The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.
Cardiac electrical stimulators that apply brief high-voltage electroshocks to the HEART. These stimulators are used to restore normal rhythm and contractile function in hearts of patients who are experiencing VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION or ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) that is not accompanied by a palpable PULSE. Some defibrillators may also be used to correct certain noncritical dysrhythmias (called synchronized defibrillation or CARDIOVERSION), using relatively low-level discharges synchronized to the patient's ECG waveform. (UMDNS, 2003)
Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
Occurrence of heart arrest in an individual when there is no immediate access to medical personnel or equipment.
Emergency Medical Services
A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.
The absence of a useful purpose or useful result in a diagnostic procedure or therapeutic intervention. The situation of a patient whose condition will not be improved by treatment or instances in which treatment preserves permanent unconsciousness or cannot end dependence on intensive medical care. (From Ann Intern Med 1990 Jun 15;112(12):949)
An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Advanced Cardiac Life Support
The use of sophisticated methods and equipment to treat cardiopulmonary arrest. Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) includes the use of specialized equipment to maintain the airway, early defibrillation and pharmacological therapy.
Life Support Care
Emergency Medical Technicians
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.
American Heart Association
A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Emergency Medical Service Communication Systems
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Allied Health Personnel
Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.
Personnel trained to provide the initial services, care, and support in EMERGENCIES or DISASTERS.
Advance Directive Adherence
A condition with trapped gas or air in the PERITONEAL CAVITY, usually secondary to perforation of the internal organs such as the LUNG and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, or to recent surgery. Pneumoperitoneum may be purposely introduced to aid radiological examination.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Practice Guidelines as Topic
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
Life Support Systems
Systems that provide all or most of the items necessary for maintaining life and health. Provisions are made for the supplying of oxygen, food, water, temperature and pressure control, disposition of carbon dioxide and body waste. The milieu may be a spacecraft, a submarine, or the surface of the moon. In medical care, usually under hospital conditions, LIFE SUPPORT CARE is available. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary)
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
Education, Professional, Retraining
Continuous recording of the carbon dioxide content of expired air.
Heart Arrest, Induced
A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).
Intensive Care Units, Pediatric
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill infants and children. Neonates are excluded since INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, NEONATAL is available.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Advance Care Planning
Cardiac Surgical Procedures
Surgery performed on the heart.
Programmed Instruction as Topic
Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.
Disease Models, Animal
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Pulmonary Gas Exchange
Death that occurs as a result of anoxia or heart arrest, associated with immersion in liquid.
Continuance of life or existence especially under adverse conditions; includes methods and philosophy of survival.
The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Emergency Service, Hospital
Attitude to Death
Intensive Care Units
An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).
Saline Solution, Hypertonic
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
Medical Staff, Hospital
Pediatric Nurse Practitioners
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Death, Sudden, Cardiac
Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives
Circulatory Arrest, Deep Hypothermia Induced
A technique to arrest the flow of blood by lowering BODY TEMPERATURE to about 20 degrees Centigrade, usually achieved by infusing chilled perfusate. The technique provides a bloodless surgical field for complex surgeries.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Repeated administration of vasopressin but not epinephrine maintains coronary perfusion pressure after early and late administration during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pigs. (1/1128)BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether repeated dosages of vasopressin or epinephrine given early or late during basic life support cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may be able to increase coronary perfusion pressure above a threshold between 20 and 30 mm Hg that renders defibrillation successful. METHODS AND RESULTS: After 4 minutes of cardiac arrest, followed by 3 minutes of basic life support CPR, 12 animals were randomly assigned to receive, every 5 minutes, either vasopressin (early vasopressin: 0.4, 0.4, and 0.8 U/kg, respectively; n=6) or epinephrine (early epinephrine: 45, 45, and 200 microg/kg, respectively; n=6). Another 12 animals were randomly allocated after 4 minutes of cardiac arrest, followed by 8 minutes of basic life support CPR, to receive, every 5 minutes, either vasopressin (late vasopressin: 0.4 and 0.8 U/kg, respectively; n=6), or epinephrine (late epinephrine: 45 and 200 microg/kg, respectively; n=6). Defibrillation was attempted after 22 minutes of cardiac arrest. Mean+/-SEM coronary perfusion pressure was significantly higher 90 seconds after early vasopressin compared with early epinephrine (50+/-4 versus 34+/-3 mm Hg, P<0.02; 42+/-5 versus 15+/-3 mm Hg, P<0.0008; and 37+/-5 versus 11+/-3 mm Hg, P<0. 002, respectively). Mean+/-SEM coronary perfusion pressure was significantly higher 90 seconds after late vasopressin compared with late epinephrine (40+/-3 versus 22+/-4 mm Hg, P<0.004, and 32+/-4 versus 15+/-4 mm Hg, P<0.01, respectively). All vasopressin animals survived 60 minutes, whereas no epinephrine pig had return of spontaneous circulation (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Repeated administration of vasopressin but only the first epinephrine dose given early and late during basic life support CPR maintained coronary perfusion pressure above the threshold that is needed for successful defibrillation. (+info)
Is peer tutoring beneficial in the context of school resuscitation training? (2/1128)First year pupils at a Cardiff comprehensive school were trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 106 by the teacher only and 137 by the teacher assisted by older pupils (peer tutoring). Scores in a multiple choice theory test and in practical skill assessment showed no significant difference between instruction methods, but boys taught by the teacher assisted by older pupils expressed less willingness to resuscitate in an emergency than girls instructed by either method (P < 0.01). Girls had higher scores in the multiple choice paper (P < 0.025) and in the skills assessment (P < 0.01). Those pupils who reported some prior knowledge of resuscitation techniques performed better during skill assessment than novice trainees (P < 0.025). (+info)
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: effect of CPAP on gas exchange during chest compressions. (3/1128)BACKGROUND: Conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) includes 80-100/min precordial compressions with intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) after every fifth compression. To prevent gastric insufflation, chest compressions are held during IPPV if the patient is not intubated. Elimination of IPPV would simplify CPR and might offer physiologic advantages, but compression-induced ventilation without IPPV has been shown to result in hypercapnia. The authors hypothesized that application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) might increase CO2 elimination during chest compressions. METHODS: After appropriate instrumentation and measurement of baseline data, ventricular fibrillation was induced in 18 pigs. Conventional CPR was performed as a control (CPR(C)) for 5 min. Pauses were then discontinued, and animals were assigned randomly to receive alternate trials of uninterrupted chest compressions at a rate of 80/min without IPPV, either at atmospheric airway pressure (CPR(ATM)) or with CPAP (CPR(CPAP)). CPAP was adjusted to produce a minute ventilation of 75% of the animal's baseline ventilation. Data were summarized as mean +/- SD and compared with Student t test for paired observations. RESULTS: During CPR without IPPV, CPAP decreased PaCO2 (55+/-28 vs. 100+/-16 mmHg) and increased SaO2 (0.86+/-0.19 vs. 0.50+/-0.18%; P < 0.001). CPAP also increased arteriovenous oxygen content difference (10.7+/-3.1 vs. 5.5+/-2.3 ml/dl blood) and CO2 elimination (120+/-20 vs. 12+/-20 ml/min; P < 0.01). Differences between CPR(CPAP) and CPR(ATM) in aortic blood pressure, cardiac output, and stroke volume were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Mechanical ventilation may not be necessary during CPR as long as CPAP is applied. Discontinuation of IPPV will simplify CPR and may offer physiologic advantage. (+info)
Resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: is survival dependent on who is available at the scene? (4/1128)OBJECTIVE: To determine whether survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is influenced by the on-scene availability of different grades of ambulance personnel and other health professionals. DESIGN: Population based, retrospective, observational study. SETTING: County of Nottinghamshire with a population of one million. SUBJECTS: All 2094 patients who had resuscitation attempted by Nottinghamshire Ambulance Service crew from 1991 to 1994; study of 1547 patients whose arrest were of cardiac aetiology. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival to hospital admission and survival to hospital discharge. RESULTS: Overall survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest remains poor: 221 patients (14.3%) survived to reach hospital alive and only 94 (6.1%) survived to be discharged from hospital. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the chances of those resuscitated by technician crew reaching hospital alive were poor but were greater when paramedic crew were either called to assist technicians or dealt with the arrest themselves (odds ratio 6.9 (95% confidence interval 3.92 to 26.61)). Compared to technician crew, survival to hospital discharge was only significantly improved with paramedic crew (3.55 (1.62 to 7.79)) and further improved when paramedics were assisted by either a health professional (9.91 (3.12 to 26.61)) or a medical practitioner (20.88 (6.72 to 64.94)). CONCLUSIONS: Survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest remains poor despite attendance at the scene of the arrest by ambulance crew and other health professionals. Patients resuscitated by a paramedic from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest caused by cardiac disease were more likely to survive to hospital discharge than when resuscitation was provided by an ambulance technician. Resuscitation by a paramedic assisted by a medical practitioner offers a patient the best chances of surviving the event. (+info)
Influence of ambulance crew's length of experience on the outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. (5/1128)AIMS: To investigate whether an ambulance crew's length of experience affected the outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a population-based, retrospective observational study of attempted resuscitations in 1547 consecutive arrests of cardiac aetiology by Nottinghamshire Emergency Ambulance Service crew. One thousand and seventy-one patients were managed by either a paramedic or a technician crew without assistance from other trained individuals at the scene of arrest. Overall, the chances of a patient surviving to be discharged from hospital alive did not appear to be affected by the paramedic's length of experience (among survivors, 18 months experience vs non-survivors 16 months experience, P = 0.347) but there appears to be a trend in the effect of a technician's length of experience on survival (among survivors, 60 months experience vs non-survivors 28 months experience, P = 0.075). However, when a technician had 4 years of experience or more and a paramedic 1 year's experience, survival rates did improve. Logistic regression analysis, adjusted for factors known to influence outcome, revealed that chances of survival increased once technicians had over 4 years of experience after qualification (odds ratio 2.71, 95% CI 1.17 to 6.32, P = 0.02) and paramedics after just 1 year of experience (odds ratio 2.68, 95% CI 1.05 to 6.82, P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest varies with the type of ambulance crew and length of experience after qualification. Experience in the field seems important as paramedics achieve better survival rates after just 1 year's experience, while technicians need to have more than 4 years' experience to improve survival. (+info)
Preparing for medical emergencies in the dental office. (6/1128)If you discover an unconscious patient in your office, attend to the ABCs while you evaluate the patient's medical history and piece together the events leading up to the emergency. These actions will help you arrive at a diagnosis. Then as the emergency cart and team arrive, you will be able to provide good, safe care to stabilize the patient and get him or her to a medical facility. (+info)
A comparison of standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation and active compression-decompression resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. French Active Compression-Decompression Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Study Group. (7/1128)BACKGROUND: We previously observed that short-term survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest was greater with active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) than with standard CPR. In the current study, we assessed the effects of the active compression-decompression method on one-year survival. METHODS: Patients who had cardiac arrest in the Paris metropolitan area or in Thionville, France, more than 80 percent of whom had asystole, were assigned to receive either standard CPR (377 patients) or active compression-decompression CPR (373 patients) according to whether their arrest occurred on an even or odd day of the month, respectively. The primary end point was survival at one year. The rate of survival to hospital discharge without neurologic impairment and the neurologic outcome were secondary end points. RESULTS: Both the rate of hospital discharge without neurologic impairment (6 percent vs. 2 percent, P=0.01) and the one-year survival rate (5 percent vs. 2 percent, P=0.03) were significantly higher among patients who received active compression-decompression CPR than among those who received standard CPR. All patients who survived to one year had cardiac arrests that were witnessed. Nine of 17 one-year survivors in the active compression-decompression group and 2 of 7 in the standard group, respectively, initially had asystole or pulseless electrical activity. In 12 of the 17 survivors who had received active compression-decompression CPR, neurologic status returned to base line, as compared with 3 of 7 survivors who had received standard CPR (P=0.34). CONCLUSIONS: Active compression-decompression CPR performed during advanced life support significantly improved long-term survival rates among patients who had cardiac arrest outside the hospital. (+info)
Effects of the AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX on outcome of newborn pigs after asphyxic cardiac arrest. (8/1128)In neonates, asphyxia is a common cause of neuronal injury and often results in seizures. The authors evaluated whether blockade of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors during asphyxia and early recovery with 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo-(F)-quinoxaline (NBQX) ameliorates neurologic deficit and histopathology in 1-week-old piglets. Anesthetized piglets were exposed to a sequence of 30 minutes of hypoxia, 5 minutes of room air ventilation, 7 minutes of airway occlusion, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Vehicle or NBQX was administered intravenously before asphyxia (30 mg/kg) and during the first 4 hours of recovery (15 mg/kg/h). Neuropathologic findings were evaluated at 96 hours of recovery by light microscopic and cytochrome oxidase histochemical study. Cardiac arrest occurred at 5 to 6 minutes of airway occlusion, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation restored spontaneous circulation independent of treatment modalities in about 2 to 3 minutes. Neurologic deficit over the 96-hour recovery period was not ameliorated by NBQX. Seizure activity began after 24 to 48 hours in 7 of 10 animals with vehicle and in 9 of 10 of animals with NBQX. In each group, four animals died in status epilepticus. Neuropathologic outcomes were not improved by NBQX. The density of remaining viable neurons was decreased in parietal cortex and putamen by NBQX treatment. Metabolic defects in cytochrome oxidase activity were worsened by NBQX treatment. Seizure activity during recovery was associated with reduced neuronal viability in neocortex and striatum in piglets from both groups that survived for 96 hours. This neonatal model of asphyxic cardiac arrest and resuscitation generates neurologic deficits, clinical seizure activity, and selective damage in regions of basal ganglia and sensorimotor cortex. In contrast to other studies in mature brain, AMPA receptor blockade with NBQX failed to protect against neurologic damage in the immature piglet and worsened postasphyxic histopathologic outcome in neocortex and putamen. (+info)
Survival after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A meta- analysis<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Survival after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. T2 - A meta- analysis. AU - Ebell, Mark H.. AU - Becker, Lorne A.. AU - Barry, Henry C.. AU - Hagen, Michael. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - OBJECTIVE: To determine the rates of immediate survival and survival to discharge for adult patients undergoing in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and to identify demographic and clinical variables associated with these outcomes. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The MEDLARS database of the National Library of Medicine was searched. In addition, the authors extensive personal files and the bibliography of each identified study were searched for further studies. Two sets of inclusion criteria were used, minimal (any study of adults undergoing in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation) and strict (included only patients from general ward and intensive care units, and adequately defined cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitation). Each study was independently reviewed and abstracted in a ...
