The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Measurement of blood flow based on induction at one point of the circulation of a known change in the intravascular heat content of flowing blood and detection of the resultant change in temperature at a point downstream.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A state of elevated cardiac output due to conditions of either increased hemodynamic demand or reduced cardiac oxygen output. These conditions may include ANEMIA; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; THYROTOXICOSIS; PREGNANCY; EXERCISE; FEVER; and ANOXIA. In time, compensatory changes of the heart can lead to pathological form of high cardiac output and eventual HEART FAILURE.
Surgery performed on the heart.
A type of impedance plethysmography in which bioelectrical impedance is measured between electrodes positioned around the neck and around the lower thorax. It is used principally to calculate stroke volume and cardiac volume, but it is also related to myocardial contractility, thoracic fluid content, and circulation to the extremities.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Placement of a balloon-tipped catheter into the pulmonary artery through the antecubital, subclavian, and sometimes the femoral vein. It is used to measure pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure which reflects left atrial pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. The catheter is threaded into the right atrium, the balloon is inflated and the catheter follows the blood flow through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and out into the pulmonary artery.
Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.
Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.
Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).
Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.
The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.
Visualization of the heart structure and cardiac blood flow for diagnostic evaluation or to guide cardiac procedures via techniques including ENDOSCOPY (cardiac endoscopy, sometimes refered to as cardioscopy), RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; TOMOGRAPHY; or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
Freedom from activity.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.
Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
The restoration of the sequential order of contraction and relaxation of the HEART ATRIA and HEART VENTRICLES by atrio-biventricular pacing.
The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.
The posture of an individual lying face up.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.
The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.
The position or attitude of the body.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).
The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.
Occurrence of heart arrest in an individual when there is no immediate access to medical personnel or equipment.
Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A pathological condition manifested by failure to perfuse or oxygenate vital organs.
The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the RIGHT ATRIUM.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The measure of a BLOOD VESSEL's ability to increase the volume of BLOOD it holds without a large increase in BLOOD PRESSURE. The vascular capacitance is equal to the change in volume divided by the change in pressure.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.
The period following a surgical operation.
The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous with the bodily circulation.
Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.
Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.
Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.
Institutions specializing in the care of patients with heart disorders.
Characteristics of ELECTRICITY and magnetism such as charged particles and the properties and behavior of charged particles, and other phenomena related to or associated with electromagnetism.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
A standard and widely accepted diagnostic test used to identify patients who have a vasodepressive and/or cardioinhibitory response as a cause of syncope. (From Braunwald, Heart Disease, 7th ed)
The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.
Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.
A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)
The study of the electrical activity and characteristics of the HEART; MYOCARDIUM; and CARDIOMYOCYTES.

Phasic right coronary artery blood flow in conscious dogs with normal and elevated right ventricular pressures. (1/3428)

We studied phasic right coronary blood flow in well trained normal dogs and dogs with pulmonic stenosis. We installed electromagnetic flow transducers and pressure tubes under anesthesia to monitor right coronary blood flow, cardiac output, central aortic blood pressure, and right ventribular pressure. In normotensive dogs, systolic flow amplitude equaled early diastolic flow levels. The ratio of systolic to diastolic flow at rest was substantially greater in the right coronary bed (36+/-1.3%) than in the left circumflex bed (13+/-3.6%). Right diastolid flow runoff, including the cove late in diastole, resembled left circumflex runoff. Blood flow to the normotensive right (37+/-1.1 ml/min 100(-1) g) and the left (35+/-1.0 ml/min(-1) g) ventricular myocardium indicated equal perfusion of both cardiac walls. Throttling of systolic flow was related directly to the right ventricular systolic pressure level in the dogs with pulmonic stenosis. Retrograde systolic flow occurred in severe right ventricular hypertension. The late diastolic runoff pattern in dogs with pulmonic stenosis appeared the same as for the normotensive dogs. We obtained systolic to diastolic flow ratios of 1/3 the value of normotensive hearts in high and severe pulmonic hypertension. Electrocardiograms and studies of pathology suggested restricted blood flow to the inner layers of the right myocardium in the dogs with severe and high right ventricular hypertension. Normotensive and hypertensive peak hyperemic flow responses were similar, except for an increased magnitude of diastolic flow, with proportionately less systolic flow in hypertensive states.  (+info)

Quantification of baroreceptor influence on arterial pressure changes seen in primary angiotension-induced hypertension in dogs. (2/3428)

We studied the role of the sino-aortic baroreceptors in the gradual development of hypertension induced by prolonged administration of small amounts of angiotensin II (A II) in intact dogs and dogs with denervated sino-aortic baroreceptors. Short-term 1-hour infusions of A II(1.0-100 ng/kg per min) showed that conscious denervated dogs had twice the pressor sensitivity of intact dogs. Long-term infusions of A II at 5.0 ng/kg per min (2-3 weeks) with continuous 24-hour recordings of arterial pressure showed that intact dogs required 28 hours to reach the same level of pressure attained by denervated dogs during the 1st hour of infusion. At the 28th hour the pressure in both groups was 70% of the maximum value attained by the 7th day of infusion. Both intact and denervated dogs reached nearly the same plateau level of pressure, the magnitude being directly related both the the A II infusion rate and the daily sodium intake. Cardiac output in intact dogs initially decreased after the onset of A II infusion, but by the 5th day of infusion it was 38% above control, whereas blood volume was unchanged. Heart rate returned to normal after a reduction during the 1st day of infusion in intact dogs. Plasma renin activity could not be detected after 24 hours of A II infusion in either intact or denervated dogs. The data indicate that about 35% of the hypertensive effect of A II results from its acute pressor action, and an additional 35% of the gradual increase in arterial pressure is in large measure a result of baroreceptor resetting. We conclude that the final 30% increase in pressure seems to result from increased cardiac output, the cause of which may be decreased vascular compliance. since the blood volume remains unaltered.  (+info)

Site of myocardial infarction. A determinant of the cardiovascular changes induced in the cat by coronary occlusion. (3/3428)

The influence of site of acute myocardial infarction on heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance (TPR), cardiac rhythm, and mortality was determined in 58 anesthetized cats by occlusion of either the left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex or right coronary artery. LAD occlusion resulted in immediate decrease in cardiac output, heart rate, and blood pressure, an increase in TPR, and cardiac rhythm changes including premature ventricular beats, ventricular tachycardia, and occasionally ventricular fibrillation. The decrease in cardiac output and increase in TPR persisted in the cats surviving a ventricular arrhythmia. In contrast, right coronary occlusion resulted in a considerably smaller decrease in cardiac output. TPR did not increase, atrioventricular condition disturbances were common, and sinus bradycardia and hypotension persisted in the cats recovering from an arrhythmia. Left circumflex ligation resulted in cardiovascular changes intermediate between those produced by occlusion of the LAD or the right coronary artery. Mortality was similar in each of the three groups. We studied the coronary artery anatomy in 12 cats. In 10, the blood supply to the sinus node was from the right coronary artery and in 2, from the left circumflex coronary artery. The atrioventricular node artery arose from the right in 9 cats, and from the left circumflex in 3. The right coronary artery was dominant in 9 cats and the left in 3. In conclusion, the site of experimental coronary occlusion in cats is a major determinant of the hemodynamic and cardiac rhythm changes occurring after acute myocardial infarction. The cardiovascular responses evoked by ligation are related in part to the anatomical distribution of the occluded artery.  (+info)

Effect of portal-systemic anastomosis on renal haemodynamics in cirrhosis. (4/3428)

In 12 patients with portal hypertension and repeated bleedings from oesophageal varices the central haemodynamics, portal pressure, and mean renal blood flow (RBF) were investigated immediately before and two to seven months after portal-systemic shunt. Cardiac output increased significantly, whereas arterial pressure was unchanged after operation. RBF, which was initially less than in controls, did not change. As portal pressure decreased significantly, a direct portal-renal, neural, or humoral reflex mechanism does not explain the subnormal RBF in cirrhosis. As plasma volume was large and unchanged after operation a "diminished circulating plasma volume" is an unlikely explanation. Therefore, on the basis of the present observations, previously postulated causes of renal hypoperfusion in cirrhosis need revision.  (+info)

The respiratory responses of Carcinus maenas to declining oxygen tension. (5/3428)

The degree of respiratory independence shown by Carcinus under conditions of declining oxygen tension is dependent on the animal's level of activity. Inactive Carcinus are capable of maintaining respiratory independence down to a Po2 of 60-80 mmHg. This is achieved primarily by an increase in ventilation volume such that the amount of oxygen made available at the respiratory surfaces remains constant over a wide range of oxygen tension. The Po2 at which this can no longer be maintained corresponds closely to the Po2 at which respiratory independence is lost. Under normoxic conditions the Po2 of the post- and prebranchial blood was 97 and 18 mmHg respectively. At the high oxygen tensions prevailing in the postbranchial blood the respiratory pigment is fully saturated. Under conditions of declining oxygen tension the heart rate remains more or less constant until the Po2 reaches 60-80 mmHg, the onset of bradycardia coinciding with the loss of saturation of the haemocyanin. Although cardiac output falls during hypoxia, the capacity rate ratio remains approximately constant, which enables the effectiveness of oxygen uptake by the blood to remain at a high level.  (+info)

Reversal of severe pulmonary hypertension with beta blockade in a patient with end stage left ventricular failure. (6/3428)

A 52 year old man with severe chronic left ventricular failure (New York Heart Association class IV) was considered unsuitable for cardiac transplantation because of high and irreversible pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). In an attempt to produce symptomatic improvement, metoprolol was cautiously introduced, initially at 6.25 mg twice daily. This was slowly increased to 50 mg twice daily over a two month period and continued thereafter. After four months of treatment the patient's symptoms had improved dramatically. His exercise tolerance had increased and diuretic requirements reduced to frusemide 160 mg/day only. Assessment of right heart pressures was repeated and, other than a drop in resting heart rate, there was little change in his pulmonary artery pressure or PVR. His right heart pressures were reassessed showing a pronounced reduction in pulmonary artery pressure and a significant reduction in PVR, which fell further with inhaled oxygen and sublingual nitrates. He was then accepted onto the active waiting list for cardiac transplantation. A possible mechanism of action was investigated by assessing responses to beta agonists during treatment. Not only was there pronounced improvement in PVR but it was also demonstrated that beta receptor subtype cross-regulation may have contributed to the mechanism of benefit.  (+info)

Validation of haemodialysis recirculation and access blood flow measured by thermodilution. (7/3428)

BACKGROUND: Recirculation (R) and access blood flow (Qac) measurements are considered useful indicators of adequate delivery of haemodialysis. It was the purpose of this study to compare measurements of R and Qac obtained by two different techniques which are based on the same principle of indicator dilution, but which differ because of the characteristics of the injection and detection of the different indicators used. METHODS: Recirculation measured by a thermal dilution technique using temperature sensors (BTM, Fresenius Medical Care) was compared with recirculation measured by a validated saline dilution technique using ultrasonic transducers placed on arterial and venous segments of the extracorporeal circulation (HDM, Transonic Systems, Inc.). Calculated access flows were compared by Bland Altman analysis. Data are given as mean +/- SD. RESULTS: A total of 104 measurements obtained in 52 treatments (17 patients, 18 accesses) were compared. Recirculation measured with correct placement of blood lines and corrected for the effect of cardiopulmonary recirculation using the 'double recirculation technique' was -0.02 +/- 0.14% by the BTM technique and not different from the 0% measured by the HDM technique. Recirculation measured with reversed placement of blood lines and corrected for the effect of cardiopulmonary recirculation was 19.66 +/- 10.77% measured by the BTM technique compared with 20.87 +/- 11.64% measured by the HDM technique. The difference between techniques was small (-1.21 +/- 2.44%) albeit significant. Access flow calculated from BTM recirculation was 1328 +/- 627 ml/min compared with 1390 +/- 657 ml/min calculated by the HDM technique. There was no bias between techniques. CONCLUSION: BTM thermodilution yields results which are consistent with the HDM ultrasound dilution technique with regard to both recirculation and access flow measurement.  (+info)

Factors mediating the hemodynamic effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in portal hypertensive rats. (8/3428)

Nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and glucagon have been implicated in promoting the hyperdynamic circulatory state of portal hypertension. Recent evidence also indicates that increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production is involved in the pathogenesis of this hemodynamic abnormality. This study was aimed at investigating in rats with portal vein stenosis (PVS) the effects on splanchnic hemodynamics of blocking circulating TNF-alpha and the factors mediating the vascular action of this cytokine in this setting. Anti-TNF-alpha polyclonal antibodies or placebo was injected into rats (n = 96) before and 4 days after PVS (short-term inhibition) and at 24 h and 4, 7, 10 days after PVS (long-term inhibition). Short-term TNF-alpha inhibition reduced portal venous inflow and cardiac index and increased splanchnic and systemic resistance. Portal pressure was unchanged, but portal-systemic shunting was decreased. After long-term TNF-alpha inhibition, portal venous inflow and portal pressure were unchanged, but arterial pressure and systemic resistance rose significantly. Anti-TNF-alpha PVS rats exhibited lower increments of systemic resistance after Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and indomethacin administration and lower serum levels of TNF-alpha, nitrates-nitrites, and 6-keto-PGF1alpha, both over the short and the long term. Serum glucagon levels rose after long-term inhibition. In conclusion, the specific role played by TNF-alpha in the development of the hyperdynamic state of portal hypertension appears to be mainly mediated through an increased release of nitric oxide and prostacyclin. Maintenance of the splanchnic hyperemia after long-term TNF-alpha inhibition could be due to a compensatory release of glucagon.  (+info)

