Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Thermodilution: Measurement of blood flow based on induction at one point of the circulation of a known change in the intravascular heat content of flowing blood and detection of the resultant change in temperature at a point downstream.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Dye Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cardiac Output, High: A state of elevated cardiac output due to conditions of either increased hemodynamic demand or reduced cardiac oxygen output. These conditions may include ANEMIA; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; THYROTOXICOSIS; PREGNANCY; EXERCISE; FEVER; and ANOXIA. In time, compensatory changes of the heart can lead to pathological form of high cardiac output and eventual HEART FAILURE.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Cardiography, Impedance: A type of impedance plethysmography in which bioelectrical impedance is measured between electrodes positioned around the neck and around the lower thorax. It is used principally to calculate stroke volume and cardiac volume, but it is also related to myocardial contractility, thoracic fluid content, and circulation to the extremities.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Catheterization, Swan-Ganz: Placement of a balloon-tipped catheter into the pulmonary artery through the antecubital, subclavian, and sometimes the femoral vein. It is used to measure pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure which reflects left atrial pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. The catheter is threaded into the right atrium, the balloon is inflated and the catheter follows the blood flow through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and out into the pulmonary artery.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Blood Circulation: The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cardiac Tamponade: Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Indicator Dilution Techniques: Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Central Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Cardiac Volume: The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Pulmonary Wedge Pressure: The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Blood Volume Determination: Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Splanchnic Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Plethysmography, Impedance: Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Myoblasts, Cardiac: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cardiac Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Cardiac Imaging Techniques: Visualization of the heart structure and cardiac blood flow for diagnostic evaluation or to guide cardiac procedures via techniques including ENDOSCOPY (cardiac endoscopy, sometimes refered to as cardioscopy), RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; TOMOGRAPHY; or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Indocyanine Green: A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Rest: Freedom from activity.Troponin I: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.Cardiac Glycosides: Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: The restoration of the sequential order of contraction and relaxation of the HEART ATRIA and HEART VENTRICLES by atrio-biventricular pacing.Resuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Arterial Pressure: The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Hypovolemia: An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Occurrence of heart arrest in an individual when there is no immediate access to medical personnel or equipment.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Ventricular Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Shock: A pathological condition manifested by failure to perfuse or oxygenate vital organs.Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Atrial Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the RIGHT ATRIUM.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Vascular Capacitance: The measure of a BLOOD VESSEL's ability to increase the volume of BLOOD it holds without a large increase in BLOOD PRESSURE. The vascular capacitance is equal to the change in volume divided by the change in pressure.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Echocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio: The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Extracorporeal Circulation: Diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous with the bodily circulation.Hydrazones: Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Plasma Substitutes: Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Lower Body Negative Pressure: External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Hemodilution: Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.Troponin T: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Shock, Septic: Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.PyridazinesRespiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Photoplethysmography: Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Ultrasonics: A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Cardiac Care Facilities: Institutions specializing in the care of patients with heart disorders.Electromagnetic Phenomena: Characteristics of ELECTRICITY and magnetism such as charged particles and the properties and behavior of charged particles, and other phenomena related to or associated with electromagnetism.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Echocardiography, Doppler, Color: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Atrial Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine: A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Tilt-Table Test: A standard and widely accepted diagnostic test used to identify patients who have a vasodepressive and/or cardioinhibitory response as a cause of syncope. (From Braunwald, Heart Disease, 7th ed)Pulse: The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Heart Rate, Fetal: The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.Syncope: A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)

Regulation of sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure: a role for nitric oxide and angiotensin II. (1/847)

The mechanisms by which sympathetic function is augmented in chronic heart failure (CHF) are not well understood. A previous study from this laboratory (Circ Res. 1998;82:496-502) indicated that blockade of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis resulted in only an increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) when plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) levels were elevated. The present study was undertaken to determine if NO reduces RSNA in rabbits with CHF when Ang II receptors are blocked. Twenty-four New Zealand White rabbits were instrumented with cardiac dimension crystals, a left ventricular pacing lead, and a pacemaker. After pacing at 360 to 380 bpm for approximately 3 weeks, a renal sympathetic nerve electrode and arterial and venous catheters were implanted. Studies were carried out in the conscious state 3 to 7 days after electrode implantation. The effects of a 1-hour infusion of sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 3 microgram . kg-1. min-1) on RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were determined before and after Ang II blockade with losartan (5 mg/kg) in normal and CHF rabbits. Changes in MAP were readjusted to normal with phenylephrine. Before losartan, SNP evoked a decrease in MAP and an increase in RSNA in both groups that was baroreflex-mediated, because both MAP and RSNA returned to control when phenylephrine was administered. In the normal group, losartan plus SNP caused a reduction in MAP and an increase in RSNA that was 152.6+/-9.8% of control. Phenylephrine returned both MAP and RSNA back to the control levels. However, in the CHF group, losartan plus SNP evoked a smaller change in RSNA for equivalent changes in MAP (117.1+/-4.1% of control). On returning MAP to the control level with phenylephrine, RSNA was reduced to 65.2+/-2.9% of control (P<0. 0001). These data suggest that endogenous Ang II contributes to the sympathoexcitation in the CHF state and that blockade of Ang II receptors plus providing an exogenous source of NO reduces RSNA below the elevated baseline levels. We conclude that both a loss of NO and an increase in Ang II are necessary for sustained increases in sympathetic nerve activity in the CHF state.  (+info)

The sarcoplasmic reticulum and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger both contribute to the Ca2+ transient of failing human ventricular myocytes. (2/847)

Our objective was to determine the respective roles of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in the small, slowly decaying Ca2+ transients of failing human ventricular myocytes. Left ventricular myocytes were isolated from explanted hearts of patients with severe heart failure (n=18). Cytosolic Ca2+, contraction, and action potentials were measured by using indo-1, edge detection, and patch pipettes, respectively. Selective inhibitors of SR Ca2+ transport (thapsigargin) and reverse-mode Na+/Ca2+ exchange activity (No. 7943, Kanebo Ltd) were used to define the respective contribution of these processes to the Ca2+ transient. Ca2+ transients and contractions induced by action potentials (AP transients) at 0.5 Hz exhibited phasic and tonic components. The duration of the tonic component was determined by the action potential duration. Ca2+ transients induced by caffeine (Caf transients) exhibited only a phasic component with a rapid rate of decay that was dependent on extracellular Na+. The SR Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin abolished the phasic component of the AP Ca2+ transient and of the Caf transient but had no significant effect on the tonic component of the AP transient. The Na+/Ca2+ exchange inhibitor No. 7943 eliminated the tonic component of the AP transient and reduced the magnitude of the phasic component. In failing human myocytes, Ca2+ transients and contractions exhibit an SR-related, phasic component and a slow, reverse-mode Na+/Ca2+ exchange-related tonic component. These findings suggest that Ca2+ influx via reverse-mode Na+/Ca2+ exchange during the action potential may contribute to the slow decay of the Ca2+ transient in failing human myocytes.  (+info)

Peripheral muscle ergoreceptors and ventilatory response during exercise recovery in heart failure. (3/847)

Recent studies have suggested that the increased ventilatory response during exercise in patients with chronic heart failure was related to the activation of muscle metaboreceptors. To address this issue, 23 patients with heart failure and 7 normal subjects performed arm and leg bicycle exercises with and without cuff inflation around the arms or the thighs during recovery. Obstruction slightly reduced ventilation and gas exchange variables at recovery but did not change the kinetics of recovery of these parameters compared with nonobstructed recovery: half-time of ventilation recovery was 175 +/- 54 to 176 +/- 40 s in patients and 155 +/- 66 to 127 +/- 13 s in controls (P < 0.05, patients vs. controls, not significant within each group from baseline to obstructed recovery). We conclude that muscle metaboreceptor activation does not seem to play a role in the exertion hyperventilation of patients with heart failure.  (+info)

High and low pulmonary vascular resistance in heart transplant candidates. A 5-year follow-up after heart transplantation shows continuous reduction in resistance and no difference in complication rate. (4/847)

BACKGROUND: In heart transplantation candidates, high pulmonary vascular resistance has been found to decrease promptly after heart transplantation without any further reduction during follow-up. Pulmonary hypertension has been described as associated with an increased peri- and postoperative complication rate and mortality. This study describes the evolution of pulmonary vascular resistance and the outcome for patients during 5 years following heart transplantation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Haemodynamic data, complication rate and mortality have been analysed during 5-year follow-up in all patients (n = 80) who were heart transplanted at Sahlgrenska University Hospital from 1988 through 1990. We found a significant and continuous reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance both in patients with a pre-operative high (> 3 Wood Units; n = 36), but reversible on nitroprusside, and pre-operative low (< or = 3 Wood Units; n = 44) pulmonary vascular resistance. A multivariate analysis showed that a pre-operative high mean pulmonary artery and low mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure predicted the decline in pulmonary vascular resistance during 5 years after heart transplantation. The need for a postoperative assist device, complication rate, and early and late mortality were independent of the pre-operative level of pulmonary vascular resistance. CONCLUSIONS: A continuous reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance during 5 years following heart transplantation was found in patients with both high, but reversible, and low pre-operative resistance levels. The outcome and survival were independent of the pre-operative pulmonary vascular resistance level.  (+info)

Clinical practice guidelines for heart failure. (5/847)

