The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Measurement of blood flow based on induction at one point of the circulation of a known change in the intravascular heat content of flowing blood and detection of the resultant change in temperature at a point downstream.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A state of elevated cardiac output due to conditions of either increased hemodynamic demand or reduced cardiac oxygen output. These conditions may include ANEMIA; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; THYROTOXICOSIS; PREGNANCY; EXERCISE; FEVER; and ANOXIA. In time, compensatory changes of the heart can lead to pathological form of high cardiac output and eventual HEART FAILURE.
Surgery performed on the heart.
A type of impedance plethysmography in which bioelectrical impedance is measured between electrodes positioned around the neck and around the lower thorax. It is used principally to calculate stroke volume and cardiac volume, but it is also related to myocardial contractility, thoracic fluid content, and circulation to the extremities.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Placement of a balloon-tipped catheter into the pulmonary artery through the antecubital, subclavian, and sometimes the femoral vein. It is used to measure pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure which reflects left atrial pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. The catheter is threaded into the right atrium, the balloon is inflated and the catheter follows the blood flow through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and out into the pulmonary artery.
Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.
Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.
Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).
Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.
The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.
Visualization of the heart structure and cardiac blood flow for diagnostic evaluation or to guide cardiac procedures via techniques including ENDOSCOPY (cardiac endoscopy, sometimes refered to as cardioscopy), RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; TOMOGRAPHY; or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
Freedom from activity.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.
Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
The restoration of the sequential order of contraction and relaxation of the HEART ATRIA and HEART VENTRICLES by atrio-biventricular pacing.
The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.
The posture of an individual lying face up.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.
The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.
The position or attitude of the body.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).
The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.
Occurrence of heart arrest in an individual when there is no immediate access to medical personnel or equipment.
Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A pathological condition manifested by failure to perfuse or oxygenate vital organs.
The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the RIGHT ATRIUM.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The measure of a BLOOD VESSEL's ability to increase the volume of BLOOD it holds without a large increase in BLOOD PRESSURE. The vascular capacitance is equal to the change in volume divided by the change in pressure.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.
The period following a surgical operation.
The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous with the bodily circulation.
Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.
Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.
Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.
Institutions specializing in the care of patients with heart disorders.
Characteristics of ELECTRICITY and magnetism such as charged particles and the properties and behavior of charged particles, and other phenomena related to or associated with electromagnetism.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
A standard and widely accepted diagnostic test used to identify patients who have a vasodepressive and/or cardioinhibitory response as a cause of syncope. (From Braunwald, Heart Disease, 7th ed)
The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.
Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.
A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)
The study of the electrical activity and characteristics of the HEART; MYOCARDIUM; and CARDIOMYOCYTES.

High and low pulmonary vascular resistance in heart transplant candidates. A 5-year follow-up after heart transplantation shows continuous reduction in resistance and no difference in complication rate. (1/22)

BACKGROUND: In heart transplantation candidates, high pulmonary vascular resistance has been found to decrease promptly after heart transplantation without any further reduction during follow-up. Pulmonary hypertension has been described as associated with an increased peri- and postoperative complication rate and mortality. This study describes the evolution of pulmonary vascular resistance and the outcome for patients during 5 years following heart transplantation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Haemodynamic data, complication rate and mortality have been analysed during 5-year follow-up in all patients (n = 80) who were heart transplanted at Sahlgrenska University Hospital from 1988 through 1990. We found a significant and continuous reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance both in patients with a pre-operative high (> 3 Wood Units; n = 36), but reversible on nitroprusside, and pre-operative low (< or = 3 Wood Units; n = 44) pulmonary vascular resistance. A multivariate analysis showed that a pre-operative high mean pulmonary artery and low mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure predicted the decline in pulmonary vascular resistance during 5 years after heart transplantation. The need for a postoperative assist device, complication rate, and early and late mortality were independent of the pre-operative level of pulmonary vascular resistance. CONCLUSIONS: A continuous reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance during 5 years following heart transplantation was found in patients with both high, but reversible, and low pre-operative resistance levels. The outcome and survival were independent of the pre-operative pulmonary vascular resistance level.  (+info)

Automated cardiac output measurements by ultrasound are inaccurate at high cardiac outputs. (2/22)

OBJECTIVE: The sonographic technique of automated cardiac output measurement (ACM) is a promising new method to measure cardiac output and could be of use in a high-risk obstetric unit in the treatment of pre-eclamptic patients. The aim was to determine the accuracy of the ACM method. DESIGN: Comparative study of the sonographic technique of ACM versus cardiac output measured by thermodilution (TD). METHODS: The study included 39 intensive care patients, 21 men, 13 non-pregnant women and five severely pre-eclamptic pregnant patients, with a wide range of cardiac outputs, in whom TD catheters had been inserted for clinical reasons. Two separate experienced observers, blinded to the results obtained with the other method, performed four successive measurements in each patient with either the ACM or TD technique. The averaged cardiac output value per patient and method was used for comparison. RESULTS: Cardiac output was successfully measured with ACM and TD in 85 and 100% of patients, respectively. Mean cardiac output measured by ACM (6.77 +/- 1.90 L/min) was significantly lower than that measured by TD (9.12 +/- 3.06 L/min). Although cardiac output values obtained with ACM were significantly correlated with those measured by TD, the ACM values were consistently lower than TD values in the higher cardiac output range; the relationship was represented by ACM = 0.35 TD + 3.55 L/min (r = 0.57, P < 0.001). The (ACM - TD) difference increased significantly with cardiac output, through a difference in stroke volume, not in heart rate. CONCLUSION: The ACM is not an accurate tool to measure cardiac output in patients with a high cardiac output, including treated pre-eclamptic women.  (+info)

Liver disease in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. (3/22)

BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, or Rendu-Osler-Weber disease, is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by angiodysplastic lesions (telangiectases and arteriovenous malformations) that affect many organs. Liver involvement in patients with this disease has not been fully characterized. METHODS: We studied the clinical findings and results of hemodynamic, angiographic, and imaging studies in 19 patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and symptomatic liver involvement. RESULTS: We evaluated 14 women and 5 men who ranged in age from 34 to 74 years. All but one of the patients had a hyperdynamic circulation (cardiac index, 4.2 to 7.3 liters per minute per square meter of body-surface area). In eight patients, the clinical findings were consistent with the presence of high-output heart failure. The cardiac index and pulmonary-capillary wedge pressure were elevated in the six patients in whom these measurements were performed. After a median period of 24 months, the condition of three of the eight patients had improved, four were in stable condition with medical therapy, and one had died. Six patients had manifestations of portal hypertension such as ascites or variceal bleeding. The hepatic sinusoidal pressure was elevated in the four patients in whom it was measured. After a median period of 19 months, the condition of two of the six patients had improved, and the other four had died. Five patients had manifestations of biliary disease, such as an elevated alkaline phosphatase level and abnormalities on bile duct imaging. After a median period of 30 months, the condition of two of the five had improved, the condition of one was unchanged, heart failure had developed in one, and one had died after an unsuccessful attempt at liver transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and symptomatic liver-involvement, the typical clinical presentations include high-output heart failure, portal hypertension, and biliary disease.  (+info)

Crow-Fukase syndrome associated with high-output heart failure. (4/22)

A 64-year-old woman was admitted with systemic edema and exertional dyspnea. High-output heart failure was diagnosed by right heart catheterization and she was treated with diuretics. After 3 weeks, her symptoms disappeared but a high cardiac output state persisted. A diagnosis of Crow-Fukase syndrome was made based on the presence of polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, and skin changes. Her serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level was markedly elevated after recovery from heart failure. We suspect that an elevated VEGF level and a high cardiac output state may play a role in the pathogenesis of heart failure in Crow-Fukase syndrome.  (+info)

Comparison of bedside measurement of cardiac output with the thermodilution method and the Fick method in mechanically ventilated patients. (5/22)

INTRODUCTION: Bedside cardiac output determination is a common preoccupation in the critically ill. All available methods have drawbacks. We wished to re-examine the agreement between cardiac output determined using the thermodilution method (QTTHERM) and cardiac output determined using the metabolic (Fick) method (QTFICK) in patients with extremely severe states, all the more so in the context of changing practices in the management of patients. Indeed, the interchangeability of the methods is a clinically relevant question; for instance, in view of the debate about the risk-benefit balance of right heart catheterization. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighteen mechanically ventilated passive patients with a right heart catheter in place were studied (six women, 12 men; age, 39-84 years; simplified acute physiology scoreII, 39-111). QTTHERM was obtained using a standard procedure. QTFICK was measured from oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and arterial and mixed venous oxygen contents. Forty-nine steady-state pairs of measurements were performed. The data were normalized for repeated measurements, and were tested for correlation and agreement. RESULTS: The QTFICK value was 5.2 +/- 2.0 l/min whereas that of QTTHERM was 5.8 +/- 1.9 l/min (R = 0.840, P < 0.0001; mean difference, -0.7 l/min; lower limit of agreement, -2.8 l/min; upper limit of agreement, 1.5 l/min). The agreement was excellent between the two techniques at QTTHERM values <5 l/min but became too loose for clinical interchangeability above this value. Tricuspid regurgitation did not influence the results. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: No gold standard is established to measure cardiac output in critically ill patients. The thermodilution method has known limitations that can lead to inaccuracies. The metabolic method also has potential pitfalls in this context, particularly if there is increased oxygen consumption within the lungs. The concordance between the two methods for low cardiac output values suggests that they can both be relied upon for clinical decision making in this context. Conversely, a high cardiac output value is more difficult to rely on in absolute terms.  (+info)

High output heart failure 8 months after an acquired arteriovenous fistula. (6/22)

Congestive heart failure (CHF) due to hyperkinetic states can occur in systemic diseases and in arteriovenous fistulas. An 18 year old Turkish male patient complaining of dyspnea and palpitations, who had suffered a stab wound to his abdomen eight months earlier, was admitted to our clinic. Auscultation revealed a systolodiastolic murmur over the entire abdomen. Chest x-rays demonstrated significant cardiomegaly. Echocardiography revealed biatrial enlargement and significant mitral and tricuspid regurgitation accompanied by dilatation of the inferior vena cava. Right heart catheterization showed increased oxygen saturation at the inferior vena cava. A diagnosis of an aortocaval fistula was made by aortography. The symptoms subsided and valvular regurgitations ceased alter surgical correction. This rare case demonstrates the significance of routine physical examination and history of the patient.  (+info)

Equipment review: an appraisal of the LiDCO plus method of measuring cardiac output. (7/22)

The LiDCO plus system is a minimally/non-invasive technique of continuous cardiac output measurement. In common with all cardiac output monitors this technology has both strengths and weaknesses. This review discusses the technological basis of the device and its clinical application.  (+info)

Vasoplegic syndrome after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: an unusual complication. (8/22)

We report the case of a 65-year-old man who developed norepinephrine-resistant vasoplegic syndrome after elective off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB). The failure of norepinephrine to improve the patient's hemodynamics prompted us to start treatment with vasopressin; within 30 minutes, the hemodynamics began to improve. After 12 hours, the patient was stable enough to be weaned from the vasopressin. He was discharged from the hospital on the 10th postoperative day. To our knowledge, ours is the 1st report of vasopressin use for vasodilatory shock after OPCAB in the English-language medical literature. Herein, we discuss the pathophysiology and management of vasoplegic syndrome--which is controversial--with special emphasis on the use of vasopressin in this situation.  (+info)

