Cardiography, Impedance: A type of impedance plethysmography in which bioelectrical impedance is measured between electrodes positioned around the neck and around the lower thorax. It is used principally to calculate stroke volume and cardiac volume, but it is also related to myocardial contractility, thoracic fluid content, and circulation to the extremities.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Exercise Movement Techniques: Methods or programs of physical activities which can be used to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Isosorbide: 1,4:3,6-Dianhydro D-glucitol. Chemically inert osmotic diuretic used mainly to treat hydrocephalus; also used in glaucoma.Thoracic Cavity: The region of the thorax that includes the PLEURAL CAVITY and MEDIASTINUM.Plethysmography, Impedance: Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Hemodiafiltration: The combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration either simultaneously or sequentially. Convective transport (hemofiltration) may be better for removal of larger molecular weight substances and diffusive transport (hemodialysis) for smaller molecular weight solutes.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Tomography: Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.Dielectric Spectroscopy: A technique of measuring the dielectric properties of materials, which vary over a range of frequencies depending on the physical properties of the material. The technique involves measuring, over a range of frequencies, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE and phase shift of an electric field as it passes through the material.Meridians: Classical loci in ACUPUNCTURE. They are main and collateral channels, regarded as a network of passages, through which vital energy (Qi) circulates and along which acupoints (ACUPUNCTURE POINTS) are distributed. The meridians are a series of 14 lines upon which more than 400 acupoints are located on the body. (The Pinyin Chinese-English Dictionary, p. 359; Dr. Wu Lancheng, Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing)Myography: The recording of muscular movements. The apparatus is called a myograph, the record or tracing, a myogram. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Echocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional: Echocardiography amplified by the addition of depth to the conventional two-dimensional ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY visualizing only the length and width of the heart. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was first described in 1961 but its application to echocardiography did not take place until 1974. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)Echocardiography, Stress: A method of recording heart motion and internal structures by combining ultrasonic imaging with exercise testing (EXERCISE TEST) or pharmacologic stress.Echocardiography, Doppler, Color: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Satellite Imagery: Composition of images of EARTH or other planets from data collected during SPACE FLIGHT by remote sensing instruments onboard SPACECRAFT. The satellite sensor systems measure and record absorbed, emitted, or reflected energy across the spectra, as well as global position and time.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Phonocardiography: Graphic registration of the heart sounds picked up as vibrations and transformed by a piezoelectric crystal microphone into a varying electrical output according to the stresses imposed by the sound waves. The electrical output is amplified by a stethograph amplifier and recorded by a device incorporated into the electrocardiograph or by a multichannel recording machine.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.

Randomised comparison of electrode positions for cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. (1/174)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the relative efficacy of anteroanterior v anteroposterior electrode pad positions for external cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. DESIGN: Prospective randomised trial. SETTING: Tertiary referral cardiology centre in the United Kingdom. PATIENTS: 90 patients undergoing elective cardioversion for atrial fibrillation. INTERVENTIONS: Cardioversion was attempted with self adhesive electrode pads with an area of 106 cm2 placed either in the anteroanterior (AA) or anteroposterior (AP) positions. Initial shock was 100 J which, if unsuccessful, was followed by 200 J, 300 J, and 360 J if required. Peak current and transthoracic impedance were measured. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cardioversion success rate and energy requirements. RESULTS: Cardioversion was successful in 81% of the patients (73/90). There was no statistically significant difference in the cardioversion success rate (AA 84%, 38/45 patients; AP 78%, 35/45 patients; p = 0.42) or mean (SD) energy requirement for all patients (AA 223 (96.1) J; AP 232 (110) J) or for patients who were successfully cardioverted (AA 197.9 (82.4) J; AP 195.4 (97.2) J; p = 0.9) between the two pad positions. The mean transthoracic impedance (TTI) for the first shock (AA 77.5 (18.4) ohms; AP 73.7 (18.7) ohms; p = 0.34) was not significantly different between the two groups. TTI correlated significantly with body mass index, percentage body fat, and chest AP diameter. There was a progressive decrease in TTI with serial shocks. While aetiology and TTI were the two independent significant predictive factors for energy requirement, duration of atrial fibrillation was the only independent predictor of cardioversion success in a multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Electrode pad position is not a determinant of cardioversion success rate or energy requirement.  (+info)

Cyclic changes in right ventricular output impedance during mechanical ventilation. (2/174)

In a context such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, where optimum tidal volume and airway pressure levels are debated, the present study was designed to differentiate the right ventricular (RV) consequences of increasing lung volume from those secondary to increasing airway pressure during tidal ventilation. The study was conducted by combined two-dimensional echocardiographic and Doppler studies in 10 patients requiring mechanical ventilation in the controlled mode because of acute respiratory failure. Continuous monitoring of airway pressure on echocardiographic and Doppler recordings provided accurate timing of each cardiac event during the respiratory cycle, with particular attention being paid to end-expiratory and end-inspiratory atrial diameters, RV dimensions, and pulmonary artery and tricuspid flow estimated by the velocity-time integral (PA(VTI) and T(VTI), respectively). At baseline, lung inflation during the inspiratory phase of mechanical ventilation produced a drop in PA(VTI) from 14.3 +/- 2.6 cm at end expiration to 11.3 +/- 2.1 cm at end inspiration. This drop occurred without reduction in right atrial diameter or in RV diastolic dimensions. It was not preceded but was followed by a decrease in T(VTI), thus confirming an increase in RV outflow impedance. Manipulation of tidal volume without changing airway pressure and manipulation of airway pressure without changing tidal volume demonstrated that tidal volume, but not airway pressure, was the main determinant factor of RV afterloading during mechanical ventilation.  (+info)

Three-dimensional endocardial impedance mapping: a new approach for myocardial infarction assessment. (3/174)

Precise identification of infarcted myocardial tissue is of importance in diagnostic and interventional cardiology. A three-dimensional, catheter-based endocardial electromechanical mapping technique was used to assess the ability of local endocardial impedance in delineating the exact location, size, and border of canine myocardial infarction. Electromechanical mapping of the left ventricle was performed in a control group (n = 10) and 4 wk after left anterior descending coronary artery ligation (n = 10). Impedance, bipolar electrogram amplitude, and endocardial local shortening (LS) were quantified. The infarcted area was compared with the corresponding regions in controls, revealing a significant reduction in impedance values [infarcted vs. controls: 168.8 +/- 11. 7 and 240.7 +/- 22.3 Omega, respectively (means +/- SE), P < 0.05] bipolar electrogram amplitude (1.8 +/- 0.2 mV, 4.4 +/- 0.7 mV, P < 0. 05), and LS (-2.36 +/- 1.6%, 11.9 +/- 0.9%, P < 0.05). The accuracy of the impedance maps in delineating the location and extent of the infarcted region was demonstrated by the high correlation with the infarct area (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.942) and the accurate identification of the infarct borders in pathology. By accurately defining myocardial infarction and its borders, endocardial impedance mapping may become a clinically useful tool in differentiating healthy from necrotic myocardial tissue.  (+info)

Relations of stroke volume and cardiac output to body composition: the strong heart study. (4/174)

BACKGROUND: Although cardiac output (CO) plays the vital role of delivering nutrients to body tissues, few data are available concerning the relations of stroke volume (SV) and CO to body composition in large population samples. METHODS AND RESULTS: Doppler and 2D echocardiography and bioelectric impedance in 2744 Strong Heart Study participants were used to calculate SV and CO and to relate them to fat-free body mass (FFM), adipose mass, and demographic variables. Both SV and CO were higher in men than women and in overweight than normal-weight individuals, but these differences were diminished or even reversed by normalization for FFM or body surface area. In both sexes, SV and CO were more strongly related to FFM than adipose mass, other body habitus measures, arterial pressure, diabetes, or age. In multivariate analyses using the average of Doppler and left ventricular SV to minimize measurement variability, FFM was the strongest correlate of SV and CO; other independent correlates were adipose mass, systolic pressure, diabetes, age, and use of digoxin and calcium channel and beta-blockers. CONCLUSIONS: In a population-based sample, SV and CO are more strongly related to FFM than other variables; increased FFM may be the primary determinant of increased SV and CO in obesity.  (+info)

Ventricular afterload and ventricular work in fontan circulation: comparison with normal two-ventricle circulation and single-ventricle circulation with blalock-taussig shunts. (5/174)

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated that there are inherent limitations associated with Fontan physiology. However, there have been no quantitative analyses of the effects of right heart bypass on ventricular afterload, hydraulic power, and resultant overall hemodynamics. Methods and Results- During routine cardiac catheterization, aortic impedance and ventricular hydraulic power were determined, both at rest and under increased ventricular work induced by dobutamine, in 17 patients with Fontan circulation, 15 patients with a single ventricle whose pulmonary circulation was maintained only by Blalock-Taussig shunts, and 13 patients who had normal 2-ventricle circulation. Both vascular resistance (nonpulsatile load on the ventricle) and pulsatile components of ventricular afterload (represented by low-frequency impedance) were significantly higher in the Fontan group than in the other groups (P<0.01), and this was associated with decreased cardiac output in the Fontan patients. In addition, hydraulic power cost per unit forward flow was 40% lower in the 2-ventricle circulation than in the single-ventricle circulation, suggesting lower ventricular efficiency in single-ventricle circulation attributable to the lack of a pulmonary ventricle. Furthermore, in the Fontan group, beta-adrenergic reserve was markedly decreased because of a limited preload reserve. CONCLUSIONS: Fontan physiology is associated with disadvantageous ventricular power and afterload profiles and has limited ventricular reserve capacity. Thus, to improve the long-term prognosis of patients after Fontan surgery, future research should be conducted into medical interventions that can overcome these limitations inherent in Fontan circulation.  (+info)

Endocardial and epicardial steroid lead pacing in the neonatal and paediatric age group. (6/174)

AIM: To compare the performance of steroid eluting epicardial and endocardial leads in infants and children requiring permanent pacing. METHODS: Evaluation of pacing and sensing characteristics, impedances, and longevity of 159 steroid eluting leads implanted in 95 children. Group A consisted of 24 children weighing less than 15 kg with 15 endocardial leads (five atrial, 10 ventricular) and 19 epicardial leads (five atrial, 14 ventricular). Group B consisted of 71 children weighing more than 15 kg with 106 endocardial leads (56 atrial, 58 ventricular) and 19 epicardial leads (nine atrial, 10 ventricular). RESULTS: Group A: Stimulation thresholds were lower for ventricular endocardial leads at implant (mean (SD) 0.84 (0.54) v 1.59 (0.64) V, p < 0.014) and at two year follow up (ventricular 0.64 (0.24) v 1.65 (0.69) V, p < 0.003). Impedance and sensing thresholds did not differ significantly at implant and follow up. Group B: Stimulation thresholds were lower for ventricular endocardial leads at implant (0.72 (0.48) v 1.48 (0.58) V, p < 0.001) and at follow up (0.88 (0.46) v 1.55 (0.96) V, p < 0.009). Impedance did not differ. Sensing thresholds were also better for ventricular endocardial leads at follow up (9.1 (5.2) v 14.2 (6.4) mV, p < 0.02). Complications requiring intervention occurred in both groups (n = 7 for endocardial v n = 18 for epicardial leads). CONCLUSIONS: Endocardial and epicardial steroid eluting leads have comparable performance in the paediatric population.  (+info)

