A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family CARDIOBACTERIACEAE. It is found in the nasal flora of humans and causes ENDOCARDITIS.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. Some species are pathogenic for man.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the human mouth and intestine. Organisms of this genus can be opportunistic pathogens.
A family of gram-negative, parasitic bacteria including several important pathogens of man.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
Gram-negative bacteria isolated from infections of the respiratory and intestinal tracts and from the buccal cavity, intestinal tract, and urogenital tract. They are probably part of the normal flora of man and animals.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.

Endocarditis with ruptured cerebral aneurysm caused by Cardiobacterium valvarum sp. nov. (1/18)

A fastidious gram-negative bacterium was isolated from the blood of a 37-year-old man who had insidious endocarditis with a sudden rupture of a cerebral aneurysm. Characterization of the organism through phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses revealed a novel species of Cardiobacterium, for which the name Cardiobacterium valvarum sp. nov. is proposed. C. valvarum will supplement the current sole species Cardiobacterium hominis, a known cause of endocarditis. Surgeries and antibiotic treatment cured the patient's infection and associated complications. During cardiac surgery, a congenital bicuspid aortic valve was found to be the predisposing factor for his endocarditis.  (+info)

Characterization of oral strains of Cardiobacterium valvarum and emended description of the organism. (2/18)

The description of the new species Cardiobacterium valvarum prompted a search for additional strains of the organism. Here we report characterization of four oral Cardiobacterium strains from the Culture Collection of the University of Goteborg. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the organisms exhibited 99.6% to 99.3% homology with Cardiobacterium valvarum. The cellular fatty acid profiles, electrophoretic patterns of whole-cell proteins, growth rate and nutritional requirement, colonial and cellular morphology, and biochemical reactions were also similar to those of C. valvarum. These results thus classify these organisms as oral strains of C. valvarum. All strains were susceptible to many antibiotics tested. The description of the species was emended. C. valvarum is a rare cause of endocarditis, and its relationship with periodontal diseases may need investigation.  (+info)

The role of 16S rRNA gene sequencing in identification of microorganisms misidentified by conventional methods. (3/18)

Traditional methods for microbial identification require the recognition of differences in morphology, growth, enzymatic activity, and metabolism to define genera and species. Full and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods have emerged as useful tools for identifying phenotypically aberrant microorganisms. We report on three bacterial blood isolates from three different College of American Pathologists-certified laboratories that were referred to ARUP Laboratories for definitive identification. Because phenotypic identification suggested unusual organisms not typically associated with the submitted clinical diagnosis, consultation with the Medical Director was sought and further testing was performed including partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. All three patients had endocarditis, and conventional methods identified isolates from patients A, B, and C as a Facklamia sp., Eubacterium tenue, and a Bifidobacterium sp. 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified the isolates as Enterococcus faecalis, Cardiobacterium valvarum, and Streptococcus mutans, respectively. We conclude that the initial identifications of these three isolates were erroneous, may have misled clinicians, and potentially impacted patient care. 16S rRNA gene sequencing is a more objective identification tool, unaffected by phenotypic variation or technologist bias, and has the potential to reduce laboratory errors.  (+info)

Utility of extended blood culture incubation for isolation of Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella organisms: a retrospective multicenter evaluation. (4/18)

The incidence of and average time to detection for Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella (HACEK) bacteria in blood cultures with standard incubation and the utility of extended incubation of blood culture bottles were reviewed at four tertiary care microbiology laboratories. HACEK organisms were isolated from 35 (<0.005%) of 59,203 positive blood cultures. None of 407 blood cultures with extended incubation grew HACEK or other bacteria. Bacteremia from HACEK bacteria is rare, and extended incubation of blood cultures to recover HACEK bacteria is unnecessary.  (+info)

Endocarditis caused by Cardiobacterium valvarum. (5/18)

A fastidious, gram-negative bacterium was isolated from the blood of a 51-year-old man who had acute infectious endocarditis (IE). Characterization of the organism through phenotypic and genotypic analyses revealed the causative role of Cardiobacterium valvarum. This is the third reported case of IE caused by C. valvarum.  (+info)

Direct detection of Cardiobacterium hominis in serum from a patient with infective endocarditis by broad-range bacterial PCR. (6/18)