Changing the Paradigm of In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation With Informed Assent - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Outcomes after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are very poor, particularly in patients with oxygen dependent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or metastatic cancer. Recent work found that in-hospital CPR is being performed more often before death with unchanging survival and that fewer CPR survivors are being discharged home, thus suggesting that CPR is increasingly performed without benefit and that the burden of this ineffective treatment is increasing. Unlike other medical procedures, CPR has become the default provided to all patients even those with tremendously poor outcomes. It is time to change the paradigm of CPR. Through comparing an innovative informed assent approach toward in-hospital CPR (informing patients that their underlying chronic illness makes outcomes of CPR so poor that CPR is not performed while allowing them to disagree) versus usual care in a group of chronically ill patients with reduced life expectancy, the investigators aspire to ...
Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation outcome reports : update of the Utstein resuscitation registry templates for...
Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation outcome reports : update of the Utstein resuscitation registry templates for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest : a statement for healthcare professionals from a task force of the international liaison committee on Resuscitation (American Heart Association, European Resuscitation Council, Australian and New Zealand Council on Resuscitation, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, InterAmerican Heart Foundation, Resuscitation Council of Southern Africa, Resuscitation Council of Asia); and the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee and the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation ...
Ethical controversies in the process of formulating new national guidelines on cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Sweden
The Delegation for Medical Ethics within the Swedish Society of Medicine has taken the initiative to create national ethical guidelines on cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The reasons behind this initiative were indications of differences in the way decisions about cardiopulmonary resuscitation were made and documented and requests expressed by health- care professionals for new national ethical guidelines. During the process of creating the guidelines, a number of work- shops were held with representatives from the delegation and clinical experts from various branches of medicine. Several versions of the working document were sent to consultation bodies with requests for comments. We therefore believe that the final guidelines are well supported by the medical profession in Sweden. The purpose of this article is to present ethical issues on which it was difficult to reach consensus due to divergent opinions expressed by the people and organisations involved. The arguments for and against a ...
Effect of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients in Sweden.
BACKGROUND: Information from the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Registry was used to investigate: (a) The proportion of patients suffering an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who were given bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (B-CPR). (b) Where and by whom B-CPR was given. (c) The effect of B-CPR on survival. METHOD: a prospective, observational study of cardiac arrests reported to the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Registry. Analyses were based on standardised reports of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests from ambulance organisations in Sweden, serving 60% of the Swedish population. From 1983 to 1995 approximately 15-20% of the population had been trained in CPR. RESULTS: Of 9877 patients, collected between January 1990 and May 1995, B-CPR was attempted in 36%. In 56% of these cases, the bystanders were lay persons and in 25% they were medical personnel. Most of the arrests took place at home (69%) and only 23% of these patients were given B-CPR in contrast to cardiac arrest in other places where 53% were given ...
Part 11: Pediatric Basic Life Support and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Quality - ECC Guidelines
These Web-based Integrated Guidelines incorporate all relevant recommendations from 2010, 2015 and 2017.. The 2017 American Heart Association Focused Update on Pediatric Basic Life Support and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Quality addresses the comparison of chest compression-only CPR to CPR using chest compressions with rescue breaths for cardiac arrest in infants and children. It includes 2 additional out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) studies published after 2015 that further expand the evidence base used to develop the 2015 Guidelines Update.. The 2015 American Heart Association (AHA) Guidelines Update for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Emergency Cardiovascular Care (ECC) section on pediatric basic life support (BLS) differs substantially from previous versions of the AHA Guidelines.1 This publication updates the 2010 AHA Guidelines on pediatric BLS for several key questions related to pediatric CPR. The Pediatric ILCOR Task Force reviewed the topics covered in the 2010 ...
European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015: Section 2. Adult basic life support and automated external...
Increasing survival after admission to UK critical care units following cardiopulmonary resuscitation - Critical Care News
Nolan, J.P. et al. (2016) Critical Care.20(219) Background: In recent years there have been many developments in post-resuscitation care. We have investigated trends in patient characteristics and outcome following admission to UK critical care units following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for the period 2004-2014. Our hypothesis is that there has been a reduction in risk-adjusted mortality during this…
A prospective investigation into the epidemiology of in-hospital pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation using the...
OBJECTIVE: Data regarding pediatric in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have been limited because of retrospective study designs, small sample sizes, and inconsistent definitions of cardiac arrest and CPR. The purpose of this study was to prospectively describe and evaluate pediatric in-hospital CPR with the international consensus-derived epidemiologic definitions from the Utstein guidelines.. METHODS: All 129 in-hospital CPRs during 12 months at a 122-bed university childrens hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, were described and evaluated using Utstein reporting guidelines. These guidelines include standardized descriptions of hospital variables, patient variables, arrest/event variables, and outcome variables. CPR was defined as chest compressions and assisted ventilation provided because of cardiac arrest or because of severe bradycardia with poor perfusion. Outcome variables included sustained return of spontaneous circulation, 24-hour survival, 30-day survival, 1-year survival, ...
The 2016 Chinese experts consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation - www.88xoxo.com,www.dytt8.net, www.ggg258.com,www.k8k8.com...
2016 China CPR expert consensus released - Sohu health recently, the guidance of Chinas comprehensive prevention and control system of cardiac arrest and CPR clinical practice guidelines for action - the 2016 China cardiopulmonary resuscitation expert consensus (hereinafter referred to as consensus) officially released. It is reported that the consensus by the society of China research-oriented hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation study collection of experts in the field of CPR domestic Specialized Committee, CPR international scientific consensus guidelines based on the combination of Chinas national conditions and practice, and recently by the critical care medicine promulgated. China abdomen cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the founder of Chinese research hospital to learn CPR, Specialized Committee chair, Chinese Medical Association branch chairman of the popularization of science, the armed police general hospital emergency medical center director, doctoral tutor Professor Wang ...
Chest compression rates and pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest survival outcomes. | Department of Molecular Biology
AIM: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the association between chest compression rates and 1) arterial blood pressure and 2) survival outcomes during pediatric in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).. METHODS: Prospective observational study of children ≥37 weeks gestation and ,19 years old who received CPR in an intensive care unit (ICU) as part of the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Quality of CPR Study (PICqCPR) of the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network (CPCCRN). Arterial blood pressure and compression rate were determined from manually extracted arterial line waveform data during the first 10 min of CPR. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Modified Poisson regression models assessed the association between rate categories (80-,100, 100-120 [Guidelines], ,120-140, ,140) and outcomes.. RESULTS: Compression rate data were available for 164 patients. More than half (98/164; 60%) were ,1 year old. Return of circulation was achieved in ...
Failure of `Predictors of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Outcomes to Predict Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Outcomes:...
Failure of `Predictors of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Outcomes to Predict Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Outcomes: Implications for Do-Not-Resuscitate Policy and Advance ...
2018 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment...
2018 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations ...
Outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the emergency department
Objective: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a lifesaving technique useful in the prevention of death or delaying it in a person with cardiac arrest. In this regard, demographic information about patients who need CPR is vital. Methods: In this cross-sectional study patients with cardiopulmonary arrest or arrhythmias admitted to Imam Reza and Sina educational hospitals of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences from 22 December 2013 to 21 December 2014 entered the study. Demographic information such as age, sex, cardiopulmonary resuscitation time, the place of cardiopulmonary arrest (outside or inside the hospital), the duration of resuscitation process, success or failure of the resuscitation process and the mechanism of cardiopulmonary arrest were obtained. Results: From a total of 354 cases of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 281 cases (79%) were unsuccessful and 73 cases (21%) were successful. The average age of patients was 59 ± 22 years. The average time of the resuscitation process was 31 ± 12
ResQPOD - Impedance Threshold Device (ITD) - CPR - ZOLL
The ResQPOD® Impedance Threshold Device (ITD) is a simple, non-invasive device that delivers Intrathoracic Pressure Regulation (IPR) Therapy during basic or advanced life support CPR to improve perfusion.
Basic Life Support / Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training
Basic Life Support / Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training
Comparison of methods for the determination of cardiopulmonary resuscitation chest compression fraction
Objective: While cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) chest compression fraction (CCF) is associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) outcomes, there is no standard method for the determination of CCF. We compared nine methods for calculating CCF. Methods: We studied consecutive adult OHCA patients treated by Alabama Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agencies of the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) during January 1, 2010 to October 28, 2010. Paramedics used portable cardiac monitors with real-time chest compression detection technology (LifePak 12, Physio-Control, Redmond, WA). We performed both automated CCF calculation for the entire care episode as well as manual review of CPR data in 1-min epochs, defining CCF as the proportion of each treatment interval with active chest compressions. We compared the CCF values resulting from 9 calculation methods: (1) mean CCF for the entire patient care episode (automated calculation by manufacturer software), (2) mean CCF for first 3. min ...
ResQGARD Impedance Threshold Device - ZOLL Medical
The ResQGARD Impedance Threshold Device (ITD) provides a rapid, safe and non-invasive way to improve perfusion in spontaneously breathing hypotensive patients. Learn more.
Effects of lung inflation on blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the canine isolated heart-lung preparation. |...
Using an isolated, fibrillated canine heart-lung preparation, we studied the effects of simultaneous lung inflation and chest compression on blood flow in a model of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The heart and lungs were placed in an artificial thorax with the great vessels and trachea exteriorized and attached to an artificial perfusion circuit and respirator, respectively. The blood volume of the system was adjusted to obtain various levels of static equilibrium pressure. Blood flow was obtained by cyclically raising and lowering the pressure in the artificial thorax, simulating the changes in pleural pressure that occur during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Lung inflation during the compression phase caused an increase in cardiopulmonary resuscitation blood flow when the change in pleural pressure was small and when static equilibrium pressure was high. In contrast, lung inflation caused a decrease in blood flow when changes in pleural pressure were high and when blood volume was low. These ...
