The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.
Dynamic three-dimensional echocardiography using the added dimension of time to impart the cinematic perception of motion. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)
The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.
Echocardiography amplified by the addition of depth to the conventional two-dimensional ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY visualizing only the length and width of the heart. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was first described in 1961 but its application to echocardiography did not take place until 1974. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
Surgery performed on the heart.
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

Ventricular pressure-volume curve indices change with end-diastolic pressure. (1/476)

Many indices have been proposed to describee the diastolic pressure-volume curve mathematically and permit quantification of the elastic properties of the myocardium itself in hopes that changes in the muscle caused by disease would b.e reflected in the diastolic pressure-volume curve. To date, none of the proposed indices has been shown convincingly to discriminate one group of patients from another. While this situation in part arises from the relatively large amount of noise introduced by the technical difficulties of measuring synchronous pressures and volumes during diastole in man, ther is a more fundamental difficulty. In practice, one can measure only a short segment of the entire pressure-volume curve, and the values of all diastolic pressure-volume curve parameters investigated change significantly when one uses different segments of the same pressure-volume curve to compute them. These results were derived from relatively noise-free pressure-volume curves obtained by filling nine excised dog left ventricles at a known rate and monitoring pressure-volume curve used to compute the parameter. Merely increasing measurement fidelity will not resolve this problem, because none of these parameters accurately characterizes the entire diastolic pressure-volume curbe from a segment like that which one can reasonably expect to obtain from humans.  (+info)

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters cardiovascular and craniofacial development and function in sac fry of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (2/476)

Hallmark signs of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity in rainbow trout sac fry, are yolk sac edema, hemorrhage, craniofacial malformation, and growth retardation culminating in mortality. Our objective was to determine the role of cardiovascular dysfunction in the development of this toxicity. An embryotoxic TCDD dose (385 pg/g egg) caused a progressive reduction in blood flow in rainbow trout sac fry manifested first and most dramatically in the 1st and 2nd branchial arches and vessels perfusing the lower jaw. Blood flow was reduced later in the infraorbital artery and occipital vein of the head as well as segmental vessels and caudal vein of the trunk. Reduced perfusion occurred last in gill branchial arteries involved with oxygen uptake and the subintestinal vein and vitelline vein involved with nutrient uptake. Although heart rate throughout sac fry development was not affected, heart size at 50 days post-fertilization (dpf) was reduced far more than body weight or length, suggesting that the progressive circulatory failure caused by TCDD is associated with reduced cardiac output. Craniofacial development was arrested near hatch, giving rise to craniofacial malformations in which the jaws and anterior nasal structures were underdeveloped. Unlike the medaka embryo, in which TCDD causes apoptosis in the medial yolk vein, endothelial cell death was not observed in rainbow trout sac fry. These findings suggest a primary role for arrested heart development and reduced perfusion of tissues with blood in the early-life stage toxicity of TCDD in trout.  (+info)

Left ventricular function in chronic renal failure. (3/476)

Left ventricular function was studied in 14 patients with end-stage chronic renal failure using non-invasive methods (echocardiography and systolic time intervals). Patients were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 consisted of 5 patients who were normotensive at the time of study and group 2 of 7 patients who were hypertensive when studied. Group 3 consisted of 2 patients: one was receiving propranolol and the other, studied 302 days after renal transplantation, was receiving digitalis for recurrent episodes of cardiac failure. All except the patient receiving propranolol had normal left ventricular function in systole with normal measurements of fractional fibre shortening (% delta S, EF) and normal measurements relating to the velocity of ventricular contraction (mean Vcf, mean velocity of posterior wall motion). Stroke volume and cardiac output were normal in some patients but were increased in patients with fluid overload. Early diastolic compliance of the left ventricle seemed to be normal except in the patient with recurrent cardiac failure. The study provided no evidence for the existence of a specific uraemic cardiomyopathy.  (+info)

Fetal pulmonary venous flow into the left atrium relative to diastolic and systolic cardiac time intervals. (4/476)

OBJECTIVE: To establish the nature and gestational age dependency of the pulmonary venous flow velocity pattern into the left atrium relative to systolic and diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of Doppler measurements of fetal pulmonary venous inflow velocities, which were correlated with simultaneous recordings of transmitral and aortic flow velocity waveforms based on an equal cardiac cycle length (+/- 5%). RESULTS: Successful recordings were obtained in 28 out of 60 (47%) normal singleton pregnancies at 20-36 weeks of gestation. Reproducibility of waveform analysis of the various phases of the cardiac cycle was satisfactory, within-patient variance ranging between 1.7% and 6.5%. A statistically significant increase (p < 0.05) in pulmonary venous time average velocity and velocity integral with advancing gestational age was established. A statistically significant increase (p < 0.05) of the pulmonary flow velocity integral was also found when related to each of the systolic and diastolic segments of the cardiac cycle, with the exception of isovolemic relaxation time. The duration of each of the diastolic and systolic segments of the cardiac cycle, as well as the pulmonary venous velocity integral expressed as a percentage of the cardiac cycle, remained constant with advancing gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: The second half of pregnancy is characterized by pulmonary venous inflow into the left atrium throughout the cardiac cycle. Pulmonary venous inflow into the left atrium occurs predominantly during the filling and ejection phases of the cardiac cycle. Absolute cardiac diastolic and systolic time intervals as well as the percentage distribution of pulmonary venous flow velocity integrals between these cardiac time intervals remain unchanged with advancing gestational age.  (+info)

Familial predisposition of left ventricular hypertrophy. (5/476)

OBJECTIVES: The study evaluated the contribution of familial predisposition to the risk of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy is a multifactorial condition that serves as an important predictor of cardiovascular mortality. At present it is unclear whether familial predisposition contributes to the manifestation of LVH. Thus, we determined whether siblings of subjects with LVH are at increased risk to present with an elevation of LV mass or an abnormal LV geometry. METHODS: Echocardiographic and anthropometric measurements were performed in 2,293 individuals who participated in the echocardiographic substudies of population-based MONICA Augsburg surveys. In addition, a total of 319 siblings of survey participants with echocardiographic evidence of LVH were evaluated. The risk of these siblings to present with LVH or abnormal LV geometry was estimated by comparison with 636 subjects matched for gender and age that were selected from the entire echocardiography study base. RESULTS: Blood pressure, body mass index, age, and gender (i.e., known determinants of LV mass) were comparable in LVH-siblings and the matched comparison group. However, septal and posterior wall thicknesses, relative wall thickness as well as LV mass index were significantly elevated in LVH-siblings (p < 0.001, each) whereas LV dimensions did not differ. Likewise, the prevalence of LVH was raised in LVH-siblings, as was the relative risk of LVH after adjustment for confounders (p < 0.05). More specifically, LVH-siblings displayed increased prevalences of concentric remodeling and concentric LVH (p < 0.05) but not of eccentric LVH. CONCLUSIONS: Familial predisposition appears to contribute to increased LV wall thickness, to the development of LV hypertrophy and abnormal LV geometry.  (+info)

Role of cardiac structural and functional abnormalities in the pathogenesis of hyperdynamic circulation and renal sodium retention in cirrhosis. (6/476)

