Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.
Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in two or more fetal compartments, such as SKIN; PLEURA; PERICARDIUM; PLACENTA; PERITONEUM; AMNIOTIC FLUID. General fetal EDEMA may be of non-immunologic origin, or of immunologic origin as in the case of ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS.
Heart enlargement and other remodeling in cardiac morphology and electrical circutry found in individuals who participate in intense repeated exercises.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.
An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Kingston. It was discovered in 1494 by Columbus and was a Spanish colony 1509-1655 until captured by the English. Its flourishing slave trade was abolished in the 19th century. It was a British colony 1655-1958 and a territory of the West Indies Federation 1958-62. It achieved full independence in 1962. The name is from the Arawak Xaymaca, rich in springs or land of springs. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p564 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p267)
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).
An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.
Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.
A disease of the CARDIAC MUSCLE developed subsequent to the initial protozoan infection by TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI. After infection, less than 10% develop acute illness such as MYOCARDITIS (mostly in children). The disease then enters a latent phase without clinical symptoms until about 20 years later. Myocardial symptoms of advanced CHAGAS DISEASE include conduction defects (HEART BLOCK) and CARDIOMEGALY.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).
Freedom from activity.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.
Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Therapeutic exercises aimed to deepen inspiration or expiration or even to alter the rate and rhythm of respiration.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).
Methods or programs of physical activities which can be used to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Any method of measuring the amount of work done by an organism, usually during PHYSICAL EXERTION. Ergometry also includes measures of power. Some instruments used in these determinations include the hand crank and the bicycle ergometer.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Glucose in blood.
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Difficult or labored breathing.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Force exerted when gripping or grasping.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Carrying out of specific physical routines or procedures by one who is trained or skilled in physical activity. Performance is influenced by a combination of physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.
The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.
Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
One of the MARTIAL ARTS and also a form of meditative exercise using methodically slow circular stretching movements and positions of body balance.
Confinement of an individual to bed for therapeutic or experimental reasons.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.

The incognita of the known: the athlete's heart syndrome. (1/17)


The prevalence, distribution, and clinical outcomes of electrocardiographic repolarization patterns in male athletes of African/Afro-Caribbean origin. (2/17)


Eccentric and concentric cardiac hypertrophy induced by exercise training: microRNAs and molecular determinants. (3/17)


Chronic Akt blockade aggravates pathological hypertrophy and inhibits physiological hypertrophy. (4/17)


Gene deletion of P2Y4 receptor lowers exercise capacity and reduces myocardial hypertrophy with swimming exercise. (5/17)


Pathological role of serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 in adverse ventricular remodeling. (6/17)


The endurance athletes heart: acute stress and chronic adaptation. (7/17)


Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter in athletes. (8/17)


Medical Term: Cardiomegaly

Definition: An abnormal enlargement of the heart.

Symptoms: Difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling of legs and feet, chest pain, and palpitations.

Causes: Hypertension, cardiac valve disease, myocardial infarction (heart attack), congenital heart defects, and other conditions that affect the heart muscle or cardiovascular system.

Diagnosis: Physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG), chest x-ray, echocardiography, and other diagnostic tests as necessary.

Treatment: Medications such as diuretics, vasodilators, and beta blockers, lifestyle changes such as exercise and diet modifications, surgery or other interventions in severe cases.

Note: Cardiomegaly is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications such as heart failure and death. If you suspect you or someone else may have cardiomegaly, seek medical attention immediately.

The term "hydrops" refers to the excessive accumulation of fluid in the body, and "fetalis" indicates that the condition occurs during fetal development. The condition is often diagnosed during the second or third trimester of pregnancy, and it can be associated with other congenital anomalies or genetic disorders.

The symptoms of hydrops fetalis can vary depending on the underlying cause, but they may include:

* Enlargement of the fetus
* Increased amniotic fluid levels
* Poor fetal growth
* Abnormalities in the ultrasound examination
* Premature birth or stillbirth

Hydrops fetalis is a serious condition that requires close monitoring and management by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare providers, including obstetricians, maternal-fetal medicine specialists, and perinatologists. Treatment options may include:

* Close monitoring of the pregnancy to detect any complications early
* Medications to help manage symptoms such as high blood pressure or heart failure
* Surgical interventions, such as amnioreduction or fetoscopy, to reduce fluid accumulation and improve fetal growth
* In some cases, delivery of the baby may be necessary, either through cesarean section or vaginal delivery.

The prognosis for hydrops fetalis is generally poor, with high rates of stillbirth and neonatal mortality. However, with early diagnosis and appropriate management, the outcome can be improved. It is important for pregnant women to seek medical attention immediately if they experience any symptoms or abnormalities that may indicate hydrops fetalis.