Comparison of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Techniques Between Children and Adults | Citywide CPR
Cardiac arrest is a serious complication that must be dealt with swiftly to ensure a higher revival and survival rate for the victims of the attack. Heart attack commonly occurs for older people, but sometimes, there are children and even infants that suffer from this illness. Heart attack does not choose its victims, but there are ways in which someone can help the revival of a person that is undergoing sudden cardiac arrest and that is through the administration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is the process of repeated chest compressions along with the inputting of air into a persons lungs. This seemingly simple maneuver takes a long time to master and to successfully administer, but being able to have rudimentary knowledge is good enough for the layperson. For those truly wanting to know how to perform proper and effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation, a training done under the wing of a professional CPR administrator that has the proper equipment that can ...
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training improved perceived control in spouses of patients recovering from an acute cardiac event...
More than half of the spouses of cardiac patients experience emotional distress,1 and they have higher levels of distress than the patients themselves.2 Despite evidence suggesting that spouses can help with their partners recovery,3 there are few tested interventions to reduce spousal stress and improve their ability to assist in the recovery process.. Moser and Dracup hypothesised that CPR training for spouses would increase perceived control, decrease emotional distress, and therefore, improve the ability to assist in their partners recovery. Although the authors found that higher levels of control were associated with low levels of distress at baseline, they did not assess whether the increase in perceived control resulting from the CPR training had an effect on distress.. The use of a randomised controlled design is a major strength of this study. As most of the spouses were white, had incomes higher than the average, and had completed a mean of 14 years of education, the results may not ...
Authors response: Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation probably good, but adoption should not be too fast and furious!...
Callaway and Sunde1 are right when they advise caution in adoption of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) given the varying definitions of what ECPR constitutes. However, we believe ECPR is not coming too fast and furious but rather like a Formula One car, dependent on focused high performance teams, bespoke with narrow specifications and at the cutting edge.. Current survival for cardiac arrest by conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CCPR) is indeed dismal at around 10%.2 ECPR has led to improved outcomes compared with CCPR in many regions.3-6 ECPR consideration is in some ways analogous to resuscitative thoracotomy (RT) in trauma. Despite moderate quality of evidence, RT is strongly recommended in pulseless penetrating torso trauma with signs of life in ED.7 … ...
Advanced Medical Training Catalogue - Life Simulation Models - Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training Models - Southern...
LM087 - Face Shield for CPR Training, FaceShee Features Reasonable price. Those who prefer not to use their mouth on a doll directly or those who are sharing a model while training should use the face shield ...
Knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among Greek physiotherapists
High quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is crucial for influencing survival from cardiac arrest. Healthcare professionals are expected to know how to perform CPR as they may encounter emergency situations during their work. Physiotherapists, who use exercise as a therapeutic approach, should have good knowledge and skills in CPR not only to cope with possible adverse cardiac events during exercise but also because a widespread CPR application and early defibrillation can greatly reduce mortality due to heart attack. The aim of this study is to investigate knowledge of Greek physiotherapists in European Resuscitation Council guidelines for resuscitation. A secondary aim of this study was to assess and compare the knowledge score between those with and without previous training and/or lower self-confidence in CPR skills. Three hundred and fifty Greek physiotherapists who were working in hospitals and rehabilitation centres (face-to-face and e-mail contact) were randomly selected to ...
Abstract 14078: Efficacy of the 2010 CPR Guidelines for Patients With Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest due to Ventricular...
Introduction: The 2010 guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) stressed that it is necessary to improve CPR quality. It is not known whether the neurologically intact survival rate will increase if lay rescuers and/or emergency medical service (EMS) personnel perform the CPR procedures according to the 2010 guidelines. We divided the period of each guidelines in the first half and the second half, and compared the first half and the second half.. Methods: From the data of the All-Japan Utstein Registry, a prospective, nationwide, population-based registry of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), we included adult patients who had bystander-witnessed OHCA due to cardiac etiology and in whom shockable arrest was recorded as an initial rhythm. Study patients were divided into two groups based on the different CPR guidelines; the 2005 guidelines (2005G), and 2010 guidelines (2010G). The primary endpoint, favorable neurological outcome at 30 days after OHCA, was compared between the first ...
Part 3: adult basic life support and automated external defibrillation: 2015 international consensus on cardiopulmonary...
Perkins, Gavin D., Travers, Andrew H., Berg, Robert A., Castren, Maaret, Considine, Julie, Escalante, Raffo, Gazmuri, Raul J., Koster, Rudolph W., Lim, Swee Han, Nation, Kevin J., Olasveengen, Theresa M., Sakamoto, Tetsuya, Sayre, Michael R., Sierra, Alfredo, Smyth, Michael A., Stanton, David, Vaillancourt, Christian and Basic Life Support Chapter Collaborators 2015, Part 3: adult basic life support and automated external defibrillation: 2015 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations, Resuscitation, vol. 95, pp. e43-e69, doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2015.07.041. ...
Passive leg raising during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest : Does it improve circulation and...
Background Passive leg raising (PLR), to augment the artificial circulation, was deleted from cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines in 1992. Increases in end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) during CPR have been associated with increased pulmonary blood flow reflecting cardiac output. Measurements of PETCO2 after PLR might therefore increase our understanding of its potential value in CPR. We also observed the alteration in PETCO2 in relation to the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and no ROSC. Methods and results The PETCO2 was measured, subsequent to intubation, in 126 patients suffering an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), during 15min or until ROSC. Forty-four patients were selected by the study protocol to PLR 35cm; 21 patients received manual chest compressions and 23 mechanical compressions. The PLR was initiated during uninterrupted CPR, 5min from the start of PETCO2 measurements. During PLR, an increase in PETCO2 was found in all 44 patients within 15s (p=0.003), 45s ...
A basic life support working group of the European Resuscitation Council was set up in 1991. It was given the objective of producing agreed standards of basic life support to ensure uniform teaching of the techniques to health care professionals and lay people throughout Europe. A common complaint in the past, particularly from members of the public who have received instruction in basic life support, is that different organisations teach different techniques. This problem exists within countries as well as among countries. The European Resuscitation Council presents below its basic life support guidelines, which it hopes will be detailed enough to avoid any ambiguities and to be acceptable for use in all the countries represented by the council. ...
History of cardiopulmonary resuscitation - Wikipedia
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, also known by the acronym CPR is an emergency procedure performed in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person who is in cardiac arrest. It is a basic but proven first aid skill, practiced throughout the world. It is an effective method of keeping a victim of cardiac arrest alive long enough for definitive treatment to be delivered (usually defibrillation and intravenous cardiac drugs). Prior to the inception of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, there had been some techniques to keep people alive developed in the 18th century, both in Japan and in Europe, however it was not until the mid-20th century that James Elam and Peter Safar discovered and published the method now known as CPR. Safar conducted research on existing basic life support procedures including controlling a persons breathing airway by tilting back his or her head with an open mouth; and ...
Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) Prehospital Resuscitation Using an Impedance Valve - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
The first treatment involves using a device called the Impedance Threshold Device (ITD). The ITD is a small hard plastic device about the size of a fist that is attached to the face mask or airway tube used during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation). The ITD provides increased blood flow back to the heart during chest compressions until the heart starts beating on its own again.. The other treatment involves the amount of CPR given before the emergency medical services (EMS) providers first look at the heart rhythm to determine if a shock is needed. A person would receive either about 30 seconds of chest compressions or about 3 minutes of compressions before checking the heart rhythm. Giving some compressions before checking the heart rhythm increases the blood being circulated to the body. Researchers do not know how many compressions before the rhythm check are necessary to save more lives.. Depending on the circumstances of the cardiac arrest a person may receive only one of these treatments ...
2010 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment...
In January of 2019, the AHA began requiring the use of feedback devices in CPR training manikins which provide real-time, audio-visual feedback on chest compression rate, depth, and recoil ...
US4797104A - System and method of testing a person in the performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation - Google Patents
In a system and a method of testing a person in the performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and for evaluating training exercises therein, a training device simulating a patient includes sensors for detecting various resuscitation procedures performed thereon. Parameter signals from the sensors are fed to a computer including a series of counters, a timing means and various memories, for analyzing the parameter signals and assessing whether the corresponding operations have been correctly or incorrectly performed. The values processed by the computer are then displayed on a display providing a clear moving representation of the procedures performed on the training device, the representation taking place in real time on the basis of corresponding signals from the timing means, whereby, by viewing the display, the trainee operator can directly check and if appropriate correct the resuscitation procedures he is performing. The display can display the whole of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation
A reappraisal of mouth-to-mouth ventilation during bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation - Fingerprint - Johns...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of A reappraisal of mouth-to-mouth ventilation during bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Abstract 171: Cardiac Arrest Outcomes Data Evaluation---CODE Registry: Brazilian Registry of In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary...
INTRODUCTION: In spite of the advances and worldwide standardization for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), knowledge on the effectiveness of in-hospital CPR is not yet sufficient in Brazil.. Methods: This cross-sectional study included, prospectively, 763 patients who presented in-hospital cardiac arrest (CA) from 2007 to 2010, in 17 hospitals. CPR was performed in 575 patients.. RESULTS: Asystole was the CA modality most frequently found (40.7%), followed by pulseless electrical activity (39,3%). Immediate survival (recovery of spontaneous circulation - ROSC up to 24 h) was 48,8%, survival until hospital discharge was 13%, 4.3% in 6 m and 3.8% in 12 months. Independent predictors associated with higher immediate survival were: ventricular fibrillation (VF) or ventricular tachycardia (VT) without pulse as the initial rhythm of CA (RR 1.31; IC 95% 1.10 to 1.55; p = 0.002); presence of victim consciousness signs when the emergency staff arrived (RR 1.37; IC95% 1.16 to 1.61; p , 0.001); use of ...
Correlates of Successful Resuscitation Attempts for Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest | Phoenix Cardiology
Søholm et al report on consecutive 2527 attempted resuscitations of out of hospital cardiac arrest in Copenhagen between 2007 and 2011. The authors identify correlates for successful resuscitation attempts. Shockable rhythm, witnessed arrest and public location were associated with increased survival. Cardiac arrest between midnight and 8 am was associated with lower probability of successful…
Relationship between knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines and performance
Objective: Despite widespread training with CPR guidelines, CPR is often poorly performed. We explore relationships between knowledge of CPR guidelines and performance (compression rate, compression depth, compression to ventilation ratio, and ventilation volume). Methods: Sixty professional EMTs were sampled at 26 randomly ordered EMS response stations from an urban system of 31 stations. A recording manikin and video model were used to assess performance in a standardized scenario, and a survey was used to assess guideline knowledge. Survey and performance outcomes were categorized prospectively as correct or incorrect based on the International CPR Guidelines from 2000. Relationships were modeled with logistic regression. Covariates included years of work experience, frequency of CPR performance, and ALS versus BLS EMT level. Results: Compression rate was between 80 and 120 min-1 in 56% (33/59) of trials. Compression depth was 1.5-2 in. in 39% (23/59), compression to ventilation ratio ...
UAB part of trials to evaluate CPR and drugs after sudden cardiac arrest - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
One study will compare continuous chest compressions combined with pause-free rescue breathing to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The other trial will compare treatment with the drug amiodarone, another drug called lidocaine or a salt-water placebo in participants with shock-resistant ventricular fibrillation, a condition in which the heart beats chaotically instead of pumping blood.. Although immediate CPR can be lifesaving, more than 90 percent of people who experience a cardiac arrest outside of a hospital die before reaching a hospital or soon thereafter, said Jeffrey Kerby, M.D., Ph.D., UAB trauma surgeon and lead investigator at UAB. The goal of both of these trials is to reduce that number. Increasing survival rates for people who experience out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a major public health goal, said Susan B. Shurin, M.D., acting director of the NIHs National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, which is the lead federal sponsor of the studies. These new trials could ...
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation should begin between one to four minutes : Sentence Correction (SC)
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation should begin between one to four minutes after a cardiac arrest in order to be a success. (A) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation should begin between ...