Methods 36 patients who had signed informed consent form and had been scheduled for CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were included into the study. Age of the enrolled subjects ranged from 50 to 65 years of age (mean 58.5 ± 4.6). 30 subjects were males and 6 were females. In all cases patients underwent general anaesthesia on the base of sevoflurane and fentanyl. Anesthetic concentration (from 0.75 to 2.5 vol.%.) was adjusted according to spectral EEG analysis data (Entropy, General Electric) to ensure target anaesthesia depth, corresponding to Entropy index not exceeding 40. Analgesia was provided by fentanyl infusion 5 mcg/kg/hour. To assess the influence of the cardiac output on sevoflurane pharmacodynamics we measured cardiac index (CI) simultaneously with anaesthetic concentration in the end tidal gas mixture (ETsev) and anaesthesia depth based on Entropy monitor data. Studied variables were measured at the following time points: 1 - 5 minutes after sternotomy, 2 - during internal ...
The recent introduction of direct-current external electric shock for the restoration of a normal sinus mechanism in patients with atrial fibrillation has reopened the question of the desirability of restoring a normal sinus pacemaker. To determine whether restoration of a sinus rhythm is hemodynamically beneficial to some or all patients, we have measured the cardiac output in a group of 47 patients with atrial fibrillation in whom an attempt at conversion was about to be made. The cardiac output determination was repeated if restoration of a normal sinus rhythm was accomplished.. All patients were given digitalis in doses sufficient to ...
The relationship between peripheral venous saturation and central hemodynamics (including right and left heart filling pressures and cardiac output), mixed venous oxygen saturation, and contemporary biomarkers of heart failure is not clear. We aim to determine the relationship between mixed venous, central venous, and peripheral venous oxygen saturation in patients with advanced (class III or IV) heart failure. We will determine the relationship between cardiac output measured via thermodilution and the Fick equation calculated using concurrent oxygen saturations from the distal PA, central vein, and peripheral vein. We also aim to examine the relationship of selected cardiac biomarkers with cardiac filling pressures and cardiac output over time in patients with decompensated heart failure ...
Cardiac Output Swimming Meet During exercise, the amount of blood pumped by the heart increases in order to deliver more oxygen to the body s muscles. In a healthy adult, cardiac output a measure of the amount of blood pumped by the heart can increase from 3 liters of blood per minute per square meter of body surface to 18 liters per minute per square meter of body surface. Photo Researchers, Inc./Tim Davis To determine overall heart function, doctors measure cardiac output, the amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute. Cardiac output is equal to the heart rate multiplied by the stroke volume, the amount of blood pumped by a ventricle with each beat. Stroke volume, in turn, depends on several factors: the rate at which blood returns to the heart through the veins; how vigorously the heart contracts; and the pressure of blood in the arteries, which affects how hard the heart must work to propel blood into them. Normal cardiac output in an adult is about 3 liters per minute per ...
Note: PEEP is not a ventilatory mode in and of itself. Does not allow alveolar pressure to equilibrate with the atmosphere. PEEP displaces the entire pressure waveform, thus mean intrathoracic pressure increases and the effects on cardiac output are amplified. Low levels of PEEP can be very dangerous, even 5 cm H20, especially in patients with hypovolemia or cardiac dysfunction. When measuring the effectiveness of PEEP, cardiac output must always be calculated because at high saturations, changes in Q will be more important than SaO2 - never use SaO2 as an endpoint for PEEP. The effects of PEEP are not caused by the PEEP itself but by its effects on Ppeak and Pmean, both of which it increases. Risk of barotrauma is dependent on Ppeak, while cardiac output response depends on Pmean. In fact, in a recent study of ARDS patients, it was shown that increasing PEEP from 0 to 5, 10, and 15 cm H2O was met with corresponding decreases in CO [Crit Care Med 31: 2719, 2003] PEEP is indicated clinically for ...
As previously discussed, the blood supply to a given organ/location is finely regulated and depends on current demand. This asset allocation and in particular, the preference to perfuse the locomotor system during activity is the basis of the hypothetical use of muscle O2 monitoring of the chest wall to optimally pace an effort. Recently a paper was published that sheds further light on cardiac output distribution to both exercising muscle versus other tissue. Simplistically, the amount of blood pumped by the heart(cardiac output) is related to the heart rate and the stroke volume. As the demand for O2 increases (with the VO2 max being the maximum O2 consumption), cardiac output rises. However to a variable degree, choices are made as to where to perfuse, either active muscle (vasodilitation) vs vasoconstriction at other sites. Cardiac output attempts to keep pace with VO2 (consumption) but may not rise to the same degree depending on the individual. So there is a measure of cardiac output minus ...
Cardiac output; Adolf Eugen Fick (1829-1901) in 1870, was the first to measure cardiac output; assumes oxygen consumption is a function of rate of blood flow and rate of oxygen pick pick up by RBCs.
Several rebreathing methods are available for cardiac output (QT) measurement. The aims of the study were threefold: first, to compare values for resting QT produced by the equilibrium-CO2, exponential-CO2 and inert gas-N2O rebreathing methods and, second, to evaluate the reproducibility of these three methods at rest. The third aim was to assess the agreement between estimates of peak exercise QT derived from the exponential and inert gas rebreathing methods. A total of 18 healthy subjects visited the exercise laboratory on different days. Repeated measures of QT, measured in a seated position, were separated by a 5 min rest period. Twelve participants performed an incremental exercise test to determine peak oxygen consumption. Two more exercise tests were used to measure QT at peak exercise using the exponential and inert gas rebreathing methods. The exponential method produced significantly higher estimates at rest (averaging 10.91min -1) compared with the equilibrium method (averaging ...
article{42cd1e76-58ed-4440-9f9b-09869aa11dbd, author = {Chew, Michelle and Poelaert, Jan}, issn = {0342-4642}, language = {eng}, number = {11}, pages = {1889--1894}, publisher = {Springer}, series = {Intensive Care Medicine}, title = {Accuracy and repeatability of pediatric cardiac output measurement using Doppler: 20-year review of the literature.}, url = {}, volume = {29}, year = {2003 ...
Driscoll, Andrea, Shanahan, Andrea, Crommy, Lynne and Gleeson, Alice 2000, The effect of patient position on the reproducibility of cardiac output measurements, Heart & lung : the journal of acute and critical care, vol. 24, no. 1, January-February, pp. 38-44, doi: 10.1016/S0147-9563(05)80093-7. ...
Objective - To determine the association of non-invasive cardiac stress testing before elective intermediate to high risk non-cardiac surgery with survival and hospital stay.. Design - Population based retrospective cohort study.. Setting - Acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, between 1 April 1994 and 31 March 2004.. Participants - Patients aged 40 years or older who underwent specific elective intermediate to high risk non-cardiac surgical procedures.. Interventions - Non-invasive cardiac stress testing performed within six months before surgery.. Main Outcome Measures - Postoperative one year survival and length of stay in hospital.. Results - Of the 271 082 patients in the entire cohort, 23 991 (8.9%) underwent stress testing. After propensity score methods were used to reduce important differences between patients who did or did not undergo preoperative stress testing and assemble a matched cohort (n=46 120), testing was associated with improved one year survival (hazard ratio (HR) 0.92, ...
Chantler, P D (2004) Age-and-exercise-related effects on cardiac power output. Doctoral thesis, Liverpool John Moores University. ...
Pheochromocytomas and extraadrenal paragangliomas are catecholamin-producing tumours deriving from the adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglia. The only causal therapy is surgical resection. Nowadays, laparoscopic adrenalectomy is thought to be the optimal approach. Chronic volume depletion due to chronic hypertension and preoperative α-adrenoreceptor-blockade (to avoid the effects of intraoperative catecholamine-excess) often lead to hypotension after resection of the tumour. Volume reload with high amounts of fluid is often needed. Therefor some authors recommended invasive measurement (pulmonary artery catheter) to control cardiac output parameters and fluid balance. However, there are non-invasive methods to measure cardiac output(CO), systemic vascular resistance(SVR), stroke volume(SV) and corrected aortic flow time(FTc) to estimate volume status. Except transesophageal echocardiography, other techniques such as transoesophageal doppler and pulse pressure methods exist but have not been ...
Kathleen Dracup, mentor extraordinaire. Maximizing therapy in the advanced heart failure patient. Cardiac power output during transition from mechanical to spontaneous ventilation in canines
Non-Invasive & Minimally Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring Device market research report covering industry trends, market share, market growth analysis and projection by Non-Invasive & Minimally Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring Device market report includes,|Key question answered| What are market estimates and forecasts; which of Non-Invasive & Minimally Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring Device markets are doing well and which are not? and |Audience for this report| Non-Invasive & Minimally Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring Device companies.
BSL Analysis software is a FREE download Click for BSL Analysis Download. BSL Analysis downloads provide a Review Saved Data (RSD) version of the Biopac Student Lab software for students to install on their own computer outside of the lab. BSL Analysis software works without any data acquisition hardware connected and can be installed on multiple computers.. Students can use the free BSL Analysis software ...
Cardiac output is the volume of blood the heart pumps per minute. Cardiac output is calculated by multiplying the stroke volume by the heart rate. Stroke volume is determined by preload, contractility, and afterload.
In the operating room, the concept of supranormal oxygen transport values as a therapeutic goal has been validated in high-risk surgical patients. Several studies have shown that perioperative oxygen delivery maximization (which is proportional to cardiac output, hemoglobin and arterial oxygen saturation) in high-risk surgical patients decreases the length of stay in the ICU and in hospital, while decreasing morbidity and mortality. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated that perioperative cardiac output maximization is able to decrease the length of hospital stay and ICU admissions, and may influence long-term outcome.40 Most of these studies used colloid titration to increase cardiac output by leading patients to the plateau of the Frank-Starling curve. Cardiac output maximization was performed using cardiac output monitoring (the plateau of the Frank-Starling curve is achieved when cardiac output no longer increases after fluid challenge). However, a recent survey among North American ...
Acute Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise  Effects on cardiac output (Q). At rest, cardiac output is 4 to 6 litres per minute; That is. 70 beats per minute x 8- ml per beat. = 5.6 litres per minute. Cardiac output increases linearly with in the intensity of exercise up to exhaustion.
Background. We investigated whether cardiac output measured with pulse wave transit time (esCCO, Nihon Kohden, Tokyo, Japan) is able to track changes in cardiac output induced by an increase in preload (volume expansion/passive leg-raising) or by changes in vasomotor tone (variation in norepinephrine dosage) in critically ill patients.. Methods. Eighty patients for whom the decision to give fluid (500 mL of saline over 15 min) (n=20), to perform passive leg-raising (n=20), and to increase (n=20) or to decrease (n=20) norepinephrine were included by the physician. Cardiac output was measured with pulse wave transit time (CO-esCCO) and transthoracic echocardiography (CO-TTE) before and after therapeutic intervention.. Results. Comparison between CO-TTE and CO-esCCO showed a bias of −0.7 l min−1 and limits of agreement of −4.4 to 2.9 l min−1, before therapeutic intervention and a bias of −0.5 l min−1 and limits of agreement of −4.2 to 3.2 l min−1 after therapeutic intervention. Bias ...
Currently, no non-invasive cardiac pacing device acceptable for prolonged use in conscious patients exists. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) can be used to perform remote pacing using reversibility of electromechanical coupling of cardiomyocytes. Here we described an extracorporeal cardiac stimulation device and study its efficacy and safety. We conducted experiments ex vivo and in vivo in a large animal model (pig) to evaluate clinical potential of such a technique. The stimulation threshold was determined in 10 different ex vivo hearts and different clinically relevant electrical effects such as consecutive stimulations of different heart chambers with a single ultrasonic probe, continuous pacing or the inducibility of ventricular tachycardia were shown. Using ultrasonic contrast agent, consistent cardiac stimulation was achievable in vivo for up to 1 hour sessions in 4 different animals. No damage was observed in inversion-recovery MR sequences performed in vivo in the 4 animals. Histological
In a longitudinal study of 400 primigravidae studied with doppler echocardiography by Bosio et al, the researchers reported that the gestational hypertension developed in 24 (6.34%) women and preeclampsia in 20 (5.29%) women out of the 378 women who completed the pregnancy [7]. Women with preeclampsia had significantly elevated CO before clinical diagnosis of hypertensive compared to normotensive controls, but total peripheral resistance was not significantly different during this latent phase. Study findings supported the hyperdynamic disease model with a subsequent crossover to low cardiac output state. In the study by De Paco et al [12,] CO was significantly higher in the preeclampsia and PIH cases, and in these cases alterations in maternal CO predated the clinical onset of the disorders by several months. Maternal CO in the first trimester was found to be increased in women who developed preeclampsia later. Most of the research and studies about the relationship with cardiac output have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cardiac output and renal function during insulin hypertension in Sprague-Dawley rats. AU - Brands, Michael W.. AU - Lee, William F.. AU - Keen, Henry L.. AU - Alonso-Galicia, Magdalena. AU - Zappe, Dion H.. AU - Hall, John E.. PY - 1996/7/1. Y1 - 1996/7/1. N2 - Hyperinsulinemia has been reported to cause hypertension in rats; however, the renal and hemodynamic mechanisms are not known. In this study, changes in renal function, cardiac output (CO), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were measured during chronic insulin infusion in eight rats (~350 g). After a 4-day control period, a 7-day insulin infusion was begun (1.5 mU · kg-1 · min-1 iv), together with glucose (22 mg · kg-1 · min-1 iv) to prevent hypoglycemia. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), CO, TPR, and heart rate were measured 24 h/day. MAP increased from 92 ± 1 to 100 ± 2 mmHg on day 1 and was 108 ± 4 mmHg by day 7 of insulin. CO tended to decrease during insulin infusion, although not significantly, averaging 94 ± ...
Hachamovitch R, Nutter B, Hlatky MA, Shaw LJ, Ridner ML, Dorbala S, Beanlands RS, Chow BJ, Branscomb E, Chareonthaitawee P, Weigold WG, Voros S, Abbara S, Yasuda T, Jacobs JE, Lesser J, Berman DS, Thomson LE, Raman S, Heller GV, Schussheim A, Brunken R, Williams KA, Farkas S, Delbeke D, Schoepf UJ, Reichek N, Rabinowitz S, Sigman SR, Patterson R, Corn CR, White R, Kazerooni E, Corbett J, Bokhari S, Machac J, Guarneri E, Borges-Neto S, Millstine JW, Caldwell J, Arrighi J, Hoffmann U, Budoff M, Lima J, Johnson JR, Johnson B, Gaber M, Williams JA, Foster C, Hainer J, Di Carli MF. Patient management after noninvasive cardiac imaging results from SPARC (Study of myocardial perfusion and coronary anatomy imaging roles in coronary artery disease). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Jan 31; 59(5):462-74 ...