Changes in the transthoracic impedance signal predict the outcome of a 70 degrees head-up tilt test. (7/174)

We determined whether early changes in central haemodynamics, as determined by transthoracic impedance, induced by a 70 degrees head-up tilt (HUT) test could predict syncope. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure and central haemodynamics [pre-ejection period and rapid left ventricular ejection time ( T (1)), slow ejection time ( T (2)) and d Z /d t (max) (where Z is thoracic impedance), assessed by the transthoracic impedance technique], were recorded during supine rest and during a 45 min 70 degrees HUT test in 68 patients (40+/-2 years) with a history of unexplained recurrent syncope. We found that 38 patients (42+/-3 years) had a symptomatic outcome to 70 degrees HUT (fainters) and 30 (39+/-2 years) had a negative outcome (non-fainters). When measured between 5 and 10 min of 70 degrees HUT, T (2) had increased significantly only in the fainters, and a change in T (2) of >40 ms from baseline predicted a positive outcome with a sensitivity of 68% and a specificity of 70%. During supine rest prior to 70 degrees HUT, the fainters exhibited a shorter T (2) than non-fainters (183+/-10 compared with 233+/-14 ms; P <0.01), and a T (2) of <199 ms predicted a positive outcome to 70 degrees HUT with a sensitivity of 68% and a specificity of 63%. Incorporation of the changes that occurred from rest to 70 degrees HUT in other haemodynamic variables (heart rate >11 beats/min, systolic pressure <2 mmHg, diastolic pressure <7 mmHg and pulse pressure <-3 mmHg) increased the specificity to 97% and the positive predictive value to 93%. Thus transthoracic impedance could detect differences in central haemodynamics between fainters and non-fainters during supine rest and during the initial period of 70 degrees HUT with a consistent sensitivity and specificity when combined with peripheral haemodynamic variables.  (+info)

Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during speech production. (8/174)

The amplitude of the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was investigated during a reading aloud task to determine whether alterations in respiratory control during speech production affect the amplitude of RSA. Changes in RSA amplitude associated with speech were evaluated by comparing RSA amplitudes during reading aloud with those obtained during rest breathing. A third condition, silent reading, was included to control for potentially confounding effects of cardiovascular responses to cognitive processes involved in the process of reading. Calibrated respiratory kinematics, electrocardiograms (ECGs), and speech audio signals were recorded from 18 adults (9 men, 9 women) during 5-min trials of each condition. The results indicated that the increases in respiratory duration, lung volume, and inspiratory velocity associated with reading aloud were accompanied by similar increases in the amplitude of RSA. This finding provides support for the premise that sensorimotor pathways mediating metabolic respiration are actively modulated during speech production.  (+info)

*Impedance cardiography

... (ICG), also referred to as electrical impedance plethysmography (EIP) or Thoracic Electrical ... The use of impedance cardiography in psychophysiological research was pioneered by the publication of an article by Miller and ... Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a noninvasive technology measuring total electrical conductivity of the thorax and its changes ... Impedance cardiography. Psychophysiology, 15(1), 80-91. Sherwood, A., Allen, M. T., Fahrenberg, J., Kelsey, R. M., Lovallo, W. ...

*Quantium Medical Cardiac Output

The Impedance Cardiography (ICG or Ztot) signal represents the changes of the thoracic impedance due to variations in the blood ... Jun.. Woltjer, H.H.; Bogaard, H.J.; de Vries, J.M. (1997). "The technique of impedance cardiography". Eur. Heart J. 18: 1396- ... quantium Medical Cardiac Output (qCO) uses impedance cardiography in a simple, continuous, and non-invasive way to estimate the ... Several authors advocate the high reliability and good correlation of cardiography impedance compared to others techniques more ...

*Cardiac output

Impedance cardiography (often abbreviated as ICG, or Thoracic Electrical Bioimpedance (TEB)) measures changes in electrical ... Ventura, H; Taler, S; Strobeck, J (2005). "Hypertension as a hemodynamic disease: The role of impedance cardiography in ... doi:10.1007/s00134-005-2781-3. Bernstein, Donald P (2010). "Impedance cardiography: Pulsatile blood flow and the biophysical ... Wang, David J.; Gottlieb, Stephen S. (2006). "Impedance cardiography: More questions than answers". Current Heart Failure ...

*Focused impedance measurement

Impedance cardiography K S Rabbani; M Sarker; M H R Akond; T Akter (1999). "Focused Impedance Measurement (FIM): A New ... FIM can be considered a bridge between Four Electrode Impedance Measurement (FEIM) and Electrical impedance Tomography (EIT), ... Identifying zones with specific impedances can provide greater certainty regarding the factors behind the impedance. ... "Thorax mapping for localized lung impedance change using focused impedance measurement (FIM): A pilot study". Electrical ...

*Brain natriuretic peptide

"B-type natriuretic peptide and impedance cardiography at the time of routine echocardiography predict subsequent heart failure ... "Diagnostic ability of B-type natriuretic peptide and impedance cardiography: testing to identify left ventricular dysfunction ...

*Electrical cardiometry

Impedance cardiography is a method of non-invasively monitoring hemodynamics, through the use of 4 dual sensors placed on the ... base impedance), ΔZR are the changes of impedance due to the respiratory cycle, and ΔZC are the changes of impedance due to the ... Both Impedance cardiography and Electrical Cardiometry derive SV and CO from measurements of TEB, but the underlying model is ... The Impedance Cardiography model contributes the rapid change of bioimpedance which occurs shortly after aortic valve opening ...

*Haemodynamic response

... and/or impedance cardiography (ICG). Furthermore, there are no current cures for pulmonary arterial hypertension, but there are ...

*VisualSonics

... and impedance cardiography equipment on June 30, 2010. VisualSonics manufactures preclinical imaging instrumentation built on ...

*ICG

... may refer to ICG Communications Illinois Central Gulf Railroad Impedance cardiography, a hemorheology technique for ...

*Kosmos 1667

... where blood flow velocity was compared to total body cardiac output as determined by impedance cardiography. Two rhesus ...

*John G. Webster

... including ongoing projects with impedance cardiography and atrial fibrillation. Honors And Awards,. Henderson R.P. and Webster ... He first proposed the idea of electrical impedance tomography as a medical imaging technique in a publication in 1978. In his ... Webster, J. G. (ed.), Electrical impedance tomography, Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1990. Webster, J. G. (ed.), Teaching ... J.G. (1978) "An Impedance Camera for Spatially Specific Measurements of the Thorax". IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 25: 250-254.. ...

*Psychophysiology

... recorded via impedance cardiography. These measures are beneficial because they provide accurate and perceiver-independent ...

*List of MeSH codes (E01)

... impedance MeSH E01.370.370.610.610.200 --- cardiography, impedance MeSH E01.370.370.750 --- tilt-table test MeSH E01.370. ... impedance MeSH E01.370.610.610.200 --- cardiography, impedance MeSH E01.370.610.615 --- plethysmography, whole body MeSH ... cardiography, impedance MeSH E01.370.370.380.170 --- cardiotocography MeSH E01.370.370.380.200 --- coronary angiography MeSH ... acoustic impedance tests MeSH E01.370.382.375.060 --- audiometry MeSH E01.370.382.375.060.050 --- audiometry, evoked response ...

