Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Thermodilution: Measurement of blood flow based on induction at one point of the circulation of a known change in the intravascular heat content of flowing blood and detection of the resultant change in temperature at a point downstream.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Dye Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cardiac Output, High: A state of elevated cardiac output due to conditions of either increased hemodynamic demand or reduced cardiac oxygen output. These conditions may include ANEMIA; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; THYROTOXICOSIS; PREGNANCY; EXERCISE; FEVER; and ANOXIA. In time, compensatory changes of the heart can lead to pathological form of high cardiac output and eventual HEART FAILURE.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Cardiography, Impedance: A type of impedance plethysmography in which bioelectrical impedance is measured between electrodes positioned around the neck and around the lower thorax. It is used principally to calculate stroke volume and cardiac volume, but it is also related to myocardial contractility, thoracic fluid content, and circulation to the extremities.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Catheterization, Swan-Ganz: Placement of a balloon-tipped catheter into the pulmonary artery through the antecubital, subclavian, and sometimes the femoral vein. It is used to measure pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure which reflects left atrial pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. The catheter is threaded into the right atrium, the balloon is inflated and the catheter follows the blood flow through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and out into the pulmonary artery.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Blood Circulation: The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cardiac Tamponade: Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Indicator Dilution Techniques: Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Central Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Cardiac Volume: The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Pulmonary Wedge Pressure: The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Blood Volume Determination: Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Splanchnic Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Plethysmography, Impedance: Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Myoblasts, Cardiac: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cardiac Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Cardiac Imaging Techniques: Visualization of the heart structure and cardiac blood flow for diagnostic evaluation or to guide cardiac procedures via techniques including ENDOSCOPY (cardiac endoscopy, sometimes refered to as cardioscopy), RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; TOMOGRAPHY; or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Indocyanine Green: A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Rest: Freedom from activity.Troponin I: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.Cardiac Glycosides: Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: The restoration of the sequential order of contraction and relaxation of the HEART ATRIA and HEART VENTRICLES by atrio-biventricular pacing.Resuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Arterial Pressure: The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Hypovolemia: An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Occurrence of heart arrest in an individual when there is no immediate access to medical personnel or equipment.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Ventricular Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Shock: A pathological condition manifested by failure to perfuse or oxygenate vital organs.Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Atrial Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the RIGHT ATRIUM.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Vascular Capacitance: The measure of a BLOOD VESSEL's ability to increase the volume of BLOOD it holds without a large increase in BLOOD PRESSURE. The vascular capacitance is equal to the change in volume divided by the change in pressure.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Echocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio: The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Extracorporeal Circulation: Diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous with the bodily circulation.Hydrazones: Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Plasma Substitutes: Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Lower Body Negative Pressure: External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Hemodilution: Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.Troponin T: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124.Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Shock, Septic: Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.PyridazinesRespiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Photoplethysmography: Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Ultrasonics: A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Cardiac Care Facilities: Institutions specializing in the care of patients with heart disorders.Electromagnetic Phenomena: Characteristics of ELECTRICITY and magnetism such as charged particles and the properties and behavior of charged particles, and other phenomena related to or associated with electromagnetism.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Echocardiography, Doppler, Color: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Atrial Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine: A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Tilt-Table Test: A standard and widely accepted diagnostic test used to identify patients who have a vasodepressive and/or cardioinhibitory response as a cause of syncope. (From Braunwald, Heart Disease, 7th ed)Pulse: The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Heart Rate, Fetal: The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.Syncope: A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)
Venous return is the rate of blood flow back to the heart. It normally limits cardiac output. Superposition of the cardiac ... Otherwise, blood would accumulate in either the systemic or pulmonary circulations. Although cardiac output and venous return ... direct influences on cardiac output such as end diastolic pressure and volume which can be causally related to cardiac output ... not to lose sight of the fact that blood flow through the entire systemic circulation represents both the cardiac output and ...
Increases in blood sugar, breathing, and cardiac output are all required. Levels of progesterone and oestrogens rise ... blood tests, and regular physical examinations. Complications of pregnancy may include disorders of high blood pressure, ... Blood and urine tests can detect pregnancy 12 days after implantation. Blood pregnancy tests are more sensitive than urine ... Miscarriage, high blood pressure of pregnancy, gestational diabetes, iron-deficiency anemia, severe nausea and vomiting. ...
Cardiac output and peripheral resistance are the two determinants of arterial pressure. Cardiac output is determined by stroke ... leading to raised blood volume and raised blood pressure. So elevated renin levels in the blood (normally 1.98-2.46 ng/ml in ... It does this by regulating the peripheral vasculature, and kidney function, which in turn affect cardiac output, vascular ... The endothelium of blood vessels produces an extensive range of substances that influence blood flow and, in turn, is affected ...
... blood loss and excessive loss of sodium and water. Blood pressure depends on total peripheral resistance and cardiac output. ... They observed that blood pressure rose in the rabbits when extracts of the kidneys were injected into their jugular veins. They ... Renin concentration in blood plasma tends to be higher in younger people with hypertension when vasoconstriction may be the ... The results showed it was safe and well-tolerated over a four-week period, and it reduced blood pressure by 9,8 to 17,9 mmHg. ...
Muscle dysfunction and weakness - This occurs in major muscles, but also may manifest as: diplopia, low cardiac output, ... This includes most common respiratory alkalemia (a higher than normal blood pH from low carbon dioxide levels in the blood), ... Hypophosphatemia is an electrolyte disorder in which there is a low level of phosphate in the blood. Symptoms may include ... White blood cell dysfunction, causing worsening of infections.. *Instability of cell membranes due to low adenosine ...
Increases in blood sugar, breathing, and cardiac output are all required. Levels of progesterone and oestrogens rise ... Blood and urine tests can detect pregnancy 12 days after implantation. Blood pregnancy tests are more sensitive than urine ... Pulmonary embolism, blood clots that form in the legs that can migrate to the lungs. There is also an increased susceptibility ... A quantitative blood test can determine approximately the date the embryo was conceived because HCG doubles every 36 to 48 ...
The attacks are caused by any temporary lack of cardiac output. This in turn could be due to any number of causes, including ... The resulting lack of blood flow to the brain is responsible for the faint. Initial treatment can be medical, involving the use ... It is characterised by decrease in cardiac output and loss of consciousness due to a transient arrhythmia. For example, ... As with any syncopal episode that results from a cardiac dysrhythmia, the fainting does not depend on the patient's position. ...
