Heart Arrest, Induced
Circulatory Arrest, Deep Hypothermia Induced
Coronary Artery Bypass
Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump
Heart Defects, Congenital
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation
Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumping
Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive
Pulmonary Gas Exchange
Surgical Procedures, Elective
Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation
Heart Valve Diseases
Vena Cava, Inferior
Blood Transfusion, Autologous
Acute Kidney Injury
Heart Septal Defects, Atrial
Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular
Central Venous Pressure
Heart Valve Prosthesis
Extravascular Lung Water
Coronary Artery Disease
Blood Vessel Prosthesis
Cardiac Output, Low
Operative Blood Salvage
Thoracic Surgical Procedures
Blood Component Transfusion
Analysis of Variance
Predictive Value of Tests
Emergency Medical Services
Myocardial Reperfusion Injury
Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic
Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Transposition of Great Vessels
Coated Materials, Biocompatible
Ventricular Function, Left
Heart Bypass, Right
Internal Mammary-Coronary Artery Anastomosis
Tetralogy of Fallot
Lamotrigine attenuates cortical glutamate release during global cerebral ischemia in pigs on cardiopulmonary bypass. (1/1874)BACKGROUND: The dose-response effects of pretreatment with lamotrigine (a phenyltriazine derivative that inhibits neuronal glutamate release) in a porcine cerebral ischemia model during cardiopulmonary bypass were studied. METHODS: Sagittal sinus catheters and cortical microdialysis catheters were inserted into anesthetized pigs. Animals undergoing normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass were pretreated with lamotrigine 0, 10, 25, or 50 mg/kg (n = 10 per group). Fifteen minutes of global cerebral ischemia was produced, followed by 40 min of reperfusion and discontinuation of cardiopulmonary bypass. Cerebral oxygen metabolism was calculated using cerebral blood flow (radioactive microspheres) and arterial-venous oxygen content gradients. Concentrations of microdialysate glutamate and aspartate were quantified; electroencephalographic signals were recorded. After cardiopulmonary bypass, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were sampled for S-100B protein, and a biopsy was performed on the cerebral cortex for metabolic profile. RESULTS: Lamotrigine caused dose-dependent reductions in systemic vascular resistance so that additional fluid was required to maintain venous return. Concentrations of glutamate and aspartate did not change during reperfusion after 50 mg/kg lamotrigine in contrast to fivefold and twofold increases, respectively, with lower doses. There were no intergroup differences in cerebral metabolism, electroencephalographic scores, cortical metabolites, brain lactate, or S-100B protein concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood. CONCLUSIONS: Lamotrigine 50 mg/kg significantly attenuated excitatory neurotransmitter release during normothermic cerebral ischemia during cardiopulmonary bypass without improving other neurologic parameters. Lamotrigine caused arterial and venous dilation, which limits its clinical usefulness. (+info)
Biventricular repair approach in ducto-dependent neonates with hypoplastic but morphologically normal left ventricle. (2/1874)OBJECTIVES: Increased afterload and multilevel LV obstruction is constant. We assumed that restoration of normal loading conditions by relief of LV obstructions promotes its growth, provided that part of the cardiac output was preoperatively supported by the LV, whatever the echocardiographic indexes. BACKGROUND: Whether to perform uni- or biventricular repair in ducto dependent neonates with hypoplastic but morphologically normal LV (hypoplastic left heart syndrome classes II & III) remains unanswered. Echocardiographic criteria have been proposed for surgical decision. METHODS: Twenty ducto dependent neonates presented with this anomaly. All had aortic coarctation associated to multilevel LV obstruction. Preoperative echocardiographic assessment showed: mean EDLW of 12.4 +/- 3.03 ml/m2 and mean Rhodes score of -1.73 +/-0.8. Surgery consisted in relief of LV outflow tract obstruction by coarctation repair in all associated to aortic commissurotomy in one and ASD closure in 2. RESULTS: There were 3 early and 2 late deaths. Failure of biventricular repair and LV growth was obvious in patients with severe anatomic mitral stenosis. The other demonstrated growth of the left heart. At hospital discharge the EDLVV was 19.4+/-3.12 ml/m2 (p = 0.0001) and the Rhodes score was -0.38+/-1.01 (p = 0.0003). Actuarial survival and freedom from reoperation rates at 5 years were 72.5% and 46%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Biventricular repair can be proposed to ducto dependent neonates with hypoplastic but morphologically normal LV provided that all anatomical causes of LV obstruction can be relieved. Secondary growth of the left heart then occurs; however, the reoperation rate is high. (+info)
Coronary sinus adrenomedullin rises in response to myocardial injury. (3/1874)Human adrenomedullin (ADM), a peptide comprising 52 amino acids, is a circulating hormone with vasodilator properties. We have evaluated its release by the heart following ischaemic myocardial damage, as indicated by elevated levels of the cardiospecific protein troponin-T (Tn-T) during cardiopulmonary bypass. ADM (pg/ml) and Tn-T (ng/ml) were measured in coronary sinus blood before and after aortic cross-clamp and in venous blood 6 h after surgery in 22 coronary-bypass patients. Based on the pre- and post-clamp Tn-T levels in the coronary sinus, the patients were divided into group I (no change; n=10) and group II (two times increase; n=12). Baseline ADM (362.7+/-106.2 and 303+/-58.7 pg/ml in groups I and II respectively; means+/-S.D.) and Tn-T (0.66+/-0.14 and 0.57+/-0.13 ng/ml respectively) levels were similar in both groups. In group I, the post-clamp ADM (317.6+/-80.8 pg/ml) and Tn-T (0.68+/-0.15 ng/ml) levels did not change significantly. In group II, the post-clamp ADM levels rose significantly above the baseline, mimicking the change in Tn-T (ADM, 541.4+/-89.4 pg/ml; Tn-T, 1.37+/-0.31 ng/ml; P=0.009). After 6 h, the systemic Tn-T levels were similar in both groups (2. 09+/-0.44 and 1.95+/-0.52 ng/ml in groups I and II respectively). We suggest that: (1) minor degrees of myocardial ischaemic damage result in release of ADM by the heart, and (2) ADM may play a protective role in the myocardium during an ischaemic insult. This suggests a possible therapeutic role for ADM in the management of intra-operative myocardial ischaemia. (+info)
Transitory cerebral microvascular blockade after cardiopulmonary bypass. (4/1874)Dogs were submitted to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) carried out under conditions calculated to generate large numbers of microbubbles and microemboli. On the day following the procedure the dogs showed evidence of neurological damage including impaired consciousness and ataxia. These abnormalities largely cleared within a week. When the animals were sacrificed at intervals after the procedure, the cerebral microvasculature was demonstrated by injecting a suspension a lamp black into the carotid artery. This revealed that multiple filling defects were present in the microcirculation of the brain immmediately after CPB and for two days thereafter. However, by seven days the microvascular blockade had disappeared, and the vascular blockade had disappeared, and the vascular pattern of the brain had returned to normal. Neuropathological findings were sparse and restricted to the cerebellum. This study suggests that the transient neurological syndromes that sometimes follow cardiopulmonary bypass for heart surgery may be due to a transient microvascular blockade, perhaps by microbubbles and microparticles. (+info)
A single dose of milrinone facilitates separation from cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with pre-existing left ventricular dysfunction. (5/1874)Milrinone is used during cardiac surgery to facilitate separation from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and/or to treat myocardial dysfunction in the post-bypass period. We have demonstrated, in patients with preoperative depression of systolic function undergoing aorto-coronary artery bypass surgery, sustained improvement in cardiac function after a single loading dose of milrinone 50 micrograms kg-1, administered at the end of bypass, thus significantly decreasing the need for beta-agonist therapy. (+info)
Effect of cardiopulmonary bypass and heparin on plasma levels of Lp(a) and Apo(a) fragments. (6/1874)Fragments of apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)], the distinctive glycoprotein of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], are present in human plasma and urine and have been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. The mechanism responsible for the generation of apo(a) fragments in vivo is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the plasma levels of Lp(a) and apo(a) fragments [or free apo(a)] and urinary apo(a) in 15 subjects who underwent cardiac surgery necessitating cardiopulmonary bypass. We also measured the plasma concentration and activity of polymorphonuclear elastase, an Lp(a)-cleaving enzyme in vitro, and plasma levels of C-reactive protein. Despite a marked activation of polymorphonuclear cells and a pronounced inflammatory response, as documented by an 8-fold and a 35-fold increase in plasma levels of polymorphonuclear elastase and C-reactive protein, respectively, the proportion of plasma free apo(a) to Lp(a) and urinary excretion of apo(a) remained unchanged over a 7-day period after surgery, and polymorphonuclear elastase activity remained undetectable in plasma. No fragmentation of apo(a) was observed ex vivo in plasma samples collected before and after surgery. These data indicate that in this model, apo(a) is not fragmented in plasma and are consistent with the hypothesis that apo(a) fragments result from a constitutively active tissue mechanism that is not modified by cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. (+info)
Intraoperative cardiac troponin T release and lactate metabolism during coronary artery surgery: comparison of beating heart with conventional coronary artery surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. (7/1874)OBJECTIVE: To compare cardiac troponin T release and lactate metabolism in coronary sinus and arterial blood during uncomplicated coronary grafting on the beating heart with conventional coronary grafting using cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN: A prospective observational study with simultaneous sampling of coronary sinus and arterial blood: before and 1, 4, 10, and 20 minutes after reperfusion for analysis of cardiac troponin T and lactate. Cardiac troponin T was also analysed in venous samples taken 3, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery. SETTING: Cardiac surgical unit in a tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS: 18 patients undergoing coronary grafting on the beating heart (10 single vessel and eight two-vessel grafting) and eight undergoing two-vessel grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass. RESULTS: Cardiac troponin T was detected in coronary sinus blood in all patients by 20 minutes after beating heart coronary artery surgery before arterial concentrations were consistently increased. Peak arterial and coronary sinus cardiac troponin T values on the beating heart during single (0.03 (0 to 0. 05) and 0.09 (0.07 to 0.16 microg/l, respectively) and two-vessel grafting (0.1 (0.07 to 0.11) and 0.19 (0.14 to 0.25) microg/l) were lower than the values obtained during cardiopulmonary bypass (0.64 (0.52 to 0.72) and 1.4 (0.9 to 2.0) microg/l) (p < 0.05). The area under the curve of venous cardiac troponin T over 72 hours for two-vessel grafting on the beating heart was less than with cardiopulmonary bypass (13 (10 to 16) v 68 (26 to 102) microg.h/l) (p < 0.001). Lactate extraction began within one minute of snare release during beating heart coronary surgery while lactate was still being produced 20 minutes after cross clamp release following cardiopulmonary bypass. CONCLUSIONS: Lower intraoperative and serial venous cardiac troponin T concentrations suggest a lesser degree of myocyte injury during beating heart coronary artery surgery than during cardiopulmonary bypass. Oxidative metabolism also recovers more rapidly with beating heart coronary artery surgery than with conventional coronary grafting. Coronary sinus cardiac troponin T concentrations increased earlier and were greater than arterial concentrations during beating heart surgery, suggesting that this may be a more sensitive method of intraoperative assessment of myocardial injury. (+info)