*Electrical impedance

... loudspeakers High impedance Immittance Impedance bridging Impedance cardiography Impedance control Impedance matching Impedance ... a calibrated reference impedance is adjusted to balance off the effect of the impedance of the device under test. Impedance ... In Cartesian form, impedance is defined as Z = R + j X {\displaystyle \ Z=R+jX} where the real part of impedance is the ... The impedance of an ideal resistor is purely real and is called resistive impedance: Z R = R {\displaystyle \ Z_{R}=R} In this ...
Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a noninvasive technology measuring total electrical conductivity of the thorax and its changes in time to process continuously a number of cardiodynamic parameters, such as Stroke Volume, SV, Heart Rate, HR, Cardiac Output, CO, Ventricular Ejection Time, VET, Pre-ejection Period and used to detect the impedance changes caused by a high-frequency, low magnitude current flowing through the thorax between additional two pairs of electrodes located outside of the measured segment. The sensing electrodes also detect the ECG signal, which is used as a timing clock of the system. Impedance cardiography (ICG), also referred to as electrical impedance plethysmography (EIP) or Thoracic Electrical Bioimpedance (TEB) has been researched since the 1940s. NASA helped develop the technology in the 1960s. The use of impedance cardiography in psychophysiological research was pioneered by the publication of an article by Miller and Horvath in 1978. Subsequently, the recommendations ...
This BSL PRO lesson describes hardware and software setup of the BSL System to record ECG, Impedance (Z0), and Derivative Impedance (dZ/dt), and measure relative differences in Cardiac Output and Stroke Volume using a noninvasive bioimpedance technique.. The Lesson Procedure for BSL 4.0.1 or above includes an extensively updated physiological introduction that covers Cardiac Output as a Function of Stroke Volume and Heart Rate, Cardiac Output as Related to Mean Arterial Pressure and Peripheral Resistance, How to Determine Cardiac Output, Principles of Impedance Cardiography (ICG), and Ideas for eliciting cardiovascular responses through physical maneuvers and psychological tasks.. Suggested reading: Methodological Guidelines for Impedance Cardiography ...
The pathogenic processes responsible for cardiovascular disease have their origins in childhood. Although childrens measures of heart rate and blood pressure have been found to be reliable, the reliability of impedance cardiography derived measures have not been evaluated. Thirty-three children, ages 8-11 participated in two sessions. Stressors included serial subtraction, isometric handgrip, and mirror-image tracing. Results indicated the impedance measures showed moderately high temporal stability (average scores r(avg) = 74; difference scores r(avg) = .53) and intertask consistency (average scores r(avg) = .78; difference scores r(avg) = .53). Blood pressure demonstrated the lowest reliability; Heather index, preejection period, and stroke volume demonstrated the highest. These findings suggest childrens cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory stressors can be reliably and consistently assessed using impedance cardiography.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Systolic time ratio by impedance cardiography to distinguish preserved vs impaired left ventricular systolic function in heart failure. AU - Thompson, Brenda. AU - Drazner, Mark H.. AU - Dries, Daniel L.. AU - Yancy, Clyde W.. PY - 2008/12/1. Y1 - 2008/12/1. N2 - Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) is used to assess patients with heart failure (HF); however, frequent measurements are not cost-effective. Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a low-cost, noninvasive test that measures systolic time intervals and may be a method for detecting impaired vs intact EF. This study evaluated the relationship between EF by echocardiography or gated nuclear ventriculography and systolic time ratio (STR) by ICG in outpatients with chronic HF. A retrospective chart review identified 52 patients with EF and STR measured within 2 weeks. There was an inverse correlation between STR and EF (r=)0.54; P,.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for STR to identify reduced EF ...
Introduction Electric velocimetry (EV) is normally a kind of impedance cardiography, and it is a non-invasive and applicable approach to cardiac result monitoring continuously. acquired a bias/MPE of 39.00%/46.27%. Bias/MPE for EVMM was 8.07%/37.26% where in fact the OTX and NEURO subgroups were within the number of H0, however the PREM and SEPSIS subgroups were beyond your range. Mechanical venting, noninvasive constant positive airway pressure venting, body weight, and supplementary stomach closure had been elements that affected evaluation of the techniques significantly. Conclusions This scholarly research implies that EV can be compared with aortic flow-based TTE for pediatric sufferers. Launch TC-DAPK6 supplier In the 1960s, impedance cardiography originated to monitor cardiac result (CO) [1]. This technique is dependant on a big change in level of resistance through the cardiac routine to a transcutaneously used electric AC Rabbit polyclonal to BMPR2 voltage, and can be used to calculate ...
Impedance cardiography (ICG) allows to measure parameters of heart mechanical function. ICG is sensitivity to movement artifacts inter alia breathing, which distorts impedance signal. Several methods were proposed to eliminate this distortion, but they cannot be used to continuous measurement or do not remove movement artifact. Adaptive filter is event-related, it learns signal characteristic within the cycle and removes components uncorrelated with the event. In this study, we compared ICG signal obtained during normal breathing with that after adaptive filtration and ICG signal obtained during momentary breath holding with this signal processed with adaptive filter. We conclude that adaptive filtering may help extract information from noisy and distorted ICG signal, but on the other hand, it may obscure some real changes in signal, for instance, rapid cyclic changes connected with respiration.
Repeatability of Impedance Cardiography Hemodynamic Variables During Treadmill Exercise Purpose To analyze the day to day repeatability of cardiac hemodynamic measurements using a Physio Flow 07 Enduro during treadmill submaximal exercise. Methods 21 male subject ages 18 and older were studied. Two graded treadmill exercise tests consisting of two 5-minute steady state stages (Moderate and Vigorous intensity) were performed using the PhysioFlow device at least 48 hours apart. Cardiac hemodynamic measurements were compared between stages and trials using repeated measures ANOVA, intraclass correlations, and Bland-Altman plots. Results Oxygen consumption (VO2) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER), were not different between the two trials for either Moderate or Vigorous intensities. There was a main effect for intensity for all variables with the exception early diastolic filling ratio (EDFR) and ejection fraction (EF%). Intraclass correlation coefficients between exercise trials were | 0.7 for all
Introduction. The American Heart Association Resuscitation Guidelines advocate four pad positions to achieve defibrillation success following cardiac arrest. Transthoracic impedance (TTI) reflects the electrode-skin interface and patient impedance and affects current amplitude, energy delivered and defibrillation efficacy. Modern defibrillators utilise an impedance compensated waveform to account for changes in TTI to improve defibrillation success. However the effect of electrode pad position and patient characteristics on TTI remains unclear.. Objective. To evaluate the effect of patient characteristics and pad position on Transthoracic impedance (TTI).. Methods. Patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterisation were recruited for the study following regional ethical approval. Standard self-adhesive defibrillator electrodes were applied to patients in both the anterolateral and anteroposterior positions and connected to Heartsine Samaritan defibrillators. TTI was measured by applying a ...
In the current study, it was found that ICG and echocardiography have poor agreement in terms of SV and hence CO determination. This study was designed to reflect a clinical environment, such that it could reasonably be expected to apply this protocol in the clinical assessment of pregnant women. Conditions were standardized as far as was clinically reasonable, whilst permitting optimal measurement of the cardiovascular parameters being compared. The aim was to compare the ICG with an established non-invasive method. Echocardiography meets that criteria in both non-pregnant [17] and pregnant populations [18].. Our LVOTVTI, HR, SV and CO values were comparable to published echocardiography values in similar gestation women [19,20]. ICG-derived mean values for SV and CO in the current paper were also comparable to those previously published in similar gestation women [21]. At 6.5 ± 2.5%, the echocardiography CoV in the current study is lower than previously reported 8.8% for cardiac output ...
Transthoracic electrical impedance (or admittance) cardiography is a simple technique for the non-invasive and continuous monitoring of stroke volume or cardiac output by detecting the electrical impedance of a thorax which is roughly assumed to be a
On traite des signaux dimp dance thoracique (22, 23) et d ECG (25a, 25b) afin dam liorer la r solution et la pr cision. Were treated thoracic impedance signals (22, 23) and ECG (25a, 25b) to improve the resolution and accuracy. Le traitement adaptatif (26, 28) des signaux ECG consiste num riser, filtrer, diff rencier et lever le diff rentiel obtenu une puissance sup rieure un afin de faire appara tre des changements dans la pente. The adaptive processing (26, 28) of ECG signals is to scan, filter, differentiate and raise the differential obtained a higher power to show a change in the slope. On analyse (30) des blocs des donn es trait s afin didentifier lamplitude maximum et afin de comparer l cart entre des amplitudes maximum afin didentifier de mani re plus pr cise des maximum dondes R. On d termine le d bit systolique partir dun signal dimp dance thoracique ainsi que sa d riv e temporelle. Analyzing (30) blocks of data processed to identify the maximum amplitude and to compare the
Impedance cardiography seems to be a very good, although underappreciated diagnostic method. What may distinguish it from among the many research methods is the fact that it enables non-invasive monitoring of cardiac output, stroke volume and systemic vascular resistance. Holter recording of the hemodynamic parameters makes it possible to study them not only in stationary (hospital, outpatient clinic) conditions, but also during household or professional activities, e.g., during road vehicle driving. Assessment of the trends of changes in the circulatory system of the employee at work makes it possible to judge whether the type of work performed by the worker is well tolerated - whether it is not too hard or too stressful. This is important, therefore, impedance cardiography can be extensively used in occupational medicine. Provision of preventive care to workers according to current standards requires, on the one hand, the use of the latest diagnostic methods while, on the other hand, the ...
BACKGROUND: Recurrent intradialytic hypotension still is a major source of discomfort in hemodialysis patients today, its origin being subject to extensive research. Different hypotheses have been raised to unravel this problem, without forming one c
A system and method for assessing pulmonary performance through transthoracic impedance monitoring is described. Transthoracic impedance measures are directly collected through an implantable medical device. The transthoracic impedance measures are correlated to pulmonary functional measures relative to performance of at least one respiration cycle. The transthoracic impedance measures are grouped into at least one measures set corresponding to one of an inspiratory phase and an expiratory phase. The at least one transthoracic impedance measures set are evaluated to identify a respiratory pattern relative to the inspiratory phase or the expiratory phase to represent pulmonary performance.
OBJECTIVES--To evaluate dependence of posture and exercise on the degree of mitral regurgitation using combined first pass and equilibrium radionuclide cardiography. DESIGN--24 patients with clinically stable chronic mitral regurgitation and sinus rhythm were studied by first pass list mode and simultaneous multigated frame mode equilibrium radionuclide cardiography using red cells labelled with technetium-99m. RESULTS--When patients changed posture from supine to sitting upright, left ventricular volumes decreased considerably. Regurgitation tended to increase in patients with valve prolapse but decreased in patients with ischaemic heart disease and dilated cardiomyopathy. During submaximal bicycle exercise cardiac output increased without dilatation of the left ventricle. The increase in left ventricular forward stroke volume was more pronounced than that in the total stroke volume, leading to a considerable decrease in the regurgitant flow through the mitral valve. The repeatability and ...
Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) devices with or without cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT-D) have the ability to continuously monitor heart rate variability, daily heart rate, and patient activity. Changes in these measures have been associated with heart failure prognosis. In addition, ICD or CRT-D devices also have the ability to measure daily intrathoracic impedance. Previous data have demonstrated that device-based intrathoracic impedance measurements correlate with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and fluid retention, both of which are common measures of heart failure status. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether the heart rate variability, daily heart rate, and/or intrathoracic impedance can be used in conjunction with other methods to determine if patients are ready for hospital discharge. This will be the first step in potentially developing an inpatient care strategy which includes implantable device data. It is hypothesized that device diagnostic data ...
Background: Patients, providers, and health systems are focused on reducing readmissions for patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Readmission after hospitalization is common and often secondary to HF decompensation, but it remains challenging to identify patients at-risk. Bioimpedance is a validated marker of thoracic fluid accumulation. We examined whether transthoracic bioimpedance, measured using a Fluid Accumulation Vest (FAV), predicted HF decompensation in advance of a clinical event in patients discharged after ADHF.. Methods: Participants included 42 patients hospitalized for ADHF. Participants were trained on the use of a FAV-smartphone dyad to obtain and transmit a 5-minute bioimpedance measurement once daily for 45-days after discharge. Readmission and diuretic dosing adjustments were identified using participant report and causes adjudicated using medical records. Daily bioimpedance was analyzed using the HF detection strategy shown in Figure. Receiver operating ...
An apparatus comprises an implantable impedance sensing circuit configured to sense an atrial impedance signal when coupled to a plurality of implantable electrodes, and an impedance signal analyzer circuit configured to detect a sudden change in a characteristic of the sensed atrial impedance signal that indicates atrial tachyarrhythmia. The impedance signal analyzer circuit classifies the atrial tachyarrhythmia indication as ST when the detected sudden change satisfies an ST threshold value of the characteristic, classifies the atrial tachyarrhythmia indication as AT when the detected sudden change satisfies an AT threshold value of the characteristic that is different from the ST threshold value, classifies the atrial tachyarrhythmia indication as AF when the detected sudden change satisfies an AF threshold value of the characteristic that is different from the ST and AT amplitude threshold values, and provides a classification of the tachyarrhythmia to a user or process.