The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between subtle cardiovascular abnormalities and abnormal sodium handling in cirrhosis. A total of 35 biopsy-proven patients with cirrhosis with or without ascites and 14 age-matched controls underwent two-dimensional echocardiography and radionuclide angiography for assessment of cardiac volumes, structural changes and systolic and diastolic functions under strict metabolic conditions of a sodium intake of 22 mmol/day. Cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance and pressure/volume relationship (an index of cardiac contractility) were calculated. Eight controls and 14 patients with non-ascitic cirrhosis underwent repeat volume measurements and the pressure/volume relationship was re-evaluated after consuming a diet containing 200 mmol of sodium/day for 7 days. Ascitic cirrhotic patients had significant reductions in (i) cardiac pre-load (end diastolic volume 106+/-9 ml; P<0.05 compared with controls), due to relatively thicker left ventricular wall and septum (P<0.05); (ii) afterload (systemic vascular resistance 992+/-84; P<0. 05 compared with controls) due to systemic arterial vasodilatation; and (iii) reversal of the pressure/volume relationship, indicating contractility dysfunction. Increased cardiac output (6.12+/-0.45 litres/min; P<0.05 compared with controls) was due to a significantly increased heart rate. Pre-ascitic cirrhotic patients had contractile dysfunction, which was accentuated when challenged with a dietary sodium load, associated with renal sodium retention (urinary sodium excretion 162+/-12 mmol/day, compared with 197+/-12 mmol/day in controls; P<0.05). Cardiac output was maintained, since the pre-load was normal or increased, despite a mild degree of ventricular thickening, indicating some diastolic dysfunction. We conclude that: (i) contractile dysfunction is present in cirrhosis and is aggravated by a sodium load; (ii) an increased pre-load in the pre-ascitic patients compensates for the cardiac dysfunction; and (iii) in ascitic patients, a reduced afterload, manifested as systemic arterial vasodilatation, compensates for a reduced pre-load and contractile dysfunction. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy may well play a pathogenic role in the complications of cirrhosis.  (+info)

Patterns of body fat deposition in youth and their relation to left ventricular markers of adverse cardiovascular prognosis. (7/476)

The patterns of body fat deposition in healthy youth and their relation to future development of cardiovascular disease remain incompletely understood. To further evaluate these patterns, we measured indirect indexes of central and general fat deposition in healthy adolescents (mean age 15.4+/-2.3 years) with family histories of hypertension. We examined the relation between these indexes and echocardiographic markers of adverse prognosis as well as the effect of gender and ethnicity. All 225 subjects (64% black and 48% female) had > or =1 biologic parent and 1 grandparent with hypertension. Skinfold thicknesses, waist-to-hip girth ratio, Quetelet index, Ponderal index, conicity, and Z score weight - Z score height were measured. Left ventricular (LV) mass, indexed LV mass, relative wall thickness (RWT), and midwall fractional shortening (MFS) were determined using echocardiography. In both black and white subjects, the adiposity indexes were significantly correlated with posterior wall thickness, total LV mass, and indexed LV mass (p <0.05 for all). Additionally, in black subjects, central adiposity was inversely related to MFS and directly related to RWT and septal thickness. General adiposity independently predicted indexed and nonindexed LV mass, whereas central adiposity predicted MFS and RWT. Compared with subjects with normal LV geometry, those with abnormal geometry were heavier and fatter based on every index of obesity (p <0.03 for all). Thus, indexes of fat deposition are significantly correlated with LV markers of adverse prognosis in healthy youth.  (+info)

Changes in left ventricular filling and left atrial function six months after nonsurgical septal reduction therapy for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. (8/476)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in left ventricular (LV) filling, left atrial (LA) volumes and function six months after nonsurgical septal reduction therapy (NSRT) for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). BACKGROUND: Patients with HOCM frequently have enlarged left atria, which predisposes them to atrial fibrillation. Nonsurgical septal reduction therapy results in significant reduction in left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction and symptomatic improvement. However, its effect on LV passive filling volume, LA volumes and function is not yet known. METHODS: Thirty patients with HOCM underwent treadmill exercise testing as well as 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography before and six months after NSRT. Data included clinical status, exercise duration, LVOT gradient, mitral regurgitant (MR) volume, LV pre-A pressure and LA volumes. Left atrial ejection force and kinetic energy (KE) were computed noninvasively and were compared with 12 age-matched, normal subjects. RESULTS: New York Heart Association (NYHA) class was lower and exercise duration was longer (p < 0.05) six months after NSRT. The LVOT gradient, MR volume and LV pre-A pressure were all significantly reduced. HOCM patients had larger atria, which had a higher ejection force and KE, compared with normal subjects (p < 0.01). After NSRT, LV passive filling volume increased (p < 0.01), whereas LA volumes, ejection force and KE decreased (p < 0.01). Reduction in LA maximal volume was positively related to changes in LV pre-A pressure (r = 0.8, p < 0.05) and MR volume (0.4, p < 0.05). Changes in LA ejection force were positively related to changes in LA pre-A volume (r = 0.7, p < 0.01) and KE (r = 0.81, p < 0.01). The increase in exercise duration paralleled the increase in LV passive filling volume (r = 0.85, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Nonsurgical septal reduction therapy results in an increase in LV passive filling volume and a reduction in LA size, ejection force and KE.  (+info)

Cardiac volume refers to the amount of blood contained within the heart chambers at any given point in time. It is a measure of the volume of blood that is being moved by the heart during each cardiac cycle, which includes both systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) phases.

There are several types of cardiac volumes that are commonly measured or estimated using medical imaging techniques such as echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These include:

1. End-diastolic volume (EDV): This is the volume of blood in the heart chambers at the end of diastole, when the heart chambers are fully filled with blood.
2. End-systolic volume (ESV): This is the volume of blood in the heart chambers at the end of systole, when the heart chambers have contracted and ejected most of the blood.
3. Stroke volume (SV): This is the difference between the EDV and ESV, and represents the amount of blood that is pumped out of the heart with each beat.
4. Cardiac output (CO): This is the product of the stroke volume and heart rate, and represents the total amount of blood that is pumped by the heart in one minute.

Abnormalities in cardiac volumes can indicate various heart conditions such as heart failure, valvular heart disease, or cardiomyopathy.

Four-dimensional echocardiography (4D echo) is a type of ultrasound imaging that captures the movement and function of the heart in three dimensions over time. It uses advanced software to create a real-time 3D image of the heart, allowing cardiologists to visualize and analyze its structure and motion from various angles. This technique provides detailed information about the size, shape, and function of the heart chambers, valves, and surrounding structures, which can help in the diagnosis and management of various heart conditions.

In 4D echo, the fourth dimension refers to time, as it allows for the analysis of motion and change over time. This technique provides more comprehensive information compared to traditional two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography, which only captures a single plane of the heart at a time. Four-dimensional echocardiography is a valuable tool in the field of cardiology, as it can help clinicians make more informed decisions about patient care and treatment planning.

The fetal heart is the cardiovascular organ that develops in the growing fetus during pregnancy. It starts to form around 22 days after conception and continues to develop throughout the first trimester. By the end of the eighth week of gestation, the fetal heart has developed enough to pump blood throughout the body.

The fetal heart is similar in structure to the adult heart but has some differences. It is smaller and more compact, with a four-chambered structure that includes two atria and two ventricles. The fetal heart also has unique features such as the foramen ovale, which is a hole between the right and left atria that allows blood to bypass the lungs, and the ductus arteriosus, a blood vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta and diverts blood away from the lungs.

The fetal heart is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood from the placenta to the rest of the body and returning deoxygenated blood back to the placenta for re-oxygenation. The rate of the fetal heartbeat is faster than that of an adult, typically ranging from 120 to 160 beats per minute. Fetal heart rate monitoring is a common method used during pregnancy and childbirth to assess the health and well-being of the developing fetus.

Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) is a type of cardiac ultrasound that uses advanced technologies to create a real-time, detailed 3D image of the heart. This imaging technique provides a more comprehensive view of the heart's structure and function compared to traditional 2D echocardiography. By visualizing the heart from multiple angles, 3DE can help physicians better assess complex cardiac conditions, plan treatments, and monitor their effectiveness.

In a 3DE examination, a transducer (a handheld device that emits and receives sound waves) is placed on the chest to capture ultrasound data. This data is then processed by specialized software to create a 3D model of the heart. The procedure is non-invasive and typically takes less than an hour to complete.

Three-dimensional echocardiography has several clinical applications, including:

1. Evaluation of cardiac morphology and function in congenital heart disease
2. Assessment of valvular structure and function, such as mitral or aortic valve regurgitation or stenosis
3. Guidance during interventional procedures like transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)
4. Quantification of left ventricular volumes, ejection fraction, and mass
5. Assessment of right ventricular size and function
6. Detection and monitoring of cardiac tumors or other masses
7. Pre-surgical planning for complex heart surgeries

Overall, 3DE offers a more accurate and detailed view of the heart, allowing healthcare providers to make informed decisions about patient care and improve outcomes.