Pharmacokinetics of intraosseous and central venous drug delivery during cardiopulmonary resuscitation<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmacokinetics of intraosseous and central venous drug delivery during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. AU - Hoskins, Stephen L.. AU - do Nascimento, Paulo. AU - Lima, Rodrigo M.. AU - Espana-Tenorio, Jonathan M.. AU - Kramer, George C.. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - We compared the pharmacokinetics of intraosseous (IO) drug delivery via tibia or sternum, with central venous (CV) drug delivery during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Methods: CPR of anesthetized KCl arrest swine was initiated 8. min post arrest. Evans blue and indocyanine green, each were simultaneously injected as a bolus with adrenaline through IO sternal and tibial needles, respectively, n=7. In second group (n=6) simultaneous IO sternal and IV central venous (CV) injections were made. Results: Peak arterial blood concentrations were achieved faster for sternal IO vs. tibial IO administration (53 ± 11. s vs. 107 ± 27. s, p=0.03). Tibial IO dose delivered was 65% of sternal administration (p=0.003). ...
Continuous Chest Compression Versus Interrupted Chest Compression for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation of Non-Asphyxial Out-of...
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major cause of death worldwide. This systematic review aimed to assess the effects of continuous chest compression CPR (with or without rescue breathing) versus conventional CPR plus rescue breathing (interrupted chest compression with pauses for breaths) of non-asphyxial OHCA. It identified 4 randomized controlled trials. Three studies assessed CPR provided by untrained bystanders and 1 assessed CPR provided by trained professionals. When CPR was performed by bystanders, survival to hospital discharge was higher with chest compression alone than with interrupted chest compression with pauses for rescue breathing. When CPR was performed by professionals, survival to hospital discharge was slightly lower with continuous chest compressions plus asynchronous rescue breathing compared with interrupted chest compression plus rescue breathing. The number of people who survived to hospital admission was slightly higher in those treated with interrupted chest ...
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation | definition of cardiopulmonary resuscitation by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the Medical Dictionary? cardiopulmonary resuscitation explanation free. What is cardiopulmonary resuscitation? Meaning of cardiopulmonary resuscitation medical term. What does cardiopulmonary resuscitation mean?
Print Story : Continuous chest compressions vs. CPR for cardiac arrest: 3 takeaways - BoundTreeUniversity.com
Most of us will not remember when closed chest compressions, proposed by Dr. James Jude and colleagues, were a novelty, a research project that mandated further study. EMS dinosaurs will remember when CPR rates were 60 compressions per minute. Then rates increases to 80 beats per minute. And two-person ratios for CPR were 5 compressions for each ventilation given to the patient.. Sadly, over the second half of the 20th century most resuscitation efforts focused on the advanced portion of resuscitation - drugs, advanced airways and invasive procedures. Hindsight being 20/20, it is likely the resuscitation profession lost real progress by not focusing on the basics of ventilation and perfusion.. In the 1990s research began validating the effectiveness of high-quality chest compressions and prompt defibrillation. A Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium study comparing continuous chest compression and standard CPR, published this week in the New England Journal of Medicine, continues the tradition of ...
The initial success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and its asso | RMHP
The initial success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and its associated factors in patients with cardiac arrest within 24 hours after anesthesia for an emergency surgery Visith Siriphuwanun,1 Yodying Punjasawadwong,1 Worawut Lapisatepun,1 Somrat Charuluxananan,2 Ketchada Uerpairojkit,2 Jayanton Patumanond3 1Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 3Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Purpose: To determine the initial success rate and its associated factors on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in patients with cardiac arrest within 24 hours after receiving anesthesia for an emergency surgery. Patients and methods: After the hospital ethical committee gave approval for this study, the anesthesia providers recorded all relevant data regarding CPR in patients with cardiac arrest within 24
Resuscitation Guidelines 2015 Guidance | First Aid Training
Every 5 years the European Resuscitation Council (ERC), the Resuscitation Council (UK) and the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) review the latest research and evidence in resuscitation, and then release updated guidelines. In addition to this, for the first time in history, this year the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) have also produced guidelines for…
Influence of chest compression rate guidance on the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation performed on manikins
Metronome guidance corrected chest compression rates for each compression cycle to within guideline recommendations, but did not affect chest compression quality or rescuer fatigue.
Resuscitation - Wikipedia
Resuscitation is the process of correcting physiological disorders (such as lack of breathing or heartbeat) in an acutely unwell patient. It is an important part of intensive care medicine, trauma surgery and emergency medicine. Well known examples are cardiopulmonary resuscitation and mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Advanced life support Advanced cardiac life support Advanced trauma life support Cardiopulmonary resuscitation Emergency Preservation and Resuscitation Fluid resuscitation Hs and Ts Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation Neonatal resuscitation Pediatric advanced life ...
European Resuscitation Council 2019
T-shirts, face shields, stickers, banners and folders will be distributed.. Back to top. Croatia. World Restart A Heart initiatives will take place on 19 October in major cities and the Istria region as part of an InterReg EU project with Slovenia.. Back to top. Denmark. World Restart a Heart has become an integrated part of the programme of the Danish Resuscitation Council, serving to promote CPR and the use of AEDs, increase the number of first responders and increase the number of AEDs available to the public 24/7.. Back to top. Italy. On 30 July 2019, the Italian Chamber of Deputies approved a new law on cardiac arrest and defibrillation. Of 10 proposals made by the Italian Resuscitation Council, 8 were accepted. 16 October was officially recognised as World Restart A Heart Day.. Mass trainig events are being organised in iconic locations during Viva Week/Settimana Viva from 14-20 October.. Back to top. Luxembourg. On 28 September, mass training events and awareness campaigns were organised ...
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) caregivers in Las Vegas, NV - Home Care
CareLinx has 269 highly qualified Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) caregivers in Las Vegas, NV. Join us, and find the perfect Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) caregiver for your loved ones today.
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario | PulsePoint
Rescu, a prestigious resuscitation research group based at St. Michaels Hospital and the University of Toronto announced it has received a three-year grant from the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario (HSFO) to study the effectiveness of the PulsePoint app. The trial will evaluate the ability of the application to increase bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates and automated external defibrillator use on victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.. Approximately 45,000 Canadians suffer sudden cardiac arrest annually and one Canadian dies every 12 minutes from cardiac arrest. Only 8.4% of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survive to hospital discharge. Early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation are key links in the chain of survival. However, only 30% of all OHCA patients receive bystander CPR and only 2% have an automated defibrillator (AED) applied prior to the arrival of emergency medical services. The PulsePoint app uses the location-aware ...
Return of spontaneous circulation | definition of return of spontaneous circulation by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of return of spontaneous circulation in the Medical Dictionary? return of spontaneous circulation explanation free. What is return of spontaneous circulation? Meaning of return of spontaneous circulation medical term. What does return of spontaneous circulation mean?
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills retention and self-confidence of preclinical medical students.
Background: Sudden cardiac death is the most common lethal manifestation of heart disease and often the first and only indicator. Prompt initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) undoubtedly saves lives. Nevertheless, studies report a low level of competency of medical students in CPR, mainly due to deterioration of skills following training. objectives: To evaluate the retention of CPR skills and confidence in delivering CPR by preclinical medical students. methods: A questionnaire and the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) were used to assess confidence and CPR skills among preclinical, second and third-year medical students who had passed a first-aid course during their first year but had not retrained since. results: The study group comprised 64 students: 35 were 1 year after training and 29 were 2 years after training. The groups were demographically similar. Preparedness, recollection and confidence in delivering CPR were significantly lower in the 2 years after ...
Standards for Resuscitation After Cardiac Surgery - AACN
Of the 250 000 patients who undergo major cardiac operations in the United States annually, 0.7% to 2.9% will experience a postoperative cardiac arrest. Although Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) is the standard approach to management of cardiac arrest in the United States, it has significant limitations in these patients. The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) has endorsed a new guideline specific to resuscitation after cardiac surgery that advises important, evidence-based deviations from ACLS and is under consideration in the United States. The ACLS and ERC recommendations for resuscitation of these patients are contrasted on the basis of the essential components of care. Key to this approach is the rapid elimination of reversible causes of arrest, followed by either defibrillation or pacing (as appropriate) before external cardiac compressions that can damage the sternotomy, cautious use of epinephrine owing to potential rebound hypertension, and prompt resternotomy (within 5 minutes) ...
Advanced Cardiac Life Support: A Guide for Nurses, 2nd Edition | Cardiology Nursing | Clinical Specialties | Nursing General |...
Assessment and emergency treatment of the critically ill patient 31. Chapter summary 43. Chapter 4 Principles of Cardiac Monitoring and ECG Recognition 47. Introduction 47. Learning outcomes 47. The conduction system of the heart 48. The ECG and its relation to cardiac contraction 49. Methods of cardiac monitoring 49. Problems encountered with cardiac monitoring 51. Systematic approach to ECG interpretation 52. Cardiac arrhythmias associated with cardiac arrest 56. Peri-arrest arrhythmias 58. Chapter summary 62. Chapter 5 Bystander Basic Life Support 64. Introduction 64. Learning outcomes 64. Potential hazards when attempting BLS 65. Initial assessment and sequence of actions in bystander BLS 66. Principles of chest compressions 70. Principles of mouth-to-mouth ventilation 73. The recovery position 77. Treatment for foreign body airway obstruction 81. Chapter summary 85. Chapter 6 Airway Management and Ventilation 88. Introduction 88. Learning outcomes 88. Causes of airway obstruction ...
Resuscitation on the Move - AutoPulse Resuscitation System - ZOLL Emergency Medical Equipment & Cardiac Resuscitation Devices
The AutoPulse® Resuscitation System works wherever EMS providers need to go. At its foundation is the specially designed board. It delivers stability and maneuverability, supporting both patient and rescuer from the scene of the rescue to the hospital. Depending on the situation, the rescuer has the option of securing the AutoPulse board to a soft stretcher or a backboard.. With the soft stretcher, rescuers dont need to worry about pausing or potentially compromising CPR through tilts and turns, whether going down steep stairs, around sharp corners, or into a cramped elevator. Patients receive nonstop, high-quality compressions throughout their pre-hospital transport.. A 2015 study demonstrated how effective the AutoPulse is in improving the quality of resuscitation during extrication and ambulance transport of patients with refractory cardiac arrest.1 With regular training, the AutoPulse was applied in as little as 14 seconds, and the median time of overall interruption in CPR during patient ...
Assisted ventilation during bystander CPR in a swine acute myocardial infarction model does not improve outcome<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assisted ventilation during bystander CPR in a swine acute myocardial infarction model does not improve outcome. AU - Berg, Robert A.. AU - Kern, Karl B.. AU - Hilwig, Ronald W.. AU - Ewy, Gordon A.. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - Background: Mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing is a barrier to the performance of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We evaluated the need for assisted ventilation during simulated single-rescuer bystander CPR in a swine myocardial infarction model of prehospital cardiac arrest. Methods and Results: Steel cylinders were placed in the mid left anterior descending coronary arteries of 43 swine. Two minutes after ventricular fibrillation, animals were randomly assigned to 10 minutes of hand-bag-valve ventilation with 17% oxygen and 4% carbon dioxide plus chest compressions (CC+V), chest compressions only (CC), or no CPR (control group). Standard advanced life support was then provided. Animals successfully resuscitated received 1 hour of ...
Basic Life Support and Advanced Cardiac Life Support : Continuing Education : Texas State University
Location: All classes will be held at the St. Davids School of Nursing in Round Rock at 1555 University Blvd., Round Rock, TX 78665 in the Nursing Building, room #118.. Cancellations and Refunds: Cancellations received in writing at least five (5) business days before the course start date will receive a full refund. Cancellations received within five (5) days of the course start date will receive a 50% refund of the amount paid.. Primary Contact: Dr. Chris McClanahan. ...
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Training - SPRING GROVE FIRE PROTECTION DISTRICT
The Spring Grove Fire Protection District offers training in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). Classes are offered, at the Fire Station, through the American Heart Association (AHA). We ONLY REGULARLY offer the BLS for Health Care Provider (see description below), taught by Certified Instructors. A minimum of three individuals must be signed up for us to offer the class. Manuals are sold separately at a cost of $15.00. Most public classes are held in the evening (some immediately after normal work hours). Please wear comfortable clothing as these are hands on classes.. Businesses and groups of more than three individuals, located within the Fire District, should contact Michelle Krysiak (Note: Clicking on her name will take you to her e-mail) to arrange for a private class (any of the classes we offer; please check with Michelle for the list). Registration for CPR classes is accomplished through the American Heart Association (AHA). (Note: Clicking on the AHA will get you directly to their ...
