A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease in which the ventricular walls are excessively rigid, impeding ventricular filling. It is marked by reduced diastolic volume of either or both ventricles but normal or nearly normal systolic function. It may be idiopathic or associated with other diseases (ENDOMYOCARDIAL FIBROSIS or AMYLOIDOSIS) causing interstitial fibrosis.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).
An autosomal dominant inherited form of HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY. It results from any of more than 50 mutations involving genes encoding contractile proteins such as VENTRICULAR MYOSINS; cardiac TROPONIN T; ALPHA-TROPOMYOSIN.
A congenital cardiomyopathy that is characterized by infiltration of adipose and fibrous tissue into the RIGHT VENTRICLE wall and loss of myocardial cells. Primary injuries usually are at the free wall of right ventricular and right atria resulting in ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A disease of the CARDIAC MUSCLE developed subsequent to the initial protozoan infection by TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI. After infection, less than 10% develop acute illness such as MYOCARDITIS (mostly in children). The disease then enters a latent phase without clinical symptoms until about 20 years later. Myocardial symptoms of advanced CHAGAS DISEASE include conduction defects (HEART BLOCK) and CARDIOMEGALY.
Rare congenital cardiomyopathies characterized by the lack of left ventricular myocardium compaction. The noncompaction results in numerous prominent trabeculations and a loose myocardial meshwork (spongy myocardium) in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Heterogeneous clinical features include diminished systolic function sometimes associated with left ventricular dilation, that presents either neonatally or progressively. Often, the RIGHT VENTRICLE is also affected. CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE; PULMONARY EMBOLISM; and ventricular ARRHYTHMIA are commonly seen.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.
Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.
Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)
A condition characterized by the thickening of the ventricular ENDOCARDIUM and subendocardium (MYOCARDIUM), seen mostly in children and young adults in the TROPICAL CLIMATE. The fibrous tissue extends from the apex toward and often involves the HEART VALVES causing restrictive blood flow into the respective ventricles (CARDIOMYOPATHY, RESTRICTIVE).
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
A family of transmembrane dystrophin-associated proteins that play a role in the membrane association of the DYSTROPHIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN COMPLEX.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.
Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
Diabetes complications in which VENTRICULAR REMODELING in the absence of CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS and hypertension results in cardiac dysfunctions, typically LEFT VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION. The changes also result in myocardial hypertrophy, myocardial necrosis and fibrosis, and collagen deposition due to impaired glucose tolerance.
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.

The role of oxidative stress in the genesis of heart disease. (1/2902)

Although researchers in radiation and cancer biology have known about the existence of free radicals and their potential role in pathobiology for several decades, cardiac biologists only began to take notice of these noxious species in the 1970s. Exponential growth of free radical research occurred after the discovery of superoxide dismutase in 1969. This antioxidant enzyme is responsible for the dismutation of superoxide radical--a free radical chain initiator. A fine balance between free radicals and a variety of endogenous antioxidants is believed to exist. Any disturbance in this equilibrium in favour of free radicals causes an increase in oxidative stress and initiates subcellular changes leading to cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Our knowledge about the role of free radicals in the pathogenesis of cardiac dysfunction is fast approaching the point where newer therapies employing antioxidants are in sight.  (+info)

Histamine aggravated levothyroxine-induced cardiomyopathy in guinea pigs. (2/2902)

AIM: To study effects of histamine on cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Cardiomyopathy model was developed in guinea pig by i.p. levothyroxine 0.5 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 10 d. Langendroff's hearts were perfused. ECG and contractile force were recorded. Histamine (5 micrograms) was given by intra-aortic injection. Histamine content of coronary venous effluent was determined fluorometrically. RESULTS: Attack of histamine on cardiomyopathy was severer than that in normal hearts. Tachycardia was more prominent; atrioventricular conduction block occurred earlier; decrease in coronary flow was more marked. Uptakes of histamine were 37% in the model and 19% in the normal hearts (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Histamine aggravated levothyroxine-cardiomyopathy.  (+info)

Molecular heterogeneity in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency causing pediatric cardiomyopathy and sudden death. (3/2902)

BACKGROUND: Genetic defects are being increasingly recognized in the etiology of primary cardiomyopathy (CM). Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) catalyzes the first step in the beta-oxidation spiral of fatty acid metabolism, the crucial pathway for cardiac energy production. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 37 patients with CM, nonketotic hypoglycemia and hepatic dysfunction, skeletal myopathy, or sudden death in infancy with hepatic steatosis, features suggestive of fatty acid oxidation disorders. Single-stranded conformational variance was used to screen genomic DNA. DNA sequencing and mutational analysis revealed 21 different mutations on the VLCAD gene in 18 patients. Of the mutations, 80% were associated with CM. Severe CM in infancy was recognized in most patients (67%) at presentation. Hepatic dysfunction was common (33%). RNA blot analysis and VLCAD enzyme assays showed a severe reduction in VLCAD mRNA in patients with frame-shift or splice-site mutations and absent or severe reduction in enzyme activity in all. CONCLUSIONS: Infantile CM is the most common clinical phenotype of VLCAD deficiency. Mutations in the human VLCAD gene are heterogeneous. Although mortality at presentation is high, both the metabolic disorder and cardiomyopathy are reversible.  (+info)

Cardiac involvement in proximal myotonic myopathy. (4/2902)

Proximal myotonic myopathy (PROMM) is a recently described autosomal dominantly inherited disorder resulting in proximal muscles weakness, myotonia, and cataracts. A few patients with cardiac involvement (sinus bradycardia, supraventricular bigeminy, conduction abnormalities) have been reported. The cases of three relatives with PROMM (weakness of neck flexors and proximal extremity muscles, calf hypertrophy, myotonia, cataracts) are reported: a 54 year old man, his 73 year old mother, and 66 year old aunt. All three presented with conduction abnormalities and one had repeated, life threatening, sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. This illustrates that severe cardiac involvement may occur in PROMM.  (+info)

A calcium antagonist protects against doxorubicin-induced impairment of calcium handling in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. (5/2902)

The effects of doxorubicin (DOX) on intracellular calcium transients and the cardioprotective effects of a calcium antagonist on DOX-induced impairment of calcium handling were examined in neonatal rat cultured cardiac myocytes. Cultured cardiac myocytes isolated from neonatal Wistar-Kyoto rats were treated with DOX for 24 h. Field-stimulated calcium transients in single myocytes were measured in the presence or absence of isoproterenol using fura-2/AM. Calcium transients were also measured after the addition of DOX to myocytes pretreated with a calcium antagonist, benidipine. DOX reduced the amplitude, maximum velocity of increase and decrease of calcium transients and prolonged the time course of calcium transients and impaired the beta-adrenoceptor responsiveness of calcium transients in a concentration-dependent manner. The DOX-induced impairment of calcium transients and beta-adrenoceptor responsiveness was improved by 10(-8) mol/L of benidipine. However, these improvements decreased with increasing concentrations of benidipine. DOX impaired both the mobilization and removal of intracellular calcium ions in contraction-relaxation cycles and the response of calcium transients to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation. Appropriate concentration of benidipine ameliorated DOX-induced impairment of calcium dynamics, suggesting that benidipine, a long-acting calcium antagonist, has potential clinical usefulness on DOX-induced abnormal calcium handling.  (+info)

Evidence of cell-mediated cardiac myocyte injury involved in the heart failure of a patient with progressive systemic sclerosis. (6/2902)

A 54-year-old woman with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) was admitted to hospital because of dyspnea and chest pain. Echocardiogram revealed diffuse hypokinesis of the left ventricle (ejection fraction 24%). Methylprednisolone, heparin, and diuretics were administered, without benefit. Anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal dysfunction rapidly progressed, and she died of heart failure on the 14th hospital day. Immunohistochemical study of the myocardial tissue showed mild to moderate cell infiltration, mainly consisting of natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), and T helper cells. Perforin, a cytolytic factor, was expressed in the infiltrating CTLs and NK cells, indicating that these cells were activated killer cells. Furthermore, human leukocyte antigen classes I and II, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, as well as costimulatory molecules B7-1, B7-2, and CD40, all of which are known not to be expressed in cardiac myocytes under normal conditions, were moderately to strongly expressed in cardiac myocytes. There was no detectable level of enterovirus genomes in the polymerase chain reaction products from the myocardial tissue of this patient. These findings strongly suggest that the infiltrating killer cells recognized cardiac myocytes as target cells and directly damaged them by releasing perforin. Enhanced expression of these antigens may have played an important role in the activation and cytotoxicity of the infiltrating killer cells. Absence of enterovirus genomes in the myocardial tissue may suggest that this autoimmune process is primarily induced by PSS.  (+info)

Use of an intravenous contrast agent (Optison) to enhance echocardiography: efficacy and cost implications. Optison Multicenter Study Group. (7/2902)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the overall diagnostic costs associated with non-contrast and contrast echocardiography. STUDY DESIGN: Phase III clinical trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a secondary analysis of data from a phase III clinical trial of the intravenous contrast agent Optison, we compared the costs associated with obtaining a diagnosis in 203 patients who underwent non-contrast and contrast echocardiography. Costs for the initial test and any follow-up tests were derived from adjusted Medicare charges and a transition-1 microcost accounting system. RESULTS: Diagnostic yield from echocardiograms was 87% with the use of Optison (3 mL) and 49% when no contrast agent was used (P < 0.001). Because technically inadequate echocardiograms were more common in the non-contrast group, follow-up testing was recommended for 42% of patients in this group compared with 12% of those who had undergone a contrast-enhanced echocardiogram (P < 0.001). Although use of Optison increased the initial diagnostic cost by $125, overall costs were 17% lower when Optison was used (P < 0.0001). Use of Optison also resulted in a 17% to 70% decrease in confirmatory transesophageal echocardiography, catheterization, and nuclear studies. Optison improved diagnostic accuracy by 2.7-fold in patients with an initial non-diagnostic echocardiogram, resulting in a substantial cost savings of $269 per patient.  (+info)

Transcomplementation between different types of respiration-deficient mitochondria with different pathogenic mutant mitochondrial DNAs. (8/2902)

Two cell lines were used for determination of whether interaction occurred between different types of respiration-deficient mitochondria. One was a respiration-deficient rho- cell line having mutant mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) with a 5,196-base pair deletion including five tRNA genes (tRNAGly, Arg, Ser(AGY), Leu(CUN), His), DeltamtDNA5196, causing Kearns-Sayre syndrome. The other was a respiration-deficient syn- cell line having mutant mtDNA with an A to G substitution at 4,269 in the tRNAIle gene, mtDNA4269, causing fatal cardiomyopathy. The occurrence of mitochondrial interaction was examined by determining whether cybrids constructed by fusion of enucleated rho- cells with syn- cells became respiration competent by exchanging their tRNAs. No cybrids were isolated in selection medium, where only respiration-competent cells could survive, suggesting that no interaction occurred, or that it occurred so slowly that sufficient recovery of mitochondrial respiratory function was not attained by the time of selection. The latter possibility was confirmed by the observations that heteroplasmic cybrids with both mutant mtDNA4269 and DeltamtDNA5196 isolated without selection showed restored mitochondrial respiration activity. This demonstration of transcomplementation between different respiration-deficient mitochondria will help in understanding the relationship between somatic mutant mtDNAs and the roles of such mutations in aging processes.  (+info)

Cardiomyopathies are a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle, leading to mechanical and/or electrical dysfunction. The American Heart Association (AHA) defines cardiomyopathies as "a heterogeneous group of diseases of the myocardium associated with mechanical and/or electrical dysfunction that usually (but not always) exhibit inappropriate ventricular hypertrophy or dilatation and frequently lead to heart failure."

There are several types of cardiomyopathies, including:

1. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM): This is the most common type of cardiomyopathy, characterized by an enlarged left ventricle and impaired systolic function, leading to heart failure.
2. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM): In this type, there is abnormal thickening of the heart muscle, particularly in the septum between the two ventricles, which can obstruct blood flow and increase the risk of arrhythmias.
3. Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM): This is a rare form of cardiomyopathy characterized by stiffness of the heart muscle, impaired relaxation, and diastolic dysfunction, leading to reduced filling of the ventricles and heart failure.
4. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC): In this type, there is replacement of the normal heart muscle with fatty or fibrous tissue, primarily affecting the right ventricle, which can lead to arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.
5. Unclassified cardiomyopathies: These are conditions that do not fit into any of the above categories but still significantly affect the heart muscle and function.