Diastole is the cardiac cycle phase during which the heart is relaxing and filling with incoming blood that is being returned ... As a consequence, cardiac output becomes diminished. When the left ventricular diastolic pressure is elevated, venous pressure ... Volumetric definition of the heart in systole was first described by Adolph Fick as cardiac output. Fick may be readily and ... High output cardiac failure). Although the term diastolic heart failure is often used when there are signs and symptoms of ...
Despite their relatively small size, the kidneys receive approximately 20% of the cardiac output. ... Kidney function is tested for using blood tests and urine tests. A usual blood test is for urea and electrolytes, known as a U ... They receive blood from the paired renal arteries; blood exits into the paired renal veins. Each kidney is attached to a ureter ... Blood pressure regulation. Main articles: Blood pressure regulation and Renin-angiotensin system ...
Anand, I. S.; Florea, V. G. (2001). "High Output Cardiac Failure". Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine. 3 (2 ... Lu J, Frank E (May 2008). "Rapid HPLC measurement of thiamine and its phosphate esters in whole blood". Clin. Chem. 54 (5): 901 ... In advanced cases, the disease may cause high-output cardiac failure and death. ... It may increase the amount of lactic acid and pyruvic acid within the blood. ...
... decrease cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke work, and volume; lower resistance in blood vessels in the kidneys; and lead to ... This group of drugs causes relaxation of blood vessels as well as a decrease in blood volume, which leads to lower blood ... Sodium is a "water-holding" ion, so water is also retained, which leads to increased blood volume, hence an increase in blood ... ACE is found in the pulmonary circulation and in the endothelium of many blood vessels. The system increases blood pressure by ...
Increased cardiac output and low systemic vascular resistance are characteristic of ALF. Pulmonary artery catheterization ... phosphate Glucose Amylase and lipase Arterial blood gas, lactate Blood type and screen Paracetamol (acetaminophen) level, ... There is a compensatory increase in cardiac output. Adrenal insufficiency has been documented in 60% of ALF cases, and is ... Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow is impaired, and is associated with anaerobic glycolysis and oxidative stress. Neuronal ...
Increasing cardiac output increases coronary blood flow and therefore myocardial oxygen delivery. It consists of a cylindrical ... is a mechanical device that increases myocardial oxygen perfusion while at the same time increasing cardiac output. ... Cardiac Surgery Department, Regional Cardiac Center, Morriston Hospital, Swansea, UK, Ital Heart J 2005; 6 (4): 361-362). ... That is, it actively deflates in systole, increasing forward blood flow by reducing afterload through a vacuum effect. It ...
Plasma expansion may be necessary if hypotension and low cardiac output develop. Hypertonic saline may be given intravenously, ... Blood pressure should be monitored via insertion of a central line and arterial line. Inotropes may be employed judiciously to ... Regular blood tests will be necessary to monitor improvement in clotting status. Rassweiler J, Teber D, Kuntz R, Hofmann R. ( ... The oncotic pressure of blood will decrease as a result of the dilution of serum proteins, and this coupled with hypertension ...
Cardiac output (CO), the volume of blood being pumped by the heart per time unit ...
The increased respiratory and cardiac workload causes increased blood flow to the cardiac and respiratory muscles. Stroke ... Plasma volume, stroke volume, and cardiac output remain higher than normal during immersion. ... but bradycardia reduces the overall cardiac output, particularly due to the diving reflex in breath-hold diving. In hydrated ... Blood flow to the extremities is reduced by vasoconstriction as the body attempts to reduce heat loss from the vital organs of ...
These activities increase cardiac output and increase blood flow to peripheral vascular beds. It is not an α-adrenergic agonist ... cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, cardiac enzyme changes, non-specific ECG changes, high blood pressure, hemorrhage, ... It also should not be used in people with severe low blood pressure or reduced systemic vascular resistance. It should be used ... It should not be used in people with reduced blood volume. Safety in pregnant women has not been established. Very common ( ...
That is on average one fourth of the average cardiac output at rest. Large veins that are considered part of the portal venous ... Blood passes from branches of the portal vein through cavities between "plates" of hepatocytes called sinusoids. Blood also ... Blood flow to the liver is unique in that it receives both oxygenated and (partially) deoxygenated blood. As a result, the ... That is why the total liver blood flow is quite high, at about 1 litre a minute and up to two litres a minute. ...
In advanced cases, the disease may cause high-output cardiac failure and death. Symptoms may occur concurrently with those of ... The normal thiamine concentration in EDTA-blood is about 20-100 µg/l. Many people with beriberi can be treated with thiamine ... Anand, I. S.; Florea, V. G. (2001). "High Output Cardiac Failure". Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine. 3 (2 ... and high output cardiac failure Elevated jugular venous pressure Dyspnea (shortness of breath) on exertion Paroxysmal nocturnal ...
It increases cardiac output and heart rate, lowers blood pressure and dries secretions. It may antagonize serotonin. At ...
... which causes a decreased cardiac output. The increase in pulmonary blood volume along with a decrease in cardiac output will ... in which the cardiac output is insufficient to sustain an adequate blood pressure. This can be treated with inotropic agents or ... Transfusion Associated Circulatory Overload (TACO) occurs when multiple blood transfusions or blood-products (plasma, platelets ... Blood tests are performed for electrolytes (sodium, potassium) and markers of renal function (creatinine, urea). Liver enzymes ...
The ability of the pulmonary artery catheter to sample mixed venous blood is of great utility to manage low cardiac output ... Fronek, A; Ganz, V (1960). "Measurement of flow in single blood vessels including cardiac output by local thermodilution" (PDF ... the mixed venous oxygen saturation is an accurate parameter of total body blood flow and therefore cardiac output. The ... The concept of using thermodilution to measure cardiac output was originally the idea of Arnost Fronek. As a former colleague ...
He conducted research in electromyography, cardiac output, cardiac pacing, ventricular defibrillation, and blood pressure. He ...
In situations where cardiac output is normal, the effect is to reduce blood pressure. It is sometimes also used to induce ... So, it can be used in severe congestive heart failure where this combination of effects can act to increase cardiac output. ... This may be done if the blood pressure is very high and resulting in symptoms, in certain types of heart failure, and during ... It works by causing the dilation of blood vessels. Sodium nitroprusside was discovered as early as 1850 and found to be useful ...
Cardiac monitoring can also involve cardiac output monitoring via an invasive Swan-Ganz catheter. Hemodynamic monitoring, which ... Continuous blood test based nutrition In the field of evidence-based nutrition, a lab-on-a-chip implant that can run 24/7 blood ... Blood glucose monitoring In vivo blood glucose monitoring devices can transmit data to a computer that can assist with daily ... Blood pressure can be measured either invasively through an inserted blood pressure transducer assembly, or noninvasively with ...