Urgent homograft aortic root replacement for aortic root abscess in infants and children. (8/1874)OBJECTIVE: To assess the results of early homograft aortic root replacement in infants and children with an aortic root abscess. DESIGN: Descriptive study of all patients with an aortic root abscess during 1987-97, identified by retrospective review of the echocardiographic and surgical registries. SETTING: A tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS: Five patients (age 0.6 to 13 years; two female) were identified with an aortic root abscess. Four had no known pre-existing congenital heart abnormality. Three had a misleading presentation and were referred to our hospital with non-cardiac diagnoses (fulminant hepatic failure; adult respiratory distress syndrome; cerebrovascular accident). The other two presented with septicaemia and a murmur, respectively. Blood cultures identified Staphylococcus aureus (n = 3) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 2). Aortic root abscess was diagnosed by transthoracic echocardiography. INTERVENTIONS: Homograft aortic root replacement with coronary reimplantation was performed urgently (median one day after diagnosis). RESULTS: Four patients survived. The youngest died following multiorgan failure, multiple aortic fistulae, three valve involvement, and extensive tissue destruction preventing mitral valve replacement (S pneumoniae). Two of the four survivors have required further surgery: mitral valve replacement (0.3 years later), and pulmonary autograft replacement of the homograft (8.3 years later). All survivors remain in sinus rhythm and New York Heart Association functional class I. CONCLUSIONS: Infective endocarditis should be considered in any child with severe septicaemia or embolic phenomena. Echocardiographic diagnosis of an aortic root abscess indicates uncontrolled infection and impending haemodynamic collapse. Homograft aortic root replacement can be performed successfully in critically ill children with active infection. (+info)
There are two types of heart arrest:
1. Asystole - This is when the heart stops functioning completely and there is no electrical activity in the heart.
2. Pulseless ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation - This is when the heart is still functioning but there is no pulse and the rhythm is abnormal.
Heart arrest can be diagnosed through various tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), blood tests, and echocardiography. Treatment options for heart arrest include cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), defibrillation, and medications to restore a normal heart rhythm.
In severe cases of heart arrest, the patient may require advanced life support measures such as mechanical ventilation and cardiac support devices. The prognosis for heart arrest is generally poor, especially if it is not treated promptly and effectively. However, with proper treatment and support, some patients can recover and regain normal heart function.
1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.
It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.
Types of congenital heart defects include:
1. Ventricular septal defect (VSD): A hole in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart, allowing abnormal blood flow.
2. Atrial septal defect (ASD): A hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart, also allowing abnormal blood flow.
3. Tetralogy of Fallot: A combination of four heart defects, including VSD, pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve), and abnormal development of the infundibulum (a part of the heart that connects the ventricles to the pulmonary artery).
4. Transposition of the great vessels: A condition in which the aorta and/or pulmonary artery are placed in the wrong position, disrupting blood flow.
5. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS): A severe defect in which the left side of the heart is underdeveloped, resulting in insufficient blood flow to the body.
6. Pulmonary atresia: A condition in which the pulmonary valve does not form properly, blocking blood flow to the lungs.
7. Truncus arteriosus: A rare defect in which a single artery instead of two (aorta and pulmonary artery) arises from the heart.
8. Double-outlet right ventricle: A condition in which both the aorta and the pulmonary artery arise from the right ventricle instead of the left ventricle.
Causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetics, environmental factors, and viral infections during pregnancy may play a role. Diagnosis is typically made through fetal echocardiography or cardiac ultrasound during pregnancy or after birth. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the defect and may include medication, surgery, or heart transplantation. With advances in medical technology and treatment, many children with congenital heart disease can lead active, healthy lives into adulthood.
1. Injury to blood vessels during surgery
2. Poor suturing or stapling techniques
3. Bleeding disorders or use of anticoagulant medications
4. Infection or hematoma (a collection of blood outside the blood vessels)
5. Delayed recovery of blood clotting function
Postoperative hemorrhage can range from mild to severe and life-threatening. Mild bleeding may present as oozing or trickling of blood from the surgical site, while severe bleeding can lead to hypovolemic shock, organ failure, and even death.
To diagnose postoperative hemorrhage, a physical examination and medical history are usually sufficient. Imaging studies such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be ordered to evaluate the extent of bleeding and identify any underlying causes.
Treatment of postoperative hemorrhage depends on the severity and location of the bleeding. Mild bleeding may be managed with dressings, compression bandages, and elevation of the affected limb. Severe bleeding may require interventions such as:
1. Surgical exploration to locate and control the source of bleeding
2. Transfusion of blood products or fresh frozen plasma to restore clotting function
3. Use of vasopressors to raise blood pressure and perfuse vital organs
4. Hemostatic agents such as clotting factors, fibrin sealants, or hemostatic powder to promote clot formation
5. In some cases, surgical intervention may be required to repair damaged blood vessels or organs.
Prevention of postoperative hemorrhage is crucial in reducing the risk of complications and improving patient outcomes. Preventive measures include:
1. Proper preoperative evaluation and preparation, including assessment of bleeding risk factors
2. Use of appropriate anesthesia and surgical techniques to minimize tissue trauma
3. Conservative use of hemostatic agents and blood products during surgery
4. Closure of all bleeding sites before completion of the procedure
5. Monitoring of vital signs, including pulse rate and blood pressure, during and after surgery
6. Preoperative and postoperative management of underlying conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, and coagulopathies.
Early recognition and prompt intervention are critical in effectively managing postoperative hemorrhage. In cases of severe bleeding, timely and appropriate interventions can reduce the risk of complications and improve patient outcomes.
In general, surgical blood loss is considered excessive if it exceeds 10-20% of the patient's total blood volume. This can be determined by measuring the patient's hemoglobin levels before and after the procedure. A significant decrease in hemoglobin levels post-procedure may indicate excessive blood loss.
There are several factors that can contribute to surgical blood loss, including:
1. Injury to blood vessels or organs during the surgical procedure
2. Poor surgical technique
3. Use of scalpels or other sharp instruments that can cause bleeding
4. Failure to control bleeding with proper hemostatic techniques
5. Pre-existing medical conditions that increase the risk of bleeding, such as hemophilia or von Willebrand disease.
Excessive surgical blood loss can lead to a number of complications, including:
1. Anemia and low blood counts
2. Hypovolemic shock (a life-threatening condition caused by excessive fluid and blood loss)
3. Infection or sepsis
4. Poor wound healing
5. Reoperation or surgical intervention to control bleeding.
To prevent or minimize surgical blood loss, surgeons may use a variety of techniques, such as:
1. Applying topical hemostatic agents to the surgical site before starting the procedure
2. Using energy-based devices (such as lasers or ultrasonic devices) to seal blood vessels and control bleeding
3. Employing advanced surgical techniques that minimize tissue trauma and reduce the risk of bleeding
4. Monitoring the patient's hemoglobin levels throughout the procedure and taking appropriate action if bleeding becomes excessive.
The SIRS criteria were first established by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1992 and have since been widely adopted by healthcare professionals around the world. These criteria include:
1. Body temperature >38°C (>100.4°F) or <36°C (<96.8°F)
2. Heart rate >90 beats per minute in infants <3 months old, or >100 beats per minute in infants >3 months old and children <12 years old, or >120 beats per minute in adolescents and adults
3. Respiratory rate >24 breaths per minute, or arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) <32 mmHg
4. White blood cell count >12,000 cells/mm3, or band forms >10% of total white blood cells, or presence of bacteria in the blood or other bodily fluids
5. Clinical signs of infection, such as tachycardia, tachypnea, or signs of sepsis (e.g., altered mental status, confusion, or hypotension)
If a patient meets two or more of these criteria, they are considered to have SIRS. The diagnosis is based on the presence of an inflammatory response, rather than the specific cause of the response.
The management of SIRS involves identifying and treating the underlying cause of the inflammation, as well as providing supportive care to address any complications that may have arisen. This can include antibiotics for bacterial infections, fluid resuscitation to maintain blood pressure and hydration, and oxygen therapy to improve oxygenation of the body's tissues. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide more intensive care and monitoring.
It is important to note that SIRS can progress to sepsis if left untreated or if the underlying infection is not effectively managed. Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that can lead to organ failure and death. Therefore, it is crucial to identify and treat SIRS promptly and effectively to prevent progression to sepsis.
