and cardiotoxins. In case of intravenous injection the LD50 tested in mice is ...
Evidence that cardiotoxins are responsible for the corneal opacification syndrome". Clinical Toxicology 31, 45-62. doi: 10.3109 ... Some Spitting cobras have modified their secretion so that the cardiotoxins are more injurious to eye membranes. Nelsen, D. R ...
Cardiotoxin-analogue III and phospholipase A2" (PDF). Journal of Biological Chemistry. 256 (17): 9279-9282. doi:10.1016/S0021- ...
The venom is mainly composed of neurotoxins, cardiotoxins, and possibly myotoxins. Victims of the sting have reported local ...
The 3FTx family consists of two major categories, neurotoxins and cardiotoxins. LNTX belongs to the neurotoxin family; other ...
O. histrionica, along with O. speciosa, produces cardiotoxins known as histrionicotoxins. These moderate to highly toxic ...
Cardiotoxins are the second most toxic venom while neurotoxins are the first". Circulation. 121 (5): 675-83. doi:10.1161/ ... Cardiotoxin III Batrachotoxin Heart failure Drug interaction Sishi, Balindiwe J. N. (2015-01-01), Hayat, M. A. (ed.), "Chapter ...
"Evidence showing an intermolecular interaction between KChIP proteins and Taiwan cobra cardiotoxins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ...
The venom consists of postsynaptic neurotoxins and cardiotoxins that cause cytotoxic activity." ("Western African Spitting ...
However, the main components of its venom are cardiotoxins with cytotoxic activity. In fact, polypeptide cardiotoxins make up ... "Cytotoxic potency of cardiotoxin from Naja sputatrix: development of a new cytolytic assay". Biochemical Journal. 366 (1): 35- ... postsynaptic neurotoxins and polypeptide cardiotoxins, meaning although the venom may be potent, it may not be particularly ...
The taxine alkaloids are cardiotoxins with taxine B being the most active. Taxine alkaloids have no medical uses but Paclitaxel ...
"Evidence showing an intermolecular interaction between KChIP proteins and Taiwan cobra cardiotoxins". Biochemical and ...
"Evidence showing an intermolecular interaction between KChIP proteins and Taiwan cobra cardiotoxins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ...
Members of the three-finger family include alpha-neurotoxin, cardiotoxins, fasciculins and mambalgins. The most toxic ...
The Indian cobra's venom mainly contains a powerful post-synaptic neurotoxin and cardiotoxin. The venom acts on the synaptic ... "Cardiotoxin of the Indian cobra (Naja naja) is a pyrophosphatase" (PDF). Journal of Biosciences. 3 (2): 149-156. doi:10.1007/ ... one cardiotoxin and one muscarinic toxin), six snake venom metalloproteinases, one nerve growth factor, two venom Kunitz serine ...
Another large subfamily of 3FTx proteins is the cardiotoxins (also known as cytotoxins or cytolysins); this group is directly ...
All mambas have medically significant venom, with dendrotoxins, short chain alpha-neurotoxins, cardiotoxins and fasciculins. ...
The venom consists mainly of both pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurotoxins, cardiotoxins, and fasciculins. The toxicity of ... Its venom is a highly potent mixture of rapid-acting presynaptic and postsynaptic neurotoxins (dendrotoxins), cardiotoxins and ...
Its venom is similar to classical cobra venoms and appears to contain both neurotoxins and cardiotoxins. N. multifasciata is ...
Research has shown its venom is purely a neurotoxin, with no apparent necrotizing components and no cardiotoxins. These snakes ...
The compounds consist of neurotoxins, cardiotoxin, nephrotoxin, hemolytic toxic, phosphodiesterases, phospholipase, histamine, ...
The compounds consist of neurotoxins, cardiotoxin, nephrotoxin, hemolytic toxin, phosphodiesterases, phospholipase, histamine, ...
The company also licensed a cardiotoxin therapy for acute and chronic nephropathy in 2015. In January, 2015, Celtic Biotech ...
Fryklund, Linda; Eaker, David (July 1975). "Complete covalent structure of a cardiotoxin from the venom of Naja nigricollis ( ... and cardiotoxins. Bite symptoms include severe external hemorrhaging and tissue necrosis around the bite area and difficulty ...