There are several types of cardiomyopathies, each with distinct characteristics and symptoms. Some of the most common forms of cardiomyopathy include:

1. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM): This is the most common form of cardiomyopathy and is characterized by an abnormal thickening of the heart muscle, particularly in the left ventricle. HCM can lead to obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract and can increase the risk of sudden death.
2. Dilated cardiomyopathy: This type of cardiomyopathy is characterized by a decrease in the heart's ability to pump blood effectively, leading to enlargement of the heart and potentially life-threatening complications such as congestive heart failure.
3. Restrictive cardiomyopathy: This type of cardiomyopathy is characterized by stiffness of the heart muscle, which makes it difficult for the heart to fill with blood. This can lead to shortness of breath and fatigue.
4. Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC): This is a rare type of cardiomyopathy that occurs when the left ventricle does not properly compact, leading to reduced cardiac function and potentially life-threatening complications.
5. Cardiac amyloidosis: This is a condition in which abnormal proteins accumulate in the heart tissue, leading to stiffness and impaired cardiac function.
6. Right ventricular cardiomyopathy (RVCM): This type of cardiomyopathy is characterized by impaired function of the right ventricle, which can lead to complications such as pulmonary hypertension and heart failure.
7. Endocardial fibroelastoma: This is a rare type of cardiomyopathy that occurs when abnormal tissue grows on the inner lining of the heart, leading to reduced cardiac function and potentially life-threatening complications.
8. Cardiac sarcoidosis: This is a condition in which inflammatory cells accumulate in the heart, leading to impaired cardiac function and potentially life-threatening complications.
9. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM): This is a condition in which the heart muscle thickens, leading to reduced cardiac function and potentially life-threatening complications such as arrhythmias and sudden death.
10. Hypokinetic left ventricular cardiomyopathy: This type of cardiomyopathy is characterized by decreased contraction of the left ventricle, leading to reduced cardiac function and potentially life-threatening complications such as heart failure.

It's important to note that some of these types of cardiomyopathy are more common in certain populations, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy being more common in young athletes. Additionally, some types of cardiomyopathy may have overlapping symptoms or co-occurring conditions, so it's important to work with a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

The AVF is created by joining a radial or brachial artery to a vein in the forearm or upper arm. The vein is typically a radiocephalic vein, which is a vein that drains blood from the hand and forearm. The fistula is formed by sewing the artery and vein together with a specialized suture material.

Once the AVF is created, it needs time to mature before it can be used for hemodialysis. This process can take several weeks or months, depending on the size of the fistula and the individual patient's healing response. During this time, the patient may need to undergo regular monitoring and testing to ensure that the fistula is functioning properly.

The advantages of an AVF over other types of hemodialysis access include:

1. Improved blood flow: The high-flow path created by the AVF allows for more efficient removal of waste products from the blood.
2. Reduced risk of infection: The connection between the artery and vein is less likely to become infected than other types of hemodialysis access.
3. Longer duration: AVFs can last for several years, providing a reliable and consistent source of hemodialysis access.
4. Improved patient comfort: The fistula is typically located in the arm or forearm, which is less invasive and more comfortable for the patient than other types of hemodialysis access.

However, there are also potential risks and complications associated with AVFs, including:

1. Access failure: The fistula may not mature properly or may become blocked, requiring alternative access methods.
2. Infection: As with any surgical procedure, there is a risk of infection with AVF creation.
3. Steal syndrome: This is a rare complication that occurs when the flow of blood through the fistula interferes with the normal flow of blood through the arm.
4. Thrombosis: The fistula may become occluded due to clotting, which can be treated with thrombolysis or surgical intervention.

In summary, an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a type of hemodialysis access that is created by connecting an artery and a vein, providing a high-flow path for hemodialysis. AVFs offer several advantages over other types of hemodialysis access, including improved blood flow, reduced risk of infection, longer duration, and improved patient comfort. However, there are also potential risks and complications associated with AVFs, including access failure, infection, steal syndrome, and thrombosis. Regular monitoring and testing are necessary to ensure that the fistula is functioning properly and to minimize the risk of these complications.

Pericardial effusion can be caused by a variety of factors, including infection, inflammation, tumors, or trauma. It can also be a complication of other medical conditions such as heart failure or kidney disease.

Symptoms of pericardial effusion may include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, and fever. If the effusion is severe, it can lead to cardiac tamponade, which is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention.

Diagnosis of pericardial effusion typically involves physical examination, imaging tests such as chest X-rays or echocardiography, and laboratory tests to determine the cause of the effusion. Treatment may involve drainage of the fluid, antibiotics for infection, or other medications to reduce inflammation. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the fluid and repair any damage to the heart or pericardial sac.

Chagas cardiomyopathy is a type of heart disease that is caused by the parasitic infection Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted through the feces of infected triatomine bugs. It is also known as American trypanosomiasis or Latin American trypanosomiasis.

The infection can cause inflammation and damage to the heart muscle, leading to cardiomyopathy, which is a condition where the heart muscle becomes weakened and cannot pump blood effectively. This can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling, and irregular heartbeat.

Chagas cardiomyopathy is most commonly found in countries in Central and South America, where the disease is transmitted by triatomine bugs that are found in rural areas. It is estimated that around 8 million people are infected with Chagas disease worldwide, with the majority of cases occurring in Latin America.

There is no cure for Chagas cardiomyopathy, but medications and other treatments can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prevention is key to avoiding Chagas cardiomyopathy, and this includes avoiding triatomine bug bites, using insecticides to kill bugs in homes, and screening blood donors for the disease.

Overall, Chagas cardiomyopathy is a serious and debilitating condition that can have significant implications for quality of life and survival. It is important to be aware of the risk of infection and take steps to prevent it, particularly if you live in or travel to areas where the disease is common.

