The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.
The hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the cardiac patient.
Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.
A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of nuclear medicine services.
Institutions specializing in the care of patients with heart disorders.
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.
Visualization of the heart structure and cardiac blood flow for diagnostic evaluation or to guide cardiac procedures via techniques including ENDOSCOPY (cardiac endoscopy, sometimes refered to as cardioscopy), RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; TOMOGRAPHY; or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the cardiovascular system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'Europe' is a geographical continent and not a medical term; therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
Subspecialty of radiology that combines organ system radiography, catheter techniques and sectional imaging.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Publications, usually annual, containing a calendar for the coming year, the times of such events and phenomena as anniversaries, sunrises, sunsets, phases of the moon, tides, meteorological, and other statistical information and related topics. Almanacs are also annual reference books of useful and interesting facts relating to countries of the world, sports, entertainment, population groups, etc. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Radiation protection, also known as radiation safety, is the science and practice of protecting people and the environment from harmful ionizing radiation exposure while allowing for the safe medical, industrial, and research uses of such radiation.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.
Heart sounds caused by vibrations resulting from the flow of blood through the heart. Heart murmurs can be examined by HEART AUSCULTATION, and analyzed by their intensity (6 grades), duration, timing (systolic, diastolic, or continuous), location, transmission, and quality (musical, vibratory, blowing, etc).
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Surgery performed on the heart or blood vessels.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
The hospital unit in which patients with acute cardiac disorders receive intensive care.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Portugal" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is a country located in southwestern Europe, known for its rich history, culture, and contributions to various fields including medicine. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help!
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.
Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.
Government-controlled hospitals which represent the major health facility for a designated geographic area.
Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
General agreement or collective opinion; the judgment arrived at by most of those concerned.
Women licensed to practice medicine.
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Surgery performed on the heart.
Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Eponyms in medicine are terms that are named after a person, typically the physician or scientist who first described the disease, condition, or procedure, such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease.
Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.
An episode of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA that generally lasts longer than a transient anginal episode that ultimately may lead to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Presentations of summary statements representing the majority agreement of physicians, scientists, and other professionals convening for the purpose of reaching a consensus--often with findings and recommendations--on a subject of interest. The Conference, consisting of participants representing the scientific and lay viewpoints, is a significant means of evaluating current medical thought and reflects the latest advances in research for the respective field being addressed.
Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.
The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.
Payment, or other means of making amends, for a wrong or injury.
Delivery of health services via remote telecommunications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.
Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.
Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.
Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.
A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)
A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Agents that prevent clotting.
The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood is flowing into the MYOCARDIUM by following over time the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.
Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
The process of converting analog data such as continually measured voltage to discrete, digital form.
Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Recurrent narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery following surgical procedures performed to alleviate a prior obstruction.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
A surgical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the heart, lungs, and esophagus. Two major types of thoracic surgery are classified as pulmonary and cardiovascular.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
Act of listening for sounds within the heart.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Famous Persons" is not a term that has a medical definition. It refers to individuals who are widely known and recognized in various fields such as entertainment, politics, sports, science, and arts. If you have any medical or health-related terms you would like me to define, please let me know!
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Federative Republic of Brazil. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to help answer those!
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.

The US Food and Drug Administration investigational device exemptions (IDE) and clinical investigation of cardiovascular devices: information for the investigator. (1/926)

The conduct of a clinical investigation of a medical device to determine the safety and effectiveness of the device is covered by the investigational device exemptions (IDE) regulation. The purpose of IDE regulation is "to encourage, to the extent consistent with the protection of public health and safety and with ethical standards, the discovery and development of useful devices intended for human use, and to that end to maintain optimum freedom for scientific investigators in their pursuit of this purpose" (Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act). Conducting a clinical investigation may require an approved IDE application. The US Food and Drug Administration encourages early interaction with the agency through the pre-IDE process during the development of a device or technology and during the preparation of an IDE application. This facilitates approval of the IDE application and progression into the clinical investigation. This paper reviews the terminology and applicability of the IDE regulation and the type of study that requires an IDE application to the Food and Drug Administration. The pre-IDE process and the development of an IDE application for a significant risk study of a cardiovascular device are discussed.  (+info)

Evaluation of technician supervised treadmill exercise testing in a cardiac chest pain clinic. (2/926)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and safety of trained cardiac technicians independently performing treadmill exercise stress tests as part of the assessment of patients with suspected angina pectoris. DESIGN: Retrospective comparison of 250 exercise tests performed by cardiac technicians and 225 tests performed by experienced cardiology clinical assistants (general practitioners who perform regular NHS cardiology duties), and consultant cardiologists over the same time period. SETTING: Regional cardiac centre with a dedicated cardiac chest pain clinic. PATIENTS: All patients were referred by their general practitioners with a history of recent onset of chest pain, which was suspected to be angina pectoris. OUTCOME MEASURES: Peak workload achieved, symptoms, indications for termination, complications. RESULTS: The diagnostic yield of technician supervised tests (percentage positive or negative) was similar to that of medically supervised tests (76% v 69%, NS). The average peak workload achieved by patients was less by 1.2 mets (p < 0.005). This was probably due to more tests being terminated earlier due to chest pain and ST segment depression in the technician group compared with doctors (10% and 16% v 5% and 11% respectively, p = 0.06 and 0.07). One patient in the technician supervised group developed a supraventricular tachycardia during the recovery phase of the exercise test. CONCLUSIONS: Technician supervised stress testing is associated with a high diagnostic rate and low complication rate in patients with suspected ischaemic heart disease. Its efficacy is comparable to tests supervised by experienced doctors and its use should be encouraged.  (+info)

Development of a heart failure center: a medical center and cardiology practice join forces to improve care and reduce costs . (3/926)

Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a rapidly growing and expensive cardiovascular disorder. Conventional care for CHF is ineffective and results in a cycle of "crisis management" that includes repeated emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and physician visits. Recently, a number of outpatient coronary care centers that provide consistent, aggressive outpatient therapies and extensive patient education have emerged and are successfully breaking this cycle of dependence on hospital services. One such effort is the Heart Institute's Heart Failure Center, the result of a partnership between a private-practice cardiology group and our tertiary-care medical center. Our program includes not only patient education and outpatient infusions of inotropic agents, but an electronic linkage to the emergency department and home healthcare services. Preliminary data show that 16 months after the program was initiated, hospital admissions decreased by 30%, hospital days by 42% and average length of stay by 17%. An effective outpatient heart failure program can alleviate the economic burden of CHF and improve the quality of patient care.  (+info)

The Framingham Offspring Study: a commentary. 1980. (4/926)

Forty-three of 1,312 men aged 35 to 54 years in the Framingham Offspring Study had clinically recognized coronary heart disease at the initial examination. Twenty-six men in this group had previously had a myocardial infarction. Of 1,296 women in the same age range, only 11 had coronary disease and 3 a prior myocardial infarction. The prevalence of coronary heart disease in men was strongly associated with age, smoking, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol using univariate analyses. When multivariate logistic regression analysis was used, age, smoking and HDL and LDL cholesterol retained their significant association with coronary heart disease. The total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio was also strongly associated with coronary heart disease in the multivariate analysis. It is concluded that both HDL and LDL cholesterol are strongly and independently associated with the prevalence of coronary heart disease, whereas the level of very low density lipoprotein cholesterol makes no statistically significant independent contribution.  (+info)

A view from the millennium: the practice of cardiology circa 1950 and thereafter. (5/926)

The knowledge and treatment of cardiology as practiced circa 1950 is discussed as abstracted from authoritative textbooks of that time and other sources. Advances in treatment and diagnostic techniques since 1950 are presented. Dramatic changes in cardiology have come at the expense of bedside cardiology which needs to be balanced with the technology.  (+info)

A prognostic computer model to individually predict post-procedural complications in interventional cardiology: the INTERVENT Project. (6/926)

AIMS: The purpose of this part of the INTERVENT project was (1) to redefine and individually predict post-procedural complications associated with coronary interventions, including alternative/adjunctive techniques to PTCA and (2) to employ the prognostic INTERVENT computer model to clarify the structural relationship between (pre)-procedural risk factors and post-procedural outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a multicentre study, 2500 data items of 455 consecutive patients (mean age: 61.1+/-8.3 years: 33-84 years) undergoing coronary interventions at three university centres were analysed. 80.4% of the patients were male, 16.7% had unstable angina, and 5.1%/10.1% acute/subacute myocardial infarction. There were multiple or multivessel stenoses in 16.0%, vessel bending >90 degrees in 14.5%, irregular vessel contours in 65.0%, moderate calcifications in 20.9%, moderate/severe vessel tortuosity in 53.2% and a diameter stenosis of 90%-99% in 44.4% of cases. The in-lab (out-of-lab) complications were: 0.4% (0.9%) death, 1.8% (0.2%) abrupt vessel closure with myocardial infarction and 5.5% (4.0) haemodynamic disorders. CONCLUSION: Computer algorithms derived from artificial intelligence were able to predict the individual risk of these post-procedural complications with an accuracy of >95% and to explain the structural relationship between risk factors and post-procedural complications. The most important prognostic factors were: heart failure (NYHA class), use of adjunctive/alternative techniques (rotablation, atherectomy, laser), acute coronary ischaemia, pre-existent cardiac medication, stenosis length, stenosis morphology (calcification), gender, age, amount of contrast agent and smoker status. Pre-medication with aspirin or other cardiac medication had a beneficial effect. Techniques, such as laser angioplasty or atherectomy were predictors for post-procedural complications. Single predictors alone were not able to describe the individual outcome completely.  (+info)

Establishment of a simple and practical procedure applicable to therapeutic angiogenesis. (7/926)

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic angiogenesis is thought to be beneficial for serious ischemic diseases. This investigation was designed to establish a simple and practical procedure applicable to therapeutic angiogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: When cultured skeletal muscle cells were electrically stimulated at a voltage that did not cause their contraction, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA was augmented at an optimal-frequency stimulation. This increase of VEGF mRNA was derived primarily from transcriptional activation. Electrical stimulation increased the secretion of VEGF protein into the medium. This conditioned medium then augmented the growth of endothelial cells. The effect of electrical stimulation was further confirmed in a rat model of hindlimb ischemia. The tibialis anterior muscle in the ischemic limb was electrically stimulated. The frequency of stimulation was 50 Hz and strength was 0.1 V, which was far below the threshold for muscle contraction. After a 5-day stimulation, there was a significant increase in blood flow within the muscle. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that VEGF protein was synthesized and capillary density was significantly increased in the stimulated muscle. Rats tolerated this procedure very well, and there was no muscle contraction, muscle injury, or restriction in movement. CONCLUSIONS: We propose this procedure as a simple and practical method of therapeutic angiogenesis.  (+info)

The association between hospital volume and survival after acute myocardial infarction in elderly patients. (8/926)

BACKGROUND: Patients with chest pain thought to be due to acute coronary ischemia are typically taken by ambulance to the nearest hospital. The potential benefit of field triage directly to a hospital that treats a large number of patients with myocardial infarction is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of the relation between the number of Medicare patients with myocardial infarction that each hospital in the study treated (hospital volume) and long-term survival among 98,898 Medicare patients 65 years of age or older. We used proportional-hazards methods to adjust for clinical, demographic, and health-system-related variables, including the availability of invasive procedures, the specialty of the attending physician, and the area of residence of the patient (rural, urban, or metropolitan). RESULTS: The patients in the quartile admitted to hospitals with the lowest volume were 17 percent more likely to die within 30 days after admission than patients in the quartile admitted to hospitals with the highest volume (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.09 to 1.26; P<0.001), which resulted in 2.3 more deaths per 100 patients. The crude mortality rate at one year was 29.8 percent among the patients admitted to the lowest-volume hospitals, as compared with 27.0 percent among those admitted to the highest-volume hospitals. There was a continuous inverse dose-response relation between hospital volume and the risk of death. In an analysis of subgroups defined according to age, history of cardiac disease, Killip class of infarction, presence or absence of contraindications to thrombolytic therapy, and time from the onset of symptoms, survival at high-volume hospitals was consistently better than at low-volume hospitals. The availability of technology for angioplasty and bypass surgery was not independently associated with overall mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with acute myocardial infarction who are admitted directly to hospitals that have more experience treating myocardial infarction, as reflected by their case volume, are more likely to survive than are patients admitted to low-volume hospitals.  (+info)

Cardiology is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the heart and blood vessels. It encompasses the study of the normal functioning of the heart, the investigation and diagnosis of heart disease, and the treatment of various cardiovascular conditions through both surgical and non-surgical interventions. Cardiologists are medical professionals who specialize in this field, providing comprehensive care for patients with conditions such as coronary artery disease, congenital heart defects, valvular heart disease, electrophysiology disorders, and hypertension, among others. They work closely with other healthcare providers to manage cardiovascular risk factors, optimize overall cardiovascular health, and improve patients' quality of life.

A Cardiology Service in a hospital is a specialized department that provides medical care and treatment for patients with conditions related to the heart and cardiovascular system. The service is typically staffed by cardiologists, who are doctors with additional training and expertise in diagnosing and treating heart diseases. They work closely with other healthcare professionals such as nurses, technicians, and support staff to provide comprehensive care to patients with various heart conditions, including coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, valvular heart disease, and genetic disorders that affect the heart.

The Cardiology Service may offer a range of diagnostic tests and procedures such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress testing, echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, and coronary angioplasty. They may also provide interventional procedures such as implantation of pacemakers or defibrillators, as well as more invasive surgeries like coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or valve replacement surgery.

In addition to providing clinical care, Cardiology Services may also be involved in research and education, conducting studies to advance the understanding of heart disease and training medical students, residents, and fellows in the latest diagnostic and treatment techniques.

Medical societies are professional organizations composed of physicians, surgeons, and other healthcare professionals who share a common purpose of promoting medical research, education, and patient care. These societies can focus on specific medical specialties, such as the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) for cancer specialists or the American College of Surgeons (ACS) for surgeons. They may also address broader issues related to healthcare policy, advocacy, and ethics. Medical societies often provide resources for continuing medical education, publish scientific journals, establish clinical practice guidelines, and offer networking opportunities for members.

The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that aims to reduce disability and death from cardiovascular diseases and stroke, including heart disease and stroke. The AHA was founded in 1924 and is one of the oldest and largest voluntary organizations dedicated to fighting cardiovascular disease.

The AHA provides a range of services, including:

* Funding research into the causes, prevention, and treatment of heart disease and stroke
* Providing educational resources for healthcare professionals, patients, and the general public
* Advocating for policies that promote heart health and prevent heart disease and stroke
* Developing guidelines and standards for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cardiovascular diseases

The AHA is funded through donations from individuals, corporations, and foundations. It operates with a volunteer board of directors and a professional staff. The organization has more than 3,400 volunteers and 70 local offices across the United States.