Cardiotoxin III (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. ... Su, Shu-Hui; Su, Shu-Jem; Lin, Shinne-Ren; Chang, Kee-Lung (November 2003). "Cardiotoxin-III selectively enhances activation- ... Ménez, A.; Gatineau, E.; Roumestand, C.; Harvey, A.L.; Mouawad, L.; Gilquin, B.; Toma, F. (August 1990). "Do cardiotoxins ... Su, Shu-Hui; Su, Shu-Jem; Lin, Shinne-Ren; Chang, Kee-Lung (2003-11-15). "Cardiotoxin-III selectively enhances activation- ...
By studying cardiotoxin from Naja mossambica mossambica cobra (cardiotoxin VII4), a basic three-fingered S-type cardiotoxin, we ... Finally, molecular dynamics simulations and in silico docking studies identified CL binding sites in cardiotoxin VII4 and ... By performing confocal analysis, we observed that red-fluorescently tagged cardiotoxin rapidly translocates to mitochondria in ... our compiled biophysical data show that cardiotoxin VII4 binds to anionic CL, but not to zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine (PC ...
Cardiotoxins. These cause a host of issues - including irreversible cell depolarization and contraction of muscular cells, ... Snake Venom Cardiotoxins-Structure, Dynamics, Function and Folding. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics. Dec 1997. ...
A set of model systems consisting of a cardiotoxin (CTX) protein and mixed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces were used as ... Thermodynamic investigations using molecular dynamics simulations with potential of mean force calculations for cardiotoxin ... Thermodynamic investigations using molecular dynamics simulations with potential of mean force calculations for cardiotoxin ... Thermodynamic investigations using molecular dynamics simulations with potential of mean force calculations for cardiotoxin ...
First, we injured myofibers of young mice with cardiotoxin. Second, this nuclear label was bred into a murine model of Duchenne ... Cardiotoxin application. Cardiotoxin (CTX) was applied by bathing the STM using a previously established methodology [9]. ... Confocal images of cardiotoxin-damaged STM muscles from young adult RG mice. a-c A maximum intensity projection of whole ... 6f). Figure 6g-j depicts a cross-sectional view of a STM muscle 7 days after cardiotoxin injury. In cross-section, the mCherry ...
Myocarditis may be caused by many disorders (eg, infection, cardiotoxins, drugs, and systemic disorders such... read more . ...
Cardiotoxins This kind of venom is intended to shut down the heart, and will actually stop the heart from being able to beat. ... If you are bitten by a snake that emits a cardiotoxin, then getting treatment right away is essential. You also want to stay as ...
Cardiotoxin I. Cardiotoxin II. Cardiotoxin Like Basic Polypeptide. Cardiotoxin Proteins, Cobra. Cardiotoxin VII 4. Cardiotoxin ... Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins Entry term(s). Cardiotoxin Proteins, Cobra Cardiotoxin, Cobra Cobra Cardiotoxin Cobra Cytotoxin ... Cardiotoxin, Cobra. Cardiotoxin-Like Basic Polypeptide. Cardiotoxins, Elapid. Cobra Cardiotoxin. Cobra Cytotoxin Proteins. ... Cardiotoxin Like Basic Polypeptide Cardiotoxin-Like Basic Polypeptide Polypeptide, Cardiotoxin-Like Basic ...
Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins. D23 - Biological Factors. Shiga-Like Toxin I. Shiga Toxin 1. ...
Cobra Cardiotoxin Targets Mitochondria to Disrupt Mitochondrial Membrane Structure and Function. Toxin. 2019; 11(3): 152. Doi: ...
Aconitine and related alkaloids found in the Aconitum species are highly toxic cardiotoxins and neurotoxins. .. ... Aconitine and related alkaloids found in the Aconitum species are highly toxic cardiotoxins and neurotoxins. Severe aconite ...
Effects of Cardiotoxins from Naja oxiana Cobra Venom on Rat Heart Muscle and Aorta: A Comparative Study of Toxin-Induced ... Cardiotoxins (CaTxs) are a group of snake toxins that affect the cardiovascular system (CVS). Two types (S and P) of CaTxs are ...