The clinical rationale of cardiac resuscitation. - Semantic Scholar
After failure of external defibrillation, return of cardiac activity with spontaneous circulation is contingent on rapid and effective reversal of myocardial ischemia. Closed-chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) evolved about 30 years ago and was almost universally implemented by both professional providers and lay bystanders because of its technical simplicity and noninvasiveness. However, there is growing concern since the limited hemodynamic efficacy of precordial compression accounts for a disappointingly low success rate; especially so if there is a delay of more than 3 minutes before resuscitation is started. There is also increasing concern with the lack of objective hemodynamic measurements currently available for the assessment and quantitation of the effectiveness of resuscitation efforts. Accordingly, the resuscitation procedure proceeds without confirmation that it increases systemic and myocardial blood flows to levels that would be likely to restore spontaneous circulation. Continuous
Early Outcomes of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest after Early Defibrillation: a 24 Months Retrospective Analysis - Cogprints
Introduction: Cardiovascular disease remains the most common cause of death in the United States and most other Western nations. Among these deaths, sudden, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest claims approximately 1000 lives each day in the United States alone. Most of these cardiac arrests are due to ventricular fibrillation. Though highly reversible with the rapid application of a defibrillator, ventricular fibrillation is otherwise fatal within minutes, even when cardiopulmonary resuscitation is provided immediately. The overall survival rate in the United States is estimated to be less than 5 percent. Recent developments in automated-external-defibrillator technology have provided a means of increasing the rate of prompt defibrillation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. After minimal training, nonmedical personnel (e.g., flight attendants and casino workers) are also able to use defibrillators in the workplace, with lifesaving effects. Nonetheless, such programs have involved designated ...
Combined Basic Life Support/Paediatric Basic Life Support Tickets, Mon, 15 Jan 2018 at 13:00 | Eventbrite
Eventbrite - Learning Academy presents Combined Basic Life Support/Paediatric Basic Life Support - Monday, 15 January 2018 at Adams House, London, England. Find event and ticket information.
Combined Basic Life Support/Paediatric Basic Life Support Tickets, Multiple Dates | Eventbrite
Eventbrite - Learning Academy presents Combined Basic Life Support/Paediatric Basic Life Support - Saturday, 30 September 2017 at Adams House, London, England. Find event and ticket information.
Consensus outcome rating for international neonatal resuscitation guidelines | ADC Fetal & Neonatal Edition
The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation uses the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) working group method to evaluate the quality of evidence and the strength of treatment recommendations. This method requires guideline developers to use a numerical rating of the importance of each specified outcome. There are currently no uniform reporting guidelines or outcome measures for neonatal resuscitation science. We describe consensus outcome ratings from a survey of 64 neonatal resuscitation guideline developers representing seven international resuscitation councils. Among 25 specified outcomes, 10 were considered critical for decision-making. The five most critically rated outcomes were death, moderate-severe neurodevelopmental impairment, blindness, cerebral palsy and deafness. These data inform outcome rankings for systematic reviews of neonatal resuscitation science and international guideline development using the GRADE methodology. ...
Keeping cardiac arrest patients alive with therapeutic hypothermia - American Nurse
Abella BS, Rhee JW, Huang KN, Vanden Hoek TL, Becker LB. Induced hypothermia is underused after resuscitation from cardiac arrest: a current practice survey. Resuscitation. 2005; 64:181-186.. Bernard SA, Gray TW, Buist MD, Jones BM, Silvester W, Gutteridge G, et al. Treatment of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with induced hypothermia. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:557-563.. Brain Resuscitation Clinical Trial I Study Group. A randomized clinical study of cardiopulmonary-cerebral resuscitation: design, methods, and patient characteristics. Am J Emerg Med. 1986;4:72-86.. Cummins RO, Chamberlain DA, Abramson NS, Allen M, Baskett PJ, Becker L, et al. Recommended guidelines for uniform reporting of data from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: the Utstein Style. A statement for health professionals from a task force of the American Heart Association, the European Resuscitation Council, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, and the Australian Resuscitation Council. Circulation. ...
Pediatric Advanced Cardiac Life Support :: 1199SEIU
Purpose: The PALS Full Provider Course Program is designed to provide healthcare professionals the essential knowledge and skills for a successful resuscitation of an adult patient by performing BLS and ACLS based on the AHA 2005 guidelines.
Increased cortical cerebral blood flow with LUCAS; a new device for mechanical chest compressions compared to standard external...
OBJECTIVE: LUCAS is a new device for mechanical compression and decompression of the chest during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of this new device with standard manual external chest compressions using cerebral cortical blood flow, cerebral oxygen extraction, and end-tidal CO2 for indirect measurement of cardiac output. Drug therapy, with adrenaline (epinephrine) was eliminated in order to evaluate the effects of chest compressions alone. METHODS: Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was induced in 14 anaesthetized pigs. After 8 min non-intervention interval, the animals were randomized into two groups. One group received external chest compressions using a new mechanical device, LUCAS. The other group received standard manual external chest compressions. The compression rate was 100 min(-1) and mechanical ventilation was resumed with 100% oxygen during CPR in both groups. No adrenaline was given. After 15 min of CPR, external defibrillatory ...
Impact of the callers emotional state and cooperation on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest recognition and dispatcher-assisted...
Impact of the callers emotional state and cooperation on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest recognition and dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation ...
Ayten Saracoglu - Airway Management Academy
Name, surname: Ayten Saracoglu. Birth date and place: 05.10.1979, Istanbul. Education:. Foreign language: English and German. 1984-1989: Resneli Niyazi Bey Primary School, Istanbul. 1989-1995: Sisli High School, Istanbul. 1995-2001: Gazi University Medical School, Ankara. 2003-2008: Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Marmara University Medical School, resident. Certificates:. 2010: Board Certificate of Turkish Society of Anesthesiology and Reanimation. 2012: European Resuscitation Council Pediatric Advanced Life SupportCertificate. 2013: European Resuscitation Council Adult Advanced Life SupportCertificate. 2013: European Society of Airway Management Airway Teacher Diploma. 2014: Success in European Diploma of Anesthesiology and Reanimation Part I examination. 2015: Success in European Diploma of Anesthesiology and Reanimation Part II examination. Thesis consulting:. Comparison of different dose and concentration of bupivacaine-lidocaine in infraclavicular brachial plexus block. 2014 ...
ZOLL AutoPulse Made for Resuscitation on the Move | AED Philippines
The ZOLL AutoPulse is a great addition to the existing ZOLL defibrillator product lines. It comes in handy when the patient has to be transported away from remote (disaster) areas like mountains or other places far away from the hospitals. The AutoPulse is made for the Resuscitation on the Move.. Designed for movements and relocating of the patient. The soft stretcher is made for optimal transportation of the patient and rescuers dont need to worry about pausing or potentially compromising CPR through tilts and turns. Even going down on on stairs, going around corners or going inside an elevator. Your patients will get nonstop, high-quality compressions throughout the transport towards the hospital.. Super High-quality CPR The AutoPulse® system automatically performs very high-quality CPR without interruption for victims of sudden cardiac arrest. AutoPulse is easy to use and battery operated, the ZOLL AutoPulse presses the entire chest of the patient together in order to improve the blood flow ...
First Aid Action - Provide Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
First Aid Action - Provide Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Frequently Asked Questions About the Emergency First Aid, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR), and the Use of Automated...
Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (ECPR) - Memorial Healthcare Continuing Medical Education - Continuing Education ...
Memorial Healthcare Continuing Medical Education, Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (ECPR), 1/1/2020 8:00:00 AM - 1/1/2020 11:00:00 AM, Overview of ECPR with hands on training practice donning sterile gown/gloves, preparing the operative field, patient management, and cannulation set up.
Evidence Supports Using More Chest Compressions for Nonshockable Cardiac Arrest
People who have a cardiac arrest that cant be helped by a defibrillator shock are more likely to survive if given cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) based on updated guidelines that emphasize chest compressions, according to the American Heart Association (AHA).. AHA changed its CPR guidelines in 2005 to recommend more chest compressions with fewer interruptions. The emphasis on chest compressions continued in the 2010 guidelines update.. After the 2005 guidelines, several studies showed improved survival from shockable cardiac arrest.. However, new evidence shows that most cardiac arrests-nearly 75%- are due to conditions that dont respond to shocks. Researchers identified 3,960 patients in King County, Washington, who had a type of cardiac arrest that doesnt respond to shock from a defibrillator, or nonshockable cardiac arrest.. They compared survival rates among patients who had nonshockable cardiac arrests from 2000-2004-before the 2005 guidelines changes-to those who had nonshockable ...
Defibrillators could save many more lives if associated with basic life support education | EurekAlert! Science News
Automatic external defibrillators fail to save lives when the public does not have basic life support education, according to research presented today at ESC Congress 2016. The study found that public access defibrillation programs are unevenly deployed across France, with an obvious impact on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival rate.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge and skills of registered nurses in Botswana
Research instruments. CPR knowledge was assessed by means of a 21-item multiple-choice questionnaire. The pass mark for this questionnaire was 85%, as recommended by the Basic Life Support for health care providers document of the Resuscitation Council of Southern Africa (RCSA) (2005:2) and by the AHA (2005:112) because no standardised guidelines existed in the two referral hospitals of Botswana.. A 19-point skills test, similar to the approach of Berden et al. (1992:21), was used to assess the nurses CPR skills (Berden et al. 1992:21). A maximum penalty mark of 5 or 10 or 20 was set for each question, based on that approach. Two CPR-qualified evaluators assessed each participants performance independently and the marks were consolidated. The same method was adopted during the pre-test (n = 102), the post-test (n = 102) conducted immediately after the CPR training, and the re-test (n= 70) conducted three months after this training.. The content validity of the instrument was enhanced by ...
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge and skills of registered nurses in Botswana
Research instruments. CPR knowledge was assessed by means of a 21-item multiple-choice questionnaire. The pass mark for this questionnaire was 85%, as recommended by the Basic Life Support for health care providers document of the Resuscitation Council of Southern Africa (RCSA) (2005:2) and by the AHA (2005:112) because no standardised guidelines existed in the two referral hospitals of Botswana.. A 19-point skills test, similar to the approach of Berden et al. (1992:21), was used to assess the nurses CPR skills (Berden et al. 1992:21). A maximum penalty mark of 5 or 10 or 20 was set for each question, based on that approach. Two CPR-qualified evaluators assessed each participants performance independently and the marks were consolidated. The same method was adopted during the pre-test (n = 102), the post-test (n = 102) conducted immediately after the CPR training, and the re-test (n= 70) conducted three months after this training.. The content validity of the instrument was enhanced by ...
Baby Resuscitation Training - upcoming baby resuscitation training courses
Upcoming Baby Resuscitation Courses. Please see courses below. For each course you will see a date and start time along with a location map and route finder function. We currently run 2 types of courses, our Baby and Infant Resuscitation Training course and following on from feedback, we have developed a new course Treating Common Injuries and Accidents.. Both courses are run by trained professionals giving the best possible advice on care and appropriate responses. There are usually relevant handouts and hands on practising available during the course.. ...
Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in fulminant pulmonary embolism...
To describe our outcomes using thrombolysis during the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of patients in cardiorespiratory arrest (CA) caused by fulminant pulmonary embolism (FPE). A case series. Intensive care units of a district hospital and a referral centre. Six patients that suffered CA secondary to an FPE. Administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator during usual CPR manoeuvres when there was a strong suspicion of FPE. Permission for the thrombolytic therapy was sought from family members in all cases. Four out of the six patients survived and remain symptom-free. The thrombolysis was not associated with any fatal complications. Early thrombolysis during CPR manoeuvres for CA apparently caused by an FPE may reduce the mortality rate among these patients. ...
Figure 2 | Clinical Efficacy of Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Adults with Cardiac Arrest: Meta-Analysis with...