A Nuclear Medicine Department in a hospital is a specialized unit that uses small amounts of radioactive materials, called radiopharmaceuticals, to diagnose and treat various medical conditions. These radiopharmaceuticals are introduced into the body through different routes (such as injection, inhalation, or ingestion) and accumulate in specific organs or cells, where they emit gamma rays that can be detected by external imaging devices.

The Nuclear Medicine Department performs various diagnostic procedures, including:

1. Imaging studies: These tests produce images of the body's internal structures and functions to help diagnose and monitor diseases. Examples include bone scans, lung scans, heart scans (such as myocardial perfusion imaging), brain scans, and kidney scans.
2. Therapeutic procedures: Nuclear medicine also offers treatments for certain medical conditions using radioactive materials. For example, radioiodine therapy is used to treat thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism.

The department typically consists of a team of healthcare professionals, including nuclear medicine physicians, radiologists, technologists, nurses, and support staff, who work together to provide high-quality care for patients undergoing nuclear medicine procedures.

Cardiac care facilities are healthcare institutions specifically designed to diagnose, treat, and manage cardiovascular diseases and conditions. These facilities offer a range of services that cater to patients with various heart-related issues, including but not limited to, coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, and valvular heart disorders.

There are different levels of cardiac care facilities, each providing specialized care based on the patient's needs:

1. Cardiac Catheterization Laboratories (Cath Labs): These facilities specialize in performing invasive diagnostic and interventional procedures such as coronary angiography, angioplasty, and stenting to diagnose and treat heart conditions.
2. Coronary Care Units (CCUs) or Cardiac Critical Care Units (CVICUs): These units provide intensive care for patients who have experienced acute cardiovascular events such as heart attacks, unstable angina, or life-threatening arrhythmias. They are equipped with advanced monitoring systems and specialized staff to manage critically ill patients.
3. Telemetry Units: These units provide continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring for patients who are at risk of developing cardiac complications but do not require intensive care. Patients in telemetry units typically have conditions such as stable angina, heart failure, or arrhythmias.
4. Inpatient Cardiology Units: These wards provide general care for patients admitted with various heart conditions. They offer diagnostic services, medical management, and rehabilitation under the supervision of cardiologists and specialized nursing staff.
5. Outpatient Cardiology Clinics: These clinics provide consultations, follow-up care, and diagnostic services for patients with known or suspected heart diseases. They may also offer preventive care and education to promote heart health.
6. Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs: These programs focus on helping patients recover from cardiovascular events or procedures by providing exercise training, risk factor modification, and psychosocial support.

It is important to note that the specific services offered may vary between different facilities, and patients should consult with their healthcare providers to determine the most appropriate care setting for their needs.

Heart disease is a broad term for a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. It's often used to refer to conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease. It occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become hardened and narrowed due to the buildup of cholesterol and other substances, which can lead to chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or a heart attack.

2. Heart failure: This condition occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.

3. Arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms, which can be too fast, too slow, or irregular. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, and fainting.

4. Valvular heart disease: This involves damage to one or more of the heart's four valves, which control blood flow through the heart. Damage can be caused by various conditions, including infection, rheumatic fever, and aging.

5. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, viral infections, and drug abuse.

6. Pericardial disease: This involves inflammation or other problems with the sac surrounding the heart (pericardium). It can cause chest pain and other symptoms.

7. Congenital heart defects: These are heart conditions that are present at birth, such as a hole in the heart or abnormal blood vessels. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.

8. Heart infections: The heart can become infected by bacteria, viruses, or parasites, leading to various symptoms and complications.

It's important to note that many factors can contribute to the development of heart disease, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions. Regular check-ups and a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the risk of developing heart disease.

Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material, called radiopharmaceuticals, to diagnose and treat various diseases. The radiopharmaceuticals are taken internally, usually through injection or oral administration, and accumulate in specific organs or tissues. A special camera then detects the radiation emitted by these substances, which helps create detailed images of the body's internal structures and functions.

The images produced in nuclear medicine can help doctors identify abnormalities such as tumors, fractures, infection, or inflammation. Additionally, some radiopharmaceuticals can be used to treat certain conditions, like hyperthyroidism or cancer, by delivering targeted doses of radiation directly to the affected area. Overall, nuclear medicine provides valuable information for the diagnosis, treatment planning, and monitoring of many medical conditions.

Cardiac imaging techniques are diagnostic methods used to visualize and assess the structure and function of the heart. These techniques can be non-invasive or invasive, and they use various forms of energy such as sound waves, radiation, and magnetic fields to produce detailed images of the heart. Some common cardiac imaging techniques include:

1. Echocardiography: This technique uses ultrasound waves to create images of the heart's structure and function. It can provide information about the size and shape of the heart chambers, the thickness and movement of the heart walls, and the valves' function.
2. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): This technique uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the heart's structure and function. It can provide information about the size and shape of the heart chambers, the thickness and movement of the heart walls, the valves' function, and the blood flow in the heart.
3. Computed Tomography (CT) Angiography: This technique uses X-rays to create detailed images of the heart's blood vessels. It can provide information about the presence and extent of blockages or narrowing in the coronary arteries.
4. Nuclear Cardiac Imaging: This technique uses small amounts of radioactive substances to produce images of the heart's blood flow. It can provide information about the size and function of the heart chambers, the presence of damaged heart muscle, and the extent of coronary artery disease.
5. Invasive Coronary Angiography: This technique involves inserting a catheter into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and guiding it to the heart's coronary arteries. A contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken to visualize the blood flow in the coronary arteries. This technique can provide detailed information about the presence and extent of blockages or narrowing in the coronary arteries.

Practice guidelines, also known as clinical practice guidelines, are systematically developed statements that aim to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available scientific evidence, consensus of expert opinion, and consideration of patient preferences. Practice guidelines can cover a wide range of topics, including diagnosis, management, prevention, and treatment options for various medical conditions. They are intended to improve the quality and consistency of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote evidence-based medicine. However, they should not replace clinical judgment or individualized patient care.

Diagnostic techniques in cardiovascular medicine refer to the various tests and methods used to diagnose and evaluate conditions related to the heart and blood vessels. These techniques can be non-invasive or invasive and are designed to provide critical information about a patient's cardiovascular health, such as heart function, blood flow, and the presence of any abnormalities or diseases. Here are some common diagnostic techniques used in cardiovascular medicine:

1. Electrocardiogram (ECG): An ECG is a non-invasive test that records the electrical activity of the heart. It can help detect heart conditions such as arrhythmias, heart attacks, and structural abnormalities.
2. Echocardiogram: This is a non-invasive ultrasound test that produces images of the heart's structures, including the chambers, valves, and major blood vessels. It can help assess heart function, identify damage from heart attacks, and detect various cardiovascular conditions.
3. Stress testing: A stress test involves exercising on a treadmill or stationary bike while being monitored by an ECG to evaluate the heart's response to physical exertion. It can help diagnose coronary artery disease, assess exercise capacity, and determine the need for further testing or treatment.
4. Cardiac catheterization: This is an invasive procedure where a thin, flexible tube (catheter) is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and guided to the heart. It can help diagnose and treat various cardiovascular conditions, such as blocked arteries, heart valve problems, and congenital heart defects.
5. Coronary angiography: During a cardiac catheterization, a special dye is injected into the coronary arteries to visualize blood flow using X-ray imaging. This can help identify blockages or narrowing in the coronary arteries and guide treatment decisions.
6. Nuclear stress testing: This test combines the use of a radioactive tracer with exercise or pharmacological stress to evaluate heart function and blood flow. It can help diagnose coronary artery disease, assess the effectiveness of treatments, and determine the need for further interventions.
7. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): This non-invasive imaging technique uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the heart's structure and function. It can help diagnose various cardiovascular conditions, such as heart muscle disorders, valve problems, and congenital heart defects.
8. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE): This is a specialized ultrasound technique where a probe is inserted through the esophagus to obtain detailed images of the heart's structure and function. It can help diagnose conditions such as blood clots, valve problems, and infective endocarditis.
9. Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning: This imaging technique uses a small amount of radioactive tracer to evaluate the metabolic activity of the heart. It can help diagnose coronary artery disease, assess the effectiveness of treatments, and determine the need for further interventions.
10. Electrophysiology studies (EPS): These are invasive procedures where catheters are inserted into the heart to study its electrical system. They can help diagnose and treat various arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Europe" is a geographical and political designation, rather than a medical one. It refers to the continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Europe is made up of approximately 50 countries, depending on how one defines a "country."

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help answer them!

Interventional radiology (IR) is a subspecialty of radiology that uses minimally invasive image-guided procedures to diagnose and treat various medical conditions. The main goal of interventional radiology is to offer patients less invasive options for treatment, which can result in smaller incisions, reduced recovery time, and fewer complications compared to traditional open surgeries.

Interventional radiologists use a variety of imaging techniques, such as X-rays, fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound, to guide catheters, wires, needles, and other small instruments through the body to target specific areas. These targeted interventions can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, including:

1. Biopsies: Obtaining tissue samples from organs or tumors to determine a diagnosis.
2. Drainage procedures: Removing fluid from abscesses, cysts, or blocked areas to alleviate symptoms and promote healing.
3. Stent placements: Opening narrowed or obstructed blood vessels, bile ducts, or airways using small mesh tubes called stents.
4. Embolization: Blocking abnormal blood vessels or reducing blood flow to tumors, aneurysms, or other problematic areas.
5. Tumor ablation: Destroying tumors using heat (radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation), cold (cryoablation), or other energy sources.
6. Pain management: Treating chronic pain by targeting specific nerves and blocking their transmission of pain signals.
7. Vascular access: Creating secure pathways to blood vessels for dialysis, chemotherapy, or other long-term treatments.
8. Aneurysm repair: Reinforcing weakened or bulging blood vessel walls using coils, stents, or flow diverters.
9. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty: Stabilizing fractured vertebrae in the spine to alleviate pain and improve mobility.
10. Uterine fibroid embolization: Reducing the size and symptoms of uterine fibroids by blocking their blood supply.

These are just a few examples of interventional radiology procedures. The field is constantly evolving, with new techniques and technologies being developed to improve patient care and outcomes. Interventional radiologists work closely with other medical specialists to provide minimally invasive treatment options for a wide range of conditions.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are structural abnormalities in the heart that are present at birth. They can affect any part of the heart's structure, including the walls of the heart, the valves inside the heart, and the major blood vessels that lead to and from the heart.

Congenital heart defects can range from mild to severe and can cause various symptoms depending on the type and severity of the defect. Some common symptoms of CHDs include cyanosis (a bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails), shortness of breath, fatigue, poor feeding, and slow growth in infants and children.

There are many different types of congenital heart defects, including:

1. Septal defects: These are holes in the walls that separate the four chambers of the heart. The two most common septal defects are atrial septal defect (ASD) and ventricular septal defect (VSD).
2. Valve abnormalities: These include narrowed or leaky valves, which can affect blood flow through the heart.
3. Obstruction defects: These occur when blood flow is blocked or restricted due to narrowing or absence of a part of the heart's structure. Examples include pulmonary stenosis and coarctation of the aorta.
4. Cyanotic heart defects: These cause a lack of oxygen in the blood, leading to cyanosis. Examples include tetralogy of Fallot and transposition of the great arteries.

The causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetic factors and environmental influences during pregnancy may play a role. Some CHDs can be detected before birth through prenatal testing, while others may not be diagnosed until after birth or later in childhood. Treatment for CHDs may include medication, surgery, or other interventions to improve blood flow and oxygenation of the body's tissues.

Coronary balloon angioplasty is a minimally invasive medical procedure used to widen narrowed or obstructed coronary arteries (the blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle) and improve blood flow to the heart. This procedure is typically performed in conjunction with the insertion of a stent, a small mesh tube that helps keep the artery open.

During coronary balloon angioplasty, a thin, flexible catheter with a deflated balloon at its tip is inserted into a blood vessel, usually through a small incision in the groin or arm. The catheter is then guided to the narrowed or obstructed section of the coronary artery. Once in position, the balloon is inflated to compress the plaque against the artery wall and widen the lumen (the inner space) of the artery. This helps restore blood flow to the heart muscle.

The procedure is typically performed under local anesthesia and conscious sedation to minimize discomfort. Coronary balloon angioplasty is a relatively safe and effective treatment for many people with coronary artery disease, although complications such as bleeding, infection, or re-narrowing of the artery (restenosis) can occur in some cases.

Heart failure is a pathophysiological state in which the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to meet the metabolic demands of the body or do so only at the expense of elevated filling pressures. It can be caused by various cardiac disorders, including coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. Heart failure is often classified based on the ejection fraction (EF), which is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle during each contraction. A reduced EF (less than 40%) is indicative of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), while a preserved EF (greater than or equal to 50%) is indicative of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). There is also a category of heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) for those with an EF between 40-49%.

An almanac is not a medical term, but rather a type of publication that has been produced for many centuries. Traditional almanacs typically include a variety of information such as calendars, astronomical data, weather predictions, and various types of miscellaneous information that changes from year to year.

In a broader sense, an "almanac as topic" could refer to any publication that provides information on a particular subject on a regular or annual basis. For example, a medical almanac might be a publication that comes out once a year and includes information on the latest medical research, treatments, and guidelines. It might also include calendars of medical conferences and events, directories of medical organizations and professionals, and other useful resources for people working in the medical field.

However, it's worth noting that there is no widely recognized or standardized definition of a "medical almanac" as a specific type of publication. The term could be used differently by different publishers or organizations, so it's always a good idea to check the contents and scope of any publication before assuming what it covers.

Radiation protection, also known as radiation safety, is a field of study and practice that aims to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. It involves various measures and techniques used to minimize or eliminate exposure to ionizing radiation, such as:

1. Time: Reducing the amount of time spent near a radiation source.
2. Distance: Increasing the distance between oneself and a radiation source.
3. Shielding: Using materials that can absorb or block radiation to reduce exposure.
4. Containment: Preventing the release of radiation into the environment.
5. Training and education: Providing information and training to individuals who work with radiation sources.
6. Dosimetry and monitoring: Measuring and monitoring radiation doses received by individuals and populations.
7. Emergency planning and response: Developing plans and procedures for responding to radiation emergencies or accidents.

Radiation protection is an important consideration in various fields, including medicine, nuclear energy, research, and manufacturing, where ionizing radiation sources are used or produced.

Myocardial infarction (MI), also known as a heart attack, is a medical condition characterized by the death of a segment of heart muscle (myocardium) due to the interruption of its blood supply. This interruption is most commonly caused by the blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot formed on the top of an atherosclerotic plaque, which is a buildup of cholesterol and other substances in the inner lining of the artery.