In medical terms, the heart is a muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity that functions as a pump to circulate blood throughout the body. It's responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. The human heart is divided into four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs, while the left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it out to the rest of the body. The heart's rhythmic contractions and relaxations are regulated by a complex electrical conduction system.

Stroke volume is a term used in cardiovascular physiology and medicine. It refers to the amount of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle of the heart during each contraction (systole). Specifically, it is the difference between the volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of diastole (when the ventricle is filled with blood) and the volume at the end of systole (when the ventricle has contracted and ejected its contents into the aorta).

Stroke volume is an important measure of heart function, as it reflects the ability of the heart to pump blood effectively to the rest of the body. A low stroke volume may indicate that the heart is not pumping efficiently, while a high stroke volume may suggest that the heart is working too hard. Stroke volume can be affected by various factors, including heart disease, high blood pressure, and physical fitness level.

The formula for calculating stroke volume is:

Stroke Volume = End-Diastolic Volume - End-Systolic Volume

Where end-diastolic volume (EDV) is the volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of diastole, and end-systolic volume (ESV) is the volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of systole.

Cardiac myocytes are the muscle cells that make up the heart muscle, also known as the myocardium. These specialized cells are responsible for contracting and relaxing in a coordinated manner to pump blood throughout the body. They differ from skeletal muscle cells in several ways, including their ability to generate their own electrical impulses, which allows the heart to function as an independent rhythmical pump. Cardiac myocytes contain sarcomeres, the contractile units of the muscle, and are connected to each other by intercalated discs that help coordinate contraction and ensure the synchronous beating of the heart.

Cardiac output is a measure of the amount of blood that is pumped by the heart in one minute. It is defined as the product of stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle during each contraction) and heart rate (the number of contractions per minute). Normal cardiac output at rest for an average-sized adult is about 5 to 6 liters per minute. Cardiac output can be increased during exercise or other conditions that require more blood flow, such as during illness or injury. It can be measured noninvasively using techniques such as echocardiography or invasively through a catheter placed in the heart.

Blood volume refers to the total amount of blood present in an individual's circulatory system at any given time. It is the combined volume of both the plasma (the liquid component of blood) and the formed elements (such as red and white blood cells and platelets) in the blood. In a healthy adult human, the average blood volume is approximately 5 liters (or about 1 gallon). However, blood volume can vary depending on several factors, including age, sex, body weight, and overall health status.

Blood volume plays a critical role in maintaining proper cardiovascular function, as it affects blood pressure, heart rate, and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues throughout the body. Changes in blood volume can have significant impacts on an individual's health and may be associated with various medical conditions, such as dehydration, hemorrhage, heart failure, and liver disease. Accurate measurement of blood volume is essential for diagnosing and managing these conditions, as well as for guiding treatment decisions in clinical settings.

Cardiac surgical procedures are operations that are performed on the heart or great vessels (the aorta and vena cava) by cardiothoracic surgeons. These surgeries are often complex and require a high level of skill and expertise. Some common reasons for cardiac surgical procedures include:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This is a surgery to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with coronary artery disease. During the procedure, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is used to create a detour around the blocked or narrowed portion of the coronary artery.
2. Valve repair or replacement: The heart has four valves that control blood flow through and out of the heart. If one or more of these valves become damaged or diseased, they may need to be repaired or replaced. This can be done using artificial valves or valves from animal or human donors.
3. Aneurysm repair: An aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of an artery that can bulge out and potentially rupture. If an aneurysm occurs in the aorta, it may require surgical repair to prevent rupture.
4. Heart transplantation: In some cases, heart failure may be so severe that a heart transplant is necessary. This involves removing the diseased heart and replacing it with a healthy donor heart.
5. Arrhythmia surgery: Certain types of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) may require surgical treatment. One such procedure is called the Maze procedure, which involves creating a pattern of scar tissue in the heart to disrupt the abnormal electrical signals that cause the arrhythmia.
6. Congenital heart defect repair: Some people are born with structural problems in their hearts that require surgical correction. These may include holes between the chambers of the heart or abnormal blood vessels.

Cardiac surgical procedures carry risks, including bleeding, infection, stroke, and death. However, for many patients, these surgeries can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

Cardiac arrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms that result from disturbances in the electrical conduction system of the heart. The heart's normal rhythm is controlled by an electrical signal that originates in the sinoatrial (SA) node, located in the right atrium. This signal travels through the atrioventricular (AV) node and into the ventricles, causing them to contract and pump blood throughout the body.

An arrhythmia occurs when there is a disruption in this electrical pathway or when the heart's natural pacemaker produces an abnormal rhythm. This can cause the heart to beat too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia), or irregularly.

There are several types of cardiac arrhythmias, including:

1. Atrial fibrillation: A rapid and irregular heartbeat that starts in the atria (the upper chambers of the heart).
2. Atrial flutter: A rapid but regular heartbeat that starts in the atria.
3. Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT): A rapid heartbeat that starts above the ventricles, usually in the atria or AV node.
4. Ventricular tachycardia: A rapid and potentially life-threatening heart rhythm that originates in the ventricles.
5. Ventricular fibrillation: A chaotic and disorganized electrical activity in the ventricles, which can be fatal if not treated immediately.
6. Heart block: A delay or interruption in the conduction of electrical signals from the atria to the ventricles.

Cardiac arrhythmias can cause various symptoms, such as palpitations, dizziness, shortness of breath, chest pain, and fatigue. In some cases, they may not cause any symptoms and go unnoticed. However, if left untreated, certain types of arrhythmias can lead to serious complications, including stroke, heart failure, or even sudden cardiac death.

Treatment for cardiac arrhythmias depends on the type, severity, and underlying causes. Options may include lifestyle changes, medications, cardioversion (electrical shock therapy), catheter ablation, implantable devices such as pacemakers or defibrillators, and surgery. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and management of cardiac arrhythmias.

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a sudden, unexpected natural death caused by the cessation of cardiac activity. It is often caused by cardiac arrhythmias, particularly ventricular fibrillation, and is often associated with underlying heart disease, although it can occur in people with no known heart condition. SCD is typically defined as a natural death due to cardiac causes that occurs within one hour of the onset of symptoms, or if the individual was last seen alive in a normal state of health, it can be defined as occurring within 24 hours.

It's important to note that sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is different from SCD, although they are related. SCA refers to the sudden cessation of cardiac activity, which if not treated immediately can lead to SCD.

Cardiomegaly is a medical term that refers to an enlarged heart. It can be caused by various conditions such as high blood pressure, heart valve problems, cardiomyopathy, or fluid accumulation around the heart (pericardial effusion). Cardiomegaly can be detected through imaging tests like chest X-rays or echocardiograms. Depending on the underlying cause, treatment options may include medications, lifestyle changes, or in some cases, surgery. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Hypertrophy, in the context of physiology and pathology, refers to an increase in the size of an organ or tissue due to an enlargement of its constituent cells. It is often used to describe the growth of muscle cells (myocytes) in response to increased workload or hormonal stimulation, resulting in an increase in muscle mass. However, hypertrophy can also occur in other organs such as the heart (cardiac hypertrophy) in response to high blood pressure or valvular heart disease.

It is important to note that while hypertrophy involves an increase in cell size, hyperplasia refers to an increase in cell number. In some cases, both hypertrophy and hyperplasia can occur together, leading to a significant increase in the overall size and function of the organ or tissue.

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

Ventricular pressure refers to the pressure within the ventricles, which are the lower chambers of the heart. In the left ventricle, the pressure measures the force that the blood exerts on the walls as it is pumped out to the rest of the body. In the right ventricle, the pressure measures the force of the blood being pumped into the pulmonary artery and ultimately to the lungs for oxygenation.

Normally, the left ventricular pressure ranges from 8-12 mmHg at rest when the heart is relaxed (diastolic pressure) and can increase up to 120-140 mmHg during contraction (systolic pressure). The right ventricular pressure is lower than the left, with a normal diastolic pressure of 0-6 mmHg and a systolic pressure ranging from 15-30 mmHg.

Abnormal ventricular pressures can indicate various heart conditions, such as heart failure, hypertension, or valvular heart disease. Regular monitoring of ventricular pressure is essential in managing these conditions and ensuring proper heart function.