Cardiomyopathies can be caused by genetic factors, acquired conditions (e.g., infections, toxins, or autoimmune disorders), or a combination of both. The diagnosis typically involves a comprehensive evaluation, including medical history, physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and sometimes genetic testing. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the condition but may include medications, lifestyle modifications, implantable devices, or even heart transplantation in severe cases.

Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a type of heart muscle disorder characterized by impaired relaxation and filling of the lower chambers of the heart (the ventricles), leading to reduced pump function. This is caused by stiffening or rigidity of the heart muscle, often due to fibrosis or scarring. The stiffness prevents the ventricles from filling properly with blood during the diastolic phase, which can result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention.

RCM is a less common form of cardiomyopathy compared to dilated or hypertrophic cardiomyopathies. It can be idiopathic (no known cause) or secondary to other conditions like amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, or storage diseases. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, echocardiography, and sometimes cardiac MRI or biopsy. Treatment is focused on managing symptoms and addressing underlying causes when possible.

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a type of cardiomyopathy characterized by the enlargement and weakened contraction of the heart's main pumping chamber (the left ventricle). This enlargement and weakness can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. DCM can be caused by various factors including genetics, viral infections, alcohol and drug abuse, and other medical conditions like high blood pressure and diabetes. It is important to note that this condition can lead to heart failure if left untreated.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic disorder characterized by the thickening of the heart muscle, specifically the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart that pump blood out to the body). This thickening can make it harder for the heart to pump blood effectively, which can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, and fatigue. In some cases, HCM can also cause abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) and may increase the risk of sudden cardiac death.

The thickening of the heart muscle in HCM is caused by an overgrowth of the cells that make up the heart muscle, known as cardiomyocytes. This overgrowth can be caused by mutations in any one of several genes that encode proteins involved in the structure and function of the heart muscle. These genetic mutations are usually inherited from a parent, but they can also occur spontaneously in an individual with no family history of the disorder.

HCM is typically diagnosed using echocardiography (a type of ultrasound that uses sound waves to create images of the heart) and other diagnostic tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment for HCM may include medications to help manage symptoms, lifestyle modifications, and in some cases, surgical procedures or implantable devices to help prevent or treat arrhythmias.

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, Familial is a genetic disorder characterized by thickening of the heart muscle (myocardium), specifically the ventricles. This thickening, or hypertrophy, can make it harder for the heart to pump blood effectively, potentially leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, and arrhythmias.

In familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the disorder is inherited and passed down through families in an autosomal dominant pattern, meaning that a child has a 50% chance of inheriting the gene mutation from an affected parent. The condition can vary in severity even within the same family, and some individuals with the genetic mutation may not develop symptoms at all.

It is important to note that while hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can have serious consequences, many people with the condition lead normal lives with appropriate medical management and monitoring.

Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia (ARVD) is a rare cardiac condition characterized by the replacement of the normal heart muscle tissue in the right ventricle with fatty and fibrous tissues. This can lead to abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), particularly during exercise or emotional stress.

The condition can be inherited and is often associated with genetic mutations that affect the desmosomes, which are protein structures that help connect heart muscle cells together. These mutations can weaken the heart muscle and make it more prone to arrhythmias and heart failure over time.

Symptoms of ARVD may include palpitations, chest pain, shortness of breath, dizziness, or fainting, especially during exercise. In some cases, the condition may not cause any symptoms and may only be discovered during a routine medical exam or evaluation for another condition.

Diagnosis of ARVD typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging tests such as echocardiography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electrophysiological testing to assess heart rhythm abnormalities. Treatment may include medications to control arrhythmias, implantable devices such as pacemakers or defibrillators, and lifestyle modifications such as avoiding strenuous exercise. In severe cases, a heart transplant may be necessary.

The myocardium is the middle layer of the heart wall, composed of specialized cardiac muscle cells that are responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. It forms the thickest part of the heart wall and is divided into two sections: the left ventricle, which pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body, and the right ventricle, which pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

The myocardium contains several types of cells, including cardiac muscle fibers, connective tissue, nerves, and blood vessels. The muscle fibers are arranged in a highly organized pattern that allows them to contract in a coordinated manner, generating the force necessary to pump blood through the heart and circulatory system.

Damage to the myocardium can occur due to various factors such as ischemia (reduced blood flow), infection, inflammation, or genetic disorders. This damage can lead to several cardiac conditions, including heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy.

Chagas cardiomyopathy is a specific type of heart disease that is caused by infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is spread through the feces of infected triatomine bugs (also known as "kissing bugs"). The disease is named after Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite in 1909.

In Chagas cardiomyopathy, the infection can lead to inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis), which can cause damage to the heart over time. This damage can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Dilated cardiomyopathy: This is a condition in which the heart muscle becomes weakened and stretched, leading to an enlarged heart chamber and reduced pumping ability.
* Arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, and fainting.
* Heart failure: This is a condition in which the heart is unable to pump blood effectively, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid buildup in the body.
* Cardiac arrest: In severe cases, Chagas cardiomyopathy can lead to sudden cardiac arrest, which is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.

Chagas cardiomyopathy is most commonly found in Latin America, where the parasite that causes the disease is endemic. However, due to increased travel and migration, cases of Chagas cardiomyopathy have been reported in other parts of the world, including the United States. Treatment for Chagas cardiomyopathy typically involves medications to manage symptoms and prevent further complications, as well as lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise modifications. In some cases, more invasive treatments such as surgery or implantable devices may be necessary to treat severe complications of the disease.

Isolated Noncompaction of the Ventricular Myocardium (INVM) is a rare genetic cardiomyopathy characterized by a thickened, spongy appearance of the left ventricular myocardium. This condition results from the failure of myocardial fibers to compact during fetal development, leading to prominent trabeculations and deep recesses in the ventricular wall. INVM can be asymptomatic or present with various symptoms such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and thromboembolic events. It is often diagnosed using echocardiography, cardiac MRI, or cardiac catheterization. INVM can be associated with other genetic disorders, but when it occurs in isolation, it is referred to as "isolated" noncompaction.

A sarcomere is the basic contractile unit in a muscle fiber, and it's responsible for generating the force necessary for muscle contraction. It is composed of several proteins, including actin and myosin, which slide past each other to shorten the sarcomere during contraction. The sarcomere extends from one Z-line to the next in a muscle fiber, and it is delimited by the Z-discs where actin filaments are anchored. Sarcomeres play a crucial role in the functioning of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles.

Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium, which is the middle layer of the heart wall. The myocardium is composed of cardiac muscle cells and is responsible for the heart's pumping function. Myocarditis can be caused by various infectious and non-infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, autoimmune diseases, toxins, and drugs.

In myocarditis, the inflammation can damage the cardiac muscle cells, leading to decreased heart function, arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms), and in severe cases, heart failure or even sudden death. Symptoms of myocarditis may include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, palpitations, and swelling in the legs, ankles, or abdomen.

The diagnosis of myocarditis is often based on a combination of clinical presentation, laboratory tests, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and endomyocardial biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the disease and may include medications to support heart function, reduce inflammation, control arrhythmias, and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. In some cases, hospitalization and intensive care may be necessary.

Cardiac myosins are a type of myosin protein that are specifically expressed in the cardiac muscle cells (or cardiomyocytes) of the heart. These proteins play a crucial role in the contraction and relaxation of heart muscles, which is essential for proper heart function and blood circulation.

Myosins are molecular motors that use chemical energy from ATP to generate force and movement. In the context of cardiac muscle cells, cardiac myosins interact with another protein called actin to form sarcomeres, which are the basic contractile units of muscle fibers. During contraction, the heads of cardiac myosin molecules bind to actin filaments and pull them together, causing the muscle fiber to shorten and generate force.

There are different isoforms of cardiac myosins that can vary in their structure and function. Mutations in the genes encoding these proteins have been linked to various forms of cardiomyopathy, which are diseases of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure and other complications. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of cardiac myosins is an important area of research for developing therapies and treatments for heart disease.

Heart disease is a broad term for a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. It's often used to refer to conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease. It occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become hardened and narrowed due to the buildup of cholesterol and other substances, which can lead to chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or a heart attack.

2. Heart failure: This condition occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.

3. Arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms, which can be too fast, too slow, or irregular. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, and fainting.

4. Valvular heart disease: This involves damage to one or more of the heart's four valves, which control blood flow through the heart. Damage can be caused by various conditions, including infection, rheumatic fever, and aging.

5. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, viral infections, and drug abuse.

6. Pericardial disease: This involves inflammation or other problems with the sac surrounding the heart (pericardium). It can cause chest pain and other symptoms.

7. Congenital heart defects: These are heart conditions that are present at birth, such as a hole in the heart or abnormal blood vessels. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.

8. Heart infections: The heart can become infected by bacteria, viruses, or parasites, leading to various symptoms and complications.

It's important to note that many factors can contribute to the development of heart disease, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions. Regular check-ups and a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the risk of developing heart disease.

Cardiac myocytes are the muscle cells that make up the heart muscle, also known as the myocardium. These specialized cells are responsible for contracting and relaxing in a coordinated manner to pump blood throughout the body. They differ from skeletal muscle cells in several ways, including their ability to generate their own electrical impulses, which allows the heart to function as an independent rhythmical pump. Cardiac myocytes contain sarcomeres, the contractile units of the muscle, and are connected to each other by intercalated discs that help coordinate contraction and ensure the synchronous beating of the heart.

Cardiac arrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms that result from disturbances in the electrical conduction system of the heart. The heart's normal rhythm is controlled by an electrical signal that originates in the sinoatrial (SA) node, located in the right atrium. This signal travels through the atrioventricular (AV) node and into the ventricles, causing them to contract and pump blood throughout the body.

An arrhythmia occurs when there is a disruption in this electrical pathway or when the heart's natural pacemaker produces an abnormal rhythm. This can cause the heart to beat too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia), or irregularly.

There are several types of cardiac arrhythmias, including:

1. Atrial fibrillation: A rapid and irregular heartbeat that starts in the atria (the upper chambers of the heart).
2. Atrial flutter: A rapid but regular heartbeat that starts in the atria.
3. Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT): A rapid heartbeat that starts above the ventricles, usually in the atria or AV node.
4. Ventricular tachycardia: A rapid and potentially life-threatening heart rhythm that originates in the ventricles.
5. Ventricular fibrillation: A chaotic and disorganized electrical activity in the ventricles, which can be fatal if not treated immediately.
6. Heart block: A delay or interruption in the conduction of electrical signals from the atria to the ventricles.

Cardiac arrhythmias can cause various symptoms, such as palpitations, dizziness, shortness of breath, chest pain, and fatigue. In some cases, they may not cause any symptoms and go unnoticed. However, if left untreated, certain types of arrhythmias can lead to serious complications, including stroke, heart failure, or even sudden cardiac death.

Treatment for cardiac arrhythmias depends on the type, severity, and underlying causes. Options may include lifestyle changes, medications, cardioversion (electrical shock therapy), catheter ablation, implantable devices such as pacemakers or defibrillators, and surgery. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and management of cardiac arrhythmias.

Desmin is a type of intermediate filament protein that is primarily found in the cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, as well as in some types of smooth muscle cells. It is an important component of the cytoskeleton, which provides structural support to the cell and helps maintain its shape. Desmin plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of the sarcomere, which is the basic contractile unit of the muscle fiber. Mutations in the desmin gene can lead to various forms of muscular dystrophy and other inherited muscle disorders.

Genetic testing is a type of medical test that identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person's chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder. Genetic tests are performed on a sample of blood, hair, skin, amniotic fluid (the fluid that surrounds a fetus during pregnancy), or other tissue. For example, a physician may recommend genetic testing to help diagnose a genetic condition, confirm the presence of a gene mutation known to increase the risk of developing certain cancers, or determine the chance for a couple to have a child with a genetic disorder.