The lack of oxygen and nutrients supply to the heart muscle tissue results in damage or death of the cardiac cells, causing the affected area to become necrotic. The extent and severity of the MI depend on the size of the affected area, the duration of the occlusion, and the presence of collateral circulation.

Symptoms of a myocardial infarction may include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, nausea, lightheadedness, and sweating. Immediate medical attention is necessary to restore blood flow to the affected area and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. Treatment options for MI include medications, such as thrombolytics, antiplatelet agents, and pain relievers, as well as procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a class of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death globally, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The term "cardiovascular disease" refers to a group of conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease and occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of cholesterol, fat, and other substances in the walls of the arteries. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.
2. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.
3. Stroke: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, often due to a clot or a ruptured blood vessel. This can cause brain damage or death.
4. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): This occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the limbs become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs or arms.
5. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a complication of untreated strep throat and can cause damage to the heart valves, leading to heart failure or other complications.
6. Congenital heart defects: These are structural problems with the heart that are present at birth. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.
7. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, and certain medications.
8. Heart arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, or fainting.
9. Valvular heart disease: This occurs when one or more of the heart valves become damaged or diseased, leading to problems with blood flow through the heart.
10. Aortic aneurysm and dissection: These are conditions that affect the aorta, the largest artery in the body. An aneurysm is a bulge in the aorta, while a dissection is a tear in the inner layer of the aorta. Both can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

It's important to note that many of these conditions can be managed or treated with medical interventions such as medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes. If you have any concerns about your heart health, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider.

Guideline adherence, in the context of medicine, refers to the extent to which healthcare professionals follow established clinical practice guidelines or recommendations in their daily practice. These guidelines are systematically developed statements designed to assist practitioners and patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. Adherence to evidence-based guidelines can help improve the quality of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote optimal patient outcomes. Factors that may influence guideline adherence include clinician awareness, familiarity, agreement, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the complexity of the recommendation.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a medical condition in which the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle, become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of cholesterol, fatty deposits, and other substances, known as plaque. Over time, this buildup can cause the arteries to harden and narrow (a process called atherosclerosis), reducing blood flow to the heart muscle.

The reduction in blood flow can lead to various symptoms and complications, including:

1. Angina (chest pain or discomfort) - This occurs when the heart muscle doesn't receive enough oxygen-rich blood, causing pain, pressure, or discomfort in the chest, arms, neck, jaw, or back.
2. Shortness of breath - When the heart isn't receiving adequate blood flow, it can't pump blood efficiently to meet the body's demands, leading to shortness of breath during physical activities or at rest.
3. Heart attack - If a piece of plaque ruptures or breaks off in a coronary artery, a blood clot can form and block the artery, causing a heart attack (myocardial infarction). This can damage or destroy part of the heart muscle.
4. Heart failure - Chronic reduced blood flow to the heart muscle can weaken it over time, leading to heart failure, a condition in which the heart can't pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs.
5. Arrhythmias - Reduced blood flow and damage to the heart muscle can lead to abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

Coronary artery disease is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress testing, cardiac catheterization, and imaging studies like coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Treatment options for CAD include lifestyle modifications, medications, medical procedures, and surgery.

A registry in the context of medicine is a collection or database of standardized information about individuals who share a certain condition or attribute, such as a disease, treatment, exposure, or demographic group. These registries are used for various purposes, including:

* Monitoring and tracking the natural history of diseases and conditions
* Evaluating the safety and effectiveness of medical treatments and interventions
* Conducting research and generating hypotheses for further study
* Providing information to patients, clinicians, and researchers
* Informing public health policy and decision-making

Registries can be established for a wide range of purposes, including disease-specific registries (such as cancer or diabetes registries), procedure-specific registries (such as joint replacement or cardiac surgery registries), and population-based registries (such as birth defects or cancer registries). Data collected in registries may include demographic information, clinical data, laboratory results, treatment details, and outcomes.

Registries can be maintained by a variety of organizations, including hospitals, clinics, academic medical centers, professional societies, government agencies, and industry. Participation in registries is often voluntary, although some registries may require informed consent from participants. Data collected in registries are typically de-identified to protect the privacy of individuals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Coronary artery disease, often simply referred to as coronary disease, is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of fatty deposits called plaques. This can lead to chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or in severe cases, a heart attack.

The medical definition of coronary artery disease is:

A condition characterized by the accumulation of atheromatous plaques in the walls of the coronary arteries, leading to decreased blood flow and oxygen supply to the myocardium (heart muscle). This can result in symptoms such as angina pectoris, shortness of breath, or arrhythmias, and may ultimately lead to myocardial infarction (heart attack) or heart failure.

Risk factors for coronary artery disease include age, smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, and a family history of the condition. Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, and managing stress can help reduce the risk of developing coronary artery disease. Medical treatments may include medications to control blood pressure, cholesterol levels, or irregular heart rhythms, as well as procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Cardiovascular agents are a class of medications that are used to treat various conditions related to the cardiovascular system, which includes the heart and blood vessels. These agents can be further divided into several subcategories based on their specific mechanisms of action and therapeutic effects. Here are some examples:

1. Antiarrhythmics: These drugs are used to treat abnormal heart rhythms or arrhythmias. They work by stabilizing the electrical activity of the heart and preventing irregular impulses from spreading through the heart muscle.
2. Antihypertensives: These medications are used to lower high blood pressure, also known as hypertension. There are several classes of antihypertensive drugs, including diuretics, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors.
3. Anticoagulants: These drugs are used to prevent blood clots from forming or growing larger. They work by interfering with the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that lead to the formation of a blood clot.
4. Antiplatelet agents: These medications are used to prevent platelets in the blood from sticking together and forming clots. They work by inhibiting the aggregation of platelets, which are small cells in the blood that help form clots.
5. Lipid-lowering agents: These drugs are used to lower cholesterol and other fats in the blood. They work by reducing the production or absorption of cholesterol in the body or increasing the removal of cholesterol from the bloodstream. Examples include statins, bile acid sequestrants, and PCSK9 inhibitors.
6. Vasodilators: These medications are used to widen blood vessels and improve blood flow. They work by relaxing the smooth muscle in the walls of blood vessels, causing them to dilate or widen. Examples include nitrates, calcium channel blockers, and ACE inhibitors.
7. Inotropes: These drugs are used to increase the force of heart contractions. They work by increasing the sensitivity of heart muscle cells to calcium ions, which are necessary for muscle contraction.

These are just a few examples of cardiovascular medications that are used to treat various conditions related to the heart and blood vessels. It is important to note that these medications can have side effects and should be taken under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

A heart murmur is an abnormal sound heard during a heartbeat, which is caused by turbulent blood flow through the heart. It is often described as a blowing, whooshing, or rasping noise. Heart murmurs can be innocent (harmless and not associated with any heart disease) or pathological (indicating an underlying heart condition). They are typically detected during routine physical examinations using a stethoscope. The classification of heart murmurs includes systolic, diastolic, continuous, and functional murmurs, based on the timing and auscultatory location. Various heart conditions, such as valvular disorders, congenital heart defects, or infections, can cause pathological heart murmurs. Further evaluation with diagnostic tests like echocardiography is often required to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment.

Cardiac catheterization is a medical procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions. In this procedure, a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and threaded up to the heart. The catheter can be used to perform various diagnostic tests, such as measuring the pressure inside the heart chambers and assessing the function of the heart valves.

Cardiac catheterization can also be used to treat certain cardiovascular conditions, such as narrowed or blocked arteries. In these cases, a balloon or stent may be inserted through the catheter to open up the blood vessel and improve blood flow. This procedure is known as angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Cardiac catheterization is typically performed in a hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory by a team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, radiologists, and nurses. The procedure may be done under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia, depending on the individual patient's needs and preferences.

Overall, cardiac catheterization is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of various heart conditions, and it can help improve symptoms, reduce complications, and prolong life for many patients.

A stent is a small mesh tube that's used to treat narrow or weak arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from your heart to other parts of your body. A stent is placed in an artery as part of a procedure called angioplasty. Angioplasty restores blood flow through narrowed or blocked arteries by inflating a tiny balloon inside the blocked artery to widen it.

The stent is then inserted into the widened artery to keep it open. The stent is usually made of metal, but some are coated with medication that is slowly and continuously released to help prevent the formation of scar tissue in the artery. This can reduce the chance of the artery narrowing again.

Stents are also used in other parts of the body, such as the neck (carotid artery) and kidneys (renal artery), to help maintain blood flow and prevent blockages. They can also be used in the urinary system to treat conditions like ureteropelvic junction obstruction or narrowing of the urethra.

Pediatrics is a branch of medicine that deals with the medical care and treatment of infants, children, and adolescents, typically up to the age of 18 or sometimes up to 21 years. It covers a wide range of health services including preventive healthcare, diagnosis and treatment of physical, mental, and emotional illnesses, and promotion of healthy lifestyles and behaviors in children.

Pediatricians are medical doctors who specialize in this field and have extensive training in the unique needs and developmental stages of children. They provide comprehensive care for children from birth to young adulthood, addressing various health issues such as infectious diseases, injuries, genetic disorders, developmental delays, behavioral problems, and chronic conditions like asthma, diabetes, and cancer.

In addition to medical expertise, pediatricians also need excellent communication skills to build trust with their young patients and their families, and to provide education and guidance on various aspects of child health and well-being.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Cardiovascular surgical procedures refer to a range of surgeries performed on the heart and blood vessels to treat or manage various cardiovascular conditions. These surgeries can be open or minimally invasive, and they aim to correct structural abnormalities, improve blood flow, or replace damaged or diseased parts of the cardiovascular system.

Some common types of cardiovascular surgical procedures include:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This surgery involves taking a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body and using it to create a detour around a blocked or narrowed coronary artery, improving blood flow to the heart muscle.
2. Heart valve repair or replacement: When one or more heart valves become damaged or diseased, they may not open or close properly, leading to reduced blood flow or leakage of blood backward through the valve. In these cases, surgeons may repair or replace the affected valve with a mechanical or biological prosthetic valve.
3. Aneurysm repair: An aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of an artery that can bulge and potentially rupture, causing severe bleeding. Surgeons can repair an aneurysm by reinforcing the weakened area with a graft or by replacing the affected section of the blood vessel.
4. Heart transplant: In cases where heart failure is irreversible and all other treatment options have been exhausted, a heart transplant may be necessary. This procedure involves removing the damaged heart and replacing it with a healthy donor heart.
5. Ventricular assist devices (VADs): These are mechanical pumps that can be implanted to help support heart function in patients with advanced heart failure who are not candidates for heart transplants. VADs can help improve blood flow, reduce symptoms, and increase the patient's quality of life.
6. Minimally invasive procedures: Advances in technology have led to the development of several minimally invasive cardiovascular surgical procedures, such as robotic-assisted heart surgery, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). These techniques typically involve smaller incisions, reduced blood loss, shorter hospital stays, and faster recovery times compared to traditional open-heart surgeries.

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is a medical procedure that records the electrical activity of the heart. It provides a graphic representation of the electrical changes that occur during each heartbeat. The resulting tracing, called an electrocardiogram, can reveal information about the heart's rate and rhythm, as well as any damage to its cells or abnormalities in its conduction system.

During an ECG, small electrodes are placed on the skin of the chest, arms, and legs. These electrodes detect the electrical signals produced by the heart and transmit them to a machine that amplifies and records them. The procedure is non-invasive, painless, and quick, usually taking only a few minutes.

ECGs are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, heart attacks, and electrolyte imbalances. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of certain medications or treatments.

Coronary Care Units (CCUs) are specialized hospital wards that provide intensive care to patients with severe, life-threatening heart conditions. These units are equipped with advanced monitoring and treatment technologies to continuously monitor a patient's cardiac function and provide immediate medical interventions when necessary. Common conditions treated in CCUs include acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), unstable angina, cardiac arrhythmias, and heart failure. The primary goal of a CCU is to stabilize the patient's condition, prevent further complications, and facilitate recovery.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Portugal" is not a medical term. It is a country located in southwestern Europe, known officially as the Portuguese Republic. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!

A "periodical" in the context of medicine typically refers to a type of publication that is issued regularly, such as on a monthly or quarterly basis. These publications include peer-reviewed journals, magazines, and newsletters that focus on medical research, education, and practice. They may contain original research articles, review articles, case reports, editorials, letters to the editor, and other types of content related to medical science and clinical practice.

As a "Topic," periodicals in medicine encompass various aspects such as their role in disseminating new knowledge, their impact on clinical decision-making, their quality control measures, and their ethical considerations. Medical periodicals serve as a crucial resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and other stakeholders to stay updated on the latest developments in their field and to share their findings with others.

Coronary angiography is a medical procedure that uses X-ray imaging to visualize the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle. During the procedure, a thin, flexible catheter is inserted into an artery in the arm or groin and threaded through the blood vessels to the heart. A contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken as the dye flows through the coronary arteries. These images can help doctors diagnose and treat various heart conditions, such as blockages or narrowing of the arteries, that can lead to chest pain or heart attacks. It is also known as coronary arteriography or cardiac catheterization.

Myocardial revascularization is a medical term that refers to the restoration of blood flow to the heart muscle (myocardium), typically through a surgical or interventional procedure. This is often performed in patients with coronary artery disease, where the buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries restricts blood flow to the heart muscle, causing symptoms such as chest pain (angina) or shortness of breath, and increasing the risk of a heart attack (myocardial infarction).

There are two main types of myocardial revascularization:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This is a surgical procedure in which a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is used to create a detour around the blocked or narrowed coronary artery, allowing blood to flow more freely to the heart muscle.
2. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), also known as angioplasty and stenting: This is a minimally invasive procedure in which a thin catheter is inserted into an artery in the groin or arm and threaded up to the blocked or narrowed coronary artery. A balloon is then inflated to widen the artery, and a stent may be placed to keep it open.

Both procedures aim to improve symptoms, reduce the risk of heart attack, and prolong survival in appropriately selected patients with coronary artery disease.

Medicine is a branch of healthcare that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and illness. It encompasses a variety of health profession practices, including but not limited to, the services provided by physicians, nurses, pharmacists, dentists, and allied health professionals.

Medicine can also refer to the substances or compounds used in the treatment and prevention of disease, often referred to as medications or drugs. These substances can be administered in various forms, such as oral (pills, liquids), topical (creams, ointments), injectable (shots, IVs), or inhaled (aerosols, nebulizers).

Overall, medicine is a multidisciplinary field that combines scientific research, clinical expertise, and patient values to promote health, prevent disease, and provide treatment for individuals and communities.