Bacterial DNA was detected directly in the serum of a patient with endocarditis by broad-range 16S rRNA PCR followed by sequencing and analysis of the results by the BLAST search. Using these methods, Cardiobacterium hominis was identified in 2 days from the date of serum collection. The microorganism was also isolated and identified using conventional methods (bacterial culture and biochemical tests) 17 days from the date of sample collection. This is the first report showing the direct detection of C. hominis in a patient's serum using molecular-based methods, emphasizing their potential usefulness as additional and rapid diagnostic tools for the detection and identification of fastidious bacteria.  (+info)

Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis: Two cases and a review of the literature. (7/18)

Cardiobacterium hominis, a member of the HACEK group (Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Haemophilus aphrophilus, and Haemophilus paraphrophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, C. hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella species), is a rare cause of endocarditis. There are 61 reported cases of C. hominis infective endocarditis in the English-language literature, 15 of which involved prosthetic valve endocarditis. There is one reported case of C. hominis after upper endoscopy and none reported after colonoscopy. Presented here are two cases of C. hominis prosthetic valve endocarditis following colonoscopy and a review of the microbiological and clinical features of C. hominis endocarditis. Patients with C. hominis infection have a long duration of symptoms preceding diagnosis (138+/-128 days). The most common symptoms were fever (74%), fatigue/malaise (53%), weight loss/anorexia (40%), night sweats (24%), and arthralgia/myalgia (21%). The most common risk factors were pre-existing cardiac disease (61%), the presence of a prosthetic valve (28%), and history of rheumatic fever (20%). Of the 61 cases reviewed here, the aortic valve was infected in 24 (39%) and the mitral valve in 19 (31%) patients. The average duration of blood culture incubation before growth was detected was 6.3 days (range, 2-21 days). Complications were congestive heart failure (40%), central nervous system (CNS) emboli (21%), arrhythmia (16%), and mycotic aneurysm (9%). C. hominis is almost always susceptible to beta-lactam antibiotics. Ceftriaxone is recommended by the recently published American Heart Association guidelines. The prognosis of C. hominis native valve and prosthetic valve endocarditis is favorable. The cure rate among 60 patients reviewed was 93% (56/60). For prosthetic valve endocarditis, the cure rate was 16/17 (94%). Valve replacement was required in 27 (45%) cases.  (+info)

Activity of DX-619 compared to other agents against viridans group streptococci, Streptococcus bovis, and Cardiobacterium hominis. (8/18)

Against 198 viridans group streptococci, 25 Streptococcus bovis strains, and 5 Cardiobacterium hominis strains, MICs of DX-619, a des-F(6)-quinolone, were between 0.004 and 0.25 microg/ml. These MICs were lower than those of other quinolones (< or = 0.008 to > 32 microg/ml). Beta-lactam MICs were between < or = 0.008 and 16 microg/ml. Azithromycin resistance was found in most species, while most were telithromycin susceptible. Glycopeptides and linezolid were active against viridans group strains but inactive against C. hominis.  (+info)

'Cardiobacterium' is a genus of Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are part of the normal flora found in the respiratory and upper gastrointestinal tracts of humans. One species within this genus, Cardiobacterium hominis, is known to cause infective endocarditis, which is an infection of the inner layer of the heart. This bacterium is often found in the mouth and can enter the bloodstream through dental procedures or other sources of trauma to the mouth or gums. Infection with Cardiobacterium hominis typically occurs in people with underlying heart conditions and can be difficult to diagnose due to its slow growth and fastidious nature. Treatment usually involves long-term antibiotic therapy.

Kingella is a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillary bacteria that are part of the normal flora in the human mouth, upper respiratory tract, and intestines. There are three species of medical importance: K. kingae, K. denitrificans, and K. negevensis.

K. kingae is an emerging cause of invasive diseases, particularly in children under 5 years old. It can cause septicemia, bacteremia, pneumonia, endocarditis, arthritis, and osteomyelitis. K. denitrificans and K. negevensis are less commonly associated with human infections, but they have been isolated from cases of bacteremia, meningitis, and respiratory tract infections.

The diagnosis of Kingella infections typically involves the isolation and identification of the organism from clinical specimens such as blood, synovial fluid, or cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics that are active against gram-negative bacteria, such as ceftriaxone or azithromycin.

'Eikenella' is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are part of the normal human microbiota, particularly in the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract. The most common species is *Eikenella corrodens*. These bacteria can cause localized or systemic infections, often following trauma or dental procedures, and are sometimes associated with human bites or wounds contaminated with saliva. Infections caused by Eikenella spp. can be difficult to diagnose due to their slow growth and fastidious nature, but they usually respond well to antibiotic therapy.

Neisseriaceae is a family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that includes several genera of medically significant organisms. The most well-known members of this family are Neisseria and Kingella, which include species that can cause various infections in humans.