There are several types of genetic tests, including:

* Diagnostic testing: This type of test is used to identify or confirm a suspected genetic condition in an individual. It may be performed before birth (prenatal testing) or at any time during a person's life.
* Predictive testing: This type of test is used to determine the likelihood that a person will develop a genetic disorder. It is typically offered to individuals who have a family history of a genetic condition but do not show any symptoms themselves.
* Carrier testing: This type of test is used to determine whether a person carries a gene mutation for a genetic disorder. It is often offered to couples who are planning to have children and have a family history of a genetic condition or belong to a population that has an increased risk of certain genetic disorders.
* Preimplantation genetic testing: This type of test is used in conjunction with in vitro fertilization (IVF) to identify genetic changes in embryos before they are implanted in the uterus. It can help couples who have a family history of a genetic disorder or who are at risk of having a child with a genetic condition to conceive a child who is free of the genetic change in question.
* Pharmacogenetic testing: This type of test is used to determine how an individual's genes may affect their response to certain medications. It can help healthcare providers choose the most effective medication and dosage for a patient, reducing the risk of adverse drug reactions.

It is important to note that genetic testing should be performed under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional who can interpret the results and provide appropriate counseling and support.

Mitochondrial diseases are a group of disorders caused by dysfunctions in the mitochondria, which are the energy-producing structures in cells. These diseases can affect people of any age and can manifest in various ways, depending on which organs or systems are affected. Common symptoms include muscle weakness, neurological problems, cardiac disease, diabetes, and vision/hearing loss. Mitochondrial diseases can be inherited from either the mother's or father's side, or they can occur spontaneously due to genetic mutations. They can range from mild to severe and can even be life-threatening in some cases.

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a sudden, unexpected natural death caused by the cessation of cardiac activity. It is often caused by cardiac arrhythmias, particularly ventricular fibrillation, and is often associated with underlying heart disease, although it can occur in people with no known heart condition. SCD is typically defined as a natural death due to cardiac causes that occurs within one hour of the onset of symptoms, or if the individual was last seen alive in a normal state of health, it can be defined as occurring within 24 hours.

It's important to note that sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is different from SCD, although they are related. SCA refers to the sudden cessation of cardiac activity, which if not treated immediately can lead to SCD.

Endomyocardial fibrosis is a rare heart condition characterized by the thickening and scarring (fibrosis) of the inner layer of the heart muscle (endocardium) and the muscular walls of the lower chambers of the heart (ventricles). This process can restrict the heart's ability to fill properly with blood, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. The exact cause of endomyocardial fibrosis is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve an abnormal immune response or inflammation. It is more commonly found in tropical regions of Africa and Asia. Treatment typically involves medications to manage symptoms and improve heart function, as well as potentially surgical interventions to remove the scar tissue and restore normal heart function.

The heart ventricles are the two lower chambers of the heart that receive blood from the atria and pump it to the lungs or the rest of the body. The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs, while the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. Both ventricles have thick, muscular walls to generate the pressure necessary to pump blood through the circulatory system.

Heart failure is a pathophysiological state in which the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to meet the metabolic demands of the body or do so only at the expense of elevated filling pressures. It can be caused by various cardiac disorders, including coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. Heart failure is often classified based on the ejection fraction (EF), which is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle during each contraction. A reduced EF (less than 40%) is indicative of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), while a preserved EF (greater than or equal to 50%) is indicative of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). There is also a category of heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) for those with an EF between 40-49%.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Cardiomegaly is a medical term that refers to an enlarged heart. It can be caused by various conditions such as high blood pressure, heart valve problems, cardiomyopathy, or fluid accumulation around the heart (pericardial effusion). Cardiomegaly can be detected through imaging tests like chest X-rays or echocardiograms. Depending on the underlying cause, treatment options may include medications, lifestyle changes, or in some cases, surgery. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Sarcoglycans are a group of proteins that are part of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in muscle cells. This complex helps to maintain the structural integrity of the muscle fiber by forming a link between the cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix. Sarcoglycans are located on the surface of the muscle fiber and play a critical role in protecting the muscle from damage during contraction.

There are four main sarcoglycans, known as alpha, beta, gamma, and delta-sarcoglycan. Mutations in any one of these proteins can lead to a group of genetic disorders known as the sarcoglycanopathies, which are characterized by progressive muscle weakness and wasting. The most severe form of this disorder is called limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2C (LGMD2C), which is caused by mutations in the gamma-sarcoglycan gene.

In addition to their role in muscle cells, sarcoglycans have also been found to be expressed in other tissues, including the brain and the lungs, suggesting that they may have additional functions beyond their structural role in muscle.

Echocardiography is a medical procedure that uses sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart's structure, function, and motion. It is a non-invasive test that can help diagnose various heart conditions, such as valve problems, heart muscle damage, blood clots, and congenital heart defects.

During an echocardiogram, a transducer (a device that sends and receives sound waves) is placed on the chest or passed through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart. The sound waves produced by the transducer bounce off the heart structures and return to the transducer, which then converts them into electrical signals that are processed to create images of the heart.

There are several types of echocardiograms, including:

* Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE): This is the most common type of echocardiogram and involves placing the transducer on the chest.
* Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE): This type of echocardiogram involves passing a specialized transducer through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart from a closer proximity.
* Stress echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram is performed during exercise or medication-induced stress to assess how the heart functions under stress.
* Doppler echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram uses sound waves to measure blood flow and velocity in the heart and blood vessels.

Echocardiography is a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing various heart conditions, as it provides detailed information about the structure and function of the heart. It is generally safe, non-invasive, and painless, making it a popular choice for doctors and patients alike.

Troponin T is a subunit of the troponin complex, which is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in muscle contraction. In particular, Troponin T is responsible for binding the troponin complex to tropomyosin, another protein that helps regulate muscle contraction.

In the context of medical diagnostics, Troponin T is often measured as a biomarker for heart damage. When heart muscle cells are damaged or die, such as in a myocardial infarction (heart attack), troponin T is released into the bloodstream. Therefore, measuring the levels of Troponin T in the blood can help diagnose and assess the severity of heart damage.

It's important to note that Troponin T is specific to cardiac muscle cells, which makes it a more reliable biomarker for heart damage than other markers that may also be found in skeletal muscle cells. However, it's worth noting that Troponin T levels can also be elevated in conditions other than heart attacks, such as heart failure, myocarditis, and pulmonary embolism, so clinical context is important when interpreting test results.

In medical terms, the heart is a muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity that functions as a pump to circulate blood throughout the body. It's responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. The human heart is divided into four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs, while the left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it out to the rest of the body. The heart's rhythmic contractions and relaxations are regulated by a complex electrical conduction system.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems like there are two terms combined into one request: "Mitochondria" and "Heart." I will provide separate definitions for each.

Mitochondrion (singular) or Mitochondria (plural): These are specialized structures found in the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus), including human cells. They are often referred to as the "powerhouse" of the cell because they generate energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria contain their own DNA, which is distinct from the nuclear DNA, and are believed to have originated from ancient bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive eukaryotic cells.

Heart: In human anatomy, the heart is a muscular organ responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. It is located in the thoracic cavity, slightly left of the center, and is enclosed by the pericardium, a double-walled sac that provides protection and lubrication for the heart's movement. The human heart is divided into four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs, while the left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it to the rest of the body. The heart's pumping action is regulated by electrical signals that originate in a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells called the sinoatrial node (SA node).

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional images of the body's internal structures. In MRI, Cine is a specific mode of imaging that allows for the evaluation of moving structures, such as the heart, by acquiring and displaying a series of images in rapid succession. This technique is particularly useful in cardiac imaging, where it can help assess heart function, valve function, and blood flow. The term "Cine" refers to the continuous playback of these images, similar to watching a movie, allowing doctors to evaluate motion and timing within the heart.

Myosin Heavy Chains are the large, essential components of myosin molecules, which are responsible for the molecular motility in muscle cells. These heavy chains have a molecular weight of approximately 200 kDa and form the motor domain of myosin, which binds to actin filaments and hydrolyzes ATP to generate force and movement during muscle contraction. There are several different types of myosin heavy chains, each with specific roles in various tissues and cellular functions. In skeletal and cardiac muscles, for example, myosin heavy chains have distinct isoforms that contribute to the contractile properties of these tissues.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

I must clarify that the term "pedigree" is not typically used in medical definitions. Instead, it is often employed in genetics and breeding, where it refers to the recorded ancestry of an individual or a family, tracing the inheritance of specific traits or diseases. In human genetics, a pedigree can help illustrate the pattern of genetic inheritance in families over multiple generations. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical definition.

Myocardial contraction refers to the rhythmic and forceful shortening of heart muscle cells (myocytes) in the myocardium, which is the muscular wall of the heart. This process is initiated by electrical signals generated by the sinoatrial node, causing a wave of depolarization that spreads throughout the heart.

During myocardial contraction, calcium ions flow into the myocytes, triggering the interaction between actin and myosin filaments, which are the contractile proteins in the muscle cells. This interaction causes the myofilaments to slide past each other, resulting in the shortening of the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscle contraction) and ultimately leading to the contraction of the heart muscle.

Myocardial contraction is essential for pumping blood throughout the body and maintaining adequate circulation to vital organs. Any impairment in myocardial contractility can lead to various cardiac disorders, such as heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias.

Left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) is a condition characterized by the impaired ability of the left ventricle of the heart to pump blood efficiently during contraction. The left ventricle is one of the four chambers of the heart and is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.

LVD can be caused by various underlying conditions, such as coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, or hypertension. These conditions can lead to structural changes in the left ventricle, including remodeling, hypertrophy, and dilation, which ultimately impair its contractile function.

The severity of LVD is often assessed by measuring the ejection fraction (EF), which is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle during each contraction. A normal EF ranges from 55% to 70%, while an EF below 40% is indicative of LVD.

LVD can lead to various symptoms, such as shortness of breath, fatigue, fluid retention, and decreased exercise tolerance. It can also increase the risk of complications, such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiac arrest. Treatment for LVD typically involves managing the underlying cause, along with medications to improve contractility, reduce fluid buildup, and control heart rate. In severe cases, devices such as implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) or left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) may be required.

A mutant protein is a protein that has undergone a genetic mutation, resulting in an altered amino acid sequence and potentially changed structure and function. These changes can occur due to various reasons such as errors during DNA replication, exposure to mutagenic substances, or inherited genetic disorders. The alterations in the protein's structure and function may have no significant effects, lead to benign phenotypic variations, or cause diseases, depending on the type and location of the mutation. Some well-known examples of diseases caused by mutant proteins include cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and certain types of cancer.

Myofibrils are the basic contractile units of muscle fibers, composed of highly organized arrays of thick and thin filaments. They are responsible for generating the force necessary for muscle contraction. The thick filaments are primarily made up of the protein myosin, while the thin filaments are mainly composed of actin. Myofibrils are surrounded by a membrane called the sarcolemma and are organized into repeating sections called sarcomeres, which are the functional units of muscle contraction.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sports" is not a medical term. It refers to physical activities that are governed by a set of rules and often engaged in competitively. However, there are fields such as Sports Medicine and Exercise Science that deal with various aspects of physical activity, fitness, and sports-related injuries or conditions. If you have any questions related to these areas, I'd be happy to try to help!

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is a medical procedure that records the electrical activity of the heart. It provides a graphic representation of the electrical changes that occur during each heartbeat. The resulting tracing, called an electrocardiogram, can reveal information about the heart's rate and rhythm, as well as any damage to its cells or abnormalities in its conduction system.

During an ECG, small electrodes are placed on the skin of the chest, arms, and legs. These electrodes detect the electrical signals produced by the heart and transmit them to a machine that amplifies and records them. The procedure is non-invasive, painless, and quick, usually taking only a few minutes.

ECGs are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, heart attacks, and electrolyte imbalances. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of certain medications or treatments.

A missense mutation is a type of point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in the substitution of a different amino acid in the protein that is encoded by the affected gene. This occurs when the altered codon (a sequence of three nucleotides that corresponds to a specific amino acid) specifies a different amino acid than the original one. The function and/or stability of the resulting protein may be affected, depending on the type and location of the missense mutation. Missense mutations can have various effects, ranging from benign to severe, depending on the importance of the changed amino acid for the protein's structure or function.