Some common examples of intraoperative complications include:
1. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding during surgery can lead to hypovolemia (low blood volume), anemia (low red blood cell count), and even death.
2. Infection: Surgical wounds can become infected, leading to sepsis or bacteremia (bacterial infection of the bloodstream).
3. Nerve damage: Surgery can sometimes result in nerve damage, leading to numbness, weakness, or paralysis.
4. Organ injury: Injury to organs such as the liver, lung, or bowel can occur during surgery, leading to complications such as bleeding, infection, or organ failure.
5. Anesthesia-related complications: Problems with anesthesia can include respiratory or cardiac depression, allergic reactions, or awareness during anesthesia (a rare but potentially devastating complication).
6. Hypotension: Low blood pressure during surgery can lead to inadequate perfusion of vital organs and tissues, resulting in organ damage or death.
7. Thromboembolism: Blood clots can form during surgery and travel to other parts of the body, causing complications such as stroke, pulmonary embolism, or deep vein thrombosis.
8. Postoperative respiratory failure: Respiratory complications can occur after surgery, leading to respiratory failure, pneumonia, or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
9. Wound dehiscence: The incision site can separate or come open after surgery, leading to infection, fluid accumulation, or hernia.
10. Seroma: A collection of serous fluid that can develop at the surgical site, which can become infected and cause complications.
11. Nerve damage: Injury to nerves during surgery can result in numbness, weakness, or paralysis, sometimes permanently.
12. Urinary retention or incontinence: Surgery can damage the bladder or urinary sphincter, leading to urinary retention or incontinence.
13. Hematoma: A collection of blood that can develop at the surgical site, which can become infected and cause complications.
14. Pneumonia: Inflammation of the lungs after surgery can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi and can lead to serious complications.
15. Sepsis: A systemic inflammatory response to infection that can occur after surgery, leading to organ dysfunction and death if not treated promptly.
It is important to note that these are potential complications, and not all patients will experience them. Additionally, many of these complications are rare, and the vast majority of surgeries are successful with minimal or no complications. However, it is important for patients to be aware of the potential risks before undergoing surgery so they can make an informed decision about their care.
A blockage caused by air bubbles in the bloodstream, which can occur after a sudden change in atmospheric pressure (e.g., during an airplane flight or scuba diving). Air embolism can cause a variety of symptoms, including shortness of breath, chest pain, and stroke. It is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical attention.
Note: Air embolism can also occur in the venous system, causing a pulmonary embolism (blockage of an artery in the lungs). This is a more common condition and is discussed separately.
There are many different types of heart diseases, including:
1. Coronary artery disease: The buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, leading to chest pain or a heart attack.
2. Heart failure: When the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, leading to fatigue, shortness of breath, and swelling in the legs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms, such as atrial fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia, which can cause palpitations, dizziness, and shortness of breath.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves, which can lead to blood leaking back into the chambers or not being pumped effectively.
5. Cardiomyopathy: Disease of the heart muscle, which can lead to weakened heart function and heart failure.
6. Heart murmurs: Abnormal sounds heard during a heartbeat, which can be caused by defects in the heart valves or abnormal blood flow.
7. Congenital heart disease: Heart defects present at birth, such as holes in the heart or abnormal blood vessels.
8. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): Damage to the heart muscle due to a lack of oxygen, often caused by a blockage in a coronary artery.
9. Cardiac tamponade: Fluid accumulation around the heart, which can cause compression of the heart and lead to cardiac arrest.
10. Endocarditis: Infection of the inner lining of the heart, which can cause fever, fatigue, and heart valve damage.
Heart diseases can be diagnosed through various tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, stress test, and blood tests. Treatment options depend on the specific condition and may include lifestyle changes, medication, surgery, or a combination of these.
The symptoms of an aortic aneurysm can vary depending on its size and location. Small aneurysms may not cause any symptoms at all, while larger ones may cause:
* Pain in the abdomen or back
* Pulsatile abdominal mass that can be felt through the skin
* Numbness or weakness in the legs
* Difficulty speaking or swallowing (if the aneurysm is pressing on the vocal cords)
* Sudden, severe pain if the aneurysm ruptures.
If you suspect that you or someone else may have an aortic aneurysm, it is important to seek medical attention right away. Aortic aneurysms can be diagnosed with imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and treated with surgery to repair or replace the affected section of the aorta.
In this article, we will discuss the causes and risk factors for aortic aneurysms, the symptoms and diagnosis of this condition, and the treatment options available. We will also cover the prognosis and outlook for patients with aortic aneurysms, as well as any lifestyle changes that may help reduce the risk of developing this condition.
CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS:
Aortic aneurysms are caused by weaknesses in the wall of the aorta, which can be due to genetic or acquired factors. Some of the known risk factors for developing an aortic aneurysm include:
* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Gender (men are more likely to develop an aortic aneurysm than women)
* Family history of aneurysms
* High blood pressure
* Atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the arteries)
* Connective tissue disorders such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
* Previous heart surgery or radiation therapy to the chest
In many cases, aortic aneurysms do not cause any symptoms in the early stages. However, as the aneurysm grows and puts pressure on nearby blood vessels or organs, patients may experience some of the following symptoms:
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Back pain
* Shortness of breath
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Confusion or weakness
Aortic aneurysms are typically diagnosed using imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans. These tests can provide detailed images of the aorta and help doctors identify any abnormalities or dilations. Other diagnostic tests may include echocardiography, ultrasound, or angiography.
The treatment for an aortic aneurysm will depend on the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health. Some options may include:
* Monitoring: Small aneurysms that are not causing any symptoms may not require immediate treatment. Instead, doctors may recommend regular check-ups to monitor the aneurysm's size and progression.
* Surgery: If the aneurysm is large or growing rapidly, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace the affected section of the aorta. This may involve replacing the aneurysm with a synthetic tube or sewing a patch over the aneurysm to reinforce the aortic wall.
* Endovascular repair: In some cases, doctors may use a minimally invasive procedure called endovascular repair to treat the aneurysm. This involves inserting a small tube (called a stent) into the affected area through a small incision in the groin. The stent is then expanded to reinforce the aortic wall and prevent further growth of the aneurysm.
The prognosis for aortic aneurysms is generally good if they are detected and treated early. However, if left untreated, aortic aneurysms can lead to serious complications, such as:
* Aneurysm rupture: This is the most severe complication of aortic aneurysms and can be life-threatening. If the aneurysm ruptures, it can cause massive internal bleeding and potentially lead to death.
* Blood clots: Aortic aneurysms can increase the risk of blood clots forming in the affected area. These clots can break loose and travel to other parts of the body, causing further complications.
* Heart problems: Large aortic aneurysms can put pressure on the heart and surrounding vessels, leading to heart problems such as heart failure or coronary artery disease.
There is no guaranteed way to prevent aortic aneurysms, but there are several factors that may reduce the risk of developing one. These include:
* Family history: If you have a family history of aortic aneurysms, your doctor may recommend more frequent monitoring and check-ups to detect any potential problems early.
* High blood pressure: High blood pressure is a major risk factor for aortic aneurysms, so managing your blood pressure through lifestyle changes and medication can help reduce the risk.
* Smoking: Smoking is also a major risk factor for aortic aneurysms, so quitting smoking can help reduce the risk.
* Healthy diet: Eating a healthy diet that is low in salt and fat can help reduce the risk of developing high blood pressure and other conditions that may increase the risk of aortic aneurysms.
Aortic aneurysms are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests. These may include:
* Physical examination: Your doctor may check for any signs of an aneurysm by feeling your pulse and listening to your heart with a stethoscope. They may also check for any swelling or tenderness in your abdomen.
* Medical history: Your doctor will ask about your medical history, including any previous heart conditions or surgeries.
* Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI can be used to confirm the diagnosis and measure the size of the aneurysm.
The treatment for aortic aneurysms depends on the size of the aneurysm and how quickly it is growing. For small aneurysms that are not growing, doctors may recommend regular monitoring with imaging tests to check the size of the aneurysm. For larger aneurysms that are growing rapidly, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace the aorta.
There are several surgical options for repairing an aortic aneurysm, including:
* Open surgery: This is the traditional method of repairing an aortic aneurysm, where the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to access the aorta and repair the aneurysm.
* Endovascular repair: This is a minimally invasive procedure where the surgeon uses a catheter to insert a stent or graft into the aorta to repair the aneurysm.
After surgery, you will be monitored in the intensive care unit for several days to ensure that there are no complications. You may have a drainage tube inserted into your chest to remove any fluid that accumulates during and after surgery. You will also have various monitors to check your heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen levels.
The recovery time for aortic aneurysm repair can vary depending on the size of the aneurysm and the type of surgery performed. In general, patients who undergo endovascular repair have a faster recovery time than those who undergo open surgery. You may need to take medications to prevent blood clots and manage pain after surgery. You will also need to follow up with your doctor regularly to check on the healing of the aneurysm and the functioning of the heart.
The long-term outlook for patients who undergo aortic aneurysm repair is generally good, especially if the surgery is successful and there are no complications. However, patients with large aneurysms or those who have had complications during surgery may be at higher risk for long-term health problems. Some potential long-term complications include:
* Infection of the incision site or graft
* Inflammation of the aorta (aortitis)
* Blood clots forming in the graft or legs
* Narrowing or blockage of the aorta
* Heart problems, such as heart failure or arrhythmias.
It is important to follow up with your doctor regularly to monitor your condition and address any potential complications early on.
After undergoing aortic aneurysm repair, you may need to make some lifestyle changes to help manage the condition and reduce the risk of complications. These may include:
* Avoiding heavy lifting or bending
* Taking regular exercise to improve cardiovascular health
* Eating a healthy diet that is low in salt and fat
* Quitting smoking, if you are a smoker
* Managing high blood pressure and other underlying medical conditions.