Figure 2: Clinical Efficacy of Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Adults with Cardiac Arrest: Meta-Analysis with Trial Sequential Analysis
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Central IV lines. TEG Sampling. Autotransfusion. Anaesthetic Technicians work as a member of a ... Anaesthetic Technician also provide a key role in the emergency resuscitation of patients. Anaesthetic technicians prepare ...
British Columbia Ambulance Service
... cardiopulmonary resuscitation; basic wound and fracture management; maintenance of airways and ventilation. use of airway ... Frontier Trial Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) The BC Ambulance Service is a uniformed organization and as such, has a ...
Outdoor Emergency Care
BLS cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Automated external defibrillation using the AED. Application of up to 100% Oxygen therapy ...
Sayre, Michael (2005). Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (PDF). Humana Press, Springer. pp. 111-121. ISBN 978-1-58829-283-4. "The ... International Consensus On Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Emergency Cardiovascular Care (ECC) Science With Treatment ... Resuscitation. 44 (2): 105-8. doi:10.1016/S0300-9572(00)00161-1. PMID 10767497. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ...
"Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation" (PDF). Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning. "First Aid: Prehospital Care (Student ... "Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (Charles University School of Medicine website)". Retrieved 2008-12-19. Mitka, M (May 2003). " ... The protocol was originally developed as a memory aid for rescuers performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the most ... For this reason, lay rescuers proceed directly to cardiopulmonary resuscitation, starting with chest compressions, which is ...
ISBN 978-0-912912-11-0. Dubin, Dale (1972). Understanding Cardio-pulmonary Resuscitation. C.P.R. Inc. Nossiter, Adam (1986). " ... Exploring the Heart's Ionic-Molecular Microcosm and Understanding Cardio-pulmonary Resuscitation. Dubin, then age 46, was ...
Automated external defibrillator
"Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Statistics". American Red Cross. Archived from the original on 19 November 2008. Retrieved ... level cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) classes. The portable version of the defibrillator was invented in the mid-1960s by ... In September 2008, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation issued a 'universal AED sign' to be adopted throughout ... 1997) BMJ.com "ILCOR presents a universal AED sign". European Resuscitation Council. "Heartstart Home Defibrillator". Philips ...
Rapid Interpretation of EKG's
Dubin, Dale (1972). Understanding Cardio-pulmonary Resuscitation. C.P.R. Inc. Massad, Caroline (December 5, 2001). "Read the ... Exploring the Heart's Ionic-Molecular Microcosm and Understanding Cardio-pulmonary Resuscitation. The large yellow book was ...
See main article: cardiopulmonary resuscitation. If the casualty has injuries the rescuers will need to provide first aid and ... If the casualty is not breathing, an urgent ascent directly to the surface is needed so that resuscitation can take place there ... Diving hazards and precautions resuscitation first aid oxygen first aid artificial respiration recompression chamber diving ...
Pediatric basic life support
... start cardiopulmonary resuscitation. if you are alone, call for help after a minute of any CPR; if help has already been called ... the European Resuscitation Council publishes updated guidelines about all stages of resuscitation, both for medical staff and ... if there are not, feel the pulse and if there are no signs of circulation begins resuscitation. If air doesn't pass, consider a ... If, after 15 ventilations (thirty seconds) the heart rate remains below 60 per minute is necessary to begin resuscitation, ...
... wishes for or against cardiopulmonary resuscitation; and when to use hospice care. Palliative care team members can help answer ...
"Vasopressin during cardiopulmonary resuscitation : a progress report". Critical Care Medicine. 32 (9 Suppl): S432-S435. doi: ... "Stress hormone response during and after cardiopulmonary resuscitation". Anesthesiology. 77 (4): 662-668. doi:10.1097/00000542- ...
Safar, who began to work on cardio pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in 1956 at Baltimore City Hospital, demonstrated in a series ... His achievements were wide ranging from the development of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation and as a founder of the nation's ... He is credited with pioneering cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Safar was born in Vienna in 1924 into a medical family. His ... Acierno, LJ; Worrell, LT (January 2007). "Peter Safar: father of modern cardiopulmonary resuscitation". Clinical Cardiology. 30 ...
List of people considered father or mother of a scientific field
Acierno, LJ; Worrell, LT (January 2007). "Peter Safar: father of modern cardiopulmonary resuscitation". Clinical Cardiology. 30 ... 2003) "The resuscitation greats. Andreas Vesalius, the concept of an artificial airway." Resuscitation" 56:3-7 "Page Not Found ...
Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation is also part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) making it an essential skill for first aid. In ... Cardiopulmonary resuscitation Medical emergency Medical ventilator Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer Charles Hederer, inventor of ... "Decisions about cardiopulmonary resuscitation model information leafler". British Medical Association. July 2002. Retrieved ... ISBN 978-0-07-144767-6. Chamberlain D (2003). "Never quite there: a tale of resuscitation medicine". Clin Med. 3 (6): 573-7. ...
Hoke RS, Chamberlain D (December 2004). "Skeletal chest injuries secondary to cardiopulmonary resuscitation". Resuscitation. 63 ... Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, commonly known as CPR, has also been known to cause thoracic injury, including sternum and rib ... doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2004.05.019. PMID 15582769. Livingston DH, Hauser CJ (2004). "Trauma to the chest wall and lung". ...
Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation; Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young; ... clearance for partial circulatory support for periods of up to 6 hours during cardiac procedures not requiring cardiopulmonary ... clearance for circulatory support for periods of up to 6 hours during cardiac procedures not requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. ...
CMAS* SCUBA Diver
... expired air ventilation and cardio-pulmonary resuscitation; diving procedures, the role of dive leader, importance of planning ... employing expired air ventilation and cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. underwater removal and replacement of scuba and ballast ...
Treatment is with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation. Biphasic defibrillation may be better than monophasic ... as well as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in between defibrillation attempts. Though ALS/ACLS algorithms encourage the use ... and patients in V-fib should be treated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation and prompt defibrillation. Left untreated, ... 2015 American Heart Association Guidelines Update for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care". ...
Medical staff immediately provided cardiopulmonary resuscitation on site. Once he started breathing again, he was quickly taken ...
Chain of survival
"Guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiac care. Emergency Cardiac Care Committee and Subcommittees, ... Cardiac arrest Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival Cardiopulmonary resuscitation Defibrillation "Part 12: From Science ... American Heart Association adopted the concept and elaborated on it in its 1992 guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation ... Eisenberg MS, Bergner L, Hallstrom A (1979). "Cardiac resuscitation in the community. Importance of rapid provision and ...
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation may be withheld in some circumstances. One is if the patient has a do not resuscitate ("no code ... The team will perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation in order to re-establish both cardiac and pulmonary function. ... This is referred to as a partial code or partial resuscitation and "such resuscitation commonly violates the ethical obligation ... Resuscitation. 80 (9): 985-989. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2009.05.011. Marks, William J. (1 January 2006). ""Code Blue", " ...
Targeted temperature management
"Hypothermia for neuroprotection in adults after cardiopulmonary resuscitation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2 ... Resuscitation. 103: 54-59. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2016.03.024. PMID 27060536. Jacobs, SE; Berg, M; Hunt, R; Tarnow-Mordi, ... Resuscitation. 75 (1): 76-81. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2007.03.001. PMID 17462808. Castren, M.; Nordberg, P.; Svensson, L.; ... 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care". Circulation. ...
epinephrine alone in cardiopulmonary resuscitation". The New England Journal of Medicine. 359 (1): 21-30. doi:10.1056/ ... The 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care recommend ... "A comparison of vasopressin and epinephrine for out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation". The New England Journal of ... Resuscitation. 79 (3): 380-6. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2008.07.020. PMID 18951676. Ong ME, Tiah L, Leong BS, Tan EC, Ong VY ...
"Hypothermia for neuroprotection in adults after cardiopulmonary resuscitation". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2. doi ...
1985). "Survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with early initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation". The American ... Prior to the invention of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), defibrillation, epinephrine injection, and other treatments in ... 1990). "Observations of hemodynamics during human cardiopulmonary resuscitation". Critical Care Medicine. Lippincott Williams ... The purpose of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during cardiac arrest is ideally reversal of the clinically dead state by ...
Bay Area Medical Academy
BAMA also offers training courses for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). [dead link] Skibola, Nicole (25 May 2011). "The ...
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a particularly well-known heroic measure; vigorous chest compressions often result in ...
Return of spontaneous circulation
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation increase the chances of ROSC. The return of circulation, while a good thing ... European Resuscitation Council, Australian Resuscitation Council, New Zealand Resuscitation Council, Heart and Stroke ... November 2004). "Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation outcome reports: update and simplification of the Utstein ... Lazarus phenomenon or autoresuscitation after failed cardiopulmonary resuscitation is the spontaneous return of circulation ...
He was revived using cardiopulmonary resuscitation and a defibrillator. He subsequently had a defibrillator implanted, and was ...
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). *Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. *Basic life support (BLS). *Advanced cardiac life support ( ... A Birmingham gauge of 14 is a very large cannula (used in resuscitation settings) and 24-26 is the smallest. The most common ...
... and an individual suffering from it will not survive unless cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation are provided ...
Dead on arrival
A person can be pronounced dead on arrival if cardiopulmonary resuscitation or mouth to mouth resuscitation is found to be ... When presented with a patient, medical professionals are required to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) unless ... but once cardiopulmonary resuscitation is initiated, it must be continued until a physician can pronounce the patient dead. ... resuscitation should not be attempted. If there is even the slightest hope that the infant is viable, CPR should be initiated; ...
Bag valve mask
Severe ventilatory compromise due to gastric insufflation during pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 1998: ... European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010. Section 4. Adult advanced life support. Resuscitation 2010 : ... a b Dörges V, Sauer C, Ocker H, Wenzel V, Schmucker P. Smaller tidal volumes during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: comparison ... Hyperventilation-induced hypotension during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Circulation 2004: 109:1960-1965. *^ Lee HM, Cho KH, ...
Epinephrine - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"2005 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Part 10.6: ... Soar, Perkins, et al (2010) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010 Section 8. Cardiac arrest in ... doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2014.03.008. PMID 24642404. *↑ ECC Committee, Subcommittees and Task Forces of the American Heart ... Resuscitation. Oct. pp.1400-1433 *↑ Fisher, Brown, Cooke (Eds) (2006) Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee. UK ...
First aid kit
Traxeyanın intubasiyası - Vikipediya
... wishes for or against cardiopulmonary resuscitation; and when to use hospice care. Palliative care team members can help ...
2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care". Circulation. ... Soar, Perkins, et al (2010) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010 Section 8. Cardiac arrest in ... "2005 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Part 10.6: ... doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2014.03.008. PMID 24642404.. *^ Mark S, Link; Lauren C, Berkow; Peter J, Kudenchuk (2015). "Part 7 ...
2015 American Heart Association guidelines update for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care". ... Crystalloid solution is recommended as the fluid of choice for resuscitation. Albumin can be used if a large amount of ... Within six hours, if blood pressure remains low despite initial fluid resuscitation of 30 ml/kg, or if initial lactate is ≥ ... It should be suspected in those poorly responding to resuscitation with fluids and vasopressors. Neither ACTH stimulation ...
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). *Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. *Basic life support (BLS). *Advanced cardiac life support ( ...
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). *Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. *Basic life support (BLS). *Advanced cardiac life support ( ... "Trauma: Emergency Resuscitation, Perioperative Anesthesia, Surgical Management. 1. New York: CRC Press. p. 18. ISBN 978- ... A Level III trauma center does not have the full availability of specialists but has resources for emergency resuscitation, ...
Procedural sedation and analgesia
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). *Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. *Basic life support (BLS). *Advanced cardiac life support ( ... They will cause some dose dependent cardiopulmonary suppression. They have addictive properties and have led to the opioid ... It causes profound amnesia but allows spontaneous respiration, cardiopulmonary stability, and airway reflexes are still intact ... a practitioner must be able to recognize the level of sedation and understand the increasing cardiopulmonary risk that is ...
සෝඩියම් බයිකාබනේට් - විකිපීඩියා, නිදහස් විශ්වකෝෂය
It is for this reason that sodium bicarbonate is used in medically supervised cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Infusion of ...