Examples of fetal diseases include:

1. Down syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, which can cause delays in physical and intellectual development, as well as increased risk of heart defects and other health problems.
2. Spina bifida: A birth defect that affects the development of the spine and brain, resulting in a range of symptoms from mild to severe.
3. Cystic fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory and digestive systems, causing thick mucus buildup and recurring lung infections.
4. Anencephaly: A condition where a portion of the brain and skull are missing, which is usually fatal within a few days or weeks of birth.
5. Clubfoot: A deformity of the foot and ankle that can be treated with casts or surgery.
6. Hirschsprung's disease: A condition where the nerve cells that control bowel movements are missing, leading to constipation and other symptoms.
7. Diaphragmatic hernia: A birth defect that occurs when there is a hole in the diaphragm, allowing organs from the abdomen to move into the chest cavity.
8. Gastroschisis: A birth defect where the intestines protrude through a opening in the abdominal wall.
9. Congenital heart disease: Heart defects that are present at birth, such as holes in the heart or narrowed blood vessels.
10. Neural tube defects: Defects that affect the brain and spine, such as spina bifida and anencephaly.

Early detection and diagnosis of fetal diseases can be crucial for ensuring proper medical care and improving outcomes for affected babies. Prenatal testing, such as ultrasound and blood tests, can help identify fetal anomalies and genetic disorders during pregnancy.

There are two main types of heart failure:

1. Left-sided heart failure: This occurs when the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the lungs and other organs.
2. Right-sided heart failure: This occurs when the right ventricle, which pumps blood to the lungs, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the body's tissues and organs.

Symptoms of heart failure may include:

* Shortness of breath
* Fatigue
* Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
* Swelling in the abdomen
* Weight gain
* Coughing up pink, frothy fluid
* Rapid or irregular heartbeat
* Dizziness or lightheadedness

Treatment for heart failure typically involves a combination of medications and lifestyle changes. Medications may include diuretics to remove excess fluid from the body, ACE inhibitors or beta blockers to reduce blood pressure and improve blood flow, and aldosterone antagonists to reduce the amount of fluid in the body. Lifestyle changes may include a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction techniques. In severe cases, heart failure may require hospitalization or implantation of a device such as an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or a left ventricular assist device (LVAD).

It is important to note that heart failure is a chronic condition, and it requires ongoing management and monitoring to prevent complications and improve quality of life. With proper treatment and lifestyle changes, many people with heart failure are able to manage their symptoms and lead active lives.

Heart neoplasms, also known as cardiac tumors, are abnormal growths that occur within the heart muscle or on the surface of the heart. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant heart tumors are rare but can be aggressive and potentially life-threatening.

Types of Heart Neoplasms:

1. Benign tumors: These include fibromas, lipomas, and teratomas, which are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body.
2. Malignant tumors: These include sarcomas, carcinomas, and lymphomas, which can be more aggressive and may spread to other parts of the body.

Causes and Risk Factors:

The exact cause of heart neoplasms is not fully understood, but several factors have been linked to an increased risk of developing these tumors. These include:

1. Genetic mutations: Some heart neoplasms may be caused by inherited genetic mutations.
2. Viral infections: Some viruses, such as human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1), have been linked to an increased risk of developing heart tumors.
3. Radiation exposure: Radiation therapy to the chest area can increase the risk of developing heart tumors.
4. Previous heart surgery: People who have had previous heart surgery may be at higher risk of developing heart neoplasms.

Symptoms and Diagnosis:

The symptoms of heart neoplasms can vary depending on the size and location of the tumor. They may include:

1. Chest pain or discomfort
2. Shortness of breath
3. Fatigue
4. Palpitations
5. Swelling in the legs, ankles, or feet

Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), echocardiograms, and cardiac imaging studies. A biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment and Prognosis:

The treatment of heart neoplasms depends on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include:

1. Watchful waiting: Small, benign tumors may not require immediate treatment and can be monitored with regular check-ups.
2. Surgery: Surgical removal of the tumor may be necessary for larger or more aggressive tumors.
3. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy drugs may be used to shrink the tumor before surgery or to treat any remaining cancer cells after surgery.
4. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used to treat heart neoplasms that are difficult to remove with surgery or that have returned after previous treatment.

The prognosis for heart neoplasms varies depending on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. In general, the earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the prognosis. However, some heart neoplasms can be aggressive and may have a poor prognosis despite treatment.


Heart neoplasms can cause a variety of complications, including:

1. Heart failure: Tumors that obstruct the heart's pumping activity can lead to heart failure.
2. Arrhythmias: Tumors can disrupt the heart's electrical activity and cause arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms).
3. Thrombus formation: Tumors can increase the risk of blood clots forming within the heart.
4. Septicemia: Bacterial infections can occur within the tumor, leading to septicemia (blood poisoning).
5. Respiratory failure: Large tumors can compress the lungs and lead to respiratory failure.


Heart neoplasms are rare but potentially life-threatening conditions that require prompt diagnosis and treatment. While some heart neoplasms are benign, others can be aggressive and may have a poor prognosis despite treatment. It is essential to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early detection and treatment can improve outcomes.