Editorial policies refer to a set of guidelines and principles that govern the development, selection, peer-review, production, and publication of manuscripts in a medical journal. These policies aim to ensure the integrity, transparency, and quality of the published research while adhering to ethical standards and best practices in scientific publishing.

Some essential components of editorial policies include:

1. Authorship criteria: Defining who qualifies as an author, their roles, and responsibilities, and specifying the order of authorship based on contribution.
2. Conflict of interest disclosure: Requiring authors, reviewers, and editors to declare any potential conflicts of interest that may influence their judgment or objectivity in the manuscript's evaluation.
3. Peer-review process: Outlining the steps involved in the peer-review process, including the selection of reviewers, the number of required reviews, and the criteria for accepting or rejecting a manuscript.
4. Plagiarism detection: Employing plagiarism detection software to ensure originality and prevent unethical practices such as self-plagiarism or duplicate publication.
5. Data sharing: Encouraging or requiring authors to share their data, code, or materials to promote transparency and reproducibility of the research findings.
6. Corrections and retractions: Establishing procedures for correcting errors, addressing scientific misconduct, and retracting published articles when necessary.
7. Post-publication discussions: Encouraging open dialogue and constructive criticism through post-publication discussions or letters to the editor.
8. Accessibility and copyright: Describing how the journal ensures accessibility of its content, such as through open-access models, and outlining the terms of copyright and licensing agreements.
9. Archiving and preservation: Ensuring long-term preservation and availability of published content by depositing it in appropriate digital archives or repositories.
10. Compliance with international standards: Adhering to guidelines and best practices established by organizations such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME), and the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Echocardiography is a medical procedure that uses sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart's structure, function, and motion. It is a non-invasive test that can help diagnose various heart conditions, such as valve problems, heart muscle damage, blood clots, and congenital heart defects.

During an echocardiogram, a transducer (a device that sends and receives sound waves) is placed on the chest or passed through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart. The sound waves produced by the transducer bounce off the heart structures and return to the transducer, which then converts them into electrical signals that are processed to create images of the heart.

There are several types of echocardiograms, including:

* Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE): This is the most common type of echocardiogram and involves placing the transducer on the chest.
* Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE): This type of echocardiogram involves passing a specialized transducer through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart from a closer proximity.
* Stress echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram is performed during exercise or medication-induced stress to assess how the heart functions under stress.
* Doppler echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram uses sound waves to measure blood flow and velocity in the heart and blood vessels.

Echocardiography is a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing various heart conditions, as it provides detailed information about the structure and function of the heart. It is generally safe, non-invasive, and painless, making it a popular choice for doctors and patients alike.

Chest pain is a discomfort or pain that you feel in the chest area. The pain can be sharp, dull, burning, crushing, heaviness, or tightness. It may be accompanied by other symptoms such as shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, dizziness, or pain that radiates to the arm, neck, jaw, or back.

Chest pain can have many possible causes, including heart-related conditions such as angina or a heart attack, lung conditions such as pneumonia or pleurisy, gastrointestinal problems such as acid reflux or gastritis, musculoskeletal issues such as costochondritis or muscle strain, and anxiety or panic attacks.

It is important to seek immediate medical attention if you experience chest pain that is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other concerning symptoms, as it may be a sign of a serious medical condition. A healthcare professional can evaluate your symptoms, perform tests, and provide appropriate treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Portraits as Topic" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to portraits, which are visual representations or images of a person, usually showing the face and shoulders. The term "as Topic" indicates that it is the subject or theme being discussed. Therefore, "Portraits as Topic" generally relates to the study, analysis, or discussion of portraits in various contexts, such as art, psychology, sociology, or history. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like me to define, please don't hesitate to ask!

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Cardiac arrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms that result from disturbances in the electrical conduction system of the heart. The heart's normal rhythm is controlled by an electrical signal that originates in the sinoatrial (SA) node, located in the right atrium. This signal travels through the atrioventricular (AV) node and into the ventricles, causing them to contract and pump blood throughout the body.

An arrhythmia occurs when there is a disruption in this electrical pathway or when the heart's natural pacemaker produces an abnormal rhythm. This can cause the heart to beat too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia), or irregularly.

There are several types of cardiac arrhythmias, including:

1. Atrial fibrillation: A rapid and irregular heartbeat that starts in the atria (the upper chambers of the heart).
2. Atrial flutter: A rapid but regular heartbeat that starts in the atria.
3. Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT): A rapid heartbeat that starts above the ventricles, usually in the atria or AV node.
4. Ventricular tachycardia: A rapid and potentially life-threatening heart rhythm that originates in the ventricles.
5. Ventricular fibrillation: A chaotic and disorganized electrical activity in the ventricles, which can be fatal if not treated immediately.
6. Heart block: A delay or interruption in the conduction of electrical signals from the atria to the ventricles.

Cardiac arrhythmias can cause various symptoms, such as palpitations, dizziness, shortness of breath, chest pain, and fatigue. In some cases, they may not cause any symptoms and go unnoticed. However, if left untreated, certain types of arrhythmias can lead to serious complications, including stroke, heart failure, or even sudden cardiac death.

Treatment for cardiac arrhythmias depends on the type, severity, and underlying causes. Options may include lifestyle changes, medications, cardioversion (electrical shock therapy), catheter ablation, implantable devices such as pacemakers or defibrillators, and surgery. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and management of cardiac arrhythmias.

In the context of medicine, specialization refers to the process or state of a physician, surgeon, or other healthcare professional acquiring and demonstrating expertise in a particular field or area of practice beyond their initial general training. This is usually achieved through additional years of education, training, and clinical experience in a specific medical discipline or subspecialty.

For instance, a doctor who has completed medical school and a general residency program may choose to specialize in cardiology, dermatology, neurology, orthopedics, psychiatry, or any other branch of medicine. After completing a specialized fellowship program and passing the relevant certification exams, they become certified as a specialist in that field, recognized by professional medical organizations such as the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) or the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC).

Specialization allows healthcare professionals to provide more focused, expert care for patients with specific conditions or needs. It also contributes to the development and advancement of medical knowledge and practice, as specialists often conduct research and contribute to the evidence base in their respective fields.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "History, 20th Century" is a broad and complex topic that refers to the events, developments, and transformations that occurred throughout the world during the 1900s. It is not a medical term or concept. If you're interested in learning more about this historical period, I would recommend consulting a history textbook, reputable online resources, or speaking with a historian. They can provide detailed information about the political, social, economic, and cultural changes that took place during the 20th century.

**Referral:**
A referral in the medical context is the process where a healthcare professional (such as a general practitioner or primary care physician) sends or refers a patient to another healthcare professional who has specialized knowledge and skills to address the patient's specific health condition or concern. This could be a specialist, a consultant, or a facility that provides specialized care. The referral may involve transferring the patient's care entirely to the other professional or may simply be for a consultation and advice.

**Consultation:**
A consultation in healthcare is a process where a healthcare professional seeks the opinion or advice of another professional regarding a patient's medical condition. This can be done in various ways, such as face-to-face meetings, phone calls, or written correspondence. The consulting professional provides their expert opinion to assist in the diagnosis, treatment plan, or management of the patient's condition. The ultimate decision and responsibility for the patient's care typically remain with the referring or primary healthcare provider.

A district hospital is a type of healthcare facility that provides medical services to a specific geographic area, or "district." These hospitals are typically smaller than regional or tertiary care facilities and offer a range of general and specialized medical services to the local population. They serve as the primary point of contact for many patients seeking medical care and may provide emergency services, inpatient and outpatient care, surgery, diagnostic imaging, laboratory services, and rehabilitation. District hospitals are an essential part of healthcare systems in many countries, particularly in rural or underserved areas where access to larger medical centers may be limited.

Ambulatory care is a type of health care service in which patients are treated on an outpatient basis, meaning they do not stay overnight at the medical facility. This can include a wide range of services such as diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care for various medical conditions. The goal of ambulatory care is to provide high-quality medical care that is convenient, accessible, and cost-effective for patients.

Examples of ambulatory care settings include physician offices, community health centers, urgent care centers, outpatient surgery centers, and diagnostic imaging facilities. Patients who receive ambulatory care may have a variety of medical needs, such as routine checkups, chronic disease management, minor procedures, or same-day surgeries.

Overall, ambulatory care is an essential component of modern healthcare systems, providing patients with timely and convenient access to medical services without the need for hospitalization.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Biomedical research is a branch of scientific research that involves the study of biological processes and diseases in order to develop new treatments and therapies. This type of research often involves the use of laboratory techniques, such as cell culture and genetic engineering, as well as clinical trials in humans. The goal of biomedical research is to advance our understanding of how living organisms function and to find ways to prevent and treat various medical conditions. It encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including molecular biology, genetics, immunology, pharmacology, and neuroscience, among others. Ultimately, the aim of biomedical research is to improve human health and well-being.

Radiation dosage, in the context of medical physics, refers to the amount of radiation energy that is absorbed by a material or tissue, usually measured in units of Gray (Gy), where 1 Gy equals an absorption of 1 Joule of radiation energy per kilogram of matter. In the clinical setting, radiation dosage is used to plan and assess the amount of radiation delivered to a patient during treatments such as radiotherapy. It's important to note that the biological impact of radiation also depends on other factors, including the type and energy level of the radiation, as well as the sensitivity of the irradiated tissues or organs.

Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is a medical approach that combines the best available scientific evidence with clinical expertise and patient values to make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. It emphasizes the use of systematic research, including randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses, to guide clinical decision making. EBM aims to provide the most effective and efficient care while minimizing variations in practice, reducing errors, and improving patient outcomes.

Platelet aggregation inhibitors are a class of medications that prevent platelets (small blood cells involved in clotting) from sticking together and forming a clot. These drugs work by interfering with the ability of platelets to adhere to each other and to the damaged vessel wall, thereby reducing the risk of thrombosis (blood clot formation).

Platelet aggregation inhibitors are often prescribed for people who have an increased risk of developing blood clots due to various medical conditions such as atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, stroke, or a history of heart attack. They may also be used in patients undergoing certain medical procedures, such as angioplasty and stenting, to prevent blood clot formation in the stents.

Examples of platelet aggregation inhibitors include:

1. Aspirin: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that irreversibly inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase, which is involved in platelet activation and aggregation.
2. Clopidogrel (Plavix): A P2Y12 receptor antagonist that selectively blocks ADP-induced platelet activation and aggregation.
3. Prasugrel (Effient): A third-generation thienopyridine P2Y12 receptor antagonist, similar to clopidogrel but with faster onset and greater potency.
4. Ticagrelor (Brilinta): A direct-acting P2Y12 receptor antagonist that does not require metabolic activation and has a reversible binding profile.
5. Dipyridamole (Persantine): An antiplatelet agent that inhibits platelet aggregation by increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in platelets, which leads to decreased platelet reactivity.
6. Iloprost (Ventavis): A prostacyclin analogue that inhibits platelet aggregation and causes vasodilation, often used in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.
7. Cilostazol (Pletal): A phosphodiesterase III inhibitor that increases cAMP levels in platelets, leading to decreased platelet activation and aggregation, as well as vasodilation.
8. Ticlopidine (Ticlid): An older P2Y12 receptor antagonist with a slower onset of action and more frequent side effects compared to clopidogrel or prasugrel.

Physician's practice patterns refer to the individual habits and preferences of healthcare providers when it comes to making clinical decisions and managing patient care. These patterns can encompass various aspects, such as:

1. Diagnostic testing: The types and frequency of diagnostic tests ordered for patients with similar conditions.
2. Treatment modalities: The choice of treatment options, including medications, procedures, or referrals to specialists.
3. Patient communication: The way physicians communicate with their patients, including the amount and type of information shared, as well as the level of patient involvement in decision-making.
4. Follow-up care: The frequency and duration of follow-up appointments, as well as the monitoring of treatment effectiveness and potential side effects.
5. Resource utilization: The use of healthcare resources, such as hospitalizations, imaging studies, or specialist consultations, and the associated costs.

Physician practice patterns can be influenced by various factors, including medical training, clinical experience, personal beliefs, guidelines, and local availability of resources. Understanding these patterns is essential for evaluating the quality of care, identifying potential variations in care, and implementing strategies to improve patient outcomes and reduce healthcare costs.

In the context of medicine, "consensus" generally refers to a general agreement or accord reached among a group of medical professionals or experts regarding a particular clinical issue, treatment recommendation, or research direction. This consensus may be based on a review and evaluation of available scientific evidence, as well as consideration of clinical experience and patient values. Consensus-building processes can take various forms, such as formal consensus conferences, Delphi methods, or nominal group techniques. It is important to note that while consensus can help guide medical decision making, it does not necessarily equate with established scientific fact and should be considered alongside other sources of evidence in clinical practice.

"Physicians, Women" refers to medical doctors who identify as female. They have completed the required education and training to provide medical diagnosis, treatment, and preventive care to patients. They can specialize in various fields such as cardiology, pediatrics, psychiatry, surgery, etc. Their role is to promote and restore health by providing comprehensive medical care to individuals, families, and communities.

Ambulatory care facilities are healthcare providers where patients receive medical services, treatments, or procedures that do not require an overnight hospital stay. These facilities are often used for diagnosis, observation, and outpatient care such as same-day surgery, preventive health screenings, and minor procedures. They can include a wide range of settings like physician offices, community clinics, urgent care centers, dialysis centers, and surgical centers. The goal of ambulatory care facilities is to provide high-quality medical services in a convenient and cost-effective manner for patients who do not require hospitalization.

Myocardial ischemia is a condition in which the blood supply to the heart muscle (myocardium) is reduced or blocked, leading to insufficient oxygen delivery and potential damage to the heart tissue. This reduction in blood flow typically results from the buildup of fatty deposits, called plaques, in the coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygen-rich blood. The plaques can rupture or become unstable, causing the formation of blood clots that obstruct the artery and limit blood flow.

Myocardial ischemia may manifest as chest pain (angina pectoris), shortness of breath, fatigue, or irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias). In severe cases, it can lead to myocardial infarction (heart attack) if the oxygen supply is significantly reduced or cut off completely, causing permanent damage or death of the heart muscle. Early diagnosis and treatment of myocardial ischemia are crucial for preventing further complications and improving patient outcomes.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question. "History" is a subject that refers to events, ideas, and developments of the past. It's not something that has a medical definition. However, if you're referring to the "21st century" in a historical context, it relates to the period from 2001 to the present. It's an era marked by significant advancements in technology, medicine, and society at large. But again, it doesn't have a medical definition. If you meant something else, please provide more context so I can give a more accurate response.