Definition of high-output heart failure in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is high-output heart failure? Meaning of high-output heart failure as a legal term. What does high-output heart failure mean in law?
There are a variety of conditions that can significantly increase the bodys need for blood and oxygen, resulting in high-output heart failure. These conditions include anemia, hyperthyroidism, and pregnancy. Although the causes of high-output heart failure are different from the cause of other types of heart failure, the end result is the same: Your heart isnt supplying enough blood to meet your bodys needs. High-output heart failure results in the same symptoms of heart failure, including fatigue and shortness of breath.. ...
BACKGROUND High-output heart failure (HF) is an unusual cause of cardiac failure that has not been well-characterized. OBJECTIVES This study sought to characterize the etiologies, pathophysiology, clinical and hemodynamic characteristics, and outcomes of high-output HF in the modern era. METHODS We performed a retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients referred to the Mayo Clinic catheterization laboratory for hemodynamic assessment between 2000 and 2014. Subjects with definite HF, as defined by the Framingham criteria, were compared to controls of similar age and sex. RESULTS The most common etiologies of high-output HF (n = 120) were obesity (31%), liver disease (23%), arteriovenous shunts (23%), lung disease (16%), and myeloproliferative disorders (8%). Compared with controls (n = 24), subjects with high-output HF displayed eccentric left ventricular remodeling, greater natriuretic peptide activation, higher filling pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and increased cardiac output,
Cardiac Output, High; High Cardiac Output. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
I recently had a stress echo which found that with exercise my heart did not squeeze properly which looked like balanced cardiac disease to my cardiologist. I was able to do 12 min on the treadmill. I ...
Twenty-five patients were enrolled; all presented cardiac index , 4 l/min/m2. The following parameters were evaluated: heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure (CVP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (Pw), CO, systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) and diastolic pulmonary artery pressure (DPAP), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI), left ventricular stroke work index (LVSWI) and right ventricular stroke work index (RVSWI). The determinations were performed before disconnection from mechanical ventilation, 30 min after disconnection and 4-6 hours after disconnection. ...
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Patients with mild anemia are usually asymptomatic, and the anemia is most commonly discovered on a routine complete blood count (CBC). Even children with moderate-to-severe anemia may be asymptomatic if the problem develops slowly, compensating well for even severely low hemoglobin levels. When the hemoglobin becomes low enough to produce symptoms, patients may present with fatigue, irritability, or shortness of breath on exertion. Physical examination may reveal pallor, tachycardia, jaundice, and systolic ejection murmur owing to an increased cardiac output. With a rapid drop in hemoglobin, the child may develop dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, or high-output cardiac failure. ...
Intraoral lesions must be adequately protected at the time of anesthetic induction or intraoral instrumentation. Intracranial arteriovenous malformations are at risk of rupture if subjected to high swings in arterial blood pressure. Intraocular lesions may bleed for similar reasons. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage and hemoptysis have all been described. If very extensive, multiple arteriovenous malformations may lead to a high-output cardiac failure, requiring treatment before anesthesia and surgery. Central regional anesthesia is best avoided because of the risk of associated medullar angioma. ...
A large proportion of hemangiomas arent connected with complications. On the surface may be broken down by hemangiomas. In case the ulceration is not shallow, major bleeding may happen in rare occasions. Ulceration to the region that is deeper may be difficult and debilitating. Respiration might be compromised if your hemangioma grows in the larynx. A hemangioma obstruct and can grow among the eyes. Quite seldom, hemangiomas that are exceptionally large may cause high-output heart failure because of the quantity of blood that has to be pumped to excessive arteries. Lesions next to bone also can cause erosion.. An individual s look, nevertheless, stalk from psychosocial complications: the illness cans impact and may arouse malicious and focus reactions. Special difficulties happen as distortion may be difficult to treat, whether the lip or nose is involved. The prospect of emotional harm grows from school age on. Thus, it is important if sufficient spontaneous development hasnt occurred to ...
Volume overload refers to the state of one of the chambers of the heart in which too large a volume of blood exists within it for it to function efficiently. Ventricular volume overload is approximately equivalent to an excessively high preload. It is a cause of cardiac failure. In accordance with the Frank-Starling law of the heart, the myocardium contracts more powerfully as the end-diastolic volume increases. Stretching of the myofibrils in cardiac muscle causes them to contract more powerfully due to a greater number of cross-bridges being formed between the myofibrils within cardiac myocytes. This is true up to a point, however beyond this there is a loss of contractile ability due to loss of connection between myofibrils; see figure. Various pathologies, listed below, can lead to volume overload. Different mechanisms are involved depending on the cause, however the common theme is that of a high cardiac output with a low or normal afterload. The output may be high due to the inefficiency ...
Too much exercise can be harmful. Without proper rest, the chance of stroke or other circulation problems increases,[82] and muscle tissue may develop slowly. Extremely intense, long-term cardiovascular exercise, as can be seen in athletes who train for multiple marathons, has been associated with scarring of the heart and heart rhythm abnormalities.[83][84][85] Specifically, high cardiac output has been shown to cause enlargement of the left and right ventricle volumes, increased ventricle wall thickness, and greater cardiac mass. These changes further result in myocardial cell damage in the lining of the heart, leading to scar tissue and thickened walls. During these processes, the protein troponin increases in the bloodstream, indicating cardiac muscle cell death and increased stress on the heart itself.[86]. Inappropriate exercise can do more harm than good, with the definition of inappropriate varying according to the individual. For many activities, especially running and cycling, there ...
The hemodynamics of gestation are characterized by a high cardiac output, low-resistance state associated with a blunted response to angiotensin II.10 Recent studies have suggested a key role for NO in the homeostasis of this physiological condition.10 In both humans and animals,11 12 NO synthesis has been shown to be increased during pregnancy. Blockade of NO synthesis resulted in the elevation of blood pressure and onset of proteinuria, features characteristic of preeclampsia. The usual increase of GFR during gestation was absent11 ; in fact, GFR has even been reported to decrease (unpublished data, 1996). These findings implied the loss of the vasodilator effect of pregnancy, which is probably in large part mediated by NO. Our results in normal rats confirm these data. The decrease in blood pressure and increase in creatinine clearance in PREG rats were associated with a threefold increase in NO production. L-NAME treatment induced hypertension and a reduction of creatinine clearance that ...
When my bp is up I will lay down and take it an hour later. That is just what I do, not a doctor advised thing. That is a really high pulse for not doing anything - even after it went down that is high. My pulse was high all of the time - around 100 and I got diagnosed with a high cardiac output and put on meds at around 22 weeks (by the lovely folks at the UofW). My bps going up to around 125/73, not so high, but they would go up higher every once in awhile. I would talk to your OB about your pulse - I know that other people on here have and their OBs havent been concerned. Maybe Runaway Bride was just too much for you - maybe you need to lay off of the Julia Roberts movies for awhile. Hope you feel better ...
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Elevated cardiac troponin levels were highly predictive of both in-hospital and long-term mortality in patients admitted for CAP.
For this pump to work well it needs a good supply of fuel and oxygen and this is achieved through good blood supply. However, there is a second aspect which is largely ignored by cardiologists and other doctors. The heart needs to be able to convert this fuel and oxygen supply into a usable form of energy for the muscle cells to work. This is achieved by mitochondria. They take fuel and oxygen from the blood and through a complex series of biochemical reactions, including Krebs citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, they generate ATP, the currency of energy in the body. Each heart cell will hold between 2,000 - 3,000 mitochondria. The reason it needs so many is that the heart never gets a rest - it has to work 24/7! An interesting observation here is that the heart is rich in oxygen and mitochondria - when the latter gets switched off, this is a major risk factor for cancer. One never sees cases of primary cancer of the heart! The heart is only responsible for 60% of blood pressure - ...
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The other reason that I want to mention stress is that my personal opinion is that it is pivotal in the development and maintenance of high blood pressure. And this is why. Essential hypertension tends to always follow the same pattern of development. The first sign you see is an increase in cardiac output (heart beating faster and/or more strongly). The second thing that happens is a return of that cardiac output to normal with a simultaneous increase in the peripheral resistance of the blood vessels (making it harder to get blood through them). Now when I look at that list of risk factors above, the one that leaps out at me as being most likely to be the causative factor for those first steps is stress. Because cortisol is the main stress hormone and it does BOTH of those things. (Incidentally, cortisol is also involved in adjusting calcium and potassium levels,controlling insulin and blood sugar levels, and salt balance. Circumstantial evidence. But a lot of it ...
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There are some caveats with eating anything you want. For one, the whole biochemistry we are discussing relies on some specific inputs in ordre to correctly function. Assuming those are met (vitamins, minerals, some carbs, some fat, some protein), you can eat just about anything within reason and lose weight. If you are running the same calorie deficit and replace a bowl of oatmeal with a slice of cake with equivalent calories, you will still lose the same amount as long as you dont change wha tyou are doing. Often, people reduce their calories and then feel like they have no energy to workout so they reduce their training as well; that clearly doesnt help the situation and can actually result in worsening the composition as I am sure you are aware. I know plenty of people who eat perfectly clean and have no muscle becuase they never lift. I know people who eat horribly and are very fit and muscular because they train hard (high output). Not sure I know a lot of people who eat clean and train ...
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Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by telangiectases and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the skin, mucosa and viscera. Epistaxis is the most frequent presenting finding. Gastrointestinal bleeding and telangiectases on the face, lips, tongue, fingers, and chest are other common clinical features. AVMs within the lungs, liver, and brain are a significant cause of morbidity. Pulmonary AVMs lead to morbidity via direct hemorrhage, heart failure, or shunting of emboli with subsequent brain abscess formation or stroke. AVMs involving the liver can result in hyperdynamic circulation and cause high output heart failure. Additionally, intrahepatic arteriovenous shunts may lead to cirrhosis and resultant bleeding esophageal varices. Cerebrovascular malformations causing intracranial hemorrhage also occur. Other organs known to be affected by telangiectasia or AVMs include the bladder, eyes and kidneys. HHT is caused by mutations in the ENG ...
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by telangiectases and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the skin, mucosa and viscera. Epistaxis is the most frequent presenting finding. Gastrointestinal bleeding and telangiectases on the face, lips, tongue, fingers, and chest are other common clinical features. AVMs within the lungs, liver, and brain are a significant cause of morbidity. Pulmonary AVMs lead to morbidity via direct hemorrhage, heart failure, or shunting of emboli with subsequent brain abscess formation or stroke. AVMs involving the liver can result in hyperdynamic circulation and cause high output heart failure. Additionally, intrahepatic arteriovenous shunts may lead to cirrhosis and resultant bleeding esophageal varices. Cerebrovascular malformations causing intracranial hemorrhage also occur. Other organs known to be affected by telangiectasia or AVMs include the bladder, eyes and kidneys. HHT is caused by mutations in the ENG ...
METHOD OF TREATMENT - The present invention relates generally to a method of treatment and in particular a method of treating a subject exhibiting symptoms of kidney failure or are at risk of developing same. Even more particularly, the present invention provides a method of treating kidney failure or reducing the risk of developing kidney failure in a subject such as following or during or prior to sepsis or a related condition including severe sepsis, septic shock and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome or any state of systemic or renal vasodilatation with low blood pressure and a high cardiac output with kidney failure, such as liver disease with associated kidney failure or kidney failure after cardiopulmonary bypass in patients in whom the systemic inflammatory syndrome which follows such cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with a high cardiac output and systemic or renal vasodilatation or kidney failure in other conditions which lead to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome ...
Doctors help you with trusted information about Hirschsprung in Constipation: Dr. Selter on does hirschsprung disease cause failure to thrive: Cases for prolonged periods of time due to increased heart rate....High output heart failure but not in most cases.
Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality and one of the main causes of morbidity in beta-thalassemia. Patients with homozygous thalassemia may have either a severe phenotype which is usually transfusion dependent or a milder form that is thalassemia intermedia. The two main factors that determine cardiac disease in homozygous ? thalassemia are the high output state that results from chronic tissue hypoxia, hypoxia-induced compensatory reactions and iron overload. The high output state playing a major role in thalassaemia intermedia and the iron load being more significant in the major form. Arrhythmias, vascular involvement that leads to an increased pulmonary vascular resistance and an increased systemic vascular stiffness and valvular abnormalities also contribute to the cardiac dysfunction in varying degrees according to the severity of the phenotype. Endocrine abnormalities, infections, renal function and medications can also play a role in the overall cardiac function. For thalassaemia
RESULTS: A total of 312 patients (41% men, 59% women; mean age, 51 ± 18 years) with definite hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia were identified. Basal ganglia T1 hyperintensity was present in 23.4% of patients and demonstrated a statistically significant association with older age (P , .001), increased hepatic AVMs (P , .001), high cardiac output state (P , .001), hepatic failure (P = .01), elevated peak serum alkaline phosphatase level (P = .03), and increased total bilirubin count (P = .03). There was no significant association with sex, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia genetic mutation status, parkinsonism, or serum transaminase levels. ...
Introduction: MitraClip therapy has become a therapeutic alternative for high surgical risk patients with symptomatic mitral regurgitation (MR). There are limited data about early and no data about later hemodynamic consequences after MR correction and about the impact of elimination of regurgitant flow on cardiac output state .. Methods: We studied invasive hemodynamic parameters before operation (conscious non-sedated patients, T1), immediately after MitraClip implantation (still under general anaesthesia, T2) and on day 1 (late) after procedure (conscious, extubated patients, T3) using right heart cathetrization.. Results: Of 25 MitraClip patients (72% male; mean age 70y) with functional MR, in 20 were performed invasive measurements in all time points. MitraClip implantation resulted in an increase in cardiac index (CI) from 1.8±0.5 (T1) to 2.4±0.5(T2) and to 3.2±0.5 L/min/m2 (T3), in a decrease in systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) from 3759±847 (T1) to 2508±551 (T2) and to ...
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You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Hydrogen ion increases when CO 2 increases or during states of increased anaerobic metabolism, which can produce metabolic acidosis. Ive seen this theory applied mainly to anaerobic metabolism in skeletal muscle. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Pulmonary artery pressure usually rises during acidosis. There are a number of factors which might be responsible for the development of this disorder. Here it will explain your question: Acidosis is caused by an accumulation of CO2 which combines with water in the body to produce carbonic acid, thus, lowering the pH of the blood. Acutely the acidosis will cause a right shift of the oxygen dissociation curve. 1 2 The hallmark of septic shock is marked peripheral arteriolar vasodilation, which results in low systemic vascular resistance, high cardiac output, severe hypotension, and inadequate tissue perfusion. Local effects of hypercarbia, and the resulting ...
Potato chip production line has different types of High output machinerys for make breakfast cereal corn flakes,Wholesale Various High Quality Corn flakes/ breakfast cereal process line Products from Global High output machinerys for make breakfast cereal corn flakes Suppliers and Corn flakes/ breakfast cereal process line Factory.Manufacturers, Exporters & supplier of High output machinerys for make breakfast cereal corn flakes
Working Principle of High Output Fertilizer Drying Machine This fertilizer rotary drum drying equipment uses hot air to dry the materials. From the high side as the rotary drum dryer has an angle, the wet materials are entered into the hopper of the rotary drum dryer by belt conveyor or bucket elevator. In the rotary body, the materials are mixed with hot air which enters into the rotary body ...
Communitys R SERIES loudspeakers are the worlds standard for exceptional audio performance in extreme weather conditions. Now, two new full-range R-MAX models and a high-output R-MAX bass horn offer premium music reproduction at high output levels, while improving the legendary voice intelligibility of R SERIES. These new loudspeakers offer consistent coverage patterns, smooth frequency response, and very high output levels making them ideally suited for sporting venues, race tracks, outdoor theaters, themed entertainment and water parks and high-level voice warning systems.
output, the thermistor catheter was connected to a microcom- Cardiac RNA analysis. Total RNA was isolated from the puter system (Lyons Medical Instrument) (26, 63). Isotonic ventricular samples using the RNeasy Maxi Kit (Qiagen) saline (0.1 ml) at room temperature was injected as a bolus according to the manufacturers instructions. Gene expres- via the jugular vein catheter. The thermodilution curve was sion analysis was performed using real-time RT-PCR (Taq- monitored by VR-16 Simultrace recorders (Honeywell, NY), Man) technology. RT-PCR was performed on 1 ng of total and cardiac output was digitally obtained by the microcom- RNA per reaction using the TaqMan sequence detector puter. Cardiac indexes were calculated as follows: stroke (model 7700, ABI-Perkin Elmer) (19). Amplification reaction volume ⫽ cardiac output/heart rate; cardiac index ⫽ cardiac conditions (for 50 ␮l) were 1⫻ TaqMan buffer A, 300 ␮M output/BW; stroke volume index ⫽ stroke volume/BW; and dATP, 300 ␮M dCTP, ...
A heart-lung preparation with flow limited to the coronary vessels was used to study cardiac performance 4 to 120 days after severe constriction of the abdominal aorta in rabbits. Cardiac performance was evaluated by finding the maximum mean arterial pressure against which the heart could pump. Cardiac performance began to exceed the normal, range by the second or third post operative week and was well above normal after the first month. A high cardiac performance was not necessarily associated with marked ventricular hypertrophy. Animals died of heart failure within the first month, and all had developed a much more rapid rate of blood pressure increase than those that survived without signs of decompensation. We conclude that the basic cause of heart failure after severe aorta constriction is a rapid rise in arterial pressure which exceeds the rate at which the heart develops an improved performance.. ...
Synchronous meetings are used more for resolving any bottlenecks, conflicts, or anything that needs further discussion while doing the simpler stuff asynchronously. But one of the most important things is having that separation between a decision-maker and team members that provide input.. Too often, companies err by having a decision-maker but no group of people to be consulted. So then things get into the product, and there is not enough buy-in. Afterward, people sort of complain about the decision behind each others backs - or follow-through is lackluster on implementation and support. Making decisions made by a committee is another mistake companies make. Everybody will try to get on the same page and reach a consensus. The problem is that getting to an agreement can be very costly for a startup because you can lose so much time. Purely democratic decision-making does not work for fast-moving technology companies.. Thats why I call my approach a reversible decision - because 99% of all ...
The Filtration and Separation Division of Parker Hannifin Corporation has introduced the Parker Balston NitroFlow 60 LC/MS Membrane Nitrogen Generator. This is a self-contained nitrogen generator capable of producing up to 60 slpm of pure LC/MS grade nitrogen at pressures of up to 110 psig.
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This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
The Sprite Shower Filter Conservative calculations indicate that taking a shower exposes you to the equivalent of consuming an additional two liters of chlorinated water each day. Inhalation and skin absorption of chloroform and chlorine by-products is greatest in the shower, where these gases are vaporized. Combining
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A Derale Electric Fan and Shroud Kit will keep anything north of Hades running nice and cool. They are available in single- and dual-fan configurations with aluminium shrouds in sizes to fit virtually any vehicle.. RAD Kits These kits feature electric fans with high-output, two-speed motors and an ultra-quiet, skewed-blade design perfect for radiators with thick, tight-fin cores that really need large amounts of airflow to cool properly.. The fans are integrated into an aluminium shroud that channels airflow directly to the radiator core. The kits are available in single- and dual-fan configurations with airflow ratings from 1300- to 4000 CFM.. Powerpack Kits The Powerpack More ,. ...
Onkyo TX-SR383 7.2 Channel A/V Receiver This item qualifies for Free Shipping! Invest in class-beating surround-sound rather than features you mightnt need with the Onkyo TX-SR383. Seven discrete analog amps powered by a high-output transformer let you connect Front Height or Rear Surround speakers, expanding to a 7.2
The development program with the Opel Astra TCR saw it complete around 250 laps, over the five-day event, with particular attention being paid to the Astra TCRs front suspension arrangement. All the longitudinal and transverse forces in a TCR-vehicle, in addition to the braking and steering, are acting on the front wheels, added Dietmar Metrich, Opel Motorsports technical director. Its not just about the pure lap time, but also to tire wear. Whichever car has a well-functioning front axle, will have a competitive advantage.. Opels TCR-specification Astra is based on the latest K-generation car, and featuresa high-output, two-liter, four-cylinder turbocharged engine, which transfers its power through a Sadev sequential six-speed gearbox. We have to our TCR debut still plenty of work to do, concluded Schrott. But I am already looking forward to the upcoming season. The TCR arrives precisely the interests of teams and fans. Thrilling, close motorsport with vehicles that the audience can ...
by Zak Killian 4:15 PM on February 9, 2018 Weve always held EVGAs Supernova G1 power supplies in high esteem. Theyre high-output, fully-modular, high-efficiency, and not too expensive. Nevertheless, EVGA decided some improvements were.... Type: News story Tags: Power ...
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The chip that I am using now is placed inside the PDMS chamber. I want to know how to design the DNA chip in order to save patient blood and have high output detection efficiency ...
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This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience ...
Anand, I. S.; Florea, V. G. (2001). "High Output Cardiac Failure". Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine. 3 (2 ... In advanced cases, the disease may cause high-output cardiac failure and death. ... Vasodilation leading to decreased systemic vascular resistance, and high output heart failure[20] ... High mortality of salmon (Salmo salar) in the river Mörrumsån is reported, and the last years mammals like Eurasian Elk (Alces ...
In advanced cases, the disease may cause high-output cardiac failure and death. Symptoms may occur concurrently with those of ... Anand, I. S.; Florea, V. G. (2001). "High Output Cardiac Failure". Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine. 3 (2 ... and high output heart failure Elevated jugular venous pressure Dyspnea (shortness of breath) on exertion Paroxysmal nocturnal ... High mortality of salmon (Salmo salar) in the river Mörrumsån is reported, and mammals such as the Eurasian Elk (Alces alces) ...
Kelainan yang terkait dengan high cardiac output *Arteriovenous fistula. *Beriberi. *Anemia. *Tirotoksikosis ...
Increased cardiac output and low systemic vascular resistance are characteristic of ALF. Pulmonary artery catheterization ... It may vary from subtle deficit in higher brain function (e.g. mood, concentration in grade I) to deep coma (grade IV). ... There is a compensatory increase in cardiac output. Adrenal insufficiency has been documented in 60% of ALF cases, and is ... Severe lung injury and hypoxemia result in high mortality. Most cases of severe lung injury are due to ARDS, with or without ...
High-output cardiac failure Jod-Basedow phenomenon "Hyperthyroidism". July 2012. Archived from the original ... Use of higher doses of radioiodine reduces the number of cases of treatment failure, with penalty for higher response to ... A very high dose is often needed early in treatment, but, if too high a dose is used persistently, people can develop symptoms ... Nonetheless, high maternal FT4 levels during pregnancy have been associated with impaired brain developmental outcomes of the ...
Cardiac output and peripheral resistance are the two determinants of arterial pressure. Cardiac output is determined by stroke ... Single gene mutations can cause Mendelian forms of high blood pressure; ten genes have been identified which cause these ... It does this by regulating the peripheral vasculature, and kidney function, which in turn affect cardiac output, vascular ... Arterial baroreceptors are reset to a higher pressure in hypertensive patients, and this peripheral resetting reverts to normal ...
... and cardiac output remain higher than normal during immersion. The increased respiratory and cardiac workload causes increased ... Bradycardia and cardiac output[edit]. Bradycardia is the response to facial contact with cold water: the human heart rate slows ... humans also display reduced left ventricular contractility and diminished cardiac output,[8][17] effects that may be more ... but bradycardia reduces the overall cardiac output, particularly due to the diving reflex in breath-hold diving.[15] ...
Anderson CB, Groce MA (1975). "Banding of arteriovenous dialysis fistulas to correct high-output cardiac failure". Surgery. 78 ...
This effect is coupled with decreased body temperature and cardiac output. Wu et al. have pointed out that this relationship is ... T1AM is a high-affinity ligand for the trace amine-associated receptor TAAR1 (TAR1, TA1), a recently discovered G protein- ... as the compound can induce negative inotropic effects and decrease cardiac output. O-Phenyl-3-iodotyramine Trace amine Scanlan ... "Cardiac effects of 3-iodothyronamine: a new aminergic system modulating cardiac function". The FASEB Journal. 21 (7): 1597-608 ...
Cardiac output increases through an increase in heart rate.[13]. The body's response to high altitude includes the following:[ ... most climbers and high-altitude trekkers take the "climb-high, sleep-low" approach. For high-altitude climbers, a typical ... West, John B. (2013). High Life: A History of High-Altitude Physiology and Medicine. Springer. pp. 2-7. ISBN 9781461475736. .. ... Very high altitudeEdit. At very high altitude, 3,500 to 5,500 metres (11,500 to 18,000 ft), maximum SaO2 falls below 90% as the ...
They also have a high heart rate, cardiac output, and ventilation rate. To achieve high cardiac outputs, tunas increase their ... High cardiac outputs in southern bluefin tuna are necessary to achieve their maximum metabolic rates. The bulbus arteriosus can ... allow for comparatively high cardiac outputs, as well as rapid ejection of stroke volume. This, together with the organization ... Their hearts are exceptionally large, with ventricle masses and cardiac output roughly four to five times larger than those of ...