Cardiovascular models are simplified representations or simulations of the human cardiovascular system used in medical research, education, and training. These models can be physical, computational, or mathematical and are designed to replicate various aspects of the heart, blood vessels, and blood flow. They can help researchers study the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, test new treatments and interventions, and train healthcare professionals in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques.

Physical cardiovascular models may include artificial hearts, blood vessels, or circulation systems made from materials such as plastic, rubber, or silicone. These models can be used to study the mechanics of heart valves, the effects of different surgical procedures, or the impact of various medical devices on blood flow.

Computational and mathematical cardiovascular models use algorithms and equations to simulate the behavior of the cardiovascular system. These models may range from simple representations of a single heart chamber to complex simulations of the entire circulatory system. They can be used to study the electrical activity of the heart, the biomechanics of blood flow, or the distribution of drugs in the body.

Overall, cardiovascular models play an essential role in advancing our understanding of the human body and improving patient care.

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a medical condition in which the left ventricle of the heart undergoes an enlargement or thickening of its muscle wall. The left ventricle is the main pumping chamber of the heart that supplies oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.

In response to increased workload, such as hypertension (high blood pressure), aortic valve stenosis, or athletic training, the left ventricular muscle may thicken and enlarge. This process is called "hypertrophy." While some degree of hypertrophy can be adaptive in athletes, significant or excessive hypertrophy can lead to impaired relaxation and filling of the left ventricle during diastole, reduced pumping capacity, and decreased compliance of the chamber.

Left ventricular hypertrophy is often asymptomatic initially but can increase the risk of various cardiovascular complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, myocardial infarction (heart attack), and sudden cardiac death over time. It is typically diagnosed through imaging techniques like echocardiography or cardiac MRI and confirmed by measuring the thickness of the left ventricular wall.