위키백과:미번역 문서/의학 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전
en:Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation (4). *en:MRI sequence (2). *en:Multiple drug resistance (14) → 다제내성 ... en:Cardiopulmonary bypass (26). *en:Caregiver (15). *en:Cataract surgery (13). *en:Cause of death (16) ...
... and whose job is to provide early critical care such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or using an automated external ... "Resuscitation Council UK. Archived from the original on 29 May 2007. Retrieved 2 June 2007.. ...
Pressure cycling also meant that cardiopulmonary resuscitation was impossible to perform if a patient's respiration was being ... These two new time/volume resuscitators meet the latest requirements for resuscitation and are lighter and smaller than most ... The ambu-bag was a further advancement in resuscitation. Introduced in the 1960s by the Danish company Ambu, this device ... All resuscitation devices should be able to deliver ,85% oxygen when a gas source is available. ...
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). *Care of the Critically Ill Surgical Patient (CCrISP). *First aid ... A Birmingham gauge of 14 is a very large cannula (used in resuscitation settings) and 24-26 is the smallest. The most common ...
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
"Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine. 20: 54. doi:10.1186/1757-7241-20-54. PMC 3518173 . PMID ... Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is mechanically applied prolonged cardiopulmonary support. There are two types of ... Some cases of ARDS are linked to large volumes of fluid used during post-trauma resuscitation. ... affecting both lungs and unrelated to increased cardiopulmonary vascular pressure (such as in heart failure) may be suggestive ...
Cardiopulmonary criteria for death are met when a physician determines that efforts to restart a stopped heart during cardiac ... If a clinically dead person has suffered injuries so severe that resuscitation is obviously impossible, then in some ... Two categories of legal death are death determined by irreversible cessation of heartbeat and breathing (cardiopulmonary death ... Unlike cardiopulmonary death which sometimes involves a decision not to resuscitate the heart, brain death is a determination ...
Wilderness emergency medical technician
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation. *Emergency bleeding control. Equipment. *Automated external defibrillator. *Bag valve mask ...
... cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation is recommended. Biphasic defibrillation may be better than monophasic ... 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care". Circulation. ... 2015 American Heart Association Guidelines Update for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care". ...
Fractured ribs and sternum may be a complication of cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempts in people suffering severe ...
Early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). *Early defibrillation. *Early advanced life support (ALS). Clinical responseEdit. ...
Մասնակից:ArmArtificial Intelligence/Ավազարկղ - Վիքիպեդիա՝ ազատ հանրագիտարան
Part 12: Pediatric Advanced Life Support: 2015 American Heart Association Guidelines Update for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation ... 52,0 52,1 52,2 «Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill people»։ The Cochrane Database of ... Crystalloid is recommended as the fluid of choice for resuscitation. Albumin can be used if large amount of crystalloid is ... Fluid resuscitation with hydroxyethyl starches in patients with sepsis is associated with an increased incidence of acute ...
Advanced life support
ALS is a treatment consensus for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in cardiac arrest and related medical problems, as agreed in ... "2005 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care - Part 7.2: ... Resuscitation Council UK adult ALS algorithm 2005 Archived October 8, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ... and omitting trauma from the T's as this is redundant with hypovolaemia-this simplification aids recall during resuscitation. ...
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) | Pratt Community College
The information and techniques needed for adult and pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The anatomy and physiology of the ... Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) This certification is for healthcare workers to maintain and obtain CPR skills. This course ... The information and techniques needed for adult and pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation.. The anatomy and physiology of the ...
bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation | Journal of the American Heart Association
Pdf Advances In Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation 1977
pdf Advances in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation is a key history others product that is it critical to gouge deep critical and ... Pdf Advances In Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation 1977. Polson Museum 0; Salman Abedi, 22, a American pdf Advances in ... have this pdf Advances in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation to Become sets or go out how to fail your culture works. This bias puts ... Would you visit to improve to the pdf Advances in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation? We ca not exist the request you need retiring ...
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation should begin between one to four minutes : Sentence Correction (SC)
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation should begin between one to four minutes after a cardiac arrest in order to be a success. (A) ... cardiopulmonary resuscitation should begin to be successful.. (C) Successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be begun from ... cardiopulmonary resuscitation should begin to be successful.. (C) Successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be begun from ... Cardiopulmonary resuscitation should begin between one to four minutes new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My ...
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - Wikipedia
"Skeletal chest injuries secondary to cardiopulmonary resuscitation". Resuscitation. 63 (3): 327-38. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation ... July 2013). "Cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality: [corrected] improving cardiac resuscitation outcomes both inside and ... "Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The Cerebral Resuscitation Study Group". ... "Chest injuries after active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ACD-CPR) in cadavers". Resuscitation. 43 ( ...
"New" cardiopulmonary resuscitation | The...
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation by American Red Cross | LibraryThing
All about Cardiopulmonary resuscitation by American Red Cross. LibraryThing is a cataloging and social networking site for ... Cardiopulmonary resuscitation. by American Red Cross. Series: Clinical Symposia by Ciba-Geigy (26.5). ... 0269 (1) cardiopulmonary resuscitaton (1) emergency care (1) first aid (4) health (4) heart (1) illustrated (1) journal (1) ...
Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation - Wikipedia
Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (commonly known as ECPR) is a method of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) that ... Similar to the concept of elective cardiopulmonary bypass, used in open heart surgery, oxygenation and perfusion can be ...
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation | Define Cardiopulmonary resuscitation at Dictionary.com
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation definition, emergency procedure for reviving heart and lung function, involving special physical ... cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Medicine Expand. cardiopulmonary resuscitation n. Abbr. CPR Restoration of cardiac output and ... cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Culture Expand. cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) [(kahr-dee-oh- pool-muh-nair-ee ri-sus-i- ... cardiopulmonary resuscitation. noun 1. an emergency measure to revive a patient whose heart has stopped beating, in which ...
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Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) offered free of charge to the public. This class is not for... ... Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). August 21, 2020 Concord Parks and Recreation 147 Academy Ave PO Box 308 Concord, NC 28026 ... Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) offered free of charge to the public. This class is not for certification, but is a class ...
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"Respiration, Artificial"[MeSH] AND "Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation"[Me - PubMed - NCBI
Ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children: a survey on clinical practice.. González R, Pascual L, Sava A, ... Effect of one-lung ventilation on end-tidal carbon dioxide during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a pig model of cardiac ... Development of a decision aid for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and invasive mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit ... face-mask ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation - a multicenter prospective randomized trial.. Fiala A, Lederer W, ...
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Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation or CPR is an emergency procedure, with the aim of restarting heart and breathing when these have ... 1). How ready do you feel to answer questions on Do Not Attempt CardioPulmonaryResuscitation(Dnacpr) planning decisions from ... with palliative and terminal illness and their healthcare professionals about Do Not Attempt Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation ( ... and dialogue between patients and their healthcare professionals about Do Not Attempt Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (DNACPR) ...
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiac Care | Circulation
Improving Neonatal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation HemodynamicsAre Sustained Inflations During Compressions the Answer? Myra H. ... Performance Goals for Dispatcher-Assisted Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Joseph P. Ornato. Circulation. 2013;128:1490-1491, ... Dispatcher-Assisted Cardiopulmonary ResuscitationClinical PerspectiveTime to Identify Cardiac Arrest and Deliver Chest ... Letter by Xue et al Regarding Article, "Duration of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Illness Category Impact Survival and ...
Prolonged Retention of Awareness During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Asystolic Cardiac Arrest | SpringerLink
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cardiopulmonary resuscitation Archives
Cardiac Arrest and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Outcome Reports | Circulation
Resuscitation Not Attempted by EMS Personnel. EMS personnel may not attempt resuscitation when a do-not-attempt-resuscitation ( ... a report of 14720 cardiac arrests from the National Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Resuscitation. 2003; 58: 297-308 ... Cardiac Arrest and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Outcome Reports. Ian Jacobs, Vinay Nadkarni, the ILCOR Task Force on Cardiac ... Cardiac Arrest and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Outcome Reports. Ian Jacobs, Vinay Nadkarni, the ILCOR Task Force on Cardiac ...
IANTD World Headquarters - Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation
CPR or Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation | Cleveland Clinic
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Long-term functional outcome of inpatient pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation. - PubMed - NCBI
Long-term functional outcome of inpatient pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation.. Torres A Jr1, Pickert CB, Firestone J, ... There is limited information published regarding the long-term outcome of pediatric survivors of inpatient cardiopulmonary ... and resuscitation medications) as inpatients in a tertiary care childrens hospital. Prospective telephone follow-up of the ... resuscitation (CPR). The purpose of this study was to document the long-term (i.e., , or = 1 year after the arrest) functional ...
CPR Instruction Set | Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation | Medical Specialties
Excellent Outcome of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Performed... : Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Excellent Outcome of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Performed in PICUs-Can We All Get There?*. Bar-Joseph, Gad MD ... Home , March 2014 - Volume 15 - Issue 3 , Excellent Outcome of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Performed... ... Excellent Outcome of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Performed in PICUs-Can We All Get There?* ... cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, children, neonatal intensive care unit, pediatric, pediatric intensive care unit ...
Propofol mitigates systemic oxidative injury during experimental cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation
Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation - First Aid and Emergency Treatment Guide | Medindia
First aid for CPR gives information about steps to be taken during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. ... A quick and simple first Aid guide on how to administer treatment for Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). ...
Neonatal Resuscitation: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency...
Neonatal Resuscitation: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency ... neonatal resuscitation: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency ... Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the delivery room: associated clinical events. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1995;149:20-25. ... Cardiopulmonary resuscitation of apparently stillborn infants: survival and long-term outcome. J Pediatr. 1991;118:778-782. ...
CPR (Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation) | Skokie, IL
Calcified myocardial necrosis in pediatric patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Application of impedance threshold devices during cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation.
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Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) - NCHA
Search of: Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies | cardiopulmonary resuscitation - List Results - ClinicalTrials.gov
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training Program Based on Quality Control. *Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. *Device: ... Lung Ventilation During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. *Ventilation During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. *Other: ... Esophageal pressures during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. *Lung compliance before and at the end of cardiopulmonary ... Pre-Hospital Cerebral Oxygenation and End-Tidal CO2 During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). *out-of Hospital Cardiac Arrest ...
Plethysmographic Waveform for Monitoring the Quality of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR) is the key to success for high-quality early cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and its success ... Cardiopulmonary Arrest Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Return of Spontaneous Circulation Pulse Oximeter Plethysmographic Waveform ... Plethysmographic Waveform for Monitoring the Quality of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (PWMQC). The safety and scientific ... cardiopulmonary arrest, without do-not-resuscitation(DNR) patients. *After cardiac arrest, there is no more than 10 minutes ...
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... cardiopulmonary resuscitation, CPR in English->Japanese (Kanji) dictionary. Search nearly 14 million words and phrases in more ... Results for: cardiopulmonary resuscitation, CPR. English. Japanese (Kanji). cardiopulmonary resuscitation, CPR. 心肺蘇生法 [しんぱいそせいほ ... cardiopulmonary resuscitation, CPR ممكن تحويله ، قابل للتحويل disclosure requirement çevre ambient fumigující insektoakaricid ... recurrence, revival, resuscitation. 再燃 [さいねん]. rehabilitation, regeneration, rebirth,
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation legal definition of cardiopulmonary resuscitation
What is cardiopulmonary resuscitation? Meaning of cardiopulmonary resuscitation as a legal term. What does cardiopulmonary ... Definition of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... resuscitation. (redirected from cardiopulmonary resuscitation). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, ... Cardiopulmonary resuscitation legal definition of cardiopulmonary resuscitation https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
Maternal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation | Springer for Research & Development
The management of maternal cardiopulmonary arrest is explored in this chapter. The major causes of cardiac arrest during ... Wasson C., Kelly A., Ninan D., Tran Q. (2019) Maternal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. In: Absolute Obstetric Anesthesia Review ... The management of maternal cardiopulmonary arrest is explored in this chapter. The major causes of cardiac arrest during ... If prior to delivery, left uterine displacement must be maintained and aortocaval compression avoided during resuscitation ...