Plasma expansion may be necessary if hypotension and low cardiac output develop.[citation needed] Hypertonic saline may be ... The clinician must have a high index of suspicion for diagnosing TURP syndrome in a patient who becomes unwell following a TURP ... therefore in the correct clinical context the clinician should have a high index of suspicion. Most of the manifestations are ... The patient should preferably be transferred to a high dependency unit and be attached to continuous monitoring.[citation ...
Cardiac output is determined by stroke volume and heart rate; stroke volume is related to myocardial contractility and to the ... "Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure - NHLBI, NIH". National Institutes of Health. This article incorporates text from this source ... Cardiac output and peripheral resistance are the two determinants of arterial pressure and so blood pressure is normally ... This causes the arterial pressure to rise as the cardiac output increases. Local autoregulatory mechanisms counteract this by ...
This causes reduced cardiac output and hypotension, which may result in brain ischemia. A delayed return of symptoms have been ... If a relatively high level of carbon monoxide is detected, the device sounds an alarm, giving people the chance to evacuate and ... Cardiac dysrhythmias are treated with standard advanced cardiac life support protocols. If severe, metabolic acidosis is ... Increasing exposure produces cardiac abnormalities including fast heart rate, low blood pressure, and cardiac arrhythmia; ...
That is on average one fourth of the average cardiac output at rest. Portal hypertension is a condition in which the blood ... That is why the total liver blood flow is quite high, at about 1 litre a minute and up to two litres a minute. ... pressure of the portal venous system is too high. It is often the result of cirrhosis of the liver. Many drugs that are ...
The sympathetic stimulation also increases the rate of heart contractions and cardiac output. Increased heart rate is also ... It has been found that if a Cushing reflex occurs, brain plateau wave changes can be erased due to disappearance of high ICP. ... Whenever a Cushing reflex occurs, there is a high probability of death in seconds to minutes. As a result, a Cushing reflex ... The blood pressure can be expected to remain higher than the pressure of the raised cerebral spinal fluid to continue to allow ...
To maintain cardiac output at reduced pressure, the heart rate must be increased. Effects of cardiovascular drift are mainly ... focused around a higher RPE (Rate of Perceived Effort); that is, a person will feel like they are expending more energy when ... "Cardiac Drift and Ironman Performance." Multisport Solutions. N.p., 24 Aug. 2012. Web. 11 Dec. 2013. Coyle EF, González-Alonso ...
If the heart rate is too high, cardiac output may fall due to the markedly reduced ventricular filling time. Rapid rates, ... associated with high mortality and morbidity. Tachycardia in the presence of AMI can reduce coronary blood flow and increase ...
... the higher the cardiac output. This has been proposed as an explanation of the relationship between high dietary salt intake ... MAP is the average of blood pressure over a cardiac cycle and is determined by the cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular ... The resultant increase in blood volume results in an increased cardiac output by the Frank-Starling law of the heart, in turn ... Most influences on blood pressure can be understood in terms of their effect on cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, ...
Cardiac output is directly derived from heart rate and stroke volume of the blood; an active microbat can reach a heart rate of ... Insectivorous bats living at high latitudes have to consume prey with higher energetic value than tropical bats. Fruit eating, ... Larger bats tend to use lower frequencies and smaller bats higher for echolocation; high-frequency echolocation is better at ... Because of the high energy demand of flight, the bat's body meets those demands by exchanging gas through the patagium of the ...
High oxygen extraction is associated with low cardiac output and decreased mixed venous oxygen saturation. Except during ... The ability of the pulmonary artery catheter to sample mixed venous blood is of great utility to manage low cardiac output ... The concept of using thermodilution to measure cardiac output was originally the idea of Arnost Fronek. As a former colleague ... Regardless of the value obtained by measurements of the cardiac output, the mixed venous oxygen saturation is an accurate ...
Indeed, NIRS is able to measure venous oxygen saturation (SVO2), which is determined by the cardiac output, as well as other ... For high precision spectroscopy, wavelength-scanned lasers and frequency combs have recently become powerful sources, albeit ... examining the NIRS provides critical care physicians with an estimate of the cardiac output. NIRS is favoured by patients, ... Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is another NIR medical imaging technique capable of 3D imaging with high resolution on par ...
The fixative is injected into the heart with the injection volume matching cardiac output. The fixative spreads through the ... but the disadvantages are that the subject dies and the cost of the volume of fixative needed for larger organisms is high. In ...
Shepherd, JT; Bowers, D; Wood, EH (May 1955). "Measurement of cardiac output in man by injection of dye at a constant rate into ... Wood, EH (August 1985). "The dream of a dynamic, high-fidelity, synchronous, volumetric imaging system and the road to its ... Hetzel, P; Swan, HJ; Ramirez de Arellano, AA; Wood, EH (July 1958). "Estimation of cardiac output from first part of arterial ... Warner, HR; Wood, EH (September 1952). "Simplified calculation of cardiac output from dye dilution curves recorded by oximeter ...
They do not suppress cardiac output or alter the function of the hemoglobin. Rather, they cause asphyxiation only when present ... "2 - High Altitude Respiratory Physiology". USAF Flight Surgeon's Guide. USAF School of Aerospace Medicine. Archived from the ... Loss of consciousness may be accompanied by convulsions and is followed by cyanosis and cardiac arrest. About 7 minutes of ... and nitrogen are inert gases that cause asphyxiation if present in high enough concentration to dilute O2 in the inspired air ...
... in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and severe hepatic vascular malformations and high cardiac output". JAMA ... About 20% are affected by symptomatic digestive tract lesions, although a higher percentage have lesions that do not cause ...
Dopamine increases myocardial contractility and cardiac output, without changing heart rate, by signaling through dopamine ... At abused (relatively high) doses, stimulants can interfere with working memory and cognitive control ... stimulants act not ... Relatively high doses of dopaminergic stimulants will result in cognitive deficits. D2 short (presynaptic) Category:Dopamine ... Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 13: Higher Cognitive Function and Behavioral Control". In Sydor A, Brown RY ( ...
Conditions associated with low cardiac output and high systemic vascular resistance can produce a dicrotic pulse. Pulsus ... It may be due to low cardiac output (as seen in shock, congestive cardiac failure), hypovolemia, valvular heart disease (such ... increased cardiac output, increased stroke volume (as seen in anxiety, exercise, complete heart block, aortic regurgitation), ... In high tension pulse (pulsus durus), vessels feel rigid even between pulse beats. A form or contour of a pulse is palpatory ...
... cardiac) than for β2 adrenoreceptors. Intravenous etilefrine increases the pulse rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, central ... Peripheral vascular resistance falls during the infusion of 1-8 mg etilefrine but begins to rise at higher dosage. Marked falls ... Intravenous infusion of this compound increases cardiac output, stroke volume, venous return and blood pressure in man and ... cardiac output, stroke volume and peripheral bloodflow, accompanied by rises in mean arterial pressure, occur when etilefrine ...
It is a relatively low-cost investigation with a high diagnostic yield. The difference between soft and hard body parts stems ... These electron are then focus using electron lenses inside the intensifier to an output screen coated with phosphorescent ... The maximum range of a high-energy photon such as an X-ray in matter is infinite; at every point in the matter traversed by the ... The creation of images by exposing an object to X-rays or other high-energy forms of electromagnetic radiation and capturing ...
The mammal has a much higher peak output, but can only function over a very narrow range of body temperature. ... cardiac involuntary muscles.[68] The main structures of the heart are the sinus venosus, the pacemaker, the left atrium, the ... It is generally assumed that reptiles are unable to produce the sustained high energy output necessary for long distance chases ... Sustained energy output (joules) of a typical reptile versus a similar size mammal as a function of core body temperature. ...
Diet 1 and 2 were high carbohydrate (55% of total energy intake) *Diet 1 was high-glycemic index ... One of the most important things to take into consideration when either trying to lose or put on weight is output versus input ... as well as improved cardiac health.[24] ... Diet 3 was high-glycemic index. *Diet 4 was low-glycemic index ... Low-carbohydrate diets such as Atkins and Protein Power are relatively high in protein and fats. Low-carbohydrate diets are ...
In one series of famous experiments on the cardiac ganglion in lobsters, Bullock demonstrated that neurons can communicate not ... Bullock's life as a neuroscientist began with histological studies of brain degeneration that he performed while still in high ... which he used to explore the neural mechanisms that work together to produce an output in response to a stimulus, both at the ... Without due consideration of the neural and behavioral correlates of differences between higher taxa and between closely ...
Eccentric contractions and cardiac output: With lower cost of oxygen how would eccentric exercise affect the heart? A study was ... Due to the high strain on muscles during eccentric training, coupled with low energy output, eccentric training becomes a ... The high-force and low-cost set of attributes in eccentric exercise makes it ideal for the actively impaired.[23] ... Early, high-force eccentric training can be used to increase muscle strength and volume without damage to the ACL graft, ...
Gas exchange is affected by increases in the dispersion of both alveolar ventilation and cardiac output because bronchial and ... overexpressing transgenic mice exposed to high dose doxycycline. Acute exposure to high concentrations of chlorine gas induces ... Inhalation of high doses of this gas causes lesions in the larynx, trachea, and large bronchi with inflammatory reactions and ... Exposure to high concentrations can cause bronchiolar and alveolar edema and airway destruction resulting in respiratory ...
Other factors affecting device longevity include programmed output and algorithms (features) causing a higher level of current ... The electrodes are placed in contact with the outer wall of the ventricle (epicardium) to maintain satisfactory cardiac output ... These studies demonstrated the restoration of heart rate, cardiac output and mean aortic pressures in animal subjects with ... Main article: Cardiac resynchronization therapy. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is used for people with heart failure ...
Colloids preserve a high colloid osmotic pressure in the blood, while, on the other hand, this parameter is decreased by ... The best way to determine if a person will benefit from fluids is by doing a passive leg raise followed by measuring the output ... Advanced cardiac life support (ACLS). *Advanced trauma life support (ATLS). *Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) ... A rapid infuser can be used if the patient requires a high flow rate and the IV access device is of a large enough diameter to ...
Charged particles such as protons and boron, carbon, and neon ions can cause direct damage to cancer cell DNA through high-LET ... Taylor CW, Nisbet A, McGale P, Darby SC (December 2007). "Cardiac exposures in breast cancer radiotherapy: 1950s-1990s". ... and fluence output rate (dose rate) of the medical linear accelerator. VMAT has an advantage in patient treatment, compared ... Auger therapy (AT) makes use of a very high dose[62] of ionizing radiation in situ that provides molecular modifications at an ...
His cardiac output was 50 litres a minute; a fit amateur cyclist's is about 25 litres. Induráin's lung capacity was 7.8 litres ... because the speed of the group wasn't very high, I didn't take much notice. I even imagined attacking at the foot of the Arcs ... His maximal values were oxygen uptake 5.29 L/min (57.4 mL · kg-1 · min-1) and aerobic power output 450 W (4.88 W/kg) and was ... However, his absolute maximal and submaximal oxygen uptake and power output in 2012 still compared favorably with those ...
... pilot utilizes the g-race suit interactively by muscle straining and breathing techniques to achieve an improved cardiac output ... High g is not comfortable, even with a g-suit. In older fighter aircraft, 6 g was considered a high level, but with modern ... A g-suit, or the more accurately named anti-g suit, is a flight suit worn by aviators and astronauts who are subject to high ... In addition, in some modern very high-g aircraft, the Anti-g suit effect is augmented by a small amount of pressure applied to ...
... factors decreases the contractile force that the myocardium must exert in order to achieve the same level of cardiac output. ... What you could see upon taking both medications at the same time, as caused by the much higher induction of relaxation of ... The potential for these contraindications and drug-drug interaction could lead to asystole and cardiac arrest. ...
The increase in salt and water retention caused by low cardiac output can also result in anasarca as a long term maladaptive ... In Hb Barts, the high oxygen affinity results in poor oxygen delivery to peripheral tissues, resulting in anasarca. ...
An output of one watt continuously for eighty years yields a total work output of two and a half gigajoules.[18] ... Cardiac muscle fibers are interconnected by intercalated discs,[12] giving that tissue the appearance of a syncytium. ... Once moved out of muscles with high concentrations within the sarcomere, lactic acid can be used by other muscles or body ... Estimates of the power output of the human heart range from 1 to 5 watts. This is much less than the maximum power output of ...
Part 8: Adult Advanced Cardiac Life Support: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and ... a higher level of training to operate, and typically cost hundreds to thousands of dollars more than a disposable manual ... one of the key advantages is that a direct air-tight passageway is provided from the output of the manual resuscitator to the ... leading to high probability of exposure), and (2) apparent inability for providers to protect patients from uncontrolled, ...