"Volume 1, Issue 1". Wiley Online Library. March 1986. Retrieved 16 May 2022. Official website v t e v t e (Articles needing ... The Journal of Cardiac Surgery is a peer-reviewed medical journal about cardiology and surgery that was established in March ...
Dubin (2003). Ion Adventure in the Heartland Volume 1. Cover Publishing Company. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-912912-11-0. Goodenough, ... Rate dependence of the action potential is a fundamental property of cardiac cells and alterations can lead to severe cardiac ... Interactive animation illustrating the generation of a cardiac action potential Interactive mathematical models of cardiac ... Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics. 3 (1): 23-45. doi:10.1016/j.ccep.2010.10.012. PMC 3164530. PMID 21892379. Krul S. "Cardiac ...
... cardiac reserve and inotropic response". Postgraduate Medical Journal. 67 Suppl 1: S10-S20. PMID 1924075. (CS1: long volume ... Cardiac reserve may be 4-5 times greater than a resting value for a healthy person. Cardiac reserve has been measured in ... It is possible to make a non-invasive measurement of cardiac reserve. A measure of cardiac reserve can help predict the ... Cardiac reserve refers to the difference between the rates at which the heart pumps blood - at any given time versus its ...
Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Care: Volume 1: Outcomes Analysis. Springer. p. 219. ISBN 978-1-4471-6587-3. Retrieved 27 ... The following audits are available within the CCAD: Adult cardiac interventions Cardiac rhythm management Adult cardiac surgery ... National Congenital Heart Disease Audit (NCHDA) (formerly called the Central Cardiac Audit Database) is a database established ... in 2000 for quality assurance purposes, to monitor the outcome for an individual who has undergone cardiac treatment. It ...
During heart volume overload, cardiomyocytes grow through eccentric hypertrophy. The cardiomyocytes extend lengthwise but have ... Cardiac muscle cells also called cardiomyocytes are the contractile myocytes of the cardiac muscle. The cells are surrounded by ... The ease of ion movement along cardiac muscle fibers axes is such that action potentials are able to travel from one cardiac ... Cardiac fibroblasts are vital supporting cells within cardiac muscle. They are unable to provide forceful contractions like ...
... and other hemodynamic parameters such as the stroke volume (SV) and cardiac index (CI). The CO estimated by the qCO monitor is ... The assessment of cardiac output (CO) is important because it reveals the main cardiac function: the supply of blood to tissues ... The rise of volume is the main therapy elected to improve oxygen delivery. However, approximately, only 50% of subjects respond ... quantium Medical Cardiac Output (qCO) uses impedance cardiography in a simple, continuous, and non-invasive way to estimate the ...
See Wiggers diagram: "Ventricular volume" tracing (red), at "Systole" panel.) Cardiac diastole is the period of the cardiac ... of the cardiac cycle. Throughout the cardiac cycle, blood pressure increases and decreases. The movements of cardiac muscle are ... Apex beat Cardiac action potential Cardiac output Pulse "19.3 Cardiac Cycle , Anatomy & Physiology". ... The red-line tracing of "Ventricular volume" provides an excellent track of the two periods and four stages of one cardiac ...
Cardiac output (CO) is a measurement of the amount of blood pumped by each ventricle (stroke volume, SV) in one minute. To ... stroke volume is dependent upon the difference between end diastolic volume and end systolic volume. The three primary factors ... controls the stroke volume which determines the end systolic volume. The greater the contraction the greater the stroke volume ... Many of the factors that regulate the heart rate also affect cardiac function by altering the stroke volume. While a number of ...
The area under the flow-versus-time curve for one cardiac cycle is the stroke volume. The length of the cardiac cycle is known ... Cardiac input (CI) is the inverse operation of cardiac output. As cardiac output implies the volumetric expression of ejection ... its cardiac output, Q. Cardiac output is classically defined alongside stroke volume (SV) and the heart rate (HR) as:[citation ... end diastolic volume (EDV) / end systolic volume (ESV) Cardiac input is a readily imaged mathematical model of diastole.[ ...
"Cardiac T1 Mapping and Extracellular Volume (ECV) in clinical practice: a comprehensive review". Journal of Cardiovascular ... Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cardiac MRI, CMR), also known as cardiovascular MRI, is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... Initial attempts to image the heart were confounded by respiratory and cardiac motion, solved by using cardiac ECG gating, ... cardiac ultrasound) cannot provide sufficient diagnostic information, (2) as an alternative to diagnostic cardiac ...
Masters, Barry R. (2012-05-25). "Harrisons's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18th Edition, two volumes and DVD. Eds: Dan L. ... "Cardiac Myxoma". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 6 July 2021. "Cardiac Myxoma". The Lecturio Medical Concept ... Cardiac myxoma can affect adults between 30 and 60 years of age. Symptoms may occur at any time, but most often they accompany ... Shah, I. K.; Dearani, J. A.; Daly, R. C.; Suri, R. M.; Park, S. J.; Joyce, L. D.; Li, Z.; Schaff, H. V. (2015). "Cardiac ...
The decrease in stroke volume can also ultimately lead to a decrease in cardiac output, which could be signaled by tachycardia ... This results in a decrease in cardiac input and output. A further decrease of cardiac input and output is typical in phase III ... "Management of Cardiac Tamponade After Cardiac Surgery". Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. Elsevier BV. 26 (2 ... If the drainage volume drops off, and the blood pressure goes down, this can suggest a tamponade due to chest tube clogging. In ...
The sum of these two areas (PE + SW) is known as the pressure-volume area (PVA). PVA is a first order approximation of MVO2. ... Acute cardiac unloading is able to functionally uncouple the heart from cardiac output, allowing the heart to rest and recover ... Acute cardiac unloading decreases cardiac MVO2 and has been demonstrated to limit the amount of scar tissue that forms, thus ... Maintaining sufficient cardiac output is the primary objective of therapeutic approaches treating these cardiac conditions. ...
Cardiac destroys the shipment, saying that he wasn't "there to destroy a misguided hero".[volume & issue needed] Cardiac helps ... Hammer hires the Rhino to kill Cardiac for raiding his company, but Cardiac defeats him. Cardiac next destroys the house and ... While Cardiac was away fighting the Goblin King's minions, the Goblin King has the H.E.A.R.T. Clinic destroyed. Cardiac's heart ... Wolverine turns Cardiac's weapon on a nearby building. Cardiac is stunned and buried under several large chunks of masonry. ...
The 3 major measurements obtained by cardiac ventriculography are: Ejection Fraction Stroke Volume Cardiac Output These three ... Cardiac ventriculography involves injecting contrast media into the heart's ventricle(s) to measure the volume of blood pumped ... Cardiac ventriculography is a medical imaging test used to determine a person's heart function in the right, or left ventricle ... Cardiac ventriculography can be performed with a radionuclide in radionuclide ventriculography or with an iodine-based contrast ...
Indeed, there are known and well-defined changes in the cardiovascular system with space flight: plasma volume is reduced; left ... cardiac remodeling, and dehydration medications that interfere with the cardiac potassium ion channels. Which of these factors ... Cardiac rhythm disturbances could jeopardize mission objectives and, at the most extreme, the life of crewmembers. The worst- ... Systematic studies of cardiac rhythm disturbances have been performed during short-duration space flight. These studies were ...
A widow maker cannot kill instantly but induces cardiac arrest which may do so within 10 to 20 minutes of no circulation. A ... Richard Beebe; Jeff Myers (11 December 2009). "34". Professional Paramedic, Volume I: Foundations of Paramedic Care. Cengage ... Heart attack Cardiac vessels Human heart with coronary arteries Heart coronary territories This article incorporates text in ... The LAD is frequently implicated in sudden cardiac death, predominantly in adult males. Clinicians often refer to the LAD as ...
... and stabilizing total body water volume and distribution. The most common findings of cardiac asthma are the presence of wheeze ... Because of the similarity in symptoms, diagnosis of cardiac versus bronchial asthma relies on full cardiac workup and pulmonary ... "Cardiac Asthma: Not Your Typical Asthma". Retrieved 2022-03-08. Buckner, Kern (1 February 2013). "Cardiac ... Cardiac asthma is the medical condition of intermittent wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath that is associated with ...
The heart functions as a pump delivering an intermittent volume of blood, incrementally delivered to the lungs, body, and brain ... In cardiology, the cardiac skeleton, also known as the fibrous skeleton of the heart, is a high-density homogeneous structure ... The cardiac skeleton binds several bands of dense connective tissue, as collagen, that encircle the bases of the pulmonary ... The cardiac skeleton ensures that the electrical and autonomic energy generated above is ushered below and cannot return. The ...
Cardiac output is the product of stroke volume and heart rate. Stroke volume is influenced by 1) the end diastolic volume or ... In the short-term, the greater the blood volume, the higher the cardiac output. This has been proposed as an explanation of the ... The resultant increase in blood volume results in an increased cardiac output by the Frank-Starling law of the heart, in turn ... Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) is the average of blood pressure over a cardiac cycle and is determined by the cardiac output (CO ...
Cardiac output (Lit./Min.): 6.26 Stroke Volume (Ml.): 75 Heart Rate (Per min.): 85 Blood Pressure: Unaffected Cardiac output ... Estrogen mediates this rise in cardiac output by increasing the pre-load and stroke volume, mainly via a higher overall blood ... During pregnancy the plasma volume increases by 40-50% and the red blood cell volume increases only by 20-30%. These changes ... and leads to a decrease in expiratory reserve volume and residual volume. This culminates in a 20% decrease in functional ...
In cardiology, an Austin Flint murmur is a low-pitched rumbling heart murmur which is best heard at the cardiac apex. It can be ... The Topol Solution: Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, Third Edition with DVD, Plus Integrated Content Website, Volume 355. ... "On cardiac murmurs". American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 44: 29-54. Eric J. Topol. ...