Development of guidelines can be a difficult process; each organization or institution must establish the rules and criteria for including specific therapies and the level of complexity needed. Specific outcomes must be incorporated, including maintenance of comfort and functionality, freedom from hospitalization, and survival. In existing guidelines for the management of heart failure, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy is clearly the gold standard. However, there is still a high mortality with ACE inhibitor therapy; the key may be choosing the right patients. Current guidelines reflect the uncertainty regarding digoxin before the Digitalis Investigation Group (DIG) trial; obviously, these guidelines should be revisited. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of heart failure need to be revised to include a better consensus on beta-blockade, the new data on digoxin, emerging data on angiotensin II receptor antagonists, and current thinking on anticoagulant therapy.  (+info)

Cost of heart failure to the healthcare system. (6/847)

From an economic, mortality, and functional standpoint, heart failure is clearly a disease that needs to be targeted. We can develop a model for heart failure to determine the impact that specific management strategies will have on the overall cost to the system, which by itself can tell us some interesting things because we're currently spending twice as much on transplantation as on digoxin therapy. We can then use this model to assess the impact of different strategies, such as greater use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or digoxin therapy.  (+info)

Heart failure and disease management. (7/847)

Disease management is a comprehensive program that identifies a population of patients at risk, provides a coherent framework of coordinated care for these patients, and demonstrates improved outcomes. In applying disease management strategies to heart failure, there is clearly the technology to improve outcomes. The two main issues involved are influencing physician practice patterns and improving patient compliance. A successful disease management program in heart failure should include patient identification patient assessment, patient education and training, patient monitoring, and triage and acute intervention. With the advances in treatment of heart failure, we have the means to keep patients out of the hospital, maintain their functionality, and decrease mortality. The real issue, which is where disease management can help, is how to apply technology in an effective way to turn potential gains into real gains. The key is not to develop more technology, but to implement effectively the technology that exists.  (+info)

Localization and quantitation of cardiac annexins II, V, and VI in hypertensive guinea pigs. (8/847)

Annexins are characterized by Ca2+-dependent binding to phospholipids. Annexin II mainly participates in cell-cell adhesion and signal transduction, whereas annexins V and VI also seem to regulate intracellular calcium cycling. Their abundance and localization were determined in left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) from hypertensive guinea pigs, during the transition from compensatory hypertrophy to heart failure. Immunoblot analysis of annexins II, V, and VI revealed an increased accumulation (2.6-, 1.45-, and 2.3-fold, respectively) in LV from hypertensive guinea pigs and no modification in RV. Immunofluorescent labeling of annexins II, V, and VI; of Na+-K+-ATPase; and of sarcomeric alpha-actinin showed that in control LV and RV, 1) annexin II is present in nonmuscle cells; 2) annexins V and VI are mainly observed in the sarcolemma and intercalated disks of myocytes; 3) annexins II, V, and VI strongly label endothelial cells and adventitia of coronary arteries; and 4) annexin VI is present in the media. At the onset of heart failure, the most striking changes are the increased protein accumulation in LV and the very strong labeling of annexins II, V, and VI in interstitial tissue, suggesting a role in fibrosis development and cardiac remodeling.  (+info)