Dystrophin is a protein that provides structural stability to muscle fibers. It is an essential component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, which helps maintain the integrity of the sarcolemma (the membrane surrounding muscle cells) during muscle contraction and relaxation. Dystrophin plays a crucial role in connecting the cytoskeleton of the muscle fiber to the extracellular matrix, allowing for force transmission and protecting the muscle cell from damage.

Mutations in the DMD gene, which encodes dystrophin, can lead to various forms of muscular dystrophy, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). In DMD, a severe form of the disease, genetic alterations typically result in little or no production of functional dystrophin, causing progressive muscle weakness, wasting, and degeneration. In BMD, a milder form of the disorder, partially functional dystrophin is produced, leading to less severe symptoms and later onset of the disease.

Fibrosis is a pathological process characterized by the excessive accumulation and/or altered deposition of extracellular matrix components, particularly collagen, in various tissues and organs. This results in the formation of fibrous scar tissue that can impair organ function and structure. Fibrosis can occur as a result of chronic inflammation, tissue injury, or abnormal repair mechanisms, and it is a common feature of many diseases, including liver cirrhosis, lung fibrosis, heart failure, and kidney disease.

In medical terms, fibrosis is defined as:

"The process of producing scar tissue (consisting of collagen) in response to injury or chronic inflammation in normal connective tissue. This can lead to the thickening and stiffening of affected tissues and organs, impairing their function."

Myocardial ischemia is a condition in which the blood supply to the heart muscle (myocardium) is reduced or blocked, leading to insufficient oxygen delivery and potential damage to the heart tissue. This reduction in blood flow typically results from the buildup of fatty deposits, called plaques, in the coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygen-rich blood. The plaques can rupture or become unstable, causing the formation of blood clots that obstruct the artery and limit blood flow.

Myocardial ischemia may manifest as chest pain (angina pectoris), shortness of breath, fatigue, or irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias). In severe cases, it can lead to myocardial infarction (heart attack) if the oxygen supply is significantly reduced or cut off completely, causing permanent damage or death of the heart muscle. Early diagnosis and treatment of myocardial ischemia are crucial for preventing further complications and improving patient outcomes.

Diastole is the phase of the cardiac cycle during which the heart muscle relaxes and the chambers of the heart fill with blood. It follows systole, the phase in which the heart muscle contracts and pumps blood out to the body. In a normal resting adult, diastole lasts for approximately 0.4-0.5 seconds during each heartbeat. The period of diastole is divided into two phases: early diastole and late diastole. During early diastole, the ventricles fill with blood due to the pressure difference between the atria and ventricles. During late diastole, the atrioventricular valves close, and the ventricles continue to fill with blood due to the relaxation of the ventricular muscle and the compliance of the ventricular walls. The duration and pressure changes during diastole are important for maintaining adequate cardiac output and blood flow to the body.

Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a specific type of heart disease that occurs in people with diabetes. It is characterized by structural and functional changes in the heart muscle (myocardium), which can lead to impaired heart function and, ultimately, heart failure.

The exact mechanisms underlying diabetic cardiomyopathy are not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to a combination of metabolic abnormalities, inflammation, oxidative stress, and microvascular dysfunction that occur in diabetes. These factors can lead to changes in the heart muscle cells, including increased stiffness, altered contractility, and cell death, as well as interstitial fibrosis and remodeling of the extracellular matrix.

Diabetic cardiomyopathy is often asymptomatic in its early stages but can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, fluid retention, and irregular heart rhythms as it progresses. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, and other imaging tests, as well as laboratory tests to assess cardiac function and metabolic status.

Treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy typically involves managing underlying diabetes and associated risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-blockers, and diuretics may also be used to improve heart function and reduce symptoms. Lifestyle modifications such as regular exercise, smoking cessation, and a healthy diet are also important components of management.

Heart transplantation is a surgical procedure where a diseased, damaged, or failing heart is removed and replaced with a healthy donor heart. This procedure is usually considered as a last resort for patients with end-stage heart failure or severe coronary artery disease who have not responded to other treatments. The donor heart typically comes from a brain-dead individual whose family has agreed to donate their loved one's organs for transplantation. Heart transplantation is a complex and highly specialized procedure that requires a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, anesthesiologists, perfusionists, nurses, and other support staff. The success rates for heart transplantation have improved significantly over the past few decades, with many patients experiencing improved quality of life and increased survival rates. However, recipients of heart transplants require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the donor heart, which can increase the risk of infections and other complications.

Left ventricular function refers to the ability of the left ventricle (the heart's lower-left chamber) to contract and relax, thereby filling with and ejecting blood. The left ventricle is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. Its function is evaluated by measuring several parameters, including:

1. Ejection fraction (EF): This is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle with each heartbeat. A normal ejection fraction ranges from 55% to 70%.
2. Stroke volume (SV): The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in one contraction. A typical SV is about 70 mL/beat.
3. Cardiac output (CO): The total volume of blood that the left ventricle pumps per minute, calculated as the product of stroke volume and heart rate. Normal CO ranges from 4 to 8 L/minute.

Assessment of left ventricular function is crucial in diagnosing and monitoring various cardiovascular conditions such as heart failure, coronary artery disease, valvular heart diseases, and cardiomyopathies.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Contrast media are substances that are administered to a patient in order to improve the visibility of internal body structures or processes in medical imaging techniques such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasounds. These media can be introduced into the body through various routes, including oral, rectal, or intravenous administration.

Contrast media work by altering the appearance of bodily structures in imaging studies. For example, when a patient undergoes an X-ray examination, contrast media can be used to highlight specific organs, tissues, or blood vessels, making them more visible on the resulting images. In CT and MRI scans, contrast media can help to enhance the differences between normal and abnormal tissues, allowing for more accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.

There are several types of contrast media available, each with its own specific properties and uses. Some common examples include barium sulfate, which is used as a contrast medium in X-ray studies of the gastrointestinal tract, and iodinated contrast media, which are commonly used in CT scans to highlight blood vessels and other structures.

While contrast media are generally considered safe, they can sometimes cause adverse reactions, ranging from mild symptoms such as nausea or hives to more serious complications such as anaphylaxis or kidney damage. As a result, it is important for healthcare providers to carefully evaluate each patient's medical history and individual risk factors before administering contrast media.

Ventricular remodeling is a structural adaptation process of the heart in response to stress or injury, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack) or pressure overload. This process involves changes in size, shape, and function of the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart).

In ventricular remodeling, the heart muscle may thicken, enlarge, or become more stiff, leading to alterations in the pumping ability of the heart. These changes can ultimately result in cardiac dysfunction, heart failure, and an increased risk of arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms).

Ventricular remodeling is often classified into two types:

1. Concentric remodeling: This occurs when the ventricular wall thickens (hypertrophy) without a significant increase in chamber size, leading to a decrease in the cavity volume and an increase in the thickness of the ventricular wall.
2. Eccentric remodeling: This involves an increase in both the ventricular chamber size and wall thickness due to the addition of new muscle cells (hyperplasia) or enlargement of existing muscle cells (hypertrophy). As a result, the overall shape of the ventricle becomes more spherical and less elliptical.

Both types of remodeling can negatively impact heart function and contribute to the development of heart failure. Close monitoring and appropriate treatment are essential for managing ventricular remodeling and preventing further complications.

Muscle proteins are a type of protein that are found in muscle tissue and are responsible for providing structure, strength, and functionality to muscles. The two major types of muscle proteins are:

1. Contractile proteins: These include actin and myosin, which are responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscles. They work together to cause muscle movement by sliding along each other and shortening the muscle fibers.
2. Structural proteins: These include titin, nebulin, and desmin, which provide structural support and stability to muscle fibers. Titin is the largest protein in the human body and acts as a molecular spring that helps maintain the integrity of the sarcomere (the basic unit of muscle contraction). Nebulin helps regulate the length of the sarcomere, while desmin forms a network of filaments that connects adjacent muscle fibers together.

Overall, muscle proteins play a critical role in maintaining muscle health and function, and their dysregulation can lead to various muscle-related disorders such as muscular dystrophy, myopathies, and sarcopenia.

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a medical condition in which the left ventricle of the heart undergoes an enlargement or thickening of its muscle wall. The left ventricle is the main pumping chamber of the heart that supplies oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.

In response to increased workload, such as hypertension (high blood pressure), aortic valve stenosis, or athletic training, the left ventricular muscle may thicken and enlarge. This process is called "hypertrophy." While some degree of hypertrophy can be adaptive in athletes, significant or excessive hypertrophy can lead to impaired relaxation and filling of the left ventricle during diastole, reduced pumping capacity, and decreased compliance of the chamber.

Left ventricular hypertrophy is often asymptomatic initially but can increase the risk of various cardiovascular complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, myocardial infarction (heart attack), and sudden cardiac death over time. It is typically diagnosed through imaging techniques like echocardiography or cardiac MRI and confirmed by measuring the thickness of the left ventricular wall.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Stroke volume is a term used in cardiovascular physiology and medicine. It refers to the amount of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle of the heart during each contraction (systole). Specifically, it is the difference between the volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of diastole (when the ventricle is filled with blood) and the volume at the end of systole (when the ventricle has contracted and ejected its contents into the aorta).

Stroke volume is an important measure of heart function, as it reflects the ability of the heart to pump blood effectively to the rest of the body. A low stroke volume may indicate that the heart is not pumping efficiently, while a high stroke volume may suggest that the heart is working too hard. Stroke volume can be affected by various factors, including heart disease, high blood pressure, and physical fitness level.

The formula for calculating stroke volume is:

Stroke Volume = End-Diastolic Volume - End-Systolic Volume

Where end-diastolic volume (EDV) is the volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of diastole, and end-systolic volume (ESV) is the volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of systole.

Genetic predisposition to disease refers to an increased susceptibility or vulnerability to develop a particular illness or condition due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations from one's parents. These genetic factors can make it more likely for an individual to develop a certain disease, but it does not guarantee that the person will definitely get the disease. Environmental factors, lifestyle choices, and interactions between genes also play crucial roles in determining if a genetically predisposed person will actually develop the disease. It is essential to understand that having a genetic predisposition only implies a higher risk, not an inevitable outcome.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the genetic material present in the mitochondria, which are specialized structures within cells that generate energy. Unlike nuclear DNA, which is present in the cell nucleus and inherited from both parents, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother.

MtDNA is a circular molecule that contains 37 genes, including 13 genes that encode for proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, a process that generates energy in the form of ATP. The remaining genes encode for rRNAs and tRNAs, which are necessary for protein synthesis within the mitochondria.

