Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial: Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Ischemic Postconditioning: The application of repeated, brief periods of vascular occlusion at the onset of REPERFUSION to reduce REPERFUSION INJURY that follows a prolonged ischemic event. The techniques are similar to ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING but the time of application is after the ischemic event instead of before.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Hydroxy Acids: Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.Decanoic Acids: 10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Diazoxide: A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.Protein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Ischemic Preconditioning: A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ISCHEMIA and REPERFUSION by prior exposure to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion. (Am J Physiol 1995 May;268(5 Pt 2):H2063-7, Abstract)Tiopronin: Sulfhydryl acylated derivative of GLYCINE.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Benzophenanthridines: Compounds of four rings containing a nitrogen. They are biosynthesized from reticuline via rearrangement of scoulerine. They are similar to BENZYLISOQUINOLINES. Members include chelerythrine and sanguinarine.Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.PhenanthridinesKATP Channels: Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Receptor, Adenosine A3: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Receptors, Opioid, delta: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Delta opioid receptors bind endorphins and enkephalins with approximately equal affinity and have less affinity for dynorphins.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Receptors, Purinergic P1: A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Benzylidene Compounds: Compounds containing the PhCH= radical.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Razoxane: An antimitotic agent with immunosuppressive properties.Cardioplegic Solutions: Solutions which, upon administration, will temporarily arrest cardiac activity. They are used in the performance of heart surgery.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.HSP72 Heat-Shock Proteins: Stress-inducible members of the heat-shock proteins 70 family. HSP72 heat shock proteins function with other MOLECULAR CHAPERONES to mediate PROTEIN FOLDING and to stabilize pre-existent proteins against aggregation.Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Protective Agents: Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Potassium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Isothiuronium: An undecenyl THIOUREA which may have topical anti-inflammatory activity.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Receptors, Opioid, kappa: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Kappa opioid receptors bind dynorphins with a higher affinity than endorphins which are themselves preferred to enkephalins.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Receptor, Adenosine A2B: A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in the CECUM, the COLON, the BLADDER, and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a low affinity receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Purinergic P1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Enzyme Activators: Compounds or factors that act on a specific enzyme to increase its activity.Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Mice, Inbred C57BLHeart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Hydrogen Sulfide: A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)S-Nitrosothiols: A group of organic sulfur-containing nitrites, alkyl thionitrites. S-Nitrosothiols include compounds such as S-NITROSO-N-ACETYLPENICILLAMINE and S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Naltrexone: Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 5.Schisandra: A plant genus of the family SCHISANDRACEAE. Members contain schisandrins (Russian) which are also called gomisins (Japanese) or wuweizins (Chinese). The compounds in this genus are very similar to those in the related KADSURA and medicinal usage is very similar. It is sometimes adulterated with KADSURA.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.SulfonesNitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Receptor, Adenosine A1: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Adenosine A3 Receptor Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying: Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.Cardiotoxins: Agents that have a damaging effect on the HEART. Such damage can occur from ALKYLATING AGENTS; FREE RADICALS; or metabolites from OXIDATIVE STRESS and in some cases is countered by CARDIOTONIC AGENTS. Induction of LONG QT SYNDROME or TORSADES DE POINTES has been the reason for viewing some drugs as cardiotoxins.Enkephalin, Methionine: One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.Alpha-Amanitin: A cyclic octapeptide with a thioether bridge between the cystine and tryptophan. It inhibits RNA POLYMERASE II. Poisoning may require LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins: A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Stilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.Myocardial Stunning: Prolonged dysfunction of the myocardium after a brief episode of severe ischemia, with gradual return of contractile activity.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Nitrosation: Conversion into nitroso compounds. An example is the reaction of nitrites with amino compounds to form carcinogenic N-nitrosamines.Nicorandil: A derivative of the NIACINAMIDE that is structurally combined with an organic nitrate. It is a potassium-channel opener that causes vasodilatation of arterioles and large coronary arteries. Its nitrate-like properties produce venous vasodilation through stimulation of guanylate cyclase.Heart Arrest, Induced: A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Adenosine A2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.S-Nitroso-N-Acetylpenicillamine: A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.HSP27 Heat-Shock Proteins: A subfamily of small heat-shock proteins that function as molecular chaperones that aid in refolding of non-native proteins. They play a protective role that increases cellular survival during times of stress.Myoblasts, Cardiac: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC).Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 22.214.171.124.Nitric Oxide Donors: A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)Enkephalin, Leucine-2-Alanine: A delta-selective opioid (ANALGESICS, OPIOID). It can cause transient depression of mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate.Cyclooctanes: A group of compounds with an 8-carbon ring. They may be saturated or unsaturated.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.MaleimidesCalcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Tocotrienols: Natural analogs of TOCOPHEROLS exhibiting antioxidant activity. These tocol derivatives and isomers contain a benzopyran ring and an unsaturated isoprenoid side chain.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Trypan Blue: A diazo-naphthalene sulfonate that is widely used as a stain.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Heme Oxygenase-1: A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Sulfaphenazole: A sulfonilamide anti-infective agent.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cyclic S-OxidesAldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 126.96.36.199.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 188.8.131.52.Physiological Processes: The functions and activities of living organisms that support life in single- or multi-cellular organisms from their origin through the progression of life.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Trimetazidine: A vasodilator used in angina of effort or ischemic heart disease.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Oncogene Protein v-akt: A viral oncoprotein originally isolated from a murine T CELL LYMPHOMA infected with the acutely transforming retrovirus AKT8. v-akt protein is the viral homologue of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-AKT.8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic Acid: A 20-carbon-chain fatty acid, unsaturated at positions 8, 11, and 14. It differs from arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, only at position 5.Receptors, Opioid: Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.Benzamides: BENZOIC ACID amides.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Heat Stress Disorders: A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.Pinacidil: A guanidine that opens POTASSIUM CHANNELS producing direct peripheral vasodilatation of the ARTERIOLES. It reduces BLOOD PRESSURE and peripheral resistance and produces fluid retention. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)FlavoproteinsOxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Cell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.ChromonesCyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Mitochondrial Swelling: An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Benzopyrans: Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.Creatine Kinase, MB Form: An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the CARDIAC MUSCLE.AcetophenonesMitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Sulfonylurea Receptors: ATP-BINDING CASSETTE PROTEINS that are highly conserved and widely expressed in nature. They form an integral part of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel complex which has two intracellular nucleotide folds that bind to sulfonylureas and their analogs.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Adamantane: A tricyclo bridged hydrocarbon.Atractyloside: A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Adenosine A1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Janus Kinases: A family of intracellular tyrosine kinases that participate in the signaling cascade of cytokines by associating with specific CYTOKINE RECEPTORS. They act upon STAT TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS in signaling pathway referred to as the JAK/STAT pathway. The name Janus kinase refers to the fact the proteins have two phosphate-transferring domains.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.PiperazinesMorpholinesIndoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Mice, Inbred ICRMalondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Ventricular Dysfunction: A condition in which HEART VENTRICLES exhibit impaired function.QuinolinesAMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.HSP20 Heat-Shock Proteins: A subfamily of small heat-shock proteins that are closely related to ALPHA B-CRYSTALLIN. Hsp20 heat-shock proteins can undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIC GMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Caveolin 3: A caveolin that is expressed exclusively in MUSCLE CELLS and is sufficient to form CAVEOLAE in SARCOLEMMA. Mutations in caveolin 3 are associated with multiple muscle diseases including DISTAL MYOPATHY and LIMB-GIRDLE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.Coronary Occlusion: Complete blockage of blood flow through one of the CORONARY ARTERIES, usually from CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Reactive Nitrogen Species: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase: A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol into 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate.Thiourea: A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.
Fryer, R. M., Eells, J. T., Hsu, A. K., Henry, M. M., & Gross, G. J. (2000). Ischemic preconditioning in rats: role of ... Sato, T., & Marban, E. (2000). The role of mitochondrial KATP channels in cardioprotection. Bas Res Cardiol 95, 285−289 Bohn, H ... Activation of the KATP channels on cardiac mitochondria is involved in ischemic preconditioning that results in protection for ... 50(3):552-560 Wilde, A. A. M. (1993). Role of ATP-sensitive K+ channel current in ischemic arrhythmias. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 7 ...