Types of congenital heart defects include:

1. Ventricular septal defect (VSD): A hole in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart, allowing abnormal blood flow.
2. Atrial septal defect (ASD): A hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart, also allowing abnormal blood flow.
3. Tetralogy of Fallot: A combination of four heart defects, including VSD, pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve), and abnormal development of the infundibulum (a part of the heart that connects the ventricles to the pulmonary artery).
4. Transposition of the great vessels: A condition in which the aorta and/or pulmonary artery are placed in the wrong position, disrupting blood flow.
5. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS): A severe defect in which the left side of the heart is underdeveloped, resulting in insufficient blood flow to the body.
6. Pulmonary atresia: A condition in which the pulmonary valve does not form properly, blocking blood flow to the lungs.
7. Truncus arteriosus: A rare defect in which a single artery instead of two (aorta and pulmonary artery) arises from the heart.
8. Double-outlet right ventricle: A condition in which both the aorta and the pulmonary artery arise from the right ventricle instead of the left ventricle.

Causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetics, environmental factors, and viral infections during pregnancy may play a role. Diagnosis is typically made through fetal echocardiography or cardiac ultrasound during pregnancy or after birth. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the defect and may include medication, surgery, or heart transplantation. With advances in medical technology and treatment, many children with congenital heart disease can lead active, healthy lives into adulthood.

There are two types of hypertension:

1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.

Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:

* Kidney disease
* Adrenal gland disorders
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use

There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:

* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Obesity
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
* Stress

Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:

* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Stroke
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease

Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.

There are several risk factors for developing EIA, including:

1. Genetics: People with a family history of asthma are more likely to develop EIA.
2. Allergies: Those with allergies, particularly allergies to pollen, dust mites, or pet dander, are more likely to develop EIA.
3. Respiratory infections: People who have had respiratory infections, such as bronchitis or pneumonia, may be at higher risk for developing EIA.
4. Environmental factors: Exposure to cold, dry air, pollution, and other environmental irritants can trigger symptoms of EIA.
5. Physical fitness level: People who are less physically fit may be more susceptible to EIA due to the increased demand on their respiratory system during exercise.

Symptoms of EIA can vary in severity and may include:

1. Wheezing or a whistling sound when breathing out
2. Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
3. Coughing or chest tightness
4. Fatigue or exhaustion
5. Blue lips or fingernail beds (in severe cases)

If you suspect that you or someone else may be experiencing EIA, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare provider can diagnose EIA through a physical examination and may perform additional tests, such as spirometry or methacholine challenge, to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment for EIA typically involves avoiding triggers such as cold air or exercise, using inhalers to relax airway muscles and improve breathing, and managing allergies through medication or immunotherapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy and other supportive care.

Prevention is key to avoiding EIA, and this includes taking the following steps:

1. Warm up before exercising with light cardio for 5-10 minutes
2. Use a humidifier during exercise to keep airways moist
3. Avoid cold air and sudden changes in temperature
4. Use saline nasal sprays or rinse with salt water after exercising to help clear out mucus and reduce inflammation
5. Manage allergies through medication, immunotherapy, or avoiding exposure to allergens
6. Consider wearing a mask during exercise to warm and humidify the air before inhaling it.

In summary, EIA is a condition that can cause breathing difficulties and other symptoms during exercise, especially in people with asthma or other respiratory conditions. It is important to be aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for EIA to prevent and manage this condition effectively.

In the medical field, dyspnea is often evaluated using a numerical rating scale called the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale. This scale rates dyspnea on a scale of 0 to 5, with 0 indicating no shortness of breath and 5 indicating extreme shortness of breath.

Dyspnea can be a symptom of many different conditions, including:

1. Respiratory problems such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia.
2. Heart conditions such as heart failure and coronary artery disease.
3. Other underlying medical conditions such as anemia, lung disease, and liver failure.
4. Neurological conditions such as stroke and multiple sclerosis.
5. Psychological conditions such as anxiety and depression.

Assessment of dyspnea involves a thorough medical history and physical examination, including listening to the patient's lung sounds and assessing their oxygen saturation levels. Diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays, electrocardiograms (ECGs), and blood tests may also be ordered to determine the underlying cause of dyspnea.

Treatment of dyspnea depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, oxygen therapy, and other interventions such as pulmonary rehabilitation. In some cases, dyspnea may be a symptom of a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

In the medical field, fatigue is often evaluated using a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to determine its underlying cause. Treatment for fatigue depends on the underlying cause, but may include rest, exercise, stress management techniques, and medication.

Some common causes of fatigue in the medical field include:

1. Sleep disorders, such as insomnia or sleep apnea
2. Chronic illnesses, such as diabetes, heart disease, or arthritis
3. Infections, such as the flu or a urinary tract infection
4. Medication side effects
5. Poor nutrition or hydration
6. Substance abuse
7. Chronic stress
8. Depression or anxiety
9. Hormonal imbalances
10. Autoimmune disorders, such as thyroiditis or lupus.

Fatigue can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as:

1. Anemia
2. Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
3. Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
4. Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid)
5. Chronic fatigue syndrome
6. Fibromyalgia
7. Vasculitis
8. Cancer
9. Heart failure
10. Liver or kidney disease.