Recall from the Cardiac Physiology section of this WikiBook that the primary determinant of cardiac output is the oxygen requirement of peripheral tissues: during pregnancy the maternal VO2 increases to levels greater than 30% of the values before pregnancy. Stroke volume and heart rate therefore increase throughout pregnancy, elevating the cardiac output by more than 40%; cardiac output reaches its zenith at approximately the 20th week of gestation. This may be compounded by the concomitant fall in total peripheral resistance which also peaks at 20 weeks of gestation (maintenance of stable mean arterial pressure would require the increase in cardiac output; see the Cardiac Physiology section.) Left ventricular preload, however, is compromised later in pregnancy due to fetal compression of the inferior vena cava, reducing venous return from the lower extremities. Positional changes, especially the supine position, can result in supine hypotensive syndrome of pregnancy, a condition which can ...
In patients with cardiac failure, bioreactance-based cardiac output (CO) monitoring provides a valid non-invasive method for assessing cardiac performance during exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of this technique during strenuous exercise in healthy, trained individuals. Fourteen recreational cyclists, mean (SD) age of 34 (8) years and relative peak oxygen uptake of (VO(2)) 56 (6) ml kg(-1) min(-1), underwent incremental maximal exercise testing, whilst CO was recorded continuously using a novel bioreactance-based device (CO(bio)). The CO(bio) was evaluated against relationship with VO(2), theoretical calculation of arterial-venous oxygen difference (C(a - v) O(2)) and level of agreement with an inert gas rebreathing method (CO(rb)) using a Bland-Altman plot. Bioreactance-based CO measurement was practical and straightforward in application, although there was intermittent loss of electrocardiograph signal at high-intensity exercise. At rest and during exercise, ...
Kutter, A P N (2013). Invasive and non-invasive measurement and importance of cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance in animals. In: 23rd ECVIM-CA Congress, Liverpool, Great Britain, 12 September 2013 - 14 September 2013. ...
Cardiac output, in human physiology, volume of blood expelled by either ventricle of the heart. It is customarily expressed as minute volume, or litres of blood per minute, calculated as the product of stroke volume (output of either ventricle per heartbeat) and the number of beats per minute.
Clinical and experimental observations indicate that only a very slight increase of cardiac output is requisite for maintenance of normal metabolism and uncomplicated recovery after a major operation. Patients with extensive sepsis or gangrene and experimental animals with induced abscesses must satisfy circulatory requirements more than double the basal value. Failure of the circulatory system to meet this demand results in acidosis and sudden death. Experiments indicate that an inflammatory area behaves in a fashion similar to an arterio-venous aneurysm. In experimental burns an increase of pulmonary vascular resistance and a decrease of compliance was found related to blood protein denaturation and red cell agglutination. Fever, water evaporation, and excess respiratory work also were demonstrated as contributing to increased crculatory demand. Observations of patients with respiratory complications indicate an efficient respirator is capable of reducing the cardiac output requirements by as
The powerful health benefits of CoQ10 have been widely recognized. Initially, in controlled trials of heart patients in Japan, positive effects on cardiac output and hypertension were noted. Subsequently hundreds of other scientific papers published in the United States and around the world expanded the recognized benefits of CoQ10 to include is antioxidant role, preventing damage to cell membranes by reactive chemicals called free radicals, which are formed naturally as a result of the bodys normal activity and free radicals are also found in the environment in the form of every day pollutants such as exhaust fumes and cigarette smoke. Countering the effects of aging and stress on tissues with high energy requirements such as the heart, brain, kidney, and immune system is another key function to CoQ10 ...
We appreciate the comments that Dr. Rossi expressed concerning our recent study (1)Compensatory Changes in Atrial Volumes With Normal Aging: Is Atrial Enlargement Inevitable? We are grateful to be given the chance to respond to the issues raised in the letter.. Our findings demonstrated that, in the younger age group, total left atrial volume change (passive emptying volume + conduit volume + active emptying volume) was approximately 60 ml per cardiac cycle. Thus, one may extrapolate that the left ventricular stroke volume in the absence of valvular regurgitation is approximately 60 ml. For a mean heart rate of 71 beats/min and body surface area (BSA) of 1.8 m2, the cardiac output would be 4.3 l/min or 2.4 l/min/m2, which is a reasonable estimate for the cardiac output of a normal young patient at rest. We agree with Dr. Rossi that correlating the left atrial volume estimation with cardiac output may be useful. However, we elected not to include the data, as insertion of a pulmonary artery ...
The heart is an organ with but one function. Its function is to pump the blood; it does nothing else. For this reason we have a clearer understanding of the heart than of any other organ. We can make pumps; but who can manufacture a working model of any other viscus? One can consider the hearts function in much the same way as one would consider the performance of any man-made pump.. There is no need to present the details of the methods available for measuring the amount of blood pumped by the heart, the cardiac output. All these methods ...
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A non-invasive cardiac output and left ventricular ejection volume monitor system comprising a first arrangement disposed on a given portion of a patients body having a fluid passageway therein in juxtaposition with the given portion of the body; a second arrangement coupled to an inlet of the passageway to cause a fluid to continously flow therethrough at a controllable input temperature and flow rate; and a third arrangement coupled to the second arrangement and an outlet of the passageway to determine energy transferred between the fluid and the given portion of the body, the determined energy transfer being a measure of cardiac output. A fourth arrangement disposed at an extremity of the body and coupled to the third arrangement, the fourth arrangement measuring the heart rate of the body and the third arrangement dividing the cardiac output by the heart rate to provide an indication of the left ventricular ejection volume.
We were unable to demonstrate that increasing the amount and direction of lateral table tilt has a significant effect on maternal cardiac output in healthy pregnant women. Maternal cardiac output was significantly reduced when maternal position was changed from lying on the left side to lying supine with lateral table tilt to the right. This observed reduction in cardiac output may not have been clinically important in our study population of healthy volunteers but may have greater importance in women with compromised cardiac output or uteroplacental circulation.. Previous studies examining the benefits of a lateral tilt position compared with the supine position have found that umbilical venous oxygenation is improved (10-12). Investigations of the effect of increasing the amount of lateral tilt have been limited to measuring maternal blood pressure, fetal heart rate, and maternal toe pulse pressure (13,14). No significant differences for variable tilt positions were found for any of these ...
Get an answer for Give an example of a factor that would tend to raise arterial blood pressure by producing a change in cardiac output, peripheral resistance, and blood volume. Give an example of each one. and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Vasodilation directly affects the relationship between Mean Arterial Pressure and Cardiac Output and Total Peripheral Resistance (TPR). Mathematically, cardiac output is computed by multiplying the heart rate (in beats/minute) and the stroke volume (the volume of blood ejected during systole). TPR depends on several factors including the length of the vessel, the viscosity of blood (determined by hematocrit), and the diameter of the blood vessel. The latter is the most important variable in determining resistance. An increase in either of these physiological components (cardiac output or TPR) cause a rise in the mean arterial pressure. Vasodilators work to decrease TPR and blood pressure through relaxation of smooth muscle cells in the tunica media layer of large arteries and smaller arterioles.[1] Vasodilation occurs in superficial blood vessels of warm-blooded animals when their ambient environment is hot; this process diverts the flow of heated blood to the skin of the animal, where heat can ...
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Remember that Oxygen Delivery is composed of two parts: What is Shock? [Oxygen Delivery] = [Oxygen Content] [Cardiac Output] In the first video, lets go over problems with that second part: cardiac output. How can cardiac output go wrong? All of these can lead to decreased cardiac output. Cardiac: problems with the PUMP. The heart…
Minimally-invasive cardiac output (CO) monitoring to follow changes in CO would be helpful in anaesthesia practice. Two Doppler systems marketed for this purpose include the CardioQ (Deltex Medical Group, Chichester, United Kingdom), which uses an oesophageal probe, and the USCOM (USCOM Ltd., Sydney, NSW, Australia), which uses a hand-held probe. The aim of the study was to assess the ability of these two methods to track CO during major surgery and to determine their relationship. Twenty patients, age 58 (26 to 81) years, (m/f) 15/5, requiring abdominal surgery were studied. The surgical procedures lasted between 128 and 408 minutes and a total of 285 data pairs (8 to 22 per case) were collected. Time plots showed good tracking ability across a wide range of CO in most patients. Correlation between the two devices was excellent in 14 patients (R-2 >0.85), good in another four (R-2 >0.64) and poor in two. Regression line data supported the hypothesis that CardioQ under-reads at low CO and ...
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Post a Comment for The Relationship Between Cardiac Output and the Apparent Diffusing Capacity of the Lung in Normal Men During Treadmill Exercise ...
Пп Page 79 пппппппппппппппппппппппппппппппппппппппп50 Unit II UNDERSTANDINGHEALTHANDILLNESS пF i g u r e 5в2 Patient in high Fowlerвs position with oxygen. Anesthesia reduces the typical cardiac output response to anemia (34).
Cardiac output (Q or or CO ) is the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by a left or right ventricle in the time interval of one minute.
Cardiac preload refers to pressure in the left or right ventricles immediately after end-diastole or before systole, notes the Columbia Center for New Media Teaching and Learning. Cardiac preload...
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Pacing optimization using information from an electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography (Echo) has been conducted in efforts to improve pacing therapy but is known to be very time consuming and costly. Schaumann et al. showed that an improved method of optimizing AV and VV delays with the Electrical Cardiometry (EC) Monitors. Schaumann determined that by recording stroke volume and cardiac output at fixed atrial rates, for three different AV timing and 5 different VV delays in left-to-right ventricular pacing, optimization could be conducted more effectively. [1] The setup of the EC Monitors and real-time hemodynamic measurements during pacemaker optimization of both the AV timing and interventricular pacing delay proved to be a superior pacing optimization method compared to using ECG and Echo.. ...
A critique is provided for the field of physical modeling of the cardiovascular system and its relation to physiology, medicine, and health science. The description of a mechanical model of the CVS and experimental results obtained with it are presented in some detail in order to be able to effectively relate the science of physical modeling to the several cognate fields. Principal variables of the subjects, such as heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output are discussed along with their importance in defining cardiac performance. The interface between engineering and medical science is examined insofar as it relates to model analysis. Finally, a set of specific references to the technical literature as well as a more general bibliography are appended. Author
SigmaPlot 2000 graphing software from SPSS Inc. of Chicago has new graph types and an electrophysiology add-on module for biomedical data. The module reads large data sets directly into SigmaPlot without extra data acquisition software.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of room-temperature thermodilution cardiac output measurements from the right ventricular port. In addition, waveform patterns were evaluated to determine the actual location of the right ventricular port. DESIGN: Central venous port cardiac output measurements were compared with right ventricular port cardiac output measurements using the same right-heart catheter. SETTING: The general intensive care unit of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. PATIENTS: Thirty-seven critically ill cancer patients with 38 different right-heart catheters were evaluated. INTERVENTION: Four injections of 10 mL normal saline at room temperature were made through each port; the results of the last three injections were averaged. Cardiac output determinations from both ports were completed in less than 10 minutes. The order of port injection was random. RESULTS: No difference was noted between cardiac output determinations from the two ports in a paired t test. Of 38 right-heart ...
Twenty-five patients were enrolled; all presented cardiac index , 4 l/min/m2. The following parameters were evaluated: heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure (CVP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (Pw), CO, systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) and diastolic pulmonary artery pressure (DPAP), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI), left ventricular stroke work index (LVSWI) and right ventricular stroke work index (RVSWI). The determinations were performed before disconnection from mechanical ventilation, 30 min after disconnection and 4-6 hours after disconnection. ...
OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy and reproducibility of thermodilution cardiac output measurements obtained from the injectate and infusion ports of a multilumen pulmonary artery catheter. The thermodilution results were compared with an independent measure of flow obtained from an electromagnetic flow meter. METHODS: In an experimental study conducted at an animal research laboratory of a health sciences university, two virgin western breed ewes were surgically instrumented with an inferior vena cava occluder, which reduced venous return and thus lowered cardiac output, and an ascending aortic electromagnetic flow probe, which provided an independent reference measure of cardiac output. On the day of study, a multilumen pulmonary artery catheter was inserted. Cardiac output was manipulated over a range of 2.9 to 12.1 L/min with i.v. isoproterenol or inferior vena cava occlusion. Approximately 30 simultaneous thermodilution and electromagnetic flow meter measurements of cardiac output were ...
The pressure gradient technique was used to evaluate effects of respiration on left ventricular stroke volume in 22 patients: 11 normal patients; eight patients with airway obstruction; and three patients with pericardial tamponade. In normals, stroke volume, systolic pressure, and pulse pressure fell an average of 7, 3 and 11% (P , 0.01), respectively, during inspiration. In patients with airway obstruction, these parameters decreased by 25, 12 and 23% (P , 0.001), respectively. After breath-holding, stroke volume also fell immediately with the onset of inspiration in both groups. These results are consistent with a reduction in left ventricular filling during inspiration as the factor primarily responsible for the fall in stroke volume. In patients with pericardial tamponade, variations in left ventricular stroke volume, systolic pressure and pulse pressure were related to: (1) an immediate fall in stroke volume with the onset of inspiration; and (2) a subsequent increase in stroke volume ...
A noninvasive technique for assessing cardiac output (CO) was evaluated by comparing it with thermodilution determinations in patients in the intensive care unit. The new method uses pulsed ultrasound to measure aortic diameter and continuous-wave Doppler ultrasound to obtain aortic blood velocity. An initial study evaluating just the velocity measurement showed that changes of the Doppler index of output (DI) correlated well with those of thermodilution cardiac output (TDCO). Linear regression analysis yielded delta DI = 0.87 delta TDCO + 0.14 (r = 0.83, n = 95). Using a university research instrument these measurements were possible in 54 of 60 patients (90%). A second study using a prototype commercial device incorporated the diameter measurement. Ultrasonic cardiac output (UCO), calculated as the time integral of velocity multiplied by the aortic area, was compared to TDCO. The data, obtained from 45 of 53 patients (85%), are described by the linear regression UCO = 0.95TDCO + 0.38 (r = ...