The VDAC2 protein has been implicated in cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, such as during ischemic ... can play a significant triggering role in the signal transduction pathways of ischemic preconditioning leading to reduction of ... Liem DA, Honda HM, Zhang J, Woo D, Ping P (Dec 2007). "Past and present course of cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion ... preconditioning of the heart. Although a large burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to lead to cell damage, a ...
In addition, SOD1 has been implicated in cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, such as during ischemic ... can play a significant triggering role in the signal transduction pathways of ischemic preconditioning leading to reduction of ... also known as ischemic heart disease). Ischemic heart disease, which results from an occlusion of one of the major coronary ... Liem DA, Honda HM, Zhang J, Woo D, Ping P (December 2007). "Past and present course of cardioprotection against ischemia- ...
... work indicates that exogenous ligands that activate the δ receptors mimic the phenomenon known as ischemic preconditioning. ... In the rat model, introduction of δ active ligands results in significant cardioprotection. Until comparatively recently, there ... Zhang J, Qian H, Zhao P, Hong SS, Xia Y (Apr 2006). "Rapid hypoxia preconditioning protects cortical neurons from glutamate ...
ATP-sensitive potassium channel
... before the major ischemic insult. This procedure is known as ischemic preconditioning ("IPC"), and derives its effectiveness, ... Selective mitoKATP blockade with 5-hydroxydecanoic acid ("5-HD") or MCC-134 completely inhibits the cardioprotection afforded ... Increased potassium conductance should stabilize membrane potential during ischemic insults, reducing the extent infarct and ...
Roles of the Nitric Oxide Signaling Pathway in Cardiac Ischemic Preconditioning Against Myocardial Ischemia-reperfusion Injury ... Hydrogen Sulfide-Mediated Cardioprotection: Mechanism and Therapeutic Potential. Clinical Science London, 120 (6): 219-229 ... The mitochondria has been known to protect the heart from ischemic-reperfusion injury through the opening of the ATP-sensitive ... The Polysulfide Diallyl Trisulfide Protects the Ischemic Myocardium by Preservation of Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide and ...
... includes strategies that are implemented before an ischemic event (preconditioning, PC), during an ischemic ... remote ischemic PostC and remost ischemic PerC. Classical (local) preconditioning has an early phase with an immediate onset ... "Inhibition of myocardial injury by ischemic postconditioning during reperfusion: comparison with ischemic preconditioning". ... Przyklenk, K; Bauer, B; Ovize, M; Kloner, RA; Whittaker, P (March 1993). "Regional ischemic 'preconditioning' protects remote ...
PKCε is clinically significant in that it a central player in cardioprotection against ischemic injury and in the development ... Ping P, Zhang J, Qiu Y, Tang XL, Manchikalapudi S, Cao X, Bolli R (Sep 1997). "Ischemic preconditioning induces selective ... Ytrehus K, Liu Y, Downey JM (Mar 1994). "Preconditioning protects ischemic rabbit heart by protein kinase C activation". The ... Kawamura S, Yoshida K, Miura T, Mizukami Y, Matsuzaki M (Dec 1998). "Ischemic preconditioning translocates PKC-delta and - ...
Remote ischemic conditioning
... with signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 activation and cardioprotection by remote ischemic preconditioning ... The phenomenon of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) was discovered in 1986 by C. E. Murry and colleagues, who observed that ... Remote Ischemic Preconditioning and Outcomes of Cardiac Surgery. NEJM. October 5, 2015. Heusch, Gerd (2015-02-13). "Molecular ... Liu, Zhi; Wang, Yan-Ling; Xu, Dong; Hua, Qi; Chu, Yan-Yan; Ji, Xun-Ming (2014-07-12). "Late Remote Ischemic Preconditioning ...
1822-1836, PMID 19884481 Heusch G (2015), "Molecular basis of cardioprotection: signal transduction in ischemic pre-, post-, ... "Cardioprotective and prognostic effects of remote ischaemic preconditioning in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass ... In recent years, he analyzed the signal transduction of ischemic conditioning. The translation of preclinical data to clinical ... 1643-1658, PMID 27174955 Heusch G, Rassaf T (2016), "Time to Give Up on Cardioprotection? A Critical Appraisal of Clinical ...
... such as during ischemic preconditioning of the heart. Although a large burst of ROS is known to lead to cell damage, a ... As such, SOD1 is important for its cardioprotective effects. In addition, SOD1 has been implicated in cardioprotection ... can play a significant triggering role in the signal transduction pathways of ischemic preconditioning leading to reduction of ... also known as ischemic heart disease). Ischemic heart disease, which results from an occlusion of one of the major coronary ...
Inhibition of p38 MAPK activity confers cardioprotection against ischemia reperfusion injury in heart However, some reports ... and inhibition of p38 MAPK activity is in clinical evaluation as a potential therapy to mitigate acute injury in ischemic heart ... via phosphorylation of αβ-Crystallin or induction of Pim-3 during early response to oxidative stress or anoxic preconditioning ...
... and block the cardiac dysfunction caused by extensive tissue ischemia in animal models of remote ischemic preconditioning. TP ... Involvement of endothelial vasoactive substances in cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury". Life Sciences. 151: ... High levels of isoprostanes form in ischemic or otherwise injured blood vessels and acting through TP, can stimulate arterial ... Aggarwal S, Randhawa PK, Singh N, Jaggi AS (2016). "Preconditioning at a distance: ...
The rapid return of myocardial blood supply is critical in order to save the ischemic heart, but it also has the potential to ... 2014) found that the cardioprotection aspect of Intralipid is initiated by the accumulation of acylcarnitines in the ... preconditioning, postconditioning, and translational aspects or protective measures. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 301. DOI ... Myocardial damage with the resumption of blood flow after an ischemic event is termed "reperfusion injury". The mitochondrial ...
Clinically useful cardioprotection: ischemic preconditioning then and now.
Ischemic preconditioning (IP) is the most effective, reproducible form of protection against myocardial cell death yet ... Ischemic preconditioning has yielded promising results in other organs including the brain as well as tissue preservation for ... Ischemic preconditioning (IP) is the most effective, reproducible form of protection against myocardial cell death yet ... Next Document: Remote ischemic preconditioning: current knowledge, unresolved questions, and future priorities.. ...
Abstract 16479: Remote Ischemic Preconditioning: Do Exosomes Play a Requisite Role in Evoking Cardioprotection? | Circulation
Abstract 16479: Remote Ischemic Preconditioning: Do Exosomes Play a Requisite Role in Evoking Cardioprotection?. Joseph Wider, ... Abstract 16479: Remote Ischemic Preconditioning: Do Exosomes Play a Requisite Role in Evoking Cardioprotection? ... Abstract 16479: Remote Ischemic Preconditioning: Do Exosomes Play a Requisite Role in Evoking Cardioprotection? ... Abstract 16479: Remote Ischemic Preconditioning: Do Exosomes Play a Requisite Role in Evoking Cardioprotection? ...
Calcium activated potassium channel triggers cardioprotection of ischemic preconditioning | Journal of Pharmacology and...
Calcium activated potassium channel triggers cardioprotection of ischemic preconditioning. Chun-mei Cao, Qiang Xia, Qin Gao, ... Calcium activated potassium channel triggers cardioprotection of ischemic preconditioning. Chun-mei Cao, Qiang Xia, Qin Gao, ... Calcium activated potassium channel triggers cardioprotection of ischemic preconditioning. Chun-mei Cao, Qiang Xia, Qin Gao, ... Calcium activated potassium channel triggers cardioprotection of ischemic preconditioning Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
Mechanisms of opioid delta (delta) and kappa ( kappa) receptors' cardioprotection in ischaemic preconditioning in a rat model...