This trial was designed as a randomized, double-blind, 2-arm, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study within thirteen participating cardiac surgical centers. Eligible patients included those with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (40% or lower), undergoing CABG surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass alone or combined with valve surgery. Patients were assigned in 1:1 fashion to either levosimendan or placebo. Primary end point included a composite of 3 elements reflecting low cardiac output syndrome. These included catecholamine infusion persisting beyond 48 hours after infusion of levosimendan, need for left ventricular assist device in the post-operative period, or the need for renal replacement therapy during the intensive care unit stay. Secondary end-points included in-hospital mortality, number of days with mechanical assist device, and number of days with renal replacement therapy among others (other secondary endpoints included in text). Total of 336 patients were randomized ...
Jean-Paul Mira shares his thoughts on the LICORN trial which sought to answer the question: Does a prophylactic levosimendan infusion reduce the incidence of postoperative low cardiac output syndrome in patients with impaired left ventricular function who are undergoing isolated or combined coronary artery bypass grafting surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass?. Results from this trial were presented at LIVES 2017 in Vienna and have been published in JAMA.. Find the article in JAMA HERE.. ...
This report provides top line data relating to the clinical trials on Low Cardiac Output Syndrome. Report includes an overview of trial numbers and their average enrollment in top countries conducted across the globe...
The Report Low Cardiac Output Syndrome Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2016 provides information on pricing, market analysis, shares, forecast, and...
Neonates and infants that have cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for congenital heart disease are at great risk for experiencing life-threatening low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) in the first 24 hours after surgery. The poor perfusion and inadequate oxygen delivery that occurs may result in multiple organ failure and death. It is LCOS that is responsible for the majority of early postoperative deaths in this population of neonates and infants. Improved pediatric probes placed in peripheral locations using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) may permit continuous monitoring of venous saturations reflecting overall perfusion and oxygen balance in the tissues. Following parental or guardian consent, 30 neonates and infants scheduled to undergo surgery for congenital heart disease will be enrolled. At the end of surgery, four EQUANOX Advance 8004CB probes will be placed on the flank, lower extremities and the forehead. Continuous NIRS saturations will be monitored and stored for ...
Acute heart failure represents an increasingly common cause of hospitalization, and may require the use of inotropic drugs in patients with low cardiac output and evidence of organ hypoperfusion. However, currently available therapies may have delete
Low cardiac output syndrome (LCOs) is a serious complication in critically ill patients or those undergoing major surgery, resulting in multiple organ damage with significant in-hospital and long-term morbidity and mortality, as well as prolonged hospital stay. In this setting the mortality rate is distressingly high despite improvements in intensive care treatment, but survivors have an acceptable quality of life ...
Mean age at operation were 67.8 ± 9.6 years (group 1) and 63.9 years ± 9.5 (group 2), respectively. There were no significant differences in preoperative risk factors, including smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity, stroke, left ventricular dysfunction, and chronic renal failure between the 2 groups. Mean number of distal anastomosis was 2.93 ± 1.0 in group 1 and 3.09 ± 0.97 in group 2 (p=0.133). Operative mortality was 1.1% (1/91) in group 1 and 1.3% (26/1991) in group 2, respectively (p=1.000). There were no significant differences in postoperative morbidities, including mediastinitis, re-exploration for bleeding, perioperative myocardial infarction, low cardiac output syndrome, atrial fibrillation, and stroke between the 2 groups. ...
The 8S58021I is a high speed 1-to-4 Differential-to-LVPECL/ECL Fanout Buffer. The 8S58021I is optimized for high speed and very low output skew, making it suitable for use in demanding applications such as SONET, 1 Gigabit and 10 Gigabit Ethernet, and Fibre Channel. The internally terminated differential input and VREF_AC pin allow other differential signal families such as LVDS, LVPECL and CML to be easily interfaced to the input with minimal use of external components. The 8S58021I is packaged in a small 3mm x 3mm 16-pin VFQFN package which makes it ideal for use in space-constrained applications.. ...
The new drop-ins that you have scheduled for December look very promising. Q5 WG binned Crees for the M60 Output will be 220+ lumens for approx 2 hrs Low output version of 130 lumens for 6 hrs on 2 primary CR123s Best of Luck Gene in your NEW full time job. You make a great product!
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of Adjustable Passive Constraint on the Failing Left Ventricle. T2 - A Finite-Element Model Study. AU - Jhun, Choon-Sik. AU - Wenk, Jonathan F.. AU - Zhang, Zhihong. AU - Wall, Samuel T.. AU - Sun, Kay. AU - Sabbah, Hani N.. AU - Ratcliffe, Mark B.. AU - Guccione, Julius M.. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - Background: Passive constraint is used to prevent left ventricular dilation and subsequent remodeling. However, there has been concern about the effect of passive constraint on diastolic left ventricular chamber stiffness and pump function. This study determined the relationship between constraint, diastolic wall stress, chamber stiffness, and pump function. We tested the hypothesis that passive constraint at 3 mm Hg reduces wall stress with minimal change in pump function. Methods: A three-dimensional finite-element model of the globally dilated left ventricle based on left ventricular dimensions obtained in dogs that had undergone serial intracoronary microsphere ...
Neonates and infants that have cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for congenital heart disease are at great risk for experiencing life-threatening low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) in the first 24 hours after surgery. The poor perfusion and inadequate oxygen delivery that occurs may result in multiple organ failure and death. It is LCOS that is responsible for the majority of early postoperative deaths in this population of neonates and infants. Improved pediatric probes placed in peripheral locations using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) may permit continuous monitoring of venous saturations reflecting overall perfusion and oxygen balance in the tissues. Following parental or guardian consent, 30 neonates and infants scheduled to undergo surgery for congenital heart disease will be enrolled. At the end of surgery, four EQUANOX Advance 8004CB probes will be placed on the flank, lower extremities and the forehead. Continuous NIRS saturations will be monitored and stored for ...
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a major cause of infant mortality. Many infants with CHD require corrective surgery with most operations requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). CPB triggers a systemic inflammatory response which is associated with low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS), postoperative morbidity and mortality. Delivery of nitric oxide (NO) into CPB circuits can provide myocardial protection and reduce bypass-induced inflammation, leading to less LCOS and improved recovery. ...
icTV) Commentary on the LICORN Randomised Clinical Trial Jean-Paul Mira shares his thoughts on the LICORN trial which sought to answer the question: Does a prophylactic levosimendan infusion reduce the incidence of postoperative low cardiac output syndrome in patients with impaired left ventricular function who are undergoing isolated or combined coronary artery bypass grafting surgery under […]. Read More…. ...
For this pump to work well it needs a good supply of fuel and oxygen and this is achieved through good blood supply. However, there is a second aspect which is largely ignored by cardiologists and other doctors. The heart needs to be able to convert this fuel and oxygen supply into a usable form of energy for the muscle cells to work. This is achieved by mitochondria. They take fuel and oxygen from the blood and through a complex series of biochemical reactions, including Krebs citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, they generate ATP, the currency of energy in the body. Each heart cell will hold between 2,000 - 3,000 mitochondria. The reason it needs so many is that the heart never gets a rest - it has to work 24/7! An interesting observation here is that the heart is rich in oxygen and mitochondria - when the latter gets switched off, this is a major risk factor for cancer. One never sees cases of primary cancer of the heart! The heart is only responsible for 60% of blood pressure - ...
Patients in arm 1 will have their blood pressure raised in order to improve cerebral blood flow (CBF). In case of a low cardiac output, inotropics will be added. Induced hypertension will be continued for at least 48 hours when patients show some improvement within the first 24 hours. After 48 hours, the dose of vasopressor will be tapered daily, and resumed in case of clinical deterioration. In patients who do not show any improvement within 24 hours, induced hypertension will not be continued. In patients in arm 2 of the trial, hypertension will not be induced. Patients in both arms of the trial will be treated with oral nimodipine and normovolaemia without haemodilution. In some selected centres, an extra perfusion CT scan is performed 24-36 hours after instalment of the treatment. Measurement of CBF is performed in all participants with perfusion CT-scanning of the brain at the beginning of the study (as part of regular patient care), and after 24-36 hours ...
Former Vice President Dick Cheney suffered a mild heart attack, but was feeling good and was expected to leave the hospital this week, his office said in a statement on Tuesday.
​The actors wife told CNN he never fully recovered from a horrible car accident two and a half years ago in which he was injured very badly.​
Veteran actor Sumita Sanyal, who essayed supporting characters in Anand and Satyajit Rays Nayak, died today at her south Kolkata residence.
Malocclusion is the technical name for a bad bite and refers to problems with talking, chewing, biting and swallowing food. It can also affect your facial appearance. Your bite is the name given to the action of opening and closing your jaws. Your jaws are connected via a small joint which acts in a similar manner to a hinge and enables them to work in a smooth, co-ordinated manner. But problems can occur with your jaw, such as temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJ) which can be both painful and distressing. Treatment for this can include the fitting of a corrective brace. Problems with your bite can also include an underbite or an overbite: an underbite occurs when your lower jaw and teeth protrude forward which means that they close in front of your upper teeth. An overbite is where the opposite happens: when you close your jaws you notice that your upper teeth protrude in front of your lower teeth. What causes malocclusion? There are a variety of factors which cause this which ...
Four patients in c-CABG group died of low cardiac output syndrome and CVA. There was no operative mortalities in OPCAB group (p = .023). Bleeding requiring reopening (5:1, p = .05) and CVA (3:0, p = .05) occurred more frequently in c-CABG group than OPCAB group. The completeness of follow-up was 83.8%.. Late deaths occurred in 26 patients (11 [18.0%] in c-CABG group, 15 [16.9%] in OPCAB group). The causes of death were cancer, CVA, cardiac and sepsis.. Rerevascularization was performed more frequently in OPCAB group than in c-CABG group (14:5, p = .297). Five-year overall survival, freedom from cardiac death and MACE in c-CABG and OPCAB groups were 90.2 vs 96.6 %, 98.4 vs 100 %, and 91.8 vs 85.4 %, respectively. Ten-year survival estimates were 82.0 vs 83.1 %, 96.7 vs 96.6 %, and 88.5 vs 83.1 %, respectively. There were no statistical significance between 2 groups survival (p = .743 in overall survival, P = .813 in free from cardiac death, and p = .305 in free from MACE). Age was an independent ...