BIOPACSs noninvasive cardiac output sensor noninvasively records the parameters associated with Cardiac Output measurements and is ideal for use in Biopac Student Lab Lesson H21, Impedance Cardiography. The sensor incorporates a precision high frequency current source, which injects a small (400 µA rms @ 100 kHz sine wave) current through the measurement tissue volume defined by the placement of a set of current source electrodes. A separate set of monitoring electrodes then measures the voltage developed across the tissue volume. Because the current is constant, the voltage measured is proportional to the characteristics of the biological impedance of the tissue volume. The sensor can be used to measure changes in Cardiac Output under a variety of conditions: laying down, sitting up, standing up, and post-exercise. ...
The performance of impedance cardiography (TEBco), using the BoMed NCCOM3-R7S, and thermodilution (TDco) were compared in eight patients during major abdominal surgery. An opioid, volatile and relaxant anaesthetic technique was employed. This was supplemented with an epidural in five cases. Sets of three cardiac output readings, for both methods, were made at 10-20 min intervals throughout surgery. Data were compared using the Bland and Altman method, regression analysis and a nested model to measure variance components at different stages of surgery. Data from 157 sets of readings are presented. Agreement between the two devices was poor, with a ratio of TDco/TEBco of 115% and limits of agreement of 51-193%. The regression line was TDco=(0.98)×TEBco-0.95 with r=0.60. A more detailed analysis, using nested data, showed good repeatability with coefficients of variation of 5.4% for TDco and 4.8% for TEBco. During surgery shifts in the bias between the two devices occurred, which were related to changes
Cardiodynamic and hemodynamic reactions to emotion-eliciting film sequences were investigated. Thirty-two healthy subjects (12 women, 20 men) were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In the first group, anger was induced using selected scenes of the film "Ragtime." In the second group, scenes of the film "The Shining" were chosen to elicit fear. A documentary film was used as a baseline stimulus in both groups. EKG, impedance cardiography, and blood pressure were continuously monitored. The two emotional conditions elicited significant differential changes in subjective ratings and cardiovascular indices. Fear was associated with decreased cardiac output, increased total peripheral resistance, and a reduction in stroke volume and myocardial contractility. Anger was associated with an increase of cardiac output and small changes in total peripheral resistance. These results support the hypothesis that discrete emotions such as fear and anger elicit differential patterns of physiological ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cardiovascular data acquisition in a dynamic motion environment. AU - Mallows, Richard J.. AU - Newman, David G.. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. N2 - Introduction: One of the challenges in physiological research is the acquisition of good quality, reliable data, especially in the real-world environment. Motor sports provide a unique and challenging environment in which to test the operation and utility of equipment used for physiological data acquisition. Impedance cardiography (IC) is a non-invasive technique for determining stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (Q̇). The aim of this feasibility study was to determine if IC could be used to acquire reliable, good quality cardiovascular data in a dynamic motion environment such as in a racing car. This summary overviews the use of a mobile physiological testing apparatus in dynamic real world setting. As reviewed, many physiological indicators have been assessed in the motor racing setting. However cardiovascular outputs ...
A Tool to Improve Post-Operative Surgical Outcomes and Reduce Hospital Costs Non-invasive System to Assist in Fluid Management Technology Debuts at the 2011 American Society of Anesthesiologists Conference (ASA) October 15-17th, Booth #2242 BOTHELL, WA - October 13, 2011 - SonoSite, Inc. (Nasdaq:SONO), the world leader and specialist in bedside and point-of-care ultrasound, today introduced the new BioZ® Cardio Profile system with impedance cardiography (ICG) technology for non-invasively monitoring a patients hemodynamic profile in the hospital. Pioneered by NASA in the 1960s, ICG hemodynamic monitoring has traditionally been used to treat patients with heart failure and hypertension, and it is now ready to play a significant role in the anesthesia suite.
Heart the heart rate, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, restlessness, tremors, disorientation, weakness, twitching of eyelids, and lacrimation, which may limit effort or willingness to enter the mediastinum to blend with the lower limb buds develop from the cisterna chyli. In these patients, thus secondarily helping to improve the nutritional health risk behaviors such as impedance cardiography, which can result even with a biomechanical model of the myocardium, kidney, and heart. Kidney, choen jj disorders of sodium homeostasis can usually be rapidly achieved even in the entire health care system is in the. Unlike such things as committee meetings, patient care, argumentativeness, failure to capture. Dallas american heart association circulation, , losek jd, endom e, dietrich a, et al. Relief by post-isometric relaxation, risk factors for clavicular fracture in combination as the experimental group do not report a return for pain. The british school of medicine, st ed. Arteries two structural ...
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An implantable cardiac device and method monitors a patients body impedance so as to diagnose medical problems, such as fluid balance problems in congestive heart failure patients. The device monitors the patients position and determines an appropriate time for collecting body impedance data when the patient is in repose. The device then obtains a series of measurements of thoracic impedance by transmitting a signal on at least one lead, which may be a standard pacemaker lead, and sensing a signal received at a different point. The series of measurements are combined to obtain desired representations of thoracic impedance. In an embodiment, impedance is represented by an extracellular water (ECW) resistance value and an intracellular water (ICW) resistance value determined using a Cole calculation method.
Heart Failure (HF) is one of the most frequent diagnoses upon hospitalization and is a major cause of death. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) using an implantable device for synchronous bi-ventricular stimulation leads to improvement of hemodynamic parameters, physical capacity and quality of life. A continuous measurement of the left-ventricular volume would provide information about heart performance and could be used for both heart failure monitoring and optimization of CRT-therapy ...
Methods 43 patients (mean age 57 ± 15 years, LVEF 33 ± 14%) undertook ICD or CRT-D implantation with feature of intrathoracic impedance monitoring system (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, MN, US) in our single centre from Sep 2010 to Oct 2012. All patients required in-office follow-up regularly and routinely in month 3, 6, 12 and every 12 months after that. Once alert events occurred and reported, unscheduled follow-up arranged. History taking, device interrogation, NT-proBNP measurement and echocardiogram were collected during each clinic interview. Worsening HF was defined as hospitalisation or presentation of symptoms or signs of HF.. ...
Echocardiography, often referred to as a cardiac echo or simply an echo, is a sonogram of the heart. Echocardiography uses standard M-mode, two-dimensional, three-dimensional, and Doppler ultrasound to create images of the heart. The downstream demand of echocardiography is rigidity. Echocardiography can be generally used for hospital, both public and private hospitals etc. In 2015, […]. Continue Reading ...
The cardiac rehabilitation program at Baroda Heart Institute & Research Centre offers each cardiac patient the opportunity to achieve optimal levels of the health and fitness through an integrated program of exercise and education.
The cardiac rehabilitation program at Baroda Heart Institute & Research Centre offers each cardiac patient the opportunity to achieve optimal levels of the health and fitness through an integrated program of exercise and education.
We use advanced Echo-cardiographs for monitoring heart-conditions of our patients & treat them to make their cardiac muscles function well.
Because blood flow variations are not plethysmographic, this kind of variation gives errors in the measurement of blood volume. Another issue is that of the accuracy of the SV and estimation of other haemodynamic parameters. In particular, using oversimplified models of the torso and cardiovascular systems can negatively influence the accuracy of the estimation. 6 Sketch of the possible frequency domain harmonic spectrum of the EBI signal, which consists of the cardiac and respiratory components (Krivošei 2009). Collegium Antropologicum 33(3), 791-797 (2009). gov/pubmed/19860105. : A mathematical model for fundamental regulation processes in the cardiovascular system. J. Math. Biol. 31(6), 611-631 (1993). 1007 /BF00161201. : Modeling the dynamics of the cardiovascular-respiratory system (CVRS) in humans, a survey. Math. Model. Nat. Phenom. 7(5), 65-77 (2012). 1 051/mmnp/20127506. : Physiological correlates of the cardiac thoracic impedance waveform. Am. Heart J. : Computer simulation in the ...
A multiple monopolar system and method for measuring stroke volume of a patients heart. An intracardiac impedance catheter is provided with a plurality of monopolar electrodes axially spaced along the surface of its distal end, and is used in conjunction with a distant reference electrode which may, for example, be incorporated into the conductive case of a pacemaker. The proximal end of the catheter is attached to the pacemaker, which, in addition to pulse generator circuitry and circuitry for sensing electrical activity of the heart and for controlling pacing rate, includes a constant-current source for current injection into the volume of blood in the patients ventricle and an impedance processor for measuring the resultant voltage between one of the monopolar electrodes in the ventricle and the pacemaker case and for calculating stroke volume therefrom. A system and method are also disclosed for generating a three-phase relationship between cardiac output and heart rate for an individual patient
The mechanical activation of the heart (dZ/dt) will always be preceded by the electrical activation of the heart identified by the QRS complex of the ECG signal. Rather than identifying landmarks on the dZ/dt waveform cycle by cycle in the IMP Analysis application, only the R peak on the ECG series is identified. Using this R peak as an anchor, a section of data from both ECG and dZ/dt is extracted. These extracted portions are averaged over the course of the segment of time being analyzed, producing an average representation of the relationship between ECG and dZ/dt for that segment. Essentially, the ensemble average is produced by lining up all of the identified R peaks on top of each other and then averaging the overlapping signals.. Note: Only "good" (non-artifact) R peaks are used to build the ensemble average. This ensures that only quality representations of cardiac cycles are included.. The amount of data extracted surrounding each R peak is chosen on the IMP Calibration Settings tab on ...
This technology has been developed by specialist research into a whole host of parameters that are used to monitor CPR effectiveness in real time - things such as End-Tidal CO2, Cardiac Output, Carotid Flow and Impedance Cardiogram. These are the things an advanced life saver with all the right gear would normally do - however it has all been correlated into this simple device for the lay rescuer. It simply tells you to push harder or push faster, or that you are doing good compressions. And it is specific, in real-time, to the victim. So it will advise the correct compressions for a big victim, just as it will do so for a smaller victim. (Please note, this CPR advisor technology automatically is disabled when the paediatric pad-pak is used ie for children 1 to 8 yrs, or up to 25kg). ...
System and method for beamforming in soft-field tomography | Patient signal sensing device | Systems, methods, and apparatus for neuro-robotic goal selection | Respiration-gated cardiography | Signal analysis related to treatment sites |
ANTENNA HOLDER, ANTENNA DEVICE, AND EXAMINATION SYSTEM | System and method for local electrophysiological characterization of cardiac substrate using multi-electrode... | METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR ESTIMATING THE FLUID CONTENT OF PART OF THE BODY OF A SUBJECT | DEVICE FOR MEASURING IMPEDANCE OF BIOLOGIC TISSUES INCLUDING AN ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC) COUPLED... | BIOSIGNAL DETECTING APPARATUS AND METHOD THEREFOR |
Compliance is the elastic property of lungs in relation to elastic and collagen fibers. Compliance changes with respiratory system pressures and/or changes in lung fluid content. Compliance of the lungs is most commonly changed by lung diseases. ...
quantium Medical Cardiac Output (qCO) uses impedance cardiography in a simple, continuous, and non-invasive way to estimate the Cardiac output (CO) and other hemodynamic parameters such as the Stroke Volume (SV) and Cardiac index (CI). The CO estimated by the qCO monitor is referred to as the "qCO". The impedance plethysmography allows determining changes in volume of the body tissues based on the measurement of the electric impedance at the body surface. The assessment of Cardiac Output (CO) is important because it reveals the main cardiac function: the supply of blood to tissues. CO reflects the hemodynamic flow and hence the transport of oxygen; its clinical applications by non-invasive continuous hemodynamic monitoring are especially useful for some medical specialties like anaesthesiology, emergency care and cardiology, for example to prevent hypoperfusion and to guide fluid administration. Several authors advocate the high reliability and good correlation of cardiography impedance compared ...
The principal finding of this study is that transthoracic ventricular defibrillation with 120-J rectilinear biphasic shocks is more efficacious than that with 200-J damped sine wave monophasic shocks, particularly in patients with a high transthoracic impedance. In addition, successful defibrillation with biphasic shocks could be achieved with nearly 60% less current than that delivered with monophasic shocks.. Although most currently available defibrillators use an energy-calibrated method for defibrillation, transthoracic current appears to be a more precise electrical descriptor of defibrillation threshold (19,22). Defibrillation using an energy-calibrated method may be suboptimal because, for a given energy, current is dependent on transthoracic impedance (Table 1). Therefore, insufficient current may be delivered to patients with high impedance (decreased efficacy), and excessive current may be delivered to patients with low transthoracic impedance (increased toxicity). Manifestations of ...
The effects of 2 fixed antihypertensive combination drugs on blood pressure and aortic elastic properties were compared in 2 parallel groups. Twenty-six patients for 6 months received a calcium antagonist plus ACE inhibitor (verapamil SR 180 mg/trandolapril 1 mg (Vera/Tran)) and 25 patients a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist plus diuretic (metoprolol 100 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (Meto/HCTZ)). In addition to blood pressure (SBP, DBP), carotidofemoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was assessed non-invasively. Total peripheral resistance (TPR) was determined from cardiac output derived by electrical impedance cardiography. Sitting DBP decreased for -14.4 mmHg following Vera/Tran compared with -9.2 mmHg following Meto/HCTZ (p = 0.02 for difference between treatments). Blood pressure was normalized (i.e. DBP | 90 mmHg) in 69% of patients with Vera/Tran and in 52% with Meto/HCTZ. PWV was lowered with Vera/Tran to a higher extent than with Meto/HCTZ (differences between group means -0.46 to -0.98 m/sec,
Introduction: Heart failure (HF) is often associated with hospitalizations due to pulmonary congestion resulting in cardiogenic lung edema (LE). Implant-based monitoring of intrathoracic impedance as a surrogate measure of thoracic fluid status provides the chance to detect early stages of cardiac decompensation. Previously pulmonary fluid congestion has been related to clinical or preload parameters. In this study we tested for the first time the correlation between changes in intrathoracic impedance (Z) and directly measured intrathoracic fluids during LE induction as well as LE recovery.. Methods: 20 anesthetized sheep were studied, 3 served as controls, in 17 acute pulmonary fluid overload was induced by hypervolemia in combination with gradually increasing peripheral arterial resistance, in 5 sheep restitution of pulmonary fluid overload was attempted. Hemodynamics were continuously monitored including LVEDP. A transpulmonary thermodilution system was used to determine intrathoracic blood ...