The Neisseria genus includes several important human pathogens, such as N. gonorrhoeae (the causative agent of gonorrhea) and N. meningitidis (a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and sepsis). These organisms are typically found in the mucosal membranes of the respiratory and urogenital tracts.

The Kingella genus includes several species that can cause invasive infections, such as K. kingae (a common cause of bone and joint infections in young children) and K. denitrificans (which has been associated with endocarditis and bacteremia).

Overall, Neisseriaceae is an important family of bacteria that includes several significant human pathogens, many of which can cause serious and potentially life-threatening infections if left untreated.

Bacterial endocarditis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation and infection of the inner layer of the heart, known as the endocardium. This infection typically occurs when bacteria enter the bloodstream and attach themselves to damaged or abnormal heart valves or other parts of the endocardium. The bacteria can then multiply and cause the formation of vegetations, which are clusters of infected tissue that can further damage the heart valves and lead to serious complications such as heart failure, stroke, or even death if left untreated.

Bacterial endocarditis is a relatively uncommon but potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical attention. Risk factors for developing bacterial endocarditis include pre-existing heart conditions such as congenital heart defects, artificial heart valves, previous history of endocarditis, or other conditions that damage the heart valves. Intravenous drug use is also a significant risk factor for this condition.

Symptoms of bacterial endocarditis may include fever, chills, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, shortness of breath, chest pain, and a new or changing heart murmur. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, blood cultures, and imaging tests such as echocardiography. Treatment usually involves several weeks of intravenous antibiotics to eradicate the infection, and in some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart valves.

'Eikenella corrodens' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacterium that is commonly found as normal flora in the human oral cavity, upper respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. It is named for its ability to corrode or pit the surface of culture media.

Eikenella corrodens is a opportunistic pathogen that can cause localized infections such as abscesses, cellulitis, and endocarditis, particularly in individuals with underlying medical conditions or compromised immune systems. It has also been associated with bite wounds, human and animal bites, and trauma to the head and neck.

Eikenella corrodens is often resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin and ampicillin due to the production of beta-lactamase enzyme. However, it remains susceptible to other antibiotics such as carbapenems, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines.

Medical treatment for Eikenella corrodens infections typically involves the use of appropriate antibiotics based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing, along with surgical debridement or drainage of any abscesses or collections of pus.

Gram-negative bacterial infections refer to illnesses or diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which are a group of bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye during the Gram staining procedure used in microbiology. This characteristic is due to the structure of their cell walls, which contain a thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proteins, and phospholipids.

The LPS component of the outer membrane is responsible for the endotoxic properties of Gram-negative bacteria, which can lead to severe inflammatory responses in the host. Common Gram-negative bacterial pathogens include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Proteus mirabilis, among others.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can cause a wide range of clinical syndromes, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. The severity of these infections can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the patient's immune status, the site of infection, and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

Effective antibiotic therapy is crucial for treating Gram-negative bacterial infections, but the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern. Therefore, accurate diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial stewardship are essential to ensure optimal patient outcomes and prevent further spread of resistance.

Haemophilus is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found as part of the normal microbiota of the human respiratory tract. However, some species can cause infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

The most well-known species is Haemophilus influenzae, which was originally identified as a cause of influenza (hence the name), but it is now known that not all strains of H. influenzae cause this disease. In fact, the majority of H. influenzae infections are caused by strains that produce a polysaccharide capsule, which makes them more virulent and able to evade the host's immune system.

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was once a major cause of serious bacterial infections in children, including meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis. However, since the introduction of vaccines against Hib in the 1980s, the incidence of these infections has decreased dramatically.

Other Haemophilus species that can cause human infections include Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Haemophilus ducreyi (which causes chancroid), and Haemophilus aphrophilus (which can cause endocarditis).