The present clinical series from a single institution illustrates the evolution of management strategies over the past two decades for the challenging condition of PAIVS. In patients with a diminutive RV and RV dependent coronary circulation, the management is palliative systemic-pulmonary arterial shunt insertion and subsequent univentricular repair. In those with anatomically suitable RVs, laser assisted valvotomy with balloon valvoplasty has become the procedure of choice in our institution. However, regardless of the initial procedure, multiple interventions are often required in the subsequent treatment algorithm, especially for patients after CPV and laser assisted pulmonary valvotomy with balloon dilatation. Nonetheless, the risk of developing low cardiac output syndrome is significantly less after catheter intervention than after either RVOTR or CPV. Although survival of patients after RVOTR appeared worse than survival after CPV or primary catheter intervention, the difference was not ...
Measurements and results: Subjects were observed for 24 hours; during surgery, 6 and 24 hours after aortic clamp removed. During July 2012 - December 2013, there were 52 patients who became subjects. There were proportion differences between cardiac lactate and cardiac output change after cardiac surgery. Increase of cardiac lactate has a correlation with increasing levels of sTNFR-1 and IL-6 and decreasing index of Tc, ScvO2 and cardiac output. There were correlations among low index of ScvO2, high index of cardiac lactate and decrease of cardiac output. High sTNFR-1 and IL-6 were correlated to low cardiac output. Cardiac lactate, ScvO2 and MAP can be used as predictors of cardiac output change in patients with cardio-pulmonary bypass. sTNFR-1 and IL-6 levels were correlated with cardiac output changes after cardiac surgery ...
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecules storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters. ...
Studies are showing that loneliness is a risk factor for a number of health issues. Problems like disturbed sleep and low cardiac output, which can lead to an imbalance between oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption leading to metabolic acidosis (when the body produces excessive quantities of acid), are being linked to prolonged feelings of loneliness.. The studies have found that social isolation makes people vulnerable to disease and can shorten life. When looking at the findings of many similar studies, the results suggest that loneliness is as risky to health as obesity.. An interesting fact has emerged from the studies too that show that some people may have a hereditary disposition for feelings of loneliness. In twin studies it was found that though loneliness may change across a lifespan according to environmental factors, there did appear to be evidence of genetic contribution.. It is worth noting too that these studies were conducted across various age ranges, from young adults to the ...
Mild heart attack symptoms can be treated through proper medication, which has been recommended or prescribed by your physician. Prevention is critical.
What better way to say goodbye to the year 2010 than to count down the 10 biggest stories of the year in professional wrestling? This 10-part series is designed to do exactly ...
This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-1461469186 Surgical Treatment for Advanced Heart Failure Product Will Be Delivered Via Email Or Cloud Drive Wit
With minimalistic circuit design best sound quality is achieved without any compromise. Only one transistor is responsible for amplification of the low MC signals. Overallfeedback, differential amplification and push-pull circuits are not used. Adjustment of the MC imput impedance to the pick-up is superfluous due to the use of a current control circuit. Tubes are only installed where they are able to develop their whole range of advantages: for prevention of natural harmonic spectrum, fusion of neutrality and liveliness as well as the exceptional dynamics. One output transistor guarantees low output impedance to drive long cables without losses ...
Fruit Plus Menthol Mr Salt-E E-Juice 30mL is a unique yet satisfying blend of fruit and menthol that is crafted using a salt-based nicotine for use in low output pod
The Dimplex 400W low wattage panel heater is an ideal background heating solution for rooms where there is the need to keep a chill off, such as hallways or small bedrooms. Slimline and simple to use, this low output freestanding panel heater has a 24 hour timer with single heat setting operated by a side switch and comes complete with fitted plug. Comes with a 3 year guarantee.. This product is only suitable for well insulated spaces or occasional use. ...
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(PRWEB) June 9, 2005 -- The first 10 Heart Failure patients all over the world who received Embryonic-Fetal Human Stem Cells directly into their hearts were
Learn more about Diagnosis of Heart Failure at Grand Strand Medical Center Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Learn more about Talking to Your Doctor About Heart Failure at Grand Strand Medical Center Main Page Risk Factors ...
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A 17-year-old girl suffered from heart failure due to an infection that she may have picked up when she had her ears pierced a year earlier.
failing - MedHelps failing Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for failing. Find failing information, treatments for failing and failing symptoms.
This weeks View focuses on several recent papers having to do with cardiac surgery, specifically a 5-year trial comparing off-pump and on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), outcomes of transcatheter mitral valve replacement in patients with failed mitral bioprosthetic valves and annuloplasty rings, and a study on the use of levosimendan in patients undergoing CABG to prevent low cardiac output syndromes.
Hospitalizations for acute heart failure are associated with high mortality and readmission rates. Ten to 20% of the patients have signs of low cardiac output and fluid overload. The administration of inotropic agents to correct these hemodynamic abnormalities may be indicated in these patients. However, the risk to benefit ratio of inotropic agents is high and an increase of untoward effects and mortality has been suggested by many retrospective analyses and meta-analyses. Limitations of inotropic therapy seem mainly related to their mechanisms of action based, in the case of the traditional agents, on an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP and calcium concentrations. Concomitant peripheral vasodilation, such as in the case of the novel agent levosimendan is another important limitation, above when patients are hypotensive and/or treated with vasodilators and high doses of diuretics. Myosin activators, histaroxime, sarcoplasmic reticulum ATPase activators and metabolic agents seem promising as active
I had pigs with heart issues before, which were caught too late, due to the fact that vets in Belgium are usually not well educated about piggies at all. Despite that I had my suspicions about each and every pig, had the pigs heart examined, the vets didnt bother and the pigs died from the consequences, meaning one pig developed pneumonia, one from dental issues, one suddenly developed bladder grit at an older age and didnt recover after anesthesia for rinsing her bladder, one had an averse reaction to pain meds and caused heart failure. Plus, until 2011, no heart meds were prescribed for pigs in Belgium ...
Next to a dime for perspective, this small wire device is designed to hold open a surgically created hole in the heart of diastolic heart failure patients.
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Acute Kidney Injury, Adult, Association, Bleeding, Blood, Cardiac Output, Cardiac Surgery, Confidence Interval, Hematocrit, Hemodilution, Hospital, Injury, Kidney, Low Cardiac Output, Mechanical Ventilation, Methods, Morbidity, Mortality, Odds Ratio, Patient
... or congestive heart failure (CHF) is known as the structural or functional disorder of the heart that impairs its ability to pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. Due to inefficient pumping ability, fluid starts to buildup in the legs, ankles and feet (edema). Coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and diabetes are the primary causes that lead to congestive heart failure. About 5 million people in the United States alone suffer from this condition and each year approximately 300000 people die due to heart failure.. Heart failure increases the pressure in the heart because blood moves through the heart and the body at a slower rate. Thus the heart loses its ability to pump oxygenated blood and nutrients to other parts of the body. During heart failure, the heart does not cease completely but loses the efficiency to pump blood all around the body. Heart failure leads to reduction in muscle contraction and the ability of the heart chambers to fill up with blood ...
Most of you probably understood the first scenario easily. This patient has a low cardiac output despite a normal blood pressure. This is a completely normal finding in cardiogenic shock, which is a "pump failure"-a lack of forward flow-rather than a hypotensive state.. Arterial blood pressure is primarily maintained by vasomotor tone, which is why most of the shock we see is distributive (i.e. vasodilatory) in nature. In Guytonian physiology, the vascular pressure in the absence of any flow-the "mean systemic filling pressure"-is not zero, but it is very low (,20 mmHg). Low flow can eventually be a primary cause of arterial hypotension, but only in end stages; most cardiogenic shock is normotensive, or even hypertensive. As always, the wild card is vascular resistance, which can vary in either a compensatory or decompensated manner.. To make a long story short, flow and pressure are largely independent in cardiogenic shock, which means that we can no longer use blood pressure as a surrogate for ...
This week, we are dedicating our post to heart failure, in honor heart failure awareness week. Heart failure is a condition affecting over 5 million people in the US. Despite its name, heart failure doesnt mean your heart has stopped beating. Heart failure is a condition where the heart isnt pumping enough blood to sustain your bodys oxygen and blood needs. Consuming too much sodium may cause your heart to work harder and worsen a heart failure condition. Whether you have heart failure and are trying to manage it or are just trying to follow a healthy lifestyle, here are some tips for following a low sodium diet, tried and tested by the experts on our team. ...
Israeli companies are developing monitoring devices aimed at improving quality of life and avoiding hospital readmissions for CHF patients.
We are really sorry that you had such a traumatic event occur during your treatment for angina in the emergency room. Our article is about heart failure, specifically at the end of life. We conclude that "At the end of life, morphine is the most important medicine for providing comfort to heart patients. It reduces the breathless feeling that can be so frightening to people at the end of life." Pathways stands by this information which is a standard in hospice care for dying patients.. ReplyDelete ...
This quality standard covers assessing, diagnosing and managing chronic heart failure in adults (aged 18 and over). It describes high-quality care in priority
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cognitive Functioning and Chronic Heart Failure:A Review of the Literature (2002-July 2007). AU - Pressler, Susan J.. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - The purposes of this article are to (1) summarize the state of the science about cognitive impairment and heart failure (HF) using the results of a literature search of publications from 2002 through July 2007; (2) provide a focused review of the studies that used a prospective, longitudinal design with measurement at 2 or more time points in order to identify change in cognitive functioning; and (3) identify gaps and priorities for future studies. A computer search of the literature from 2002 through July 2007 was conducted. All of the resulting 97 references were reviewed, categorized into 8 groups, and evaluated. The 97 studies were categorized as follows: those not directly related to cognitive impairment (n = 15); comments, letters to the editor, and brief summaries (n = 11); reviews (n = 15); data-based publications using ...