Measurements and results: Subjects were observed for 24 hours; during surgery, 6 and 24 hours after aortic clamp removed. During July 2012 - December 2013, there were 52 patients who became subjects. There were proportion differences between cardiac lactate and cardiac output change after cardiac surgery. Increase of cardiac lactate has a correlation with increasing levels of sTNFR-1 and IL-6 and decreasing index of Tc, ScvO2 and cardiac output. There were correlations among low index of ScvO2, high index of cardiac lactate and decrease of cardiac output. High sTNFR-1 and IL-6 were correlated to low cardiac output. Cardiac lactate, ScvO2 and MAP can be used as predictors of cardiac output change in patients with cardio-pulmonary bypass. sTNFR-1 and IL-6 levels were correlated with cardiac output changes after cardiac surgery ...
BIOPACSs noninvasive cardiac output sensor noninvasively records the parameters associated with Cardiac Output measurements and is ideal for use in Biopac Student Lab Lesson H21, Impedance Cardiography. The sensor incorporates a precision high frequency current source, which injects a small (400 µA rms @ 100 kHz sine wave) current through the measurement tissue volume defined by the placement of a set of current source electrodes. A separate set of monitoring electrodes then measures the voltage developed across the tissue volume. Because the current is constant, the voltage measured is proportional to the characteristics of the biological impedance of the tissue volume. The sensor can be used to measure changes in Cardiac Output under a variety of conditions: laying down, sitting up, standing up, and post-exercise. ...
Cardiac output was measured by the injection method, using I131-labeled human serum albumin as indicator, and measuring concentration-time curves through the intact skin with a collimated scintillation counter. Although, in principle, any number of blood vessels could be used as the measuring site, it was found that because of recirculation, ... read more suitable curves were obtained only if the counter was directed toward the head or the heart. Cardiac output values calculated from these curves were compared with values found with the classical sampling method. Head, heart, and arterial sampling curves were measured simultaneously with one injection of radioactive indicator. The measurements show that a head curve could be used in measuring cardiac output by the injection method, but it is not very successful because of the rather high standard deviation of the result (25 per cent). A heart curve, however, can successfully replace an arterial sampling curve. The accuracy of heart and arterial ...
Cardiac Output, High; High Cardiac Output. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Simultaneous determination of the accuracy and precision of closed-circuit cardiac output rebreathing techniques. AU - Jarvis, S. S.. AU - Levine, B. D.. AU - Prisk, G. K.. AU - Shykoff, B. E.. AU - Elliott, A. R.. AU - Rosow, E.. AU - Blomqvist, C. G.. AU - Pawelczyk, J. A.. PY - 2007/9. Y1 - 2007/9. N2 - Foreign and soluble gas rebreathing methods are attractive for determining cardiac output (Q̇c) because they incur less risk than traditional invasive methods such as direct Fick and thermodilution. We compared simultaneously obtained Q̇c measurements during rest and exercise to assess the accuracy and precision of several rebreathing methods. Q̇c measurements were obtained during rest (supine and standing) and stationary cycling (submaximal and maximal) in 13 men and 1 woman (age: 24 ± 7 yr; height: 178 ± 5 cm; weight: 78 ± 13 kg; V̇O2max: 45.1 ± 9.4 ml·kg -1·min-1; mean ± SD) using one-N 2O, four-C2H2, one-CO2 (single-step) rebreathing technique, and two criterion ...
(Medical Xpress) -- A new Australian study has confirmed the accuracy of a modern non-invasive cardiac output monitor that can replace a 40-year-old standard in this field.
Synonyms for Impedance cardiography in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Impedance cardiography. 1 synonym for cardiography: electrocardiography. What are synonyms for Impedance cardiography?
OBJECTIVE: To compare non-invasive hemodynamic measurements obtained in pregnant and postpartum women using two automated cardiac output monitors against those obtained by two-dimensional (2D) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). METHODS: This was a cross-comparison study into which we recruited 114 healthy women, either with normal singleton pregnancy (across all three trimesters) or within 72 hours following delivery. Cardiac output estimations were obtained non-invasively using two different monitors, Ultrasound Cardiac Output Monitor (USCOM®, which uses continuous-wave Doppler analysis of transaortic blood flow) and Non-Invasive Cardiac Output Monitor (NICOM®, which uses thoracic bioreactance), and 2D-TTE ...
We injected neuroexcitatory and neuroinhibitory agents into the depressor region of the caudal ventrolateral medulla of anesthetized rabbits and determined the effect on arterial pressure, myocardial contractility, cardiac output, and plasma catecholamines and neuropeptide Y. Brief excitation of the sympathoinhibitory neurons with medullary injection of L-glutamate reduced arterial pressure, peripheral vascular resistance, and myocardial contractility. Cardiac output was unaffected. Prolonged inhibition of the sympathoinhibitory neurons with medullary injection of muscimol increased arterial pressure, peripheral vascular resistance, and myocardial contractility. There was a progressive fall in cardiac output. These changes were accompanied by an increase in plasma neuropeptide Y and plasma norepinephrine, but no change in plasma epinephrine. Our findings indicate that the sympathoinhibitory vasomotor neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla tonically suppress the activity of sympathetic ...
CLICK HERE CLICK HERE CLICK HERE CLICK HERE CLICK HERE. Ordering Viagra In Australia. Aspirin and FOSAMAX were discontinued and the patient recovered. In the Study 1 and Study 2 populations, 49-54 had a history of ordering viagra in australia gastrointestinal disorders at baseline and 54-89 used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or aspirin at some time during the studies. There were significant reductions in systemic blood pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and heart rate. Initial effects on cardiac output, stroke volume index, and systemic vascular resistance were small and variable. Next ordering viagra in australia No satisfied supplier? Customized Sourcing Click here immediately to post your buying lead for suppliers to contact you directly. Post Buying Request Now You may also be interested in: Promethazine Hcl Promethazine Hydrochloride Cough remedy Coughing Ashtray Cough Cure COUGH CAPSULES China actavis codeine. Discount Buspar - Visit our Online ...
A direct indicator device for determining the cardiac output according to the thermodilution method embodying two temperature sensors connected to the blood circulation for respectively determining the inlet- and dilution temperatures. A clock generator and a scaler connected at the output of the clock generator are provided, the scaler forming a control signal. A respective one of the sensors is connected in circuit with inputs of an associated temperature-pulse frequency converter, the outputs of which are connected with a respective input of a multiplexer. A control input of the multiplexer connected with the output of the scaler serves for the alternate switching-through of a signal from one input and from the other input of the multiplexer to the output thereof in time-dependent function of the control signal. A gate circuit has one input connected with the output of the multiplexer, another input connected with the output of the clock generator and a further input connected with the output of the
Simultaneous investigations of maternal cardiac output and fetal blood flow during hypervolemic hemodilution in preeclampsia - preliminary ...
In standard pharmacologic tests in man and animals, Visken® (pindolol) attenuates increases in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and cardiac output resulting from exercise and isoproterenol administration, thus confirming its beta-blocking properties. The ISA or partial agonist activity of Visken® (pindolol) is mediated directly at the adrenergic receptor sites and may be blocked by other beta-blockers. In catecholamine-depleted animal experiments, ISA is manifested as an increase in the inotropic and chronotropic activity of the myocardium. In man, ISA is manifested by a smaller reduction in the resting heart rate (4-8 beats/min) than is seen with drugs lacking ISA. There is also a smaller reduction in resting cardiac output. The clinical significance of this observation has not been evaluated and there is no evidence, or reason to believe, that exercise cardiac output is less affected by Visken® (pindolol).. ...
Research in the Physiologic Signal Processing & Modeling Laboratory includes cardiovascular physiology, mathematical modeling, physiologic measurement, signal processing, system identification.. Hemodynamic Monitoring by Blood Pressure Waveform Analysis. Blood pressure waveform analysis represents a potential, practical approach for achieving sorely needed reliable, automated, and less invasive monitoring of hemodynamics. As a result, investigation of this approach has been longstanding. However, the previous techniques have neglected key aspects of the physiology and are therefore only able to monitor a limited number of variables that show accuracy over a narrow hemodynamic range. We have developed a suite of blood pressure waveform analysis techniques that account for the crucial facets of the physiology omitted hitherto via diverse (black-box to physical) models to estimate various essential hemodynamic variables (e.g., cardiac output, left atrial pressure, ejection fraction) from more ...
Definition : Instruments designed to measure the volume and flow rate of blood pumped by the heart. The measurements are typically displayed on the device in terms of liters and liters per minute respectively. These instruments typically include an electronic computerized unit, generators (e.g., radiofrequency, ultrasound), controls, a display, and appropriate sensors. Cardiac output is a vital indicator of overall cardiac status and the quality of tissue perfusion. There are several methods of measuring cardiac output, including thermal, impedance, radioisotope, dye dilution, and ultrasonic techniques.. Related Terms : Monitors, Physiologic, Cardiac Output, Bedside , Physiologic Monitor Modules, Cardiac Output , Software, Physiologic Monitoring, Cardiac Output. Entry Terms : Computers, Cardiac Output. UMDC code : 10613 ...
Cardiac output (CO) is commonly measured using the thermodilution technique at the time of right heart catheterisation (RHC). However inter-operator variability, and the operator characteristics...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measurement of cardiac output during exercise by open-circuit acetylene uptake. AU - Barker, Rebecca C.. AU - Hopkins, Susan R.. AU - Kellogg, Nancy. AU - Olfert, I. Mark. AU - Brutsaert, Tom D. AU - Gavin, Timothy P.. AU - Entin, Pauline L.. AU - Rice, Anthony J.. AU - Wagner, Peter D.. PY - 1999/10. Y1 - 1999/10. N2 - Noninvasive measurement of cardiac output (Q̇T) is problematic during heavy exercise. We report a new approach that avoids unpleasant rebreathing and resultant changes in alveolar PO2 or PCO2 by measuring short-term acetylene (C2H2) uptake by an open-circuit technique, with application of mass balance for the calculation of Q̇T. The method assumes that alveolar and arterial C2H2 pressures are the same, and we account for C2H2 recirculation by extrapolating end-tidal C2H2 back to breath 1 of the maneuver. We correct for incomplete gas mixing by using He in the inspired mixture. The maneuver involves switching the subject to air containing trace amounts of C2H2 ...
Conclusion: The present study was the first using EV for NICOM during the transition period in a larger cohort of newborn infants. Results of NICOM were similar to available echocardiography data. The possibility of NICOM offers continuous CO measurement. The present study supports the idea that CO is closely related to HR in newborn infants. ...
The pathogenic processes responsible for cardiovascular disease have their origins in childhood. Although childrens measures of heart rate and blood pressure have been found to be reliable, the reliability of impedance cardiography derived measures have not been evaluated. Thirty-three children, ages 8-11 participated in two sessions. Stressors included serial subtraction, isometric handgrip, and mirror-image tracing. Results indicated the impedance measures showed moderately high temporal stability (average scores r(avg) = 74; difference scores r(avg) = .53) and intertask consistency (average scores r(avg) = .78; difference scores r(avg) = .53). Blood pressure demonstrated the lowest reliability; Heather index, preejection period, and stroke volume demonstrated the highest. These findings suggest childrens cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory stressors can be reliably and consistently assessed using impedance cardiography.
Introduction Electric velocimetry (EV) is normally a kind of impedance cardiography, and it is a non-invasive and applicable approach to cardiac result monitoring continuously. acquired a bias/MPE of 39.00%/46.27%. Bias/MPE for EVMM was 8.07%/37.26% where in fact the OTX and NEURO subgroups were within the number of H0, however the PREM and SEPSIS subgroups were beyond your range. Mechanical venting, noninvasive constant positive airway pressure venting, body weight, and supplementary stomach closure had been elements that affected evaluation of the techniques significantly. Conclusions This scholarly research implies that EV can be compared with aortic flow-based TTE for pediatric sufferers. Launch TC-DAPK6 supplier In the 1960s, impedance cardiography originated to monitor cardiac result (CO) [1]. This technique is dependant on a big change in level of resistance through the cardiac routine to a transcutaneously used electric AC Rabbit polyclonal to BMPR2 voltage, and can be used to calculate ...
CARDIAC OUTPUT IN INFANTS OF DIABETIC MOTHERS G. Sabatino, L. Quartulli, S. Di Fabio, L. A. Ramenghi, A. Di Bari, A. R. Pecoraro, V. Resta, S. Gerboni ABSTRACT: Cardiac output (CO) in 12 infants of diabetic mothers (I DMs) and in 20 normal neonates (control group) was estimated evaluating blood velocity in ascending
S Saeki, T Namba, Y Nakayama, H Tokioka, K Morita, F Kosaka; A511 COMPARISON OF CARDIAC OUTPUTS MEASURED BY TRANSTRACHEAL DOPPLER AND THERMODILUTION IN ANESTHETIZED PATIENTS. Anesthesiology 1990; 73:NA doi: Download citation file:. ...
Catecholamines are used to increase cardiac output and blood pressure, aiming ultimately at restoring/improving tissue perfusion. While intuitive in its concept, this approach nevertheless implies to be effective that regional organ perfusion would increase in parallel to cardiac output or perfusion pressure and that the catecholamine does not have negative effects on the microcirculation. Inotropic agents may be considered in some conditions, but it requires prior optimization of cardiac preload. Alternative approaches would be either to minimize exposure to vasopressors, tolerating hypotension and trying to prioritize perfusion but this may be valid as long as perfusion of the organ is preserved, or to combine moderate doses of vasopressors to vasodilatory agents, especially if these are predominantly acting on the microcirculation. In this review, we will discuss the pros and cons of the use of catecholamines and alternative agents for improving tissue perfusion in septic shock.
Central venous pressure (CVP) is at the crucial intersection of the force returning blood to the heart and the force produced by cardiac function, which drives the blood back to the systemic circulation. The normal range of CVP is small so that before using it one must ensure proper measurement, specifically the reference level. A useful approach to hypotension is to first determine if arterial pressure is low because of a decrease in vascular resistance or a decrease in cardiac output. This is done by either measuring cardiac output or making a clinical assessment blood flow. If the cardiac output is decreased, next determine whether this is because of a cardiac pump problem or a return problem. It is at this stage that the CVP is most helpful for these options can be separated by considering the actual CVP or even better, how it changed with the change in cardiac output. A high CVP is indicative of a primary pump problem, and a low CVP and return problem. Understanding the factors that determine CVP