Cardiac surgical procedures are operations that are performed on the heart or great vessels (the aorta and vena cava) by cardiothoracic surgeons. These surgeries are often complex and require a high level of skill and expertise. Some common reasons for cardiac surgical procedures include:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This is a surgery to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with coronary artery disease. During the procedure, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is used to create a detour around the blocked or narrowed portion of the coronary artery.
2. Valve repair or replacement: The heart has four valves that control blood flow through and out of the heart. If one or more of these valves become damaged or diseased, they may need to be repaired or replaced. This can be done using artificial valves or valves from animal or human donors.
3. Aneurysm repair: An aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of an artery that can bulge out and potentially rupture. If an aneurysm occurs in the aorta, it may require surgical repair to prevent rupture.
4. Heart transplantation: In some cases, heart failure may be so severe that a heart transplant is necessary. This involves removing the diseased heart and replacing it with a healthy donor heart.
5. Arrhythmia surgery: Certain types of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) may require surgical treatment. One such procedure is called the Maze procedure, which involves creating a pattern of scar tissue in the heart to disrupt the abnormal electrical signals that cause the arrhythmia.
6. Congenital heart defect repair: Some people are born with structural problems in their hearts that require surgical correction. These may include holes between the chambers of the heart or abnormal blood vessels.

Cardiac surgical procedures carry risks, including bleeding, infection, stroke, and death. However, for many patients, these surgeries can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

Diagnostic imaging is a medical specialty that uses various technologies to produce visual representations of the internal structures and functioning of the body. These images are used to diagnose injury, disease, or other abnormalities and to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. Common modalities of diagnostic imaging include:

1. Radiography (X-ray): Uses ionizing radiation to produce detailed images of bones, teeth, and some organs.
2. Computed Tomography (CT) Scan: Combines X-ray technology with computer processing to create cross-sectional images of the body.
3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to generate detailed images of soft tissues, organs, and bones.
4. Ultrasound: Employs high-frequency sound waves to produce real-time images of internal structures, often used for obstetrics and gynecology.
5. Nuclear Medicine: Involves the administration of radioactive tracers to assess organ function or detect abnormalities within the body.
6. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan: Uses a small amount of radioactive material to produce detailed images of metabolic activity in the body, often used for cancer detection and monitoring treatment response.
7. Fluoroscopy: Utilizes continuous X-ray imaging to observe moving structures or processes within the body, such as swallowing studies or angiography.

Diagnostic imaging plays a crucial role in modern medicine, allowing healthcare providers to make informed decisions about patient care and treatment plans.

The term "Congresses as Topic" refers to large, formal meetings that are held to discuss and exchange information on a specific topic or field, usually academic or professional in nature. In the context of medical science, a congress is an event where healthcare professionals, researchers, and experts gather to present and discuss the latest research, developments, and innovations in their field. Medical congresses can cover a wide range of topics, including specific diseases, treatments, medical specialties, public health issues, or healthcare policies. These events often include keynote speeches, panel discussions, workshops, poster sessions, and networking opportunities for attendees. Examples of well-known medical congresses are the annual meetings of the American Medical Association, the American Heart Association, and the European Society of Cardiology.

Quality of health care is a term that refers to the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge. It encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Clinical effectiveness: The use of best available evidence to make decisions about prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and care. This includes considering the benefits and harms of different options and making sure that the most effective interventions are used.
2. Safety: Preventing harm to patients and minimizing risks associated with healthcare. This involves identifying potential hazards, implementing measures to reduce errors, and learning from adverse events to improve systems and processes.
3. Patient-centeredness: Providing care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values. This includes ensuring that patients are fully informed about their condition and treatment options, involving them in decision-making, and providing emotional support throughout the care process.
4. Timeliness: Ensuring that healthcare services are delivered promptly and efficiently, without unnecessary delays. This includes coordinating care across different providers and settings to ensure continuity and avoid gaps in service.
5. Efficiency: Using resources wisely and avoiding waste, while still providing high-quality care. This involves considering the costs and benefits of different interventions, as well as ensuring that healthcare services are equitably distributed.
6. Equitability: Ensuring that all individuals have access to quality healthcare services, regardless of their socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, gender, age, or other factors. This includes addressing disparities in health outcomes and promoting fairness and justice in healthcare.

Overall, the quality of health care is a multidimensional concept that requires ongoing evaluation and improvement to ensure that patients receive the best possible care.

An eponym is a name derived from a person, usually the person who first described a medical condition or invention. In medicine, eponyms are often used to describe specific signs, symptoms, conditions, or diagnostic tests. For example, Alzheimer's disease is named after Alois Alzheimer, who first described the condition in 1906. Similarly, Parkinson's disease is named after James Parkinson, who first described it in 1817.

Eponyms can be helpful in medical communication because they provide a quick and easy way to refer to specific medical concepts. However, they can also be confusing or misleading, especially when the eponym's origin is not well-known or when different eponyms are used for the same concept. Therefore, it is essential to use eponyms appropriately and understand their underlying medical concepts.

Continuing medical education (CME) refers to the process of ongoing learning and professional development that healthcare professionals engage in throughout their careers. The goal of CME is to enhance knowledge, skills, and performance in order to provide better patient care and improve health outcomes.

CME activities may include a variety of formats such as conferences, seminars, workshops, online courses, journal clubs, and self-study programs. These activities are designed to address specific learning needs and objectives related to clinical practice, research, or healthcare management.

Healthcare professionals are required to complete a certain number of CME credits on a regular basis in order to maintain their licensure, certification, or membership in professional organizations. The content and quality of CME activities are typically overseen by accreditation bodies such as the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) in the United States.

Overall, continuing medical education is an essential component of maintaining competence and staying up-to-date with the latest developments in healthcare.

Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is a term used to describe a range of conditions associated with sudden, reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. This reduction in blood flow, commonly caused by blood clots forming in coronary arteries, can lead to damage or death of the heart muscle and is often characterized by symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue.

There are three main types of ACS:

1. Unstable Angina: This occurs when there is reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, causing chest pain or discomfort, but the heart muscle is not damaged. It can be a warning sign for a possible future heart attack.
2. Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI): This type of heart attack occurs when there is reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, causing damage or death of some of the muscle cells. However, the electrical activity of the heart remains relatively normal.
3. ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI): This is a serious and life-threatening type of heart attack that occurs when there is a complete blockage in one or more of the coronary arteries, causing extensive damage to the heart muscle. The electrical activity of the heart is significantly altered, which can lead to dangerous heart rhythms and even cardiac arrest.

Immediate medical attention is required for anyone experiencing symptoms of ACS, as prompt treatment can help prevent further damage to the heart muscle and reduce the risk of complications or death. Treatment options may include medications, lifestyle changes, and procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery.

Consensus Development Conferences are scientific meetings that aim to bring together experts and stakeholders in a specific medical field to reach a consensus on controversial or uncertain issues related to diagnosis, treatment, or prevention. These conferences are typically sponsored by government agencies, professional organizations, or academic institutions and follow a structured format that includes presentations of scientific evidence, discussion, and deliberation. The goal is to provide clinicians, patients, and policymakers with up-to-date, evidence-based recommendations that can inform medical decision-making and improve patient care. Consensus Development Conferences may also identify gaps in knowledge or research needs and help guide future research agendas.

Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is a system that provides immediate and urgent medical care, transportation, and treatment to patients who are experiencing an acute illness or injury that poses an immediate threat to their health, safety, or life. EMS is typically composed of trained professionals, such as emergency medical technicians (EMTs), paramedics, and first responders, who work together to assess a patient's condition, administer appropriate medical interventions, and transport the patient to a hospital or other medical facility for further treatment.

The goal of EMS is to quickly and effectively stabilize patients in emergency situations, prevent further injury or illness, and ensure that they receive timely and appropriate medical care. This may involve providing basic life support (BLS) measures such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), controlling bleeding, and managing airway obstructions, as well as more advanced interventions such as administering medications, establishing intravenous lines, and performing emergency procedures like intubation or defibrillation.

EMS systems are typically organized and managed at the local or regional level, with coordination and oversight provided by public health agencies, hospitals, and other healthcare organizations. EMS providers may work for private companies, non-profit organizations, or government agencies, and they may be dispatched to emergencies via 911 or other emergency response systems.

In summary, Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is a critical component of the healthcare system that provides urgent medical care and transportation to patients who are experiencing acute illnesses or injuries. EMS professionals work together to quickly assess, stabilize, and transport patients to appropriate medical facilities for further treatment.

Radionuclide imaging, also known as nuclear medicine, is a medical imaging technique that uses small amounts of radioactive material, called radionuclides or radiopharmaceuticals, to diagnose and treat various diseases and conditions. The radionuclides are introduced into the body through injection, inhalation, or ingestion and accumulate in specific organs or tissues. A special camera then detects the gamma rays emitted by these radionuclides and converts them into images that provide information about the structure and function of the organ or tissue being studied.

Radionuclide imaging can be used to evaluate a wide range of medical conditions, including heart disease, cancer, neurological disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, and bone diseases. The technique is non-invasive and generally safe, with minimal exposure to radiation. However, it should only be performed by qualified healthcare professionals in accordance with established guidelines and regulations.

Hospital equipment and supplies refer to the physical resources used in a hospital setting to provide patient care and treatment. This includes both reusable and disposable medical devices and items used for diagnostic, therapeutic, monitoring, or supportive purposes. Examples of hospital equipment include but are not limited to:

1. Medical beds and mattresses
2. Wheelchairs and stretchers
3. Infusion pumps and syringe drivers
4. Defibrillators and ECG machines
5. Anesthesia machines and ventilators
6. Operating room tables and lights
7. X-ray machines, CT scanners, and MRI machines
8. Ultrasound machines and other imaging devices
9. Laboratory equipment for testing and analysis

Hospital supplies include items used in the delivery of patient care, such as:

1. Syringes, needles, and IV catheters
2. Bandages, dressings, and wound care products
3. Gloves, gowns, and other personal protective equipment (PPE)
4. Sterile surgical instruments and sutures
5. Incontinence pads and briefs
6. Nutritional supplements and feeding tubes
7. Medications and medication administration supplies
8. Disinfectants, cleaning agents, and sterilization equipment.

Proper management of hospital equipment and supplies is essential for ensuring patient safety, providing high-quality care, and controlling healthcare costs.

"Compensation and redress" are terms often used in the context of medical law and ethics to refer to the process of addressing harm or injury caused to a patient as a result of medical negligence or malpractice.

Compensation refers to the financial reparation awarded to the victim or their family to cover damages such as medical expenses, lost wages, and pain and suffering. The aim of compensation is to restore the victim to the position they were in before the harm occurred, to the extent that money can.

Redress, on the other hand, refers to the broader process of addressing and remedying the harm caused. This may include an apology, changes to hospital policies or procedures, or disciplinary action against the healthcare provider responsible for the negligence. The goal of redress is to acknowledge the harm that was caused and to take steps to prevent similar incidents from occurring in the future.

Together, compensation and redress aim to provide a measure of justice and closure for victims of medical harm, while also promoting accountability and transparency within the healthcare system.

Telemedicine is the use of digital information and communication technologies, such as computers and mobile devices, to provide healthcare services remotely. It can include a wide range of activities, such as providing patient consultations via video conferencing, monitoring a patient's health and vital signs using remote monitoring tools, or providing continuing medical education to healthcare professionals using online platforms.

Telemedicine allows patients to receive medical care from the comfort of their own homes, and it enables healthcare providers to reach patients who may not have easy access to care due to geographical distance or mobility issues. It can also help to reduce the cost of healthcare by decreasing the need for in-person visits and reducing the demand on hospital resources.

Telemedicine is an important tool for improving access to healthcare, particularly in rural areas where there may be a shortage of healthcare providers. It can also be used to provide specialty care to patients who may not have easy access to specialists in their local area. Overall, telemedicine has the potential to improve the quality and efficiency of healthcare while making it more convenient and accessible for patients.

"Academies and Institutes" in a medical context typically refer to organizations that are dedicated to advancing knowledge, research, and education in a specific field of medicine or healthcare. These organizations often bring together experts and leaders in the field to share knowledge, conduct research, and develop guidelines or policies. They may also provide training and certification for healthcare professionals.

Examples of medical academies and institutes include:

* The National Academy of Medicine (NAM) in the United States, which provides independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation on medical and health issues.
* The Royal College of Physicians (RCP) in the United Kingdom, which is a professional body dedicated to improving the practice of medicine, with a particular focus on physicians.
* The American Heart Association (AHA) and the American College of Cardiology (ACC), which are two leading organizations focused on cardiovascular disease and healthcare.
* The World Health Organization (WHO) is an international organization that coordinates and directs global health activities, including research, policy-making, and service delivery.

These institutions play a crucial role in shaping medical practice and policy by providing evidence-based recommendations and guidelines, as well as training and certification for healthcare professionals.

Heart function tests are a group of diagnostic exams that are used to evaluate the structure and functioning of the heart. These tests help doctors assess the pumping efficiency of the heart, the flow of blood through the heart, the presence of any heart damage, and the overall effectiveness of the heart in delivering oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.

Some common heart function tests include:

1. Echocardiogram (Echo): This test uses sound waves to create detailed images of the heart's structure and functioning. It can help detect any damage to the heart muscle, valves, or sac surrounding the heart.
2. Nuclear Stress Test: This test involves injecting a small amount of radioactive substance into the patient's bloodstream and taking images of the heart while it is at rest and during exercise. The test helps evaluate blood flow to the heart and detect any areas of reduced blood flow, which could indicate coronary artery disease.
3. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): This test uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the heart's structure and function. It can help detect any damage to the heart muscle, valves, or other structures of the heart.
4. Electrocardiogram (ECG): This test measures the electrical activity of the heart and helps detect any abnormalities in the heart's rhythm or conduction system.
5. Exercise Stress Test: This test involves walking on a treadmill or riding a stationary bike while being monitored for changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and ECG readings. It helps evaluate exercise capacity and detect any signs of coronary artery disease.
6. Cardiac Catheterization: This is an invasive procedure that involves inserting a catheter into the heart to measure pressures and take samples of blood from different parts of the heart. It can help diagnose various heart conditions, including heart valve problems, congenital heart defects, and coronary artery disease.

Overall, heart function tests play an essential role in diagnosing and managing various heart conditions, helping doctors provide appropriate treatment and improve patient outcomes.

Patient rights refer to the ethical principles, legal regulations, and professional guidelines that protect and ensure the autonomy, dignity, and well-being of patients during healthcare encounters. These rights encompass various aspects of patient care, including informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, access to medical records, freedom from abuse and discrimination, pain management, and communication with healthcare providers.