Relatively high-power devices such as hearing aids may use a zinc-air battery which have much higher capacity for a given size ... Silver cells may have a stable output voltage until it suddenly drops at end of life. This varies for individual types; one ... Artificial cardiac pacemaker. *Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. ReferencesEdit. *^ a b BBC News:'Button battery' warning ... Examining datasheets for a manufacturer's range[4] may show a high-capacity alkaline cell with a capacity as high as one of the ...
Cardiac output is directly derived from heart rate and stroke volume of the blood;[69] an active microbat can reach a heart ... Insectivorous bats living at high latitudes have to consume prey with higher energetic value than tropical bats.[141] ... Larger bats tend to use lower frequencies and smaller bats higher for echolocation; high-frequency echolocation is better at ... In high-duty cycle echolocation, bats emit a continuous call and separate pulse and echo in frequency. The ears of these bats ...
The rapid uncoordinated heart rate may result in reduced output of blood pumped by the heart (cardiac output), resulting in ... High blood pressure and valvular heart disease are the most common alterable risk factors for AF.[5][6] Other heart-related ... Due to inadequate cardiac output, individuals with AF may also complain of light-headedness,[23] may feel like they are about ... resulting in a severe reduction of cardiac output. This dangerous situation is prevented by the AV node since its limited ...
... but that the measured femoral and kidney fractions of cardiac output are respectively increased and reduced, suggesting that ... The risk of death in hepatorenal syndrome is very high; the mortality of individuals with type 1 HRS is over 50% over the short ... The risk of death in hepatorenal syndrome is very high; consequently, there is a significant emphasis on the identification of ... A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) involves the decompression of the high pressures in the portal ...
Total Peripheral Resistance = (Mean Arterial Pressure - Mean Venous Pressure) / Cardiac Output Therefore, Mean arterial ... At high heart rates M. A. P. {\displaystyle MAP}. is more closely approximated by the arithmetic mean of systolic and diastolic ... In medicine, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) is an average blood pressure in an individual during a single cardiac cycle.[1] ... Magder SA (2014). "The highs and lows of blood pressure: toward meaningful clinical targets in patients with shock". Crit. Care ...
Tissue hypoxia from low oxygen delivery may be due to low haemoglobin concentration (anaemic hypoxia), low cardiac output ( ... high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE).[3] Hypoxia also occurs in healthy individuals ... "Effect of acute progressive hypoxemia on cardiac output and plasma excess lactate". Ann Surg. 177 (2): 199-202. doi:10.1097/ ... To counter the effects of high-altitude diseases, the body must return arterial pO. 2 toward normal. Acclimatization, the means ...
Since blood pressure is in intimate feedback with cardiac output and peripheral resistance, with relatively low blood pressure ... Elevated heart rate can result in significantly higher "cardiac work", which can result in symptoms of angina. ... He named this herbal drug "Zarnab" and used it as a cardiac remedy. This was the first known use of a calcium channel blocker ... By having both cardiac depressant and vasodilator actions, benzothiazepines are able to reduce arterial pressure without ...
Indeed, NIRS is able to measure venous oxygen saturation (SVO2), which is determined by the cardiac output, as well as other ... For high precision spectroscopy, wavelength-scanned lasers and frequency combs have recently become powerful sources, albeit ... examining the NIRS provides critical care physicians with an estimate of the cardiac output. NIRS is favoured by patients, ... Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is another NIR medical imaging technique capable of 3D imaging with high resolution on par ...
... the normal physiological response to low blood pressure in the renal arteries is to increase cardiac output (CO) to maintain ... Instead, extremely high levels of the precursor hormone corticosterone are produced, some of which is converted to 11- ... Another adrenal related cause is Cushing's syndrome which is a disorder caused by high levels of cortisol. Cortisol is a ... Few women of childbearing age have high blood pressure, up to 11% develop hypertension of pregnancy.[51] While generally benign ...
Gene product: Actin, alpha cardiac muscle 1, UniProtKB:P68032. GO term: heart contraction ; GO:0060047 (biological process). ... AmiGO Slimmer Archived 2011-09-29 at the Wayback Machine; maps granular annotations up to high-level terms ... means a human curator has reviewed the output from a sequence similarity search and verified that it is biologically meaningful ... the GO Consortium considers them to be marginally less reliable and they are commonly to higher level, less detailed terms. ...
Its actions are to increase peripheral resistance via α1 receptor-dependent vasoconstriction and to increase cardiac output via ... Because of the high intrinsic efficacy (receptor binding ability) of epinephrine, high concentrations of the drug cause ... "Part 6: Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support Section 6: Pharmacology II: Agents to Optimize Cardiac Output and Blood Pressure ... "High-dose epinephrine in adult cardiac arrest". The New England Journal of Medicine. 327 (15): 1045-50. doi:10.1056/ ...
... and cardiac output. ... higher spatial resolution images than SPECT (which has about 1 ... MPI is one of several types of cardiac stress test. A cardiac specific radiopharmaceutical is administered, e.g., 99mTc- ... Cardiac gated acquisitions are possible with SPECT, just as with planar imaging techniques such as multi gated acquisition scan ... Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a form of functional cardiac imaging, used for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. ...
... higher cardiac output, and disorders in blood-clotting that may lead to organ failure.[18] Fever is the most common presenting ... high blood lactate, or low urine output may suggest poor blood flow.[10] Septic shock is low blood pressure due to sepsis that ... Kidney: low urine output or no urine output, electrolyte abnormalities, or volume overload ... Dobutamine can also be used in hypotensive septic shock to increase cardiac output and correct blood flow to the tissues.[67] ...
For example, anger might be constituted by a certain set of physiological responses, such as increased cardiac output and high ... and cardiac output. Many indices are part of modern psychophysiology, including brain waves (electroencephalography, EEG), fMRI ... Psychologists are interested in why we may fear spiders and physiologists may be interested in the input/output system of the ... A positive control loop tends towards instability as player-software loop strives towards a higher standard of desirable ...
... recently had a stress echo which found that with exercise my heart did not squeeze properly which looked like balanced cardiac ... Hi cardiac output could be caused by vitamin deficiencies, thyroid problems, multiple myeloma, pagets disease, arterio-venous ... I have strong family hx so I had a cath done which was normal with clean arteries,normal pressures,ef 55% but my cardiac output ... recently had a stress echo which found that with exercise my heart did not squeeze properly which looked like balanced cardiac ...
JoVE Core JoVE Science Education JoVE Lab Manual High Schools Faculty Resource Center ...
Systemic and regional hemodynamics in low, normal and high cardiac output borderline hypertension.. F H Messerli, J G De ... Systemic and regional hemodynamics in low, normal and high cardiac output borderline hypertension. ... Systemic and regional hemodynamics in low, normal and high cardiac output borderline hypertension. ... Systemic and regional hemodynamics in low, normal and high cardiac output borderline hypertension. ...
A Case of Femoral Arteriovenous Fistula Causing High-Output Cardiac Failure, Originally Misdiagnosed as Chronic Fatigue ... We report a case of an iatrogenic femoral arteriovenous fistula, causing worsening congestive cardiac failure, in a 34-year-old ...
High output cardiac failure and paradoxical pulmonary emboli secondary to aortocaval fistula ... High output cardiac failure and paradoxical pulmonary emboli secondary to aortocaval fistula ... 1Aintree Cardiac Centre, University of Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, UK. *. 2Department of Cardiology, Liverpool Heart and Chest ... Correspondence to Dr Aleem Khand, Aintree Cardiac Centre, University of Hospital Aintree, Longmoor lane, Liverpool L9 7AL, UK; ...
... ... High-output cardiac failure is a rare complication of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and can potentially be mistaken for ... We present a case of high-output cardiac failure because of large hepatic arteriovenous malformations, review the literature ... regarding the cardiac manifestations of the disease, and discuss the possible differential diagnoses. ...
What is Cardiac output, high? Meaning of Cardiac output, high medical term. What does Cardiac output, high mean? ... high in the Medical Dictionary? Cardiac output, high explanation free. ... cardiac output. (redirected from Cardiac output, high). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. output. [owt´poot] ... Cardiac output, high , definition of Cardiac output, high by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary. ...
Center directors reported bevacizumab to be effective, with 55% reporting significant improvement in cardiac index and HOCF ... symptoms in most patients treated with bevacizumab, although normalization of cardiac parameters was uncommon. Adverse events ... Systemic bevacizumab is a novel targeted anti-angiogenic therapy for high-output cardiac failure (HOCF) in hereditary ... From: Systemic bevacizumab for high-output cardiac failure in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: an international survey of ...
... patients with high output cardiac failure have normal cardiac function and decreased systemic vascular resistance, either ... High-output cardiac failure is a less common form of heart failure, and although it may sound contradictory at first, in the ... This activity reviews the cause, pathophysiology and presentation of high output heart failure and stresses the role of the ... Describe the presentation of high output heart failure.. *Summarize the treatment options for high output failure. ...
Weaning patients with high cardiac output state: influence on central venous pressure and right ventricular stroke work index. ... haemo-dynamic parameters during a weaning trial of a cohort of post-liver transplant patients with a high cardiac output (CO). ... Twenty-five patients were enrolled; all presented cardiac index , 4 l/min/m2. The following parameters were evaluated: heart ... The weaning from mechanical ventilation in patients with high CO, particularly post-liver transplant patients, induces a ...
Learn about the normal output rate, how its measured, and causes of low cardiac output. ... Cardiac output is defined as the amount of blood your heart pumps. ... can cause high cardiac output.. High output also can happen when your body lacks enough oxygen-carrying red blood cells, a ... "Understanding Cardiac Output," "Why Measure Cardiac Output?". University of Mississippi Medical Center: "Control of Cardiac ...
... cardiac output is greatest during intense exercise and when a person is approximately in his 20s. The more intense the exercise ... What causes high LDL cholesterol levels?. A: Elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are primarily caused by ... Cardiac output is thought of by doctors as a combination of heart rate and stroke volume. Stroke volume is increased when the ... According to WebMD, cardiac output is greatest during intense exercise and when a person is approximately in his 20s. The more ...
X CARDIAC OUTPUT To determine a value for cardiac output one simply rearranges the equation to read: CARDIAC OUTPUT = VCQ 2 c v ... The cardiac output is then calculated as follows: Cardiac output = Quantity of dye injected Av[I] for duration of curve X ... 43 APPENDIX B MEASUREMENT OF CARDIAC OUTPUT There are several different ways of measuring cardiac output. The standard method, ... Physical characteristics were recorded before cardiac output measurements were initiated. Cardiac output was measured using two ...
... Academic Article ... cardiac output was improved with combinations of smaller tidal volumes and higher frequencies. Reducing respiratory compliance ... cardiac output may be improved with smaller tidal volumes during high frequency jet ventilation. ... Cardiac output was continuously measured with an electromagnetic flow probe placed around the aorta. Respiratory compliance was ...
High Output Cardiac Failure Caused by Multiple Giant Cutaneous Hemangiomas. / Chan, Paul; Lee, Ching Ping; Lee, Ying Hsiung. ... High Output Cardiac Failure Caused by Multiple Giant Cutaneous Hemangiomas. In: Japanese Heart Journal. 1992 ; Vol. 33, No. 4. ... High Output Cardiac Failure Caused by Multiple Giant Cutaneous Hemangiomas. Japanese Heart Journal. 1992;33(4):493-497. https ... Chan, P., Lee, C. P., & Lee, Y. H. (1992). High Output Cardiac Failure Caused by Multiple Giant Cutaneous Hemangiomas. Japanese ...
The prognosis of VGA is usually poor, particularly in newborns with heart failure due to high-flow intracerebral shunt. Surgery ... "Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation and High-output Cardiac Failure in a Newborn". Iranian Journal of Neonatology IJN, 10, 1 ... Saeidi, R., Mohammadzadeh, A., Shahfarhat, A., Birjandi, H. Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation and High-output Cardiac ... Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation and High-output Cardiac Failure in a Newborn. ...
VirtaMed Launches High-Fidelity Obstetric Ultrasound Simulators. Cyber Threats to The Healthcare Industry and How Managed IT ... Reliant® Noninvasive Cardiac Output Monitor Gets FDA OK. January 24th, 2008 Editors Anesthesiology, Cardiology, Critical Care, ... The NICOM® ICU (Intensive Care Unit) and CCU (Critical Care Unit) is a non-invasive Cardiac Output monitor based on ... The device promises the accuracy of measurements of cardiac output equal or better to traditional Swan-Ganz catheter. The ...
Cardiac output changes and cardiac output increment. In the high‐EDP subgroup, changing diastolic properties (α and β) to those ... Change in Cardiac Output After EDPVR Normalization in the High‐EDP Group. Diastolic dysfunction, which is the key ... Improved Diastolic Function Is Associated With Higher Cardiac Output in Patients With Heart Failure Irrespective of Left ... Improved Diastolic Function Is Associated With Higher Cardiac Output in Patients With Heart Failure Irrespective of Left ...
Anand, I. S.; Florea, V. G. (2001). "High Output Cardiac Failure". Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine. 3 (2 ... In advanced cases, the disease may cause high-output cardiac failure and death. ... Vasodilation leading to decreased systemic vascular resistance, and high output heart failure[20] ... High mortality of salmon (Salmo salar) in the river Mörrumsån is reported, and the last years mammals like Eurasian Elk (Alces ...