Heart failure (HF), also referred to as congestive heart failure, occurs when heart loses the ability to provide sufficient pump action to maintain blood flow. Most of the signs of a heart failure occur as a result of the congestion that develops
A study in nearly 15 000 heart failure patients has found that up to 80% may not be receiving treatment at doses proven to reduce hospitalisations and improve survival. The research presented at ESC Congress 2016 today highlights the need for doctors to ensure patients are treated appropriately so that the high levels of serious illnesses and death associated with heart failure can be reduced.
Question - What is the life expectancy of stage three heart failure patients ?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Heart failure, Ask a Cardiologist
As I see it, the best use for a JFET buffer is on the input of a pedal, not the output. It can give you an input impedance of more than 1M Ohm, which is great, and it can give you some nice soft clipping. Putting it on the output is less useful, because youre not going to get the really low output impedance youd like, and youre probably not going to get the benefit of the nice clipping sound, so easily. Using it with a fairly high value output pot is just pointless - youre back to high output impedance, when you turn the volume down, so you start to lose bass again ...
RT8062 2A, 2MHz, Synchronous Step-Down Converter General Description Features The RT8062 is a high efficiency synchronous, step-down DC/DC converter. Its input voltage range is from 2.7V to 5.5V and provides an adjustable regulated output voltage from 0.8V to 5V while delivering up to 2A of output current. z High Efficiency : Up to 95% z Adjustable Frequency : 200kHz to 2MHz No Schottky Diode Required 0.8V Reference Allows Low Output Voltage Low Dropout Operation : 100% Duty Cycle Enable Function Internal Soft-Start RoHS Compliant and Halogen Free The internal synchronous low on resistance power switches increase efficiency and eliminate the need for an external Schottky diode. The default switching frequency is set at 2MHz, if the RT pin is left open. It can also be varied from 200kHz to 2MHz by adding an external resistor. Current mode operation with external compensation allows the transient response to be optimized over a wide range of loads and output capacitors. z z z z z z Applications z ...
This paper has two parts. In the first part, I demonstrate that, in the absence of price and wage bounds, monetary models do not have current equilibria - and so lack predictive content - for a wide range of possible policy rules and/or beliefs about future equilibrium outcomes. This non-existence problem disappears in models in which firms face (arbitrarily loose) finite upper bounds on prices or positive lower bonds on nominal wages. In the second part, I study the properties of a class of dynamic monetary models with these kinds of bounds on prices/wages. Among other results, I show that these models imply that the Phillips curve is L-shaped, are consistent with the existence of permanently inefficiently low output (secular stagnation), and do not imply that forward guidance is surprisingly effective. I show too that economies with lower nominal wage floors have even worse equilibrium outcomes in welfare terms. It follows that models with arbitrarily low but positive nominal wage floors are ...
... is a condition that is caused by the heart failing to pump enough blood around the body at the right pressure. Common symptoms of heart failure include breathlessness, fatigue and ankle swelling. The risk of developing heart failure can be reduced by maintaining a healthy lifestyle such as taking regular exercise, eating well and by not smoking.. The figure shows that the QOF prevalence of heart failure for most GP surgeries in NHS Horsham and Mid Sussex CCG is smaller than the modelled prevalence.. ...
Up to 80% of heart failure patients may not be receiving treatment at doses proven to reduce hospitalizations and improve survival.
The Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) is calling for global policy change relating to heart failure. An international white paper, Heart failure: preventing disease and death worldwide, ...
Heart failure is a clinical syndrome, learn about Heart Failure Diagnosis and Investigation on our Heart Failure Diagnosis and Investigation page
Learn more about Symptoms of Heart Failure at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Learn more about Diagnosis of Heart Failure at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Learn more about Treatments for Heart Failure at Portsmouth Regional Hospital Main Page Risk Factors ...
Learn more about Screening for Heart Failure at Portsmouth Regional Hospital Main Page Risk Factors ...
At MaineHealth, patients with heart failure, including congestive heart failure, get comprehensive diagnosis and treatment of their heart conditions.
Heart failure means the heart has a reduced ability to pump blood around the body. Congestive heart failure refers to the symptoms that occur in heart failure from excess fluid accumulation.
Although the term heart failure sounds frightening, this condition is usually treatable. Heart failure does not mean that the heart has stopped working.
Several scores based on symptoms and signs have been developed to assess the presence of heart failure. The goal of this study was to compare six heart failure scores in non-hospitalised subjects and to determine their usefulness in population based research. The scores were applied to 54 participants of a population based study. All underwent...
Treatment for the symptoms of heart failure varies depending on the stage of heart failure. Stage A heart failure is generally treated using lifestyle modifications and medications, while Stage B...
Along with the above, the most surprised patients are those who survive a heart attack and go home on five new medicines. These many medicines do not mean that you are very ill, but rather that physicians know from experimental studies that each of these five medicines will reduce your chance of a second heart attack (and remember that the single greatest risk for having a heart attack is already having had one). The medicines are: a platelet blocker (aspirin, Plavix, or Coumadin), a beta-blocker, a statin to lower your cholesterol and stabilize any atheromatous plaques in your coronary arteries, an ACE inhibitor or an ARB, and, if you are in any heart failure at all, spironalactone. Again, these are all to reduce your chance of having a second heart attack, and should be taken exactly as prescribed. ...
Heart failure occurs when the heart cant pump enough blood to meet the bodys needs. It can follow a heart attack or develop gradually over many years. Learn more about heart failure from our experts.
Sometimes a story hits your right in the heart. Matt Foggs experience with battling chronic heart failure to eventually overcoming it is one of those.
Read more about Exercising for 30 minutes lowers risk of heart failures on Business Standard. Heart failure is a chronic, progressive condition in which the heart muscle is unable to pump enough blood through to meet the bodys needs for blood and oxygen.Though there is no cure for this condition, one can choose to lead a healthy lifestyle
... Heart failure is a condition in which the pumping mechanism of the heart is weakened, and it is unable to circulate blood at a normal pace. As a result, fluid backs up into different...
Your doctor will likely prescribe medications for heart failure and any underlying health problems you have. Most people with heart failure take one or more types of medication. Your healthcare provider will work to find the combination of medications that works best for you.
To evaluate your condition, your doctor will examine you, ask questions, and run tests. Along with looking for signs of heart failure, the doctor looks for any other health problems that may have led to heart failure.
To evaluate your condition, your doctor will examine you, ask questions, and run tests. Along with looking for signs of heart failure, the doctor looks for any other health problems that may have led to heart failure.
Question - BNP test shows a value of 52 ng/ml. Does this eliminate the possibility of heart failure?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Heart failure, Ask a Cardiologist
All that you have to think about the different phases of heart failure to live longer with the condition.A congestive heart failure.
Learn more about CardioKinetix heart failure treatment options. Call us at (650) 364-7016 to receive more info on heart failure treatments.
Learn about the clinical features (symptoms and signs including physical examination) of heart failure along with their explanations.
People can live with heart failure for years or even decades. Know how to manage heart failure through medication, diet, proper care, and more.
Featured Heart Failure News. Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Heart Failure From The tribunedigital-chicagotribune (Page 2 of 5)
The first treatment measures which must be applied in a heart failure are related to lifestyle modification. People with obesity are advised to lose weight
At OU Medicine, our mission is leading health care. Our vision is to be the premiere enterprise for advancing health care, medical education and research for the community, state and region. Through our combined efforts we strive to improve the lives of all people.. ...
Researchers have discovered a previously unknown cardiac molecule that could provide a key to treating, and preventing, heart failure.
Diet can dramatically lower hypertension and improve heart function in patients with a common type of heart failure, according to research presented at todays
Heart Failure in a View of Types such as acute,Chronic,Refractory and Diastolic,Causes,Signs and symptoms,Clinical features and Management
Heart failure is the biggest cause of hospital admissions in adults aged over 65 in the Western world and the outlook for patients has been dismal - about 50% of ...
Please complete this form to nominate your most promising resident or fellow to participate Heart Failure University 2017.. Space is limited and nominees are selected on a first-come, first-served basis. ...
The way through which an out-of-tune protein precipitates heart failure by causing its muscle to malfunction has been revealed by researchers.
Once you know which category of heart failure you have, you can research your condition and the kinds of treatments that are available for it.
Pathophysiology of heart failure has been considered to be a damaged state of systolic function of the heart followed by a state of low cardiac output that is, systolic heart failure. Even if systolic function is preserved, left ventricular filling in diastole can be impeded and resulted in elevation of filling pressure and symptoms of heart failure. This kind of heart failure is called diastolic heart failure. Nowadays, diastolic heart failure is referred to as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), whereas systolic heart failure is referred to as heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). In this paper, the similarities and differences between the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of diastolic and systolic heart failure were reviewed. Although diastolic heart failure is a common condition of heart failure worldwide, its pathophysiology has not been sufficiently elucidated. This is thought to be the most significant reason for a lack of established treatment methods for
The enormous costs of mortality and hospitalisation among patients with decompensated chronic heart failure needs to be faced head-on to avoid spiralling healthcare costs, delegates will be warned this morning.. This stark message will form part of the final in-depth session at Heart Failure 2016 looking at key sections of the new ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure, developed with the Heart Failure Association (HFA).. This mornings symposium, which will focus on chronic heart failure and its management, will examine the issues surrounding the management of decompensated chronic heart failure, as well as changes in the management pathway of chronic heart failure patients in general.. Chaired by Gerasimos Filippatos (University of Athens, Greece) alongside Stefan D. Anker (University Medical Center Göttingen, Germany), this mornings session will emphasise the differences between the current recommendations for chronic heart failure and those ...