The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon, termed ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) are still not clear, although it has … ... Mechanisms of opioid delta (delta) and kappa ( kappa) receptors cardioprotection in ischaemic preconditioning in a rat model ... The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon, termed "ischaemic preconditioning" (IPC) are still not clear, although it has been ...
Tranexamic Acid Does Not Influence Cardioprotection by Ischemic Preconditioning and Remote Ischemic Preconditioning
... and attenuates the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Aprotinin was replaced by tranexamic acid (TXA) in clinical ... Tranexamic Acid Does Not Influence Cardioprotection by Ischemic Preconditioning and Remote Ischemic Preconditioning ... Here, we investigated whether TXA influences I/R injury and/or cardioprotection initiated by IPC and/or remote ischemic ... and attenuates the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Aprotinin was replaced by tranexamic acid (TXA) in clinical ...
In vivo MRI and ex vivo histological assessment of the cardioprotection induced by ischemic preconditioning, postconditioning...
In vivo MRI and ex vivo histological assessment of the cardioprotection induced by ischemic preconditioning, postconditioning ... In vivo MRI and ex vivo histological assessment of the cardioprotection induced by ischemic preconditioning, postconditioning ... Therefore, we assessed the effect of IPostC, RIC conditioning and ischemic preconditioning (IPreC; positive control) on ... Therefore, we assessed the effect of IPostC, RIC conditioning and ischemic preconditioning (IPreC; positive control) on ...
Cytochrome P450 2J3/epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Mediate the Cardioprotection Induced by Ischaemic Post-Conditioning, but Not...
... mediates the cardioprotective effects of ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) and ischaemic post-conditioning (IPost). 2. Male ... Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in cardioprotection: ischemic versus reperfusion injury. Nithipatikom K, Moore JM, Isbell MA, Falck ... Evidence for role of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in mediating ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning in dog. Gross GJ, ... Cytochrome P450 2J3/epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Mediate the Cardioprotection Induced by Ischaemic Post-Conditioning, but Not ...
Repetitive Ischemia by Coronary Stenosis Induces a Novel Window of Ischemic Preconditioning | Circulation
Microarray analysis revealed a qualitatively different genomic profile of cardioprotection between ischemic preconditioning ... The interaction of coronary microembolization and ischemic preconditioning: a third window of cardioprotection through TNF- ... Preconditioning with ischemia: a delay of lethal cell injury in ischemic myocardium. Circulation. 1986; 74: 1124-1136. ... Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), discovered 20 years ago,1 is the most powerful intervention known to protect myocardium and has ...
Remote Ischemic Preconditioning for Cardioprotection in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Systemic Review
As direct application of ischemic to the heart is impractical, remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is usually preferred. The ... A short period of sublethal ischemia can provide cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury. ... Remote Ischemic Preconditioning for Cardioprotection in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Systemic Review. Sheng Wang1,2* ... Citation: Wang S, Ye X, Wei J, Xia Z. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning for Cardioprotection in Patients Undergoing Cardiac ...
Adaptation to hypoxia and ischemic preconditioning: pathophysiologic and clinical aspects of cardioprotection in patients with...
Adaptation to hypoxia and ischemic preconditioning: pathophysiologic and clinical aspects of cardioprotection in patients with ... Adaptation to hypoxia and ischemic preconditioning: pathophysiologic and clinical aspects of cardioprotection in patients with ... Adaptation to hypoxia and ischemic preconditioning: pathophysiologic and clinical aspects of cardioprotection in patients with ...
Impact of O-GlcNAc on cardioprotection by remote ischaemic preconditioning in non-diabetic and diabetic patients. - CARDIO PEG
Impact of O-GlcNAc on cardioprotection by remote ischaemic preconditioning in non-diabetic and diabetic patients.. Posted on ... 2013) Impact of O-GlcNAc on cardioprotection by remote ischaemic preconditioning in non-diabetic and diabetic patients. ... is cardioprotective but its role in cardioprotection by remote ischaemic preconditioning (rIPC) and the reduced efficacy of ... 16 ± 2%; P , 0.001) but no additional cardioprotection or further increase in O-GlcNAc levels was achieved by perfusion with ...
February 2018 - Volume 126 - Issue 2 : Anesthesia & Analgesia
February 2018 - Volume 126 - Issue 2 - Contributor Index : Anesthesia & Analgesia
Tranexamic Acid Does Not Influence Cardioprotection by Ischemic Preconditioning and Remote Ischemic Preconditioning. van Caster ... Tranexamic Acid Does Not Influence Cardioprotection by Ischemic Preconditioning and Remote Ischemic Preconditioning. van Caster ... Tranexamic Acid Does Not Influence Cardioprotection by Ischemic Preconditioning and Remote Ischemic Preconditioning. van Caster ...
Heart Physiology and Pathophysiology, Book by Yoshihisa Kurachi (Other) | chapters.indigo.ca
Remote preconditioning provides potent cardioprotection via PI3K/Akt activation and is associated with nuclear accumulation of...
remote ischaemic preconditioning. Abbreviations: AMPK, AMP-activated protein kinase; CFR, coronary flow rate; dP/dtmax, maximum ... rIPC [remote IPC (ischaemic preconditioning)] has been shown to invoke potent myocardial protection in animal studies and ... Remote preconditioning provides potent cardioprotection via PI3K/Akt activation and is associated with nuclear accumulation of ... Remote preconditioning provides potent cardioprotection via PI3K/Akt activation and is associated with nuclear accumulation of ...
Faculty - NIH T32 Training Grant in Cellular, Biochemical & Molecular Sciences - Education - Biochemistry & Biophysics -...
A pilot study investigating the effects of remote ischemic preconditioning in high-risk cardiac surgery using a randomised...
The efficacy of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) in high-risk cardiac surgery is uncertain. In this study, 96 adults ... Cardioprotection Cardiac surgery Remote ischemic preconditioning Reperfusion To this article two Invited Editorials are ... Peters J (2011) Remote ischaemic preconditioning of the heart: remote questions, remote importance, or remote preconditions? ... STAT5 activation and cardioprotection by remote ischemic preconditioning in humans. Circ Res 110:111-115. doi: 10.1161/ ...
Microarray expression analysis in delayed cardioprotection: the effect of exercise, AICAR, or metformin and the possible role...
... is an enzyme which may be involved in cardioprotective mechanisms in the ischemic heart. Exercise, AICAR, and metformin, all ... Fryer R, Auchampach J, Gross G (2002) Therapeutic receptor targets of ischemic preconditioning. Cardiovasc Res 55:520PubMed ... AMPK Delayed preconditioning Cardioprotection Microarray Genes Abbreviations. NR4A3. Nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, ... Nishino Y, Miura T, Miki T et al (2004) Ischemic preconditioning activates AMPK in a PKC-dependent manner and induces GLUT4 up- ...
Hatter Cardiovascular Institute | UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science - UCL - London's Global University
Effect of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on Clinical Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: The ... in cardioprotection. In the clinical setting the HCI was the first to demonstrate the phenomenon of preconditioning in patients ... Intrinsic cardiac ganglia and acetylcholine are important in the mechanism of ischaemic preconditioning. Basic Res Cardiol. ... Endothelial cells release cardioprotective exosomes that may contribute to ischaemic preconditioning. Sci Rep. 2018 Oct 26;8(1 ...
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1: regulator of mitochondrial metabolism and mediator of ischemic preconditioning. - PubMed - NCBI
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondria and Cardioprotection. ... HIF-1 is also required for ischemic preconditioning and this effect may be due in part to its induction of CD73, the enzyme ... Hypoxia-inducible factor 1: regulator of mitochondrial metabolism and mediator of ischemic preconditioning.. Semenza GL1. ... Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1: Regulator of Mitochondrial Metabolism and Mediator of Ischemic Preconditioning ...
Cardioprotection - Wikipedia
Cardioprotection includes strategies that are implemented before an ischemic event (preconditioning, PC), during an ischemic ... remote ischemic PostC and remost ischemic PerC. Classical (local) preconditioning has an early phase with an immediate onset ... "Inhibition of myocardial injury by ischemic postconditioning during reperfusion: comparison with ischemic preconditioning". ... Przyklenk, K; Bauer, B; Ovize, M; Kloner, RA; Whittaker, P (March 1993). "Regional ischemic preconditioning protects remote ...