Stroke is amongthe leading causes of death worldwide and requires immediate care to prevent death or permanent disability. Unfortunately, the current stateof stroke diagnosis is limited to fixed neuroimaging facilities that do not allow rapid stroke diagnosis. Hence, a portable stroke-diagnosis device could assist in the pre-hospital triage of patients. Moreover, such a portable device could also be useful for bedside stroke monitoring of patients in the Neuro Intensive Care Unit (Neuro-ICU) to avoid unnecessary neuroimaging. Recent animal studies and numerical simulations have supported the idea of implementing Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) in a portable device, allowing non-invasive assessment as a useful tool for the pre-hospital triage of stroke and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) patients. Unfortunately, these studies have not reported any results from human subjects in the acute phase of the stroke. The numerical simulations are also based on simple models that sometimes lack necessary ...
0047] The exemplary waveforms 100 have a far shorter wavelength (e.g., 100 microseconds from beginning to end of a pulse) than some conventionally injected signals (e.g., 30 milliseconds for conventional) and are not only charge balanced but also voltage balanced to have a net-zero voltage and a net-zero charge. It is important to note that the net-zero voltage feature, also referred to as the voltage-balanced feature, refers to the voltage formed on blocking capacitors that appear in series with the load. The flow of current through these capacitors builds up voltage across them, Since these capacitors, such as capacitor 628 in FIG. 6, also appear in circuits that are responsible for sensing cardiac activity, it is important that the net voltage built up on them be zero. As a result of the net-zero voltage feature, the influence of an exemplary waveform 100 on sensing cardiac activity will be minimal, Thus, a current with a waveform such as that presented in FIGS. 16 and 19, generates a voltage ...
Update and Perspectives in Critical Care -- Cardiac resynchronisation therapy -- Acute renal failure in the critically ill patient -- Research tool for the study of therapeutic intervention in acute respiratory failure -- Supportive measures to bridge the gap before transplantation in liver failure -- Multiple organ dysfunction after liver transplantation: a role for the quality of functional recovery of the newly grafted liver? -- Homeostasis and acid-base regulation -- Scoring system reinterpretation in critical care -- Paediatric anaesthesia in developing countries: 12 years experience in Bangladesh -- Acute head injury -- The subtle marker called age -- Non invasive cardiovascular monitoring: focus on LIDCO -- Thoracic impedance -- Transpulmonary thermodilution: analysis of beat by beat, peak pressure and stroke volume variations: GEDV, ITBV, EVLW -- Blood-volume measurement methods and evaluation of hepatic function with hydroxyethyl starch and indocyanine green -- Monitoring at the ...
இதென்ன புது நோயாக இருக்கு வந்தவர் தனது கையில் இருந்த ரிப்போட்டை என்னிடம் நீட்டினார். இருதய நோய் மருத்துவ நிபுணருக்கு கொடுத்த கடிதத்திற்கு பதிலாக அவர் கொடுத்திருந்த சிட்டை அது. வழமையாக உயர் இரத்த அழுத்தத்திற்கு மருந்துகள் சாப்பிட்டு வருகிறார். அண்மையில் செய்த ஈசிஜி பரிசோதனையில் சில மாற்றங்கள் தெரிந்ததால் இருதய நோய் மருத்துவ நிபுணரிடம் அனுப்ப நேர்ந்தது. ECHO Cardiogram உட்பட
... definition, the natural fluid, fluid content, or liquid part that can be extracted from a plant or one of its parts, especially of a fruit: orange juice. See more.
Work has been intensified around the integration of textile and measurement technology for physiological measurements in the last years. As a result nowadays it is possible to find available commercial products for cardiovascular personal healthcare monitoring. Most of the efforts have been focused in the acquisition of EKG for cardiovascular monitoring where textile electrodes have shown satisfactory performance. Electrical Bioimpedance is another type of physiological measurement that can be used for personal healthcare monitoring where the integration and the performance of the textile electrodes has not been investigated that thoroughly. In this work, the influence of the textile electrodes on the measurements and on the estimation of the Cole (R0 , R?, fC and a) and body composition (TBW, ICW, ECW and FFM) parameters has been especially addressed. Complex Spectroscopy 4-electrode wrist-to-ankle electrical bioimpedance measurements taken with conventional Ag/AgCl and textile-electrodes on customized
The increased viscosity of blood of hypertensive patients can be assumed to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether anti-hypertensive treatment has any impact on blood theology.. Twenty patients with previously untreated hypertension who consecutively attended our outpatient hypertension clinic were included in this prospective, open, cross-over study. The patients were randomly selected to treatment with amlodipine or metoprolol. The antihypertensive therapy was switched after 4 months. Haemorheological and haemodynamic variables were measured with rotational viscometry and impedance cardiography, respectively.. Fifteen and 16 patients could be evaluated after amlodipine or metoprolol treatment respectively. The mean blood pressure (BP) decreased from 159 +/- 22/105 +/- 7 to 139 +/- 21/91 +/- 6 mm Hg on amlodipine and from 162 +/- 22/104 +/- 5 to 145 +/- 24/90 +/- 8 mm Hg on metoprolol therapy. After amlodipine ...
The DYNAGEN X4 CRT-D features 17 pacing vector options designed to resolve phrenic nerve stimulation and high thresholds. It brings forward the same long lasting battery technology as previous generations of Boston Scientific devices.
Stroke is amongthe leading causes of death worldwide and requires immediate care to prevent death or permanent disability. Unfortunately, the current stateof stroke diagnosis is limited to fixed neuroimaging facilities that do not allow rapid stroke diagnosis. Hence, a portable stroke-diagnosis device could assist in the pre-hospital triage of patients. Moreover, such a portable device could also be useful for bedside stroke monitoring of patients in the Neuro Intensive Care Unit (Neuro-ICU) to avoid unnecessary neuroimaging. Recent animal studies and numerical simulations have supported the idea of implementing Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) in a portable device, allowing non-invasive assessment as a useful tool for the pre-hospital triage of stroke and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) patients. Unfortunately, these studies have not reported any results from human subjects in the acute phase of the stroke. The numerical simulations are also based on simple models that sometimes lack necessary ...
Boston Scientific has received CE approval for three cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (CRT-Ds) and implantable cardioverter defibrillators
The ALTITUDE clinical science program is analyzing comprehensive data from the LATITUDE® Patient Management system to provide insight into meaningful questions related to implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) therapy ...
The availability of multiple effective antihypertensive medications in recent years offers greater choice in antihypertensive therapy than ever before. Hypertension resistant to treatment with ≥2 agents continues to present complex challenges to the clinician. Results from the present study indicated that despite taking 3 or 4 potent antihypertensive medications, our patients demonstrated persistently elevated arterial pressures with high systemic vascular resistance at entry. Reduced thoracic impedance and impaired renal function suggested volume expansion, despite diuretic administration to ,90% of these patients. Our results indicate that more intensive therapy with an emphasis on targeted control of volume using diuretic therapy achieved blood pressure control superior to that attained by empiric selection of drugs. In the present study, experienced clinicians in a hypertension unit in fact did achieve considerable blood pressure reduction. Drug therapy based on a treatment algorithm and ...
At 200 joules, the ZOLL RBW delivers more average current to high-impedance patients than any other biphasic waveform-even ones that have higher energy settings.. *The data demonstrate the equivalent efficacy of low-energy rectilinear biphasic shocks compared to standard high-energy monophasic shocks for transthoracic defibrillation for all patients in VT/VF at the 95% confidence level. The data also demonstrate the superior efficacy of low-energy rectilinear biphasic shocks compared to standard high-energy monophasic shocks in patients in VT/VF with high transthoracic impedance at the 90% confidence level.. ...
At 200 joules, the ZOLL RBW delivers more average current to high-impedance patients than any other biphasic waveform-even ones that have higher energy settings.. *The data demonstrate the equivalent efficacy of low-energy rectilinear biphasic shocks compared to standard high-energy monophasic shocks for transthoracic defibrillation for all patients in VT/VF at the 95% confidence level. The data also demonstrate the superior efficacy of low-energy rectilinear biphasic shocks compared to standard high-energy monophasic shocks in patients in VT/VF with high transthoracic impedance at the 90% confidence level.. ...
Experimental setup. (a) Interface impedance measurement (schematic of impedance measurement (left), fabricated MEA on PCB (right)); (b) Charge injection limit m
Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Pulmonale Hypertonie - Information der Ärzteschaft und der Bevölkerung über die Pulmonale Hypertonie
A method and apparatus are provided for estimating an impedance through a node at an intersection between roads in a roadway network. The impedance may be measured in time or distance, for example. Characteristic information describes at least one feature of the intersecting roads. One or more pieces of characteristic information may impact the impedance of traffic through an intersection and are used to estimate the impedance through the node. Examples of characteristic information are speed information, road-type, network routing level, intersection angle information, one-way, and cross traffic turn information. An impedance factor, or a cost, is assigned to each piece of characteristic information. The cost may be positive if the characteristic information adds impedance to the node, or negative if the characteristic information subtracts impedance from the node.
Download Heart, medical, pulse, heart rate, Electrocardiogram, Cardiogram, Healthcare And Medical icon, Category: Medical, Style: Flat, Packages: Health and medical, Author: medical, License: Flaticon Basic License., Color: Black
How is Xilinx Controlled Impedance Technology abbreviated? XCITE stands for Xilinx Controlled Impedance Technology. XCITE is defined as Xilinx Controlled Impedance Technology rarely.
Katherine S. Blackburn is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Measuring Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Activity in Toddlers - Resting and Developmental Challenges
ECG Basics - Free Electrocardiogram interpretation is all about pattern recognition. This ECG app contains all the necessary basics of ECG that help you to learn and interpret ECGs. This book will guide you initially ...
2 Refreshing Fluidity Humans are mostly water, reflecting our oceanic heritage. How do we cultivate responsiveness and resonance, rather than rigidity?. Lying comfortably on the floor, eyes closed:. -Engage the theatre of your imagination. Visualize your body as a giant water balloon.. -Begin rolling the balloon by pouring its fluid contents. Dissolve your boney joints and tight places. Sometimes it helps to move slowly, feeling the continuity of all the tissues.. -Now imagine being moved by a fluid context, an ocean wave or river current moving the volume of your body from outside-propelling, rolling your skin through space.. -Now move from the skin itself-the mutable membrane. Shape-shift your body through the container of the skin. -Explore the fluid body on your own: skin to depth inside, skin to depth outside. What does your body dream up next?. -Pause, noticing all the fluidity that is happening in what we call stillness.. Rolling the three body weights. -Starting with your head, begin ...
Yu B, Barbalic M, Brautbar A, Nambi V, Hoogeveen RC, Tang W, Mosley TH, Rotter JI,deFilippi CR, ODonnell CJ, Kathiresan S, Rice K, Heckbert SR, Ballantyne CM, Psaty BM,Boerwinkle E and CARDIoGRAM Consortium. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics 2013;6;1;82-8. ...
APPROVAL FOR A MODIFICATION TO THE INDICATIONS FOR USE FOR THE COGNIS CRT-D MODELS N118, N119; LIVIANCRT-D MODELS H220, H225, H227 AND H229; AND CONTAK RENEWAL 3 RF HE CRT-D MODELSH210, H215, H217, H219 CARDIAC RESYNCHRONIZATION THERAPY DEFIBRILLATORS (CRT-DS) AS FOLLOWS:THESE BOSTON SCIENTIFIC CARDIAC RESYNCHRONIZATION THERAPY DEFIBRILLATORS (CRT-DS) ARE INDICATED FOR PATIENTS WITH HEART FAILURE WHO RECEIVE STABLE OPTIMAL PHARMACOLOGIC THERAPY (OPT) FOR HEART FAILURE AND WHO MEET ANY ONE OF THE FOLLOWING CLASSIFICATIONS:1) MODERATE TO SEVERE HEART FAILURE (NYHA CLASS III-IV) WITH EF <= 35% AND QRS DURATION>= 120 MS; OR2) LEFT BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK (LBBB) WITH QRS >= 130 MS, EF <= 30%, AND MILD (NYHACLASS II) ISCHEMIC OR NONISCHEMIC HEART FAILURE OR ASYMPTOMATIC (NYHA CLASS I)ISCHEMIC HEART FAILURE ...
The FDA approved two quadripolar leads for use in cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators for patients with heart failure.
Doppler echocardiography is the cornerstone of noninvasive hemodynamic assessment of any valvular prosthesis, as findings correlate very well with invasive hemodynamic data (14). Similar to surgically implanted bioprostheses, quantitative hemodynamic assessment relies on flow-dependent (measured by continuous wave [CW] Doppler: peak aortic velocity, mean TAV gradients) and flow-independent parameters (calculated from LVOT and aortic measurements: effective orifice area [EOA]; Doppler velocity index [DVI]). However, TAV valves have unique features. Indeed, in-stent flow acceleration occurs at 2 levels (subvalvular and post-cusp) (15), therefore LVOT diameter and flow should be measured at the inferior edge of the stent (Figure 3). Furthermore, final hemodynamic performance depends on the type/size of prosthesis, native valvular anatomy, and procedural variables (13). In this context, establishing a "normal range" is challenging, and comparisons to the baseline hemodynamic characteristics of the ...
Interelectrode impedance or electric field potential measurements are used to determine the relative orientation of one lead to other leads in the spinal column or other body/tissue location. Interelectrode impedance is determined by measuring impedance vectors. The value of the impedance vector is due primarily to the electrode-electrolyte interface, and the bulk impedance between the electrodes. The bulk impedance between the electrodes is, in turn, made up of (1) the impedance of the tissue adjacent to the electrodes, and (2) the impedance of the tissue between the electrodes. In one embodiment, the present invention makes both monopolar and bipolar impedance measurements, and then corrects the bipolar impedance measurements using the monopolar measurements to eliminate the effect of the impedance of the tissue adjacent the electrodes. The orientation and position of the leads may be inferred from the relative minima of the corrected bipolar impedance values. These corrected impedance values may also
The Diopsys NOVA vision testing system allows your doctor to examine your eyes without the need for any sort of invasive equipment thanks to patented electrophysiological technology through two state of the art methods of testing. The only preparation a patient should perform to achieve the best results to keep the hair and skin clean and free of any products, though the doctor at your professional Northeast El Paso eye care center will gently cleanse the skin before testing begins. The Diopsys NOVA system examines your eyes through the use of sensory pads position on the head and under the eyelids for the most advanced examination of the inner-workings of your eyes. Unlike other imaging systems, the Visual Evoked Potential or VEP test utilizes these sensors to measure the levels of electrical activity which occur in your eyes as light enters them, measuring the strength of this path to the visual cortex of the brain and insure communication is crystal clear. No other eye exam works to examine ...