It is important to seek medical attention if fatigue is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, pain, or difficulty breathing. A healthcare professional can diagnose and treat the underlying cause of fatigue, improving overall quality of life.

Coronary disease is often caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, obesity, and a lack of physical activity. It can also be triggered by other medical conditions, such as diabetes and kidney disease.

The symptoms of coronary disease can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

* Chest pain or discomfort (angina)
* Shortness of breath
* Fatigue
* Swelling of the legs and feet
* Pain in the arms and back

Coronary disease is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and cardiac imaging. Treatment for coronary disease may include lifestyle changes, medications to control symptoms, and surgical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.

Preventative measures for coronary disease include:

* Maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine
* Quitting smoking and limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and other underlying medical conditions
* Reducing stress through relaxation techniques or therapy.

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.


Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

There are many different approaches to weight loss, and what works best for one person may not work for another. Some common strategies for weight loss include:

* Caloric restriction: Reducing daily caloric intake to create a calorie deficit that promotes weight loss.
* Portion control: Eating smaller amounts of food and avoiding overeating.
* Increased physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise, such as walking, running, swimming, or weightlifting, to burn more calories and build muscle mass.
* Behavioral modifications: Changing habits and behaviors related to eating and exercise, such as keeping a food diary or enlisting the support of a weight loss buddy.

Weight loss can have numerous health benefits, including:

* Improved blood sugar control
* Reduced risk of heart disease and stroke
* Lowered blood pressure
* Improved joint health and reduced risk of osteoarthritis
* Improved sleep quality
* Boosted mood and reduced stress levels
* Increased energy levels

However, weight loss can also be challenging, and it is important to approach it in a healthy and sustainable way. Crash diets and other extreme weight loss methods are not effective in the long term and can lead to nutrient deficiencies and other negative health consequences. Instead, it is important to focus on making sustainable lifestyle changes that can be maintained over time.

Some common misconceptions about weight loss include:

* All weight loss methods are effective for everyone.
* Weight loss should always be the primary goal of a fitness or health program.
* Crash diets and other extreme weight loss methods are a good way to lose weight quickly.
* Weight loss supplements and fad diets are a reliable way to achieve significant weight loss.

The most effective ways to lose weight and maintain weight loss include:

* Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is high in nutrient-dense foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats.
* Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training.
* Getting enough sleep and managing stress levels.
* Aiming for a gradual weight loss of 1-2 pounds per week.
* Focusing on overall health and wellness rather than just the number on the scale.

It is important to remember that weight loss is not always linear and can vary from week to week. It is also important to be patient and consistent with your weight loss efforts, as it can take time to see significant results.

Overall, weight loss can be a challenging but rewarding process, and it is important to approach it in a healthy and sustainable way. By focusing on overall health and wellness rather than just the number on the scale, you can achieve a healthy weight and improve your overall quality of life.

1. Chronic bronchitis: This condition causes inflammation of the bronchial tubes (the airways that lead to the lungs), which can cause coughing and excessive mucus production.
2. Emphysema: This condition damages the air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult for the body to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide.

The main causes of COPD are smoking and long-term exposure to air pollution, although genetics can also play a role. Symptoms of COPD can include shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing, particularly during exercise or exertion. The disease can be diagnosed through pulmonary function tests, chest X-rays, and blood tests.

There is no cure for COPD, but there are several treatment options available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These include medications such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, pulmonary rehabilitation programs, and lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and increasing physical activity. In severe cases, oxygen therapy may be necessary to help the patient breathe.

Prevention is key in avoiding the development of COPD, and this includes not smoking and avoiding exposure to air pollution. Early detection and treatment can also help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. With proper management, many people with COPD are able to lead active and productive lives.

Angina pectoris is a medical condition that is characterized by recurring chest pain or discomfort due to reduced blood flow and oxygen supply to the heart muscle, specifically the myocardium. It is also known as stable angina or effort angina. The symptoms of angina pectoris typically occur during physical activity or emotional stress and are relieved by rest.

The term "angina" comes from the Latin word for "strangulation," which refers to the feeling of tightness or constriction in the chest that is associated with the condition. Angina pectoris can be caused by atherosclerosis, or the buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle. This buildup can lead to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques that can narrow the coronary arteries and reduce blood flow to the heart muscle, causing chest pain.

There are several types of angina pectoris, including:

1. Stable angina: This is the most common type of angina and is characterized by predictable and reproducible symptoms that occur during specific situations or activities, such as exercise or emotional stress.
2. Unstable angina: This type of angina is characterized by unpredictable and changing symptoms that can occur at rest or with minimal exertion. It is often a sign of a more severe underlying condition, such as a heart attack.
3. Variant angina: This type of angina occurs during physical activity, but the symptoms are not relieved by rest.
4. Prinzmetal's angina: This is a rare type of angina that occurs at rest and is characterized by a feeling of tightness or constriction in the chest.

The diagnosis of angina pectoris is typically made based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), stress test, and imaging studies. Treatment for angina pectoris usually involves lifestyle modifications, such as regular exercise, a healthy diet, and stress management, as well as medications to relieve symptoms and reduce the risk of complications. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary to treat the underlying condition causing the angina.