Dorsch M[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Tranexamic Acid Does Not Influence Cardioprotection by Ischemic Preconditioning and Remote Ischemic Preconditioning. ... Extended Second Window of Protection of Sevoflurane-induced Preconditioning.. Behmenburg F, Boekholt Y, van Caster P, Dorsch M ... Morphine-Induced Preconditioning: Involvement of Protein Kinase A and Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore. ... Impact of Mitochondrial Ca2+-Sensitive Potassium (mBKCa) Channels in Sildenafil-Induced Cardioprotection in Rats. ...
Frontiers | BK channel activators and their therapeutic perspectives | Physiology
Calcium-activated potassium channel triggers cardioprotection of ischemic preconditioning. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 312, 644- ... 2004). Opening of Ca2+-activated K+ channels is involved in ischemic preconditioning in canine hearts. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. ... but a link to cardioprotection was made by demonstrating that NS1619 when administered prior to the ischemic event, protected ... Moreover they also demonstrated that the cardioprotection offered by NS1619 was lost in KCNMA1 KO mice (Singh et al., 2013), ...
Remote ischemic conditioning - Wikipedia
... with signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 activation and cardioprotection by remote ischemic preconditioning ... The phenomenon of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) was discovered in 1986 by C. E. Murry and colleagues, who observed that ... Remote Ischemic Preconditioning and Outcomes of Cardiac Surgery. NEJM. October 5, 2015. Heusch, Gerd (2015-02-13). "Molecular ... Liu, Zhi; Wang, Yan-Ling; Xu, Dong; Hua, Qi; Chu, Yan-Yan; Ji, Xun-Ming (2014-07-12). "Late Remote Ischemic Preconditioning ...
Mario Medvedovic, PhD - ..WB1PRD01W-Med.uc.edu
Loss of the miR-144/451 cluster impairs ischaemic preconditioning-mediated cardioprotection by targeting Rac-1 Cardiovasc Res, ... NF-kappaB driven cardioprotective gene programs; Hsp70.3 and cardioprotection after late ischemic preconditioning J Mol Cell ... Loss of the miR-144/451 cluster impairs ischaemic preconditioning-mediated cardioprotection by targeting Rac-1. Cardiovascular ... NF-kappaB driven cardioprotective gene programs; Hsp70.3 and cardioprotection after late ischemic preconditioning. Journal of ...
Publications by Paul Spencer Brookes, Ph.D. - University of Rochester Medical Center
"Kir6.2 is not the mitochondrial KATP channel but is required for cardioprotection by ischemic preconditioning." American ... "Mitochondrial nitroalkene formation and mild uncoupling in ischaemic preconditioning: implications for cardioprotection." ... "Lysine deacetylation in ischaemic preconditioning: the role of SIRT1." Cardiovascular research.. 2011 Feb 15; 89(3):643-9. Epub ... "Metabolomic profiling of the heart during acute ischemic preconditioning reveals a role for SIRT1 in rapid cardioprotective ...
Regulation of Endothelial CD73 by Adenosine: Paracrine Pathway for Enhanced Endothelial Barrier Function | The Journal of...
Cardioprotection by ischemic preconditioning: role of adenosine and glycogen. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 431: 279. ... Cardioprotection due to preconditioning correlates with increased ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity. Am. J. Physiol. 270: H238. ... Thus, whether adenosine-mediated CD73 induction occurs at the level of the ischemic myocardium is not known at the present time ... For instance, adenosine production in the ischemic myocardium is attributable to activity of CD73 (33), and both CD73 activity ...
Frontiers | Development of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Inhibitors for Cardioprotection | Pharmacology
The objective of our present study is to develop novel inhibitors for MMP-2 for acute cardioprotection.In a series of pilot ... The objective of our present study is to develop novel inhibitors for MMP-2 for acute cardioprotection. In a series of pilot ... Li, X., Heinzel, F. R., Boengler, K., Schulz, R., and Heusch, G. (2004). Role of connexin 43 in ischemic preconditioning does ... that pharmacological inhibition of MMP-2 in rats evoked cardioprotection that is equivalent to ischemic preconditioning (Giricz ...
δ-opioid receptor - Wikipedia
... work indicates that exogenous ligands that activate the δ receptors mimic the phenomenon known as ischemic preconditioning. ... In the rat model, introduction of δ active ligands results in significant cardioprotection. ... Zhang J, Qian H, Zhao P, Hong SS, Xia Y (Apr 2006). "Rapid hypoxia preconditioning protects cortical neurons from glutamate ...
Practical application of pharmacotherapy with long-acting risperidone for patients with schizophrenia.
Reperfusion InjuryMyocardiumRIPCAcuteCardioprotective effectAbstractInfarctIschaemia1986Similar to ischemicInducesPharmacologicalRemoteRatsClinicalBench to BedsMediatesShort period of sublethal ischemiaNitric oxidePhenomenon is termedMitochondriaProtectionMitochondrial permClinicallyInjuryCirculation1993Morphine-induced cardioprotectionHeart diseaseSubsequentIschemia and reperfusionEndogenousReceptorsApproach to cardioprotectionAdenosineCellularProtectiveEffect
- A short period of sublethal ischemia can provide cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury. (transpopmed.org)
- Reperfusion therapies or interventions to restore blood flow to ischemic myocardium are needed to limit infarct size, but, return of blood flow can cause additional cardiac damage and complications which is known as reperfusion injury. (transpopmed.org)
- Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), defined as several brief periods of ischemia and reperfusion of the target organ before prolonged ischemia [ 9 ], is regarded as a protective means capable of resisting myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). (transpopmed.org)
- Its particular areas of interest includes the pathophysiology of cardioprotection in the setting of diabetes, ischaemia/reperfusion injury, molecular aspects of adaptation to ischaemic injury and myocardial conditioning in both the basic and clinical arena. (ucl.ac.uk)
- During the past few decades, a large number of animal studies demonstrated that commonly used opioids could provide cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Interaction of risk factors, comorbidities, and comedications with ischemia/reperfusion injury and cardioprotection by preconditioning, postconditioning, and remote conditioning. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Ischemia reperfusion injury (IR injury) associated with ischemic heart disease contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality. (mdpi.com)
- Resveratrol (3,4′,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound found abundantly in grape skins and red wines, has been found to pharmacologically precondition the heart against ischemia reperfusion injury through the potentiation of a survival signal involving cAMP response element-binding protein-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt-BclII pathway. (aspetjournals.org)
- In this respect, myocardial reperfusion injury remains a neglected therapeutic target for cardioprotection in PPCI patients. (jci.org)
- Abstract Kinins acting on the B 2 receptor appear to be involved in the cardioprotective effect of preconditioning on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. (ahajournals.org)
- To date, preconditioning has been documented to be the most powerful strategy known for protecting the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury in various species of animals, such as dogs, pigs, rabbits, and rats. (ahajournals.org)
- 5 6 However, the precise mechanisms by which preconditioning protects the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury are not fully understood. (ahajournals.org)
- The current study sought to examine the possibility of morphine-induced delayed cardioprotection in a murine model of coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion injury and to determine the potential involvement of iNOS in this protection using a pharmacologic inhibitor and gene-knockout mice. (asahq.org)
- We previously showed that remote liver ischemia preconditioning (RLIPC) is highly protective against cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) linked ventricular arrhythmias and myocardial infarction, via induction of the cardioprotective RISK pathway, and specifically, inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3β (Ser 9). (biomedcentral.com)
- The notion of lethal reperfusion injury in the heart implies that injury ensues to viable myocytes at the time of reperfusion, over and above, the cellular damage normally attributed to the initial ischemic event. (omicsonline.org)
- articles concerning reperfusion injury (lethal and otherwise), ischemia-reperfusion injury, apoptosis, microvascular injury, ischemic conditioning and different combinations thereof were consulted. (omicsonline.org)
- Introduction The Reperfusion Injury Salvage Kinase (RISK) pathway is the term given to prosurvival kinases such as the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)-Akt cascade, which confer cardioprotection when specifically activated at the onset of myocardial reperfusion following an infarct. (bmj.com)