CS1: long volume value, Orphaned articles from March 2014, All orphaned articles, Stem cell research, Tissue engineering, ... Human engineered cardiac tissues (hECTs) are derived by experimental manipulation of pluripotent stem cells, such as human ... hECTs also express key cardiac genes (α-MHC, SERCA2a and ACTC1) nearing the levels seen in the adult heart. Analogous to the ... Zhang D, Shadrin IY, Lam J, Xian HQ, Snodgrass HR, Bursac N (Jul 2013). "Tissue-engineered cardiac patch for advanced ...
Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Annual. 19 (1): 37-43. doi:10.1053/j.pcsu.2015.11.006. PMID 27060041. Hraska V, Hjortdal VE, Dori Y, ... 2021;7: , volume = 7 , issue = 1 , pages = 253-260 , date = Jun 2021 , pmid = 34318266 , doi =10.1016/j.xjtc.2021.01.045 Gordon ... Often, cardiac catheterization is performed to check the resistance before proceeding with the surgery. This is also the reason ... While the need for pacemakers may be related to the underlying cardiac anomaly, there is sufficient evidence that the surgery ...
Circulation 1991; 83(4):1481-1488 Cardiac arrhythmias. (Volume 9 of the Handbook of Internal Medicine) Springer Verlag, 5th ... especially the diagnosis and pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapy of cardiac arrhythmias and acute cardiac death, in ... of the standard work Cardiac Mapping for the localisation diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmias. His pioneering clinical ... Management of Cardiac Patients During the COVID-19 Pandemic. J Saudi Heart Assoc 2020; 32(5):24-25 In the Medline database ...
Entomophaga 1990, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 431-435 (abstract) Sztab, Lin; Henderson, Lesley (2015). "Rubber vine" (PDF). arc. ... ISBN 3-923381-27-1. Radford, Dorothy J.; Gillies, Andrew D.; Hinds, John A. and Duffy, Patrick; 'Naturally Occurring Cardiac ...
"Peripherally inserted veno-venous ultrafiltration for rapid treatment of volume overloaded patients". Journal of Cardiac ... Aug 1993). "Sustained cardiac diastolic changes elicited by ultrafiltration in patients with moderate congestive heart failure ... "Sustained improvement in functional capacity after removal of body fluid with isolated ultrafiltration in chronic cardiac ... Fluid balance Fluid overload Blood volume Diuretics Apheresis Congestive Heart Failure Hypervolemia Ultrafiltration (renal) ...
Afterload Cardiac output Frank-Starling law of the heart Passive leg raising test Volume overload "CV Physiology: Preload". www ... In cardiac physiology, preload is the amount of sarcomere stretch experienced by cardiac muscle cells, called cardiomyocytes, ... Sarcomere length can be approximated by the volume of the ventricle because each shape has a conserved surface-area-to-volume ... These are affected by venous tone and volume of circulating blood. Preload is related to the ventricular end-diastolic volume; ...
Low pressure baroreceptors are involved in regulation of the blood volume. The blood volume determines the mean pressure ... This same sympathetic outflow is increased to the sinus node in the atria, which causes increased heart rate/cardiac output. ... Low pressure baroreceptors are also referred to as volume receptors and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors. There are two types of ... Bainbridge reflex High pressure receptors Atrial volume receptors Armstrong, Maggie, et al. Physiology, Baroreceptors - ...
The Cardiac Club became in 1937 the Cardiac Society of Great Britain and Ireland. The Society was renamed in 1946 the British ... "William Errington (Sir) Hume". Munk's Roll, Volume V, Royal College of Physicians. Swan, W. G. A. (June 1960). "Obituary. Sir ... "A study of the cardiac disabilities of soldiers in France: (VDH and DAH)". The Lancet. 191 (4937): 529-534. 1918. doi:10.1016/ ... The cardiologists' meeting, chaired by Alexander George Gibson (1875-1950), formed the Cardiac Club on 22 April 1922. ...
Volume 10, Number 5-May 2004 Letter. Smallpox Vaccination and Adverse Cardiac Events On This Page ... Smallpox Vaccination and Adverse Cardiac Events. Volume 10, Number 5-May 2004 ... that cardiac deaths observed in 2003 might have been unrelated to smallpox vaccination." While the causes of these cardiac or ... Cardiac deaths after a mass smallpox vaccination campaign-New York City, 1947. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003;52:933-6.PubMed ...
Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal , All issues , Volume 22, 2016 , Volume 22, issue 1 , Meals served to hypertensive and ... Meals served to hypertensive and cardiac inpatients in Jordan: comparison with WHO and NIH dietary guidelines ... Meals provided to cardiac inpatients in Jordan need to be revised to meet the guidelines specified for the health conditions of ... Meals served to hypertensive and cardiac patients have not previously been evaluated in Jordan. The results of this study will ...
"Volume 1, Issue 1". Wiley Online Library. March 1986. Retrieved 16 May 2022. Official website v t e v t e (Articles needing ... The Journal of Cardiac Surgery is a peer-reviewed medical journal about cardiology and surgery that was established in March ...
... and left atrial volume index (LAVi) volumes were measured with the use of echocardiography. Safety end points were assessed. ... "Age Differences in Effects of Sacubitril/Valsartan on Cardiac Remodeling, Biomarkers, and Health Status." JACC Heart Fail 10, ... "Age Differences in Effects of Sacubitril/Valsartan on Cardiac Remodeling, Biomarkers, and Health Status." JACC Heart Fail, vol ... Age Differences in Effects of Sacubitril/Valsartan on Cardiac Remodeling, Biomarkers, and Health Status.. Publication , Journal ...
Future studies are needed to examine whether reduced baroreflex cardiac control predicts cardiac risk in patients with CAD and ... Future studies are needed to examine whether reduced baroreflex cardiac control predicts cardiac risk in patients with CAD and ... Association of depressive symptoms with reduced baroreflex cardiac control in coronary artery disease Am Heart J. 1999 Mar;137( ... Background: Although depression has been associated with cardiac death in coronary artery disease (CAD), little is known about ...
Greater cardiac output per minute. * Higher stroke volume and total blood volume ... Training volume is prescribed in terms of repetitions per set, number of sets per session, and number of training sessions per ... Other cardiac cases, older and/or ill patients, and other patients at risk, such as those with exercise-induced asthma, ... In cases involving cardiac conditions, it is important to exclude patients with valvular heart disease, ventricular hypertrophy ...
Source : Annals of Pediatric Cardiology, Volume 2, Number 1, p.99-101 (2009) ... Cardiac Perfusion Technology (B. Sc. CPT) Admissions - 2024. *B. Sc. Cardio Vascular Technology (B. Sc. CVT) Admissions - 2024 ... The nuts and bolts of pediatric cardiac care for the economically challenged. Publication Type : Journal Article ... Cite this Research Publication : R. Kumar, "The nuts and bolts of pediatric cardiac care for the economically challenged", ...
7626.2 ± 2546.9, p = 0.9330), but the pressure-volume area (PVA) decreased (14469.0 ± 4974.1 vs. 12177.4 ± 4499.9, p = 0.0374) ... LV pressure and cardiac output were recorded before and after TAVI. We constructed the PV loop for analysis by analyzing LV ... Quantification of cardiac pumping mechanics in TAVI patients: A pilot study utilizing minimally invasive method for pressure- ... Quantification of cardiac pumping mechanics in TAVI patients: A pilot study utilizing mini ...
d. Stroke volume (ml). e. Cardiac output (L/min). f. Mitral E (tips, cm/s). g. Mitral A (tips, cm/s). h. Mitral E/A ratio. i. ... Clinical Significance of Abnormalities Noted: Overall the measurements for the cardiac structure and volume were similar for ... b. LV volume (end-diastole, 4-chamber, Simpsons rule). c. LV volume (end-systole, 4-chamber, Simpsons rule). d. Ejection ... These parameters include stroke volume, cardiac output, and intracardiac pressures.. 2.1.2 Mayo Clinics Readings of ...
Perfusion and fast-SENC cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images were retrospectively analyzed in 111 patients who underwent ... Cardiac magnetic resonance perfusion imaging during vasodilator stress is an established modality in patients with suspected ... Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) perfusion imaging during vasodilator stress is an established modality in patients with ... Results for ventricular volumes, left- and right-ventricular (LV and RV) ejection fraction (%), and myocardial mass were ...
Large-volume paracentesis was first used in ancient times. It fell out of favor from the 1950s through the 1980s with the ... Liver donation after cardiac death. The shortage of donor organs has spurred interest in the use of liver allografts from non- ... Large-volume paracentesis is thought to be safe in patients with peripheral edema and in patients not currently treated with ... Large volume paracentesis (LVP) is the first-line therapy in patients with large ascites (grade 3 ascites), which should be ...
Background: Uncontrolled bleeding continues to be a major cause of mortality in trauma, cardiac surgery, postpartum hemorrhage ... Cardiac Surgery, and Gastrointestinal Bleeding Subject Area: Further Areas , Hematology , Oncology ... Cardiac Surgery, and Gastrointestinal Bleeding. Transfus Med Hemother 1 April 2012; 39 (2): 139-150. ...
Volume 7. Number 4. The reference values of cardiac and breath frequency may be wrong. ... Reviewers commentary: the measure of cardiac and respiratory rate offers relevant information in children care decision making ...
This framework exists in few hospitals, mainly in those with a considerable volume of cardiac surgery.34 ... Patient characteristics and clinical status prior to cardiac arrest. *Characteristics of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary ... sepsis and neurological disorders as causes of cardiac arrest, the need for treatment with adrenaline, bicarbonate, and volume ... In-hospital cardiac arrest (CA) is an important cause of death in children.1-14 Every 5 years, the International Liaison ...
Adult cardiac surgery volumes and procedures. Adult Cardiac Surgery Database 2015.. The Centers for Disease Control and ... The overall risk of M. chimaera infection is low relative to other complications following cardiac surgery; emergent cardiac ... CDC Advises Hospitals to Alert Patients at Risk from Contaminated Heater-Cooler Devices Used during Cardiac Surgery. Alert_06. ... Patients who have had cardiac surgery should seek medical evaluation if they have one or more of these symptoms or have ...
MedStar Health has one of the highest volume heart catheterization programs in the mid-Atlantic region. Find more information ... Pulse Volume Recording. Pulse volume recording tests are used to evaluate blood flow through the arteries in your arms or legs. ... The cardiac computed tomography scan, or cardiac CT, uses X-rays to create three-dimensional images of your heart and blood ... Cardiac Catheterization. Cardiac catheterization is a minimally invasive way to diagnose and treat a variety of heart and ...