It is important to discuss any specific lifestyle changes with your doctor before making any significant changes to your daily routine. They can provide personalized guidance based on your individual needs and condition.
Undergoing aortic aneurysm repair can be a stressful and emotional experience, both for the patient and their loved ones. It is important to seek emotional support during this time to help cope with the challenges of the procedure and recovery. This may include:
* Talking to family and friends about your feelings and concerns
* Joining a support group for patients with aortic aneurysms or other cardiovascular conditions
* Seeking counseling or therapy to manage stress and anxiety
* Connecting with online resources and forums to learn more about the condition and share experiences with others.
Remember, it is important to prioritize your mental health and well-being during this time, as well as your physical health. Seeking emotional support can be an important part of the recovery process and can help you feel more supported and empowered throughout the journey.
There are several types of heart valve diseases, including:
1. Mitral regurgitation: This occurs when the mitral valve does not close properly, allowing blood to flow backward into the left atrium.
2. Aortic stenosis: This occurs when the aortic valve becomes narrowed or blocked, restricting blood flow from the left ventricle into the aorta.
3. Pulmonary stenosis: This occurs when the pulmonary valve becomes narrowed or blocked, restricting blood flow from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery.
4. Tricuspid regurgitation: This occurs when the tricuspid valve does not close properly, allowing blood to flow backward into the right atrium.
5. Heart valve thickening or calcification: This can occur due to aging, rheumatic fever, or other conditions that cause inflammation in the heart.
6. Endocarditis: This is an infection of the inner lining of the heart, which can damage the heart valves.
7. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a condition caused by rheumatic fever, which can damage the heart valves and cause scarring.
8. Congenital heart defects: These are heart defects that are present at birth, and can affect the heart valves as well as other structures of the heart.
Symptoms of heart valve disease can include shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling in the legs or feet, and chest pain. Treatment options for heart valve disease depend on the specific condition and can range from medication to surgery or other procedures.
There are several types of heart injuries that can occur, including:
1. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): This occurs when the blood flow to the heart is blocked, causing damage to the heart muscle.
2. Cardiac tamponade: This occurs when fluid accumulates in the space between the heart and the sac that surrounds it, putting pressure on the heart and impeding its ability to function properly.
3. Myocarditis: This is an inflammation of the heart muscle that can be caused by a virus or bacteria.
4. Pericardial tamponade: This occurs when fluid accumulates in the space between the heart and the sac that surrounds it, putting pressure on the heart and impeding its ability to function properly.
5. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
6. Coronary artery disease: This occurs when the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart, become narrowed or blocked, leading to damage to the heart muscle.
7. Cardiac rupture: This is a rare and severe injury that occurs when the heart muscle tears or ruptures.
Symptoms of heart injuries can include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, and irregular heartbeat. Treatment options for heart injuries depend on the severity of the injury and can range from medications to surgery. In some cases, heart injuries may be fatal if not properly treated.
In conclusion, heart injuries are a serious medical condition that can have long-term consequences if not properly treated. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms of a heart injury are present.
The definition of AKI has evolved over time, and it is now defined as a syndrome characterized by an abrupt or rapid decrease in kidney function, with or without oliguria (decreased urine production), and with evidence of tubular injury. The RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage kidney disease) criteria are commonly used to diagnose and stage AKI based on serum creatinine levels, urine output, and other markers of kidney damage.
There are three stages of AKI, with stage 1 representing mild injury and stage 3 representing severe and potentially life-threatening injury. Treatment of AKI typically involves addressing the underlying cause, correcting fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and providing supportive care to maintain blood pressure and oxygenation. In some cases, dialysis may be necessary to remove waste products from the blood.
Early detection and treatment of AKI are crucial to prevent long-term damage to the kidneys and improve outcomes for patients.
In Vfib, the electrical activity of the heart becomes disorganized, leading to a fibrillatory pattern of contraction. This means that the ventricles are contracting in a rapid, unsynchronized manner, rather than the coordinated, synchronized contractions that occur in normal heart function.
Vfib can be caused by a variety of factors, including coronary artery disease, heart attack, cardiomyopathy, and electrolyte imbalances. It can also be triggered by certain medications, such as digoxin, or by electrical shocks to the heart.
Symptoms of Vfib include palpitations, shortness of breath, chest pain, and loss of consciousness. If not treated promptly, Vfib can lead to cardiac arrest and death.
Treatment of Vfib typically involves electrical cardioversion, which involves delivering an electric shock to the heart to restore a normal heart rhythm. In some cases, medications may also be used to help regulate the heart rhythm. In more severe cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary to address any underlying causes of Vfib.
Overall, ventricular fibrillation is a serious medical condition that requires prompt treatment to prevent complications and ensure effective cardiac function.
There are several types of heart septal defects, including atrial septal defects, ventricular septal defects, and mitral valve defects. Ventricular septal defects are the most common type and occur when there is an abnormal opening in the wall between the right and left ventricles.
Symptoms of heart septal defects can include shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and feet. In some cases, the defect may not cause any symptoms at all until later in life.
Diagnosis of heart septal defects is typically made using echocardiography, electrocardiography (ECG), or chest X-rays. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of the defect and can include medication to manage symptoms, surgery to repair the defect, or catheter procedures to close the opening. In some cases, heart septal defects may be treated with a procedure called balloon atrial septostomy, in which a balloon is inserted through a catheter into the abnormal opening and inflated to close it.
Prognosis for patients with heart septal defects depends on the severity of the defect and the presence of any other congenital heart defects. In general, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and endocardrial infection.
In summary, heart septal defects, ventricular type, are congenital heart defects that occur when there is an abnormal opening in the wall between the right and left ventricles of the heart. Symptoms can include shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and feet. Diagnosis is typically made using echocardiography, electrocardiography (ECG), or chest X-rays. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of the defect and can include medication, surgery, or catheter procedures. Prognosis is generally good for patients with heart septal defects if they receive early diagnosis and treatment.
Heart neoplasms, also known as cardiac tumors, are abnormal growths that occur within the heart muscle or on the surface of the heart. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant heart tumors are rare but can be aggressive and potentially life-threatening.
Types of Heart Neoplasms:
1. Benign tumors: These include fibromas, lipomas, and teratomas, which are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body.
2. Malignant tumors: These include sarcomas, carcinomas, and lymphomas, which can be more aggressive and may spread to other parts of the body.
Causes and Risk Factors:
The exact cause of heart neoplasms is not fully understood, but several factors have been linked to an increased risk of developing these tumors. These include:
1. Genetic mutations: Some heart neoplasms may be caused by inherited genetic mutations.
2. Viral infections: Some viruses, such as human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1), have been linked to an increased risk of developing heart tumors.
3. Radiation exposure: Radiation therapy to the chest area can increase the risk of developing heart tumors.
4. Previous heart surgery: People who have had previous heart surgery may be at higher risk of developing heart neoplasms.
Symptoms and Diagnosis:
The symptoms of heart neoplasms can vary depending on the size and location of the tumor. They may include:
1. Chest pain or discomfort
2. Shortness of breath
5. Swelling in the legs, ankles, or feet
Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), echocardiograms, and cardiac imaging studies. A biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment and Prognosis:
The treatment of heart neoplasms depends on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include:
1. Watchful waiting: Small, benign tumors may not require immediate treatment and can be monitored with regular check-ups.
2. Surgery: Surgical removal of the tumor may be necessary for larger or more aggressive tumors.
3. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy drugs may be used to shrink the tumor before surgery or to treat any remaining cancer cells after surgery.
4. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used to treat heart neoplasms that are difficult to remove with surgery or that have returned after previous treatment.
The prognosis for heart neoplasms varies depending on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. In general, the earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the prognosis. However, some heart neoplasms can be aggressive and may have a poor prognosis despite treatment.
Heart neoplasms can cause a variety of complications, including:
1. Heart failure: Tumors that obstruct the heart's pumping activity can lead to heart failure.
2. Arrhythmias: Tumors can disrupt the heart's electrical activity and cause arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms).
3. Thrombus formation: Tumors can increase the risk of blood clots forming within the heart.
4. Septicemia: Bacterial infections can occur within the tumor, leading to septicemia (blood poisoning).
5. Respiratory failure: Large tumors can compress the lungs and lead to respiratory failure.
Heart neoplasms are rare but potentially life-threatening conditions that require prompt diagnosis and treatment. While some heart neoplasms are benign, others can be aggressive and may have a poor prognosis despite treatment. It is essential to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early detection and treatment can improve outcomes.
Signs and symptoms of cardiogenic shock may include:
* Shortness of breath
* Chest pain or discomfort
* Confusion or altered mental status
* Cool, clammy skin
* Weak or absent pulse in the arms and legs
* Rapid or irregular heartbeat
* Low blood pressure
Treatment of cardiogenic shock typically involves supportive care to help the heart pump more effectively, as well as medications to help improve blood flow and reduce inflammation. In some cases, a procedure called extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be used to take over the work of the heart and lungs.
Cardiogenic shock can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Heart attack or myocardial infarction
* Heart failure or ventricular dysfunction
* Cardiac tamponade or fluid accumulation in the space around the heart
* Myocarditis or inflammation of the heart muscle
* Coronary artery disease or blockages in the blood vessels that supply the heart
* Other conditions that can cause damage to the heart, such as aortic dissection or endocarditis.
The buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries is often caused by high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, and a family history of heart disease. The plaque can also rupture, causing a blood clot to form, which can completely block the flow of blood to the heart muscle, leading to a heart attack.