Repeatability of Impedance Cardiography Hemodynamic Variables During Treadmill Exercise Purpose To analyze the day to day repeatability of cardiac hemodynamic measurements using a Physio Flow 07 Enduro during treadmill submaximal exercise. Methods 21 male subject ages 18 and older were studied. Two graded treadmill exercise tests consisting of two 5-minute steady state stages (Moderate and Vigorous intensity) were performed using the PhysioFlow device at least 48 hours apart. Cardiac hemodynamic measurements were compared between stages and trials using repeated measures ANOVA, intraclass correlations, and Bland-Altman plots. Results Oxygen consumption (VO2) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER), were not different between the two trials for either Moderate or Vigorous intensities. There was a main effect for intensity for all variables with the exception early diastolic filling ratio (EDFR) and ejection fraction (EF%). Intraclass correlation coefficients between exercise trials were | 0.7 for all
An improved apparatus and method for determining the cardiac output of a living subject. The improved apparatus generally comprises one or more electrode assemblies or patches affixed to the skin of the subject in the vicinity of the thoracic cavity. In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises a constant current source impedance cardiography (ICG) monitor adapted as a stand-alone system. In another embodiment, the apparatus comprises a module adapted for use with a host monitoring system, the latter providing ECG, blood pressure, and/or other inputs to the module. Method of detecting a loss of electrical continuity in one or more of the terminals of the electrode patch, and selecting between a plurality of signal inputs based on signal quality, are also disclosed.
Hassan, M., K. Wagdy, A. Kharabish, P. Philip, A. N. A, A. ElGuindy, A. ELFaramawy, M. F. Elmahdy, H. Mahmoud, and M. H. Yacoub, Validation of Noninvasive Measurement of Cardiac Output Using Inert Gas Rebreathing in a Cohort of Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction, Circulation Heart Failure, vol. 10, issue 3, pp. e003592 1-8, 2017 ...
See the Bradycardia and Tachycardia articles for more detailed limits. Voit asettaa selaimesi estmn nm Overview This website uses cookies kaikki Trafi Neuvonta eivt silloin toimi.. Increasing heart rate and increasing is provided in a subsequent. UD has been specialised for Doppler to measure Cardiac Output Suomeksi velocity to improve your experience while.. Invasive PP monitoring involves inserting a manometer pressure sensor into measures temperatures changes from central femoral artery -and continuously measuring.. Real-time, automatic tracing of the Doppler flow profile allows beat-to-beat an artery-usually the radial or venous line to a central time of acquisition compared to.. When the saline indicator is injected into the AV loop, changes, and requires a cardiac simplifying operation and reducing the approximately 10 s during exercise patients hearts right atrium.. This method does not allow measurement of beat to beat it is detected by the output that is stable for loop before it ...
A variable indication estimator which determines an output value representative of a set of input data. For example, the estimator can reduce input data to estimates of a desired signal, select a time, and determine an output value from the estimates and the time. In one embodiment, the time is selected using one or more adjustable signal confidence parameters determine where along the estimates the output value will be computed. By varying the parameters, the characteristics of the output value are variable. For example, when input signal confidence is low, the parameters are adjusted so that the output value is a smoothed representation of the input signal. When input signal confidence is high, the parameters are adjusted so that the output value has a faster and more accurate response to the input signal.
W E Johnston, P G Robertie, L H Dudas, N G Kon, J Vinten-Johansen; A81 CARDIAC OUTPUT FAILS TO INCREASE WITH PACING IN CARDIAC SURGICAL PATIENTS. Anesthesiology 1990; 73:NA doi: Download citation file:. ...
Ahmed Zaky-Failure of the Flotracâ ¢/Vigileoâ ¢ (3.01) to Track Rapid Hemodynamic Changes in an Unstable Cardiac Surgical Patient
There has been considerable interest in magnesium as a treatment to limit myocardial damage in myocardial infarction (MI). Experimentally it has been shown to have a role in myocardial salvage, possibly by inhibiting calcium influx to ischaemic myocytes and/or by reducing coronary tone. It has also been shown to increase the threshold for depolarisation of cardiac myocytes, theoretically reducing the risk of malignant arrhythmia. In healthy humans it can reduce peripheral vascular resistance and increase cardiac output with no effect on cardiac work.1. Prior to 1995 a number of small studies and one large study had all produced positive outcomes for magnesium intervention in acute MI. The LIMIT-2 study, a randomised controlled trial (RCT) with 2316 subjects, demonstrated a statistically significant 16% reduction in all cause mortality for magnesium compared with placebo (95% CI 2% to 29%) mainly because of a reduction in early left ventricular failure.2. However, the ISIS-4 study 3 with 58 050 ...
I recently had a stress echo which found that with exercise my heart did not squeeze properly which looked like balanced cardiac disease to my cardiologist. I was able to do 12 min on the treadmill. I ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Determination of cardiac output by external detection of the radio-activity of aortic blood (human serum albumin labelled with iodine 131)]. by Petruska Marques et al.
EECP Treatment: EECP (enhanced external counter pulsation) therapy is an outpatient treatment used to improve blood circulation and increase cardiac output. It is normally used for angina and heart failure. In ME/CFS the treatment sessions are 30-45 minutes and are given once a week. During the treatment, the patient lies on a comfortable treatment table with large blood pressure-like cuffs wrapped around the legs and buttocks. These cuffs inflate and deflate continuously at specific times between heartbeats, a continuous electrocardiogram (EKG) set the timing so the cuffs inflate while the heart is at rest, in diastole, when it normally gets its supply of blood and oxygen. The cuffs deflate at the end of that rest period, just before the next heartbeat, systole. When timed correctly, this will decrease the afterload that the heart has to pump against, and increase the preload that fills the heart, increasing the cardiac output ...
Cardiac input (CI) is the inverse operation of cardiac output. As cardiac output implies the volumetric expression of ejection ... In cardiac physiology, cardiac output (CO), also known as heart output and often denoted by the symbols Q {\displaystyle Q} , Q ... Values for cardiac output are usually denoted as L/min. For a healthy individual weighing 70 kg, the cardiac output at rest ... its cardiac output, Q. Cardiac output is classically defined alongside stroke volume (SV) and the heart rate (HR) as:[citation ...
The assessment of Cardiac Output (CO) is important because it reveals the main cardiac function: the supply of blood to tissues ... quantium Medical Cardiac Output (qCO) uses impedance cardiography in a simple, continuous, and non-invasive way to estimate the ... Hofer, C.K.; Ganter, M.T.; Zollinger, A. (2007). "What technique should I use to measure cardiac output?". Curr. Opin. Crit. ... de Waal, E. E. C.; Wappler, F.; Buhre, F. (2009). "Cardiac output monitoring". Curr. Opin. Anesthesiol. 22. García, X.; Mateu, ...
Cardiac output (Lit./Min.): 6.26 Stroke Volume (Ml.): 75 Heart Rate (Per min.): 85 Blood Pressure: Unaffected Cardiac output ... Estrogen mediates this rise in cardiac output by increasing the pre-load and stroke volume, mainly via a higher overall blood ... The increased GFR leads to increased urinary output, which the woman may experience as increased urinary frequency. ... The heart adapts to the increased cardiac demand that occurs during pregnancy in many ways. ...
Chronic: Valve diseases as noted above; Reduced cardiac output; Exercise intolerance. Intensive cardiac care and ... Autoimmune heart diseases are the effects of the body's own immune defense system mistaking cardiac antigens as foreign and ... Acutely, it can cause pericardial effusion leading to cardiac tamponade and death. After healing, there may be fibrosis and ... adhesion of the pericardium with the heart leading to constriction of the heart and reduced cardiac function. Myocarditis: Here ...
In advanced cases, the disease may cause high-output cardiac failure and death. Symptoms may occur concurrently with those of ... Anand, I. S.; Florea, V. G. (2001). "High Output Cardiac Failure". Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine. 3 (2 ... McIntyre, Neil; Stanley, Nigel N. (1971). "Cardiac Beriberi: Two Modes of Presentation". BMJ. 3 (5774): 567-9. doi:10.1136/bmj. ... "A case of cardiac beriberi: a forgotten but memorable disease". Korean Circulation Journal. 43 (8): 569-572. doi:10.4070/kcj. ...
... is a heart condition that occurs when the cardiac output is higher than normal due to increased ... High Output Cardiac Failure. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med. 2001 Apr;3(2):151-159. PMID 11242561 Causes of High-Output ... Ultimately cardiac output can be reduced to very low levels. It may occur in situations with an increased blood volume, morbid ...
It normally limits cardiac output. Superposition of the cardiac function curve and venous return curve is used in one ... direct influences on cardiac output such as end diastolic pressure and volume which can be causally related to cardiac output ... Although cardiac output and venous return are interdependent, each can be independently regulated. The circulatory system is ... However, as noted above it is clear that, equally, cardiac output must dictate venous return since over any period of time both ...
Henry A. Schroeder, was used to measure cardiac output and led to the first accurate physical measurements and to detection of ... This led him, shortly after joining Penn, to participate in a cardiac output methods program by the American Physiological ... At this program, his colleague, Yandell Henderson, demonstrated an apparatus for measuring cardiac output, a ... Cardiac Output Measurement Using Ballistocardiogram. The 15th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering IFMBE ...
This results in a decrease in cardiac input and output. A further decrease of cardiac input and output is typical in phase III ... The decrease in stroke volume can also ultimately lead to a decrease in cardiac output, which could be signaled by tachycardia ... "Management of Cardiac Tamponade After Cardiac Surgery". Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. Elsevier BV. 26 (2 ... Cardiac tamponade is caused by a large or uncontrolled pericardial effusion, i.e. the buildup of fluid inside the pericardium. ...
The ability of the pulmonary artery catheter to sample mixed venous blood is of great utility to manage low cardiac output ... The concept of using thermodilution to measure cardiac output was originally the idea of Arnost Fronek. As a former colleague ... Regardless of the value obtained by measurements of the cardiac output, the mixed venous oxygen saturation is an accurate ... Non-invasive echocardiography and pulse-wave cardiac output monitoring are concordant with (and much safer) if not better than ...
... is a determinant of cardiac output. Cardiac output is the product of stroke volume and heart rate. Afterload is a ... As afterload increases, cardiac output decreases. Cardiac imaging is a somewhat limited modality in defining afterload because ... This may start a vicious circle, in which cardiac output is reduced as oxygen requirements are increased. Afterload can also be ... Cardiac output Hemodynamics Preload Mohrman, David E. (2018). Cardiovascular Physiology, 9e. McGraw-Hill Education LLC. ISBN ...
Apex beat Cardiac action potential Cardiac output Pulse "19.3 Cardiac Cycle , Anatomy & Physiology". ... of the cardiac cycle. Throughout the cardiac cycle, blood pressure increases and decreases. The movements of cardiac muscle are ... See Wiggers diagram: "Ventricular volume" tracing (red), at "Systole" panel.) Cardiac diastole is the period of the cardiac ... The cardiac cycle is the performance of the human heart from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next. It ...
Cardiac output (CO) is the product of stroke volume and heart rate. Although CO is available beat by beat, it is usually ... The cross-sectional area is adjusted to give more accurate cardiac output and renamed to aortic constant (AC). The product of ... "How the ODM works - Cardiac Output Monitoring , Deltex Medical". (Articles needing additional references ... and cardiac output (CO). A properly constructed and calibrated probe is approved for use on adults and children in many parts ...
Bloodless measurement of cardiac output) Z. Biol. 90, 467 (1930). 213 citations on Google Scholar (December 13, 2016) Wolf- ...
Cardiac output is dependent on stroke volume and heart rate. A significant portion (55-77%) of HFpEF patients are unable to ... As a consequence, cardiac output becomes diminished. When the left ventricular diastolic pressure is elevated, venous pressure ... Volumetric definition of the heart in systole was first described by Adolph Fick as cardiac output. Fick may be readily and ... Abudiab MM, Redfield MM, Melenovsky V, Olson TP, Kass DA, Johnson BD, Borlaug BA (July 2013). "Cardiac output response to ...
... receives about 10% of cardiac output. Blood enters the endosteum, flows through the marrow, and exits through small ...
120-121 Teichmann, G (November 1992). "William Harvey, Peter Lauremberg and cardiac output". International Journal of Clinical ...
Ira, Stuart Fox (2016). "Cardiac Output, Blood Flow, and Blood Pressure". Human Physiology (14th ed.). New York, NY. pp. 450- ...
In both types, the heart's output of blood (cardiac output) is decreased. This causes a back-up of blood into the veins ... cardiac output drops. Hypotension and shock ensue. If not rapidly treated, it can lead to cardiac arrest and death. A pulmonary ... With the decrease cardiac output, blood flow to vital tissues is decreased. Poor perfusion to organs leads to shock. Due to ... With less venous return, cardiac output decreases. The lack of blood flow to vital organs can cause death. Various conditions ...
... cardiac output (L/sec) SV = stroke volume (ml) HR = heart rate (bpm) The normal human cardiac output is 5-6 L/min at rest. Not ... Cardiac output is determine by two methods. One is to used the Fick equation: C O = V O 2 / C a O 2 − C v O 2 {\displaystyle CO ... Cardiac output is mathematically expressed by the following equation: C O = S V × H R {\displaystyle CO=SV\times HR} where CO ... The rate of blood flow out of the heart (often expressed in L/min) is known as the cardiac output (CO). Blood being pumped out ...
The relationship of cardiac output and end tidal CO 2 is linear, such that as cardiac output increases or decreases, the amount ... If cardiac output (the amount of blood that is pumped out of the heart) is decreased, the ability to transport CO 2 is also ... The AHA also notes in their new guidelines that capnography, which indirectly measures cardiac output, can also be used to ... Weil, Max; Bisera, Jose; Trevino; Rackow, Eric (October 2016). "Cardiac output and end-tidal carbon dioxide". Crit Care Med. 13 ...
Increased cardiac output and low systemic vascular resistance are characteristic of ALF. Pulmonary artery catheterization ... There is a compensatory increase in cardiac output. Adrenal insufficiency has been documented in 60% of ALF cases, and is ... cardiac arrhythmia or arrest and respiratory failure. The median time to death after admission was 5 days. Intravenous N- ...
Cardiac output is mathematically ` to systole[clarification needed] Inotropic, chronotropic, and dromotropic states Cardiac ... Cardiac output (= heart rate * stroke volume. Can also be calculated with Fick principle,palpeting method.) Stroke volume (= ... Stroke volume Cardiac output Pressure Pulse pressure (systolic pressure - diastolic pressure) Mean arterial pressure (usually ... Electrical conduction system of the heart Electrocardiogram Cardiac marker Cardiac action potential Frank-Starling law of the ...
Richards, D. G.; Whitfield, A. G.; Arnott, W. M.; Waterhouse, J. A. (1951). "The Lung Volume in Low Output Cardiac Syndromes". ...
His cardiac output was 50 litres a minute; a fit amateur cyclist's is about 25 litres. Induráin's lung capacity was 7.8 litres ... His maximal values were oxygen uptake 5.29 L/min (57.4 mL · kg-1 · min-1) and aerobic power output 450 W (4.88 W/kg) and was ... However, his absolute maximal and submaximal oxygen uptake and power output in 2012 still compared favorably with those ...
Goldberg SJ, Comerci GD, Feldman L (January 1988). "Cardiac output and regional myocardial contraction in anorexia nervosa". ... Some individuals may also have a decrease in cardiac contractility. Cardiac complications can be life-threatening, but the ... Anorexia nervosa increases the risk of sudden cardiac death, though the precise cause is unknown. Cardiac complications include ... Cardiac complications can include arrhythmias, abnormally slow heart beat, low blood pressure, decreased size of the heart ...
This gives a simple way to calculate the cardiac output:[citation needed] Cardiac Output = oxygen consumption arteriovenous ... Cardiac Output = (125 mL O2/minute × 1.9) / (200 mL O2/L - 150 mL O2/L) = 4.75 L/min Cardiac output may also be estimated with ... "Indirect Measurement of Cardiac Output" Arterial blood Cuschieri, J; Rivers, EP; Donnino, MW; Katilius, M; Jacobsen, G; Nguyen ... In the determination of cardiac output, the substance most commonly measured is the oxygen content of blood thus giving the ...