An improved apparatus and method for determining the cardiac output of a living subject. The improved apparatus generally ... Band-pass filters 1309 a, 1309 b comprising a low-pass filter with pole at 1.59 MHz and high-pass filter with pole at 9.72 kHz ... cardiac output is then determined using the measured cardiac stroke volume and cardiac rate from the ECG potential. ... determining cardiac stroke volume from the measured voltage; and determining cardiac output based on stroke volume and cardiac ...
Cardiac Output, High Cardiac Output, Low Device: minimally invasive cardiac output system consisting of arterial line sensor ... Cardiac Output, Low. Cardiac Output, High. Heart Diseases. Cardiovascular Diseases. Signs and Symptoms. ... Device: minimally invasive cardiac output system consisting of arterial line sensor and cardiac output bedside monitor (device ... Using Minimally Invasive Cardiac Output Data vs. Standard Care for Patients Emergently Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit Who ...
Cardiac Output, Low. Ischemia. Pathologic Processes. Necrosis. Myocardial Ischemia. Heart Diseases. Cardiovascular Diseases. ... Death Stroke Low Cardiac Output Syndrome Myocardial Infarction Renal Failure Pulmonary Failure Other: Remote ischemic ... acute renal failure and low cardiac output syndrome [ Time Frame: 30 days ]. ... as well as interventional cardiac procedures such as angioplasty. They have shown improvements in cardiac, renal, neurologic ...
... cardiac output, stroke volume variability, left ventricular contractility, systemic vascular resistance, and central venous ... combined with high volume hemofiltration (HVHF) on the cardiopulmonary function and removal of inflammatory mediators in a ... CO: cardiac output, dPmax: left ventricular contractility index, NE: highest norepinephrine dose, fluid intake: fluid intake ... CRRT: continuous renal replacement therapy; HVHF: high volume hemofiltration; CO: cardiac output; HR: heart rate; dPmax: left ...
high haemoglobin transfusion trigger on cardiac output in patients undergoing elective vascular surgery: Post-hoc analysis of a ... We evaluated whether inadequate increase in cardiac output (CO) following haemodilution explains reduction in ScO 2 . ... Mean CO during surgery was numerically 7.3% higher in the low-trigger compared with the high-trigger group (mean difference, ... Lower or Higher Oxygenation Targets for Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure. Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift › ...
... with high-output cardiac failure have significantly greater nose bleeding as compared with patients without high-output cardiac ... with high-output cardiac failure have significantly greater nose bleeding as compared with patients without high-output cardiac ... with high-output cardiac failure have significantly greater nose bleeding as compared with patients without high-output cardiac ... with high-output cardiac failure have significantly greater nose bleeding as compared with patients without high-output cardiac ...
Topic: High Cardiac Output related to pulse rate?. Replies: 18. Views: 1775. Re : High Cardiac Output related to pulse rate?. , ... Topic: High Cardiac Ouput. Replies: 11. Views: 773. Re : High Cardiac Ouput. Hi Shannon,. Keeping everything crossed for baby ... r,Here is a thread talking about high cardiac output and pulse rate, linking to other discussions in the forum:,br/, ,br/, ,URL ... t,Hi Erica,,br/, ,br/, I was on clomid for a while when TTC. My OB/GYN told me that it could thin out the uterine lining when ...
... that HHT patients can already have a high output cardiac state that enhances risks of cardiac compromise; and that in contrast ... Sixty-nine HHT patients received bevacizumab, 37 (50.6%) for high output cardiac failure/hepatic AVMs, and 32 (49.4%) for ... and high cardiac output secondary to hepatic AVMs [35], in some cases, reversing the need for liver transplantation [36, 37]. ... and/or or high output cardiac failure due to liver AVMs. As part of the advice of an HHT center of reference, potential risks ...
... high output failure, comorbid cardiopulmonary disease) also contribute to mortality. ... Adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia is endemic in areas with a high prevalence of HTLV-1 infection, such as southwest Japan, the ... Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma has a worldwide distribution; some studies have identified a higher prevalence of the disease in ... 52] Secondary malignancies, such as higher-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, colon cancer, and cardiopulmonary ...
Signs of high-output heart failure. *. Cardiac arrhythmia (Supraventricular arrhythmias are more common, [eg, atrial flutter ... The highest likelihood of cardiogenic shock was in male patients with preexisting atherosclerotic or structural heart disease. ...
... high blood pressure, high blood pressure hypertension, high blood pressure remedies, hypertension, hypotension, low blood ... But if you can manage your blood pressure before it gets too high and puts your heart at risk, you may be able to avoid a lot ... High blood pressure, also known as hypertension (See blood pressure chart below) is called the "silent killer" for a reason - ... of 130 mm Hg or higher and at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The studys aim was to find out whether ...
  • We report a case of an iatrogenic femoral arteriovenous fistula, causing worsening congestive cardiac failure, in a 34-year-old marathon runner. (
  • High-output cardiac failure is a rare complication of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and can potentially be mistaken for other entities. (
  • We present a case of high-output cardiac failure because of large hepatic arteriovenous malformations, review the literature regarding the cardiac manifestations of the disease, and discuss the possible differential diagnoses. (
  • High-output cardiac failure is a less common form of heart failure, and although it may sound contradictory at first, in the simplest form, it is still the heart's inability to provide sufficient blood for the body's demand. (
  • Most patients with heart failure are either classified as a systolic or diastolic dysfunction with increased systemic vascular resistance, however, patients with high output cardiac failure have normal cardiac function and decreased systemic vascular resistance, either secondary to diffuse arteriolar dilation or possible bypass of the arterioles and capillary beds, leading to activation of neurohormones. (
  • This activity reviews the cause, pathophysiology and presentation of high output heart failure and stresses the role of the interprofessional team in its management. (
  • Review the causes of high output failure. (
  • Describe the presentation of high output heart failure. (
  • Summarize the treatment options for high output failure. (
  • Sometimes, sepsis , your body's response to blood infections that can lead to a dangerous drop in blood pressure and organ failure, can cause high cardiac output. (
  • A 59-year-old Chinese woman had multiple giant cutaneous cavernous hemangiomas on her right upper limb which resulted in high output heart failure because they presented as a large peripheral arteriovenous (A-V) fistula. (
  • The prognosis of VGA is usually poor, particularly in newborns with heart failure due to high-flow intracerebral shunt. (
  • Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation and High-output Cardiac Failure in a Newborn', Iranian Journal of Neonatology IJN , 10(1), pp. 86-88. (
  • Background Little is known regarding the impact of diastolic function on cardiac output ( CO ) in patients with heart failure, particularly in patients with lower ejection fraction. (
  • In advanced cases, the disease may cause high-output cardiac failure and death. (
  • Cardiac involvement in the form of high-output cardiac failure is a poorly studied complication of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. (
  • The objective of this study is to describe the natural history of high-output cardiac failure in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and define the relation between bleeding complications and high-output cardiac failure. (
  • Methods: In this case-control study at the Washington University hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia center, all patients evaluated for hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and found to have high cardiac output between 1999 and 2006 were enrolled as cases (n = 17) and compared with 17 hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia controls without high-output cardiac failure. (
  • 001). Conclusions: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia patients with high-output cardiac failure have significantly greater nose bleeding as compared with patients without high-output cardiac failure. (
  • In addition, nose bleeding worsens around the time of development of high-output cardiac failure. (
  • Early recognition of the relationship between severe nose bleeding and high-output cardiac failure can lead to earlier diagnosis and provide an opportunity for earlier institution of therapy for high-output cardiac failure. (
  • If you have high blood pressure or are heading in that direction, you should know that hypertension is among the primary enlarged heart causes, and a major risk factor for heart failure. (
  • Here, we present the case of a 32-year-old woman who underwent EVLT and was diagnosed subsequently with ipsilateral external iliac arteriovenous (AV) fistula and high-output cardiac failure. (
  • She was stabilized medically and treated surgically with a covered stent placed in the external iliac artery with complete resolution of the fistula and cardiac failure. (
  • In heart failure, the cardiac output is reduced and as the condition progresses, the body's tissues become filled with fluid. (
  • This swelling or congestion of the tissue spaces (fluid overload) is the reason why heart failure is also known as congestive heart (cardiac) failure. (
  • It is important to be familiar with the components and physiology of cardiac output in order to understand heart failure. (
  • None of the compensatory mechanisms can sustain the cardiac output over a prolong period of time and will eventually cause further damage to the heart and lead to heart failure. (
  • High-output heart failure is a heart condition that occurs when the cardiac output is higher than normal due to increased peripheral demand. (
  • PMID 11242561 Causes of High-Output Heart Failure Healthwise Staff of WebMD. (
  • High-output heart failure happens when the body's need for blood is unusually high, so heart failure symptoms happen even though the heart is working well. (
  • High-output heart failure occurs when the normally functioning heart cannot keep up with an unusually high demand for blood to one or more organs in the body. (
  • There are a variety of conditions that can significantly increase the body's need for blood and oxygen, resulting in high-output heart failure. (
  • Although the causes of high-output heart failure are different from the cause of other types of heart failure, the end result is the same: Your heart isn't supplying enough blood to meet your body's needs. (
  • High-output heart failure results in the same symptoms of heart failure, including fatigue and shortness of breath. (
  • How does it cause high-output heart failure? (
  • Thyroxine may cause high output cardiac failure. (
  • Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome with an increasing prevalence and a high morbidity and mortality rate. (
  • In extreme circumstances, this can cause high output congestive heart failure. (
  • Children present in a similar way to adults, but they may also present with high output cardiac failure if there is a high volume shunt, and they may rarely present with hydrocephalus. (
  • High Output Cardiac Failure in a Patient of Diffuse Hepatic Arteriovenous Malformation. (
  • Severe cardiac failure due to almost any other cause: decompensated cardiomyopathy, myocarditis (acute coronary syndrome with cardiogenic shock, profound cardiac depression due to drug overdose or sepsis). (
  • stroke output stroke volume . (
  • It is equal to the stroke volume-the output per beat-multiplied by the number of beats per minute. (
  • Cardiac output is thought of by doctors as a combination of heart rate and stroke volume. (
  • Measurements of cardiac output, stroke volume, and heart rate, were taken at rest and then workloads corresponding to 40%, 60%, (and in the case of the ventriculograms) 90% of maximal oxygen consumption. (
  • Stroke volume increased 21% and cardiac output increased 28% averaged across intensity, for the nuclear ventriculogram protocol, but neither of these changes were found to be significant (p=.089 and .095 respectively). (
  • For the CO₂ rebreathing protocol cardiac output was found to increase significantly over time (p=.042), while the increase in stroke volume was non significant (p=.073). (
  • It was found that over time at sea level slight in most cases non significant, increases in cardiac output, stroke volume, and heart rate all had the additive effect of compensating for the significant decrease found in the haemoglobin values. (
  • Various techniques have been introduced for monitoring cardiac output, stroke volume, or their surrogates. (
  • Hemodynamic parameters (arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume variability, left ventricular contractility, systemic vascular resistance, and central venous pressure), vasoactive drug parameters (dose and time of norepinephrine and hourly fluid intake), pulmonary function (partial oxygen pressure and vascular permeability), and cytokines (interleukin-6 and interleukin-10) were observed. (
  • High blood pressure, also known as hypertension (See blood pressure chart below) is called the "silent killer" for a reason - there are no obvious symptoms but it can result in heart attack, stroke and even death. (
  • An elevation of the systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure increases the risk of developing heart (cardiac) disease, kidney (renal) disease, hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis ), eye damage, and stroke ( brain damage ). (
  • Cardiac output is equal to heart rate multiplied by stroke volume (the volume of blood ejected with each heartbeat). (
  • Cardiac output is the product of heart rate in stroke volume. (
  • This is a product of stroke volume or cc's of blood per beat times the heart rate so cardiac output increases with either an increase in stroke volume or heart rate or both. (
  • This study aims to investigate the effect of standard versus advanced cardiac monitoring with optimization of CO on the clinical outcome in patients with large ischemic stroke. (
  • Hemodynamic optimization based on fluid management and stroke volume optimization have been shown to improve patient outcomes, especially for moderate and high risk abdominal surgical patients. (
  • Plasma volume, stroke volume, and cardiac output remain higher than normal during immersion. (
  • Stroke volume is not greatly affected by immersion or variation in ambient pressure , but bradycardia reduces the overall cardiac output, particularly due to the diving reflex in breath-hold diving . (
  • As patients get older, however, cardiac output gradually decreases at the expense of stroke volume. (
  • Bernstein DP (1986) Continuous noninvasive real-time monitoring of stroke volume and cardiac output by thoracic electrical bioimpedance. (
  • Cardiac output is calculated by multiplying heart rate in beats per minute by stroke volume in mL. (
  • However, the University of Michigan provides an equation for cardio output - Cardiac output = stroke volume × heart rate - that doctors typically use. (