Mutations in mtDNA can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, including mitochondrial diseases, which can affect any organ system in the body. These mutations can also be used in forensic science to identify individuals and establish biological relationships.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a class of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death globally, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The term "cardiovascular disease" refers to a group of conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease and occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of cholesterol, fat, and other substances in the walls of the arteries. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.
2. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.
3. Stroke: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, often due to a clot or a ruptured blood vessel. This can cause brain damage or death.
4. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): This occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the limbs become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs or arms.
5. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a complication of untreated strep throat and can cause damage to the heart valves, leading to heart failure or other complications.
6. Congenital heart defects: These are structural problems with the heart that are present at birth. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.
7. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, and certain medications.
8. Heart arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, or fainting.
9. Valvular heart disease: This occurs when one or more of the heart valves become damaged or diseased, leading to problems with blood flow through the heart.
10. Aortic aneurysm and dissection: These are conditions that affect the aorta, the largest artery in the body. An aneurysm is a bulge in the aorta, while a dissection is a tear in the inner layer of the aorta. Both can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

It's important to note that many of these conditions can be managed or treated with medical interventions such as medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes. If you have any concerns about your heart health, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Types of cardiomyopathy include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic ... Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy and Other Cardiomyopathies, and Myocarditis: A ... Primary/intrinsic cardiomyopathies Congenital Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy ... Cardiomyopathies can be of genetic (familial) or non-genetic (acquired) origin. Genetic cardiomyopathies usually are caused by ...
"List of Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy Medications". "Symptoms of Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy". Alcohol.org. Retrieved 22 March 2023. ... Signs and symptoms of alcoholic cardiomyopathy are indistinguishable from those seen in other forms of cardiomyopathy. These ... Per one study that compared 224 alcoholic cardiomyopathy patients to over 60,000 non-alcoholic cardiomyopathy patients, ... cardiomyopathy due to alcoholism has the lowest post-heart transplant survival out of all causes of cardiomyopathy. ...
... is a disorder of the heart muscle in people with diabetes. It can lead to inability of the heart to ... Given that diabetic cardiomyopathy's definition excludes concomitant atherosclerosis or hypertension, there are no changes in ... Diabetic cardiomyopathy may be associated with restrictive (HFPEF) and dilated phenotypes (HFREF). HFPEF results predominantly ... Severson DL (October 2004). "Diabetic cardiomyopathy: recent evidence from mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes". Can J ...
Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy should be considered in all patients with a dilated cardiomyopathy of uncertain origin and ... "What Is Cardiomyopathy?". NHLBI. 22 June 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2017. "Types of Cardiomyopathy". NHLBI. 22 June 2016. ... Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy is a reversible cause of heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. ... This is the most common infectious cause of dilated cardiomyopathy in Latin America Pregnancy: Dilated cardiomyopathy occurs ...
... occurs when viral infections cause myocarditis with a resulting thickening of the myocardium and dilation ... Mutlu H, Alam M, Ozbilgin OF (2011). "A rare case of Epstein-Barr virus-induced dilated cardiomyopathy". Heart & Lung. 40 (1): ... Coxsackievirus-induced cardiomyopathy Myocarditis Pericarditis Vaccine adverse event Schultz, Jason C.; Hilliard, Anthony A.; ... Badorff C; Lee G. H.; Knowlton K. U. (2000). "Enteroviral cardiomyopathy: bad news for the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex". ...
Heart Association's 2006 classification of cardiomyopathies considers noncompaction cardiomyopathy a genetic cardiomyopathy. ... Non-compaction cardiomyopathy was first identified as an isolated condition in 1984 by Engberding and Benber. They reported on ... Noncompaction cardiomyopathy (NCC) is a rare congenital disease of heart muscle that affects both children and adults. It ... Noncompaction cardiomyopathy results when there is failure of this process of compaction. Because the consequence of non- ...
... refers to the cardiomyopathic changes that occurs after long periods of endurance training. It was ... After an autopsy, the Albuquerque coroner wrote that "Micah True died as a result of cardiomyopathy during exertion". Since ... "Phidippides cardiomyopathy : Exercise benefits and risks" (PDF). Iowaheartfoudation.org. Retrieved 2022-03-24. Beresini, Erin ( ... The suggested etiology for Phidippides cardiomyopathy is the cardiac remodeling from prolonged strenuous exercises.[citation ...
Ultrasound of peripartum cardiomyopathy Ultrasound of peripartum cardiomyopathy Ultrasound of peripartum cardiomyopathy Early ... Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a form of dilated cardiomyopathy that is defined as a deterioration in cardiac function ... "Orphanet: Peripartum cardiomyopathy". www.orpha.net. Retrieved 28 May 2019. Pearson GD, Veille JC, Rahimtoola S, et al. (March ... "Peripartum Cardiomyopathy". www.heart.org. Retrieved 2023-09-17. Desai D, Moodley J, Naidoo D (July 1995). "Peripartum ...
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is an inherited one from one generation to another and dilated cardiomyopathy results due to heavy ... dilated cardiomyopathy happens when the ventricles enlarge and weaken; restrictive cardiomyopathy makes the ventricles to ... There are different types of cardiomyopathy which include a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy which makes the heart muscles to ... Fibrosing cardiomyopathy is a type of a heart disease that affects the family of gorillas from West Africa that are in captive ...
... at Curlie GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Overview National ... Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and is attributed to mutations in one of a ... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, or HOCM when obstructive) is a condition in which muscle tissues of the heart become ... Feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in domestic cats; the disease process and genetics ...
... (stiff heart syndrome) is a condition resulting in the death of part of the myocardium (heart muscle). ... Outcomes for amyloid cardiomyopathy are generally very poor, with fewer than 10% of patients surviving more than 5 years. ... Unusual Cardiomyopathies. 52 (4): 347-361. doi:10.1016/j.pcad.2009.11.007. PMID 20109604. v t e (Articles with short ... The amyloid can be seen under polarized light in congo red stained biopsy.[citation needed] Amyloid cardiomyopathy is ...
... (also known as "Boxer arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy") is a disease of the myocardium ... Boxer dog cardiomyopathy: An update. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2004;34:1235-1244. Meurs KM, Spier AW, Miller MW, et al ... Boxer cardiomyopathy is a genetic disease inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. The presentation in affected offspring is ... Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy causing sudden cardiac death in Boxer dogs: A new animal model of human disease ...
... (RCM) is a form of cardiomyopathy in which the walls of the heart are rigid (but not thickened). ... "Restrictive Cardiomyopathy". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 28 June 2021. "Restrictive Cardiomyopathy ... Treatment of restrictive cardiomyopathy should focus on management of causative conditions (for example, using corticosteroids ... In time, restrictive cardiomyopathy patients develop diastolic dysfunction and eventually heart failure. Diagnosis is typically ...
... or takotsubo syndrome (TTS), also known as stress cardiomyopathy, is a type of non-ischemic ... Stress cardiomyopathy is now a well-recognized cause of acute congestive heart failure, lethal abnormal heart rhythms, and ... Takotsubo cardiomyopathy occurs worldwide. The condition is thought to be responsible for 2% of all acute coronary syndrome ... Stress is the main factor in takotsubo cardiomyopathy, with more than 85% of cases set in motion by either a physically or ...
... is a type of cardiomyopathy caused by a narrowing of the coronary arteries which supply blood to the ... One of the most important features differentiating ischemic cardiomyopathy from the other forms of cardiomyopathy is the ... "Differentiation between primary dilated cardiomyopathy and ischemic cardiomyopathy based on right ventricular performance". ... This cardiomyopathy is one of the leading causes of sudden cardiac death. The adjective ischemic means characteristic of, or ...
The disease is a type of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy that primarily involves the right ventricle, though cases of exclusive ... Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM), arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD), or arrhythmogenic right ventricular ... Those affected by arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy may not have any symptoms at all despite having significant abnormalities in ... La, Gerche André (2021-01-01). "Exercise-Induced Arrhythmogenic (Right Ventricular) Cardiomyopathy Is Real…if you Consider it ...
... (FAC), or transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM) results from the aggregation and ... Falk, R. H. & Elkayam, U. (2010). Cardiomyopathy: the importance of recognizing the uncommon diagnosis. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 52 ... Amyloid Transthyretin Senile systemic amyloidosis Restrictive cardiomyopathy Jacobson, D. R., Pastore, R. D., Yaghoubian, R., ... Jain, Anubhav; Zahra, Farah (2022). "Transthyretin Amyloid Cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM)". StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. PMID ...
CCF was founded in 2002 by Eddie Yu and Lisa Yue, who lost two children to cardiomyopathy. At the time, cardiomyopathy was a ... The Children's Cardiomyopathy Foundation (CCF) is a national 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization focused on the pediatric forms of ... Wilkinson, J. D.; Sleeper, L. A.; Alvarez, J. A.; Bublik, N.; Lipshultz, S. E.; the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Study Group (April ... Due to the lack of research being conducted on pediatric cardiomyopathy, the Foundation established a research grant program ...
A lowered BMI in HIV patients is also associated with cardiomyopathy. Dilated cardiomyopathy can be due to pericardial effusion ... The most common type of HIV induced cardiomyopathy is dilated cardiomyopathy also known as eccentric ventricular hypertrophy ... of the myocardium was greater in patients with HIV associated cardiomyopathy (as opposed to idiopathic cardiomyopathy), ... Cardiomyopathy and encephalopathy are hypothesised to be linked by the HIV reservoir cells which are in the myocardium and ...
... is an assessment and testing to detect hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). It is a way of ... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy". In Raja, Shahzad G. (ed.). Cardiac Surgery: A Complete Guide. Switzerland: Springer. pp. 735-748 ... Screening is a way of identifying HCM in immediate relatives of family members diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM ... Phelan, Dermot M.; Symanski, John (2021). "7. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy". In Engel, David J.; Phelan, Dermot M. (eds.). ...
... resulting in dilated cardiomyopathy. Dilated cardiomyopathy in humans can be caused by multiple factors including hereditary ... Viral-induced dilated cardiomyopathy can be characterized using different methods. A 2011 study showed in coxsackievirus ... Coxsackieviruses-induced cardiomyopathy are positive-stranded RNA viruses in picornavirus family and the genus enterovirus, ... In addition to the genetic defects in dystrophin or other cytoskeletal proteins, a subset of dilated cardiomyopathy is linked ...
... (TIC) is a disease where prolonged tachycardia (a fast heart rate) or arrhythmia (an ... Cardiomyopathy Congestive heart failure Ellis, Ethan R.; Josephson, Mark E. (2013-12-01). "Heart failure and tachycardia- ... Thus, TIC is typically diagnosed when (1) tests have excluded other causes of cardiomyopathy and (2) there is improvement in ... The diagnosis of TIC is made after excluding other causes of cardiomyopathy and observing resolution of the left ventricular ...
"Modeling the dilated cardiomyopathy with ataxia syndrome (DCMA), a pediatric mitochondrial cardiomyopathy, using cardiomyocytes ... Dilated cardiomyopathy with ataxia syndrome is a multi-systemic hereditary disorder that is characterized by heart ... Most people with DCMA begin developing dilated cardiomyopathy (weakening and enlargement of the heart) during their infancy ... A Mitochondrial Cardiomyopathy". Canadian Journal of Cardiology. 34 (8): 972-977. doi:10.1016/j.cjca.2018.02.019. PMID 29887217 ...
Cardiomyopathy can be associated with atrial fibrillation and embolic strokes. Cardiac conduction abnormalities can occur. ... Some females will tire easily with exercise Cardiomyopathy is often absent in childhood. Some women will develop this in ... Danon disease is an X-linked lysosomal and glycogen storage disorder associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, skeletal ... March 2009). "Clinical Outcome and Phenotypic Expression in LAMP2 Cardiomyopathy". JAMA. 301 (12): 1253-1259. doi:10.1001/jama. ...
... hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), abnormally large (dilated cardiomyopathy), or abnormally stiff (restrictive cardiomyopathy). Some ... Diseases of the heart muscle known as cardiomyopathies are of major importance. These include ischemic conditions caused by a ... Diseases affecting cardiac muscle, known as cardiomyopathies, are the leading cause of death in developed countries. The most ... 2011). "Cardiac stem cells in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy (SCIPIO): initial results of a randomised phase 1 trial". ...
El-Hattab AW, Scaglia F (2016). "Mitochondrial Cardiomyopathies". Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine. 3: 25. doi:10.3389/fcvm ... cardiomyopathy, etc...), diabetes, visual and hearing loss, organ failure, neuropathic pain and peripheral neuropathy. The ...
"Dilated Cardiomyopathy". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 25 August 2021. "Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy". The ... Cardiomyopathy is also associated with cardiomegaly. Cardiomegaly can be serious and can result in congestive heart failure. ... "Overview of Cardiomyopathies". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 25 August 2021. Tavora F; et al. (2012). " ... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is typically an inherited condition. Treatments include a combination of medications and medical/ ...