Basic blood tests can be used to check the concentration of hemoglobin, platelets, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, ... A 24-hour urine collection can be used to quantify daily protein loss (see proteinuria), urine output, creatinine clearance or ... Blood products including intravenous immunoglobulin and a process known as plasma exchange can also be employed. ... An erythropoetin stimulating agent may be required to ensure adequate production of red blood cells, activated vitamin D ...
Increased number of blood vessels requires increased cardiac output.. Related Information. *Heart Failure ... High-Output Heart Failure. Topic Overview. High-output heart failure happens when the bodys need for blood is unusually high, ... Blood contains too few oxygen-carrying red blood cells.. Requires the heart to pump more blood each minute to deliver enough ... High-output heart failure occurs when the normally functioning heart cannot keep up with an unusually high demand for blood to ...
P5 - end of diastole and end of cardiac cycle.. A pulse wave forms due to the blood output from the left ventricle during heart ... ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY: CLASSICS IN CARDIAC FUNCTION ASSESSMENT * PHOTOPLETHYSMOGRAPHY: THE BLOOD VESSEL STATE AS A BASIS FOR THE ... Therefore the tissue volume is constant and the blood volume varies according to the phase of cardiac cycle (heart contraction ... This is particularly important when there is an increased tendency for excessive blood clotting. Blood clots most frequently ...
... blood pressure measured by a blood pressure mon ... The ultrafiltration rate of a blood purification apparatus is ... Cardiac output monitor using fuzzy logic blood pressure analysis. 1999-12-28. Ling et al.. 600/481. ... blood pressure measured by a blood pressure monitor (. 24. ). For this purpose the blood pressure (P), a short-term blood ... for affecting patient blood pressure stabilization by controlling the blood flow rate through said first blood conducting means ...
Combined with diet, other natural ways to lower blood pressure naturally are stress reduction and weight loss. If high blood ... High blood pressure can be reduced and managed naturally with the DASH diet, and by quitting smoking, reducing alcohol intake, ... In obese people the heart has to pump more blood to supply the excess tissue. The increased cardiac output can then raise the ... home / high blood pressure health center / high blood pressure a-z list / high blood pressure treatment center / high blood ...
... the flow of blood in a blood vessel has an elongated hollow tubular body having a leading end sized for reception in the blood ... device for inserting the body through the wall of the blood vessel to extend the leading end into the interior of the blood ... to be released in an inflated state from the body into flexible occluding engagement with the interior wall of the blood vessel ... vessel and includes portion of the body fabricated from a material soluble in blood, and a piercing ...
Blood Pressure Woes What supports the diagnosis of chronic renal failure instead of acute renal failure? Give reasons from ... Introduction Mean arterial blood pressure is the average arterial pressure in a cardiac cycle. It is set by cardiac output and ... Blood Pressure, The Pressure Of Blood. 913 Words , 4 Pages Blood pressure, the pressure of blood in the circulatory system, is ... Understanding A Blood Pressure Reading. 1051 Words , 5 Pages Properly Take an Adults Blood Pressure Understanding a Blood ...
... examined the association of diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and pulse pressure (PP) among... ... To make up for the lack of cardiac output, the heart sends all of its output to the essential organs such as the brain and ... High blood pressure results when the heart pumps more blood through narrowing arteries. There are many physiological mechanisms ... Pathophysiology The amount of blood the heart pumps and the amount of resistance the arteries have to blood flow determines the ...
Combined with diet, other natural ways to lower blood pressure naturally are stress reduction and weight loss. If high blood ... High blood pressure can be reduced and managed naturally with the DASH diet, and by quitting smoking, reducing alcohol intake, ... In obese people the heart has to pump more blood to supply the excess tissue. The increased cardiac output can then raise the ... The strokes are usually due to a hemorrhage (leaking blood) or a blood clot (thrombosis) of the blood vessels that supply blood ...
Just a little factoid...the reason the pulse goes up is to increase your "cardiac output." Since youre volume-depleted when ... I have noticed since being diganosed with CD that I have very low blood pressure. For example 82/60. Does anyone else ... HealingWell.com Forum , Diseases & Conditions , Crohns Disease , Low Blood Pressure Select A Location. ****** Top of the Forum ... and this can lead to lower blood pressure, especially when you go from a seated to a standing position. That is called ...
The primary outcome measure for the study was a decrease in cardiac output at 3 months after the first injection, evaluated by ... Our results demonstrated improved cardiac output and reduced epistaxis. Toxicity was moderate. We do not know if this treatment ... patients who received the drug bevacizumab had improved cardiac output and a reduction in the duration and number of episodes ... and colleagues analyzed the efficacy of the drug bevacizumab in severe hepatic forms of HHT associated with high cardiac output ...
... as a result of excessive blood volume reduction during treatment of the blood. Using the osmotic pressure measurement as a ... The filter is permeable to water and electrolytes, but not to blood protein. The osmotic pressure indicates the protein ... concentration in the blood. Osmotic pressure is used to detect when hypotension is about to occur in a patient, ... the fluid overloaded patient is disclosed that non-invasively measures osmotic pressure across a filter membrane of a blood ...
... whenever the output of the pulsed Doppler is above a pre-set amplitude and frequency indicating blood flow within the blood ... The position and orientation of the transducer are combined with the distance of the blood vessel therefrom to locate the beam ... a transducer adapted to transmit a beam of ultrasound toward a blood vessel and detect ultrasound reflected from moving blood ... Apparatus for transcutaneously producing visual images of the internal dimensions of blood vessels in the human body is ...
View High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) clinical trial results here. ... placebo (p=0.017). This improvement relative to placebo represented an average relative increase in cardiac output of 22.6%. ... For diastolic blood pressure, the reductions with PS433540 were 7, 9, and 14 mm Hg respectively. All doses reduced blood ... Following initial blood pressure control, Cleviprex was infused continuously for a median of 21 hours to maintain blood ...
During week 2 we will learn about the anatomy of the blood vessels and how they function. You will have a better understanding ... and you have some idea about how we regulate cardiac output. And what we know is that if cardiac output goes up and nothing ... Is cardiac output one of the factors? ,, Absolutely. How might that be important? ,, Well, if you have more blood being pumped ... And the cardiovascular centers will cause vasodilation to occur, or theyll slow the cardiac output so that blood pressure can ...