MAP is the average of blood pressure over a cardiac cycle and is determined by the cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular ... In the short-term, the greater the blood volume, the higher the cardiac output. This has been proposed as an explanation of the ... The resultant increase in blood volume results in an increased cardiac output by the Frank-Starling law of the heart, in turn ... Most influences on blood pressure can be understood in terms of their effect on cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, ...
... decrease cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke work, and volume; lower resistance in blood vessels in the kidneys; and lead to ... This leads to cardiac dysfunction and neuromuscular consequences, such as muscle weakness, paresthesia, nausea, diarrhea, and ... This action may reduce the prevalence of malignant cardiac arrhythmias, and the reduction in sudden death reported in large ... Adigun AQ, Asiyanbola B, Ajayi AA (2001). "Cardiac autonomic function in Blacks with congestive heart failure: vagomimetic ...
Boron, Walter F.; Boulpaep, Emile L. (2011). "Chapter 23: Regulation of Arterial Pressure and Cardiac Output". Medical ... now restores venous return and cardiac output into a vasoconstricted circulation, stimulating the vagus nerve and leading to a ... "Effects on cardiac contractility and stroke volume are insignificant." Bainbridge reflex can be blocked by atropine and can be ... Increased blood volume is detected by stretch receptors (Cardiac Receptors) located in both sides of atria at the venoatrial ...
2007). "A comparison between acoustic output indices in 2D and 3D/4D ultrasound in obstetrics". Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 29 ( ... including number of amnionic sacs and chorionic sacs for multiple gestations Fetal cardiac activity Fetal position relative to ... including number of amnionic sacs and chorionic sacs for multiple gestations Embryonic/fetal cardiac activity Assessment of ...
In the developing world, there is a 10 fold increase in cardiac events in the black and urban populations. While cancer affects ... HIV can negatively affect work output, which impacts the ability to generate income. This is crucial in parts of Africa where ...
Kovács spends about half of his time on clinical activities, including performing diagnostic cardiac catheterizations involving ... viscosity/relaxation and chamber stiffness for each E-wave analyzed as output. Investigators at the Karolinska Institutet have ... cardiac MRI). Among the results from this work is that the so-called third heart sound, "S3", formerly taught to be ... served as director of the cardiac catheterization laboratory at the St Louis VA Medical Center (1985-1990) advancing through ...
Set in a far future Earth, where the earth has stopped rotating, the Sun has increased output, and plants are engaged in a ... ", "Cardiac Arrest" (novelette), "In the Arena", "All the World's Tears", "Amen and Out", "The Soft Predicament" (novelette), " ...
This "sympathoadrenal discharge" causes an increase in heart rate, cardiac output, blood pressure, triglyceride and glucose ...
The cardiac output of an athlete is difficult to manipulate during competitions and the distribution of cardiac output is at ... depends on cardiac output, O2 extraction and hemoglobin mass. ...
This way, medical specialists are able to measure both cardiac output and circulating blood volume from outside the body. ... It is highly effective at matching fibre input-output due to its low index and broad transparency window. For more complex PICs ...
Jake and Nick that she was having Cardiac arrest episodes and suffering from High output heart failure. Summer comes with ...
... a hemodynamic parameter that relates the cardiac output to a patient's body size. Determination of cardiac output can be done ... For example, in aortic valve area calculation the Gorlin equation can be used to calculate the area if the cardiac output, ... Right heart catheterizations also allow the physician to estimate the cardiac output, the amount of blood that flows from the ... These methods have drawbacks, but give invasive estimations of the cardiac output, which can be used to make clinical decisions ...
Buderer, MC; Rummel, JA; Sawin, CF; Mauldin, DG (July 1973). "Use of the single-breth method of estimating cardiac output ... This, the observed diminished stroke volume (cardiac output) is certainly contributory and, in turn, is a reflection of ... For Apollo 15 to 17 missions, cardiac output measurements were obtained by the single-breath technique. Arteriovenous oxygen ... Additionally, the resistance to fatigue was significantly decreased as well as the ability to sustain work and power output in ...
Cardiac output and heart rate also decreased in the MARS group as a consequence of an improvement in the hyperdynamic ...
If this mechanism did not exist and the right and left cardiac outputs were not equivalent, blood would accumulate in the ... The Frank-Starling mechanism allows the cardiac output to be synchronized with the venous return, arterial blood supply and ... The mechanism is of functional importance because it serves to adapt left ventricular output to right ventricular output. ... and temperature do not affect the relatively constant cardiac output. More than 30 years before the development of the sliding ...
In one series of famous experiments on the cardiac ganglion in lobsters, Bullock demonstrated that neurons can communicate not ... which he used to explore the neural mechanisms that work together to produce an output in response to a stimulus, both at the ... and built a model that accurately predicted the input-output relationships for a range of different stimuli. Bullock maintained ...
In April 2012, the then State President had a cardiac arrest which resulted to his death due to lack of medication both within ... Challenges that lead to this shortage are low outputs of medical training institutions, health worker retention, and disease. ... In 2005, Malawi began to implement its emergency human resource program which concentrates on increasing output of trained ... cardiac or neural related problems, are likely to receive wrong diagnosis and incorrect treatment or medication resulting to in ...
This is commonly done by using a pulse oximeter or EKG sensor to read a cardiac signal and/or a bellows to read the breathing ... Specific to motion artifact correction in MRI, the Generator Network takes in an image with motion artifacts, and outputs an ... The pilot tone method can also be used prospectively to acquire cardiac images. The Pilot Tone method is great for detecting ... The windows of time where the respiratory and cardiac motions are low are very infrequent, leading to high dead times. However ...
Echocardiogram abnormalities and cardiac catheterization or angiogram to rule out coronary artery blockages, along with a ... frothy material Decreased urine output (oliguria) Need to urinate at night (nocturia) Heart palpitations (irregular heart beat ...
Eccentric contractions and cardiac output: With lower cost of oxygen how would eccentric exercise affect the heart? A study was ... An increase in cardiac vagal modulation during recovery was also concluded. A lot of studies have been conducted regarding ... The unique trait of greater overloads to the muscle with less strenuous impact on the body, as well as cardiac and respiratory ... Add to these factors disease and cardiac and respiratory illness. Eccentric training enables the elderly, and those with the ...
Another week cardiac output Paulette Acosta, Giselle dancing with the girls and the pace of Tito el Bambino marked the sixth ...
Gas exchange is affected by increases in the dispersion of both alveolar ventilation and cardiac output because bronchial and ... is characterized by the abrupt onset of significant hypoxemia and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in the absence of cardiac ...
On 27 September he suffered cardiac arrest. Singh died at the age of 82 years. His death was triggered as a sign of honour and ... economy of India was one of the fastest growing in the world and one of the leading agricultural nations and second most output ... had a cardiac arrest this morning," Naresh Raj, Army Research and Referral Hospital In June 2020, Singh was admitted to the ...
... and decreased exercise tolerance are related to rapid heart rate and inefficient cardiac output caused by AF. Furthermore, AF ... During cardiac catheterization, a device (such as the Watchman device) consisting of an expandable nitinol frame is introduced ... The left atrial appendage can also be surgically amputated, sutured or stapled simultaneously with other cardiac procedures ... Cardiac glycosides (i.e. digoxin) - have limited use, apart from in the sedentary elderly patient In addition to these agents, ...
Boothroyd CE, Young MW (2008). "The in(put)s and out(put)s of the Drosophila circadian clock". Annals of the New York Academy ... Martino, Tami A.; Young, Martin E. (June 2015). "Influence of the cardiomyocyte circadian clock on cardiac physiology and ... Mistry, Priya; Duong, Austin; Kirshenbaum, Lorrie; Martino, Tami A. (October 2017). "Cardiac Clocks and Preclinical Translation ... or timing of medications can reduce adverse cardiac remodeling in patients with heart disease. Timing of medical treatment in ...
... in which significant portions of cardiac output are directed to the skin), lowered skinfold thickness (contributes to ... Safar, Peter J; Kochanek, Patrick M (2002-02-21). "Therapeutic Hypothermia after Cardiac Arrest". New England Journal of ... the timing of hypothermia treatments are a crucial consideration to be made when dealing with patients suffering from cardiac ... though there is some evidence of the treatment proving effective hours after cardiac arrest in animal models. Hyperthermia is ...
Elevated sympathetic nervous system output Overstimulation from drugs such as caffeine digitalis and catecholamines Cardiac ... Cardiac ectopy Clinical cardiac electrophysiology Electrical conduction system of the heart Phibbs, B. (1963). "Paroxysmal ... It is thus a cardiac pacemaker that is ectopic, producing an ectopic beat. Acute occurrence is usually non-life-threatening, ...
... or output of blood by the heart during a single phase of the cardiac cycle. The stroke volume is the difference between the end ... ESV is the lowest volume of blood in the ventricle at any point in the cardiac cycle. The main factors that affect the end- ... End systolic volume can be used clinically as a measurement of the adequacy of cardiac emptying, related to systolic function. ... Clinically, ESV can be measured using two-dimensional echocardiography, MRI (magnetic resonance tomography) or cardiac CT ( ...
... wider capillaries and significantly increased blood volume and cardiac output. Tokyo Sea Life Park holds the only captive fish ...
Nishino, H. (2004). "Motor output characterizing thanatosis in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus". Journal of Experimental ... "Proven cardiac changes during death-feigning (tonic immobility) in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)". Journal of Comparative ...
Crustaceans are an important source of food, providing nearly 10,700,000 tons in 2007; the vast majority of this output is of ... The peptide GsMtx-4, found in the venom, has been studied for possible use in cardiac arrhythmia, muscular dystrophy, and ... Possible medical uses for other spider venoms have been investigated for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmia, Alzheimer's ...
Baek D, Villén J, Shin C, Camargo FD, Gygi SP, Bartel DP (September 2008). "The impact of microRNAs on protein output". Nature ... van Rooij E, Sutherland LB, Qi X, Richardson JA, Hill J, Olson EN (April 2007). "Control of stress-dependent cardiac growth and ... cardiac conduction, and cell cycle in mice lacking miRNA-1-2". Cell. 129 (2): 303-17. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.03.030. PMID ... "MicroRNA-133 controls cardiac hypertrophy". Nature Medicine. 13 (5): 613-8. doi:10.1038/nm1582. PMID 17468766. S2CID 10097893. ...
Niyazov continued the old practice of demanding yearly quotas in agricultural output, and then blaming and/or sacking deputy ... Niyazov had publicly announced that he had been taking heart medication for the past few years for an unidentified cardiac ... of its domestic output. Additionally, numerous petroleum transportation projects were completed such as a pipeline from the ...
Cardiac output is the term that describes the amount of blood your heart pumps each minute. Doctors think about cardiac output ... Why is maintaining cardiac output so important?. Sufficient cardiac output helps keep blood pressure at the levels needed to ... What is a normal cardiac output?. A healthy heart with a normal cardiac output pumps about 5 to 6 litres of blood every minute ... When does the body need a higher cardiac output?. During exercise, your body may need three or four times your normal cardiac ...
Structural, functional cardiac disorder that impairs the heart to fill with or eject blood.. Primary cause L sided is LDCA. ... Cardiac glycoside-Dig. Medical TX: ventricular assist device (Intra-aortic balloon pump) ... Watch for R on T (cardiac event-ventric stimulus causes premature depoalrization of cells that havent completely repolarized. ...
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NICO100C is a noninvasive cardiac output amplifier that uses bioimpedance techniques to provide a continuous reading of cardiac ... Noninvasive Cardiac Output Module records specific parameters associated with cardiac output measurements. It incorporates a ... Cardiac Output. Differential Pressure. Electrodermal. Feedback & Markers. Force. General. Goniometers. Microphone. Output. ... Cardiac Output. Differential Pressure. Electrodermal. Feedback & Markers. Force. General. Goniometers. Microphone. Output. ...
Commentary: Pediatric cardiac stem cells: Another holy grail?. Backer, C. L., Sep 2019, In: Journal of Thoracic and ... Contemporary left atrial appendage management during adult cardiac surgery. Badhwar, V., Scott Rankin, J., Lee, R., McCarthy, P ... Research Output Research Output per year 1968 1994 1995 1996 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2007 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 ...
An ability to measure cardiac output in a continuous and non-invasive fashion is eagerly awaited in the field of intensive care ... cardiac output monitoring system in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with pulmonary artery cardiac output ... Cardiac output derived from arterial pressure waveform analysis in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: validity of a second ... de Waal EE, Kalkman C, Rex S, Buhre W: Validation of a new arterial pulse contour-based cardiac output device. Crit Care Med ...
Het hartminuutvolume van de hond Cardiac output in the dog. Main Author:. Huisman, Gerrit Hendrik, 1934-. Format:. Book. ...
Dive into the research topics of Mechanism for decrease in cardiac output with atrial natriuretic peptide in dogs. Together ... Mechanism for decrease in cardiac output with atrial natriuretic peptide in dogs. ...
... measurement of cardiac output) Last reviewed 01/2018. The most convenient method for estimating the cardiac output requires the ... It is assumed that there is no intra-cardiac shunt, so that the output of the right side of the heart is identical to the ...
Correction of cardiac output obtained by Modelflow from finger pulse pressure profiles with a respiratory method in humans. ... The beat-by-beat non-invasive assessment of cardiac output (Q litre x min(-1)) based on the arterial pulse pressure analysis ... TAM, Enrico et al. Correction of cardiac output obtained by Modelflow from finger pulse pressure profiles with a respiratory ... Correction of cardiac output obtained by Modelflow from finger pulse pressure profiles with a respiratory... ...
... it is reasonable to perform right-heart hemodynamic assessment to verify a patients volume status and cardiac output in order ... Cardiac Re-synchronization Therapy. Recommendations for cardiac re-synchronization therapy (Class I) include: *1. Potential ... In the decisionmaking process before MCSD implantation other cardiac, non-cardiac and technical factors must be considered. The ... In addition to dyssynchrony resulting from underlying cardiac pathologies, some data suggest that cardiac dyssynchrony induced ...
Dive into the research topics of Glucose-insulin-potassium reduces the incidence of low cardiac output episodes after aortic ... T1 - Glucose-insulin-potassium reduces the incidence of low cardiac output episodes after aortic valve replacement for aortic ... Glucose-insulin-potassium reduces the incidence of low cardiac output episodes after aortic valve replacement for aortic ... Glucose-insulin-potassium reduces the incidence of low cardiac output episodes after aortic valve replacement for aortic ...
Since the patient´s cardiac output (CO) can compete with the retrograde aortic ECMO-flow, the aim of this study was to examine ... Cardiac injury was determined by analyzing the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). During anoxic ventilation the systolic, ... the impact of the inspiratory oxygen fraction on the cardiac function during V-A ECMO therapy. Eighteen male Lewis rats (350- ... From: Impact of the inspiratory oxygen fraction on the cardiac output during jugulo-femoral venoarterial extracorporeal ...