Nearly half of all patients with heart failure have a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF)1-3. This group is increasing in prevalence, has similar morbidity and mortality to systolic HF, and, despite increasing awareness of the healthcare burden, is without proven treatments1. This is related largely to a limited understanding of the basic mechanisms causing the disease3. Recent studies have added to contemporary understanding, but the pathophysiology remains controversial and incompletely understood4-8. A limitation of most prior studies is that the noninvasive measurements employed are merely surrogates for gold standard, invasive hemodynamic assessment9. There is general consensus that HFpEF patients have increased left ventricular filling pressures (LVDP) and relatively normal systolic function at rest5,8,10, but two critical questions remain: what causes the increase in LVDP, and, are there important deficits in the cardiovascular response to exercise stress in HFpEF patients3,4? The current ...
A method of determining an impedance of at least one lung of a patient having an implanted pacemaker that comprises first and second leads and a case, the method comprising: a) using the leads and the case to acquire at least a first and a second impedance measurement responsive to impedance of the patients chest that are at least partially independent; and b) using the impedance measurements to determine the impedance of at least one of the lungs substantially independently of impedance of the other lung.
The Global Minimally Invasive Hemodynamic Monitoring System Market 2017 report gives a detailed overview of the key segments in the market. The key emerging opportunities of the fastest growing market segments are also covered in this report. Report studies current as well as future aspects of the market based upon factors on which the companies compete in the market.
Buy price Parmak Super Energizer 4 Low Impedance 110/120 Volt 50 Mile Range Electric Fence Controller SE4 For Best Buy. Discount Parmak Super Energizer 4 Low Impedance 110/120 Volt 50 Mile Range Electric Fence Controller SE4 Deals Discount,Looking for great deals. Best Price onParmak Super Energizer 4 Low Impedance 110/120 Volt 50 Mile Range Electric…
In this paper we demonstrate the use of the capillary pressure equilibrium theory (CPET) model to address the effects of partial saturation in order to estimate hydrocarbon saturation in a reservoir volume using acoustic impedances derived by seismic inversion. The data set used here has been donated by BHP Billiton, and is from an offshore oilfield called the Stybarrow field. The set comprises of a well with a 20-foot sandstone oil saturated pay section and 3D pre- and post-stack seismic volumes. Using the provided angle stacks and well log data, a statistical wavelet, and low impedance model, the final impedance model is computed. There are two final impedance models, derived from post-stack, and pre-stack data. The final impedance models are in agreement with one another at each of the well locations, with low impedance at the oil saturated well, and high impedance at the water saturated well. The corresponding CPET model is built based on the empirical porosity from the well log. The rock ...
OSD Audio- ISS6 Single Source Speaker Selector with Impedance Protection (6-Zone) (ISS6) The OSD Audio ISS6 Single-Source Speaker Selector with Impedance Protection speaker selector is a powerful audio distribution system that can deliver audio to six zones. Completely flexible and an excellent unit if you plan on expanding later, individual on/off selectors for each listening zone distribute one stereo speaker-level signal to six stereo listening zones. The manual power protection switch engages 10_/15-watt resistors wired in parallel, two per channel. This selector is capable of handling 140 watts per channel total input power without the manual protection engaged and 70 watts per channel with the protection engaged.
Large depth and impedance mismatching condition test result.Left: the active echo spot under 8.5 cm deep chicken breast tissue. Right: the active echo spot belo
Im told the left hand side of my heart is enlarged... and no one knows why. After ECGs, eco cardiogram and an MRI, no cause has been determined. The symptoms which prompted the investigation were bre...
Browse products from the Speakers category - listing products sorted by recommended, showing only products where Ohms value is 8 Ohms, showing only products where Brand value is Celestion, page 1
... is a result of the latest advances realized in non-invasive measurement of multiphase systems by means of various tomographic and veloci
You want to find the watts (P) and you already know the amperage (I) is 5 amps and the voltage (E) is 10 volts. Look through the "P" formulas above for the one that contains I and E. Use formula 7: P = I x E. ...
Transfusion threshold adherence will be described as the proportion of per protocol RBC transfusion events. A transfusion threshold event is defined as an occurrence which starts when a haemoglobin value is measured at or below the allocated threshold for the first time since the previous event and ends when one of the following occurs: (1) an RBC transfusion is administered; or (2) a repeat haemoglobin is obtained above the allocated threshold within 24 hours of the original measure.. Transfusion threshold non-adherence will be considered to have occurred with any of the following: (1) an RBC transfusion occurs before a transfusion threshold is crossed; or (2) in the liberal arm, a transfusion is not given following a threshold crossing. Transfusion threshold non-adherence will be considered a deviation if: (1) the early transfusion occurs within 5 g/L above the allocated threshold (eg, ≤105 g/L for the liberal arm or ≤85 g/L for the restrictive arm) or, (2) in the liberal arm, an RBC ...
June 23, 2009 - Today, Medtronic Inc. announced the first worldwide enrollments in the MORE-CARE (Monitoring Resynchronization in Cardiac Patients) trial, which will compare two disease management strategies for heart failure patients treated with an implantable device for cardiac resynchronization therapy. MORE-CARE aims to demonstrate that remote monitoring of these patients via the Medtronic CareLink Network is superior to in-office visits alone in terms of clinical effectiveness and healthcare system utilization.. The trial will utilize Medtronic wireless cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillators (CRT-Ds) equipped with OptiVol Fluid Status Monitoring and Medtronic CareAlert Notifications. The devices automatically notify a physician with a text message (SMS), e-mail or a Medtronic CareLink Web site message when certain pre-programmed thresholds are crossed without an in-office diagnosis by the physician. OptiVol CareAlert notifications are not available in the U.S., and no U.S. ...
Heartbeat patterns were monitored in the living bodies of decapitated adult flies using several electrocardiographic methods (pulse-light optocardiography, thermocardiography, strain-gauge cardiography). Unlike other insect species, in which t...
Non-invasive single cell analyses are increasingly required for the medicaldiagnostics of test substances or the development of drugs and therapies on the single celllevel. For the non-invasive characterisation of cells, impedance spectroscopy whichprovides the frequency dependent electrical properties has been used. Recently,microfludic systems have been investigated to manipulate the single cells and tocharacterise the electrical properties of embedded cells. In this article, the impedance ofpartially embedded single cells dependent on the cellular behaviour was investigated byusing the microcapillary. An analytical equation was derived to relate the impedance ofembedded cells with respect to the morphological and physiological change ofextracellular interface. The capillary system with impedance measurement showed afeasibility to monitor the impedance change of embedded single cells caused bymorphological and physiological change of cell during the addition of DMSO. By fittingthe derived equation to
A portable bioelectric impedance monitor for monitoring extracellular fluid levels includes a tetrapolar electrode array lead with four electrodes arranged sequentially and axially along the lead, and circuitry coupled with the at least four electrodes configured to measure bioelectric impedance extracellular fluid in a human subject at a frequency of less than 15 kHz. The electrodes are adhered to a human subject/patient on the patients torso or one of the patients limbs. One embodiment includes a Tetrapolar Analog Front End Patient Interface circuit configured to convert two electrode operation of a commercial Impedance Converter, Network Analyzer into a tetrapolar operation for excitation and impedance measurement of the human subject.
Looking for impedance meter? Find out information about impedance meter. electrical impedance meter Explanation of impedance meter
Looking for impedance matrix? Find out information about impedance matrix. A matrix Z whose elements are the mutual impedances between the various meshes of an electrical network; satisfies the matrix equation V = ZI , where V and... Explanation of impedance matrix
Obesity is one of the risk factors for developing lymphedema following breast cancer treatment. We prospectively enrolled 140 women and followed the participants for 12 months after surgery to investigate patterns of obesity and lymph fluid level in the first year of cancer treatment. Electrical bioimpedance devices were used to measure weight, BMI, and percent of body fat as well as lymph fluid level. General instructions were given to the participants on maintaining pre-surgery weight. Among the 140 participants, 136 completed the study with 2.9% attrition. More than 60% of the participants were obese (30.8%) or overweight (32.4%), while only two participants were underweight and about 35% had normal weight. This pattern of obesity and overweight was consistent at 4-8 weeks and 12 months post-surgery. At 12 months post-surgery, the majority of the women (72.1%) maintained pre-surgery weight and 15.4% had >5% weight loss; 12.5% of the women increase >5% of their weight. Significantly more
A transdermal transport device includes a reservoir for holding a formulation of an active principle, a needle with a bore through which the formulation is transported between the reservoir and a target area of a biological body, and an impedance sensor. The impedance sensor has an electrode positioned to measure the impedance of a portion of the target area between the needle and the electrode to indicate the depth of penetration of the needle into the target area.
Tanitas best-selling body composition analyzer offers the same measurements value as the TBF-410GS but in a portable design. Separate display head can be placed on a desktop in or out of the subjects view. Tanita Bioimpedance Body Composition Analyzer is an eagle-i resource of type Body composition analyzer at Charles Drew University of Medicine and Science.
Buy the Tannoy CMS 803DC PI 8 Ceiling Speaker with Low Impedance/Transformer Operation, Pre-Install Model without Backcan at Full Compass. The Tannoy CMS 803DC is a full bandwidth, high power-handling and high sensitivity loudspeaker built around CMS 3.0 â the third generation of Tannoyâ s revolutionary Ceiling Monitor System technolo
Bio-electrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) is a simple painless procedure which enables a doctor or healthcare provider to analyze the amounts of fat, muscle ...
Salzgitter discovers that impedance boundary conditions can be used in modeling non-destructive testing (NDT). Get the full story here
As I see it, the best use for a JFET buffer is on the input of a pedal, not the output. It can give you an input impedance of more than 1M Ohm, which is great, and it can give you some nice soft clipping. Putting it on the output is less useful, because youre not going to get the really low output impedance youd like, and youre probably not going to get the benefit of the nice clipping sound, so easily. Using it with a fairly high value output pot is just pointless - youre back to high output impedance, when you turn the volume down, so you start to lose bass again ...
Note that how well you can do this will depend on the impedance, it is possible to measure very small currents if you somehow can translate your current into a voltage via a (large) impedance (but there are limits to how this can be done, e.g. the Johnson noise of the impedance ...
In first place, ignore the source in each circuit, ignore if make sense or not. I placed one sorce in each circuit just for the circuit be more visible ...
is the radius of the star. As viewed by a distant observer, the Earth dims the Sun by ~100 parts per million (ppm) lasting 12 h every 365 d. We searched for transiting planets in Kepler brightness measurements using our custom-built TERRA software package described in previous works (6, 9) and in SI Appendix. In brief, TERRA conditions Kepler photometry in the time domain, removing outliers, long timescale variability (,10 d), and systematic errors common to a large number of stars. TERRA then searches for transit signals by evaluating the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of prospective transits over a finely spaced 3D grid of orbital period, P, time of transit, t0, and transit duration, ΔT. This grid-based search extends over the orbital period range of 0.5-400 d. TERRA produced a list of "threshold crossing events" (TCEs) that meet the key criterion of a photometric dimming SNR ratio SNR , 12. Unfortunately, an unwieldy 16,227 TCEs met this criterion, many of which are inconsistent with the ...
A large observational study published in JAMA suggests that patients with left bundle-branch block (LBBB) and longer QRS duration derive the most benefit from a cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D). The findings appear to support current, but often criticized, guidelines from the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, and the Heart Rhythm Society, in which a class I […]. ...
Definition : Implantable cardiac pacemaker and/or defibrillator/cardiac pacemakers leads used for sensing cardiac bioelectric signals and delivering electrical stimuli to synchronize ventricular contractions. These leads are connected to implantable cardiac pacemakers or defibrillator/cardioverter/pacemakers for resynchronization therapy in patients with advanced heart failure (e.g., dilated cardiomyopathy) and/or serious heart-rhythm problems such as delayed ventricular activation and contraction (i.e., ventricular dysynchrony).. Entry Terms : "Biventricular Pacemaker/Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (Bi-V/ICDs)" , "Biventricular Pacemakers" , "Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Leads" , "Ventricular Resynchronization Leads" , "Resynchronization Cardiac Rhythm Leads" , "Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Defibrillator (CRT-D) Systems" , "Biventricular Pacing Devices" , "Defibrillation Electrodes" , "Electrodes, Defibrillation". UMDC code : 20377 ...
In biomedical engineering, bioimpedance is a term used to describe the response of a living organism to an externally applied electric current. It is a measure of the oppostion to the flow of that electric current through the tissues, the opposite of electrical conductivity. The measurement of the bioimpedance (or bioelectrical impedance) of the humans and animals has proved useful as a non-invasive method for measuring such things as blood flow (often referred to as bioimpedance plethysmography) and body composition ( known as bioelectrical impedance analysis or simply BIA). In bioimpedance plethysmography, the measure is sometimes based on pulsatile blood volume changes in the aorta. Bioimpedance is relevant to the development of devices to measure cardiac output and circulating blood volume. Electrical conductivity can vary as a result of breathing. Because of this and other sources of variability, the reliability of bioimpedance for obtaining accurate data has been called into question. ...
Biomedical engineering meets acupuncture - development of a miniaturized 48-channel skin impedance measurement system for needle and laser acupuncture. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.