... arteries and compared to cardiac output (CO, thermodilution technique) in 12 anesthetized dogs su ... Electromagnetic blood flow determinations were carried out on the superior pancreatic duodena (SPDA), the splenic (SA) and the ... Cardiac Output. Dogs. Electromagnetic Phenomena. Female. Pancreas / blood supply*. Pancreatitis / complications*. Regional ... arteries and compared to cardiac output (CO, thermodilution technique) in 12 anesthetized dogs submitted to hypovolemic shock ...
In hypertensive patients reduces cardiac output (CO) and increases heart rate. In patients with heart failure SNP increases ... the absolute level of blood pressure per se. Sometimes the absolute level of blood pressure (i.e., ,250/150 mm Hg), or the ... arterial blood pressure monitoring Onset of action within 30 seconds; maximal hypotensive effect within 2-3mn; the effect ... Arbitrarily defined as a severe elevation of blood pressure (i.e., DBP , 120 mmHg) which, if not treated promptly, will result ...
A method and device for cardiac output measurement, based on optical dilution technique, during dialysis, surgeries, intensive ... The effects of blood electrolyte composition change which result in a change of light beam geometry are eliminated by the ... non colinear configuration at a sufficient angle to substantially eliminate the scattering properties of the blood. A primary ... based on registration of blood hemoglobin concentration, during long periods of time, such as dialysis session. ...
Which of the following statements about cardiac output is true?. (A)parasympathetic increased heart rate. (B)increased preload ... A)Blood is twice as thick as water.. (B)60% of plasma proteins are globulins.. (C)Blood is about 5 times thicker than water.. ( ... A) mean blood pH is 7.0. (B) plasma is 89% water. (C)neutrophils cause inflammation. (D) mean blood temperature is 100.4 F. (E ... If the heart rate is 70 bpm and the stroke volume is 80 ml per beat, the cardiac output is _____________ .. ...
MAP is the average of blood pressure over a cardiac cycle and is determined by the cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular ... Disorders of blood pressure. Disorders of blood pressure control include high blood pressure, low blood pressure, and ... and stroke volume is influenced by blood volume. In the short-term, the greater the blood volume, the higher the cardiac output ... Most influences on blood pressure can be understood in terms of their effect on cardiac output and systemic vascular ...
How does the cardiovascular center integrate blood pressure control?. by altering cardiac output and blood vessel diameter. ... What varies directly with CO (cardiac output), peripheral resistance, and blood volume?. blood pressure. ... reflex vasoconstriction and increases cardiac output, causing blood pressure to rise.. What are regulated together so that ... changes in blood pressure are minimized?. peripheral resistance and cardiac output. What is the function of rapidly responding ...
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Blood Vessels Ch 18. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word ... Norepinephrine and Epinephrine increase blood pressure - cause vasoconstriction and increase cardiac output. ... Blood viscosity, and blood vessel length.. What is Blood Viscosity?. The stickiness of the blood due to formed elements and ... Blood reservoirs that contain 65% of the blood supply.. Do veins or arteries have lower blood pressure and thinner walls?. ...
Blood pressure refers to the force exerted on artery walls by the blood flowing through them. The narrower and stiffer your ... arteries become, the higher your blood pressure goes. Normal blood pressure is... ... In early disease, it is the result of increased cardiac output as your body has to work harder against increased weight. ... Know the stages of high blood pressure. If you have blood pressure above 120/80, you have high blood pressure. The stages of ...
High blood pressure has been related to salt intake for over two thousand years. Chinese physicians described ... So salt gets your blood pressure up both by increasing blood volume (and cardiac output) and increasing vascular resistance. ... The cardiac output is determined by the amount of blood in the heart at the beginning of a beat and so is dependent on the ... What is it about sodium and high blood pressure?. Blood pressure is defined by the relationship between the amount of blood ...
With approximately 5% of the cardiac output flowing through the spleen (3) and the total blood volume of the mouse circulating ... collected blood via cardiac puncture, and measured the fluorescent signal from the particles in the whole blood, which was ... Blood was harvested via cardiac puncture and pipetted in 100-μL aliquots to black 96-well plates for analysis on the imager. ... 2002) Chronic measurement of cardiac output in conscious mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 282:R928-935. ...
This allows the ultrasonic monitor to effectively measure both the blood flow rate and cardiac output accurately. ... The output signal provided by mixer 350 is then amplified at step 450 by an amplifier 360. As the output of the mixer will have ... When the blood vessel experiences movement, such as an expansion due to blood flow from a heart contraction, the reflected ... Thus, for heart rate monitor applications, the flow rate or flow velocity of blood through a blood vessel is related to the ...