- Local ischemic preconditioning is one of the most potent innate mechanisms of cellular protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, 2 but its use in the treatment of acute stroke is necessarily limited by the need to induce it directly in the area at risk before the onset of ischemia. (ahajournals.org)
- Effect of hypercholesterolemia on myocardial function, ischemia-reperfusion injury and cardioprotection by preconditioning, postconditioning and remote conditioning , BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY 174: (12) pp. 1555-1569. (doktori.hu)
- MicroRNAs associated with ischemia/reperfusion injury and cardioprotection by ischemic pre- and postconditioning: ProtectomiRs , AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY: HEART AND CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY 307: (2) pp. (doktori.hu)
- Interaction of cardiovascular risk factors with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, preconditioning, and postconditioning , PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEWS 59: (4) pp. 418-458. (doktori.hu)
- Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), discovered 20 years ago, 1 is the most powerful intervention known to protect myocardium and has resulted in one of the most intensive and prolific areas of investigation, yet it has proved difficult to translate the knowledge obtained into clinical therapy. (ahajournals.org)
- O-GlcNAc signalling participates in mediating rIPC-induced cardioprotection and maintaining a state of inherent chronic activation of cardioprotection in diabetic myocardium, restricting it from further protection by rIPC. (sdsc.edu)
- books.google.com - Interest in the ability of myocardium to adapt to ischaemic stress has continued to grow since the discovery of ischaemic preconditioning in 1986. (google.com)
- Since then, a number of studies have described the ability of delayed preconditioning and related adaptive phenomena to protect against a variety of pathologies in the ischaemic and reperfused myocardium. (google.com)
- Pre-, post-, and remote conditioning of the myocardium are well described adaptive responses that markedly enhance the ability of the heart to withstand a prolonged ischemia/reperfusion insult and provide therapeutic paradigms for cardioprotection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- 1987. α 1 -Adrenoceptor activity regulates release of adenosine from the ischemic myocardium in dogs. (springer.com)
- Over the past two decades, it has been demonstrated in various animal species that the myocardium possesses innate adaptive mechanisms that may render it more resistant to ischemic injury. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Ischemic preconditioning, defined as the protection conferred to ischemic myocardium by prior episodes of brief sublethal ischemia, is one of the most potent of such adaptive phenomena. (ucl.ac.uk)
- It is critical in signal transduction of the ischemic myocardium. (asahq.org)
- Numerous studies have studied the effect of halogenated agents on the myocardium, highlighting the beneficial cardiac effect of the pharmacological mechanism (preconditioning and postconditioning) when employed before and after ischemia in patients with ischemic heart disease. (dovepress.com)
- In 1986, Murry et al developed the first animal model to reveal a cardioprotective effect through ischemic preconditioning (PreC) with the performance of small episodes of sublethal ischemia, which subsequently decreased the amount of affected myocardium during prolonged interruptions in coronary flow, unlike the situation in those animals in which this maneuver was not performed. (dovepress.com)
- Thus, it is suggested that attenuation of the cardioprotection in diabetic heart may be due to decrease the IPC mediated release of NO in the diabetic myocardium, which may be due to up -regulation of caveolin and subsequently decreased activity of eNOS. (biomedcentral.com)
- Lucchinetti E, Bestmann L, Feng J, Freidank H, Clanachan AS, Finegan BA, Zaugg M. Remote ischemic preconditioning applied during isoflurane inhalation provides no benefit to the myocardium of patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery: lack of synergy or evidence of antagonism in cardioprotection? (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In contrast with WT hearts, preconditioning failed to preserve contractile recovery in Kir6.2-KO hearts, as tight coupling between postischemic performance and high-energy phosphoryl transfer was compromised in the K ATP -channel-deficient myocardium. (elsevier.com)
- Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is the phenomenon whereby brief episodes of ischemia-reperfusion applied in distant tissues or organs render the heart resistant to a subsequent sustained ischemic insult. (ahajournals.org)
- Thus, while transport of protective factor(s) via exosomes may play a role in RIPC, our results reveal that exosomes per se are not sufficient to evoke remote cardioprotection. (ahajournals.org)
- Here, we investigated whether TXA influences I/R injury and/or cardioprotection initiated by IPC and/or remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC). (ovid.com)
- Additional application of TXA had no effect on I/R injury and cardioprotection by IPC or RIPC. (ovid.com)
- As direct application of ischemic to the heart is impractical, remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is usually preferred. (transpopmed.org)
- Accordingly, remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been considered as more feasible and promising than IPC due to its non-invasiveness. (transpopmed.org)
- RIPC utilizes transient ischemia and reperfusion of one vascular bed, organ or tissue away from the heart to precondition another vascular bed. (transpopmed.org)
- The alternative to IPC is remote ischemic precondition (RIPC), a noninvasive simple method, which is induced by several rounds of short-term remote organ (e.g. upper limbs) ischemia and reperfusion before prolonged myocardial ischemia [ 6 , 10 , 11 ]. (transpopmed.org)
- Post-translational modification of proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is cardioprotective but its role in cardioprotection by remote ischaemic preconditioning (rIPC) and the reduced efficacy of rIPC in type 2 diabetes mellitus is unknown. (sdsc.edu)
- The efficacy of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) in high-risk cardiac surgery is uncertain. (springer.com)
- rIPC [remote IPC (ischaemic preconditioning)] has been shown to invoke potent myocardial protection in animal studies and recent clinical trials. (clinsci.org)
- Although the important role of PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt activation in the cardioprotection afforded by local IPC is well described, our understanding of the intracellular signalling of rIPC remains incomplete. (clinsci.org)
- These strategies can be further stratified by performing the intervention locally or remotely, creating classes of conditioning known as remote ischemic PC (RIPC), remote ischemic PostC and remost ischemic PerC. (wikipedia.org)
- A role for PKCε in more contemporary cardioprotection strategies including RIPC, local PostC, and remote PostC have been either demonstrated or suggested. (wikipedia.org)
- This is called remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) cardioprotection. (springer.com)
- Several circulating factors and neurogenic signals contribute to the cardioprotection by RIPC. (springer.com)
- Remote Ischemic Preconditioning (RIPC) is emerging as a new noninvasive intervention that has the potential to protect a number of organs against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. (physiology.org)
- Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) refers to the ability of episode/s of sublethal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) in an organ/muscle to confer protection against subsequent lethal IR injury in another or distal organ (Hausenloy and Yellon 2008 ). (physiology.org)
- BACKGROUND: Cardioprotective value of ischemic post- (IPostC), remote (RIC) conditioning in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unclear in clinical trials. (uzh.ch)
- Cardioprotection by clopidogrel in acute ST-elevated myocardial infarction patients: a retrospective analysis. (springer.com)
- Our understanding of the cellular mechanisms of sub-acute adaptive cardioprotection has advanced considerably during this period. (google.com)
- The objective of our present study is to develop novel inhibitors for MMP-2 for acute cardioprotection. (frontiersin.org)
- We use a translational approach to cardioprotection with the identification of novel therapeutic targets at the laboratory 'bench' using pre-clinical models of acute IRI, and investigate their therapeutic potential in proof-of-concept clinical studies and multi-centre clinical outcome randomised controlled trials in IHD patients undergoing CABG surgery and in IHD patients presenting with an AMI. (duke-nus.edu.sg)
- Pre-clinical and clinical cardiac MRI and hybrid PET/MR studies to investigate the pathophysiology of acute IRI and assess cardioprotection in the setting of AMI and post-ischaemic heart failure. (duke-nus.edu.sg)
- Current studies are under way to evaluate the potential protection afforded by these "preconditioning" agents in patients with acute coronary syndromes, and some early reports provide some basis for optimism that a beneficial and clinically detectable improvement in myocardial protection may be possible. (ucl.ac.uk)