To The Editor:. We read with interest the article by Howell et al.1 We wish to offer some brief comments. Although the concept has been around for nearly 50 years, glucose-insulin-potassium still lacks an established protocol.. Uncertainties surrounding glucose-insulin-potassium are, in part, due to the different contexts, doses, timing, and protocols used.1 The clinical cardiologist may inquire about the rationale for the investigators choice of the specific protocol used in the Hypertrophy, … ...
End of life is an unfortunate but inevitable phase of the heart failure patients journey. It is often preceded by a stage in the progression of heart failure defined as advanced heart failure, and characterised by poor quality of life and frequent hospitalisations. In clinical practice, the efficacy of treatments for advanced heart failure is often assessed by parameters such as clinical status, haemodynamics, neurohormonal status, and echo/MRI indices. From the patients perspective, however, quality-of-life-related parameters, such as functional capacity, exercise performance, psychological status, and frequency of re-hospitalisations, are more significant. The effects of therapies and interventions on these parameters are, however, underrepresented in clinical trials targeted to assess advanced heart failure treatment efficacy, and data are overall scarce. This is possibly due to a non-universal definition of the quality-of-life-related endpoints, and to the difficult standardisation of the ...
Heart failure has quickly become one of the top causes of morbidity and mortality accounting for 1 in 9 deaths. As patients with coronary artery disease live longer, survive myocardial infarctions, and bypass surgery, more live with heart failure. The disease has a staggering mortality rate of over 50% within 5 years of diagnosis. The most recent American College of Cardiology (ACC) guideline revised the terminology from the old systolic and diastolic heart failure to heart failure with preserved (HfpEF) or reduced (HFrEF) ejection fraction. The etiology and treatment of HFpEF and HFrEF are significantly different and both patients and providers can become confused on how to treat each condition. In 2017, the ACC released new heart failure guidelines that incorporated the new terminology and recent practice-changing evidence such as the PARADIGM-HF trial which demonstrated significant mortality reduction via the novel neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), sacubitril. Recent updates have further ...
Inotropic agents alter the force or energy of muscular contractions. Negatively inotropic agents weaken the force of muscular contractions. Positively inotropic agents increase the strength of muscular contraction. Inotropic agents are used in hospitalized patients with acute decompensated heart failure, with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and with signs of end-organ dysfunction in the setting of a low cardiac output, or with severe systolic heart failure awaiting heart transplant to maintain hemodynamic stability or as a bridge to decision. Discover the latest research on inotrpic agents and heart diseases here. ...
RT-100 AC6 gene transfer involves infusing an inactivated adenovirus vector encoding human adenylyl cyclase type 6 (Ad5.hAC6) into the arteries that feed the heart during cardiac catheterization, a commonly performed procedure. AC6 is a protein found in heart muscle cells that regulates heart function and appears to be down-regulated in heart failure patients. Results of a Phase 2 clinical trial indicate that, through a one-time administration, RT-100 safely increased heart function beyond optimal heart failure therapy. The treatment also lowered the heart failure hospitalization rate at 12 months, which will be the primary endpoint in the programs upcoming Phase 3 trial. RT-100 was granted Fast Track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).. About heart failure ...
Muscle dysfunction and weakness - This occurs in major muscles, but also may manifest as: diplopia, low cardiac output, ... Laboratory findings include low-normal serum calcium, moderately low serum phosphate, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, and ... Hypophosphatemia is an electrolyte disorder in which there is a low level of phosphate in the blood.[1] Symptoms may include ... This includes most common respiratory alkalemia (a higher than normal blood pH from low carbon dioxide levels in the blood), ...
Eccentric contractions and cardiac output: With lower cost of oxygen how would eccentric exercise affect the heart? A study was ... According to Gault the low cost of energy, and low oxygen demand make low-intensity eccentric exercise ideal for the elderly.[ ... Due to the high strain on muscles during eccentric training, coupled with low energy output, eccentric training becomes a ... The rehabilitative nature, low energy costs, high magnitudes of force, and low uptake of oxygen all align eccentric exercise ...
Increased cardiac output and low systemic vascular resistance are characteristic of ALF. Pulmonary artery catheterization ... There is a compensatory increase in cardiac output. Adrenal insufficiency has been documented in 60% of ALF cases, and is ... The advent of transplantation has changed survival from as low as 15% in the pretransplant era to more than 60% today. Liver ... There must be a low threshold for obtaining frequent cultures (blood, urine, and sputum), chest radiographs, and paracentesis. ...
... decrease cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke work, and volume; lower resistance in blood vessels in the kidneys; and lead to ... This group of drugs causes relaxation of blood vessels as well as a decrease in blood volume, which leads to lower blood ... This leads to cardiac dysfunction and neuromuscular consequences, such as muscle weakness, paresthesia, nausea, diarrhea, and ... Yang Y, Ohta K, Shimizu M, Nakai A, Kasahara Y, Yachie A, Koizumi S (Jul 2005). "Treatment with low-dose angiotensin-converting ...
Low cardiac output - Fatigue, weakness, dyspnea on exertion, lethargy, and lightheadedness. Hemodynamic - Pulsation in the neck ... of cardiac output, which normally provides only 15% - 25% of cardiac output. Atrial contraction against a closed tricuspid ... That's due to increase in left atrial pressure and left ventricular filling pressure, which is due to decreased cardiac output ... In general, the symptoms of the syndrome are a combination of decreased cardiac output, loss of atrial contribution to ...
"Caveolae protect endothelial cells from membrane rupture during increased cardiac output". The Journal of Cell Biology. 211 (1 ... Lim, Ye-Wheen; Lo, Harriet P.; Ferguson, Charles; Martel, Nick; Giacomotto, Jean; Gomez, Guillermo A.; Yap, Alpha S.; Hall, ... Lo, Harriet P; Hall, Thomas E; Parton, Robert G (2016-01-13). "Mechanoprotection by skeletal muscle caveolae". Bioarchitecture ... Bastiani, Michele; Liu, Libin; Hill, Michelle M.; Jedrychowski, Mark P.; Nixon, Susan J.; Lo, Harriet P.; Abankwa, Daniel; ...
... a fall in plasma volume and a reduction in cardiac output. However, after chronic use thiazides cause a reduction in blood ... Thiazides also lower urinary calcium excretion, making them useful in preventing calcium-containing kidney stones. This effect ... When administered acutely thiazides lower blood pressure by causing diuresis, ... "How do thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics lower blood pressure?". J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 5 (4): 155-60. doi: ...
Cardiac output (the volume of blood pumped by the heart) may be reduced, and hypotension (low blood pressure) is frequently ... Because gas exchange is impaired, signs of low blood oxygen saturation, such as low concentrations of oxygen in arterial blood ... The sooner the endotracheal tube is removed, the lower the risk of pneumonia, but if it is removed too early and has to be put ... Hypoxemia (low oxygen concentration in the arterial blood) typically becomes progressively worse over 24-48 hours after injury ...
Plasma expansion may be necessary if hypotension and low cardiac output develop. Hypertonic saline may be given intravenously, ...
Heart Rate Cardiac output is dependent on stroke volume and heart rate. A significant portion (55-77%) of HFpEF patients are ... Hummel, S. L., Seymour, E. M., Brook, R. D., Kolias, T. J., Sheth, S. S., Rosenblum, H. R., ... & Weder, A. B. (2012). Low- ... "Cardiac output response to exercise in relation to metabolic demand in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction." ... As patients display normal ejection fraction but reduced cardiac output they are especially sensitive to changes in preloading ...
The increase in salt and water retention caused by low cardiac output can also result in anasarca as a long term maladaptive ...
Indeed, NIRS is able to measure venous oxygen saturation (SVO2), which is determined by the cardiac output, as well as other ... Wilken, Tobias; Curto, Gaspare Lo; Probst, Rafael A.; Steinmetz, Tilo; Manescau, Antonio; Pasquini, Luca; González Hernández, ... examining the NIRS provides critical care physicians with an estimate of the cardiac output. NIRS is favoured by patients, ... "Peripheral Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Methodologic Aspects and a Systematic Review in Post-Cardiac Surgical Patients". Journal ...
Cardiac support[edit]. For heart patients with low cardiac output and who are not candidates for cardiac transplantation, a ...
... decreasing blood return to the heart and thus cardiac output. Long term, however, it is believed to lower peripheral vascular ... low magnesium), hyponatremia (low sodium), and hypercalcemia (high calcium) Hyperuricemia, high levels of uric acid in the ... electrolyte imbalances especially low blood potassium and less commonly low blood sodium, gout, high blood sugar, and feeling ... Additionally, by other mechanisms, HCTZ is believed to lower peripheral vascular resistance. Hydrochlorothiazide is available ...
The ability of the pulmonary artery catheter to sample mixed venous blood is of great utility to manage low cardiac output ... High oxygen extraction is associated with low cardiac output and decreased mixed venous oxygen saturation. Except during ... The concept of using thermodilution to measure cardiac output was originally the idea of Arnost Fronek. As a former colleague ... Regardless of the value obtained by measurements of the cardiac output, the mixed venous oxygen saturation is an accurate ...
His cardiac output was 50 litres a minute; a fit amateur cyclist's is about 25 litres. Induráin's lung capacity was 7.8 litres ... His resting pulse was as low as 28 BPM, compared to an average 60-72 bpm, which meant his heart would be less strained in the ... His maximal values were oxygen uptake 5.29 L/min (57.4 mL · kg-1 · min-1) and aerobic power output 450 W (4.88 W/kg) and was ... However, his absolute maximal and submaximal oxygen uptake and power output in 2012 still compared favorably with those ...
Under ordinary conditions, the colon receives between 10% and 35% of the total cardiac output. If blood flow to the colon drops ... Causes of the reduced blood flow can include changes in the systemic circulation (e.g. low blood pressure) or local factors ... If possible, cardiac function and oxygenation should be optimized to improve oxygen delivery to the ischemic bowel. A ... As a result, during periods of low blood pressure, the arteries feeding the colon clamp down vigorously; a similar process can ...
Initially, diuretics lower blood pressure by decreasing cardiac output and reducing plasma and extracellular fluid volume. ... Eventually, cardiac output returns to normal, and plasma and extracellular fluid volume return to slightly less than normal, ... ALLHAT subjects treated with chlorthalidone had a lower rate of congestive heart failure than amlodipine or lisinopril or ... Also, compared to lisinopril subjects, chlortalidone subjects in ALLHAT had a lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease. ...
It may be due to low cardiac output (as seen in shock, congestive cardiac failure), hypovolemia, valvular heart disease (such ... Conditions associated with low cardiac output and high systemic vascular resistance can produce a dicrotic pulse. Pulsus ... increased cardiac output, increased stroke volume (as seen in anxiety, exercise, complete heart block, aortic regurgitation), ... A low tension pulse (pulsus mollis), the vessel is soft or impalpable between beats. In high tension pulse (pulsus durus), ...
Blocking β adrenergic receptors decreases the heart rate and cardiac output to lower arterial blood pressure. β blockers also ... Penbutolol has a low frequency of side effects. These side effects include dizziness, light headedness, and nausea. Penbutolol ... It may mask signs of low blood sugar in people with diabetes and it may mask signs of hyperthyroidism. Animal studies showed ... decrease renin levels, which ultimately results in less water being reabsorbed by the kidneys and therefore a lower blood ...