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Species of Cardiobacterium include Cardiobacterium hominis and Cardiobacterium valvarum. (Articles with short description, ... Cardiobacterium is a Gram-negative bacillus (rod-shaped) bacterium commonly grouped with other bacteria into the HACEK group. ...
... is a Gram-negative bacillus (rod-shaped) bacterium commonly grouped with other bacteria into the HACEK ... Malani, AN; Aronoff, DM; Bradley, SF; Kauffman, CA (September 2006). "Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis: Two cases and a ... Savage, DD; Kagan, RL; Young, NA; Horvath, AE (January 1977). "Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis: Description of two ... ISBN 9780198569251.[full citation needed] Image: Cardibacterium hominins Type strain of Cardiobacterium hominis at BacDive - ...
The only other identified Cardiobacterium species is Cardiobacterium hominis. Cardiobacterium species are Gram-negative, ... Cardiobacterium valvarum is a Gram-negative species of bacteria belonging to the Cardiobacterium genus. It belongs to the HACEK ... The Cardiobacterium species are broadly susceptible to beta-lactam, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones, and ... When compared morphologically, the two Cardiobacterium species are indistinguishable in culture and Gram stain, however the two ...
Cardiobacterium hominis also causes endocarditis. Cardiobacterium hominis is part of the HACEK group of bacteria that cause ... With these changes they reassigned the genera Cardiobacterium, Dichelobacter, and Suttonella to the new family of ... and Assignment of the Genera Cardiobacterium, Dichelobacter, and Suttonella to Cardiobacteriaceae fam. nov. in the Gamma ...
DUF3577 motifs are found in the organism Cardiobacterium valvarum and metagenomic sequences from unknown organisms. DUF3577 ...
Aggregatibacter segnis Cardiobacterium Cardiobacterium hominis: This is the most common species in the genus Cardiobacterium. ... Cardiobacterium valvarum Eikenella Eikenella corrodens Kingella Kingella denitrificans Kingella kingae: This is the most common ... Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella. The HACEK organisms are a normal part of the human microbiota, living in the oral- ... Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae. However, taxonomic rearrangements have changed the A to ...
Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella organisms: a retrospective multicenter evaluation". J. Clin. Microbiol. 44 (1): 257-9 ...
Cardiobacterium, Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Psychrobacter have been recognized. Among the Bacillota, bacteria belonging to ...
... microaerophilic bacterium species in the genus Campylobacter Cardiobacterium hominis, a bacterium species that normally resides ...
The HACEK organisms (Haemophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella ...
Cardiobacterium MeSH B03.440.450.342.550 - Dichelobacter nodosus MeSH B03.440.450.360 - Chromobacterium MeSH B03.440.450.400 - ... Cardiobacterium MeSH B03.660.250.080.550 - Dichelobacter nodosus MeSH B03.660.250.110 - chromatiaceae MeSH B03.660.250.110.150 ...
Species of Cardiobacterium include Cardiobacterium hominis and Cardiobacterium valvarum. (Articles with short description, ... Cardiobacterium is a Gram-negative bacillus (rod-shaped) bacterium commonly grouped with other bacteria into the HACEK group. ...
Cardiobacterium hominis is a member of the HACEK group (Haemophilus paraphrophilus, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Aggregatibacter ... Cardiobacterium hominis and Cardiobacterium valvarum: Two Case Stories with Infective Episodes in Pacemaker Treated Patients. ... encoded search term (Cardiobacterium) and Cardiobacterium What to Read Next on Medscape ... Nearly all Cardiobacterium infections reported in humans have been in the form of bacteremia or endocarditis. [4] Rare ...
Species: Cardiobacterium valvarum. Download Options Full Lineage: Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; ...
Bismuth subsalicylate four times daily reduces rates of travelers diarrhea.[2][26] Though many travelers find a four-times-per-day regimen inconvenient, lower doses have not been shown to be effective.[2][26] Potential side effects include black tongue, black stools, nausea, constipation, and ringing in the ears. Bismuth subsalicylate should not be taken by those with aspirin allergy, kidney disease, or gout, nor concurrently with certain antibiotics such as the quinolones, and should not be taken continuously for more than three weeks.[medical citation needed] Some countries do not recommend it due to the risk of rare but serious side effects.[26] A hyperimmune bovine colostrum to be taken by mouth is marketed in Australia for prevention of ETEC-induced TD. As yet, no studies show efficacy under actual travel conditions.[3] Though effective, antibiotics are not recommended for prevention of TD in most situations because of the risk of allergy or adverse reactions to the antibiotics, and ...
HACEK, Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella.. Main Article. 1These 2 authors have contributed ...
HACEK (ie, Haemophilus aphrophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, ...
Bacteria cardiobacterium hominis 3d illustration gram negative bacterium normally present in mouth nose and throat and can be ...