CAD is the most common type of heart disease and is often asymptomatic until a serious event occurs. Risk factors for CAD include:
* Age (men over 45 and women over 55)
* Gender (men are at greater risk than women, but women are more likely to die from CAD)
* Family history of heart disease
* High blood pressure
* High cholesterol
* Lack of exercise
Diagnosis of CAD typically involves a physical exam, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as:
* Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
* Stress test
* Coronary angiography
Treatment for CAD may include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and quitting smoking. Medications such as beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, and statins may also be prescribed to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. In severe cases, surgical intervention such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may be necessary.
Prevention of CAD includes managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes, quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, and getting regular exercise. Early detection and treatment of CAD can help to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life for those affected by the disease.
Coronary disease is often caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, obesity, and a lack of physical activity. It can also be triggered by other medical conditions, such as diabetes and kidney disease.
The symptoms of coronary disease can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:
* Chest pain or discomfort (angina)
* Shortness of breath
* Swelling of the legs and feet
* Pain in the arms and back
Coronary disease is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and cardiac imaging. Treatment for coronary disease may include lifestyle changes, medications to control symptoms, and surgical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.
Preventative measures for coronary disease include:
* Maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine
* Quitting smoking and limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and other underlying medical conditions
* Reducing stress through relaxation techniques or therapy.
Cardiac output is typically measured using invasive or non-invasive methods. Invasive methods involve inserting a catheter into the heart to directly measure cardiac output. Non-invasive methods include echocardiography, MRI, and CT scans. These tests can provide an estimate of cardiac output based on the volume of blood being pumped out of the heart and the rate at which it is being pumped.
There are several factors that can contribute to low cardiac output. These include:
1. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, leading to fatigue and shortness of breath.
2. Anemia: A low red blood cell count can reduce the amount of oxygen being delivered to the body's tissues, leading to fatigue and weakness.
3. Medication side effects: Certain medications, such as beta blockers, can slow down the heart rate and reduce cardiac output.
4. Sepsis: A severe infection can lead to inflammation throughout the body, which can affect the heart's ability to pump blood effectively.
5. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): This occurs when the heart muscle is damaged due to a lack of oxygen, leading to reduced cardiac output.
Low cardiac output can cause a range of symptoms, including:
1. Fatigue and weakness
2. Dizziness and lightheadedness
3. Shortness of breath
4. Pale skin
5. Decreased urine output
6. Confusion and disorientation
The treatment of low cardiac output depends on the underlying cause. Treatment may include:
1. Medications to increase heart rate and contractility
2. Diuretics to reduce fluid buildup in the body
3. Oxygen therapy to increase oxygenation of tissues
4. Mechanical support devices, such as intra-aortic balloon pumps or ventricular assist devices
5. Surgery to repair or replace damaged heart tissue
6. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, to improve cardiovascular health.
Preventing low cardiac output involves managing any underlying medical conditions, taking medications as directed, and making lifestyle changes to improve cardiovascular health. This may include:
1. Monitoring and controlling blood pressure
2. Managing diabetes and other chronic conditions
3. Avoiding substances that can damage the heart, such as tobacco and excessive alcohol
4. Exercising regularly
5. Eating a healthy diet that is low in saturated fats and cholesterol
6. Maintaining a healthy weight.
Symptoms of pulmonary atelectasis may include chest pain, coughing up bloody mucus, difficulty breathing, fever, and chills. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial infections, and in severe cases, mechanical ventilation may be necessary. In some cases, surgery may be required to remove the blockage or repair the damage to the lung.
Pulmonary atelectasis is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention to prevent complications such as respiratory failure or sepsis. It can be diagnosed through chest X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, and pulmonary function tests.
Hypothermia can be mild, moderate, or severe. Mild hypothermia is characterized by shivering and a body temperature of 95 to 97 degrees Fahrenheit (32 to 36.1 degrees Celsius). Moderate hypothermia has a body temperature of 82 to 94 degrees Fahrenheit (28 to 34 degrees Celsius), and the person may appear lethargic, drowsy, or confused. Severe hypothermia is characterized by a body temperature below 82 degrees Fahrenheit (28 degrees Celsius) and can lead to coma and even death if not treated promptly.
Treatment for hypothermia typically involves warming the person up slowly, using blankets or heating pads, and providing warm fluids to drink. In severe cases, medical professionals may use a specialized warm water bath or apply warm packs to specific areas of the body.
Preventing hypothermia is important, especially in cold weather conditions. This can be done by dressing appropriately for the weather, staying dry and avoiding wet clothing, eating regularly to maintain energy levels, and seeking shelter if you become stranded or lost. It's also essential to recognize the signs of hypothermia early on so that treatment can begin promptly.
Some common types of lung diseases include:
1. Asthma: A chronic condition characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
2. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A progressive condition that causes chronic inflammation and damage to the airways and lungs, making it difficult to breathe.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to fever, chills, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bronchiectasis: A condition where the airways are damaged and widened, leading to chronic infections and inflammation.
5. Pulmonary Fibrosis: A condition where the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
6. Lung Cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the lungs, often caused by smoking or exposure to carcinogens.
7. Cystic Fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory and digestive systems, leading to chronic infections and inflammation in the lungs.
8. Tuberculosis (TB): An infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, which primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
9. Pulmonary Embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, often caused by a blood clot that has traveled from another part of the body.
10. Sarcoidosis: An inflammatory disease that affects various organs in the body, including the lungs, leading to the formation of granulomas and scarring.
These are just a few examples of conditions that can affect the lungs and respiratory system. It's important to note that many of these conditions can be treated with medication, therapy, or surgery, but early detection is key to successful treatment outcomes.
1. Aneurysms: A bulge or ballooning in the wall of the aorta that can lead to rupture and life-threatening bleeding.
2. Atherosclerosis: The buildup of plaque in the inner lining of the aorta, which can narrow the artery and restrict blood flow.
3. Dissections: A tear in the inner layer of the aortic wall that can cause bleeding and lead to an aneurysm.
4. Thoracic aortic disease: Conditions that affect the thoracic portion of the aorta, such as atherosclerosis or dissections.
5. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: Enlargement of the abdominal aorta that can lead to rupture and life-threatening bleeding.
6. Aortic stenosis: Narrowing of the aortic valve, which can impede blood flow from the heart into the aorta.
7. Aortic regurgitation: Backflow of blood from the aorta into the heart due to a faulty aortic valve.
8. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the body's connective tissue, including the aorta.
9. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: A group of genetic disorders that affect the body's connective tissue, including the aorta.
10. Turner syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects females and can cause aortic diseases.
Aortic diseases can be diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition and may include medication, surgery, or endovascular procedures.
In medicine, cyanosis is often used as an indication of the severity of a patient's condition. For example, a patient with severe cyanosis may have a more serious underlying condition than a patient with mild cyanosis. Additionally, cyanosis can be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to determine when further interventions are necessary.
Cyanosis can be diagnosed through physical examination, blood tests, and other diagnostic procedures such as pulse oximetry or arterial blood gas analysis. Treatment for cyanosis depends on the underlying cause and may include oxygen therapy, medication, or surgical intervention.
In summary, cyanosis is a condition characterized by a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to inadequate oxygenation of the body's tissues. It is an important sign of underlying disease and can be used to assess the severity of a patient's condition and monitor the effectiveness of treatment.
Dissecting aneurysms are often caused by trauma, such as a car accident or fall, but they can also be caused by other factors such as atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) or inherited conditions. They can occur in any blood vessel, but are most common in the aorta, which is the main artery that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
Symptoms of dissecting aneurysms can include sudden and severe pain, numbness or weakness, and difficulty speaking or understanding speech. If left untreated, a dissecting aneurysm can lead to serious complications such as stroke, heart attack, or death.
Treatment for dissecting aneurysms typically involves surgery to repair the damaged blood vessel. In some cases, endovascular procedures such as stenting or coiling may be used to treat the aneurysm. The goal of treatment is to prevent further bleeding and damage to the blood vessel, and to restore normal blood flow to the affected area.
Preventive measures for dissecting aneurysms are not always possible, but maintaining a healthy lifestyle, avoiding trauma, and managing underlying conditions such as hypertension or atherosclerosis can help reduce the risk of developing an aneurysm. Early detection and treatment are key to preventing serious complications and improving outcomes for patients with dissecting aneurysms.
There are several types of ischemia, including:
1. Myocardial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, which can lead to chest pain or a heart attack.
2. Cerebral ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the brain, which can lead to stroke or cognitive impairment.
3. Peripheral arterial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the legs and arms.
4. Renal ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the kidneys.
5. Hepatic ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the liver.
Ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for ischemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgical interventions.
MRI can occur in various cardiovascular conditions, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrest, and cardiac surgery. The severity of MRI can range from mild to severe, depending on the extent and duration of the ischemic event.
The pathophysiology of MRI involves a complex interplay of various cellular and molecular mechanisms. During ischemia, the heart muscle cells undergo changes in energy metabolism, electrolyte balance, and cell membrane function. When blood flow is restored, these changes can lead to an influx of calcium ions into the cells, activation of enzymes, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage the cells and their membranes.
The clinical presentation of MRI can vary depending on the severity of the injury. Some patients may experience chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Others may have more severe symptoms, such as cardiogenic shock or ventricular arrhythmias. The diagnosis of MRI is based on a combination of clinical findings, electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, and cardiac biomarkers.
The treatment of MRI is focused on addressing the underlying cause of the injury and managing its symptoms. For example, in patients with myocardial infarction, thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention may be used to restore blood flow to the affected area. In patients with cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and other life-saving interventions may be necessary.
Prevention of MRI is crucial in reducing its incidence and severity. This involves aggressive risk factor management, such as controlling hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, as well as smoking cessation and stress reduction. Additionally, patients with a history of MI should adhere to their medication regimen, which may include beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or ARBs, statins, and aspirin.
