A family of bivalve MOLLUSKS with heart-shaped shells, commonly known as cockles. Unlike most BIVALVES, cockles are hermaphroditic.

Interaction between non-specific electrostatic forces and humoral factors in haemocyte attachment and encapsulation in the edible cockle, Cerastoderma edule. (1/7)

In invertebrates, encapsulation is the common immune defence reaction towards foreign bodies, including multicellular parasites, which enter the haemocoel and are too large to be phagocytosed. This immune response has been most extensively studied in insects, in which it is highly complex, involving a diversity of cellular and molecular processes, but little is known of this process in bivalve molluscs. Non-specific physicochemical properties are known to influence parasite-haemocyte interactions in many invertebrates, and these may provide the common basis of encapsulation on which highly specific biochemical interactions are imposed. The present study uses synthetic beads and thread to mimic inactive metacercarial cysts of trematodes, and thus investigates factors involved in the basic, non-specific mechanisms of cell attachment and encapsulation in the edible cockle, Cerastoderma edule. Results showed that positively charged targets stimulated the most vigorous response, and further detailed experiments revealed that non-specific electrostatic forces and humoral plasma factors have a synergistic role in haemocyte attachment and the encapsulation response of C. edule.  (+info)

Effect of temperature on emergence, survival and infectivity of cercariae of the marine trematode Renicola roscovita (Digenea: Renicolidae). (2/7)

Marine bivalves harbour a diversity of trematode parasites affecting population and community dynamics of their hosts. Although ecologically and economically important, factors influencing transmission between first (snail) and second (bivalve) intermediate hosts have rarely been studied in marine systems. In laboratory experiments, the effect of temperature (10, 15, 20, 25 degrees C) was investigated on (1) emergence from snails, (2) survival outside hosts and (3) infectivity in second intermediate hosts of cercariae of the trematode Renicola roscovita (Digenea: Renicolidae), a major parasite in North Sea bivalves. Emergence of cercariae peaked at 20 degrees C (2609 +/- 478 cercariae snail(-1) 120 h(-1)) and was considerably lower at 10 degrees C (80 +/- 79), 15 degrees C (747 +/- 384) and 25 degrees C (1141 +/- 334). Survival time decreased with increasing temperature, resulting in 50% mortality of the cercariae after 32.8 +/- 0.6 h (10 degrees C), 26.8 +/- 0.8 h (15 degrees C), 20.2 +/- 0.5 h (20 degrees C) and 16.6 +/- 0.3 h (25 degrees C ). Infectivity of R. roscovita cercariae in cockles Cerastoderma edule increased with increasing temperature and was highest at 25 degrees C (42.6 +/- 3.9%). However, mesocosm experiments with infected snails and cockle hosts in small aquaria, integrating cercarial emergence, survival and infectivity, showed highest infection of cockles at 20 degrees C (415 +/- 115 metacercariae host(-1)), indicating 20 degrees C to be the optimum temperature for transmission of this species. A field experiment showed metacercariae of R. roscovita to appear in C. edule with rising water temperature in April; highest infection rates were in August, when the water temperature reached 20 degrees C. Since another trematode species (Himasthla elongata; Digenea: Echinostomatidae) occurring at the experimental site showed a similar temporal pattern, trematode transmission to second intermediate bivalve hosts may peak during especially warm (> or = 20 degrees C) summers in the variable climate regime of the North Sea.  (+info)

Novel plasmid-encoded ceftazidime-hydrolyzing CTX-M-53 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase from Salmonella enterica serotypes Westhampton and Senftenberg. (3/7)

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In-house validation of a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of lipophilic marine toxins in shellfish using matrix-matched calibration. (4/7)

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Modelling shellfish growth with dynamic energy budget models: an application for cockles and mussels in the Oosterschelde (southwest Netherlands). (5/7)

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Phylogenetic study and barcoding of the blood cockle, Tegillarca granosa, found on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia using the COI gene. (6/7)

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Utilization of molecular markers for the conservation of blood cockles, Anadara granosa (Arcidae). (7/7)

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Cardiidae is a family of marine bivalve mollusks commonly known as cockles or heart clams. The name Cardiidae comes from the Greek word "kardia" which means heart, referring to the shell shape of many species in this family that resembles a heart.

Members of this family have two equal-sized shells, or valves, that are typically rounded and convex in shape. They have a distinctive set of muscle scars on the inside of the shell called "pallial lines" which are used to identify different species. Cardiids are filter feeders, using their gills to extract food particles from the water.

Cardiidae species can be found in a variety of habitats, including sandy and muddy seafloors, and some live in shallow waters while others can be found at depths of several thousand meters. Some well-known cardiid genera include Cardium, Cerastoderma, and Laevicardium.

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