In some cases, hyperemia can be a sign of a more serious underlying condition that requires medical attention. For example, if hyperemia is caused by an inflammatory or infectious process, it may lead to tissue damage or organ dysfunction if left untreated.

Hyperemia can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, muscles, organs, and other tissues. It is often diagnosed through physical examination and imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment for hyperemia depends on its underlying cause, and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, or surgery.

In the context of dermatology, hyperemia is often used to describe a condition called erythema, which is characterized by redness and swelling of the skin due to increased blood flow. Erythema can be caused by various factors, such as sun exposure, allergic reactions, or skin infections. Treatment for erythema may include topical medications, oral medications, or other therapies depending on its underlying cause.

The term "intermittent" indicates that the symptoms do not occur all the time, but only during certain activities or situations. This condition can be caused by a variety of factors, such as peripheral artery disease (PAD), arterial occlusive disease, or muscle weakness.

Intermittent claudication can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, making it difficult to perform everyday activities like walking or climbing stairs. Treatment options may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause of the condition.

There are several potential causes of hyperventilation, including anxiety, panic attacks, and certain medical conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Treatment for hyperventilation typically involves slowing down the breathing rate and restoring the body's natural balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels.

Some common signs and symptoms of hyperventilation include:

* Rapid breathing
* Deep breathing
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Chest pain or tightness
* Shortness of breath
* Confusion or disorientation
* Nausea or vomiting

If you suspect that someone is experiencing hyperventilation, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment may involve the following:

1. Oxygen therapy: Providing extra oxygen to help restore normal oxygen levels in the body.
2. Breathing exercises: Teaching the individual deep, slow breathing exercises to help regulate their breathing pattern.
3. Relaxation techniques: Encouraging the individual to relax and reduce stress, which can help slow down their breathing rate.
4. Medications: In severe cases, medications such as sedatives or anti-anxiety drugs may be prescribed to help calm the individual and regulate their breathing.
5. Ventilation support: In severe cases of hyperventilation, mechanical ventilation may be necessary to support the individual's breathing.

It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of hyperventilation, as it can lead to more serious complications such as respiratory failure or cardiac arrest if left untreated.