In conclusion, myocardial injury with ST-segment elevation (MRI) is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt recognition and treatment. While the clinical presentation can vary depending on the severity of the injury, early diagnosis and management are crucial in reducing morbidity and mortality. Prevention through aggressive risk factor management and adherence to medication regimens is also essential in preventing MRI.
* Chest pain or discomfort
* Shortness of breath
* Coughing up blood
* Pain in the back or shoulders
* Dizziness or fainting
Diagnosis is typically made with imaging tests such as chest X-rays, CT scans, or MRI. Treatment may involve monitoring the aneurysm with regular imaging tests to check for growth, or surgery to repair or replace the affected section of the aorta.
This term is used in the medical field to identify a specific type of aneurysm and differentiate it from other types of aneurysms that occur in different locations.
OHCA is a life-threatening medical emergency that requires immediate attention and treatment. If not treated promptly, OHCA can lead to brain damage, disability, or even death.
The symptoms of OHCA are similar to those of in-hospital cardiac arrest, and may include:
* Loss of consciousness (fainting)
* No breathing or abnormal breathing (gasping or gurgling sounds)
* No pulse or a very weak pulse
* Blue lips and skin (cyanosis)
If you suspect someone has experienced OHCA, it is important to call emergency services immediately. While waiting for help to arrive, follow these steps:
1. Check the person's airway, breathing, and pulse. If the person is not breathing or has no pulse, begin CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) immediately.
2. Provide rescue breaths and chest compressions until emergency medical services arrive.
3. Use an automated external defibrillator (AED) if one is available and the person is in cardiac arrest.
4. Keep the person warm and comfortable, as hypothermia can worsen the condition.
5. Provide reassurance and support to the person's family and loved ones.
OHCA is a medical emergency that requires prompt treatment and attention. If you suspect someone has experienced OHCA, call emergency services immediately and provide appropriate care until help arrives.
Graft occlusion can occur due to a variety of factors, including:
1. Blood clots forming within the graft
2. Inflammation or infection within the graft
3. Narrowing or stenosis of the graft
4. Disruption of the graft material
5. Poor blood flow through the graft
The signs and symptoms of vascular graft occlusion can vary depending on the location and severity of the blockage. They may include:
1. Pain or tenderness in the affected limb
2. Swelling or redness in the affected limb
3. Weakness or numbness in the affected limb
4. Difficulty walking or moving the affected limb
5. Coolness or discoloration of the skin in the affected limb
If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can diagnose vascular graft occlusion using imaging tests such as ultrasound, angiography, or MRI. Treatment options for vascular graft occlusion may include:
1. Medications to dissolve blood clots or reduce inflammation
2. Surgical intervention to repair or replace the graft
3. Balloon angioplasty or stenting to open up the blocked graft
4. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy to improve blood flow and promote healing.
Preventive measures to reduce the risk of vascular graft occlusion include:
1. Proper wound care and infection prevention after surgery
2. Regular follow-up appointments with your healthcare provider
3. Avoiding smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors
4. Taking medications as directed by your healthcare provider to prevent blood clots and inflammation.
It is important to note that vascular graft occlusion can be a serious complication after surgery, but with prompt medical attention and appropriate treatment, the outcome can be improved.
There are several types of intracranial embolism, including:
1. Cerebral embolism: This occurs when a blood clot or other foreign matter becomes lodged in the brain, blocking the flow of blood and oxygen to brain tissue.
2. Pulmonary embolism: This occurs when a blood clot forms in the lungs and travels to the brain, causing blockage of blood vessels.
3. Aortic embolism: This occurs when a blood clot or other foreign matter becomes lodged in the aorta, the main artery that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
4. Atrial myxoma embolism: This occurs when a tumor in the heart, known as an atrial myxoma, breaks loose and travels to the brain, causing blockage of blood vessels.
Intracranial embolism can be diagnosed through various imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, angiography, and Doppler ultrasound. Treatment options for intracranial embolism depend on the underlying cause and may include medications to dissolve blood clots, surgery to remove the blockage, or endovascular procedures such as stenting or coiling.
Preventive measures for intracranial embolism include managing risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking cessation, as well as avoiding long periods of immobility during long-distance travel. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical in preventing long-term cognitive and neurological damage.
In a normal heart, the aorta arises from the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery arises from the right ventricle. In TGV, the positions of these vessels are reversed, with the aorta arising from the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery arising from the left ventricle. This can lead to a variety of complications, including cyanosis (blue discoloration of the skin), tachycardia (rapid heart rate), and difficulty breathing.
TGV is often diagnosed during infancy or early childhood, and treatment typically involves surgery to repair the defect. In some cases, a procedure called an arterial switch may be performed, in which the aorta and pulmonary artery are surgically reversed to their normal positions. In other cases, a heart transplant may be necessary. With proper treatment, many individuals with TGV can lead active and healthy lives. However, they may require ongoing monitoring and care throughout their lives to manage any potential complications.
In the medical field, emergencies are situations that require immediate medical attention to prevent serious harm or death. These situations may include:
1. Life-threatening injuries, such as gunshot wounds, stab wounds, or severe head trauma.
2. Severe illnesses, such as heart attacks, strokes, or respiratory distress.
3. Acute and severe pain, such as from a broken bone or severe burns.
4. Mental health emergencies, such as suicidal thoughts or behaviors, or psychosis.
5. Obstetric emergencies, such as preterm labor or placental abruption.
6. Pediatric emergencies, such as respiratory distress or dehydration in infants and children.
7. Trauma, such as from a car accident or fall.
8. Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, or floods.
9. Environmental emergencies, such as carbon monoxide poisoning or exposure to toxic substances.
10. Mass casualty incidents, such as a terrorist attack or plane crash.
In all of these situations, prompt and appropriate medical care is essential to prevent further harm and save lives. Emergency responders, including paramedics, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), and other healthcare providers, are trained to quickly assess the situation, provide immediate care, and transport patients to a hospital if necessary.
1. Ventricular septal defect (VSD): an opening in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart, which allows oxygen-poor blood to mix with oxygen-rich blood.
2. Pulmonary stenosis: a narrowing of the pulmonary valve and pulmonary artery, which restricts blood flow to the lungs.
3. Overriding aorta: an aorta that grows over the ventricular septal defect, blocking the flow of oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body.
4. Right ventricular hypertrophy: enlargement of the right ventricle due to increased pressure caused by the backflow of blood through the VSD.
These abnormalities combine to reduce the amount of oxygen that reaches the body's tissues, leading to cyanosis (blue discoloration of the skin) and fatigue. Tetralogy of Fallot is usually diagnosed at birth or soon after, and treatment typically involves a combination of medications, surgery, and other interventions to repair the defects and improve blood flow to the body.
Vasoplegia can cause a range of symptoms including fatigue, shortness of breath, swelling, and pain. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes, depending on the underlying cause of the condition.
1. Tracheitis: This is an inflammation of the trachea that can be caused by viral or bacterial infections, allergies, or other factors. Symptoms may include coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
2. Tracheal tumors: These are abnormal growths that can develop in the trachea, either benign or malignant. Symptoms may include a persistent cough, difficulty swallowing, and shortness of breath.
3. Tracheal narrowing (tracheal stenosis): This is a condition where the trachea becomes narrowed due to scarring or other factors, making it harder for air to pass through. Symptoms may include wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
4. Tracheomalacia: This is a condition where the walls of the trachea become weakened and collapse, causing difficulty breathing and other symptoms.
5. Bronchiectasis: This is a condition where the airways are damaged and widened, leading to the accumulation of mucus and other debris. Symptoms may include coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing.
6. Tracheobronchial disorders: These are conditions that affect both the trachea and bronchi, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis. Symptoms may include wheezing, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
These are just a few examples of tracheal diseases, and there are many other conditions that can affect the trachea as well. Treatment for these diseases may vary depending on the specific condition and severity of symptoms, but may include medications, respiratory therapy, or surgery in some cases.
Tracheal stenosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Inflammation or infection of the trachea (such as from allergies or bacterial infections)
* Scar tissue or tumors in the trachea
* Trauma to the neck or throat
* Previous surgery or radiation therapy to the head and neck
* Congenital conditions, such as a narrow or malformed trachea
Symptoms of tracheal stenosis can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:
* Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
* Wheezing or stridor (a high-pitched sound when breathing in)
* Coughing or choking sensation
* Fatigue or weakness from difficulty breathing
* Blue tinge to the skin (cyanosis)
If you suspect you or someone else may have tracheal stenosis, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare provider can diagnose tracheal stenosis through a physical examination and imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or endoscopy.
Treatment for tracheal stenosis depends on the cause and severity of the condition, but may include:
* Medications to reduce inflammation or open up the airways (such as inhaled steroids or bronchodilators)
* Surgery to widen or bypass the narrowed section of the trachea (such as a tracheostomy or laser therapy)
* Oxygen therapy to help improve oxygen levels in the blood
Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications of tracheal stenosis, such as respiratory failure, pneumonia, or other infections. With appropriate treatment, many people with tracheal stenosis can experience improvement in their symptoms and quality of life.
The primary graft dysfunction syndrome is a complex clinical entity characterized by severe respiratory and cardiovascular dysfunction, which develops within the first week after transplantation. PGD is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, and it is one of the leading causes of graft failure after solid organ transplantation.
There are several risk factors for primary graft dysfunction, including:
1. Recipient age and comorbidities
2. Donor age and comorbidities
3. Cold ischemic time (CIT)
4. Hypoxic injury during procurement
5. Delayed recipient surgery
6. Inadequate immunosuppression
8. Pulmonary infection
9. Hemodynamic instability
10. Pulmonary edema
The diagnosis of primary graft dysfunction is based on a combination of clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings. The condition can be classified into three categories:
1. Mild PGD: characterized by mild respiratory and cardiovascular dysfunction, with no evidence of severe inflammation or fibrosis.