- In patients with MI, the treatment of choice for reducing acute myocardial ischemic injury and limiting MI size is timely and effective myocardial reperfusion using either thombolytic therapy or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). (jci.org)
- IRI typically arises in patients presenting with an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), in whom the most effective therapeutic intervention for reducing acute myocardial ischemic injury and limiting the size of myocardial infarction (MI) is timely and effective myocardial reperfusion using either thrombolytic therapy or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). (jci.org)
- The acute or early phase occurs immediately after the ischemic preconditioning stimulus and lasts for 1-3 h, 1 whereas the delayed or late phase is seen 12-24 h after the initial stimulus and lasts up to 72 h. 2 Opioids have been shown to confer both the early and the late phase of cardioprotection, similar to ischemic preconditioning. (asahq.org)
- Although coronary microembolization causes the release of coronary venous adenosine, 5,11 it neither induces acute preconditioning against acute infarction 11 nor interferes with a classic ischemic preconditioning protocol. (ahajournals.org)
- In TNF-α knockout mice, acute 14 and delayed ischemic preconditioning 16 are abrogated and TNF-α antibodies inhibit delayed ischemic preconditioning in rats. (ahajournals.org)
- Alterations of the ischaemic contracture in acute and chronic hyperthyroidism. (mitera.gr)
- The efficacy of ischemic preconditioning to limit IR-injury, however, is reduced by acute hyperglycemia. (springermedizin.de)
- This study evaluated whether remote ischemic per-conditioning may provide neuroprotection in a clinically relevant rat model of acute ischemic stroke. (ahajournals.org)
- Methods- Remote ischemic conditioning by transient limb ischemia was used in a rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model of acute stroke. (ahajournals.org)
- Further studies are required to better understand the mechanisms and biology of this response before translation to randomized controlled trials of remote per-conditioning for acute ischemic stroke. (ahajournals.org)
- 4 The objective of this proof-of-principle study was to evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy of remote ischemic per-conditioning in a clinically relevant ischemia-reperfusion model of acute ischemic stroke. (ahajournals.org)
- Recent small clinical trial demonstrated the cardioprotective effect of remote ischemic preconditioning and morphine during primary PCI. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- BNK), the cardioprotective effect of preconditioning is diminished or abolished. (ahajournals.org)
- and (3) an intact kallikrein-kinin system is necessary for the cardioprotective effect of preconditioning. (ahajournals.org)
- 18 19 In addition, blockade of kinins with a specific kinin receptor antagonist diminishes the cardioprotective effect of preconditioning. (ahajournals.org)
- When administered 24-48 h before a lethal ischemic injury, δ-opioid receptor agonists were demonstrated to produce a delayed cardioprotective effect. (asahq.org)
- The results could be related to a prolonged effect, in addition to preconditioning and postconditioning, which could enhance the cardioprotective effect of sevoflurane in the postoperative period. (dovepress.com)
- However, remote ischaemic postconditioning does not appear to require activation of this component of the RISK pathway to confer its cardioprotective effect. (bmj.com)
- Also, increased expression of the A3 receptor caused an enhanced cardioprotective effect by the preconditioning ischemia. (garvan.org.au)
- Abstract 16479: Remote Ischemic Preconditioning: Do Exosomes Play a Requisite Role in Evoking Cardioprotection? (ahajournals.org)
- 1996, Opioid receptor contributes to ischemic preconditioning through protein kinase C activation in rabbits (abstract). (springer.com)
- ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Ischaemic heart disease is a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality rates. (sun.ac.za)
- Prior studies have suggested that the antifibrinolytic drug aprotinin increases the infarct size after ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) and attenuates the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC). (ovid.com)
- Birnbaum Y, Hale SL, Kloner RA (1997) Ischemic preconditioning at a distance: reduction of myocardial infarct size by partial reduction of blood supply combined with rapid stimulation of the gastrocnemius muscle in the rabbit. (springer.com)
- remote ischemic conditioning reduced infarct size in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients when used in the ambulance or emergency department as an adjunct therapy to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), or when used with thrombolytic drugs. (wikipedia.org)
- Reduction of infarct size by selective stimulation of prostaglandin EP(3)receptors in the reperfused ischemic pig heart. (semanticscholar.org)
- Studies using adrenoceptor blockers have reponed very contradictory results and do not allow us to draw a clear conclusion about the role of adrenoceptors in infarct size limitation by preconditioning. (springer.com)
- Dipyridamole potentiates the myocardial infarct size-limiting effect of preconditioning. (springer.com)
- 1994. α 1 -Adrenoceptor activation mediates the infarct size-limiting effect of ischemic preconditioning through augmentation of 5′-nucleotidase activity. (springer.com)
- Restoration of blood flow to the ischemic area is the most important component for reduction of infarct size. (mdpi.com)
- Consistent with previous reports, resveratrol provided cardioprotection as evidenced by its ability to improve postischemic ventricular function, reduction of myocardial infarct size, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. (aspetjournals.org)
- Results: Esmolol during reperfusion resulted in robust cardioprotection (esmolol vs. saline: 24.3±8% vs. 40.6±3% infarct size), which was abolished by epinephrine co-administration (38.1±15% infarct size). (eurekaselect.com)
- Increasing the esmolol dose, however, was able to restore esmolol-cardioprotection in the epinephrine-esmolol (18.6±8% infarct size) co-treatment group with improved hemodynamics compared to the esmolol group (epinephrine-esmolol vs. esmolol: MAP 80 vs. 75 mmHg, HR 452 vs. 402 beats/min). (eurekaselect.com)
- 16 17 Furthermore, direct infusion of bradykinin into the coronary circulation mimics the cardioprotective action of preconditioning, such as reducing infarct size and occurrence of arrhythmias. (ahajournals.org)
- The protective influences of ischemic preconditioning include reduction of infarct size, prevention of life-threatening arrhythmias in ischemia and reperfusion, reduced myocardial oxygen demand, and improved recovery of post-ischemic cardiac pumping function. (edu.au)
- Infarct size was measured at completion of perfusion in control and ischemic preconditioned hearts as a percent of the ischemic zone at risk. (edu.au)
- Ischemic preconditioning significantly improved heart function and reduced infarct size in (n-6) PUFA hearts (11.8±5.4%, n=6) and SF hearts (13.1±4.2%, n=6). (edu.au)
- Ischaemic preconditioning is the most powerful endogenous mechanism for limiting myocardial infarct size in the experimental setting. (oup.com)
- Conclusion Remote ischaemic preconditioning using lower limb ischaemia reduces myocardial infarct size by activating the PI3K-Akt component of the RISK pathway. (bmj.com)
- Adenosine can achieve cardioprotection by mediating the effect of ischemic preconditioning and by protecting against myocyte injury when it is present during the infarct-producing ischemia. (garvan.org.au)
- Results- Compared with control, both pre- and per-conditioning significantly reduced brain infarct size with the more clinically relevant per-conditioning stimulus being superior to preconditioning. (ahajournals.org)
- Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is an experimental medical procedure that aims to reduce the severity of ischaemic injury to an organ such as the heart or the brain, most commonly in the situation of a heart attack or a stroke, or during procedures such as heart surgery when the heart may temporary suffer ischaemia during the operation. (wikipedia.org)
Similar to ischemic1
- Conclusions- RCS induces cardioprotection against lethal myocardial ischemia that is at least as powerful as traditional ischemic preconditioning but is mediated through radically different mechanisms. (ahajournals.org)
- Activation of peripheral nociception also induces cardioprotection against IR injury via neurogenic pathway. (springer.com)
- It is possible that angina also induces nociceptive signal pathway to provide cardioprotection. (springer.com)
- The restoration of circulation after the absence of oxygen and nutrients from blood during the ischemic period paradoxically induces pathophysiological processes that include the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and release of inflammatory cytokines, resulting in cell apoptosis [ 3 - 6 ]. (medsci.org)
- Although ischemic preconditioning induces bioenergetic tolerance and thereby remodels energy metabolism that is crucial for postischemic recovery of the heart, the molecular components associated with preservation of cellular energy production, transfer, and utilization are not fully understood. (elsevier.com)