VesselsOxygenHardening of the aVesselVenousVeinsVasoconstrictionMean Arterial Blood PrCardiovascularOxygenationPulseAmount of cardiac outputDecreases in blood pressureReduction in cardiac outputDecrease in cardiac outputAbnormalResistancePulmonaryStrokeCapillaries0.05ChronicHypotensionLitersContractionReplaced by non-invasiveConstriction of the arteriesMmHgMeasured blood pressureLower extremitiesPressure in the arteriesThoracicReadingsVolumeLungsFlashcardsConcentrationThermodilutionHigh blood prViscosityHemoglobinHypertensive patientsBrainPhysiologicalContinuousPatients
- Elongated openings in the body enable the diaphragm to be released in an inflated state from the body into flexible occluding engagement with the interior wall of the blood vessel about the full circumference of a transverse section thereof. (google.com.au)
- The position and orientation of the transducer are combined with the distance of the blood vessel therefrom to locate the beam of an oscillographic storage display unit. (google.co.uk)
- Nourish the external tissues of the blood vessel wall. (studystack.com)
- 9. A device according to claim 1, further comprising a channel having an internal circumference around which are arranged the source and the detector, the channel being dimensioned to receive a blood vessel therein and to locate the vessel in proximity to the source and detector. (google.com.au)
- Viscosity of blood Blood vessel length Blood vessel radius R = 1/r4 NOTE: Very small change in r big change in R! (scribd.com)
- Arterial blood pressure (ABP) reflects cardiac function, vessel compliance, and cardiorespiratory interaction and ABP analysis provides the estimators of this physiological information. (omicsonline.org)
- Vasculitis is a broad term for inflammation of the blood vessel wall. (healthhype.com)
- In infectious vasculitis, pathogenic microorganisms infiltrate the blood vessel wall, although certain systemic infections may trigger inflammation in the vessel wall without directly infiltrating the site. (healthhype.com)
- This is often a systemic condition and other effects of immune-mediated hypersensitivity may also be present apart from the inflammation of the blood vessel wall. (healthhype.com)
- This is a result of an infection of the blood vessel wall. (healthhype.com)
- By capturing periodic dilation of the blood vessel, the validity of the blood vessel can be confirmed. (omicsonline.org)
- If the signal is higher than the reference value, then the CMOS-based digital counter is used to determine whether the pulse is periodic enough to be signaled as a blood vessel. (omicsonline.org)
- Based on Ohm's law, Poiseuille's law, resistivity, and elasticity characteristics of blood vessel, minimal distention and changes in electrical resistance of the blood vessel based on pulse pressure can be analyzed. (omicsonline.org)
- What low-pressure adaptations ensure venous blood is returned to the heart at the same rate it is pumped into the circulation? (studystack.com)
- In addition to the nervous and chemical factors, the cardiac output, is affected by mechanical factors ensuring the adjustment of cardiac output to the venous return and afterload. (frontiersin.org)
- By slowly bringing your heart rate back down, you can avoid blood pooling in the lower extremities because the muscles of your legs are still contracting and contributing to venous return. (livestrong.com)
- blood that is composed of the venous blood from the heart and all systemic tissues in proportion to their venous returns. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In the absence of abnormalities, mixed venous blood is present in the main pulmonary artery. (thefreedictionary.com)
- the blood flowing into the right side of the heart and thence out to the lungs in the pulmonary artery, which is a mixture of venous blood from the whole of the systemic circulation (i.e. from all parts of the body except the lungs). (thefreedictionary.com)
- 40 similar to non-ischaemic priapism Source pH Normal mixed venous blood (room air)-- similar to normal flaccid penis 7. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The blood pressure in the veins is close to zero, which means that the return of mixed venous blood to the heart is not directly affected by the pumping function of the heart (4). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Mertzlufft FO, Brandt L, Stanton-Hicks M, Dick W Arterial and mixed venous blood gas status during apnoea of intubation--proof of the Christiansen-Douglas-Haldane effect in vivo. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Therefore, performing invasive measurements, including arterial and mixed venous blood gases and lactate, in more definitive future studies is important. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The amount of fluids given was guided mainly by a mixed venous blood (Sv[O. (thefreedictionary.com)
- of the mixed venous blood entering the pulmonary capillaries is approximately 40 torr. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Wasserman (medicine, University of California-Los Angeles) adds a new chapter on regulation of arterial and mixed venous blood gases to this fourth edition of a reference on disorders that can be diagnosed only through cardiopulmonary exercise testing. (thefreedictionary.com)
- RODA would display the general hemodynamic status of the patient, as well as beat-to-beat assessment of cardiac output and mixed venous blood oxygenation, which are currently acquired from more invasive pulmonary artery catheters. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Arterial blood and mixed venous blood samples were analysed by an automated blood gas analyser (ABL 625, Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark). (thefreedictionary.com)
- The right ventricle pumps mixed venous blood into the pulmonary artery for distribution throughout the pulmonary circulatory system for the purpose of oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide removal. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The data demonstrate enhanced thoracic hypovolemia during upright tilt and confirm that POTS is related to inadequate cardiac venous return during orthostasis. (physiology.org)
- When we stand up, the blood goes down from the chest to the distensible venous capacitance system below the diaphragm. (rutgers.edu)
- This fluid shift produces a decrease in venous return, ventricular filling, cardiac output, and blood pressure. (rutgers.edu)
- We studied the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and blood volume on venous return and MSFP in pigs. (physiology.org)
- Do veins or arteries have lower blood pressure and thinner walls? (studystack.com)
- What are the special adaptations veins have in returning blood to the heart? (studystack.com)
- It also ensures that this force is transmitted through to the veins so that the oxygen-deficient blood can return back to the heart for re-oxygenation at the lungs. (healthhype.com)
- The tunica adventitia of the arteries are much thicker than that of the veins so that the artery can withstand the high pressure blood. (healthhype.com)
- Veins carry deoxygenated blood and wastes from the tissues to the liver and heart. (healthhype.com)
- This gravity-induced drop in blood pressure, detected by arterial baroreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid sinus, triggers a compensatory reflex tachycardia and vasoconstriction that restores normotension in the upright position. (rutgers.edu)
- Hypothyroidism may lead to (1) altered blood lipids and accelerated atherosclerosis, (2) stimulation of myocardial fibrosis, (3) vasoconstriction, and (4) induction of a gene program resembling that of pathological hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
- So the whole point of regulating blood pressure is to keep our systemic blood pressure in a range that allows tissues to be perfused, but also in a range that ensures that the cardiovascular system can continue to work normally for a very long time. (coursera.org)
- When the heart is stimulated in a consistent way to reduce blood pressure, the cardiovascular. (google.es)
- When the heart is stimulated in a consistent way to reduce blood pressure, the cardiovascular system may over time adapt to the stimulation and revert back to the higher blood pressure. (google.es)