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Cardiomegalies, Exercise-Induced Cardiomegaly, Exercise Induced Exercise-Induced Cardiomegalies Exercise-Induced Cardiomegaly ... Exercise-Induced Cardiomegalies. Exercise-Induced Cardiomegaly. Heart Enlargement, Physiological. Heart Enlargements, ... Cardiomegalies, Exercise-Induced. Cardiomegaly, Exercise Induced. Enlargement, Physiological Heart. Enlargements, Physiological ... Cardiomegaly, Exercise-Induced - Preferred Concept UI. M0549097. Scope note. Non-pathological heart enlargement and other ...
Exercise-induced bronchocontriction, skin sensitivity, and serum IgE in children with eczema. (3/421). Forty-two children with ... The patient developed progressive dyspnea 6 months later and was found to have cardiomegaly and a depressed left ventricular ... Eczema and Exercise - How to Exercise Safely with Eczema?. Do workouts or exercise make your eczema worse? If yes, then you are ... The challenge of staying fit with the exercise turns out to be the main culprit for your health conditions. If you are the one ...
Athletic heart syndrome, (AHS) also known as athletes heart, athletic bradycardia or exercise-induced cardiomegaly is a non- ... There are two types of exercise: Static (strength-training) and dynamic (endurance-training). Static exercise consists of ... This type of exercise also increases both heart rate and stroke volume of the heart. Both static and dynamic exercises involve ... Athletes heart is a result of dynamic physical activity such as (more than 5 hours a week) aerobic training, rather than ...
Cardiomegaly, Exercise-Induced G9.330.190.281 G9.330.170 Cardiovascular Physiological Processes G9.330.190 Carfecillin D3.438. ... Exercise G11.427.590.530.698.277 G11.427.410.698.277 Exercise Therapy E2.831.387 E2.760.169.63.500.387 E2.831.535.483 ... Drug-Induced C10.597.350.275 C23.888.592.350.275 E1A-Associated p300 Protein D8.811.913.50.134.440.600 D8.811.913.50.134.415. ... TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand D12.776.543.750.73.600 D12.776.543.750.690.600 D23.50.301.264.35.895 D23. ...
Inappropriate sinus tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy with severe functional mitral regurgitation and successful treatment ... By optimizing the medical therapy, exercise tolerance improved and she was discharged. The serum brain natriuretic peptide was ... The chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly and pulmonary congestion. A transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) showed reduced left ... due to tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy. After resolving the pulmonary congestion with diuretics, we administered a minimum ...
Gastrograffin may induce a benign way. Try to trust there will be regenerated: it adopts a leading cause distress and wearing ... Skin for 1% plain abdominal pain supervenes; then being borne by exercise. The changes in his own interaction with buy omnicef ... rely on everybody whom aspirin is cardiomegaly or vascular anastomoses. However, clinical picture described as well maintained ...
... images reveal resting global function and wall motion and resting wall thickening in areas with defects of exercise-induced ... In noncardiogenic cases, cardiomegaly and pleural effusions are usually absent. Edema may be interstitial but is more often ... In summary, typical findings of CHF on plain radiography include cardiomegaly; grade I, II, or III PVH; and increased central ... On plain radiography, findings of CHF include cardiomegaly; grade I, II, or III pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH); and ...
Effects on exercise tolerance, heart size, and severity and symptoms of heart failure were observed in placebo-controlled ... ACE inhibitor-induced cough should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cough. ... limited to patients with NYHA Class IV congestive heart failure and radiographic evidence of cardiomegaly, use of enalapril was ... and increased cardiac output and exercise tolerance. Heart rate was unchanged or slightly reduced, and mean ejection fraction ...
TFS via TCREs led to a important reduction in the passion of pilocarpine-induced SE (an extreme compose of seizures that is ... The availability of medicines depends on the wreck of supervision experts think is necessary before you exercise a exceptional ... Tangible changes that may be seen include dysmorphology, cardiomegaly, rashes, cataracts, retinitis, optic atrophy, corneal ... Cleavage of Bid may amplify caspase-8-induced neuronal finish following focally evoked limbic seizures. Hotchkiss RS, Karl IE ...
The trilateral maritime exercise will start on June 1, and will be held in the waters of Mariveles, Bataan, is the first for ... The medical providers in the ambulance treated Mullen as if he were suffering from Swimming Induced Pulmonary Edema, a medical ... into Mullens line of duty death found the sailor died of bacterial pneumonia with a contributing factor to be cardiomegaly - ... The trilateral maritime exercise will start on June 1, and will be held in the waters of Mariveles, Bataan, is the first for ...
The effects of exercise training on walking function and perception of health status in elderly patients with peripheral ... Wogonin and fisetin induce apoptosis in human promyeloleukemic cells, accompanied by a decrease of reactive oxygen species, and ... Advanced glycosylation end products induce nitric oxide synthase expression in C6 glioma cells: Involvement of a p38 MAP kinase ... Alternative activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases in curcumin and arsenite-induced HSP70 gene expression ...
Symptomatic Secondary Polycythemia Induced by Anti-VEGF Therapy for the Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Case ... Poor exercise tolerance. *Hyperviscosity. Consultations. The following consultations may be considered in a patient undergoing ... Pulmonary hypertension leading to hemoptysis and cardiomegaly[6][12]. *Iron deficiency. *Increased whole blood viscosity ...
... hypertension is not uncommon in adult patients with congenital heart disease and can significantly affect their exercise ... Lung function and gas exchange in Eisenmenger syndrome and their impact on exercise capacity and survival. Int J Cardiol. 2014; ... Chest radiograph illustrating cardiomegaly and dilated pulmonary arteries in a patient with Eisenmenger syndrome ... heritable or drug-induced PAH [16]. There is no evidence to support their use in patients with PAH-CHD and they are absolutely ...
Apalutamide weakly induces BCRP and may decrease systemic exposure of drugs that are BCRP substrates.Serious - Use Alternative ... If alternative therapy cannot be used, exercise caution and consider a dose reduction of the CYP2D6 substrate. ... Apalutamide weakly induces BCRP and may decrease systemic exposure of drugs that are BCRP substrates. ... If alternative therapy cannot be used, exercise caution and consider a dose reduction of the CYP2D6 substrate. ...
Asthma, Exercise-Induced 2 0 Tobacco Use Disorder 2 0 Ventricular Fibrillation 2 0 ... Cardiomegaly 1 0 Colorectal Neoplasms 1 0 Disease Models, Animal 1 0 ...
His exercise tolerance on admission was approximately 5 metres which was limited by his SOB. Five months previously he had been ... Hilar enlargement (increased main pulmonary artery size, cardiomegaly. Pulmonary haemodynamics. Normal/low PVR. Elevated PVR, ... Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a separate but related condition characterized by an arterial oxygenation defect induced by ... Chest radiography may show increased main pulmonary artery size or cardiomegaly. Arterial blood gases will show a hypoxaemia. ...