... and cardiac output are measured by stretch receptors found in the carotid arteries. Nerves embed themselves within these ... Hypovolemia, or low fluid levels in the body, can also act as a stimulus to cause this response. Epinephrine, also known as ... Hypotension, or low blood pressure, is a large driving force for the release of vasopressin, a hormone which causes the ... These impulses inhibit the constriction of blood vessels and lower the heart rate. If these nerves do not detect stretching, ...
Secondary hyperaldosteronism is often related to decreased cardiac output which is associated with elevated renin levels. The ... While low blood potassium is classically described this is only present in about a quarter of people. To determine the ... Other medications for high blood pressure and a low salt diet may also be needed. Some people with familial hyperaldosteronism ... Hubbard, Johnathan G.H.; Inabnet, William B.; Heerden, Chung-Yau Lo (2009). Endocrine surgery principles and practice. London: ...
Cardiac output increases through an increase in heart rate. The body's response to high altitude includes the following: ↑ ... Those individuals with the lowest initial partial pressure of end-tidal pCO2 (the lowest concentration of carbon dioxide at the ... with constant or increased cardiac output, also leads to increases in capillary pressures. For those suffering HACE, ... Descent to lower altitudes alleviates the symptoms of HAPE. HACE is a life-threatening condition that can lead to coma or death ...
In higher concentrations it causes endothelium-independent vasodilation and has a negative inotropic effect on cardiac output ... LCLo (lowest published). 993 ppm (rat, 20 min). 611 ppm (rat, 5 hr). 764 ppm (mouse, 20 min). 1000 ppm (human, 10 min). 3000 ... As a result of its very low Lewis basicity, it is often used as a low-temperature solvent/diluent for superacids like Magic ... Lower pH shifts the equilibrium towards molecular (gaseous) SO2, which is the active form, while at higher pH more SO2 is found ...
... is a postperfusion syndrome characterized by low systemic vascular resistance and a high cardiac output. Vasoplegic syndrome is ... "BestBets: Is Methylene Blue of benefit in treating adult patients who develop vasoplegic syndrome during Cardiac Surgery". ... defined as low systemic vascular resistance (SVR index 2.5 l/min/m2) within the first 4 postoperative hours. VPS occurs more ...
Synapsida - one low fenestra - pelycosaurs and therapsids (the 'mammal-like reptiles'). *Euryapsida - one high fenestra (above ... Sustained energy output (joules) of a typical reptile versus a similar size mammal as a function of core body temperature. The ... cardiac involuntary muscles.[68] The main structures of the heart are the sinus venosus, the pacemaker, the left atrium, the ... Digestion is slower than in mammals, reflecting their lower resting metabolism and their inability to divide and masticate ...
Learn about the normal output rate, how its measured, and causes of low cardiac output. ... Cardiac output is defined as the amount of blood your heart pumps. ... "Understanding Cardiac Output," "Why Measure Cardiac Output?". University of Mississippi Medical Center: "Control of Cardiac ... Low Output. If your heart doesnt pump enough blood to supply your body and tissues, it could signal heart failure. Low output ...
The Report Low Cardiac Output Syndrome Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2016 provides information on pricing, market analysis ... medical sciencemarket research reportsictequipmentchemicalsoutputlow cardiacsyndromelow cardiac outputlow cardiac output ... Low Cardiac Output Syndrome Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2016" provides an overview of Low Cardiac Output Syndrome ... Global Low Cardiac Output Syndrome Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2016. Press Release • Jan 05, 2017 06:20 EST ...
Retrieved from "http://drmyhill.co.uk/drmyhill/index.php?title=Low_cardiac_output_state&oldid=12521" ...
... low explanation free. What is Cardiac output, low? Meaning of Cardiac output, low medical term. What does Cardiac output, low ... Looking for online definition of Cardiac output, low in the Medical Dictionary? Cardiac output, ... cardiac output. (redirected from Cardiac output, low). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. output. [owt´poot] ... Cardiac output, low , definition of Cardiac output, low by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
... "low cardiac output state." It is a syndrome evidenced by a low cardiac output or cardiac index (cardiac index ,2.4L/min/m2) ... Low cardiac output states after cardiac ischemia. Masse, L, Antonacci, B. "Low cardiac output syndrome: identification and ... Firstly the low-cardiac-output state needs to be recognized. Once this has occurred, then the cause of the low cardiac output ... As mentioned above, diagnosing a low-cardiac-output state is not enough - the cause of the low cardiac output has to be ...
Can levosimendan prevent postoperative low cardiac output syndrome?. Can levosimendan prevent postoperative low cardiac output ... Does a prophylactic levosimendan infusion reduce the incidence of postoperative low cardiac output syndrome in patients with ...
Systemic and regional hemodynamics in low, normal and high cardiac output borderline hypertension.. F H Messerli, J G De ... Systemic and regional hemodynamics in low, normal and high cardiac output borderline hypertension. ... Systemic and regional hemodynamics in low, normal and high cardiac output borderline hypertension. ... Systemic and regional hemodynamics in low, normal and high cardiac output borderline hypertension. ...
NIRS Predict Low Cardiac Output State in Neonates and Infants in Cardiac Surgery. The safety and scientific validity of this ... Does Near Infrared Spectroscopy Predict Low Cardiac Output State in Neonates and Infants Following Cardiac Surgery for ... Cardiac Output, Low. Cardiovascular Diseases. Cardiovascular Abnormalities. Congenital Abnormalities. Signs and Symptoms. ... for congenital heart disease are at great risk for experiencing life-threatening low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) in the ...
An electrode for use in combination with a cardiac pacer for endocardial stimulation, having an electrode contact tip at the ... US4030508A - Low output electrode for cardiac pacing - Google Patents. Low output electrode for cardiac pacing Download PDF ... Low output electrode for cardiac pacing Applications Claiming Priority (1). Application Number. Priority Date. Filing Date. ... US05/655,156 1976-02-04 1976-02-04 Low output electrode for cardiac pacing Expired - Lifetime US4030508A (en) Priority ...
This report provides top line data relating to the clinical trials on Low Cardiac Output Syndrome. Report includes an overview ... Low Cardiac Output Syndrome Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2017" provides an overview of Low Cardiac Output Syndrome ... Low Cardiac Output Syndrome Global Clinical Trials Review H2 2017: Ken Research. ... This report provides top line data relating to the clinical trials on Low Cardiac Output Syndrome. Report includes an overview ...
Systemic hypotension is common in very low birthweight preterm infants but the nature of the precipitating cause may be unclear ... We present a case of a preterm infant with systemic hypotension and low cardiac output secondary to a large transatrial shunt ... Systemic hypotension is common in very low birthweight preterm infants but the nature of the precipitating cause may be unclear ...
... ... pulmonary hypertension and a large left to right intracardiac shunt underwent surgical correction of a complex cardiac anomaly ...
INSULIN SECRETION AND LOW CARDIAC OUTPUT You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in the ... INSULIN SECRETION AND LOW CARDIAC OUTPUT. Anesthesiology 12 1971, Vol.35, 660. doi: ... Myron B. Laver; INSULIN SECRETION AND LOW CARDIAC OUTPUT. Anesthesiology 1971;35(6):660. ...
Letter by Taegtmeyer and Khalaf Regarding Article, "Glucose-Insulin-Potassium Reduces the Incidence of Low Cardiac Output ... Letter by Taegtmeyer and Khalaf Regarding Article, "Glucose-Insulin-Potassium Reduces the Incidence of Low Cardiac Output ... Letter by Taegtmeyer and Khalaf Regarding Article, "Glucose-Insulin-Potassium Reduces the Incidence of Low Cardiac Output ... Letter by Taegtmeyer and Khalaf Regarding Article, "Glucose-Insulin-Potassium Reduces the Incidence of Low Cardiac Output ...
... and may require the use of inotropic drugs in patients with low cardiac output and evidence of organ hypoperfusion. However, ... and may require the use of inotropic drugs in patients with low cardiac output and evidence of organ hypoperfusion. However, ... Cardiac Output / physiology*. Cardiotonic Agents / adverse effects, pharmacology*. Clinical Trials as Topic. Digoxin / adverse ... to confirm and expand the effectiveness and safety of these agents in patients with acute heart failure and low cardiac output. ...
Pharmacologic Strategies with Afterload Reduction in Low Cardiac Output Syndrome After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery). Author(s): ... Pharmacologic Strategies with Afterload Reduction in Low Cardiac Output Syndrome After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery)", Current ... Pharmacologic Strategies with Afterload Reduction in Low Cardiac Output Syndrome After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery) ... Cardiac Stem Cell Regeneration in Metabolic Syndrome. Current Pharmaceutical Design. * Do Statins Beneficially or Adversely ...
A low cardiac output 2 or 6 hours after arrival in the ICU is associated with a high level of postoperative complication. Using ... Complicated patients had lower cardiac output and SVO2 values 2 and 6 hours after the arrival in ICU. In the logistic ... The benefit of routine measurement of cardiac output after cardiac surgery is still discussed. Some studies found no benefit of ... Clinical prediction of cardiac output is poor after cardiac surgery [3]. Clinicians also do not really know what value of ...
In conclusion, this study shows that low-dose bupivacaine (with sufentanil) combined with a low-dose infusion of phenylephrine ... A ) Cardiac output. ( B ) Systolic blood pressure. ( C ) Heart rate. ( D ) Stroke volume. Baseline is marked on the y label. SE ... A ) Cardiac output. ( B ) Systolic blood pressure. ( C ) Heart rate. ( D ) Stroke volume. Baseline is marked on the y label. SE ... A ) Cardiac output. ( B ) Systolic blood pressure. ( C ) Heart rate. ( D ) Stroke volume. Baseline is marked on the y label. SE ...
Artifactually Low Cardiac Outputs Resulting from a Communication Between the Proximal and Distal Lumens of an Edwards Pacing ... Artifactually Low Cardiac Outputs Resulting from a Communication Between the Proximal and Distal Lumens of an Edwards Pacing ... Artifactually Low Cardiac Outputs Resulting from a Communication Between the Proximal and Distal Lumens of an Edwards Pacing ... A. William Paulsen, Tim R. Valek; Artifactually Low Cardiac Outputs Resulting from a Communication Between the Proximal and ...
Persistently low cardiac output predicts high mortality in newborns with cardiogenic shock. G Sabatino, L A Ramenghi, A ... Persistently low cardiac output predicts high mortality in newborns with cardiogenic shock. By gerbonis 03 Mar, 2014 English, ... Persistently low cardiac output predicts high mortality in newborns with cardiogenic shock. ... Left ventricular Cardiac Output (CO) was measured by a duplex scanner with pulsed Doppler and color flow mapping ...
Increased cardiac output is related to dopamines direct inotropic effect on the myocardium. Increased cardiac output at low or ... In many instances the renal fraction of the total cardiac output has been found to increase. Increase in cardiac output ... Hypotension due to inadequate cardiac output can be managed by administration of low to moderate doses of dopamine HCl, which ... Static or decreased SVR associated with low or moderate movements in cardiac output is believed to be a reflection of ...
PEA or Low Cardiac Output? "A number of patients with the so-called pulseless electrical activity (PEA), actually have cardiac ... In other words, capnography revealed she still had cardiac activity that was producing some output, albeit very low. Still, it ... Capnography can help distinguish between PEA and very low cardiac output arrest states (Sanders et al., 1985; Isserles & Breen ... She has cardiac output. She is not in PEA. As it turned out, they got a BP of 125/70. They ceased CPR.. My question (at the ...