Cardiomyopathies are generally inherited as autosomal dominants, although recessive forms have been described, and dilated ... Raju H, Alberg C, Sagoo GS, Burton H, Behr ER (Nov 21, 2011). "Inherited cardiomyopathies" (PDF). BMJ. 343: d6966. doi:10.1136/ ... Moore JR, Leinwand L, Warshaw DM (Jul 20, 2012). "Understanding cardiomyopathy phenotypes based on the functional impact of ... and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Since HCM, as an example, is typically an autosomal dominant trait, each child of an HCM ...
Springer, Berlin 1977 (together with L. Seipel, U. Gleichmann, H. Vieten). Die Kardiomyopathien (The cardiomyopathies). In: ... Later, coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathies and electrotherapy (pacemakers) were added. Loogen recognised early on that ...
"Cardiomyopathy". Scottishfold.org. Retrieved 3 October 2009. Rorden, Chris; Griswold, Marilee C.; Moses, Nan; Berry, Clifford R ... Scottish folds are susceptible to polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and cardiomyopathy. Scottish folds are also prone to ...
Types of cardiomyopathy include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic ... Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy and Other Cardiomyopathies, and Myocarditis: A ... Primary/intrinsic cardiomyopathies Congenital Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy ... Cardiomyopathies can be of genetic (familial) or non-genetic (acquired) origin. Genetic cardiomyopathies usually are caused by ...
Cardiomyopathy is a disease that causes the heart to become enlarged, thick, or stiff. Read about the different types, their ... Cardiomyopathy Also called: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, Dilated cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic ... Cardiomyopathy (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also in Spanish * Cardiomyopathy (Texas Heart Institute) ... Cardiomyopathy in Children & Teens (American Academy of Pediatrics) Also in Spanish * Causes of Cardiomyopathy (Childrens ...
Learn about the heart specialists at Doernbecher who provide expert care for children with cardiomyopathy. We treat every type ... Treatment for cardiomyopathy depends on the type and specific symptoms. Our doctors are national leaders in cardiomyopathy ... Oregons only specialty clinics for treating hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Learn about cardiomyopathy and ... Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Program Dr. Laurie Armsby, a pediatric cardiologist, specializes in caring for children with enlarged ...
... Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2017 Jun;161(2):117-127. doi: 10.5507/bp.2017.001. ... multi-disciplinary cooperation and proper therapy are key aspects of care for patients with amyloid cardiomyopathy. Early ...
Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare disorder in which a pregnant womans heart becomes weakened and enlarged. It develops ... Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a form of dilated cardiomyopathy in which no other cause of heart weakening can be found. ... Cardiomyopathy occurs when there is damage to the heart. As a result, the heart muscle becomes weak and does not pump well. ... Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare disorder in which a pregnant womans heart becomes weakened and enlarged. It develops ...
The European Society of Cardiology has released the first major set of international guidelines to address cardiomyopathies ... Guidelines Organize Cardiomyopathy Phenotypes Cardiomyopathy can present at any age. It can have multiple complex etiologies, ... and the first time that specific recommendations are made for cardiomyopathies other than hypertrophic cardiomyopathy" (HCM), ... including genotyping for dilated cardiomyopathies and nondilated left ventricular cardiomyopathy, said both Arbelo and Kaski, ...
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is also known as stress cardiomyopathy or broken heart syndrome. It is a temporary heart condition ... Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. (2021).. https://www.bhf.org.uk/informationsupport/conditions/cardiomyopathy/takotsubo-cardiomyopathy ... Takotsubo cardiomyopathy can be fatal. . Its cardiogenic shock and death rates are similar to those of other acute coronary ... Although takotsubo cardiomyopathy most often affects females aged 62-76 years, males with the condition are less likely. to ...
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) (see the image below) is a genetic disorder that is typically inherited in an autosomal ... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and other cardiomyopathies, and myocarditis: a ... encoded search term (Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy) and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy What to Read Next on Medscape ... Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Updated: Apr 29, 2022 * Author: Sandy N Shah, DO, MBA, FACC, FACP, FACOI; Chief Editor: Gyanendra ...
Help Jo Marychurch raise money to support Cardiomyopathy UK ... 30 days of watercolour painting for Cardiomyopathy UK because I ...
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a hereditary condition where the heart fails to pump properly because the heart muscles ( ... Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) Explained , Tufts Medical Center. Play. Causes. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is caused by one ... https://www.cardiomyopathy.org/ *https://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/Cardiomyopathy/Hypertrophic-Cardiomyopathy_UCM_ ... Dilated Cardiomyopathy. Eventually, the thickened muscle can weaken and become dilated. The dilated heart wall cannot contract ...
... What Is Cardiomyopathy?. Cardiomyopathy is disease of the heart muscle. It is a serious condition. Treatments ... What Are the Types of Cardiomyopathy?. The main types of cardiomyopathy are:. Dilated cardiomyopathy: The heart muscle gets ... What Causes Cardiomyopathy?. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Most children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have a genetic ... How Is Cardiomyopathy Treated?. Depending on the type of cardiomyopathy and how sick a child is, treatment may include:. * ...
... A A Case Rep. 2016 Jan 1;6(1):1-2. doi: 10.1213/XAA.0000000000000203 ...
Cardiomyopathy is a disease in which your heart muscle weakens and has difficulty pumping blood. Read about its causes, risk ... Pediatric cardiomyopathy. When cardiomyopathy affects a child, its called pediatric cardiomyopathy. *Idiopathic cardiomyopathy ... This is a form of dilated cardiomyopathy.. *Ischemic cardiomyopathy. Ischemic cardiomyopathy occurs when your heart can no ... dilated cardiomyopathy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Common symptoms of cardiomyopathy include shortness of breath, fatigue ...
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - Not sure if this is the right forum for this, as it doesnt really require modification of bike, ... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Not sure if this is the right forum for this, as it doesnt really require modification of bike, ... Watch this commercial with Gap-dressed white people no longer letting cardiomyopathy bum them out! Watch this animation of ... Are you sure that it is HOCM youre talking about? Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is usually almost or completely asymptomatic, ...
What is Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy?. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a common genetic disorder that affects about 1 in 5001 ... Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM), American Heart Association. Accessed August 15, 2022.. *Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, ... Genotype and Lifetime Burden of Disease in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Insights From the Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy ... Cardiomyopathy UK. Accessed August 15, 2022.. *Maron BJ. Clinical Course and Management of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. New ...
... other healthcare professionals involved in the diagnosis and care of patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy ( ... The BMS Quality Improvement Initiative in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (QIIC) aims to support cardiologists, nurses, pharmacists ... The BMS Quality Improvement Initiative in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (QIIC) aims to support institutions and healthcare ... professionals involved in the diagnosis and care of patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (oHCM) to improve the ...
Broken heart syndrome: tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy. Azeem Latib, Alfonso Ielasi, Matteo Montorfano and Antonio Colombo ...
Stress cardiomyopathy: clinical features and outcomes (Articles) Lilian Hamity, Franco Ramello, Leandro Marani, Alejandro ... Variant of takotsubo cardiomyopathy associated with sepsis and respiratory failure in an elderly female (Articles) ... Radiation associated coronary occlusion: Overlooked as trastuzumab-induced cardiomyopathy (Articles) Ugur Turk, Veysel Yavuz, ... Prolonged QTc Interval Is an Electrophysiological Hallmark of Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy (Articles) Adnan Bashir Bhatti, Farhan ...
... has disclosed that the politician has cardiomyopathy. ... Senate candidate who suffered a stroke also has cardiomyopathy ... has disclosed that the politician has cardiomyopathy. ...
Researchers have made a significant finding in determining the genetic background of dilated cardiomyopathy in Dobermanns. ... Niskanen, J. E., et al. (2023). Identification of novel genetic risk factors of dilated cardiomyopathy: from canine to human. ... Tags: Arrhythmia, Cardiomyopathy, Cell, Cell Membrane, Chromosome, Chromosome 5, Congestive Heart Failure, Diagnostic, ... The absence of these discs has also earlier been linked with cardiomyopathy. The other gene identified, PKAA2, serves as an ...
Friedreich cardiomyopathy is a secondary desminopathy Authors. * Arnulf Koeppen Research Service, Veterans Affairs Medical ... Friedreich ataxia, Cardiomyopathy, Proteomics, Desmin, αB-crystallin, Desminopathy Abstract. Heart disease is an integral part ... Western blots of tissue lysates in FA cardiomyopathy reveal a truncated desmin isoprotein that migrates at a lower molecular ... Koeppen, A., Rafique, R., Mazurkiewicz, J., Pelech, S., Sutter, C., Lin, Q., & Qian, J. (2021). Friedreich cardiomyopathy is a ...
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Show description , Download , Help ] Hypertrophic ... cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary myocardial disorder with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance that is characterized ...
... while sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC), defined as a global but reversible dysfunction of both sides of the heart induced by ... while sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC), defined as a global but reversible dysfunction of both sides of the heart induced by ... Sepsis-Induced Cardiomyopathy: Mechanisms and Treatments. Yan-Cun Liu*† Mu-Ming Yu† Song-Tao Shou Yan-Fen Chai* ... Sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy: a review of pathophysiologic mechanisms. Heart Fail Rev (2010) 15(6):605-11. doi:10.1007/s10741- ...
The term inflammatory cardiomyopathy (ICM) refers to a group of disorders for which an acute or chronic myocardial inflammation ... Inflammatory cardiomyopathy can also occur in connection with autoimmune inflammatory diseases. Typical manifestations of ... The most common cause of inflammatory cardiomyopathy is lymphocytic myocarditis, which is most usually triggered by a viral ... Therefore, the identification of inflammatory cardiomyopathy is elusive and the true incidence of the condition remains unknown ...
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Key CompaniesHypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Key ProductsHypertrophic Cardiomyopathy- Unmet Needs ... Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Understanding. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Overview. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a ... Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Emerging Drugs Chapters. This segment of the Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy report encloses its ... How many companies are developing Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy drugs?. *How many Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy drugs are developed ...
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Treatment: An Individualized Approach By PCNA , November 23, 2022 , 0 ... Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Team-Based Care By Katy Walter , August 1, 2023 ... Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Patient Access and Team-Based Care By Jessica , August 7, 2023 ... Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Novel Treatments, led by Dr. Norma Flores, aims to equip healthcare professionals with the latest ...
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An Expanding List of Tier 1 Genomic Applications: Evidence-based Guidelines for Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Public Health. ... The CDC Tier-Classified Guideline Database includes three Tier 1 guidelines on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). A 2014 ... Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy - Genomics and Precision Health Blog ...
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  • Types of cardiomyopathy include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (broken heart syndrome). (wikipedia.org)
  • What is takotsubo cardiomyopathy (broken heart syndrome)? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as broken heart syndrome, is a sudden stress-induced heart condition. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Doctors may also refer to takotsubo cardiomyopathy as stress cardiomyopathy or apical ballooning. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although takotsubo cardiomyopathy most often affects females aged 62-76 years , males with the condition are less likely to have a positive outlook. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Researchers first identified takotsubo cardiomyopathy in Japan in 1990. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Takotsubo cardiomyopathy starts abruptly and unpredictably, usually following a very stressful event, such as the death of a loved one, a natural disaster, or a physical stress. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, takotsubo cardiomyopathy is different because it can occur in the absence of blocked coronary arteries. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It is not possible to self-diagnose takotsubo cardiomyopathy or to distinguish it from a heart attack based on the symptoms alone. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although it is possible for people who experience takotsubo cardiomyopathy to have underlying heart disease, the underlying heart disease does not cause the symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In comparison, a 2020 paper estimates that 96% of people with takotsubo cardiomyopathy fully recover. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Takotsubo cardiomyopathy has a relatively low recurrence rate of 2-4% per year . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a temporary condition that usually resolves on its own, although some people may experience long-term heart complications. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy, Frontiers in Myocardia Compendium on Cardiomyopathies - Basics, Therapeutics, and Perspectives (2020) 3: 271. (benthamscience.com)
  • Stress cardiomyopathy (also known as takotsubo cardiomyopathy or 'broken heart' syndrome) happens when a person experiences sudden and intense stress or emotional changes, causing the heart muscle to weaken very quickly. (nccs.com.sg)
  • Stress Cardiomyopathy/ Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy - How to prevent? (nccs.com.sg)
  • Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is a transient cardiac syndrome that involves left ventricular apical akinesis and mimics acute coronary syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Electrocardiogram of a patient with takotsubo cardiomyopathy demonstrating ST-segment elevation in anterior and inferior leads. (medscape.com)
  • The exact etiology of takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is still unknown, but several theories have been proposed and are being investigated. (medscape.com)
  • We have considered cardiomyopathies across the life course from pediatric to adult," explained Elena Arbelo, MD, PhD, coordinator of the Cardiac Genetic Diseases and Sudden Arrhythmic Death Unit, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Spain. (medscape.com)
  • The term inflammatory cardiomyopathy (ICM) refers to a group of disorders for which an acute or chronic myocardial inflammation is the central cause of abnormal cardiac structure or impaired cardiac function. (intechopen.com)
  • Rare causes of specific inflammatory cardiomyopathies include cardiac sarcoidosis, giant cell myocarditis and eosinophilic myocarditis. (intechopen.com)
  • While previous data supporting primary ICD therapy for prevention of sudden cardiac death is generally considered more robust among patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy [ICM], our findings indicate that patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy [NICM] who receive a primary prevention ICD in fact have similar frequencies of both potentially lethal ventricular arrhythmias and appropriate ICD therapy as those with ischemic disease. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Patients with heart failure, cardiomyopathies or acute myocarditis, and ventricular dysfunction from valvular or coronary artery disease are evaluated to establish etiology of disease, possible reversibility of left ventricular dysfunction, optimal design of medical therapy, and, when indicated, eligibility for cardiac transplantation. (uclahealth.org)
  • Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, caused by transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to humans, may manifest with cardiac symptoms from prion-amyloid cardiomyopathy. (cdc.gov)
  • Circulating cardiac MicroRNAs safeguard against dilated cardiomyopathy. (bvsalud.org)
  • This "Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy- Pipeline Insight, 2023" report provides comprehensive insights about 10+ companies and 10+ pipeline drugs in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy pipeline landscape. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy- Pipeline Insight, 2023" report outlays comprehensive insights of present scenario and growth prospects across the indication. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Alcoholism, for example, has been identified as a cause of dilated cardiomyopathy, as has drug toxicity, and certain infections (including Hepatitis C). Untreated celiac disease can cause cardiomyopathies, which can completely reverse with a timely diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early diagnosis, multi-disciplinary cooperation and proper therapy are key aspects of care for patients with amyloid cardiomyopathy. (nih.gov)
  • The European Society of Cardiology has released new guidelines for cardiomyopathies, their first major comprehensive international guidelines to address diagnosis and treatment of the broad causes of heart muscle dysfunction. (medscape.com)
  • The BMS Quality Improvement Initiative in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (QIIC) aims to support institutions and healthcare professionals involved in the diagnosis and care of patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (oHCM) to improve the care gaps in making center-specific changes. (bms.com)
  • Similarly, new molecular-based methods and therapies tailored to specific pathogeneses have a potential to improve diagnosis and outcomes in patients with inflammatory cardiomyopathy. (intechopen.com)
  • Putting the pieces together of CVD diagnosis and treatment plan requires an individualized approach-and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is no exception. (pcna.net)
  • In a series of specially commissioned papers, clinicians, whose careers span the half a century since Teare's publication, review the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (bmj.com)
  • Approximately 40% of children born with cardiomyopathy die within 5 years of diagnosis, according to a study presented at the annual conference of the European Society of Human Genetics. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Getting a diagnosis of cardiomyopathy can feel overwhelming for families, particularly since many types of cardiomyopathy are genetic. (jdch.com)
  • While cardiomyopathy isn't typically curable, an accurate diagnosis and early treatment can reduce symptoms and control the condition's progression. (jdch.com)
  • We aim to help families facing a cardiomyopathy diagnosis in every way we can. (jdch.com)
  • In 2015 cardiomyopathy and myocarditis affected 2.5 million people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-genetic cardiomyopathies can have a definitive causes such as viral infections, myocarditis and others. (wikipedia.org)
  • A heart biopsy may help determine if the underlying cause of cardiomyopathy is a heart muscle infection (myocarditis). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The most common cause of inflammatory cardiomyopathy is lymphocytic myocarditis, which is most usually triggered by a viral infection, and occasionally by other infectious agents. (intechopen.com)
  • Myocarditis and related disorders: proceedings of the International Symposium on Cardiomyopathy and Myocarditis / edited by Morie Sekiguchi, Eckhardt G. J. Olsen, John F. Goodwin. (who.int)
  • Some types of cardiomyopathy run in families. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What Are the Types of Cardiomyopathy? (childrensmn.org)
  • As with other types of cardiomyopathy, the heart can become weak or stiff. (childrensmn.org)
  • There are many different types of cardiomyopathy, caused by a range of factors, from coronary heart disease to certain drugs. (healthline.com)
  • This article will take a closer look at the types of cardiomyopathy, as well as the symptoms, causes, and treatment. (healthline.com)
  • At Joe DiMaggio Children's Hospital, we diagnose and treat all types of cardiomyopathy. (jdch.com)
  • Some types of cardiomyopathy can cause sudden death in otherwise young, healthy children and young athletes. (jdch.com)
  • As part of our evaluation, we offer genetic testing for heart conditions to eligible patients because many types of cardiomyopathy have a genetic component. (jdch.com)
  • In restrictive cardiomyopathy the ventricle stiffens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Restrictive cardiomyopathy may be caused by amyloidosis, hemochromatosis, and some cancer treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • restrictive cardiomyopathy. (nih.gov)
  • Restrictive cardiomyopathy: Genetic mutations can cause this type, as can scarring of the heart muscle, tumors of the heart muscle, and other problems. (childrensmn.org)
  • Restrictive cardiomyopathy occurs when the ventricles stiffen and can't relax enough to fill up with blood. (healthline.com)
  • The spectrum of cardiomyopathic disease includes diverse diagnoses from hypertrophic and restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, left ventricular non-compaction, and familial dilated cardiomyopathy, to inherited and wild-type TTR amyloid cardiomyopathy. (yale.edu)
  • Should the etiology of cardiomyopathy, whether it's ischemic or non-ischemic, influence clinical decision-making about the use of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) for primary prevention of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias? (medpagetoday.com)
  • For example, nearly 50% of patients with cardiomyopathy coming to a major medical center in 2000 had no clear etiology for their condition. (acc.org)
  • This can be utilized effectively in early detection of the disease, defining the underlying etiology of cardiomyopathies, revealing mechanistic insights, and providing valuable information about morphology of cardiovascular involvement, disease staging, prognostication and in some cases even guiding specific therapies. (acc.org)
  • Volunteers greatly contribute to the success of the Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Association and our commitment to providing support, education, advocacy, and advancement of research, understanding, and care to those with HCM. (4hcm.org)
  • Treatment depends on the type of cardiomyopathy and the severity of symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment depends on the type of cardiomyopathy and condition of disease, but may include medication (conservative treatment) or iatrogenic/implanted pacemakers for slow heart rates, defibrillators for those prone to fatal heart rhythms, ventricular assist devices (VADs) for severe heart failure, or catheter ablation for recurring dysrhythmias that cannot be eliminated by medication or mechanical cardioversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's the most common type of cardiomyopathy. (healthline.com)
  • Search for information on a type of cardiomyopathy here. (cardiomyopathy.org)
  • DCM is the most common type of cardiomyopathy in children, as well as adults. (jdch.com)
  • Avoidance of stress in controlled situations can help reduce the risk of developing this type of cardiomyopathy . (wikidoc.org)
  • Symptoms of cardiomyopathies may include fatigue, swelling of the lower extremities and shortness of breath after exertion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Few people with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy develop symptoms and many find that their quality of life is not compromised. (news-medical.net)
  • Treatments can help with symptoms and sometimes stop cardiomyopathy (KAR-dee-oh-my-OP-ah-thee) from getting worse, but there is no cure. (childrensmn.org)
  • Some people with cardiomyopathy don't have any symptoms. (childrensmn.org)
  • Cardiomyopathy symptoms get worse over time. (childrensmn.org)
  • Typical manifestations of inflammatory cardiomyopathy include chest pain, heart failure, and arrhythmias, but these symptoms and signs are unspecific. (intechopen.com)
  • The other patients were 11-years-old, but showed symptoms of severe cardiomyopathy. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Ischemic cardiomyopathy. (healthline.com)
  • Ischemic cardiomyopathy occurs when your heart can no longer pump blood to the rest of your body due to coronary artery disease . (healthline.com)
  • Ischemic cardiomyopathy is a common cause of heart failure. (healthline.com)
  • A dozen researchers at 2 U.S. universities recently examined outcomes among ischemic versus non-ischemic cardiomyopathy patients who received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. (medpagetoday.com)
  • While ischemic cardiomyopathy remains the more understood subset, there is increasing interest in better evaluation of nonischemic cardiomyopathies, a condition commonly found in clinical practice. (acc.org)
  • Ischemic cardiomyopathy is relatively easy to differentiate from DCM, but cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is now revealing overlapping conditions where a DCM can coexist with significant coronary artery disease (CAD). (acc.org)
  • Cardiomyopathies can be of genetic (familial) or non-genetic (acquired) origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic cardiomyopathies usually are caused by sarcomere or cytoskeletal diseases, neuromuscular disorders, inborn errors of metabolism, malformation syndromes and sometimes are unidentified. (wikipedia.org)
  • While in Children, Neuromuscular diseases such as Becker muscular dystrophy, including X-linked genetic disorder, are directly linked with their Cardiomyopathies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common genetic cardiovascular disease. (medscape.com)
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Most children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have a genetic mutation that changes the structure of an important muscle cell protein. (childrensmn.org)
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy: Genetic mutations may cause dilated cardiomyopathy. (childrensmn.org)
  • Cardiomyopathy can result from an inherited genetic feature or it can stem from one of many health conditions, such as heart disease, hyperthyroidism, or alcohol use. (healthline.com)
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy , which is believed to be genetic, occurs when your heart walls thicken and prevent blood from flowing through your heart. (healthline.com)
  • In this type of genetic cardiomyopathy, fat and extra fibrous tissue replace the muscle of the right ventricle. (healthline.com)
  • A: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common genetic heart disorder. (healthline.com)
  • Sarcomere gene mutations are the primary genetic cause of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (healthline.com)
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a common genetic disorder that affects about 1 in 500 1 people and causes the heart muscle to become thicker and stiff. (cdc.gov)
  • Researchers have made a significant finding in determining the genetic background of dilated cardiomyopathy in Dobermanns. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers from the University of Helsinki and the Folkhälsan Research Center, together with their international partners, have identified the genetic background of dilated cardiomyopathy, a disease that enlarges the heart muscle, in dogs and humans. (news-medical.net)
  • Although dozens of genes underlying cardiomyopathy in humans have been identified, the hereditary nature and genetic background of the disease in dogs have remained unclear. (news-medical.net)
  • With the help of genetic mapping, two adjacent gene loci in chromosome 5 were associated with dilated cardiomyopathy. (news-medical.net)
  • The identical genetic background suggests that, to a degree, similar problems with the functioning of the heart muscle lead to dilated cardiomyopathy in both humans and dogs. (news-medical.net)
  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic disorder caused by the caused by a change or mutation in one or more genes and is mostly passed on through families. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Our in-house specialized cardiomyopathy genetic counselor provides up to date counseling, interaction with testing companies, and guideline driven patient reporting and family counseling. (yale.edu)
  • All fellows are given the opportunity to do their ambulatory work in the cardiomyopathy clinics, to work with the genetic counselors, and to expand their knowledge of these diseases. (yale.edu)
  • Unlike in the past where management was geared towards general principles (e.g., addressing risk factors or treating fluid overload) or targeting some activated pathways (e.g., neurohormonal antagonism), there is now a focus on identifying the underlying genetic causes and specific pathophysiological mechanisms, when possible, in all patients with cardiomyopathies. (acc.org)
  • Kaski and Arbelo both emphasized that the guidelines draw attention to the relationship of cardiomyopathy to common cardiovascular conditions, such as heart failure, arrhythmia, and chest pain. (medscape.com)
  • Cardiomyopathy also can lead to a life-threatening arrhythmia (abnormal heartbeat), heart valve problems, and blood clots. (childrensmn.org)
  • pressure (hypertension), stroke, weakening of the heart muscle ( cardiomyopathy ), irregular heartbeats (arrhythmia), and immune system problems. (nih.gov)
  • Our pediatric specialists work with experts at the OHSU Knight Cardiovascular Institute to care for children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy , a complex form of cardiomyopathy. (ohsu.edu)