Volume 35 Issue 2 Print ISSN: 1107-3756. Online ISSN:1791-244X. ... Cardiac characteristics and body weight of Wistar rats fed with ... Changes in cardiac architecture. To further define the characteristics of changes in cardiac architecture, histopathological ... Cardiac characteristics and body weight of Wistar rats fed with a normal diet, high-fat diet and different concentrations of ... The cardiac survival pathway can be mediated by IGFI-related survival pathway components, such as IGF-I, IGF-IR, p-PI3K and p- ...
Obesity and early complications after cardiac surgery. Cheng-Hon Yap, Morteza Mohajeri and Michael Yii ...
volume. 20. issue. 1. article number. 381. publisher. BioMed Central (BMC). external identifiers. *pmid:27887653 ... Center for cardiac arrest (research group). publishing date. 2016-11-26. type. Contribution to journal publication status. ... Brain injuries, Critical care, Fever, Hypothermia, Induced, Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, Shivering, Temperature. in Critical ... Background: Targeted temperature management is recommended after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and may be achieved using a ...
488 ± 8 bpm in tTA mice; n = 13) and normal cardiac mass and volume (see Supplemental Table 1; supplemental material available ... caused short-term improvements in cardiac function but long-term cardiac pathology (2, 7). In contrast, transgenic or viral ... sudden cardiac death, likely due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias, is responsible for half of all cardiac deaths in patients ... In vivo cardiac expression of I-1c. (A) Generation and crossing strategy of a conditional mouse model (Tet-Off system) to ...
HCA Healthcare is hiring for Cardiac CRNA Opportunity in Largo, FL . Largo, Florida · Apply on ... Annual average surgical volume is 9000. There is no OB or Trauma at Largo and the average number cases is 5 between 7p-11p with ... The Cardiac CRNA team is made up of 8 CRNAs who work collaboratively with the Cardiac/Transplant Anesthesiologists. There is ... In addition to cardiac/transplant, Largo offers a diverse mix of cases including heavy Ortho, General Surgery, Endo, Neuro, ...
Volume. 71. Pagination. 270-276. Date Published. Mar-Apr. Type of Article. Article. ... Decreased cardiac function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats has been used as a model of diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy, which ... IMPROVEMENT IN CARDIAC DYSFUNCTION IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS FOLLOWING CHRONIC ORAL-ADMINISTRATION OF BIS( ... IMPROVEMENT IN CARDIAC DYSFUNCTION IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS FOLLOWING CHRONIC ORAL-ADMINISTRATION OF BIS( ...
Volume. 25. Issue number. 2. DOIs. * ... Single CT for attenuation correction of rest/stress cardiac SPECT perfusion imaging. Journal of Nuclear Cardiology. 2018 Apr 1; ... Single CT for attenuation correction of rest/stress cardiac SPECT perfusion imaging. In: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology. 2018 ; ... Single CT for attenuation correction of rest/stress cardiac SPECT perfusion imaging. / Wells, R. Glenn; Trottier, Mikael; ...
The detection of abnormal cardiac rhythms, automatic discrimination from rhythmic heart activity, became a thrust area in ... EMBC01). Volume 2. pp. 1585-1588,2001.. P. de Chazal, M. ODwyer, and R. B. Reilly, "Automatic Classification of Heartbeats ... "Cardiac arrhythmia classification using autoregressive modeling" BioMedical Engineering OnLine, 1(1):5, pp. 1585-1588,2002.. ... The detection of abnormal cardiac rhythms, automatic discrimination from rhythmic heart activity, became a thrust area in ...
Twenty mathematical cardiac torso phantom models of the normal heart with different LV volumes (122.3 +/- 11.0 ml), RV volumes ... Evaluation of right and left ventricular volume and ejection fraction using a mathematical cardiac torso phantom. ... Stroke Volume. Technetium. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Ventricular Function, Left. Ventricular Function, ... Volumes were calculated using a modified threshold and edge detection method (hybrid threshold), as well as a count-based ...
Gastric air volume (GAV), total gastric volume (TGV), and GAV/gastric content volume (GCV) ratio values were estimated. Results ... Multidetector computed tomography-based evaluation of gastric volumes in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. ... Association between prehospital i-gel insertion and PCO2 in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest 2018 December;29(6). ... The comparisons of prehospital treatments in traumatic and non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrests 2019 October;30(5). ...
... added cardiac stress and decrease in cardiac output; significant thermal stress and diminished senses; occasional psychological ... Medical effects of respirator wear include: increased tidal volume; decreased respiratory rate and ventilation, including a ...
... diastolic volume; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVESVi, indexed left ventricular end‐systolic volume; LVMI, indexed ... Predictors of Cardiac and Noncardiac Mortality. Predictors of cardiac and noncardiac death are presented in Tables 2, 3 through ... Cardiac death (including sudden cardiac death and death due to HF progression or acute myocardial infarction) and heart ... Considering cardiac death, patients with HFrEF again showed the poorest outcome, with 1‐year cardiac mortality of 8% compared ...
India Cardiac Assist Devices Market Outlook to 2025 - Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumps, Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices and ... 3.2 Cardiac Assist Devices Market, India, Volume (Units), 2015-2025. 3.2.1 Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumps Market, India, Volume ( ... Table 9: Cardiac Assist Devices Market, India, Volume (Units), 2015-2020. Table 10: Cardiac Assist Devices Market, India, ... The India Cardiac Assist Devices Market report provides key information and data on - *Annualized market revenues (USD), volume ...
  • Transradial catheterization is a form of cardiac catheterization in which doctors use the radial artery, located in the wrist, as a pathway to diagnose and treat many conditions, including coronary artery disease and peripheral artery disease . (
  • Cardiac catheterization is a minimally invasive way to diagnose and treat a variety of heart and vascular conditions by guiding thin, flexible tubes called catheters through blood vessels to problem areas. (
  • The first paradigm shift in hemodynamic monitoring can be traced back to the development of cardiac catheterization by Werner Forssmann in 1929 and subsequent introduction of pulmonary artery catheterization and thermodilution techniques, in 1970, by Swan, Ganz and colleagues. (
  • Cardiac catheterization did not become a clinically useful test, however, until the late 1940's, following the work of Dr. Dickinson W. Richards and Dr. Andre Cournand. (
  • Introduction:Cardiac venous system is an important system for various cardiac interventional procedures such as cardiac catheterization. (
  • In cases involving cardiac conditions, it is important to exclude patients with valvular heart disease, ventricular hypertrophy, dangerous arrhythmias, and malignant hypertension. (
  • Ahmad R. Naghsh-Nilchi and A. Rahim Kadkhoda mohammadi, "Cardiac Arrhythmias Classification Method Based on MUSIC, Morphological Descriptors, and Neural Network",EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, Article No. 202. (
  • The Journal of Cardiac Surgery is a peer-reviewed medical journal about cardiology and surgery that was established in March 1986. (
  • The incidence of adverse cardiac events related to smallpox vaccinations administered during the National Smallpox Vaccination Program (NSVP) in 2003 has received widespread attention. (
  • At this time, adverse cardiac events associated with the vaccine, particularly myo- or pericarditis, are still of concern. (
  • Additionally, cases of coronary artery disease, including myocardial infarction and cardiac death, were reported in the weeks after vaccination although no causal link has been established. (
  • Although depression has been associated with cardiac death in coronary artery disease (CAD), little is known about the effects of depression on autonomic nervous system control of heart rate. (
  • Cardiac magnetic resonance perfusion imaging during vasodilator stress is an established modality in patients with suspected and known coronary artery disease (CAD). (
  • Non-invasive anatomical imaging of coronary arteries by cardiac computed tomography and functional stress testing like cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is currently recommended as first-line diagnostic techniques in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD) ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • The objective was to analyze the characteristics and prognostic factors of in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest in Spain. (
  • A prospective observational study was performed to examine in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest. (
  • The cardiac computed tomography scan, or cardiac CT, uses X-rays to create three-dimensional images of your heart and blood vessels. (
  • Perfusion and fast-SENC cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images were retrospectively analyzed in 111 patients who underwent stress CMR. (
  • METHODS: The mathematical cardiac torso phantom, developed to study LV myocardium perfusion, was modified to simulate the radioactivity distribution of a 99mTc-gated blood-pool study. (
  • Two hundred children were studied, aged between 1 month and 18 years, with in-hospital cardiac arrest. (
  • sepsis and neurological disorders as causes of cardiac arrest, the need for treatment with adrenaline, bicarbonate, and volume expansion, and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (
  • Background: Targeted temperature management is recommended after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and may be achieved using a variety of cooling devices. (
  • This study was conducted to explore the performance and outcomes for intravascular versus surface devices for targeted temperature management after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. (
  • MAs may be manifested either in hemodynamic collapse or in cardiac arrest: The sudden loss of effective blood flow due to atrial fibrillation (AF) with rapid VT leads to hemodynamic collapse, and VT and VF result in cardiac arrest necessitating CPR or electric defibrillation. (
  • Memory impairment in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors is associated with global reduction in brain volume, not focal hippocampal injury. (