... ... Browsing SAH Faculty and Staff Research by Subject "Cardiac Output, Low/ physiopathology". Archie Digital Collections. ...
Cardiac Output, Low. George Lister, MD Jean McLean Wallace Professor of Pediatrics and Professor of Cellular And Molecular ... Anemia; Cardiac Output, Low; Critical Care; Education, Medical; Hypoxia, Brain; Pediatrics; Physiology; Sudden Infant Death ...
  • High output also can happen when your body lacks enough oxygen-carrying red blood cells, a condition called anemia . (webmd.com)
  • Factors that could lead to changes in a patient's functional capacities because of decreased cardiac output might include physical exercise of a type or intensity that the patient cannot tolerate because of diminished oxygen supply, ingestion of large meals that place an added workload on the heart, obesity, retention of fluid (edema), hypovolemia or hypervolemia, emotional stress, and smoking. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • DO 2 depends on the amount of blood pumped per minute, or cardiac output (CO), and the arterial oxygen content of that blood (CaO 2 ). (medscape.com)
  • Could low oxygen (decreased lung expansion) decreases cardiac output? (healthtap.com)
  • If oxygen is very low, the heart may not pump as well. (healthtap.com)
  • electrolyte imbalance, hypoxia (low blood oxygen levels), and elevated liver enzymes. (medicinenet.com)
  • This group of drugs causes relaxation of blood vessels as well as a decrease in blood volume, which leads to lower blood pressure and decreased oxygen demand from the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heart rate related - Palpitations associated with arrhythmias In particular, the examiner should look for the following in the physical examination, as these are frequent findings at the time of admission: Vital signs may reveal hypotension, tachycardia, tachypnea, or low oxygen saturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In crude terms, this measurement compares left and right cardiac activity and calculates preload and afterload flow and pressures which, theoretically, can be stabilized or adjusted with drugs to either constrict or dilate the vessels (to raise or lower, respectively, the pressure of blood flowing to the lungs), in order to maximize oxygen for delivery to the body tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altitude sickness, also known as acute mountain sickness (AMS), is a negative health effect of high altitude, caused by acute exposure to low amounts of oxygen at high altitude. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute mountain sickness can progress to high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) or high altitude cerebral edema (HACE), both of which are potentially fatal, and can only be cured by immediate descent to lower altitude or oxygen administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those individuals with the lowest initial partial pressure of end-tidal pCO2 (the lowest concentration of carbon dioxide at the end of the respiratory cycle, a measure of a higher alveolar ventilation) and corresponding high oxygen saturation levels tend to have a lower incidence of acute mountain sickness than those with high end-tidal pCO2 and low oxygen saturation levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, higher altitudes are associated with lower oxygen partial pressure, so ravens living at high elevations are confronted with reduced oxygen availability. (wikipedia.org)
  • At higher altitudes and in warmer climates the oxygen concentration in the air is lower compared to low altitude or colder climate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inert gas asphyxiation is a form of asphyxiation which results from breathing a physiologically inert gas in the absence of oxygen, or a low amount of oxygen, rather than atmospheric air (which is largely composed of nitrogen and oxygen). (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, the gas acts as a simple diluent to reduce oxygen concentration in inspired gas and blood to dangerously low levels, thereby eventually depriving all cells in the body of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exposed person has no warning and cannot sense that the oxygen level is too low. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some animal species are better equipped than humans to detect hypoxia, and these species are more uncomfortable in low-oxygen environments that result from inert gas exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • After just two or three breaths of nitrogen, the oxygen concentration in the lungs would be low enough for some oxygen already in the bloodstream to exchange back to the lungs and be eliminated by exhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • for example, diving seals may have a heart rate as low as 12 beats per minute, helping them to conserve oxygen during long dives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variations of the maneuver can be used either in medical examination as a test of cardiac function and autonomic nervous control of the heart, or to clear the ears and sinuses (that is, to equalize pressure between them) when ambient pressure changes, as in diving, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, or air travel. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in a hemodynamically compromised patient, when the system is unable to satisfy increased oxygen demand, the blood flow to organs lower on the oxygen delivery priority list is reduced and these organs may, eventually, fail. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although aquatic animals have evolved profound physiological adaptations to conserve oxygen during submersion, the apnea and breath-holding duration, bradycardia, vasoconstriction, and redistribution of cardiac output occur also in terrestrial animals as a neural response, but the effects are more profound in natural divers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Slowing the heart rate reduces the cardiac oxygen consumption, and compensates for the hypertension due to vasoconstriction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the body requires oxygen for metabolism, low oxygen levels normally do not stimulate breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The person will recover if there is an administration of oxygen or if s/he is taken to low altitudes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally, stretch and high oxygen tension increase tone, and carbon dioxide and low pH promote vasodilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other measurements such as cardiac output and superior vena cava oxygen saturation may be used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lab tests and clinical monitoring show low blood oxygen, widened pulse pressure, increased cardiac output (early), potentially diminished cardiac output (late), high nitrogen levels in blood, elevated D-dimer, elevated transaminases, factor I deficiency[disambiguation needed] and excessive bleeding, higher-than-normal level of bilirubin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiologically, there is often hypocapnea (low levels of carbon dioxide) and usually hypoxia (low levels of oxygen). (wikipedia.org)
  • As the heart works harder to meet normal metabolic demands, the amount cardiac output can increase in times of increased oxygen demand (e.g., exercise) is reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fish can live without hemoglobin because of their low metabolic rates and the high solubility of oxygen in water at the low temperatures of their environment (the solubility of a gas tends to increase as temperature decreases). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanosis is defined as the bluish or purplish discolouration of the skin or mucous membranes due to the tissues near the skin surface having low oxygen saturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signs and symptoms may include shortness of breath, fast breathing, and a low oxygen level in the blood due to abnormal ventilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional common findings in ARDS include partial collapse of the lungs (atelectasis) and low levels of oxygen in the blood (hypoxemia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Adverse effects include increased pulmonary artery pressure and decrease peripheral blood pressure, myocardial oxygen consumption, cardiac output, and heart rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Severely low blood pressure can deprive the brain and other vital organs of oxygen and nutrients, leading to a life-threatening condition called shock. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, by using an assumed value for oxygen consumption, cardiac output can be closely approximated without the cumbersome and time-consuming oxygen consumption measurement. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the determination of cardiac output, the substance most commonly measured is the oxygen content of blood thus giving the arteriovenous oxygen difference, and the flow calculated is the flow across the pulmonary system. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gives a simple way to calculate the cardiac output: Cardiac Output = oxygen consumption arteriovenous oxygen difference {\displaystyle {\text{Cardiac Output}}={\frac {\text{oxygen consumption}}{\text{arteriovenous oxygen difference}}}} Assuming there is no intracardiac shunt, the pulmonary blood flow equals the systemic blood flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measurement of the arterial and venous oxygen content of blood involves the sampling of blood from the pulmonary artery (low oxygen content) and from the pulmonary vein (high oxygen content). (wikipedia.org)
  • This trial was designed as a randomized, double-blind, 2-arm, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study within thirteen participating cardiac surgical centers. (mhmedical.com)
  • Argon gas is the coldest ablation source commercially available for the surgical treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. (medtronic.com)
  • This study is designed to determine if point-of-care washing of allogeneic Leukocyte-Reduced Red Blood Cells reduces pulmonary complications when compared to standard-of-care Leukocyte-Reduced Red Blood Cells in a cardiac surgical population. (mayo.edu)
  • This new edition maintains the high standards established in the first edition: insightful descriptions of various cardiac surgical procedures illuminated by clear, brilliant illustrations. (indigo.ca)
  • One hundred eighty-seven elderly surgical patients were evaluated for cardiac failure by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). (nih.gov)
  • Symptomatic cardiac fibromas may be treated by surgical resection. (wikipedia.org)
  • A meta-analysis of 29 clinical trials evidences that goal-directed therapy using these hemodynamic parameters leads to lower rates of morbidity and mortality in moderate and high-risk surgical procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the leader of the cardiac surgical advanced training program he organized about 400 specialist and scientific qualification performances mostly as from the Bayerische Landesärztekammer certificated Monday education for consultant training and professional development since 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • It shows a steep relationship at relatively low filling pressures and a plateau, where further stretch is not possible and so increases in pressure have little effect on output. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protamine has been shown to deter increases in body weight and low-density lipoprotein in high-fat diet rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our objective was to assess cardiac function associated with metabolic depression in the hibernating vs. active states in free-ranging Scandinavian brown bears. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • Individuals that exist in warmer, drier environments have lower basal metabolic rates than organisms inhabiting non-arid areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a growing research database which suggests that skeletal muscles, particularly postural muscles of the lower limb, undergo atrophy and structural and metabolic alterations during space flight. (wikipedia.org)
  • They compensate for this loss by having lower metabolic rates, larger gills, scaleless skin that can contribute more to gas exchange, wider capillaries and significantly increased blood volume and cardiac output. (wikipedia.org)