- The aim of the present review is to focus on the physiological role of the cardiovascular NOX-generating ROS in the molecular and cellular mechanisms affecting blood pressure. (frontiersin.org)
- Elevated blood pressure is the largest contributing risk factor to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. (bioportfolio.com)
- The relationship between high blood pressure (BP) and the risk of stroke and other cerebral and cardiovascular diseases has been well established. (ahajournals.org)
- Subsequently, studies proved that healthy, elderly, and stable cardiac patients can tolerate acute anemia with normal cardiovascular response. (ccjm.org)
- However, prolonged elevation of the blood pressure can lead to a host of diseases affecting primarily the cardiovascular system and having secondary effects on almost every organ and system in the body. (healthhype.com)
- Just a single dose of cannabidiol (CBD) reduces blood pressure, indicating it may play a role in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders, according to a new study published by the journal JCI Insight . (thejointblog.com)
- Cardiovascular pressures, left ventricular (LV) performance and regional blood flows were measured using cine left ventriculography and radionuclide-labeled microspheres before and after occlusion of the PDA with a catheter balloon. (ahajournals.org)
- This is not an easy question to answer, because hypothyroidism leads to cardiovascular changes that clearly overlap with HF (eg, reduced cardiac output and contractility and increased chamber diameter/wall thickness). (ahajournals.org)
- A Review on Noninvasive Beat-to-Beat Systemic and Pulmonary Blood Pressure Estimation through Surrogate Cardiovascular Signals. (igi-global.com)
- The status of evidence in the literature demonstrates that cardiovascular signals such as the electrocardiogram, photoplethysmogram, and phonocardiogram contain important information for the estimation of blood pressure. (igi-global.com)
- The cardiovascular system is a complex network centered on the heart, a self-paced organ that pumps blood through the pulmonary and systemic circulations. (igi-global.com)
- 19 One study showed increased blood pressure and improved oxygenation 12 hours after RBC transfusion in mechanically ventilated preterm infants. (aappublications.org)
- This causes the blood to easily resist the forces of gravity and return quickly to the heart for re-oxygenation and re-circulation. (livestrong.com)
- Head-up tilt and hyperventilation produce similar changes in cerebral oxygenation and blood volume: an observational comparison study using frequen. (nih.gov)
- Head-up tilt and hyperventilation produce similar changes in cerebral oxygenation and blood volume: an observational comparison study using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy. (nih.gov)
- the reason the pulse goes up is to increase your "cardiac output. (healingwell.com)
- I have EXTREMELY low blood pressure and pulse. (rutgers.edu)
- 1. The aims of this study were to determine the clinical feasibility of continuous, non-invasive Finapres recordings as a replacement for intrabrachial pressure during a 30 min head-up tilt, and the reliability of continuous cardiac output computation by pulse contour analysis from the finger arterial versus the brachial waveform. (tudelft.nl)
- Clinical trial objectives Investigate a link between PuTT (Pulse transit time) and changes in blood pressure and cardiac output measured by non-invasive cardiac output monitoring device (NICOM). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- NICOM device allows accurate non-invasive monitoring of cardiac output During anesthesia patient care changes are made according to changes in vital indicators such as blood pressure, pulse, cardiac output. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- What could raise my pulse and blood pressure? (rutgers.edu)
- The primary outcome measure for the study was a decrease in cardiac output at 3 months after the first injection, evaluated by echocardiography. (redorbit.com)
- During diving, rCBF increased by an average of 1.7-fold in 29 of the 33 brain regions examined, despite a 69.2 % decrease in cardiac output. (biologists.org)
- For this reason, diagnosis of abnormal blood pressure is made only when elevated blood pressure is seen during at least three doctor's visits, spaced over a period of weeks to months. (wikihow.com)
- Other factors include thyroid problems, which cause abnormal levels of thyroid hormones and can affect heart rate and increase blood pressure. (wikihow.com)
- The data suggest a long-term effect of premature delivery on resting cardiac output and gas transfer, not due to abnormal cardiac or pulmonary function and with no evidence of exercise limitation. (nih.gov)
- What are low-resistance pathways that conduct blood from the heart to medium sized arteries referred to as? (studystack.com)
- Large lumen allow low-resistance conduction of blood. (studystack.com)
- Blood pressure is defined by the relationship between the amount of blood ejected from the heart with each heartbeat and the resistance against which it ejects. (healthcentral.com)
- Smooth muscle cell layer of the resistance arteries may contract or relax resulting in a parallel increase or decrease of blood pressure, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
- High blood pressure usually has no warning signs, yet it can lead to life-threatening conditions like heart attack or stroke. (patientsville.com)
- When your blood pressure stays high over time, it causes the heart to pump harder and work overtime, possibly leading to serious health problems such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and kidney failure. (patientsville.com)
- Cardiac output is the product of stroke volume and heart rate. (medhelp.org)
- Cardiac output is the volume of blood being pumped through the system and is measured by multiplying the heart rate by the stroke volume. (enotes.com)
- Cardiac output is actually a mathematical entity, calculated from stroke volume multiplied by heart rate, a normal value is actually 4.9 ml/min. (jiskha.com)
- A heart attack would render the heart muscle ischemic and nonfunctional, thus the heart would lose both stroke volume, which is the volume of blood ejected at the end of every systole or contraction. (jiskha.com)
- Abundent capillaries in the skin and muscles, continuous capillaries of the brain - forms the blood brain barrier. (studystack.com)
- By the time the blood has reached the capillaries, it has slowed to a speed about one-eightieth of that in the arteries. (thefreedictionary.com)
- This behaviour can be exploited to collect accurate volumes of liquids such as blood in narrow columns known as capillaries and help the development of inexpensive, user-friendly personalised biomedical tools. (bioportfolio.com)
- The capillaries are the smallest segments of the circulatory system and are about as wide as the diameter of a red blood cell. (healthhype.com)
- Capillaries allow for gas, nutrient and waste exchange between the blood and tissue spaces. (healthhype.com)
- Distribution of extracellular fluid loss from hemodialysis differed widely among patients, so that weight change correlated weakly with contraction of total blood volume (index of determination 29%, p less than 0.05). (ahajournals.org)
- Concentrations below 1 ml D20/1000 ml blood can be determined accurately and indicator kinetics can be recorded with time constants of the entire system below 0.05 s. (spie.org)
- 0.05), with increased heart rate (HR) and maintained cardiac output. (thejointblog.com)
- People with diabetes or chronic kidney disease should keep their blood pressure below 130/80. (patientsville.com)
- In extended studies with animals, repeated and unpredictable loss of catheter patency resulting from blood clotting at the tip of the catheter or from infections at surgical exit sites have led to interruptions of chronic experiments in our own laboratories. (awionline.org)
- The use of this method has eliminated some of the disadvantages of using arterial catheterization to obtain blood pressure measurements in chronic studies of antihypertensive medications. (awionline.org)