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: More than 30% of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survivors suffer significant memory impairment. (
  • The hippocampus may be vulnerable to hypoxic injury during cardiac arrest. (
  • ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the compliance of daily meals served to hypertensive and cardiac inpatients in Jordan according to WHO guidelines and the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC) and Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets plans. (
  • Cardiac arrhythmia classification using autoregressive modeling" BioMedical Engineering OnLine, 1(1):5, pp. 1585-1588,2002. (
  • In addition, there is no evidence that probiotics have potential health effects associated with cardiac apoptosis in obese rats. (
  • The present study aimed to explore the effects of probiotics on obesity and cardiac apoptosis in rats fed a high-fat diet (HF). (
  • The precise mechanism underlying obesity-driven tissue damage in mice and rats fed a high-fat diet involves caspase activation and apoptosis leading to cardiac dysfunction ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • Additionally, it has been suggested that apoptosis plays a critical role in cardiac disorder pathogenesis ( 8 - 10 ). (
  • Fas- and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathways are considered to be major pathways causing cardiac apoptosis ( 11 , 12 ). (
  • In cardiomyocytes, the actions of NO are more complex as it can induce different, and sometimes opposing effects on cardiac functioning such as triggering apoptosis and improving left ventricular function. (
  • Uncontrolled bleeding continues to be a major cause of mortality in trauma, cardiac surgery, postpartum hemorrhage and liver failure. (
  • HF r EF had the highest rates of cardiac death, whereas noncardiac mortality was similar across left ventricular EF categories. (
  • Noncardiac death is a major determinant of outcome in stable HF , exceeding cardiac‐related mortality in HF p EF and HF mr HF . (
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Age Differences in Effects of Sacubitril/Valsartan on Cardiac Remodeling, Biomarkers, and Health Status. (
  • OBJECTIVES: In this study, the authors sought to explore age differences in effects of Sac/Val on biomarkers, Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ)-23 scores and cardiac remodeling. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sac/Val resulted in significant improvements in prognostic biomarkers and measures of cardiac remodeling and health status from baseline to month 12 across age categories. (
  • We also collected the water from Chinese water pipes to assess the mutagenicity of its major components and simulated Chinese water-pipe smoke exposure fine particulate 2.5 (PM2.5) by using the High Volume Air Sampler and individuals' sera to search for the potential protein biomarkers of COPD. (
  • The availability of gated SPECT has increased the interest in the determination of volume and ejection fraction of the left ventricle (LV) for clinical diagnosis. (
  • Kern MJ, Seto KH, Herrmann J. Invasive hemodynamic diagnosis of cardiac disease. (
  • The publisher's "India Cardiac Assist Devices Market Outlook to 2025" is a comprehensive databook report, covering key market data on the India Cardiac Assist Devices market. (
  • 2019 company share and distribution share data for Cardiac Assist Devices Market. (
  • Global corporate-level profiles of key companies operating within the India Cardiac Assist Devices Market. (
  • An October 3, 2003, MMWR article, "Cardiac deaths after a mass smallpox vaccination campaign - New York City, 1947" ( 3 ) states that the NYC experience suggests "…that cardiac deaths observed in 2003 might have been unrelated to smallpox vaccination. (
  • Quantification of cardiac pumping mechanics in TAVI patients: A pilot study utilizing minimally invasive method for pressure-volume analysis. (
  • The objective of this investigation was to use a mathematical model of the anatomical distribution of activity in gated blood-pool imaging to evaluate the accuracy of two ventricular volume and ejection fraction determination methods. (
  • CONCLUSION: Results indicate that cardiac functional parameters can be measured with reasonable accuracy using both methods. (
  • Future studies are needed to examine whether reduced baroreflex cardiac control predicts cardiac risk in patients with CAD and depressive symptomatology. (
  • The detection of abnormal cardiac rhythms, automatic discrimination from rhythmic heart activity, became a thrust area in clinical research. (
  • Other cardiac cases, older and/or ill patients, and other patients at risk, such as those with exercise-induced asthma, hemoglobinopathies, diabetes, or obesity, should have an exercise stress test carried out under careful medical supervision. (
  • Magnetic resonance imaging, better known as cardiac MRI, is a combination of radio waves, magnets, and computer technology used to create images of your heart and blood vessels. (
  • Additionally, cardiac insulin, such as the insulin‑like growth factor I receptor (IGFIR)‑dependent survival signalling components, were highly induced in left ventricles from rats administered probiotics. (
  • Elevated activity of the cardiac Fas-dependent apoptotic pathway has been observed in obese Zucker rats ( 13 ). (
  • Lu et al ( 14 ) observed an increase in cardiac mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic activity in obese rats, shown by increased levels of Bad and cytochrome c release in hearts, as well as suppressed expression of the anti-apoptotic factor B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). (
  • Decreased cardiac function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats has been used as a model of diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy, which is a secondary complication in diabetic patients. (
  • We aimed to investigate the prevalence of noncardiac and cardiac causes of death in a cohort of chronic HF patients, covering the whole spectrum of systolic function. (
  • Conclusions: The present study provides data of cardiac veins for various cardiac interventional procedures. (
  • LV pressure and cardiac output were recorded before and after TAVI. (
  • Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and indexed left ventricular end-systolic (LVESVi) and indexed left ventricular end-diastolic (LVEDVi) and left atrial volume index (LAVi) volumes were measured with the use of echocardiography. (
  • Background: Lack of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) ranges between 30% to 40% of heart failure (HF) patients. (
  • Internists, infectious disease specialists, cardiologists, cardiothoracic surgeons, and other clinicians should suspect NTM infections among patients who have signs of infection and a history of open-chest cardiac surgery. (
  • We apply our framework to the problem of predicting response to Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy (CRT). (
  • HCA Healthcare Anesthesia Services is currently offering a Fulltime, rotating schedule with a week of nights for CRNAs who can perform cardiac anesthesia at our HCA Florida Largo Hospital located in the beautiful Tampa/St. Pete area. (
  • Clinicians will be able to maintain a diverse skillset and successfully meet the case volumes for maintaining hospital privileges. (
  • RESULTS: Left amygdala-hippocampal volume was reduced in memory-impaired OHCA victims compared with control subjects (mean 3. (
  • The atlas represents cardiac cycle motion across a number of subjects in a common space based on rich motion descriptors capturing 3D displacement, velocity, strain and strain rate. (
  • The information search was performed by consulting the HINARI, SciELO and PubMed oncológico en adultos databases. (
  • Their aim was to assess whether the study was adequately powered to detect a small but potentially relevant effect in cardiac death rates. (
  • The pressure -volume (PV) analysis is a powerful tool to study VAC and LV mechanics . (
  • Concurrent with this request, the Ponce School of Medicine (PSM), led by President and Dean Dr. Manuel Martínez Maldonado, had begun a more definitive study of possible cardiac abnormalities among Vieques residents. (
  • Meals provided to cardiac inpatients in Jordan need to be revised to meet the guidelines specified for the health conditions of these patients. (
  • RÉSUMÉ La présente étude visait à évaluer dans quelle mesure les repas quotidiens servis aux patients hospitalisés atteints d'hypertension ou de cardiopathie en Jordanie respectaient les recommendations de l'Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS) et les régimes alimentaires Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC) et Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH). (
  • Twenty mathematical cardiac torso phantom models of the normal heart with different LV volumes (122.3 +/- 11.0 ml), RV volumes (174.6 +/- 22.3 ml) and stroke volumes (75.7 +/- 3.3 ml) were randomly generated to simulate variations among patients. (
  • The 4-week vaccination period would result in a 6-week period of susceptibility for cardiac death according to the 4-17 day latency period. (
  • Further, studying death rates sheds no light on cardiac illness such as myo- or pericarditis. (
  • The proper interpretation of these data is important given the national policy impact that resulted from the observation of cardiac and coronary illness and death after vaccination in 2003. (
  • Yearly rates of noncardiac death exceeded those of cardiac death since the beginning of follow‐up in HF p EF and HF mr EF . (
  • In addition to cardiac/transplant, Largo offers a diverse mix of cases including heavy Ortho, General Surgery, Endo, Neuro, Spine, Vascular, Robotics, etc. which enables Clinicians to keep their skills and enjoy a variety of cases and acuity. (
  • Suppose that the 1947 smallpox vaccine indeed caused serious cardiac disease, including myopericarditis and myocardial infarctions, with 10 fatal cases per million. (
  • Debate continues as to whether a better cardiac status allows for a higher level of physical activity and, consequently, better physical fitness, or vice versa. (
  • 15% reduction in left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume. (
  • There were no differences in amygdala-hippocampal volume indexed against ipsilateral temporal lobe volume. (
  • Left temporal lobe and whole-brain volumes were also reduced. (
  • Various veins like right marginal vein, small cardiac vein (SCV), posterior vein of the left ventricle, left marginal vein, oblique vein of Marshall drain into coronary sinus. (
  • The editorial board of the journal Evidencias en Pediatría (EP) takes very seriously the privacy of users' data. (
  • Annualized market revenues (USD), volume (units) and average prices (USD) data for each of the market segments. (
  • We present a framework for combining a cardiac motion atlas with non-motion data. (
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