2. Moderate PGD: characterized by moderate respiratory and cardiovascular dysfunction, with evidence of severe inflammation and/or fibrosis.
3. Severe PGD: characterized by severe respiratory and cardiovascular dysfunction, with extensive inflammation and/or fibrosis.
The treatment of primary graft dysfunction is aimed at addressing the underlying cause of the condition. This may include administration of immunosuppressive drugs, management of infections, and correction of any anatomical or functional abnormalities. In severe cases, lung transplantation may be necessary.
Prevention of primary graft dysfunction is crucial to minimize the risk of complications after lung transplantation. This can be achieved by careful donor selection, optimization of recipient condition before transplantation, and meticulous surgical technique during the procedure. Additionally, prompt recognition and management of early signs of PGD are essential to prevent progression to more severe forms of the condition.
In conclusion, primary graft dysfunction is a complex and multifactorial complication after lung transplantation that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Understanding the causes, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of PGD is essential for optimal management of patients undergoing lung transplantation.
1. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): This is a severe and life-threatening condition that occurs when the lungs become inflamed and fill with fluid, making it difficult to breathe.
2. Pneumonia: This is an infection of the lungs that can cause inflammation and damage to the air sacs and lung tissue.
3. Aspiration pneumonitis: This occurs when food, liquid, or other foreign substances are inhaled into the lungs, causing inflammation and damage.
4. Chemical pneumonitis: This is caused by exposure to harmful chemicals or toxins that can damage the lungs and cause inflammation.
5. Radiation pneumonitis: This occurs when the lungs are exposed to high levels of radiation, causing damage and inflammation.
6. Lung fibrosis: This is a chronic condition in which the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
7. Pulmonary embolism: This occurs when a blood clot forms in the lungs, blocking the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart and other organs.
Symptoms of lung injury can include:
* Shortness of breath
* Chest pain or tightness
* Coughing up blood or pus
* Confusion or disorientation
Treatment for lung injury depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include oxygen therapy, medications to reduce inflammation, antibiotics for infections, and mechanical ventilation in severe cases. In some cases, lung injury can be a life-threatening condition and may require hospitalization and intensive care.
Myocardial ischemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking. It can also be triggered by physical exertion or stress.
There are several types of myocardial ischemia, including:
1. Stable angina: This is the most common type of myocardial ischemia, and it is characterized by a predictable pattern of chest pain that occurs during physical activity or emotional stress.
2. Unstable angina: This is a more severe type of myocardial ischemia that can occur without any identifiable trigger, and can be accompanied by other symptoms such as shortness of breath or vomiting.
3. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS): This is a condition that includes both stable angina and unstable angina, and it is characterized by a sudden reduction in blood flow to the heart muscle.
4. Heart attack (myocardial infarction): This is a type of myocardial ischemia that occurs when the blood flow to the heart muscle is completely blocked, resulting in damage or death of the cardiac tissue.
Myocardial ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options for myocardial ischemia include medications such as nitrates, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers, as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, losing weight, and exercising regularly. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as coronary artery bypass grafting or angioplasty may be necessary.
There are several causes of aortic valve insufficiency, including:
1. Congenital heart defects
2. Rheumatic fever
3. Endocarditis (infection of the inner lining of the heart)
4. Aging and wear and tear on the valve
5. Trauma to the chest
6. Connective tissue disorders such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
Symptoms of aortic valve insufficiency can include fatigue, shortness of breath, swelling in the legs and feet, and chest pain. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, echocardiogram (ultrasound of the heart), electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG), and chest X-ray.
Treatment options for aortic valve insufficiency depend on the severity of the condition and may include:
1. Medications to manage symptoms such as heart failure, high blood pressure, and arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms)
2. Lifestyle modifications such as a healthy diet and regular exercise
3. Repair or replacement of the aortic valve through surgery. This may involve replacing the valve with an artificial one, or repairing the existing valve through a procedure called valvuloplasty.
4. In some cases, catheter-based procedures such as balloon valvuloplasty or valve replacement may be used.
It is important to note that aortic valve insufficiency can lead to complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and endocarditis, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Aortic valve stenosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including aging, calcium buildup, or congenital heart defects. It is typically diagnosed through echocardiography or cardiac catheterization. Treatment options for aortic valve stenosis include medications to manage symptoms, aortic valve replacement surgery, or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), which is a minimally invasive procedure.
In TAVR, a thin tube is inserted through a blood vessel in the leg and guided to the heart, where it delivers a new aortic valve. This can be performed through a small incision in the chest or through a catheter inserted into the femoral artery.
While TAVR has become increasingly popular for treating aortic valve stenosis, it is not suitable for all patients and requires careful evaluation to determine the best course of treatment. It is important to discuss the risks and benefits of TAVR with a healthcare provider to determine the appropriate treatment plan for each individual patient.
Examples of Nervous System Diseases include:
1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive neurological disorder that affects memory and cognitive function.
2. Parkinson's disease: A degenerative disorder that affects movement, balance and coordination.
3. Multiple sclerosis: An autoimmune disease that affects the protective covering of nerve fibers.
4. Stroke: A condition where blood flow to the brain is interrupted, leading to brain cell death.
5. Brain tumors: Abnormal growth of tissue in the brain.
6. Neuropathy: Damage to peripheral nerves that can cause pain, numbness and weakness in hands and feet.
7. Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent seizures.
8. Motor neuron disease: Diseases that affect the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement.
9. Chronic pain syndrome: Persistent pain that lasts more than 3 months.
10. Neurodevelopmental disorders: Conditions such as autism, ADHD and learning disabilities that affect the development of the brain and nervous system.
These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors such as genetics, infections, injuries, toxins and ageing. Treatment options for Nervous System Diseases range from medications, surgery, rehabilitation therapy to lifestyle changes.
The symptoms of pulmonary embolism can vary, but may include shortness of breath, chest pain, coughing up blood, rapid heart rate, and fever. In some cases, the clot may be large enough to cause a pulmonary infarction (a " lung injury" caused by lack of oxygen), which can lead to respiratory failure and death.
Pulmonary embolism can be diagnosed with imaging tests such as chest X-rays, CT scans, and ultrasound. Treatment typically involves medications to dissolve the clot or prevent new ones from forming, and in some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot.
Preventive measures include:
* Avoiding prolonged periods of immobility, such as during long-distance travel
* Exercising regularly to improve circulation
* Managing chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and cancer
* Taking blood-thinning medications to prevent clot formation
Early recognition and treatment of pulmonary embolism are critical to reduce the risk of complications and death.
Example Sentence: The patient was diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension and began treatment with medication to lower her blood pressure and improve her symptoms.
Word class: Noun phrase / medical condition
In EJ tachycardia, the heartbeats are initiated by abnormal electrical impulses that arise from the junctional tissue near the atrioventricular (AV) node. These impulses then spread to the rest of the heart, causing a rapid and irregular heartbeat.
EJ tachycardia can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Coronary artery disease
* Heart failure
* Certain medications
* Abnormal electrical pathways in the heart
Symptoms of EJ tachycardia can include palpitations, shortness of breath, and dizziness. In some cases, the arrhythmia may be asymptomatic and only detected during a physical examination or electrocardiogram (ECG).
Diagnosis of EJ tachycardia is typically made based on symptoms, physical examination findings, and results of diagnostic tests such as an ECG, echocardiogram, or stress test. Treatment options for EJ tachycardia depend on the underlying cause of the arrhythmia and may include medications to control heart rate and rhythm, cardioversion (electrical shock therapy) to restore a normal heart rhythm, or catheter ablation to destroy the abnormal electrical pathways in the heart. In some cases, implantation of a cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) may be recommended to prevent sudden death.
There are several key features of inflammation:
1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.
Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.
There are several types of inflammation, including:
1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.
There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:
1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.
It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:
3. Heart disease
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.
There are two main types of heart failure:
1. Left-sided heart failure: This occurs when the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the lungs and other organs.
2. Right-sided heart failure: This occurs when the right ventricle, which pumps blood to the lungs, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the body's tissues and organs.
Symptoms of heart failure may include:
* Shortness of breath
* Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
* Swelling in the abdomen
* Weight gain
* Coughing up pink, frothy fluid
* Rapid or irregular heartbeat
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
Treatment for heart failure typically involves a combination of medications and lifestyle changes. Medications may include diuretics to remove excess fluid from the body, ACE inhibitors or beta blockers to reduce blood pressure and improve blood flow, and aldosterone antagonists to reduce the amount of fluid in the body. Lifestyle changes may include a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction techniques. In severe cases, heart failure may require hospitalization or implantation of a device such as an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or a left ventricular assist device (LVAD).
It is important to note that heart failure is a chronic condition, and it requires ongoing management and monitoring to prevent complications and improve quality of life. With proper treatment and lifestyle changes, many people with heart failure are able to manage their symptoms and lead active lives.
John W. Kirklin
Outline of cardiology
Minimized extracorporeal circulation
Arterial switch operation
I. Michael Leitman
Willis J. Potts
Management of heart failure
Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest
Aortic valve replacement
Experiments in the Revival of Organisms
Posterior ischemic optic neuropathy
Royal Columbian Hospital
Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation
Tarlochan Singh Kler
Peter Allen (physician)
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy
Management of atrial fibrillation
Ravindra Laxman Thatte
Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry
Emergency Preservation and Resuscitation
CU-2010 and CU-2020
Total intravenous anaesthesia
Bag valve mask
Russell M. Nelson
Coronary artery bypass surgery
Acute cardiac unloading
Coronary artery revascularization without cardiopulmonary bypass
Application of Adsorptive Blood Purification Techniques during Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Cardiac Surgery
Cardiopulmonary Bypass - MeSH - NCBI
Notes from the Field: Mycobacteria chimaera Infections Associated with Heater-Cooler Unit Use During Cardiopulmonary Bypass...