The specific components of patient rights may vary depending on the jurisdiction and legal framework but generally include:

1. Right to receive information: Patients have the right to obtain accurate, clear, and comprehensive information about their health status, diagnosis, treatment options, benefits, risks, and prognosis in a manner they can understand. This includes the right to ask questions and seek clarification.
2. Informed consent: Patients have the right to make informed decisions about their care based on complete and accurate information. They must be given sufficient time and support to consider their options and provide voluntary, informed consent before any treatment or procedure is performed.
3. Privacy and confidentiality: Patients have the right to privacy during medical examinations and treatments. Healthcare providers must protect patients' personal and medical information from unauthorized access, disclosure, or use.
4. Access to medical records: Patients have the right to access their medical records and obtain copies of them in a timely manner. They can also request amendments to their records if they believe there are errors or inaccuracies.
5. Freedom from discrimination: Patients have the right to receive care without discrimination based on race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, age, disability, or socioeconomic status.
6. Pain management: Patients have the right to appropriate pain assessment and management, including access to palliative and hospice care when appropriate.
7. Refusal of treatment: Patients have the right to refuse any treatment or procedure, even if it may be life-saving, as long as they are competent to make that decision and understand the consequences.
8. Communication and language assistance: Patients have the right to clear, effective communication with their healthcare providers, including access to interpreters or other necessary language assistance services.
9. Respect and dignity: Patients have the right to be treated with respect, dignity, and consideration during all aspects of their care.
10. Complaint resolution: Patients have the right to voice concerns about their care and receive timely responses from healthcare providers or institutions. They also have the right to file complaints with regulatory bodies if necessary.

Syncope is a medical term defined as a transient, temporary loss of consciousness and postural tone due to reduced blood flow to the brain. It's often caused by a drop in blood pressure, which can be brought on by various factors such as dehydration, emotional stress, prolonged standing, or certain medical conditions like heart diseases, arrhythmias, or neurological disorders.

During a syncope episode, an individual may experience warning signs such as lightheadedness, dizziness, blurred vision, or nausea before losing consciousness. These episodes usually last only a few minutes and are followed by a rapid, full recovery. However, if left untreated or undiagnosed, recurrent syncope can lead to severe injuries from falls or even life-threatening conditions related to the underlying cause.

A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization has dual loyalties or is in a position to exploit their professional or personal relationships for personal or institutional gain. In the medical field, COIs can arise when healthcare providers, researchers, or institutions have financial or other interests that may influence their judgment or actions in providing care, conducting research, or making recommendations.

Examples of conflicts of interest in medicine include:

* A physician who has a financial relationship with a pharmaceutical company and receives compensation for promoting the company's products to patients or colleagues.
* A researcher who owns stock in a company that is funding their study and may stand to benefit financially from positive results.
* An institution that accepts funding from industry partners for research or educational programs, which could potentially influence the outcomes of the research or bias the education provided.

COIs can compromise the integrity of medical research, patient care, and professional judgment. Therefore, it is essential to disclose and manage COIs transparently to maintain trust in the healthcare system and ensure that decisions are made in the best interests of patients and society as a whole.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Anticoagulants are a class of medications that work to prevent the formation of blood clots in the body. They do this by inhibiting the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that lead to the formation of a clot. Anticoagulants can be given orally, intravenously, or subcutaneously, depending on the specific drug and the individual patient's needs.

There are several different types of anticoagulants, including:

1. Heparin: This is a naturally occurring anticoagulant that is often used in hospitalized patients who require immediate anticoagulation. It works by activating an enzyme called antithrombin III, which inhibits the formation of clots.
2. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH): LMWH is a form of heparin that has been broken down into smaller molecules. It has a longer half-life than standard heparin and can be given once or twice daily by subcutaneous injection.
3. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs): These are newer oral anticoagulants that work by directly inhibiting specific clotting factors in the coagulation cascade. Examples include apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran.
4. Vitamin K antagonists: These are older oral anticoagulants that work by inhibiting the action of vitamin K, which is necessary for the formation of clotting factors. Warfarin is an example of a vitamin K antagonist.

Anticoagulants are used to prevent and treat a variety of conditions, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), atrial fibrillation, and prosthetic heart valve thrombosis. It is important to note that anticoagulants can increase the risk of bleeding, so they must be used with caution and regular monitoring of blood clotting times may be required.

Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a non-invasive nuclear medicine test used to assess the blood flow to the heart muscle (myocardium). It typically involves the injection of a radioactive tracer, such as thallium-201 or technetium-99m sestamibi, into a vein. The tracer is taken up by healthy heart muscle in proportion to blood flow. A special camera then takes images of the distribution of the tracer within the heart, providing information about areas of reduced or blocked blood flow (ischemia) or scarred tissue (infarction). MPI can help diagnose coronary artery disease, assess the effectiveness of treatments, and determine prognosis.

Interventional radiography is a subspecialty of radiology that uses imaging guidance (such as X-ray fluoroscopy, ultrasound, CT, or MRI) to perform minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. These procedures typically involve the insertion of needles, catheters, or other small instruments through the skin or a natural body opening, allowing for targeted treatment with reduced risk, trauma, and recovery time compared to traditional open surgeries.

Examples of interventional radiography procedures include:

1. Angiography: Imaging of blood vessels to diagnose and treat conditions like blockages, narrowing, or aneurysms.
2. Biopsy: The removal of tissue samples for diagnostic purposes.
3. Drainage: The removal of fluid accumulations (e.g., abscesses, cysts) or the placement of catheters to drain fluids continuously.
4. Embolization: The blocking of blood vessels to control bleeding, tumor growth, or reduce the size of an aneurysm.
5. Stenting and angioplasty: The widening of narrowed or blocked vessels using stents (small mesh tubes) or balloon catheters.
6. Radiofrequency ablation: The use of heat to destroy tumors or abnormal tissues.
7. Cryoablation: The use of extreme cold to destroy tumors or abnormal tissues.

Interventional radiologists are medical doctors who have completed specialized training in both diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures, allowing them to provide comprehensive care for patients requiring image-guided treatments.

Patient selection, in the context of medical treatment or clinical research, refers to the process of identifying and choosing appropriate individuals who are most likely to benefit from a particular medical intervention or who meet specific criteria to participate in a study. This decision is based on various factors such as the patient's diagnosis, stage of disease, overall health status, potential risks, and expected benefits. The goal of patient selection is to ensure that the selected individuals will receive the most effective and safe care possible while also contributing to meaningful research outcomes.

Analog-digital conversion, also known as analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) or digitization, is the process of converting a continuous physical quantity or analog signal into a discrete numerical representation or digital signal. This process typically involves sampling the analog signal at regular intervals and then quantizing each sample by assigning it to a specific numerical value within a range. The resulting digital signal can be processed, stored, and transmitted more easily than an analog signal. In medical settings, this type of conversion is often used in devices such as electrocardiograms (ECGs) and blood pressure monitors to convert physiological signals into digital data that can be analyzed and interpreted by healthcare professionals.

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a sudden, unexpected natural death caused by the cessation of cardiac activity. It is often caused by cardiac arrhythmias, particularly ventricular fibrillation, and is often associated with underlying heart disease, although it can occur in people with no known heart condition. SCD is typically defined as a natural death due to cardiac causes that occurs within one hour of the onset of symptoms, or if the individual was last seen alive in a normal state of health, it can be defined as occurring within 24 hours.

It's important to note that sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is different from SCD, although they are related. SCA refers to the sudden cessation of cardiac activity, which if not treated immediately can lead to SCD.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Coronary restenosis is the re-narrowing or re-occlusion of a coronary artery after a previous successful procedure to open or widen the artery, such as angioplasty or stenting. This narrowing is usually caused by the excessive growth of scar tissue or smooth muscle cells in the artery lining, which can occur spontaneously or as a response to the initial procedure. Restenosis can lead to recurrent symptoms of coronary artery disease, such as chest pain or shortness of breath, and may require additional medical intervention.

An exercise test, also known as a stress test or an exercise stress test, is a medical procedure used to evaluate the heart's function and response to physical exertion. It typically involves walking on a treadmill or pedaling a stationary bike while being monitored for changes in heart rate, blood pressure, electrocardiogram (ECG), and sometimes other variables such as oxygen consumption or gas exchange.

During the test, the patient's symptoms, such as chest pain or shortness of breath, are also closely monitored. The exercise test can help diagnose coronary artery disease, assess the severity of heart-related symptoms, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for heart conditions. It may also be used to determine a person's safe level of physical activity and fitness.

There are different types of exercise tests, including treadmill stress testing, stationary bike stress testing, nuclear stress testing, and stress echocardiography. The specific type of test used depends on the patient's medical history, symptoms, and overall health status.

Thoracic surgery, also known as cardiothoracic surgery, is a branch of medicine that specializes in the surgical treatment of diseases affecting the organs inside the thorax (chest), specifically the heart, lungs, esophagus, and major blood vessels. This can include procedures such as lung biopsies, lobectomies, pneumonectomies, esophagectomies, heart valve repairs or replacements, coronary artery bypass grafting, and treatment of chest injuries. Thoracic surgeons are medical doctors who have completed extensive training in this field, including a general surgery residency followed by a fellowship in thoracic surgery.

Adrenergic beta-antagonists, also known as beta blockers, are a class of medications that block the effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline (also known as epinephrine and norepinephrine) on beta-adrenergic receptors. These receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the heart, lungs, and blood vessels.

Beta blockers work by binding to these receptors and preventing the activation of certain signaling pathways that lead to increased heart rate, force of heart contractions, and relaxation of blood vessels. As a result, beta blockers can lower blood pressure, reduce heart rate, and decrease the workload on the heart.

Beta blockers are used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including hypertension (high blood pressure), angina (chest pain), heart failure, irregular heart rhythms, migraines, and certain anxiety disorders. Some common examples of beta blockers include metoprolol, atenolol, propranolol, and bisoprolol.

It is important to note that while beta blockers can have many benefits, they can also cause side effects such as fatigue, dizziness, and shortness of breath. Additionally, sudden discontinuation of beta blocker therapy can lead to rebound hypertension or worsening chest pain. Therefore, it is important to follow the dosing instructions provided by a healthcare provider carefully when taking these medications.

Heart auscultation is a medical procedure in which a healthcare professional uses a stethoscope to listen to the sounds produced by the heart. The process involves placing the stethoscope on various locations of the chest wall to hear different areas of the heart.

The sounds heard during auscultation are typically related to the opening and closing of the heart valves, as well as the turbulence created by blood flow through the heart chambers. These sounds can provide important clues about the structure and function of the heart, allowing healthcare professionals to diagnose various cardiovascular conditions such as heart murmurs, valvular disorders, and abnormal heart rhythms.

Heart auscultation is a key component of a physical examination and requires proper training and experience to interpret the findings accurately.

Emission-Computed Tomography, Single-Photon (SPECT) is a type of nuclear medicine imaging procedure that generates detailed, three-dimensional images of the distribution of radioactive pharmaceuticals within the body. It uses gamma rays emitted by a radiopharmaceutical that is introduced into the patient's body, and a specialized gamma camera to detect these gamma rays and create tomographic images. The data obtained from the SPECT imaging can be used to diagnose various medical conditions, evaluate organ function, and guide treatment decisions. It is commonly used to image the heart, brain, and bones, among other organs and systems.

Angina pectoris is a medical term that describes chest pain or discomfort caused by an inadequate supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. This condition often occurs due to coronary artery disease, where the coronary arteries become narrowed or blocked by the buildup of cholesterol, fatty deposits, and other substances, known as plaques. These blockages can reduce blood flow to the heart, causing ischemia (lack of oxygen) and leading to angina symptoms.

There are two primary types of angina: stable and unstable. Stable angina is predictable and usually occurs during physical exertion or emotional stress when the heart needs more oxygen-rich blood. The pain typically subsides with rest or after taking prescribed nitroglycerin medication, which helps widen the blood vessels and improve blood flow to the heart.

Unstable angina, on the other hand, is more severe and unpredictable. It can occur at rest, during sleep, or with minimal physical activity and may not be relieved by rest or nitroglycerin. Unstable angina is considered a medical emergency, as it could indicate an imminent heart attack.

Symptoms of angina pectoris include chest pain, pressure, tightness, or heaviness that typically radiates to the left arm, neck, jaw, or back. Shortness of breath, nausea, sweating, and fatigue may also accompany angina symptoms. Immediate medical attention is necessary if you experience chest pain or discomfort, especially if it's new, severe, or persistent, as it could be a sign of a more serious condition like a heart attack.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Famous Persons" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to individuals who are widely known and recognized in the public sphere due to their achievements, contributions, or notoriety in various fields such as entertainment, politics, science, sports, and arts. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

I apologize, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or condition. It is the largest country in both South America and Latin America by land area and population. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, please provide more information and I will do my best to help.

Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), is a surgical procedure used to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with severe coronary artery disease. This condition occurs when the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle, become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of fatty deposits, called plaques.

During CABG surgery, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is grafted, or attached, to the coronary artery, creating a new pathway for oxygen-rich blood to flow around the blocked or narrowed portion of the artery and reach the heart muscle. This bypass helps to restore normal blood flow and reduce the risk of angina (chest pain), shortness of breath, and other symptoms associated with coronary artery disease.

There are different types of CABG surgery, including traditional on-pump CABG, off-pump CABG, and minimally invasive CABG. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, such as the patient's overall health, the number and location of blocked arteries, and the presence of other medical conditions.

It is important to note that while CABG surgery can significantly improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with severe coronary artery disease, it does not cure the underlying condition. Lifestyle modifications, such as regular exercise, a healthy diet, smoking cessation, and medication therapy, are essential for long-term management and prevention of further progression of the disease.

Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the internal structures of the body. A continuous X-ray beam is passed through the body part being examined, and the resulting fluoroscopic images are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the medical professional to view the structure and movement of the internal organs and bones in real time.

Fluoroscopy is often used to guide minimally invasive procedures such as catheterization, stent placement, or joint injections. It can also be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal injuries, and cardiovascular diseases.

It is important to note that fluoroscopy involves exposure to ionizing radiation, and the risks associated with this exposure should be carefully weighed against the benefits of the procedure. Medical professionals are trained to use the lowest possible dose of radiation necessary to obtain the desired diagnostic information.