IE is common in bacteremia with Aggregatibacter, Cardiobacterium, and Kingella but relatively rare in Haemophilus and Eikenella ... IE is common in bacteremia with Aggregatibacter, Cardiobacterium, and Kingella but relatively rare in Haemophilus and Eikenella ... Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella genera (HACEK). A retrospective population-based cohort of patients with bacteremia ... Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella genera (HACEK). A retrospective population-based cohort of patients with bacteremia ...
Cardiobacterium RSV_genus1162 Bacteria;Proteobacteria;Gammaproteobacteria;Cardiobacteriales;Cardiobacteriaceae;NA RSV_genus1163 ...
Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella) organisms.4,7 Physicians should ask the patient about high-risk sexual activities and ...
Cardiobacteriumhominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella species. These are part of the normal human oral flora and may be ...
WikiZero Özgür Ansiklopedi - Wikipedia Okumanın En Kolay Yolu
ntroduction: The HACEK group (Haemophilus, Aggregatibacter, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella) includes slow-growing gram- ...
Endocarditis due to cardiobacterium hominis in a 4-year-old boy, complicated by right lower lobe pulmonary artery mycotic ...
The HACEK group (Haemophilus species, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, ...
van Belkum, A., Almeida, C., Bardiaux, B., Barrass, S. V., Butcher, S. J., Çaykara, T., Chowdhury, S., Datar, R., Eastwood, I., Goldman, A., Goyal, M., Happonen, L., Izadi-Pruneyre, N., Jacobsen, T., Johnson, P. H., Kempf, V. A. J., Kiessling, A., Bueno, J. L., Malik, A., Malmström, J., & 14 othersMeuskens, I., Milner, P. A., Nilges, M., Pamme, N., Peyman, S. A., Rodrigues, L. R., Rodriguez-Mateos, P., Sande, M. G., Silva, C. J., Stasiak, A. C., Stehle, T., Thibau, A., Vaca, D. J. & Linke, D., 2021 Jul, In: Diagnostics. 11, 7, 1259.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Review article › peer-review ...
We are Haemophilus aphrophilus (and Haemophilus paraphrophilus), Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, ...
While some Cardiobacterium species are part of the normal microbiota in the mouth and throat, others like Dichelobacter species ...
Vibrio alginolyticus is a Gram-negative marine bacterium.[1][2] It is medically important since it causes otitis and wound infection.[1] It is also present in the bodies of animals such as pufferfish, where it is responsible for the production of the potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin.[3] Vibrio alginolyticus are commonly found in aquatic environments. Some strains of V. alginolyticus are highly salt tolerant and commonly found in marine environment.[2] S.I. Paul et al. (2021)[2] isolated and identified many strains of Vibrio alginolyticus from nine marine sponges of the Saint Martins Island Area of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. ...
In the Late Middle Ages (1340-1400) Europe experienced the most deadly disease outbreak in history when the Black Death, the infamous pandemic of bubonic plague, hit in 1347, killing a third of the human population. Some historians believe that society subsequently became more violent as the mass mortality rate cheapened life and thus increased warfare, crime, popular revolt, waves of flagellants, and persecution.[20] The Black Death originated in or near China and spread from Italy and then throughout other European countries. Arab historians Ibn Al-Wardni and Almaqrizi believed the Black Death originated in Mongolia. Chinese records also showed a huge outbreak in Mongolia in the early 1330s.[21] Research published in 2002 suggests that it began in early 1346 in the steppe region, where a plague reservoir stretches from the northwestern shore of the Caspian Sea into southern Russia. The Mongols had cut off the trade route, the Silk Road, between China and Europe which halted the spread of the ...
There are three genera: CARDIOBACTERIUM; DICHELOBACTER; and Suttonella.. Annotation:. infection: coord IM with GRAM-NEGATIVE ...
Class I. 1. Removal of device and lead is recommended for all patients with definite CIED infection. This includes pocket infection such as abscess, erosion of the device, skin adherence, chronic draining sinus.. 2. Complete device and lead removal is recommended for all patients with valvular endocarditis without definite involvement of the lead.. 3. Occult staphylococcal bacteremia removal of the device and lead is recommended.. Class IIa. 1. Reasonable to remove the device and lead if persistent occult Gram-negative bacteremia despite antibiotic therapy.. Class III. 1. Removal is not needed for indicated for a superficial or incisional infection.. 2. Relapsing bloodstream infection due to a a non-CIED source for which long-term suppressive antimicrobials are required removal is not required.. ...
The HACEK group of bacteria (Haemophilus spp., Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella ...
10] Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae (HACEK) organisms, [11] with streptococcal and ...
10] Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae (HACEK) organisms, [11] with streptococcal and ...
Other Gram-negative cocci include Neisseria, Moraxella, Kingella, Cardiobacterium, and Eikenella species.. ...
HACEK group microorganisms (Haemophilus species, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella ...
Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella) organisms ...

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