  • Heart rate and stroke volume dictate cardiac output. (
  • In addition, working muscles increase stroke volume by sending higher amounts of blood volume back towards the lungs for oxygen. (
  • Therefore, cardiac output rises during exercise due to increased stroke volume and heart rate. (
  • Most improvement to cardiac output is contributed to increased stroke volume. (
  • American Council on Exercise reports that when your fitness level has increased enough to start HIIT or high-intensity interval training, your cardiac efficiency increases by elevating your heart's stroke volume and cardio output at a heart rate that is lower. (
  • As you know from the last time when we met, the cardiac output is equal to stroke volume times heart rate. (
  • An individual who has a heart rate of 50 milliliters per minute, beats per minute, and has a cardiac output of 5 liters per minute will then have a stroke volume of 100 milliliters. (
  • Factors that could lead to changes in a patient's functional capacities because of decreased cardiac output might include physical exercise of a type or intensity that the patient cannot tolerate because of diminished oxygen supply, ingestion of large meals that place an added workload on the heart, obesity, retention of fluid (edema), hypovolemia or hypervolemia, emotional stress, and smoking. (
  • High output also can happen when your body lacks enough oxygen-carrying red blood cells, a condition called anemia . (
  • A state of elevated cardiac output due to conditions of either increased hemodynamic demand or reduced cardiac oxygen output. (
  • Could low oxygen (decreased lung expansion) decreases cardiac output? (
  • And what about high flow oxygen as apnoeic oxygenation? (
  • [2] Although aquatic animals have evolved profound physiological adaptations to conserve oxygen during submersion, the apnea and its duration, bradycardia , vasoconstriction , and redistribution of cardiac output occur also in terrestrial animals as a neural response, but the effects are more profound in natural divers. (
  • 4. There was, however, no significant fall in cardiac output or change in oxygen transport during treatment. (
  • This syndrome may include high cardiac output , tachycardia, low urine output, and low peripheral oxygen extraction. (
  • With acclimatization, an individual is able to reach high altitudes without the use of supplementary oxygen. (
  • In high altitude natives, the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood is normal, despite chronically low Pao2 and oxygen saturation. (
  • ECMO support is useful when 1) the primary lung injury is accompanied by oxygen toxicity or barotrauma caused by mechanical ventilatory support or 2) the primary underlying cardiac insult is potentially reversible. (
  • Key secondary endpoint(s) are routine (Local laboratory) dosage of standard cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) at D1 (24h) and D3 (72 h) post operatively, and also in case of any suspicion of Myocardial Infarction , Routine cardiac safety monitoring. (
  • High-dose intravenous thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction: efficiency, tolerance, complications and influence on left ventricular performance. (
  • The authors studied the changes in several haemo-dynamic parameters during a weaning trial of a cohort of post-liver transplant patients with a high cardiac output (CO). (
  • The weaning from mechanical ventilation in patients with high CO, particularly post-liver transplant patients, induces a significant increase in RVSWI, and a decrease in CVP. (
  • In ICU, non-invasive Cardiac Output monitoring by the NICOM® provides haemodynamic information, which assists in diagnosis and therapy of heart patients by establishing the patient's baseline haemodynamic status for optimization of drug titration. (
  • The diverse patient population included unstable patients in general, cardiac, and post-surgical intensive care settings. (
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of diastolic dysfunction on left ventricular end‐diastolic pressure and cardiac output (CO) in HFrEF and HFpEF patients by evaluating entire EDPVR. (
  • Affected patients have significantly higher cardiac output. (
  • It appears that patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) acquire endothelial dysfunction that reduces the ability of their pulmonary vessels to accommodate the AV access-mediated elevated cardiac output, exacerbating the PHT. (
  • Since patients undergoing HD therapy via AV access had PH that reversed after successful kidney transplantation and after short AV access compression, we concluded that both ESRD and AV access-mediated elevated cardiac output are required for the development PH. (
  • In the IVOIRE (hIgh VOlume in Intensive caRE) study [ 12 ], patients with severe infection and acute kidney injury (AKI) were treated with CRRT and randomly assigned to hemofiltration rates of 35 mL/kg/h or 70 mL/kg/h. (
  • METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of data from the Transfusion in Vascular surgery (TV) Trial where patients were randomized on haemoglobin drop below 9.7 g/dL to red-cell transfusion at haemoglobin below 8.0 (low-trigger) vs 9.7 g/dL (high-trigger). (
  • CONCLUSION: Vascular surgical patients exposed to restrictive RBC transfusion elicit the expected increase in CO making it unlikely that their potentially limited cardiac capacity explains the associated ScO 2 decrease. (
  • The highest likelihood of cardiogenic shock was in male patients with preexisting atherosclerotic or structural heart disease. (
  • High-risk cardiac surgical patients with PH were randomized to receive iMil or placebo after the induction of anesthesia and before CPB. (
  • In high-risk cardiac surgery patients with PH, the prophylactic use of iMil was associated with favourable hemodynamic effects that did not translate into improvement of clinically relevant endpoints. (
  • Patients undergoing high risk cardiac surgery (combined CABG and valvular procedures) will be randomized to receive a total intravenous anesthesia or an anesthesia plan with sevoflurane. (
  • Women and patients with higher CD4+ cell counts at initiation of therapy are at increased risk. (
  • Inhaled milrinone has been used for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, but its safety and effects compared with a placebo on hemodynamics and ventricular function have not been studied in patients undergoing high-risk valvular surgery. (
  • Twenty-one high-risk cardiac surgical patients with preoperative pulmonary hypertension were randomized in a double-blind study to receive inhaled milrinone or placebo. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing cardiac surgery [ 1 ] Several conditions increase the risk of developing perioperative pulmonary hypertension, including pre-existing pulmonary hypertension, mitral stenosis or regurgitation, left ventricular (LV) dysfunction pulmonary disease and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) [ 2 ]. (
  • 23% of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and is associated with hepatic vascular malformations, hepatic dysfunction, and elevated cardiac output. (
  • 2. Although pretreatment values for urinary total hydroxyproline excretion and cardiac output were considerably increased in some patients, there was no correlation between these two variables in the group as a whole. (
  • Hence, these patients have Many surgeons are afraid to operate on the morbidly a significantly higher incidence of diabetes, hypertension, obese patient because they presuppose a marked increase in hypercholesterolemia, and gallstones8-which explains the perioperative morbidity and mortality. (
  • It is now possible, higher mortality of the apple distribution of body fat in com- however, to stratify the mortality risk for patients undergoing parison with the pear distribution. (
  • Consecutive adult patients immediately after cardiac surgery. (
  • Cardiac output measurements obtained from NICOM and thermodilution were simultaneously recorded minute by minute and compared in 110 patients. (
  • Rocco M, Spadetta G, Morelli A, Dell'Utri D, Porzi P, Conti G, Pietropaoli P (2004) A comparative evaluation of thermodilution and partial CO 2 rebreathing techniques for cardiac output assessment in critically ill patients during assisted ventilation. (
  • Older patients are at highest risk. (
  • In cohort 2, fluid input in high-risk patients was guided by cardiac output measured by TPT per a strict protocol. (
  • There was significantly decreased blood flow in POTS patients with high P v ( middle right ) compared with control by ×2 and significantly increased leg blood flow in normal-P v POTS patients ( bottom left and bottom right ) compared with control subjects. (
  • We studied the influence of high levels of EVLW on the reliability of CO measurement using the TPTD technique in a pediatric animal model. (
  • The NICOM® ICU (Intensive Care Unit) and CCU (Critical Care Unit) is a non-invasive Cardiac Output monitor based on Haemodynamic Reactance Mapping, intended for the measurement and display of Cardiac Output and ECG (electrocardiogram), both at rest and under medical tests. (
  • The FloTrac™ system, which includes the FloTrac™ sensor and Vigileo™ monitor, is utilized to capture the arterial pressure-based cardiac output measurement, which will be hereinafter referred to as APCO (Arterial Pressure Cardiac Output). (
  • Cardiac output is a measurement of the amount of blood a person's heart can pump out during a set amount of time. (
  • Since thereare fewer molecules in the column above the measurement point at higher altitudes, you cansee that atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude. (
  • The researchers surgically implanted accurate measurement devices onto the great cardiac arteries , and then monitored their cardiac output using USCOM and PAC at rest and as medications were introduced. (
  • The ultrasound signal bounces off the red blood cells as they flow across the cardiac valves, the site of true cardiac output, and producing a unique echo from which the device then counts the cell echoes with extremely high accuracy allowing high fidelity cardiac output measurement. (
  • Boldt J, Menges T, Wollbruck M, Hammermann H, Hempelmann G (1994) Is continuous cardiac output measurement using thermodilution reliable in the critically ill patient? (
  • Su NY, Huang CJ, Tsai P, Hsu YW, Hung YC, Cheng CR (2002) Cardiac output measurement during cardiac surgery: esophageal Doppler versus pulmonary artery catheter. (
  • Direct measurement of cardiac output requires invasive measurements in a clinical setting. (
  • The use of iMil was associated with increases in cardiac output (P = 0.03) and a reduction in SPAP (P = 0.04) with no systemic hypotension. (
  • The American Heart Association states that there is no consistent evidence that daily consumption of 1 to 2 cups of coffee (or its equivalent) increases blood pressure to any significant degree in people who do not already have high blood pressure. (
  • After childbirth, your cardiac output increases and your heart rate slows down. (
  • It also reduces cardiac output and increases the flow of urine. (
  • Measurements and main results - Cardiac output fell as mean airway pressure was raised from 2 to 10 cm H2O at all frequencies and tidal volumes. (
  • The device promises the accuracy of measurements of cardiac output equal or better to traditional Swan-Ganz catheter. (
  • A total of 65,888 pairs of cardiac output measurements were collected. (
  • Non-cardiac surgery is associated with significant cardiac morbidity and mortality. (
  • The effect of xenon-augmented sevoflurane anesthesia on intraoperative hemodynamics and early postoperative neurocognitive function in children undergoing cardiac catheterization: A randomized controlled pilot trial. (
  • Barin E, Haryadi D, Schookin S, Westenskow D, Zubenko V, Beliaev K, Morozov A (2000) Evaluation of a thoracic bioimpedance cardiac output monitor during cardiac catheterization. (
  • Apparently, at least in S lines, peripheral tissues may sustain higher rates of oxidative metabolism if central organs provide more O 2 . (
  • Although the existence of central limitations in S lines cannot be excluded based solely on the present data, we have previously reported that both S and C lines can attain considerably higher V̇ O 2max during cold exposure in a He-O 2 atmosphere, suggesting that limitations on V̇ O 2max depend on interactions between the central and peripheral organs involved. (
  • Increased V̇ O 2max in hyperoxia may suggest that O 2 uptake and delivery systems are more relevant for V̇ O 2max in normoxia than mitochondrial oxidative capacity (i.e. central limitation), whereas potential constraints at the mitochondrial level in the muscles might be the case if V̇ O 2max remains unchanged at higher P O 2 (i.e. peripheral limitation). (
  • Using indocyanine green techniques, we showed decreased cardiac index (CI) and increased total peripheral resistance (TPR) in LFP, increased CI and decreased TPR in HFP, and unchanged CI and TPR in NFP while subjects were supine compared with control subjects. (
  • I recently had a stress echo which found that with exercise my heart did not squeeze properly which looked like balanced cardiac disease to my cardiologist. (
  • decreased cardiac output a nursing diagnosis accepted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as a state in which inadequate blood is pumped by the heart to meet the metabolic demands of the body. (
  • Low output also could happen after you've lost too much blood, had a severe infection called sepsis , or had severe heart damage. (
  • The more intense the exercise, the more blood the body's muscle demand from the heart and, therefore, the cardiac output is normally greater than at rest. (
  • Therefore, the amount of blood that flows out of the heart in one minute, cardiac output, is great in both cases. (
  • Objective: To characterize the effect of HFJV near or equal to the heart rate (HR) on beat-to-beat cardiac output in an adult human subject with ARDS. (
  • Currently, a practical, precise, minimally invasive way to measure cardiac output or heart function in children undergoing surgery does not exist. (
  • The American Heart Association estimates high blood pressure affects approximately one in three adults in the U.S. High blood pressure also is estimated to affect about two million U.S. teens and children, and the Journal of the American Medical Association reports that many are under-diagnosed. (
  • The cardiac output is the volume of blood per minute pumped by the heart. (
  • Thus, an increase in heart rate results in an increase in cardiac output. (
  • Acetylcholine neurotransmission has an inhibitory effect on the heart, which lowers heart rate thereby decreasing cardiac output . (
  • Cardiac output is related to the heart rate , and volume of blood the heart can pump with each heart beat. (
  • A low cardiac output occurs when the pump function of the heart is compromised by an event such as a heart attack or when the blood volume is reduced by and event such as dehydration , or bleeding. (
  • How does the heart increase cardiac output? (
  • However, after a long period of time, the body's compensatory mechanisms to maintain a normal cardiac output may cause irreversible damage to the heart. (
  • Cardiac output is the amount of blood pushed out of the heart over a period of time. (