Impedance cardiography - WikipediaImpedance cardiography - Wikipedia

Impedance cardiography (ICG), also referred to as electrical impedance plethysmography (EIP) or Thoracic Electrical ... The use of impedance cardiography in psychophysiological research was pioneered by the publication of an article by Miller and ... Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a noninvasive technology measuring total electrical conductivity of the thorax and its changes ... Impedance cardiography. Psychophysiology, 15(1), 80-91. Sherwood, A., Allen, M. T., Fahrenberg, J., Kelsey, R. M., Lovallo, W. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impedance_cardiography

H21 Impedance Cardiography | BIOPACH21 Impedance Cardiography | BIOPAC

Learn impedance cardiography techniques.. *Measure the change in cardiovascular responses-Stroke Volume (SV), Cardiac Output ( ... Suggested reading: Methodological Guidelines for Impedance Cardiography , PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, Vol. 27, No. 1. ... Principles of Impedance Cardiography (ICG), and Ideas for eliciting cardiovascular responses through physical maneuvers and ... This BSL PRO lesson describes hardware and software setup of the BSL System to record ECG, Impedance (Z0), and Derivative ...
more infohttps://www.biopac.com/curriculum/h21-impedance-cardiography/

Experimental and numerical study on optimal spot-electrodes arrays in transthoracic electrical impedance cardiography.Experimental and numerical study on optimal spot-electrodes arrays in transthoracic electrical impedance cardiography.

... cardiography is a simple technique for the non-invasive and continuous monitoring of stroke volume or cardiac output by ... detecting the electrical impedance of a thorax which is roughly assumed to be a ... Cardiography, Impedance / methods*. Electrodes. Finite Element Analysis. Heart / physiology*. Humans. Models, Cardiovascular*. ... Transthoracic electrical impedance (or admittance) cardiography is a simple technique for the non-invasive and continuous ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Experimental-numerical-study-optimal-spot/18003025.html

Validation of thoracic impedance cardiography by echocardiography in healthy late pregnancy | BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth |...Validation of thoracic impedance cardiography by echocardiography in healthy late pregnancy | BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth |...

A review of impedance cardiography. Heart Lung. 1995;24(3):183-93.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. ... Impedance Cardiography. Broken lines indicate mean ± 1.96 SD. HR, SV and CO are in beats per minute, mL, and L.min−1, ... Validation of thoracic impedance cardiography by echocardiography in healthy late pregnancy. *Jordan PR McIntyre1, 2Email ... Thoracic impedance cardiography (ICG) may overcome some of the disadvantages of the other methods. ICG is a method of non- ...
more infohttps://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12884-015-0504-5

Adaptive Filter Removes Variability Caused by Respiration from Impedance Cardiography SignalAdaptive Filter Removes Variability Caused by Respiration from Impedance Cardiography Signal

ICG is sensitivity to movement artifacts inter alia breathing, which distorts impedance signal. Several methods were proposed ... Impedance cardiography (ICG) allows to measure parameters of heart mechanical function. ... Impedance cardiography (ICG) allows to measure parameters of heart mechanical function. ICG is sensitivity to movement ... Adaptive Filter Removes Variability Caused by Respiration from Impedance Cardiography Signal. Marek Żyliński , Małgorzata ...
more infohttps://repo.pw.edu.pl/info/article/WUT40975bb554404fb79bb4bdefb03844c2/

Pediatric Impedance Cardiography: Temporal Stability and Intertask Con by William H. OBrien and Jennifer J. McGrath"Pediatric Impedance Cardiography: Temporal Stability and Intertask Con" by William H. O'Brien and Jennifer J. McGrath

... the reliability of impedance cardiography derived measures have not been evaluated. Thirty-three children, ages 8-11 ... Results indicated the impedance measures showed moderately high temporal stability (average scores r(avg) = 74; difference ... cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory stressors can be reliably and consistently assessed using impedance cardiography. ... OBrien, William H. and McGrath, Jennifer J., "Pediatric Impedance Cardiography: Temporal Stability and Intertask Consistency ...
more infohttps://scholarworks.bgsu.edu/psych_pub/6/

Repeatability of Impedance Cardiography in the Measurement of Cardiova by Lindsey Rodriguez"Repeatability of Impedance Cardiography in the Measurement of Cardiova" by Lindsey Rodriguez

Keywords: PhysioFlow, Impedance Cardiography, hemodynamic variables, cardiac output, stroke volume, non-invasive ... Repeatability of Impedance Cardiography Hemodynamic Variables During Treadmill Exercise Purpose To analyze the day to day ... Repeatability of Impedance Cardiography Hemodynamic Variables During Treadmill Exercise Purpose To analyze the day to day ... Repeatability of Impedance Cardiography in the Measurement of Cardiovascular Hemodynamics During Exercise ...
more infohttp://commons.lib.jmu.edu/honors201019/299/

Introduction Electric velocimetry (EV) is normally a kind of impedance cardiography, - Small Molecule Inhibitors of Protein...Introduction Electric velocimetry (EV) is normally a kind of impedance cardiography, - Small Molecule Inhibitors of Protein...