Clinical cardiology is the sub specialty of cardiology which looks after preventive cardiology and cardiac rehabilitation. ... Cardiology Cardiology in Review Circulation Circulation Research Clinical and Experimental Hypertension Clinical Cardiology EP ... Cardiology (from Ancient Greek καρδίᾱ (kardiā) 'heart', and -λογία (-logia) 'study') is the study of the heart. Cardiology is a ... Interventional cardiology is a branch of cardiology that deals specifically with the catheter based treatment of structural ...
... is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering cardiology that was established in 1978. It is ... "Clinical Cardiology". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science/Social Sciences ed.). Clarivate Analytics. 2021. ... It is an official journal of the American Society for Preventive Cardiology. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the ... Cardiology journals, Monthly journals, English-language journals, Wiley (publisher) academic journals, All stub articles, ...
... is a branch of cardiology that deals specifically with the catheter based treatment of structural ... Relevant links for interventional cardiologists Interventional Cardiology Review (Interventional cardiology). ... Additionally, interventional cardiology procedure of primary angioplasty is now the gold standard of care for an acute ... Some interventional cardiology procedures are performed in conjunction with a cardiothoracic surgeon. In the US and Canada, ...
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... is an emerging subspecialty field of Cardiology. It may also be considered a subspecialty field of Sports ... Formal education for doctors is now available in Sports Cardiology, such as a Masters Degree in Sports Cardiology at St ... Sports Cardiology as a cardiology subspecialty overlaps with Electrophysiology, Cardiac Stress Testing, Echocardiography and ... In Europe it has traditionally been grouped under Preventive Cardiology, but the subspecialty of Sports Cardiology is now ...
"Cardiology". karger.com. Karger. Retrieved 26 March 2020. "Cardiology". 2016 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ... Cardiology: International Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Pharmacology is a monthly peer-reviewed ... From 1971, the journal was published under the name Cardiology and in 2005 it incorporated the medical journal Heart Drug and ... Following the incorporation of the journal Heart Drug, Cardiology has included coverage of issues relating to cardiovascular ...
In cardiac physiology, preload is the amount of sarcomere stretch experienced by cardiac muscle cells, called cardiomyocytes, at the end of ventricular filling during diastole. Preload is directly related to ventricular filling. As the relaxed ventricle fills during diastole, the walls are stretched and the length of sarcomeres increases. Sarcomere length can be approximated by the volume of the ventricle because each shape has a conserved surface-area-to-volume ratio. This is useful clinically because measuring the sarcomere length is destructive to heart tissue. It requires cutting out a piece of cardiac muscle to look at the sarcomeres under a microscope. It is currently not possible to directly measure preload in the beating heart of a living animal. Preload is estimated from end-diastolic ventricular pressure and is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). Though not exactly equivalent to the strict definition of preload, end-diastolic volume is better suited to the clinic. It is ...
... is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering cardiology. It was established in 2016 and is published by ... "Source details: JAMA Cardiology". Scopus Preview. Elsevier. Retrieved 2023-08-20. "JAMA Cardiology". 2022 Journal Citation ... List of American Medical Association journals Journal of the American College of Cardiology Circulation European Heart Journal ... "JAMA Cardiology". NLM Catalog. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2019-11-06. " ...
... is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering cardiology. It was established in 2011 and is ... Park, D; Huang, T; Frishman, WH (2005). "Phytoestrogens as cardioprotective agents". Cardiology in Review. 13 (1): 13-7. doi: ... Current concepts and management". Cardiology in Review. 12 (4): 222-34. doi:10.1097/01.crd.0000123842.42287.cf. PMID 15191637. ... Cardiology in Review. 7 (4): 219-231. doi:10.1097/00045415-199907000-00014. PMID 10423674. Basso, C; Corrado, D; Thiene, G ( ...
... (formerly known as Computers in Cardiology) is a scientific conference held annually since 1974. It ... Computing in Cardiology is abstracted and indexed in: Conference Proceedings Citation Index[failed verification] Scopus "Board ... "Source details: Computing in Cardiology". Scopus Preview. Elsevier. Retrieved 2021-06-10. Official website (Articles with short ... focused on the application of computational methods in cardiology. Papers presented at the conference are published by the ...
... is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Nature Portfolio. It was established in ... "Displaying Record for Publication: Nature Reviews Cardiology". CASSI. Chemical Abstracts Service. Retrieved 2022-08-09. "About ... Cardiology journals, Monthly journals, English-language journals, Academic journals established in 2004, Review journals, All ... cardiomyopathy/heart failure concomitant disease congenital conditions hypertension imaging infection interventional cardiology ...
... is an open access medical journal covering cardiology and heart health-related topics, ... Until 2013, the journal was published by Pulsus Group, which sold the journal to Cardiology Academic Press. Since then, the ... "Experimental & Clinical Cardiology". 2013 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2014. Spears ... It is published by Cardiology Academic Press, which is on Jeffrey Beall's list of predatory publishers. According to the ...
Beck's triad is a collection of three medical signs associated with acute cardiac tamponade, a medical emergency when excessive fluid accumulates in the pericardial sac around the heart and impairs its ability to pump blood. The signs are low arterial blood pressure, distended neck veins, and distant, muffled heart sounds. Narrowed pulse pressure might also be observed. The concept was developed in 1935 by Claude Beck, a resident and later Professor of Cardiovascular Surgery at Case Western Reserve University. The components are: Hypotension with a narrowed pulse pressure Jugular venous distention (JVD) Muffled heart sounds The fall in arterial blood pressure results from pericardial fluid accumulation inside the pericardial sac, which decreases the maximum size of the ventricles. This limits diastolic expansion (filling) which results in a lower EDV (End Diastolic Volume) which reduces stroke volume, a major determinant of systolic blood pressure. This is in accordance with the Frank-Starling ...
Cardiogeriatrics (geriatric cardiology) -Cardiogeriatrics, or geriatric cardiology, is the branch of cardiology and geriatric ... Circulation American College of Cardiology The Beginners Guide to Understanding Cardiology Cardiology news website Cardiology ... Clinical Cardiology Heart Heart Rhythm International Journal of Cardiology Journal of the American College of Cardiology Pacing ... Physicians who specialize in cardiology are called cardiologists. Cardiology can be described as all of the following: An ...
This is a list of cardiology mnemonics, categorized and alphabetized. For mnemonics in other medical specialities, see this ...
The Journal of Nuclear Cardiology is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering research in nuclear cardiology. It is published ... "Journal of Nuclear Cardiology". American Society of Nuclear Cardiology. Archived from the original on 2012-11-03. Retrieved ... Cardiology journals, Radiology and medical imaging journals, Bimonthly journals, All stub articles, Cardiology journal stubs). ... by Springer Science+Business Media and is the official journal of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology. The editor-in- ...
List of hospitals in Pakistan Multan Institute of Cardiology Punjab Institute of Cardiology Yasin, Aamir (5 September 2012). " ... Rawalpindi Institute of Cardiology (RIC) is a non-profit tertiary level cardiac hospital located on Rawal Road in Rawalpindi, ... "Cardiology institute to be inaugurated". Dawn. Herald. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 10 April 2013. Khan, Dr. A Q (8 April 2013). " ... In October 2005, the establishment of Rawalpindi Institute of Cardiology (RIC) was approved by the CM Punjab Chaudhry Parvez ...
List of hospitals in Pakistan Rawalpindi Institute of Cardiology Punjab Institute of Cardiology "Cardiology institute's theatre ... CPE Institute of Cardiology Multan is a tertiary care hospital providing comprehensive services of cardiology and cardiac ... Multan institute of cardiology is primarily serving the poor people living in the region of south Punjab. However, due to its ... Multan Institute of Cardiology (MIC), is a hospital located in Multan city in Pakistan. It was established by Nawaz Sharif, the ...
... rehabilitation and sports cardiology (ESC Preventive Cardiology), nuclear cardiology and cardiac CT (ICNC-CT), magnetic ... The ESC Textbook of Preventive Cardiology The ESC Textbook of Sports Cardiology The ESC Textbook of Vascular Biology PCR-EAPCI ... The ESC organises numerous cardiology congresses each year, including the largest cardiology congress in the world, ESC ... A Fellow of the European Society of Cardiology is a cardiologist considered to be a person who has had a significant experience ...
Cardiology journals, English-language journals, Academic journals established in 1973, All stub articles, Cardiology journal ... Basic Research in Cardiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1973 by Springer Berlin Heidelberg. ... "Basic Research in Cardiology". MIAR: Information Matrix for the Analysis of Journals. University of Barcelona. Retrieved 2022- ... Basic Research in Cardiology is abstracted and indexed the following bibliographic databases: Science Citation Index Expanded ...
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"Journal of Geriatric Cardiology". 2013 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2014. Official ... The Journal of Geriatric Cardiology is a quarterly peer-reviewed open-access medical journal published by Science Press. The ... Cardiology journals, English-language journals, Quarterly journals, Academic journals established in 2004, All stub articles, ...
"Anatolian Journal of Cardiology". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2020. Official ... The Anatolian Journal of Cardiology (Turkish: Anadolu Kardiyoloji Dergisi) is a peer-reviewed medical journal that covers all ... Cardiology journals, Academic journals established in 2001, Open access journals, Multilingual journals, 8 times per year ... aspects of cardiology. It was established in 2001 and the editor-in-chief is Çetin Erol (Ankara University). The journal is ...
... is also actively involved in research and postgraduate training in cardiology, cardiac surgery ... Punjab Institute of Cardiology (PIC), located in Lahore, Pakistan, is a 347-bed tertiary care hospital providing nationwide ... 90% of patients at the Punjab Institute of Cardiology (PIC) receive free treatment; it is a government-funded hospital. A ... This problem, while bringing unwanted attention to the Punjab Institute of Cardiology, was not unique to that hospital system. ...
Its focus is on interventional cardiology, a branch of cardiology that uses catheter-based treatment to deal with structural ... Diagnostic and Interventional Cardiology was launched by Chilton Publishing in Philadelphia in 1961. In 1975 it was sold to ... Diagnostic and Interventional Cardiology is a trade magazine catering to cardiologists and cath labs. ... Diagnostic and Interventional Cardiology Scranton Gillette website (Business magazines published in the United States, ...
... is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering cardiology. Its predecessors include the ... "Clinical Research in Cardiology". NLM Catalog. Retrieved 7 August 2015. "Clinical Research in Cardiology". Springer Science+ ... "Clinical Research in Cardiology". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2021. Official ... "Journal of Cardiology"), and it obtained its current name in 2006. It is published by Springer Science+Business Media on behalf ...
Argentina: Argentine Society of Cardiology / Argentine Federation of Cardiology / Argentine Council of Residents of Cardiology ... Paraguayan Society of Cardiology Peru: Peruvian Society of Cardiology Puerto Rico: Puerto Rican Society of Cardiology El ... Costa Rican Association of Cardiology Cuba: Cuban Society of Cardiology Chile: Chilean Society of Cardiology and Cardiovascular ... The Interamerican Society of Cardiology, together with the European Society of Cardiology, founded in 1950, the Asian Pacific ...
... , formerly Minerva Cardioangiologica, is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal founded in ... "Minerva Cardiology and Angiology". 2021 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Clarivate. 2022. Official ... Cardiology journals, Bimonthly journals, Academic journals established in 1953, English-language journals). ...
"International Journal of Cardiology". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2021. ... The International Journal of Cardiology is a peer-reviewed medical journal that publishes research articles about the study and ... Cardiology journals, Elsevier academic journals, Biweekly journals, English-language journals, Academic journals established in ...
Those achieving highest distinction in the field are awarded the title Master of the American College of Cardiology, which is ... The college also publishes a peer reviewed scientific journal Journal of the American College of Cardiology with a high Impact ... The College organizes an annual conference for each year for sharing the latest research in the field of Cardiology. The ... The American College of Cardiology (ACC), based in Washington, D.C., is a nonprofit medical association established in 1949. It ...
Clinical cardiology is the sub specialty of cardiology which looks after preventive cardiology and cardiac rehabilitation. ... Cardiology Cardiology in Review Circulation Circulation Research Clinical and Experimental Hypertension Clinical Cardiology EP ... Cardiology (from Ancient Greek καρδίᾱ (kardiā) heart, and -λογία (-logia) study) is the study of the heart. Cardiology is a ... Interventional cardiology is a branch of cardiology that deals specifically with the catheter based treatment of structural ...
Read full-text medical journal articles from Medscapes Cardiology News. ... Psychological Safety in Cardiology Training Cardiology as a field needs to tackle the negative stereotype of being an uncaring ... As MOC Debate Heats Up, Cardiology Societies Weigh In The MOC process is once again under attack by cardiologists and other ...
... open access journal in cardiology & cardiovascular disease. ... US Cardiology Review USC 1758-3896 (Print) / 1758-390X (Online ...
The Discipline Interventional Cardiology represents advanced training in cardiovascular disease and focuses on the invasive ( ... Interventional Cardiology. The Discipline. Interventional Cardiology represents advanced training in cardiovascular disease and ... Following completion, Interventional Cardiology fellows are eligible for board certification by the American Board of Internal ... Interventional cardiologists typically practice in cardiology group practices and in medical institutions in which these types ...
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Cardiology Faculty at Creighton University in Omaha, NE ... CHI Health Clinic Cardiology (CHI Health Creighton University ... Home / School of Medicine / Departments / Department of Medicine / Divisions / Division of Cardiology / Division of Cardiology ... Cardiology Clinic Locations. Primary Location. CHI Health Clinic Cardiology (CHI Health Creighton University Medical Center- ... Creighton University Division of Cardiology. CHI Health Creighton University Medical Center-Bergan Mercy. 7710 Mercy Road, ...
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Academic title(s): Attending Staff, Division of Cardiology, Jewish General Hospital Attending Staff, Division of Cardiology, ... Division of Cardiology. McGill University Health Centre 1001 Decarie Boulevard Montreal, Quebec H4A 3J1. Administration: 514- ...
What to Expect During Your Cardiology Telemedicine Visit. If you have a heart condition or are having concerning heart-related ...
He is PI of the translational research CAMP MGH Study (MGH Cardiology and Metabolic Patient Cohort), the first and largest ... He completed his Internal Medicine residency and Cardiology fellowship at Massachusetts General Hospital, and was selected ... He has practiced Internal Medicine and Cardiology at MGH continuously for the past 31 years. ...
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The CJC is a vehicle for the international dissemination of new knowledge in cardiology and cardiovascular science, ... The Canadian Journal of Cardiology (CJC) is the official journal of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS). ... Canadian Journal of Cardiology (CJC). is the official journal of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS). The CJC. is a ... Canadian Journal of Cardiology. and that none of the material contained in the manuscript has been published previously or is ...
Chinese Society of Cardiology, Chinese Medical Association; Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Cardiology Less ... Chinese Society of Cardiology, Chinese Medical Association; Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Cardiology ... Collection Details : Cardiology Discovery. You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw in Cardiology Discovery.. ...
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Nuclear Cardiology. A small amount of radioactive material is injected during a stress test, and the heart is scanned to ...
News-Medical is your trusted source of Cardiology news, articles and research for doctors, patients, and families. ... a scientific congress of the European Society of Cardiology. ... Cardiology News and Research. Latest Cardiology News and ... a scientific congress of the European Society of Cardiology. ...