- In this review, we discuss the effects of various pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, some novel potential pharmacological approaches, and physical exercise on hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative/nitrative stress and subsequent cardiac dysfunction as well as impaired ischemic stress adaptation of the heart in hypercholesterolemia. (hindawi.com)
- Ischemic or pharmacological preconditioning are powerful interventions to reduce ischemia reperfusion (IR)-injury. (springermedizin.de)
- Both ischaemic preconditioning and postconditioning recruit a common signal transduction pathway at the time of myocardial reperfusion, which can be targeted by pharmacological agents administered as adjuncts to reperfusion. (oup.com)
- Ischemic preconditioning is a powerful way to initiate intrinsic adaptive responses protecting the heart from subsequent severe ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury that can be mimicked by pharmacological preconditioning. (ahajournals.org)
- Remote ischemic preconditioning: current knowledge, unresolved questions, and future priorities. (biomedsearch.com)
- Wang S, Ye X, Wei J, Xia Z. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning for Cardioprotection in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Systemic Review. (transpopmed.org)
- Impact of O-GlcNAc on cardioprotection by remote ischaemic preconditioning in non-diabetic and diabetic patients. (sdsc.edu)
- Breivik L, Helgeland E, Aarnes EK, Mrdalj J, Jonassen AK (2011) Remote postconditioning by humoral factors in effluent from ischemic preconditioned rat hearts is mediated via PI3 K/Akt-dependent cell-survival signaling at reperfusion. (springer.com)
- Choi YS, Shim JK, Kim JC, Kang KS, Seo YH, Ahn KR, Kwak YL (2011) Effect of remote ischemic preconditioning on renal dysfunction after complex valvular heart surgery: a randomized controlled trial. (springer.com)
- In the clinical setting the HCI was the first to demonstrate the phenomenon of preconditioning in patients and the first to undertake a multicenter outcome study of remote conditioning in patients undergoing CABG surgery. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Other researchers confirmed this remote effect and found that performing the preconditioning protocol on kidney or gastrointestinal tissue also provided protection to the heart. (wikipedia.org)
- ERK activation in anterior nucleus of paraventricular thalamus (PVA) is required for this remote cardioprotection. (springer.com)
- Brandenburger T, Grievink H, Heinen N, Barthel F, Huhn R, Stachuletz F, Kohns M, Pannen B, Bauer I (2014) Effects of remote ischemic preconditioning and myocardial ischemia on microRNA-1 expression in the rat heart in vivo. (springer.com)
- Experimental cellular and animal models, and also human studies, have demonstrated that protection against IR injury by ischemic preconditioning, and the more clinically applicable remote ischemic preconditioning, is associated with increases in O-GlcNAc levels. (mdpi.com)
- The effect of remote ischemic preconditioning during coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a randomised controlled trial. (duke-nus.edu.sg)
- The purpose of this study is to compare a treatment called remote ischemic preconditioning (rIP) to no treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Background and Purpose- Remote ischemic preconditioning is a phenomenon by which a short period of sublethal ischemia to an organ protects against subsequent ischemia in another organ. (ahajournals.org)
- We have recently demonstrated that remote ischemic conditioning by transient hind limb ischemia delivered during ischemia and before reperfusion can provide potent cardioprotection, a phenomenon we termed per-conditioning. (ahajournals.org)
- 3 Although the remote activation of protection overcomes some of the limitations of local preconditioning, it also must be delivered before the onset of ischemia. (ahajournals.org)
- A total of 39 male P60 Sprague-Dawley rats (Harlan Laboratories, Inc, Indianapolis, IN) were randomly allocated to 3 groups: a control group, which received no remote pre- or per-conditioning, a preconditioning group, and a per-conditioning group ( Figure 1 ). (ahajournals.org)
- Remote preconditioning was initiated during the 40 minutes before surgery, whereas per-conditioning was initiated during the 40 minutes before reperfusion. (ahajournals.org)
- Cardioprotection by remote ischemic preconditioning of the rat heart is mediated by extracellular vesicles , JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR CARDIOLOGY 68: pp. 75-78. (doktori.hu)
- Here, we show that grafted cells can home in on damaged regions by MCAO and significantly improve behavior of ischemic rats. (eurekaselect.com)
- 01). In BNK rats, IS/AR was 87.1±4.8% in controls and 84.3±4.1% with preconditioning. (ahajournals.org)
- Preconditioning also prevented reperfusion arrhythmias in BN but not BNK rats. (ahajournals.org)
- A total of 39 P60 rats were randomly allocated to receive preconditioning, per-conditioning, or sham conditioning. (ahajournals.org)
- To move preconditioning into a broader clinical arena will require resolution of important fundamental yet stubborn problems involving both basic and clinical science. (biomedsearch.com)
- From a clinical standpoint, important issues include the influence of comorbidities on cardioprotection, identification of appropriate animal models, the lack of a biologic marker of the cardioprotective state, the influence of coexistent therapeutic drugs, potential toxicity of pharmacologic mimics, and the window of opportunity for significant protection. (biomedsearch.com)
- To evaluate cardioprotection, most translational animal studies and clinical trials utilize necrotic tissue referred to the area at risk (AAR) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (uzh.ch)
- Is it time to translate ischemic preconditioning's mechanism of cardioprotection into clinical practice? (springer.com)
- Clinical implications of ischemic pre- and post-conditioning. (duke-nus.edu.sg)
- Pathogenesis of post-ischemic cellular injury is discussed along with potential interventions (pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic) currently being used to improve clinical outcomes. (omicsonline.org)
Bench to Beds1
- In the present study, we investigated whether endogenous CYP2J3/epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) mediates the cardioprotective effects of ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) and ischaemic post-conditioning (IPost). (nih.gov)
- Cyclooxygenase mediates cardioprotection of angiotensin-(1-7) against ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury through the inhibition of oxidative stress. (semanticscholar.org)
- Transient mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening mediates preconditioning-induced protection. (duke-nus.edu.sg)
- 17 In isolated myocytes, nitric oxide is produced as a result of δ-opioid receptor stimulation and mediates the opioid-induced cardioprotection. (asahq.org)
Short period of sublethal ischemia1
- 13 Animal studies also showed that during the preconditioning procedure, outflow of kinins from the coronary sinus is rapidly increased, 14 15 along with increased release of cGMP, an indicator of nitric oxide production, and 6-keto-PGF 1α , a metabolite of prostacyclin. (ahajournals.org)
- Nitric oxide (NO) has been noted to produce ischemic preconditioning (IPC)-mediated cardioprotection. (biomedcentral.com)
- Experimental studies with experimental rodent models and cultures (cardiac myocytes, endothelial cells) indicate that moderate alcohol exposure can promote anti-inflammatory processes involving adenosine receptors, protein kinase C (PKC), nitric oxide synthase, heat shock proteins, and others which could underlie cardioprotection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
Phenomenon is termed1
- Ischemic preconditioning (IP) is the most effective, reproducible form of protection against myocardial cell death yet described. (biomedsearch.com)
- Combining cangrelor with ischemic postconditioning offered no additional protection suggesting they protected by a similar mechanism. (springer.com)
- To determine if cangrelor's protection might be additive to other cardioprotective interventions we tested cangrelor in combination with ischemic preconditioning, cariporide, a sodium-hydrogen exchange blocker, and mild hypothermia. (springer.com)
- Combining cangrelor and ischemic preconditioning offered no additional protection. (springer.com)
- Cardioprotection from a P2Y 12 receptor antagonist can be combined with at least 2 other strategies to magnify the protection. (springer.com)
- The Slo(w) path to identifying the mitochondrial channels responsible for ischemic protection. (rochester.edu)
- In 2002, Raj Kharbanda and Andrew Redington, working at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, showed that non-invasively stopping and starting blood flow in the arm provided the same protection as invasive preconditioning of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
- In 1993, two reports heralded the recognition of a delayed preconditioning response in the heart, now commonly known as the `second window' of protection. (google.com)
- Myocardial protection by preconditioning of heart with losartan, an angiotensin II type 1-receptor blocker: implication of bradykinin-dependent and bradykinin-independent mechanisms. (semanticscholar.org)