The Dubois sea snake has a very strong venom that contains cardiotoxins, nephrotoxins, myotoxins, and postsynaptic neurotoxins ...
1985) [49] studied the anti-tumoral potential of purified peptides (cardiotoxin and cytotoxin) from the N.H atra snake. Then, ... Kaneda N, Hamaguchi M, Kojima K, Kaneshima H, Hayashi K. Action of cobra venom cardiotoxin on chick embryonal fibroblasts ...
... cardiotoxins, cathelicidins, and β-defensins. In vitro, these biomolecules were shown to be active against bacteria, fungi, ...
... studies have shown that these foreign proteins act as cardio-toxins, causing heart inflammation and blood clotting factors. ...
... cardiotoxins get vaporized anyway and inhaled. it brings more evidence that Nasal/rectal administration of bufo has proven to ...
Immediate medical care is vital when stung by a sting ray barb as the venom contains a neuro & cardio toxin which can cause ...
A powerful blocker of Na+ entry into the channel is TTX (Tetrodotoxin). Recently a spider cardiotoxin, designated jingzhaotoxin ...
The following pages link to Main Page: View (previous 50 , next 50) (20 , 50 , 100 , 250 , 500) ...
Descritores em Ciências da Saúde
Cardiotoxins. Cardiotoxinas. Citostáticos. Cytostatic Agents. Agentes Citostáticos. Incretinas. Incretins. Incretinas. ...
Endocytotic Routes of Cobra Cardiotoxins Depend on Spatial Distribution of Positively Charged and Hydrophobic Domains to Target ...
  • Cardiotoxin III (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. (wikipedia.org)
  • Black mamba venom contains powerful, fast-acting neurotoxins (disrupts the normal activity of the nervous system) and cardiotoxins (causes damage to the heart muscle), including calciseptin. (myanmarnewsfeed.xyz)
  • The Chinese cobra is known for its agility and the potency of its venom, which contains neurotoxins and cardiotoxins. (animalsaroundtheglobe.com)
  • 1. Down-regulation of the JAK2/PI3K-mediated signaling activation is involved in Taiwan cobra cardiotoxin III-induced apoptosis of human breast MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • 3. Taiwan cobra cardiotoxin III inhibits Src kinase leading to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of oral squamous cell carcinoma Ca9-22 cells. (nih.gov)
  • 20. Involvement of mitochondrial alteration and reactive oxygen species generation in Taiwan cobra cardiotoxin-induced apoptotic death of human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. (nih.gov)
  • To study the analgesic effect and ameliorating effect of cobra cardiotoxin (CTX) on learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine in mice. (ecnu.edu.cn)
  • Effects of Chinese Cobra Cardiotoxin on Pain and Memory[J]. Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc, 2004, 2004(1): 73-78. (ecnu.edu.cn)
  • Myocarditis may be caused by many disorders (eg, infection, cardiotoxins, drugs, and systemic disorders such as sarcoidosis) but is often idiopathic. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Induction of LONG QT SYNDROME or TORSADES DE POINTES has been the reason for viewing some drugs as cardiotoxins. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2. Concomitant inactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and Janus tyrosine kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signalling pathways in cardiotoxin III-treated A549 cells. (nih.gov)
  • 5. Up-regulation of Bax and endonuclease G, and down-modulation of Bcl-XL involved in cardiotoxin III-induced apoptosis in K562 cells. (nih.gov)
  • 6. Mechanisms of cardiotoxin lll-induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer colo205 cells. (nih.gov)
  • 8. Cardiotoxin III suppresses hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. (nih.gov)
  • 9. Inhibition of Src activation with cardiotoxin III blocks migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. (nih.gov)
  • 12. Cardiotoxin III induces apoptosis in K562 cells through a mitochondrial-mediated pathway. (nih.gov)
  • 13. Induction of apoptosis in human leukemia K562 cells by cardiotoxin III. (nih.gov)
  • 17. Cardiotoxin III induces c-jun N-terminal kinase-dependent apoptosis in HL-60 human leukaemia cells. (nih.gov)