The valves of the heart were discovered by a physician of the Hippocratean school around the 4th century BC. However their function was not properly understood then. Because blood pools in the veins after death, arteries look empty. Ancient anatomists assumed they were filled with air and that they were for transport of air. Herophilus distinguished veins from arteries but thought that the pulse was a property of arteries themselves. Erasistratus observed that arteries that were cut during life bleed. He ascribed the fact to the phenomenon that air escaping from an artery is replaced with blood that entered by very small vessels between veins and arteries. Thus he apparently postulated capillaries but with reversed flow of blood. The 2nd century AD, Greek physician, Galen, knew that blood vessels carried blood and identified venous (dark red) and arterial (brighter and thinner) blood, each with distinct and separate functions. Growth and energy were derived from venous blood created in the liver ...
Guidelines for Structured Exercise Therapy for Lower Extremity PAD Guidelines for Minimizing Tissue Loss in Lower Extremity PAD ...
"Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in left ventricular assist device bridge-to-transplant patients." Ann Thorac Surg 84, no. 3 ( ... "Comparison of rest and physical exercise stress F-18 FDG myocardial PET studies in patients with diminished left ventricular ... "Recurrence of heart failure symptoms after LVAD placement due to bradycardia-induced inflow obstruction." J Heart Lung ... "Left ventricular assist device as destination therapy in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy." Ann Thorac Surg 80, no. 2 (August ...
... hormone-induced hypophysectomy-induced radiotherapy-induced Use additional E code, if desired, to identify cause 253.8 Other ... Cardiomegaly Cardiac: dilatation hypertrophy Ventricular dilatation 429.4 Functional disturbances following cardiac surgery [ ... Overexertion and strenuous movements Excessive physical exercise Strenuous movements in: Overexertion (from): recreational ... drug-induced radiation-induced Use additional E code, if desired, to identify cause 336.9 Unspecified diseases of spinal cord ...
inflammation-induced depression: evidence and mechanisms. *inflammation-induced depression: Its pathophysiology and therapeutic ... Effects of Physical Exercise on inflammation in depression. *Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Buspirone and Stress on Measures ... ENLARGED HEART AND CARDIOMEGALY. *EPIGENETIC ALTERATIONS. *EPIGENETIC MODIFIERS. *EPINEPHRINE. *ERGOGENIC AGENTS (INCREASE ... Antigen-Induced Arthritis in Mice induces depression-Like Behavior and Microglial Activation in Hippocampus after the ...
Exercise tolerance (2) * FBC (1) ... Cardiomegaly (1) * Cardiomyopathy (4) * Carpal tunnel syndrome ... Tumour-induced osteomalacia (4) * Turner syndrome (1) * Unilateral adrenal hyperplasia (1) * Urolithiasis (1) ...
... indra indri indriidae indris indubitability indubitable indubitably induce induced inducement inducer inducible inducing induct ... exedra exegesis exegete exegetical exemplar exemplary exemplification exemplify exemplum exempt exemption exenteration exercise ... cardinalfish cardinality cardinalship cardiogram cardiograph cardiography cardioid cardiologist cardiology cardiomegaly ...
  • Athletic heart syndrome, (AHS) also known as athlete's heart, athletic bradycardia or exercise-induced cardiomegaly is a non-pathological condition commonly seen in sports medicine, in which the human heart is enlarged, and the resting heart rate is lower than normal. (runroo.com)
  • Depending on the underlying cause of pulmonary hypertension, cardiomegaly, right-sided heart enlargement, or pulmonary artery dilation may be evident. (dvm360.com)
  • Pulmonary hypertension is not uncommon in adult patients with congenital heart disease and can significantly affect their exercise capacity, quality of life and prognosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Athlete's heart is common in athletes who routinely exercise more than an hour a day, and occurs primarily in endurance athletes, though it can occasionally arise in heavy weight trainers. (runroo.com)
  • Similarities at presentation between athlete's heart and clinically relevant cardiac problems may prompt electrocardiography (ECG) and exercise cardiac stress tests. (runroo.com)
  • To minimize the risk of induced arrhythmia, patients initiated or re-initiated on sotalol hydrochloride tablets, USP should be placed for a minimum of three days (on their maintenance dose) in a facility that can provide cardiac resuscitation and continuous electrocardiographic monitoring. (nih.gov)
  • Static exercise consists of weight lifting and is mostly anaerobic, meaning the body does not rely on oxygen for performance. (runroo.com)
  • The presentation of PH is varied but often lacks specificity, as symptoms of PH are shared by other common cardiovascular and respiratory disorders, and may also be related to CHD: dyspnoea, syncope on effort, angina, fatigue and progressive limitation of exercise capacity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fractures at many will now be sure that when a bleeding eg massage of defined mass in doubt, rely on everybody whom aspirin is cardiomegaly or vascular anastomoses. (glenwoodwine.com)
  • Lazarevic et al found that therapeutic thoracentesis assisted by lung ultrasonography induced immediate symptomatic improvement in 462 patients, with a a decrease in NYHA class from 3.84 ± 0.37 before thoracentesis to 2.7 ± 0.55 after the procedure. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical parameters were age, body weight, sodium excretion (as an estimate for dietary salt intake), systolic and diastolic blood pressure at work, casual blood pressure, resting and stress blood pressure during mental stress test and physical exercise. (nih.gov)
  • This type of exercise also increases both heart rate and stroke volume of the heart. (runroo.com)
  • In normal volunteers, the reduction in heart rate response to a standard exercise was dose dependent over the test range of 0.5 to 20 mg, with a peak reduction at 2 hours of approximately 30% at higher doses. (nih.gov)
  • Most patients experience muscle symptoms, such as weakness and cramps, although certain GSDs manifest as specific syndromes, such as hypoglycemic seizures or cardiomegaly, based on which enzyme is affected in the carbohydrate metabolic pathway. (medscape.com)
  • Exercise-induced asthma is generally a clinical diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • In patients with a history of congestive heart failure or angina pectoris, exercise duration and rate-pressure product at maximal exercise are unchanged during Ethmozine® administration. (nih.gov)
  • Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, hydrolyzed and degraded by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), can function as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors to induce dilation of coronary arteries and thus are cardioprotective. (nih.gov)
  • A high-protein diet may help increase muscle function in patients with weakness or exercise intolerance. (medscape.com)
  • In patients with impaired left ventricular function, Ethmozine® has minimal effects on measurements of cardiac performance such as cardiac index, stroke volume index, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, systemic or pulmonary vascular resistance or ejection fraction, either at rest or during exercise. (nih.gov)