- 18 In older studies, however, symptoms of HF, including cardiac dilatation, were reported in patients with chronic hypothyroidism. (ahajournals.org)
- Mr. Smith's BP is likely normal for him, reflecting his chronic cardiac dysfunction and the effects of his heart failure medications. (lww.com)
- Osmotic pressure is used to detect when hypotension is about to occur in a patient, as a result of excessive blood volume reduction during treatment of the blood. (google.com)
- 3. A method for preventing hypotension as in claim 2 wherein the maximum osmotic pressure setting is a sum of a osmotic pressure level determined during an initial phase of treating the blood in the circuit and a predetermined delta osmotic pressure level. (google.com)
- 7. A method for preventing hypotension as in claim 1 wherein the osmotic pressure is determined across the permeable membrane of a filter used for fluid removal in the extracorporeal blood circuit. (google.com)
- 11. A method for preventing hypotension as in claim 10 wherein the osmotic pressure is monitored during a temporary cessation of the removal of fluids from blood flowing through the blood circuit. (google.com)
- Low blood pressure, also called hypotension, is usually defined as having a blood pressure low enough to cause dizziness, blurry vision or fainting. (theledger.com)
- This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of the ClearSight™ system (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA) for reducing the incidence of hypotension compared with the traditional oscillometric blood pressure monitoring in cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. (springer.com)
- Hypotension is low blood pressure. (hearinghealthmatters.org)
- Orthostatic Hypotension is low blood pressure as a result of position change, typically rising from the sitting or lying position. (hearinghealthmatters.org)
- If the blood pressure is significantly lower than the normal value then it is defined as hypotension (low blood pressure). (healthhype.com)
- Adapted and updated from Tuggle D. Hypotension and shock: the truth about blood pressure. (lww.com)
- In the course of 24 hours, over 6500 liters of blood pass through the heart. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Cardiac output (CO), defined as the volume of blood pumped by the heart per unit time (often expressed in liters per minute), is the critical variable characterizing circulatory function, but it is also one of the most difficult to measure. (physionet.org)
- Cardiac index (liters per minute per meter squared) was quantified from echocardiography. (nih.gov)
- The average human body holds about 5.5 liters of blood. (hearinghealthmatters.org)
- 6. The system of claim 1 , wherein the predetermined amount of blood pressure reduction is 8 mmHg or more. (google.es)
- 7. The system of claim 1 , wherein the predetermined amount of blood pressure reduction is within a range of about 8 mmHg to about 30 mmHg. (google.es)
- While the first might have a blood pressure of 140/90 and a MAP of 105 mmHg, the latter may have a blood pressure of 180/70 and the same MAP. (medhelp.org)
- and said controlling means ( 23 ) includes analyzing means ( 30 ) responsive to said measured blood pressure (P), said at least one blood pressure trend value (TRK or TRL), and the generated ultrafiltration volume (UFV) for generating an ultrafiltration profile dependent upon variable ultrafiltration volume (UFV). (freepatentsonline.com)
- 5. The blood purification apparatus as defined in claim 2 wherein said controlling means ( 23 ) includes analyzing means ( 30 ) responsive to said measured blood pressure (P) and said at least one blood pressure trend value (TRK or TRL) for generating an ultrafiltration profile dependent upon a physiological input variable. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Thoracic blood volume decreased, whereas splanchnic, pelvic, and leg blood volumes increased, for all subjects during orthostasis but were markedly lower than control for all POTS groups. (physiology.org)
- Danger in compressing lower thoracic area to raise blood pressure when standing up? (rutgers.edu)
- One of the function of the kidneys is to regulate blood volume and pressure. (bartleby.com)
- This leads to a condition known as 'hypovolemia' (when your body doesn't contain enough fluid to keep the circulation at a steady volume) and this can lead to lower blood pressure, especially when you go from a seated to a standing position. (healingwell.com)
- A method and device for the continuous real-time monitoring of relative blood volume change, based on registration of blood hemoglobin concentration, during long periods of time, such as dialysis session. (google.co.uk)
- The cardiac output is determined by the amount of blood in the heart at the beginning of a beat and so is dependent on the total blood volume. (healthcentral.com)
- The subsequent reduction in blood volume would lead to reduced blood pressure. (healthcentral.com)
- Sodium is the primary determinant of blood volume. (healthcentral.com)
- Salt restriction (or diuretic treatment) reduces blood volume-this is one way to lower pressure. (healthcentral.com)
- The level of angiotensin and its metabolic partners is inversely related to blood volume and to salt excretion. (healthcentral.com)
- Effect of hemodialysis on blood volume distribution and cardiac output. (ahajournals.org)
- A significant correlation was found between total blood volume (TBV) and EDV before (r = 0.66, p less than 0.005) and after dialysis (r = 0.61, p less than 0.001). (ahajournals.org)
- Principles around accurate blood volume collection using capillary action. (bioportfolio.com)
- It provides also the tools to correctly define the optimum capillary dimensions to collect an accurate volume of blood in a glass capillary. (bioportfolio.com)
- Novel method for estimating the total blood volume: the importance of adjustment using the ideal body weight and age for the accurate prediction of haemodilution during cardiopulmonary bypass. (bioportfolio.com)
- Although total blood volume (TBV) is central to the estimation of the haemodilution rate during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), conventional formulas lack sufficient accuracy. (bioportfolio.com)
- STRATUS will evaluate the use of small-volume ("soft-draw") blood collection tubes for laboratory testing in reducing anemia and transfusion in intensive care unit patients without signifi. (bioportfolio.com)
- The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. (bioportfolio.com)
- In some embodiments, an electrical stimulator may be used to stimulate a patient's heart to reduce ventricle filling volume or even blood pressure. (google.es)
- The cardiac output is the volume of blood pumped by the heart per unit time. (enotes.com)
- Blood volume tended to be decreased in LFP compared with control subjects. (physiology.org)
- We used impedance plethysmography to assess regional blood volume redistribution during upright tilt. (physiology.org)
- Pelvic blood volume was increased in HFP only. (physiology.org)
- In other words, hemoglobin concentration and blood volume contribute to hemoglobin mass. (wikipedia.org)
- Hb, hematocrit (Hct) and basic vital signs were measured preoperatively and blood loss rate was estimated by using of blood volume in suction, bloody gases and blood loss in operation field and recorded. (scirp.org)
- Blood volume is the total amount of blood present in the circulatory system. (enotes.com)
- It varies with the strength of the heartbeat, the elasticity of the arterial walls, the volume and viscosity of the blood, and a person's health, age, and physical condition. (thefreedictionary.com)
- High blood pressure does not mean excessive emotional tension, although emotional tension and stress can temporarily increase blood pressure . (medicinenet.com)
- For that reason, the diagnosis of high blood pressure is important so efforts can be made to normalize blood pressure and prevent complications. (medicinenet.com)
- The American Heart Association estimates high blood pressure affects approximately one in three adults in the U.S. High blood pressure also is estimated to affect about two million U.S. teens and children, and the Journal of the American Medical Association reports that many are under-diagnosed. (medicinenet.com)