LivaNova Initiates Limited Commercial Release in Europe of the Essenz Perfusion System for Cardiopulmonary Bypass Procedures |...
Is hyperamylasemia after cardiac surgery due to cardiopulmonary bypass? - PubMed
How should I prepare the pump on the machine used for cardiopulmonary bypass? - MHAUS
Right ventricular sensitivity to metabolic injury during cardiopulmonary bypass. | Scholars@Duke
Pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass circuits: A review of studies conducted at the Penn State pediatric cardiac research...
Risks for impaired cerebral autoregulation during cardiopulmonary bypass and postoperative stroke - Fingerprint -...
Associations between mean arterial pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass and biomarkers of cerebral injury in patients...
Rhabdomyolysis following Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Treatment with Enoximone in a Patient Susceptible to Malignant Hyperthermia...
55 APOPTOSIS GENE EXPRESSION AND ACTIVATION DURING CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS. | Journal of Investigative Medicine
Circulating S100B and Adiponectin in Children Who Underwent Open Heart Surgery and Cardiopulmonary Bypass.
Suppression of the inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass.
DailyMed - ALBURX (albumin- human solution
Deep Hypothermia Circulatory Arrest and cardiopulmonary bypass - Perfusion Education
Pyruvate-Enhanced Cardioprotection during Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass - Fingerprint - HSC
Challenging report of cardiopulmonary bypass in 16th week pregnant patient with endoventricular mass. | Heart Lung;50(1): 174...
Supplementary Material for: The introduction of an MR-conditional prototype for cardiopulmonary bypass support - technical...
Aortic cannula orientation and flow impacts embolic trajectories: computational cardiopulmonary bypass
Regional lung metabolic profile in a piglet model of cardiopulmonary bypass with circulatory arrest<...
Xenon and Air Bubble Injection during Cardiopulmonary Bypass | Anesthesiology | American Society of Anesthesiologists
A Novel Anti-Pollution Filter for Volatile Agents During Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Preliminary Tests
Hemodynamics Certification Review Course
Fat Embolism: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology, Etiology
Lung transplantation via cardiopulmonary bypass: excellent survival outcomes from extended criteria donors - Fingerprint -...
Pediatric heart surgery: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
- Introduction: Acute lung injury is common following cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest for congenital heart surgery with the most severe injury in the dorsocaudal lung. (wustl.edu)
- Fifteen patients had previous coronary bypass operations and underwent single bypass without pump as a second procedure. (nih.gov)
- Coronary bypass can be safely and effectively employed without pump oxygenator support if performed expeditiously and limited to right coronary lesions which have an adequate distal vessel. (nih.gov)
- Volatile agents commonly are used during cardiopulmonary bypass to provide anesthesia independent of any supposed myocardial protective effects. (unifesp.br)
- To determine intrinsic right ventricular susceptibility to metabolic injury, we examined the effect of ischemia and reperfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass on right and left ventricular myocardial adenine nucleotide metabolism in the absence of ventricular work load as a determinant of energy production and utilization. (duke.edu)
- Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has been a standard procedure in cardiac surgery since its clinical use in the 1950s [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- 5 years) of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. (cdc.gov)
- We were pleased to be the first hospital in the world to place a patient on bypass with Essenz during a minimally invasive mitral valve replacement surgery. (businesswire.com)
- Is hyperamylasemia after cardiac surgery due to cardiopulmonary bypass? (nih.gov)
- Although hyperamylasemia has been reported in a large proportion of patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, its clinical significance and pathogenetic mechanisms remain poorly understood. (nih.gov)
- Cardiac surgery is associated with risk of cerebral injury and mean arterial pressure (MAP) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is suggested to be associated with cerebral injury. (quanterix.com)
- Circulating S100B and Adiponectin in Children Who Underwent Open Heart Surgery and Cardiopulmonary Bypass. (unict.it)
- S100B protein, previously proposed as a consolidated marker of brain damage in congenital heart disease (CHD) newborns who underwent cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), has been progressively abandoned due to S100B CNS extra-source such as adipose tissue. (unict.it)
- Open-heart surgery is when the surgeon uses a heart-lung bypass machine. (medlineplus.gov)
- What intraoperative monitoring techniques can be used for the patient undergoing cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)? (brainkart.com)
- The team has taken away many learning tips from this case, as this was the first time that the operating surgeon had to use cardiopulmonary bypass to rescue a bleeding situation in thoracic surgery. (figshare.com)
- Cardiopulmonary bypass in non-cardiac surgery. (figshare.com)
- Methods: DNA methylation was profiled via Illumina MethylationEPIC arrays in SKM samples obtained at the beginning and end of heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. (nih.gov)
- Conclusion: Cardiopulmonary bypass surgery affects the SKM methylome, and the combination of hypertension and diabetes induces changes in the SKM epigenome in contrast to hypertension alone. (nih.gov)
- 12. Influence of the type of congenital heart defects on epithelial lining fluid composition in infants undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. (nih.gov)
- The 'Perfusion Pressure Cerebral Infarcts' (PPCI) trial randomized patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and/or aortic valve replacement to a MAP of 40-50 or 70-80 mmHg during CPB and found no difference in clinical or imaging outcomes between the groups. (quanterix.com)
- Single bypass to the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery in 32 patients who underwent operation early in the series was associated with a postoperative infarction rate of 18.7% (6/32) and is no longer performed without pump oxygenator support. (nih.gov)
- Right ventricular sensitivity to metabolic injury during cardiopulmonary bypass. (duke.edu)
- Of 145 primary operations in Group I patients, 113 were single bypasses to the right coronary artery with a postoperative infarction rate of 3.5% (4/113). (nih.gov)
- Serum levels of amylase and lipase were measured preoperatively as well as 24 and 48 hours postoperatively in 58 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting. (nih.gov)
- Methylome of skeletal muscle tissue in patients with hypertension and diabetes undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. (nih.gov)
- He went on to use cardiopulmonary bypass to sustain patients suffering cardiac shock following heart attacks. (nih.gov)
- The patient had a large middle lobe tumor and had an ICD, an impaired left ventricular function, and previous coronary artery bypass grafting. (figshare.com)
- By reason of surgical demand, the majority of cardiovascular procedures still depend on the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). (hindawi.com)
- Three surgical approaches were used: cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 32) and off-pump through a median sternotomy (n = 14) or a left minithoracotomy (n = 12). (nih.gov)
- First of all, the two experimental studies under discussion were designed with the sole rationale to investigate the safety aspect of xenon when administered during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in the presence of cerebral air emboli (CAE). (silverchair.com)
- At the Texas Heart Institute between October 1969 and August 1983, there were 191 single bypass procedures performed without pump oxygenator support. (nih.gov)
- How should I prepare the pump on the machine used for cardiopulmonary bypass? (mhaus.org)
- Tubes are used to re-route the blood through a special pump called a heart-lung bypass machine. (medlineplus.gov)
- Surgeon and medical educator Clarence Dennis was a leading pioneer in this field, inventing one of the earliest heart-lung bypass machines, and attempting the world's first open-heart operation supported with such a device. (nih.gov)
- The study was designed to investigate whether avoidance of cardiopulmonary bypass would limit amylase elevation. (nih.gov)
- Consisting of a next-generation heart-lung machine (HLM) and a transformative patient monitor, Essenz puts data at the forefront to deliver a patient-tailored approach that supports data-driven decisions during life-saving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) procedures. (businesswire.com)
- In most cases, a heart-lung bypass machine is not needed with this approach. (medlineplus.gov)
- By May 2017, 20 confirmed cases of M. chimaera infection had been identified, defined as isolation of culture-positive nontuberculous mycobacterium from an invasive nonpulmonary specimen, with M. chimaera species identification by DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA, in a patient with a history of cardiopulmonary bypass during 2013-2016. (cdc.gov)
- Challenging report of cardiopulmonary bypass in 16th week pregnant patient with endoventricular mass. (bvsalud.org)
- The courses included in this certification review bundle cover topics such as Arterial & Central Venous Pressure Monitoring and Cardia Assist Devices and Caropulmonary Bypass. (nurse.com)
- devices including blood storage bags and tubing used in devices for cardiopulmonary bypass and hemodialysis. (nih.gov)
- During open-heart procedures, perfusionists play a critical role and the perfusion system they use acts as the patient's heart and lungs during the operation," said Marco Dolci, President, Cardiopulmonary at LivaNova. (businesswire.com)
- This systematic review identified typical malignant hyperthermia symptoms during cardiopulmonary bypass and investigated other factors in cardiac surgery that might trigger an episode in susceptible individuals. (nih.gov)
- Search terms included malignant hyperthermia and cardiopulmonary bypass, extracorporeal circulation, or cardiac surgery. (nih.gov)
- He went on to use cardiopulmonary bypass to sustain patients suffering cardiac shock following heart attacks. (nih.gov)
- The development of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in the 1960s so successfully enabled open heart surgery that rigorous evidence-based clinical trials did not play a part in the initial phases of development. (medscape.com)
- Open-heart surgery is when the surgeon uses a heart-lung bypass machine. (medlineplus.gov)
- In most cases, a heart-lung bypass machine is not needed with this approach. (medlineplus.gov)
- Methods: DNA methylation was profiled via Illumina MethylationEPIC arrays in SKM samples obtained at the beginning and end of heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. (nih.gov)
- Surgeon and medical educator Clarence Dennis was a leading pioneer in this field, inventing one of the earliest heart-lung bypass machines, and attempting the world's first open-heart operation supported with such a device. (nih.gov)
- devices including blood storage bags and tubing used in devices for cardiopulmonary bypass and hemodialysis. (nih.gov)