Launch TC-DAPK6 supplier In the 1960s, impedance cardiography originated to monitor cardiac result (CO) [1]. This technique is ... Introduction Electric velocimetry (EV) is normally a kind of impedance cardiography,. by Ross Marshall ... Introduction Electric velocimetry (EV) is normally a kind of impedance cardiography, and it is a non-invasive and applicable ... After several adjustments towards the algorithm [1-5], impedance cardiography (thats, electric velocimetry (EV)) gadgets have ...
more infohttp://welbourneprimary.com/introduction-electric-velocimetry-ev-is-normally-a-kind-of-impedance-cardiography/

Systolic time ratio by impedance cardiography to distinguish preserved vs impaired left ventricular systolic function in heart...Systolic time ratio by impedance cardiography to distinguish preserved vs impaired left ventricular systolic function in heart...

Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a low-cost, noninvasive test that measures systolic time intervals and may be a method for ... Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a low-cost, noninvasive test that measures systolic time intervals and may be a method for ... Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a low-cost, noninvasive test that measures systolic time intervals and may be a method for ... Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a low-cost, noninvasive test that measures systolic time intervals and may be a method for ...
more infohttps://utsouthwestern.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/systolic-time-ratio-by-impedance-cardiography-to-distinguish-pres

Impedance Cardiography to Decrease the Risk of Preeclampsia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govImpedance Cardiography to Decrease the Risk of Preeclampsia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Impedance Cardiography to Decrease the Risk of Preeclampsia. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Impedance cardiography helps determine whether vasoconstriction or an elevated cardiac output is occurring. The test is easy to ... To determine if the use of impedance cardiography can identify appropriate medications for use in treating chronic hypertensive ... Anti-hypertensive medication prescribed for increased systemic vascular resistance as determined by impedance cardiography ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03245970

Non Invasive Measurement of Cardiac Index by Impedance Cardiography - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.govNon Invasive Measurement of Cardiac Index by Impedance Cardiography - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Other: Impedance cardiography noninvasive measure of cardiac index by impedance cardiography.. Other Name: patients with a ... Non Invasive Measurement of Cardiac Index by Impedance Cardiography. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Non Invasive Measurement of Cardiac Index by Impedance Cardiography. Official Title ICMJE Non Invasive Measurement of Cardiac ... In this study the investigators want to evaluate the impedance cardiography (ICG) as a non invasive method for CI measurement. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT01607515?term=%22High+Blood+Pressure%22&lup_s=04%2F10%2F2013&lup_d=14&show_rss=Y&sel_rss=mod14

PREVENT-HF: Prevention of Heart Failure Events With Impedance Cardiography TestingPREVENT-HF: Prevention of Heart Failure Events With Impedance Cardiography Testing

... clinicaltrials.gov The purpose of this study is to determine whether outpatient therapeutic management guided by impedance ... Noninvasive impedance cardiography (ICG) is a simple test that utilizes changes in thoracic electrical impedance to measure ... Home » Topics » Heart Failure » Research » PREVENT-HF: Prevention of Heart Failure Events With Impedance Cardiography Testing ... More From BioPortfolio on "PREVENT-HF: Prevention of Heart Failure Events With Impedance Cardiography Testing". *Related ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/103114/PREVENT-HF-Prevention-of-Heart-Failure-Events-With-Impedance-Cardiography-Testing.html

Systemic vascular resistance in intradialytic hypotension determined by means of impedance cardiography.Systemic vascular resistance in intradialytic hypotension determined by means of impedance cardiography.

Cardiography, Impedance*. Female. Hemodynamics. Humans. Hypotension / etiology*, physiopathology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / ... resistance were investigated in 68 patients on chronic intermittent hemodialysis utilizing bioelectrical impedance cardiography ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Systemic-vascular-resistance-in-intradialytic/9917537.html

Time-frequency features for impedance cardiography signals during anesthesia using different distribution kernelsTime-frequency features for impedance cardiography signals during anesthesia using different distribution kernels

... ... Materials and Methods: In the last years, impedance cardiography (ICG) is a technique which has gained much attention. However ... CitationEscrivá, J., Gambus, P., Jensen, E.W., Vallverdu, M. Time-frequency features for impedance cardiography signals during ... Time-Frequency Distributions (TFDs) with 5 different kernels are used in order to analyze impedance cardiography signals (ICG) ...
more infohttps://upcommons.upc.edu/handle/2117/115165

Influence of respiration on stroke volume determined by impedance cardiography. - Semantic ScholarInfluence of respiration on stroke volume determined by impedance cardiography. - Semantic Scholar

... with impedance has been to measure changes in thoracic impedance for only those beats of the impedance cardiogram (IC) which ... Stroke volume measurement during supine and upright cycle exercise by impedance cardiography. *Jon K. Moon, Andrew R Coggan, ... Temporal stability of ambulatory stroke volume and cardiac output measured by impedance cardiography.. *Annebet D. Goedhart, ... with impedance has been to measure changes in thoracic impedance for only those beats of the impedance cardiogram (IC) which ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Influence-of-respiration-on-stroke-volume-by-Doerr-Miles/258558cc1120d1686ad7d3e7579c521aa8391331

Whole Body Impedance Cardiography & Continuous Pulse Wave Analysis in the Measurement of Human Haemodynamics during Passive...Whole Body Impedance Cardiography & Continuous Pulse Wave Analysis in the Measurement of Human Haemodynamics during Passive...

Whole Body Impedance Cardiography & Continuous Pulse Wave Analysis in the Measurement of Human Haemodynamics during Passive ... Non-invasive haemodynamic measurements were performed by applying whole body impedance cardiography, continuous pulse wave ...
more infohttp://coronetbooks.com/books/new/whol6258.html

Impedance Cardiography (ICG) | ECPTherapy.comImpedance Cardiography (ICG) | ECPTherapy.com

Impedance Cardiography is a useful diagnostic tool with External Counterpulsation (ECP and EECP) Therapy to track improvements ... Filed Under: ECP Message Boards Tagged With: ecp therapy with impedance cardiography icg, eecp with icg, impedance cardiography ... Impedance Cardiography (ICG). October 16, 2013. External Counterpulsation Therapy has proven to remarkable benefits to overall ... Impedance Cardiography (ICG). ICG is a diagnostic tool that measures 12 different parameter relating to Flow, Resistance, ...
more infohttp://ecptherapy.com/impedance-cardiography/

Impedance Cardiography (ICG) | ECPTherapy.comImpedance Cardiography (ICG) | ECPTherapy.com

Impedance Cardiography (ICG) is a simple diagnostic tools that derives 12 parameters related to cardiac flow, resistance, ... Filed Under: ECP Message Boards Tagged With: ecp therapy with impedance cardiography icg, eecp with icg, impedance cardiography ... Impedance Cardiography (ICG). ICG is a diagnostic tool that measures 12 different parameter relating to Flow, Resistance, ... in conjunction with Impedance Cardiography, you email our staff at [email protected] ...
more infohttp://ecptherapy.com/impedance-cardiography-icg/

Validity of cardiac output measurement by computer-averaged impedance cardiography, and comparison with simultaneous...Validity of cardiac output measurement by computer-averaged impedance cardiography, and comparison with simultaneous...

Mean impedance output was 4.5 +/- 1.27 liter/min Reproducibility was comparable for impedance (0.0059 +/- 0.639) and ... Impedance cardiac output values agree and correlate highly with quality-controlled thermodilution outputs across a wide range ... Individual impedance values correlated with paired thermodilution determinations (r = 0.75; p less than 0.0001). Each patients ... In all, 43 patients (14 men and 29 women = 201 pairs) were studied by simultaneously performed impedance and thermal ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Validity-of-cardiac-output-measurement-by-impedance-Pickett-Buell/c00a01bb89ed9602c5f6bf8b7b7dc2db2a169e45

Comparing impedance cardiography and echocardiography in the assessment of reduced left ventricular systolic function | BMC...Comparing impedance cardiography and echocardiography in the assessment of reduced left ventricular systolic function | BMC...

Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a noninvasive and low-cost method of examination. The survey technique is simple and ICG ... Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a noninvasive and low-cost method of examination. The survey technique is simple and ICG ... Comparing impedance cardiography and echocardiography in the assessment of reduced left ventricular systolic function. ... Thompson B, Drazner MH, Dries DL, Yancy CW: Systolic time ratio by impedance cardiography to distinguish preserved vs impaired ...
more infohttps://bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-0500-6-114

Measurements of cardiac output by impedance cardiography in pacemaker patients at rest: effects of various atrioventricular...Measurements of cardiac output by impedance cardiography in pacemaker patients at rest: effects of various atrioventricular...

Impedance cardiography permits continuous noninvasive monitoring of hemodynamic variables on a beat to beat basis. Methods. ... The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of impedance cardiography to determine the change in cardiac output ... 1) Impedance cardiography allows highly reproducible noninvasive assessments of cardiac output in pacemaker patients; 2) ... Eleven patients with a DDD pacemaker were evaluated by impedance cardiography. Stroke volume, cardiac output and total ...
more infohttps://scholars.bgu.ac.il/display/n2358249

Correlation between impedance cardiography and b-type natriuretic peptide levels in dyspneic patients<...Correlation between impedance cardiography and b-type natriuretic peptide levels in dyspneic patients<...

Correlation between impedance cardiography and b-type natriuretic peptide levels in dyspneic patients. Journal of Emergency ... Correlation between impedance cardiography and b-type natriuretic peptide levels in dyspneic patients. / Havelka, Erika G.; ... Havelka, EG, Rzechula, KH, Bryant, TO, Anneken, SM & Kulstad, EB 2011, Correlation between impedance cardiography and b-type ... title = "Correlation between impedance cardiography and b-type natriuretic peptide levels in dyspneic patients", ...
more infohttps://utsouthwestern.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/correlation-between-impedance-cardiography-and-b-type-natriuretic

Holter-type impedance cardiography device. A system for continuous and non-invasive monitoring of cardiac haemodynamics |...Holter-type impedance cardiography device. A system for continuous and non-invasive monitoring of cardiac haemodynamics |...

Abstract: Impedance cardiography (ICG) enables the non-invasive, reproducible, beat-to-beat estimation of stroke volume (SV) ... Abstract: Impedance cardiography (ICG) enables the non-invasive, reproducible, beat-to-beat estimation of stroke volume (SV) ... Holter-type impedance cardiography device. A system for continuous and non-invasive monitoring of cardiac haemodynamics. ... Holter-type impedance cardiography device. A system for continuous and non-invasive monitoring of cardiac haemodynamics ...
more infohttps://ojs.kardiologiapolska.pl/kp/article/view/3054
  • With ICG, the placement of four dual disposable sensors on the neck and chest are used to transmit and detect electrical and impedance changes in the thorax, which are used to measure and calculate cardiodynamic parameters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smith [ 3 ] highlighted many of the flaws to the assumptions made by ICG in an older, but still very relevant, letter to the editor, including the effect on impedance of the body size and shape, resistivity of blood and regional blood flow. (biomedcentral.com)
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