  • Doernbecher's cardiomyopathy program, led by pediatric cardiologist Sheshadri Balaji, treats all forms of pediatric cardiomyopathy. (ohsu.edu)
  • When cardiomyopathy affects a child, it's called pediatric cardiomyopathy. (healthline.com)
  • In a recent study, researchers discovered a novel disease gene implicated in the development of pediatric cardiomyopathies. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • We knew that mice without a functional ALPK3 gene displayed very similar cardiomyopathy related features to those observed in our pediatric patients, but we did not quite know how dramatic its effect would be in humans," Dr Herkert said. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • What Is Pediatric Cardiomyopathy? (jdch.com)
  • We successfully treat pediatric cardiomyopathy and help families obtain screening for other family members. (jdch.com)
  • We have one of the fastest-growing cardiomyopathy programs in the state, with nationally recognized experts in pediatric cardiology, and have been recognized as an accredited center of care by The Children's Cardiomyopathy Foundation (CCF). (jdch.com)
  • We report on the novel clinicopathologic characteristics of vCJD as prion-amyloid cardiomyopathy in 1 of 3 macaques inoculated with BSE. (cdc.gov)
  • A variety of factors can cause cardiomyopathy, but genetics play a significant role. (news-medical.net)
  • 1. Rosenbaum, A. N., Agre, K. E. & Pereira, N. L. Genetics of dilated cardiomyopathy: practical implications for heart failure management. (escardio.org)
  • Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare disorder in which a pregnant woman's heart becomes weakened and enlarged. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a form of dilated cardiomyopathy in which no other cause of heart weakening can be found. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are several possible outcomes in peripartum cardiomyopathy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Women who develop peripartum cardiomyopathy are at high risk of developing the same problem with future pregnancies. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Peripartum cardiomyopathy occurs during or after pregnancy. (healthline.com)
  • Long-term high blood pressure , aging, diabetes , or thyroid disease can also cause acquired types of hypertension-related cardiomyopathy. (healthline.com)
  • Common secondary cardiomyopathies include hypertrophy secondary to hypertension or hyperthyroidism. (vin.com)
  • Most important are hypertension, stroke, cardiomyopathies and coronary heart disease. (who.int)
  • Cardiomyopathy can lead to an irregular heartbeat, heart failure, or other complications. (healthline.com)
  • This is also known as spongiform cardiomyopathy. (healthline.com)
  • Also called spongiform cardiomyopathy, this cardiomyopathy occurs when a baby's heart muscle does not develop. (jdch.com)
  • Cardiomyopathies are either confined to the heart or are part of a generalized systemic disorder, both often leading to cardiovascular death or progressive heart failure-related disability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hallmark of psoriasis is chronic and systemic inflammation, which is a major contributor to the atherosclerosis, cardiomyopathy, and other cardiovascular manifestations seen in the disease. (medscape.com)
  • The most important cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the African Region are those related to atherosclerosis, cardiomyopathies and rheumatic heart disease. (who.int)
  • Data link abnormal myocardial calcium kinetics to the cause of the inappropriate myocardial hypertrophy and specific features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), particularly in patients with diastolic functional abnormalities. (medscape.com)
  • The significance of the gene discovery in dogs was investigated in human patients diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy using Dutch, English (UK Biobank) and Finnish (FinnGen) cohorts. (news-medical.net)
  • Led by Jane Linderbaum, MS, ARNP, FACC, FPCNA, this course takes a deep dive into caring for patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). (pcna.net)
  • Lahey Hospital & Medical Center is proud to launch the Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) Center, offering highly personalized care and leading-edge treatments to achieve a good quality of life and longevity for our patients with HCM. (4hcm.org)
  • The Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Center is accepting patients. (4hcm.org)
  • The Inherited Cardiomyopathy Program provides expert care for patients or family members of patients with known or suspected cardiomyopathy. (yale.edu)
  • Patients with atrial fibrillation and a very low left ventricular ejection fraction can be presumptively diagnosed as having an primary idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy with secondary atrial fibrillation . (wikidoc.org)
  • Following aggressive rate control (pharmacologic and conversion of rhythm) in 10 patients initially diagnosed as having an idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy , there was an improvement in left ventricular function at 30 months [7] . (wikidoc.org)
  • The incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy is 10 times higher in patients with psoriasis. (medscape.com)
  • The pathophysiology of cardiomyopathies is better understood at the cellular level with advances in molecular techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pathophysiology of sepsis includes inflammation, immune dysfunction, and dysfunction of coagulation, while sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy ( SIC ), defined as a global but reversible dysfunction of both sides of the heart induced by sepsis, plays a significant role in all of the aspects above in the pathogenesis of sepsis. (frontiersin.org)
  • As Oregon's only academic health center, OHSU is a statewide resource for pediatricians, parents and children with cardiomyopathy. (ohsu.edu)
  • Children with cardiomyopathy may tire easily and have poor growth as their heart struggles to pump enough blood to support the body's needs. (jdch.com)
  • This is a very rare form of cardiomyopathy, but it's the leading cause of sudden death in young athletes. (healthline.com)
  • In this form of cardiomyopathy there is inappropriate hypertrophy of the left ventricle and on occasions the right ventricle may also be involved. (vin.com)
  • The main feature of this form of cardiomyopathy is systolic failure. (vin.com)
  • This form of cardiomyopathy is characterised by varying degrees of focal or diffuse fibrosis of the myocardium, sub-endocardium and endocardium. (vin.com)
  • This form of cardiomyopathy has recently been described in cats. (vin.com)
  • The thickened ventricles may eventually obstruct blood flow from the heart and the disease is sometimes referred to as obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (news-medical.net)
  • This is sometimes referred to as non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (news-medical.net)
  • There are two types of HCM including Obstructive, which is the most common type, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) means the wall (septum) between the left ventricle and right ventricle thickens. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Alternatively, nonischemic cardiomyopathy is any form that isn't related to coronary artery disease. (healthline.com)
  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Novel Treatments, led by Dr. Norma Flores, aims to equip healthcare professionals with the latest insights into innovative treatment modalities for HCM. (pcna.net)
  • Cardiomyopathy occurs when there is damage to the heart. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Also sometimes called " enlarged heart ," dilated cardiomyopathy occurs when your heart muscle enlarges, or dilates, and may be too weak to pump blood efficiently. (healthline.com)
  • When it occurs after delivery, it's sometimes called postpartum cardiomyopathy. (healthline.com)
  • This will also give us an insight into the prevalence of ALPK3-related cardiomyopathy in the general population. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy affects about 1 in 500 people while dilated cardiomyopathy affects 1 in 2,500. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Seshadri Balaji treats children with thick hearts (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) and muscle disease that mostly affects the right side of the heart (arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy). (ohsu.edu)
  • This complication affects only a small proportion of people with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (news-medical.net)
  • Treatment options for cardiomyopathy include lifestyle changes, medications, and surgery. (healthline.com)
  • Parents who both carry the mutated ALPK3 gene have a 25% risk of having a child with severe cardiomyopathy that will develop early in life. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy the heart muscle enlarges and thickens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current American Heart Association (AHA) definition divides cardiomyopathies into primary, which affect the heart alone, and secondary, which are the result of illness affecting other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy the majority of cases are secondary or specific. (vin.com)
  • Perioperative Stress Cardiomyopathy: Case Reports Matter! (nih.gov)
  • People with stress cardiomyopathy usually recover without long-lasting effects. (nccs.com.sg)
  • It is possible for people to experience a recurrence of stress cardiomyopathy though this is extremely rare. (nccs.com.sg)
  • Stress cardiomyopathy might be prevented through better stress and emotional management. (nccs.com.sg)
  • Making lifestyle changes and seeking help when necessary can help reduce unnecessary stress, and decrease the chances of developing stress cardiomyopathy. (nccs.com.sg)
  • The exact cause of stress cardiomyopathy is unknown. (nccs.com.sg)
  • Stress cardiomyopathy tends to happen after intense physical or emotional events. (nccs.com.sg)
  • In some rare cases, the use of certain drugs or medications might also lead to stress cardiomyopathy. (nccs.com.sg)
  • Stress cardiomyopathy is different from a heart attack . (nccs.com.sg)
  • In stress cardiomyopathy, the arteries are not blocked but blood flow in the arteries may be reduced. (nccs.com.sg)
  • Even though the exact cause of stress cardiomyopathy is unknown, there are certain risk factors that might increase one's chances of getting it. (nccs.com.sg)
  • Those who are above the age of 50, especially post-menopausal women, are at higher risk of getting stress cardiomyopathy. (nccs.com.sg)
  • Women are more likely than men to have stress cardiomyopathy. (nccs.com.sg)
  • Those with a history of mental health disorders such as anxiety or depression have a higher risk of developing stress cardiomyopathy. (nccs.com.sg)
  • The doctor will perform an initial evaluation on the patient before ordering tests to check for stress cardiomyopathy. (nccs.com.sg)
  • This measures your heart's electrical activity which can differentiate between stress cardiomyopathy and a heart attack. (nccs.com.sg)
  • However, those suffering from stress cardiomyopathy usually do not have blocked blood vessels. (nccs.com.sg)
  • This creates detailed images of the heart structure, and may help to differentiate stress cardiomyopathy from other conditions that can cause a weak heart function. (nccs.com.sg)
  • Since there is no standard treatment for stress cardiomyopathy, the management strategy would follow that of a heart attack until the doctor is able to ascertain that one is having stress cardiomyopathy. (nccs.com.sg)
  • There are no established measures for the primary prevention of stress cardiomyopathy . (wikidoc.org)
  • Not an update, the ESC guidelines are the first to "include all cardiomyopathy subtypes, and the first time that specific recommendations are made for cardiomyopathies other than hypertrophic cardiomyopathy" (HCM), Arbelo said. (medscape.com)
  • From my point of view, the key innovations include a diagnostic workup that starts with a detailed phenotypic description, including the new phenotype of nondilated left ventricular cardiomyopathy, that then triggers a multiparametric, systematic evaluation," said Kaski, co-chair of the task force. (medscape.com)
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is caused by one or more gene mutations within the proteins of heart muscle cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary myocardial disorder with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance that is characterized by hypertrophy of the left ventricles with histological features of myocyte hypertrophy, myfibrillar disarray, and interstitial fibrosis. (genome.jp)
  • AP) - The cardiologist for John Fetterman, the Democratic nominee for U.S. Senate in Pennsylvania, has disclosed that the politician has cardiomyopathy. (10news.com)
  • Ted Gutkowski, MD, John's long-time cardiologist at CentraState Healthcare System, an Atlantic Health System partner, suspected that John was developing hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). (atlantichealth.org)
  • Depending on how sick a child is when they are diagnosed, a heart transplant is often the best option for treating heart failure due to cardiomyopathy. (childrensmn.org)
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is usually inherited, whereas dilated cardiomyopathy is inherited in about one third of cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The condition is usually inherited and there is a 50% chance that each child born to a parent with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy will inherit the mutation for the disease. (news-medical.net)
  • A detailed picture of the Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy pipeline landscape is provided which includes the disease overview and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy treatment guidelines. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • In the field of cardiomyopathy clinical treatment of clinical research often go hand in hand. (yale.edu)
  • Massive advancements in treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, some forms of arrhythmogenic and familial dilated cardiomyopathy, and TTR related amyloid cardiomyopathy are rapidly changing the natural history of disease progression and symptom management. (yale.edu)
  • The primary treatment for a tachycardia induced cardiomyopathy is correct the underlying tachycardia. (wikidoc.org)
  • Corroborating results showed altered localizations of src in dilated cardiomyopathy and paxillin in both cardiomyopathic phenotypes. (jci.org)
  • Cardiomyopathy is disease of the heart muscle. (childrensmn.org)
  • Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle that worsens over time and can be life-threatening. (healthline.com)
  • Cardiomyopathy is disease in which the heart muscle becomes weakened, stretched, or has another structural problem. (nih.gov)
  • Also, the data supports that cardiomyopathies should be seen as a "pancardiac" disease with expression changes affecting all cell types (including endocardial cells by example in the presence of PKP2 pathogenic variants). (escardio.org)
  • Your donation to the Steinmetz Cardiomyopathy Fund will be used to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying DCM and accelerate the development of new personalised approaches to detect, monitor and ultimately prevent the disease in its earliest stage. (stanford.edu)
  • Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle: 'cardio' means heart, 'myo' means muscle and 'pathy' means disease. (cardiomyopathy.org)
  • Cardiomyopathy is a primary disease of the heart muscle that affect the heart's ability to pump blood and maintain its rhythm. (jdch.com)
  • CMR is recommended at the initial evaluation for every patient with cardiomyopathy," Arbelo said. (medscape.com)

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