News-Medical is your trusted source of Cardiology news, articles and research for doctors, patients, and families. ... The research is presented at EACVI 2023, a scientific congress of the European Society of Cardiology. ... according to a study in more than 6.5 million individuals published today in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, a ... according to research published today in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, a journal of the European Society of ...
Pass the Interventional Cardiology Certification Examination.. Interventional cardiology fellowship training must be accredited ... Those out of interventional cardiology training three years or more as of June 30 of the year of exam must document post- ... Interventional cardiology training taken July 1, 2002, and thereafter must be accredited by the Accreditation Council for ... To become certified in the subspecialty of interventional cardiology, physicians must:. *At the time of application, be ...
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... specific quality improvement measures outlined by the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Foundation ...
Interventional and Structural Cardiology, Diabetes and Kidney Disease Related to Cardiology, and Cardiology Post-COVID-19. ... Medscape Cardiology Conference Brings a New Approach to Virtual Meetings Going Back to the Heart of Cardiology meets the ... and Legends of Cardiology: A Virtual Exhibit on the History of Cardiology. Additionally, the platform will enable attendees to ... Division of Cardiology, Interventional Cardiology Section, Harvard Medical School. ...
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Cardiologist Alexandra Gonçalves explains how COVID-19 has transformed cardiology care and shares lessons learned from the ... The future of cardiology is top-of-mind at Philips, where we work with healthcare partners to provide solutions to improve ... While we adapt to the environment it has created, we must set a new standard of care for cardiology. Every patient should ... These are some of the key trends transforming cardiology during COVID-19 that should continue to improve the future of care: ...
Cardiology Research and Practice / Table of Contents. Table of Contents. Select. 20232022202120202019201820172016201520142013 ... Cardiology Research and Practice - Table of contents ...
The PGY2 Cardiology Pharmacy Residency at Memorial Hermann-Texas Medical Center is an ASHP-accredited one-year post-graduate ... The PGY2 Cardiology Pharmacy Residency at Memorial Hermann-Texas Medical Center is an ASHP-accredited one-year post-graduate ... PGY2 Cardiology Pharmacy Residents will be exposed to a broad range of experiences and activities intended to build the skills ... The PGY2 Cardiology Pharmacy Residency is designed to:. *Provide residents with experiences to develop proficiency in the ...
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  • However, some minimally invasive procedures such as cardiac catheterization and pacemaker implantation are performed by cardiologists who have additional training in non-surgical interventions (interventional cardiology and electrophysiology respectively). (wikipedia.org)
  • Recognized sub-specialties in the U.S. by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education are cardiac electrophysiology, echocardiography, interventional cardiology, and nuclear cardiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recognized subspecialties in the U.S. by the American Osteopathic Association Bureau of Osteopathic Specialists include clinical cardiac electrophysiology and interventional cardiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interventional Cardiology represents advanced training in cardiovascular disease and focuses on the invasive (usually catheter-based) management of heart disease. (acponline.org)
  • Interventional cardiologists typically practice in cardiology group practices and in medical institutions in which these types of procedures are performed. (acponline.org)
  • Following completion, Interventional Cardiology fellows are eligible for board certification by the American Board of Internal Medicine. (acponline.org)
  • The conference sessions will focus on topics relevant to cardiology practice today, including Cardioprevention and Lipid Management, Atrial Fibrillation and Arrhythmias, Heart Failure, Interventional and Structural Cardiology, Diabetes and Kidney Disease Related to Cardiology, and Cardiology Post-COVID-19. (webmd.com)
  • Pass the Interventional Cardiology Certification Examination . (abim.org)
  • Interventional cardiology fellowship training must be accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC), the Collège des médecins du Québec or recognized as an Area of Focused Competency by the RCPSC. (abim.org)
  • The training pathway requires 12 months of satisfactorily completed clinical fellowship training in interventional cardiology, in addition to the required three years of accredited cardiovascular disease training. (abim.org)
  • Interventional cardiology training taken July 1, 2002, and thereafter must be accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). (abim.org)
  • Interventional cardiology training undertaken prior to July 1, 2002, must be conducted within an accredited cardiovascular disease fellowship program. (abim.org)
  • Trainees who will have completed a cardiovascular disease fellowship may apply for specialized training in our Interventional Cardiology Program. (uclahealth.org)
  • The Interventional Cardiology Fellowship at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA is accredited by the ACGME and consists of 12 months of clinical training in interventional cardiology. (uclahealth.org)
  • The UCLA Interventional Cardiology Fellowship Training Program is designed to provide a broad exposure to interventional cardiovascular procedures as well as interventional cardiovascular research. (uclahealth.org)
  • The goal of the program emphasises indications for procedures, pathophysiology, therapeutics, and management of patients following procedures both acutely and in the long term, as well as the humanistic, moral, and ethical aspects of interventional cardiology. (uclahealth.org)
  • Active participation in research will provide the trainee with further experience in critical thinking, evaluating the clinical literature, and potentially prepare the trainee for a career in academic interventional cardiology. (uclahealth.org)
  • The program emphasizes broad training to provide a solid foundation in interventional cardiology as well as the insight needed by an interventional cardiologist dealing with a wide spectrum of patients. (uclahealth.org)
  • Our team provides comprehensive care, from clinical cardiology to interventional procedures to virtually every cardiac surgery. (virtua.org)
  • Get ready for state-of-the-art discussions on new and emerging methods for heart failure management at Heart Failure 2023, a scientific congress of the European Society of Cardiology. (news-medical.net)
  • A healthy diet is associated with greater physical fitness in middle-aged adults, according to research published today in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, a journal of the European Society of Cardiology. (news-medical.net)
  • Postmenopausal women with clogged arteries are at higher risk of heart attacks than men of similar age, according to research presented at EACVI 2023, a scientific congress of the European Society of Cardiology, and published in European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging. (news-medical.net)
  • The research is presented at EACVI 2023, a scientific congress of the European Society of Cardiology. (news-medical.net)
  • Adults in their 20s and 30s with mental disorders have an up to three-fold elevated likelihood of a heart attack or stroke, according to a study in more than 6.5 million individuals published today in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, a journal of the European Society of Cardiology. (news-medical.net)
  • As a member of the San Marino Society of Cardiology, you are automatically a member of the European Society of Cardiology and the ESC Community. (escardio.org)
  • Cardiology Discovery3(3):145-151, September 2023. (lww.com)
  • View the Division of Cardiology faculty listing below. (creighton.edu)
  • To be a cardiologist in the United States, a three-year residency in internal medicine is followed by a three-year fellowship in cardiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The training required to become an electrophysiologist is long and requires 8 years after medical school (within the U.S.). Three years of internal medicine residency, three years of cardiology fellowship, and two years of clinical cardiac electrophysiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • He completed his Internal Medicine residency and Cardiology fellowship at Massachusetts General Hospital, and was selected Chief Medical Resident in 1990. (massgeneral.org)
  • Taiwan Society of Cardiology (TSOC) aims to promote cardiology research, teaching, prevention and treatment. (escardio.org)
  • Head of Internal Medicine, Health Director, founding father and President of San Marino Society of Cardiology and San Marino Society of Geriatrics Medicine, Dr. Giancarlo Ghironzi has also been Foreign and Finances Minister and twice Head of State. (escardio.org)
  • On behalf of the board of directors and all the members of the San Marino Society of Cardiology, I extend my deepest condolences to all his family members. (escardio.org)
  • PGY2 Cardiology Pharmacy Residents will be exposed to a broad range of experiences and activities intended to build the skills necessary to practice as a cardiology clinical pharmacy specialist in an acute care setting. (memorialhermann.org)
  • What areas of practice interest you, and what are your goals after you complete a PGY2 Cardiology Pharmacy Residency? (memorialhermann.org)
  • In 2018, new Blood Cholesterol Guidelines were released, by the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines, which aim to reduce the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease through cholesterol management (Grundy, et. (cdc.gov)
  • Management of routine postoperative pain for children undergoing cardiac surgery: a Paediatric Acute Care Cardiology Collaborative Clinical Practice Guideline. (bvsalud.org)
  • To address this, the Paediatric Acute Care Cardiology Collaborative undertook the effort to create this clinical practice guideline . (bvsalud.org)
  • Pediatric Cardiology offers consultation for evaluation and management of children with disorders of the cardiovascular system. (lifebridgehealth.org)
  • Preventing heart disease and getting your heart healthy and strong after a heart attack or cardiac event is within your reach at Emory Healthcare's Preventive Cardiology Program. (emoryhealthcare.org)
  • We offer a full range of Preventive cardiology and wellness programs with the tools you need to get and stay heart-healthy. (emoryhealthcare.org)
  • The written examinations last for three hours with 200 questions in multiple choices, the contents of which include basic, common and general cardiology in internal medicine, surgery and pediatrics. (escardio.org)
  • In India, a three-year residency in General Medicine or Pediatrics after M.B.B.S. and then three years of residency in cardiology are needed to be a D.M./Diplomate of National Board (DNB) in Cardiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiology is a specialty of internal medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has practiced Internal Medicine and Cardiology at MGH continuously for the past 31 years. (massgeneral.org)
  • TSOC promotes cardiology research, sponsors academic lectures and seminars, trains cardiology specialists and helps the government review policies and guidelines for the treatment of cardiac diseases. (escardio.org)
  • Looking to fill those gaps, Medscape Education is announcing a new virtual conference, "Going Back to the Heart of Cardiology , designed to put back some of what physicians say they are missing from traditional conference formats, specifically networking, interactions with faculty, the option to indulge their competitive streak through gamification challenges, and even the ability to enjoy some downtime with a virtual exhibit. (webmd.com)
  • For more information about Going Back to the Heart of Cardiology , visit www.medscape.org/heartofcardiology or follow #BacktoHeart2020 on social media. (webmd.com)
  • BETHESDA, MD (August 18, 2016) -- Two documents developed jointly by the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology (ASNC) and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) high-lighting myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography (PET) were e-published today in the Journal of Nuclear Cardiology. (asnc.org)
  • Myocardial perfusion PET is a robust nuclear cardiology test that supports the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' initiatives to improve the quality and efficiency of healthcare while controlling costs. (asnc.org)
  • Both documents will appear in the September 2016 issue of the Journal of Nuclear Cardiology and can be downloaded now from the ASNC Clinical Guidelines and Standards webpage . (asnc.org)
  • The PGY2 Cardiology Pharmacy Residency at Memorial Hermann-Texas Medical Center is an ASHP-accredited one-year post-graduate residency program. (memorialhermann.org)
  • This essay aims to reflect on the psychoanalytic contributions to the role of the psychologist/psychoanalyst in the cardiology clinic from a brief articulation and theoretical discussion. (bvsalud.org)
  • Understandings such as the insertion of the analyst in the hospital, the sick body for psychoanalysis and the main subjective aspects present in the cardiology clinic were used. (bvsalud.org)
  • Clinical cardiac electrophysiology is a branch of the medical specialty of cardiology and is concerned with the study and treatment of rhythm disorders of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • As cardiologists across the globe discover new ways of treating patients during the pandemic, one lesson is clear: COVID-19 has transformed cardiology care for the foreseeable future. (philips.com)
  • During the 2019 Scientific Sessions of the American College of Cardiology in New Orleans, nine research studies will be presented by clinicians and researchers from the Intermountain Heart Institute at Intermountain Medical Center. (intermountainhealthcare.org)
  • virtual conference platform, the meeting will bring in elements to engage and entertain, including gamification via MedChallenge, a Networking Lounge featuring small group sessions with faculty, a virtual poster session, six clinical sessions, and Legends of Cardiology: A Virtual Exhibit on the History of Cardiology . (webmd.com)
  • The cardiology pharmacy resident will have ample opportunity to network with other residents, clinicians and academic faculty within Memorial Hermann and other Texas Medical Center institutions. (memorialhermann.org)
  • Learn about the full range of cardiology services available. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Cardiology services are provided by consultation with Alicia Chaves, M.D., and other physicians from the Children's Heart Center at the University of Maryland Medical Center. (lifebridgehealth.org)
  • Financial support is offered to attend the ASHP Midyear Clinical Meeting and the American College of Cardiology Scientific Sessions & Expo. (memorialhermann.org)
  • Cardiology (from Ancient Greek καρδίᾱ (kardiā) 'heart', and -λογία (-logia) 'study') is the study of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiology is a branch of medicine that deals with disorders of the heart and the cardiovascular system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Going Back to the Heart of Cardiology meets the physician's need for networking, interaction and the occasional break. (webmd.com)
  • The Heart Failure Gold Quality Achievement Award is designated for hospitals implementing specific quality improvement measures outlined by the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Foundation. (denverhealth.org)
  • This royalty free image, "Heart With Cardiology", can be used in business, personal, charitable and educational design projects: it may be used in web design, printed media, advertising, book covers and pages, music artwork, software applications and much more. (freedigitalphotos.net)
  • Cardiology, the medical specialty focusing on the heart, intersects with psychiatry in intricate ways. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Virtua Cardiology - Moorestown at Marne Highway delivers top-rated heart care and has nationally been recognized for our superior outcomes and outstanding patient satisfaction. (virtua.org)
  • By Jennifer Robinson, MD, MPH In the winter of 2013, the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association released new guidelines for treating blood cholesterol. (cdc.gov)
  • Fast Five Quiz: Can You Answer These Challenging Cardiology Questions? (medscape.com)
  • Psychological Safety in Cardiology Training Cardiology as a field needs to tackle the negative stereotype of being an uncaring specialty to make better doctors and improve patient care, a new commentary argues. (medscape.com)
  • The future of cardiology is top-of-mind at Philips, where we work with healthcare partners to provide solutions to improve patient care and protect members of the healthcare workforce. (philips.com)
  • The silver lining for cardiology is that COVID-19 has accelerated the adoption of telemedicine, remote patient monitoring and diagnostic modalities that help improve patient care, such as point-of-care ultrasound and cardiac computed tomography (CT). (philips.com)
  • The Canadian Journal of Cardiology (CJC) is the official journal of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS). (elsevierhealth.com)
  • Manuscripts are received with the understanding that they are submitted solely to the Canadian Journal of Cardiology and that none of the material contained in the manuscript has been published previously or is under consideration for publication elsewhere, with the exception of abstracts. (elsevierhealth.com)
  • Journal of the American College of Cardiology. (cdc.gov)
  • The CJC is a vehicle for the international dissemination of new knowledge in cardiology and cardiovascular science, particularly serving as the major venue for Canadian cardiovascular medicine. (elsevierhealth.com)
  • It can certainly be said that he was the founder of cardiology in San Marino, promoter of a modern approach, open to technological innovation but always respectful of the clinical and human features of our profession. (escardio.org)
  • Not long ago, I had the privilege of co-authoring an article, Alpine Cardiology , with my friend and climbing buddy, Gabe Webster. (wms.org)