  • This is also determined by the strength of the heart muscle to force out blood (myocardial contractility) and the elasticity of the arteries, particularly the aorta , which need to stretch and recoil to keep blood flowing (Windkessel effect discussed under cardiac output). (
  • Increased heart rate to increase cardiac output. (
  • Congenital heart diseases and defects occur in about 1% of births (about 10 in 1,000 births) but in certain countries this may be as high as 50 in 1,000 births. (
  • Structural defects associated with congenital heart disease primarily cause cardiac shunts or obstruction to blood flow. (
  • Most congenital heart defects arise due to genetic abnormalities but a disturbance of any other factor that plays a role in cardiac development may also be responsible. (
  • [11] As sensory organs, the carotid bodies convey the chemical status of the circulating blood to brain centers regulating neural outputs to the heart and circulation. (
  • Your heart responds by increasing its cardiac output. (
  • This causes changes in your blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output. (
  • Understanding how high or low the pressures in the heart are can help your healthcare team diagnose a problem. (
  • You may also need to see a heart doctor (cardiologist) who specializes in congenital heart disease or high-risk prenatal care. (
  • An electrode for use in combination with a cardiac pacer for endocardial stimulation, having an electrode contact tip at the distal end which has an annular shape with rounded edges for providing a very small stimulating surface, with the largest possible area of such surface in optimal position for direct contact with the heart muscle. (
  • This invention relates to electrodes, or catheters, and, more particularly, to unipolar electrodes adapted for use in combination with cardiac pacers for low power drain stimulation of a patient's heart. (
  • Forcing fields are applied to the heart to give cardiac output on an emergency basis until the arrhythmia ceases. (
  • d) delivering electrical current pulses through the patient's body, via said electrodes after detecting tachyarrhythmia, at a rate between about 60 and 200 pulses per minute, said electrical current pulses having a voltage less than a normal defibrillation voltage level, to force contraction in the patient's heart and facilitate a minimum level of cardiac output until cessation of the tachyarrhythmia or until other medical intervention is provided. (
  • Heart health and exercise performance are regulated by your cardiac output ability. (
  • According to the American Council on Exercise, cardiac output is the amount of blood flowing out of your heart per minute. (
  • Therefore, your heart can maintain a high cardiac output with less effort. (
  • Enhancing cardiac output allows you to maintain lower heart rates during physical activity. (
  • After three or more months of training increased cardiac output enables you to sustain the same running intensity at a lower heart rate such as 125 beats per minute. (
  • Greetings, today we want to continue our discussion of the cardiovascular system, In particular we want to think about how the heart adjust its output of blood to match the needs of the body in general. (
  • In terms of venous return, that is the blood coming back into the heart and its filling versus cardiac output. (
  • By having a high parasympathetic tone they have lower heart rate. (
  • So the cardiac output at rest is about 5 liters per minute. (
  • But they still have, at rest, a cardiac output of five liters per minute. (
  • Cardiac arrhythmia (Supraventricular arrhythmias are more common, [eg, atrial flutter and fibrillation], but ventricular tachycardia may also occur. (
  • An electrical method and apparatus for stimulating cardiac cells causing contraction to force hemodynamic output during fibrillation, hemodynamically compromising tachycardia, or asystole. (
  • Systolic PAP equals cardiac output times pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), (i.e. (
  • In this high-risk cardiac surgery cohort, the use of inhaled milrinone was not associated with systemic hypotension but with a reduced pulmonary vascular resistance and prevention of the increase in right-sided cavity dimensions. (
  • Increased pulse pressure represents a hemodynamic stimulus for cardiac and vascular hypertrophy 1 and may reflect arterial stiffness and atherosclerotic disease. (
  • although autonomic regulation of pulmonary vascular resistance conductance has been emphasized, little attention has been paid to the possible contribution of the passive physical characteristics of the two circuits to pressure changes associated with variation in cardiac output. (
  • Our analysis indicates that the net cardiac shunt in the cane toad is predicted primarily by the physical, rather than physiological, characteristics of the parallel pulmonary and systemic vascular circuits. (
  • The parallel vascular arrangement of amphibian circulatory anatomy does not necessarily predict equal flow rates to each circuit but, rather, allows for a wide range of differential outputs. (
  • Autonomic regulation and passive properties of the vascular circuits can occur in concert with each other, but most studies have considered only direct autonomic regulation of vascular tone as the basis for net cardiac shunts (but see West and Smits, 1994 ). (
  • 10. Garcia-Monaco R, De Victor D, Mann C, Hannedouche A, Terbrugge K, Lasjaunias P. Congestive cardiac manifestations from cerebrocranial arteriovenous shunts. (
  • Net cardiac shunts in anuran amphibians: physiology or physics? (
  • In this study, we re-analysed three recent studies that recorded net cardiac shunts in the cane toad ( Rhinella marina ) under a variety of conditions and treatments. (
  • Edwards Lifesciences has developed a new algorithm for the determination of cardiac output using arterial pressure data. (
  • The current gold standard cardiac monitor is the Pulmonary Artery Catheter (PAC), which involves insertion of a catheter into a patient's neck or groin. (
  • To evaluate the clinical utility of a new device for continuous noninvasive cardiac output monitoring (NICOM) based on chest bio-reactance compared with cardiac output measured semi-continuously by thermodilution using a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC-CCO). (
  • A normal, resting adult has a cardiac output of 4 to 8 L per minute. (
  • XePOHCAS: Prospective, randomized, multicenter interventional trial in adult subjects with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest comparing treatment with standard-of-care post-cardiac arrest inte. (
  • Systemic and regional hemodynamics in low, normal and high cardiac output borderline hypertension. (
  • Too high, meaning you have hypertension? (
  • What is high blood pressure (hypertension)? (
  • High blood pressure or hypertension , means high pressure (tension) in the arteries. (
  • Hypertension stage 2: 140 or higher, or 90 mm Hg. (
  • These complications of hypertension are often referred to as end-organ damage because damage to these organs is the end result of chronic (long duration) high blood pressure . (
  • In a physiologic model, increased blood pressure or "hypertension" or increased "afterload" tends to decrease cardiac output . (
  • Studies have suggested that milrinone may be beneficial in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in cardiac surgery [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • High cardiac output characterizes the early phase of arterial hypertension. (
  • This has a variety of physiological consequences, including hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels), which can lead to type II diabetes mellitus , and hypertension (high blood pressure ), which can lead to cardiovascular disease . (
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate if the continuous availability of minimally invasive cardiac output data during treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU) for hemodynamic instability, in comparison to standard of care will shorten the time needed to stabilize the patient. (
  • [4] Diagnosis is based on symptoms, low levels of thiamine in the urine, high blood lactate , and improvement with treatment. (
  • The new guidelines stem from the 2017 results of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), which studied more than 9,000 adults ages 50 and older who had systolic blood pressure (the top number in a reading) of 130 mm Hg or higher and at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease. (
  • Angiography revealed normal coronary arteries and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) was performed to further investigate the cause of the cardiomyopathy. (
  • The cardiac output is therefore reduced and the body utilizes a number of compensatory mechanisms in an attempt to maintain a normal cardiac output. (
  • A number of systems come into play in order to achieve these effects and maintain a normal cardiac output. (
  • In a complete animal or human model, there are various reflexes that work to maintain cardiac output in the face of increased afterload but they shouldn't cause an increase in cardiac output relative to the baseline. (
  • Tests were conducted over time intervals that ranged from 6 to 24 hours of continuous monitoring for the obtained instantaneous cardiac output for each minute. (
  • Continuous cardiac output (COc) was monitored during change of ventilator mode from CMV to fixed-rate HFJV to synchronized HFJV, then followed through progressive delays in jet triggering within the cardiac cycle during the synchronous HFJV mode. (
  • However, although its strong odor is readily identified, olfactory fatigue occurs at high concentrations and at continuous low concentrations. (
  • Gratz I, Kraidin J, Jacobi AG, deCastro NG, Spagna P, Larijani GE (1992) Continuous noninvasive cardiac output as estimated from the pulse contour curve. (
  • We hypothesize that using the FloTrac™ system to continuously monitor cardiac output, in addition to traditional vital signs, cardiovascular instability will be identified earlier and result in earlier intervention. (
  • COc was monitored by arterial pulse-contour analysis, allowing assessment of beat-to-beat changes in cardiac output. (
  • Left ventricular Cardiac Output (CO) was measured by a duplex scanner with pulsed Doppler and color flow mapping echocardiography in the first 48 hours of life. (
  • This study aimed to assess the effects of early fluid resuscitation (EFR) combined with high volume hemofiltration (HVHF) on the cardiopulmonary function and removal of inflammatory mediators in a septic shock swine model. (
  • Your cardiac output is your heartbeats per minute multiplied by the amount of blood pumped with each beat. (
  • As a consequence cardiac output (amount of blood pumped into circulation in 1 minute) is reduced. (
  • Venous return Cardiac output. (
  • The data demonstrate enhanced thoracic hypovolemia during upright tilt and confirm that POTS is related to inadequate cardiac venous return during orthostasis. (
  • Reducing respiratory compliance by lung lavage dampened the effect of mean airway pressure on cardiac output, but maintained the relationship between ventilatory variables observed before lavage. (
  • Respiratory arrest, Hypoventilation from pulmonary, cardiac or neuromuscular disease. (
  • Persistently low cardiac output predicts high mortality in newborns with cardiogenic shock. (
  • or = mL/min/kg) during the first 48 hours life, in newborns with cardiogenic shock due to perinatal asphyxia is associated with a significantly higher mortality. (
  • Apparatus and methods for non-invasively determining the cardiac output or pulmonary capillary blood flow of a patient using partial re-breathing techniques. (
  • Very high, sustained blood pressure will eventually cause blood vessels to weaken. (
  • RESULTS: Within treatments comparisons revealed that both treatments displayed stable mean blood pressure and equally reduced cardiac output. (
  • High blood pressure does not mean excessive emotional tension, although emotional tension and stress can temporarily increase blood pressure . (
  • Blood pressure of 130/80 or above is considered high. (
  • For that reason, the diagnosis of high blood pressure is important so efforts can be made to normalize blood pressure and prevent complications. (
  • Picture of high blood pressure. (
  • How can high blood pressure be lowered naturally? (
  • The association between alcohol and high blood pressure is particularly noticeable when alcohol intake exceeds five drinks per day. (
  • The combination of smoking and drinking coffee in persons with high blood pressure may increase the blood pressure more than coffee alone. (
  • Limiting caffeine intake and cigarette smoking in hypertensive individuals may be of some benefit in controlling high blood pressure. (
  • But some women develop high blood pressure instead. (
  • These properties are believed to be beneficial in the treatment of high blood pressure. (
  • Values of PAP may be further increased by high cardiac output resulting from the AV access itself, worsened by commonly occurring anemia and fluid overload. (
  • Linda's reply turned out to be the most definitive treatise on the subject of high-altitude physiology and decompression we've ever seen. (
  • When measuring output for a patient record, the volume of urine, drainage from tubes, vomitus, and any other measurable liquid should be recorded. (
  • urinary output the amount of urine secreted by the kidneys. (
  • Decreased urine output so that the blood volume can be increased. (
  • Initially, the body's compensatory mechanisms attempt to stabilize the reduced cardiac output. (
  • it usually refers to left ventricle output. (
  • A 2017 American Diabetes Association study that looked at 53 adolescents with Type 1 diabetes concluded that exercise training improves the cardiac output and exercise capacity by increasing the functions of the left ventricle. (
  • High Cardiac Output related to pulse rate? (
  • 4 . The method of claim 1 , further comprising the steps of monitoring cardiac output and adjusting said electrical current pulse with respect to amplitude to maintain a predetermined level of cardiac output, thereby conserving electrical energy. (
  • Conclusions: This study demonstrates instantaneous variations in cardiac output in a human subject with fixed rates of HFJV near to the HR in humans. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that during matched conditions and high calcium concentrations, the hemodynamic profiles of high dose predilution HDF and lowflux HD were similar. (
  • High-volume hemofiltration (HVHF) can be performed by increasing the amount of replacement fluid, thus improving the removal of soluble macromolecules. (
  • Comparison of predilution hemodiafiltration and low-flux hemodialysis at temperature-controlled conditions using high calcium-ion concentration in the replacement and dialysis fluid. (
  • The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamics of high-dose predilution hemodiafiltration (HDF) and low-flux hemodialysis (HD), under matched conditions and using high calcium-ion concentration in the replacement/dialysis fluid. (
  • Automated Versus Manual Fluid Management for High Risk Abdominal Surgical Patient. (
  • Per Operative Fluid Optimisation Comparison of an Automated Closed-Loop System Versus Current Practice in High Risk Abdominal Surgical Patient. (
  • We investigated whether high early fluid input is associated with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), and if fluid input can be safely decreased using transpulmonary thermodilution (TPT). (
  • High early fluid input was associated with DCI. (