- Picture of high blood pressure. (medicinenet.com)
- How can high blood pressure be lowered naturally? (medicinenet.com)
- The association between alcohol and high blood pressure is particularly noticeable when alcohol intake exceeds five drinks per day. (medicinenet.com)
- Many Americans are not aware of the seriousness of having high blood pressure. (bartleby.com)
- million adults with high blood pressure who do not take preventative measures to control it. (bartleby.com)
- High blood pressure results when the heart pumps more blood through narrowing arteries. (bartleby.com)
- The combination of smoking and drinking coffee in persons with high blood pressure may increase the blood pressure more than coffee alone. (rxlist.com)
- Limiting caffeine intake and cigarette smoking in hypertensive individuals may be of some benefit in controlling high blood pressure. (rxlist.com)
- Similar thresholds had been adopted by the American Heart Association for adults who are 18 years and older, but in November 2017 the American Heart Association announced revised definitions for blood pressure categories that increased the number of people considered to have high blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
- Once you learn the basics about high blood pressure, you can follow some simple steps to change your lifestyle and lower your blood pressure. (wikihow.com)
- Know the stages of high blood pressure. (wikihow.com)
- If you have blood pressure above 120/80, you have high blood pressure. (wikihow.com)
- The stages of high blood pressure change depending on the level of pressure in your heart. (wikihow.com)
- Additionally, you may have isolated high blood pressure that only affects one of the two pressures measured. (wikihow.com)
- Understand essential high blood pressure. (wikihow.com)
- If you are obese, have diabetes, or have dyslipidemia, you are more prone to high blood pressure. (wikihow.com)
- This type of high blood pressure occurs in response to an underlying condition. (wikihow.com)
- High blood pressure has been related to salt intake for over two thousand years. (healthcentral.com)
- What is it about sodium and high blood pressure? (healthcentral.com)
- It basically states that every patient with high blood pressure has a disorder of salt handling by the kidney. (healthcentral.com)
- Early diagnosis and simple, healthy changes can keep high blood pressure from seriously damaging your health. (patientsville.com)
- High blood pressure usually has no symptoms. (patientsville.com)
- So the only way to find out if you have high blood pressure is to get regular blood pressure checks from your health care provider. (patientsville.com)
- Prehypertension means you're likely to end up with high blood pressure , unless you take steps to prevent it. (patientsville.com)
- Secondary high blood pressure is caused by another medical condition or use of certain medicines. (patientsville.com)
- Lifestyle - Certain lifestyle habits can raise your risk for high blood pressure , such as eating too much sodium or not enough potassium, lack of exercise, drinking too much alcohol, and smoking. (patientsville.com)
- You can help prevent high blood pressure by having a healthy lifestyle. (patientsville.com)
- Performance of simplified tables for high blood pressure screening in a European pediatric population. (bioportfolio.com)
- In 2017, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) updated its clinical practice guideline for screening and management of high blood pressure (BP) in children. (bioportfolio.com)
- Methodological and reporting quality of systematic reviews referenced in the clinical practice guideline for pediatric high-blood pressure. (bioportfolio.com)
- To examine the quality of evidence supporting the Clinical Practice Guideline for Screening and Management of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. (bioportfolio.com)
- Black men in the United States have a greater risk of developing high blood pressure than men of any other ethnic or racial group. (bioportfolio.com)
- High blood pressure in the short term does not cause any significant damage in the body and may even go unnoticed. (healthhype.com)
- High blood pressure is a serious concern in relation to heart health. (optimal-heart-health.com)
- So What Causes High Blood Pressure? (optimal-heart-health.com)
- There are a number of medications that are prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure each serving a different purpose. (optimal-heart-health.com)
- Here are definitions of medical terms related to high blood pressure. (yourmedicalsource.com)
- See more at high blood pressure . (thefreedictionary.com)
- As a result, research efforts have focused on an array of approaches aimed at preventing and treating high blood pressure. (medicalxpress.com)
- Instead, nitric oxide is released due to excessive shear stress on the arteriole, which is usually an indication of high blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
- Blood viscosity and hemodynamics during exercise" by Philippe Connes, Aurélien Pichon et al. (edu.au)
- We tested the effects of submaximal exercise on blood viscosity (ηb), nitric oxide production (NO) and hemodynamics. (edu.au)
- Whole blood viscosity, plasma free hemoglobin, TR jet, and FMD were measured in chronically transfused SCD pre- and posttransfusion (N = 25), in nontransfused SCD (N = 26), and in ethnicity-matched control subjects (N = 10). (bloodjournal.org)
- If we, for example, could not get blood adequately to the brain, that would be a bad thing. (coursera.org)
- In the short term, blood pressure is regulated by baroreceptors which act via the brain to influence nervous and endocrine systems. (wikipedia.org)
- Effectively lowering my brain so as to get more blood there. (rutgers.edu)
- Old age does not mean that a person loses brain function, but the low blood pressure that some elders experience may lead to such loss of function. (theledger.com)
- Clonidine, a first-generation central sympathoinhibitory drug, targets brain receptors that reduce cardiac output and lower blood pressure . (medicalxpress.com)
- We synthesized hydrogel microparticles with tunable elasticity in the physiological range, which resemble red blood cells in size and shape, and tested their behavior in vivo. (pnas.org)
- D20 has been used to determine physiological parameters such as extravascular lung water, cardiac output and total body water. (spie.org)
- Heart activity may be analyzed via various physiological signals that are related such as the electrocardiogram (ECG), impedance cardiogram (ICG), the phonocardiogram (PCG), or blood pressure (BP). (igi-global.com)
- The single-center, phase 2 trial included 25 patients who had confirmed HHT, severe liver involvement, and a high cardiac index related to HHT. (redorbit.com)
- Of the 24 patients who had echocardiograms available for reread, there was a response in 20 of 24 patients with normalization of cardiac index (complete response) in 3 of 24, partial response in 17 of 24, and no response in 4 cases. (redorbit.com)
- Blood loss due to phlebotomy leads to hospital-acquired anemia and more frequent blood transfusions that may be associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. (bioportfolio.com)
- Metaraminol (Aramine): used to raise the blood pressure and stimulate the heart in treating patients with shock. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- Direct blood pressure monitoring can be performed in patients under anesthesia and patients on long-term ventilation. (vcahospitals.com)
- CTSO ), a critical care immunotherapy leader commercializing its CytoSorb® blood purification technology to treat deadly inflammation in critically-ill and cardiac surgery patients around the world, highlights the recent publication entitled, ' Impact of intraoperative cytokine adsorption on outcome of patients undergoing orthotopic heart transplantation - an observational study ' in the medical journal Clinical Transplantation . (prnewswire.com)
- To stabilize the blood pressure, patients often need high doses of vasopressors, inotropes, and mechanical support. (prnewswire.com)
- In a population of over 15,000 patients, the distribution of systolic blood pressure follows the normal curve. (jiskha.com)