Perform cardiopulmonary resuscitationPresence during cardiopulmonary resuscProvide Cardiopulmonary ResuscitationMouth-to-mouth resuWitness the cardiopulmonary resuscitationOutcomesAbstractPerfusionEmergencyArrestEuropean ResusciPost-resuscitation careInternational Liaison CommiOutcomeNeonatal ResuscitationCompressionsArtificialMulticenterConclusionsCardio Pulmonary ResPROVIDE CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATIONActive compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitationNeonatalAttempt Cardiopulmonary ResuscitationGuidelinesSearch2017VentricularCirculationChestMyocardialInfantsCouncilPaediatricAdvance DirectivesTerminationOHCAExtracorporealHypothermiaAttitudesEmergency procedurePatientsSuccessfullySuccessfulClinicalHospitals
Perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation5
- New Delhi [India], Dec 3 (ANI): The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has drafted a guide for doctors to perform Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) on a patient with cardiac arrest. (aninews.in)
- Washington D.C. [USA], Nov 12 (ANI): Students as young as sixth-graders can learn and perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) effectively and should be targeted for training, according to a preliminary research. (aninews.in)
- The unit of competency teaches the skills and knowledge required to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in line with the Australian Resuscitation Council (ARC) Guidelines. (edu.au)
- Australian Resuscitation council suggested an approach called DRS ABCD to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a cardiac arrested person. (swiftelearningservices.com)
- Please note: to complete this unit satisfactorily you must be able to perform perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). (edu.au)
Presence during cardiopulmonary resusc1
Provide Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation1
- Provide Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (HLTAID001) This nationally recognised course satisfies 1 Unit of Competency from the new HLT Health Training Package. (edu.au)
Witness the cardiopulmonary resuscitation1
- OBJECTIVE: To determine the rates of immediate survival and survival to discharge for adult patients undergoing in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and to identify demographic and clinical variables associated with these outcomes. (elsevier.com)
- Both trials are part of the NIH-supported Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium, the first large-scale, clinical research network in the world designed to study, improve and standardize the way EMS teams deliver very early, pre-hospital interventions to improve patient survival after cardiac arrest or trauma. (healthcanal.com)
- Hardoi (Uttar Pradesh) [India], Aug 21 (ANI): Acting promptly on an emergency call, a constable here saved the life of a man by giving him Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to restore his breath. (aninews.in)
- Have you ever performed a cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) emergency procedure? (swiftelearningservices.com)
- Cardiopulmonary resuscitation should begin between one to four minutes after a cardiac arrest in order to be a success. (gmatclub.com)
- C) Successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be begun from one to four minutes after a cardiac arrest occurs. (gmatclub.com)
- D) If it is to be successful, a cardiac arrest should be treated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation one to four minutes afterward. (gmatclub.com)
- New Delhi [India], Dec 14, (ANI): The chances of survival of a cardiac arrest patient increase to double to triple if cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is performed on a person immediately, according to guidelines issued by India Association of Anesthesiologists (ISA). (aninews.in)
- Mumbai (Maharashtra) [India], Oct 28 (ANI): Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) Assistant Sub-inspector (ASI) Mohit Kumar Sharma, along with two other CISF personnel, gave cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to a passenger who suffered a cardiac arrest at Mumbai Airport. (aninews.in)
- High quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is crucial for influencing survival from cardiac arrest. (euc.ac.cy)
- A cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a first aid technique operated on a person having a sudden cardiac arrest. (swiftelearningservices.com)
- We developed an eLearning course on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to bring awareness in individuals as to save the lives of the co-pedestrians who is suspected to be in cardiac arrest. (swiftelearningservices.com)
- This is the second case report in the literature of extensive colonic necrosis following cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). (biomedcentral.com)
- Two sets of inclusion criteria were used, minimal (any study of adults undergoing in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation) and strict (included only patients from general ward and intensive care units, and adequately defined cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitation). (elsevier.com)
- These new trials could provide critical insight about which resuscitation efforts are most effective for cardiac arrest. (healthcanal.com)
- The aim of this study is to investigate knowledge of Greek physiotherapists in European Resuscitation Council guidelines for resuscitation. (euc.ac.cy)
- Three hundred and fifty Greek physiotherapists who were working in hospitals and rehabilitation centres (face-to-face and e-mail contact) were randomly selected to complete an anonymous questionnaire containing demographic questions, CPR experience questions, and ten theoretical knowledge questions, based on European Resuscitation Council guidelines for resuscitation. (euc.ac.cy)
- Our results indicate that Greek physiotherapists have knowledge gaps in the European Resuscitation Council guidelines for resuscitation. (euc.ac.cy)
- In recent years there have been many developments in post-resuscitation care. (wordpress.com)
International Liaison Commi1
- One study will compare continuous chest compressions combined with pause-free rescue breathing to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (healthcanal.com)
- A multicenter controlled trial on knowledge and attitude about cardiopulmonary resuscitation among secondary school children in Malaysia. (unimas.my)
- BACKGROUND We performed a multicenter controlled trial to assess the knowledge and attitude (KA) about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among secondary school children in a district in Malaysia. (unimas.my)
- CONCLUSIONS: When talking with patients, physicians can describe the overall likelihood of surviving discharge as I in 8 for patients who undergo cardiopulmonary resuscitation and 1 in 3 for patients who survive cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (elsevier.com)
Cardio Pulmonary Res7
- Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) offered free of charge to the public. (active.com)
- Specifically, a load cell and accelerometer has been integrated into a clinical monitor-defibrillator to measure chest compression and applied force during live human cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR). (sae.org)
- Here, Dr Jim Crawfurd, an A & E Consultant with more than 15 years' experience, answers some of the key questions around Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR), a procedure used to attempt to re-start a patient's heart when it stops beating. (jpaget.nhs.uk)
- A Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation Pin is beautifully carved and is gold plated to enhance it's look. (pulseuniform.com)
- Road traffic accident victims, as well as persons experiencing cardiac and other medical emergencies, might lose their lives due to the non-availability of trained personnel to provide effective cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with functional equipment and adequate resources. (scielo.org.za)
- Editorial: Neonatal and Pediatric Cerebro-Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CCPR): Where Do We Stand and Where Are We Heading? (frontiersin.org)
- My article sparkled a renewed interest in neonatal and pediatric cerebro-cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CCPR). (frontiersin.org)
PROVIDE CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION2
Active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation2
- Improving Neonatal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Hemodynamics Are Sustained Inflations During Compressions the Answer? (ahajournals.org)
- 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of pediatric and neonatal patients: pediatric basic life support. (epnet.com)
- Anticipation, adequate preparation, accurate evaluation, and prompt initiation of support are critical for successful neonatal resuscitation. (aappublications.org)
- Neonatal resuscitation is discussed elsewhere. (merckmanuals.com)
- See also Neonatal Resuscitation and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Infants and Children . (merckmanuals.com)
- The topic received a robust response from across the world and we received original research articles and review articles from neonatal and pediatric resuscitation experts. (frontiersin.org)
- Using a neonatal resuscitation simulator, Solveg and co-authors investigated volume-controlled delivery room ventilation ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
Attempt Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation2
- The aim of this project is to improve communication and dialogue between patients with palliative and terminal illness and their healthcare professionals about Do Not Attempt Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (DNACPR) decisions. (nice.org.uk)
- Guidance on decision making and communications policy in relation to the NHSScotland Do Not Attempt Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (DNACPR) policy. (gov.scot)
- Nolan JP, Deakin CD, Soar J, B¨ottiger BW, Smith G. European resuscitation council guidelines for resuscitation 2005 section 4. (springer.com)
- 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. (epnet.com)
- The following guidelines are an interpretation of the evidence presented in the 2010 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations 1 ). (aappublications.org)
- 1 The 2010 Guidelines from the European Resuscitation Council and the American Heart Association (AHA) emphasised the same message: CPR quality is crucial to patient survival. (zoll.com)
- Part 1: executive summary: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. (epnet.com)
- Possible solutions to these problems may include standardized guidelines for the initiation and termination of CPR, tort reform, and additional public education regarding resuscitation and advance directives. (nih.gov)
- Data Sources - Data sources include scientific reviews and original research publications using the PubMed search engine with the following keywords: 'impedance threshold device' and 'resuscitation' and the Veterinary Information Network search function using the keywords 'impedance threshold device. (biomedsearch.com)
- This research study is titled as "Global Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation CPR Market" 2017 which presents an in-depth study about the production, consumption, market volume, revenue (million USD) and market share across different geographical regions. (openpr.com)
- Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, commonly known as CPR, is a life-saving measure that is performed to restore breathing and circulation in a patient who has no pulse and is no longer breathing. (scribd.com)
- After 25 minutes continuous resuscitation, the ECG showed fine VF, and two shocks with direct current (DC) led to return of spontaneous circulation. (omicsonline.org)
- The Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) course delivers the essential principles, skills and knowledge to maintain or restore breathing and circulation in an adult, child or infant. (mybeach.com.au)
- The sight of emergency medical personnel pushing against the chest of a heart attack victim may become a thing of the past if a new method of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) proves successful in expanded trials. (thefreedictionary.com)
- OTCBB:NIMU) announced report of a research study of a modification of NIMS' flagship, patented product, the AT-101(TM), which demonstrated superior outcomes than a standard closed chest message device for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). (thefreedictionary.com)
- As we approach the 50th anniversary of modern cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), there has been a renewed interest in the practical details of CPR, including training methods, the quality of CPR delivery and the very composition of CPR itself-that is, the ratio of chest compressions and ventilations given in a period of time. (bmj.com)
- Calcified myocardial necrosis in pediatric patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (biomedsearch.com)
- We report three autopsy cases of wide-spread myocardial necrosis with calcification in pediatric patients after temporary generalized hypoxia and initially successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but subsequent in-hospital death. (biomedsearch.com)
- The electrocardiogram showed changes consistent with myocardial infarction only during CPA that was normalized 30 minutes after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (omicsonline.org)
- They apply primarily to newly born infants undergoing transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life, but the recommendations are also applicable to neonates who have completed perinatal transition and require resuscitation during the first few weeks to months following birth. (aappublications.org)
- 2 , 3 Although the vast majority of newly born infants do not require intervention to make the transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life, because of the large total number of births, a sizable number will require some degree of resuscitation. (aappublications.org)
- Objective To determine whether delivery room cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DR-CPR) independently predicts morbidities and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in extremely low birth weight infants. (rti.org)
- Audit of paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (bmj.com)
- To assess the effects of a multimedia educational intervention about advance directives (ADs) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on the knowledge, attitude and activity toward ADs and life-sustaining treatments of elderly veterans. (nih.gov)
- Most (78%) respondents honor legal advance directives regarding resuscitation. (nih.gov)
- Given the emotional demands of withholding resuscitation from a child in the field, it was believed by both the leadership in pediatric trauma care and emergency medical services (EMS) that additional studies were warranted before including children in any termination-of-resuscitation protocol. (aappublications.org)
- Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (commonly known as ECPR) is a method of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) that passes the patient's blood through a machine in a process to oxygenate the blood supply. (wikipedia.org)
- Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) allows clinicians to potentially rescue pediatric patients unresponsive to traditional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- This use of ECMO, also known as extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR), allows clinicians to potentially rescue patients unresponsive to traditional CPR. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Compliance with patients' wishes regarding resuscitation is low unless a legal advance directive is present. (nih.gov)
- This leaflet gives St Christopher's patients information about the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) policy. (stchristophers.org.uk)
- Anaesthetic Technician also provide a key role in the emergency resuscitation of patients. (wikipedia.org)
- The objective is to delay tissue death and to extend the brief window of opportunity for a successful resuscitation without permanent brain damage . (wikipedia.org)
- This device is recommended as a way to improve hemodynamics during CPCR by enhancing venous return and avoiding hyperventilation, thereby increasing the likelihood of a successful resuscitation. (biomedsearch.com)
- In 1911 he published a successful resuscitation with his device after one hour of "Vacuum and Pressure Massage of the Abdomen" in a case of attempted suicide by hanging. (safetylit.org)
- This clinical trial aims to evaluate the psychological consequences of bereavement on the relatives according to the possibility of witnessing the cardiopulmonary resuscitation of a family member. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- 1 Clinical criteria included absent pulse, unorganized electrocardiogram rhythm, fixed pupils (all at the scene), and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) greater than 15 minutes. (aappublications.org)