- However, reserpinization consistently abolished the protection of preconditioning in our studies and in those of others, indicating the contribution of endogenous catecholamines. (springer.com)
- 1995. Role of bradykinin in protection of ischemic preconditioning in rabbit hearts. (springer.com)
- 1994. Evidence that the adenosine A 3 receptor may mediate the protection afforded by preconditioning in the isolated rabbit heart. (springer.com)
- Catecholamines can induce adenosine receptor-mediated protection of the myacardium but do not participate in ischemic preconditioning in the rabbit. (springer.com)
- Recent evidence demonstrated that dexmedetomidine has organ protective effects including neuroprotection, cardioprotection, renal protection, gastrointestinal tract action, and anti-inflammatory action. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Moreover, TNF-α is also involved in the endogenous protection by ischemic preconditioning. (ahajournals.org)
- Anesthetic preconditioning is related to the dose-dependent signal, while the degree of protection is related to the concentration of the administered drug and the duration of the administration itself. (dovepress.com)
- Thus intact K ATP channels are integral in ischemic preconditioning-induced protection of cellular energetic dynamics and associated cardiac performance. (elsevier.com)
- Overexpressing the adenosine A1 receptor also led to increased protection against ischemia-induced myocyte injury as well as an enhanced preconditioning effect. (garvan.org.au)
- Clinically useful cardioprotection: ischemic preconditioning then and now. (biomedsearch.com)
- Ischemic preconditioning has yielded promising results in other organs including the brain as well as tissue preservation for certain surgical procedures that will require definition of the underlying mechanism(s) to be fully exploited clinically. (biomedsearch.com)
- Cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. (rochester.edu)
- Direct activation of PVA neurons also provides cardioprotection against cardiac IR injury. (springer.com)
- Ischemic kidney injury often occurs in the context of multiple organ failure and sepsis. (jci.org)
- Microglia can be activated and recruited to action by neuronal injury or stimulation, such as axonal damage seen in MS or ischemic brain trauma resulting from stroke. (jove.com)
- Additionally, dexmedetomidine exhibited a preconditioning effect against ischemic injury in hippocampal slices, and this result was considered an apoptosis suppression effect of dexmedetomidine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Conclusion: These results confirm earlier studies on esmolol-cardioprotection from myocardial IR-injury and demonstrate that a dose optimized epinephrine-esmolol co-treatment maintains esmolol-cardioprotection with improved hemodynamics compared to esmolol treatment alone. (eurekaselect.com)
- Deltorphin-E can be administered in accordance with the method as part of a preconditioning strategy, which reduces the extent of ischemic injury. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Further, it compared dietary fish oil with ischemic preconditioning and assessed their interaction for effects on heart function and injury during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. (edu.au)
- IR-injury was induced by unilateral forearm ischemic exercise. (springermedizin.de)
- The efficacy of ischemic preconditioning to reduce IR-injury, however, was lower in the patients and was even completely abolished during hyperglycemia. (springermedizin.de)
- Myocardial ischemic postconditioning- (IPo-) mediated cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury needs the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which involves adiponectin (APN). (harvard.edu)
- For mechanistic studies, hypoxia condition were exerted in in vitro models to mimic cardiac ischemic injury. (thno.org)
- Ischemic heart disease is also prevailing in the aged people. (springer.com)
- Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death and disability in Singapore and worldwide. (duke-nus.edu.sg)
- An insight into the mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective properties of ischemic preconditioning has, on the one hand, directed research aimed at identification of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of ischemic heart disease, and on the other, questioned the use of potentially deleterious agents that may abolish the cardioprotective actions of ischemic preconditioning in patients with angina. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Hypercholesterolemia, especially elevated low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, is a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis and subsequent ischemic heart disease [ 4 ], which is a leading cause of death worldwide [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Diabetes mellitus is a one of the major risk factor for ischemic heart disease. (biomedcentral.com)
- Cardiovascular disease now ranks as the leading cause of death, resulting in one third of all deaths in the world, among which ischemic heart disease is projected to be the number one cause of death globally. (edu.au)
- A considerable body of epidemiology associates moderate alcohol consumption with significantly reduced risks of coronary heart disease and, albeit currently a less robust relationship, cerebrovascular (ischemic) stroke. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Warm-up and walking through angina pectoris, traditionally ascribed to coronary vasodilation with opening of collateral channels, are nowadays alternatively interpreted as myoacardial tolerance to ischemia due to preconditioning, a biochemical process possibly triggered and mediated by the release of adenosine from ischemic myocytes, and by the subsequent activation of adenosine A1 receptors (2) . (onlinejacc.org)
Ischemia and reperfusion2
- While free radicals are thought to be involved in the damaging effects of ischemia and reperfusion, they also play a role in protective mechanisms of ischemic preconditioning. (edu.au)
- The patients were studied twice, with or without ischemic preconditioning (10 minutes of forearm ischemia and reperfusion). (springermedizin.de)
- Contribution of Endogenous Catecholamines to Preconditioning: Is it through Facilitation of Adenosine Production? (springer.com)
- In light of the negative data from adrenoceptor blockers on preconditioning the rabbit, it is speculated that the contribution of endogenous catecholamines, at least in this species, may be through a non-receptor-mediated mechanism such as free radicals. (springer.com)
- One approach to achieve cardioprotection is to enhance myocardial sensitivity to the endogenous adenosine by increasing the number of adenosine receptors instead of administering an adenosine receptor agonist. (garvan.org.au)
- The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon, termed "ischaemic preconditioning" (IPC) are still not clear, although it has been established that opioid receptors are involved. (nih.gov)
- G.J. Direct preconditioning of cardiac myocytes via opioid receptors and KATP channels: Circ Res. (freepatentsonline.com)
Approach to cardioprotection1
- HIF-1 is also required for ischemic preconditioning and this effect may be due in part to its induction of CD73, the enzyme that produces adenosine. (nih.gov)
- Our findings using microdialysis suggest that the role of catecholamines in preconditioning is not through modulating production of adenosine, a key trigger of the preconditioning mechanism. (springer.com)
- The role of adenosine in ischemic preconditioning. (springer.com)
- The purpose of this study in patients with quantitatively determined, poorly developed coronary collaterals was to assess the contribution of ischemic as well as adenosine-induced preconditioning and of collateral recruitment to the development of tolerance against repetitive myocardial ischemia. (onlinejacc.org)
- Pharmacologic preconditioning using a treatment with i.c. adenosine before angioplasty does not occur. (onlinejacc.org)
- Moreover, some of the medications used to treat these risk factors, including statins, nitrates, and antidiabetic drugs, may impact cardioprotection by modifying cellular signaling. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- These data reveal another essential explanation of cellular transplantation therapy in damage recovery from ischemic stroke and offer new therapeutic possibilities. (eurekaselect.com)
- This article reviews our current knowledge of the cellular mechanisms responsible for mediation of ischemic preconditioning, the evidence for the existence of this phenomenon in humans, and its potential therapeutic applications. (ucl.ac.uk)
- In preclinical studies, Nicotinamide Mononucleotide work on mice has proved to be handy in cellular biochemical activities, management of Alzheimer's disease, age-related diabetes, complications that arise from obesity, and cardioprotection. (articlecity.com)
- HIF-1-dependent regulation of mitochondrial metabolism may also contribute to the protective effects of ischemic preconditioning. (nih.gov)
- This protective effect was absent in B 2 -KO mice: IS/AR was 54.8±2.9% in controls, 58.5±3.6% with one cycle of preconditioning, and 58.5±3.4% with three cycles. (ahajournals.org)
- Therefore, we aimed to study the protective effect of ischemic preconditioning in patients with T1DM, and to explore the role of plasma insulin and glucose on this effect. (springermedizin.de)