Our first article in this essential section regards our physiological control of cardiac output. Cardiac output is defined as ... In the absence of any influences the SAN pacing rate would be 100 bpm, however heart rate and cardiac output must be able to ... This affects the heart rate (or chronotrophy), which in turn affects the cardiac output. In this article we will discuss how ... This is therefore affected by stroke volume and sympathetic/parasympathetic output to the heart. Stroke volume is affected by ...
Excessive cardiac fibrosis is an important factor in the progression of various forms of cardiac disease and heart failure2. ... Adoptive transfer of CAR T cells against the fibroblast marker FAP reduces cardiac fibrosis and restores function after cardiac ... We find that cardiac fibroblasts that express a xenogeneic antigen can be effectively targeted and ablated by adoptive transfer ... Upon injury, cardiac fibroblasts in the heart begin to remodel the myocardium by depositing excess extracellular matrix, ...
Topic : Cardiac Output. Subject code : BCP3T1. Subject name : Anatomy, Physiology &Pharmacology related to cardiac perfusion technology. Delivered by : Mr.Karthik G. ...
The resting value of cardiac output is about 4-8 l.min-1. A simple equation applies to cardiac output: [math]\displaystyle{ SV ... To date, there is no method for determining cardiac output and cardiac index that is generally considered the gold standard. ... Cardiac output is the amount of blood that the ventricle pumps per unit time (minute). This is actually the flow of blood ... cardiac output based on the use of the Fick principle may become an accurate and inexpensive method of measuring cardiac output ...
For cardiac output 2 h after calibration, agreement was -5.2 ± 57.5% (correlation 0.6, P , 0.001). Dynamic changes in blood ... A gold standard cardiac output measurement can be obtained using ultrasound dilution in patients with arterio-venous fistulae. ... Continuous cardiac output was measured in 124 hemodialysis sessions in 27 patients using a volume-clamp device (Finometer PRO ... For baseline cardiac output before calibration, agreement between volume-clamp and ultrasound dilution measurements was poor, ...
A number of studies have shown that expired CO2 concentration is closely related to cardiac output, but that cardiac output was ... A number of studies have shown that expired CO2 concentration is closely related to cardiac output, but that cardiac output was ... A number of studies have shown that expired CO2 concentration is closely related to cardiac output, but that cardiac output was ... A number of studies have shown that expired CO2 concentration is closely related to cardiac output, but that cardiac output was ...
Provided phase two support for a cardiac output monitoring tool, which is easier to operate and more cost-effective compared to ... This tool, which has been FDA approved, will enable patients to understand their cardiac issues in a more accurate manner, ...
Edwards CO Set In-Line Injectate Probe, 3 ft (Continental US Only)Availability: 14-21 Days
Machine Learning algorithms trained on electrical-impedance tomography data are presented for portable cardiac monitoring. The ... Noise-robust Bioimpedance Approach for Cardiac Output Measurement. Ethan K Murphy, Justice Amoh, Saaid H Arshad, Ryan J Halter ... A continuous, non-invasive, telemonitoring device that can accurately monitor cardiac metrics could greatly help this ... data are presented for portable cardiac monitoring. The approach was validated on a simulated thorax and a measured tank ...
Decreased cardiac output: an integrative review. Silva, Ricardo Costa da; Gondim, Micaelle Costa; Melo, Gabriela Moreira; Silva ... FINAL CONSIDERATIONS the elements for decreased cardiac output, identified in the literature, add evidence that justifies the ... for nursing diagnosis decreased cardiac output. METHOD:. an integrative literature review, conducted between September and ...
Roy SB, Bhatia ML, Joseph G. Determinates and distribution of high cardiac output in chronic severe anaemia. Indian Heart ...
Levosimendan not effective in reducing postoperative low cardiac output syndrome in select heart surgery patients. byQasim ... Overall, the results of this study suggest levosimendan does not help reduce the risk of low cardiac output failure in patients ... While current management of low cardiac output syndrome includes use of inotropic agents or left ventricular assist devices, ... Relevant Reading: Predictors of Low Cardiac Output Syndrome After Isolated Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: Trends Over 20 Years ...
Free Essay Sample: Factors Affecting Cardiac Output. Free Essay: Factors Affecting Cardiac Output. Cardiac output refers to the ... Cardiac output can be measured in different ways including dm3/min. During a systole phase, cardiac output refers to the ... This decreases cardiac output to even critical levels.. Assessing cardiac output is vital because it determines the actual ... There are several factors affecting cardiac output.. Two major factors affect cardiac output. These are the heart rate and ...
Cardiac output. May be normal, low, or high. Mostly decreased, may be low normal ...
Cardiac output monitoring Cardiac output monitoring. We are developing a device for continuous, non-invasive monitoring of a ... In particular, we have been pursuing EIT for cardiac output monitoring (a related application) and EIT as a surrogate for ... Electrical impedance tomography in pulmonary and cardiac applications Electrical impedance tomography in pulmonary and cardiac ... patients cardiac hemodynamic status, allowing for physician intervention before the clinical symptoms of decompensation are ...
  • Noninvasive cardiac output monitoring in a porcine model using the inspired sinewave technique: a proof-of-concept study. (
  • We present a novel noninvasive and fully automated method that uses the inspired sinewave technique to continuously monitor cardiac output (Q˙IST). (
  • CONCLUSIONS: The inspired sinewave technique provides continuous and noninvasive monitoring of cardiac output, with a 'marginal-good' trending ability compared with cardiac output based on thermodilution. (
  • In this study, noninvasive measurements of cardiac output and O 2 consumption were performed to estimate the blood flow to and efficiency of the respiratory muscles that are used in elevated inspiratory work loads. (
  • Introduction: Impedance cardiography (IC) derived from morphological analysis of the thoracic impedance signal is now commonly used for noninvasive assessment of cardiac output (CO) at rest and during exercise. (
  • In 1972, Aoyagi was investigating a noninvasive cardiac output device and discovered that arterial pulsatile "noise" interfering with the accurate dye dilution curve contains important information about the oxygenation of blood in a person's arteries. (
  • Nowadays, the cardiac index is usually calculated automatically using software-integrated relationships evaluating measurement results, such as the thermodilution method. (
  • BACKGROUND: Cardiac output (Q˙) monitoring can support the management of high-risk surgical patients, but the pulmonary artery catheterisation required by the current 'gold standard'-bolus thermodilution (Q˙T)-has the potential to cause life-threatening complications. (
  • Measurements included: leg blood flow (LBF, thermodilution), cardiac output (Q), and oesophageal pressure (P(pl), index of pleural pressure). (
  • This is therefore affected by stroke volume and sympathetic/parasympathetic output to the heart. (
  • Despite the increasing popularity of marathon running, there are no data on the responses of stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) to exercise in this context. (
  • Taken together it's referred to as bradycardia-tachycardia or tachy-brady syndrome This is a type of sick sinus syndrome and can be associated with the heart rhythm disorder atrial fibrillation and raise a person's risk for complications that include stroke and sudden death or cardiac arrest. (
  • New diagnostic techniques (transesophageal echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging) have allowed clinicians to better characterize well-established sources of embolism and to discover other potential etiologies of cardioembolic stroke (see the following image). (
  • the daggers [ † ] indicate emboli originating in the venous circulation or right heart that cause ischemic stroke via abnormal cardiac or pulmonary shunting around the pulmonary capillary bed. (
  • An ability to measure cardiac output in a continuous and non-invasive fashion is eagerly awaited in the field of intensive care practice. (
  • This is not the case for studies assessing continuous monitoring of cardiac output. (
  • Continuous cardiac output was measured in 124 hemodialysis sessions in 27 patients using a volume-clamp device (Finometer PRO). (
  • A continuous, non-invasive, telemonitoring device that can accurately monitor cardiac metrics could greatly help this population, reducing unnecessary hospitalizations and cost. (
  • We are developing a device for continuous, non-invasive monitoring of a patient's cardiac hemodynamic status, allowing for physician intervention before the clinical symptoms of decompensation are observed, and potentially avoiding hospitalization. (
  • Continuous cardiac output and global ejection fraction were measured to indicate hemodynamics. (
  • Cardiac arrest leads to a continuous decrease in intestinal blood flow and an increase in intestinal permeability, subsequently triggering systemic inflammatory responses, which could be the underlying mechanism to cause the sepsis ( 3-5 ). (
  • Another therapeutic approach to postoperative low-cardiac-output syndrome is atrial decompression by creating an atrial septal defect. (
  • However there were fewer patients with low postoperative cardiac index in S group (11% in S vs 35% in control group, P (
  • Without this the monitor may be shown to track changes accurately but may not be a reliable measurement of cardiac output. (
  • In this subset of patients, there is a higher risk of low cardiac output syndrome that increases the frequency of complications such as myocardial infarction, pulmonary impairment, or renal failure. (
  • A refractory low-cardiac-output syndrome is, in pediatric patients, most often due to impaired myocardial function after corrective surgery in congenital heart disease. (
  • Acute hypoxia causes an increase in heart rate, myocardial contractility, and cardiac output. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Determinates and distribution of high cardiac output in chronic severe anaemia. (
  • Vasoplegic syndrome (VS) is defined as a syndrome of low systemic vascular resistance (SVR) in the presence of normal or high cardiac output 1-4 . (
  • When does the body need a higher cardiac output? (
  • The physiological mechanism responsible for this BP increase is a higher cardiac output (CO), but not a higher total peripheral resistance (TPR). (
  • This can lead to inadequate cardiac output, or other problems. (
  • Cardiogenic shock is defined as inadequate cardiac output to support organ function. (
  • 1992) proposed, for veterinary cardiac patients, a method for assessment which is based on information from the patient's clinical status, that is easy to implement and can be widely used. (
  • Simply put, radiation dose and image quality must be compared in every patient and not just between patient groups, because discrepancies in the patient's shape, cardiac output, lesion pathology, and other factors are highly individualized, they wrote. (
  • Diagnostic cardiac measurement bedside with 12SL* ECG analysis and two-way integration to the MUSE* cardiology information system, for validated access to a patient's history and serial comparison of cardiac status. (
  • Diagnostic quality of 12SL analysis and automatic, initial interpretation, along with two-way integration to the MUSE* cardiology information system, enable fast, validated access to a patient's 12SL history and serial comparison of cardiac status. (
  • Sources of cardioembolic embolism include valvular diseases, left ventricular and atrial thrombi, cardiac tumors, and paradoxical emboli, as well as other sources. (
  • Atrial myxoma , * cardiac sarcoma , endocardial fibroelastoma, and metastatic disease are associated with cardiac tumors and cardioembolic emboli. (
  • In low-cardiac-output syndrome refractory to all therapeutic measures mechanical circulatory support is the final method to keep the patient alive. (
  • In 11 children with refractory low-cardiac-output syndrome mechanical circulatory support was performed. (
  • Meanwhile, neonates, infants, children and adults with congenital and acquired cardiac disease may require mechanical circulatory support secondary to hemodynamic instability due to their critical cardiac lesions. (
  • They decrease cardiac output are for decreased taste may be allowed to lower extremities may develop during sustained transport of orthostatic syndromes. (
  • Use in cardiac output decrease hospitalization of the cardiac output in tissue necrosis and enhanced arteriolar resistance, vasodilation and spleen and in. (
  • In cardiac output decrease absorption of acute phase of av block its extra stress the decreasing the tte examinations performed at dubai airports. (
  • What is cardiac output decrease in others who was mainly observed that it must be. (
  • You for cardiac output decrease sv. (
  • Meditation techniques in cardiac output decrease. (
  • Also decrease cardiac output is decreased during exercise training programme for? (
  • Normal cardiac output decrease in decreased. (
  • Cardiovascular system for decreased cardiac output decrease digoxin makes it. (
  • When the decrease volume rather than for tips procedure induced increase output and treatment of orthostatic hypotension after catheterization. (
  • The cardiac function was impaired after resuscitation, and a decrease of IFN‑γ as well as IL‑2 and an increase of IL‑4 as well as IL‑10 suggested the immune imbalance. (
  • However, provided there is no decrease in cardiac output or ischemia, brief profound hypoxemia in healthy humans is well tolerated without evidence of acidosis or lasting cognitive impairment. (
  • A decrease in RV output leads to a decrease in LV filling, which results in decreased cardiac output. (
  • This increase in cardiac preload typically results in an increase in CO through an increase in both HR and SV. (
  • These results indicate that the increase in cardiac output was a metabolic effect of the increased work load and was not caused primarily by the influence of the highly negative intrathoracic pressure on venous return. (
  • To investigate whether peripheral vascular compensatory mechanisms are preserved after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT), we longitudinally observed systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and cardiac output (CO) during acute cellular rejection. (
  • In other words, in obese people of a given height, weight increases faster than body surface area and cardiac output. (
  • Cardiac index decreases in heart failure and failure increases in conditions associated with hyperkinetic circulation (eg fever, anemia, arteriovenous shunts, avitaminosis B1, etc. (
  • Cardiac output increases when the heart rate increases . (
  • Once the heart has sufficient resting phase or diastole, the output volume increases. (
  • This is because the cardiac muscle increases the ejection force of the heart. (
  • Cardiac output increases because the heart is allowed to pump out more blood volume. (
  • Increases in cardiac output and O 2 consumption in response of 4.5 min laoded breathing averaged 1.84 l/min and 108 ml/min, respectively. (
  • Disodic adenosine monophosphate: Improves cardiac and skeletal muscle output & increases blood supply to muscles. (
  • Heptaminol hydrochloride: Increases cardiac output to meet increased demand during & following exercise & training. (
  • The beat-by-beat non-invasive assessment of cardiac output (Q litre x min(-1)) based on the arterial pulse pressure analysis called Modelflow can be a very useful tool for quantifying the cardiovascular adjustments occurring in exercising humans. (
  • These data suggested that removal of sympathetic cardiac influence improved cardiovascular stability as indicated by a diminished LF ABP variability, which was related to an enhanced cardiac responsiveness. (
  • Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) is a topic covered in the Adult and Pediatric Cardiac . (
  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can provide lifesaving respiratory and cardiac support for patients when maximal conventional therapy is failing. (
  • During exercise, your body may need three or four times your normal cardiac output, because your muscles need more oxygen when you exert yourself. (
  • Sufficient cardiac output helps keep blood pressure at the levels needed to supply oxygen-rich blood to your brain and other vital organs. (
  • The body in all of its wonderful aspects will compensate for the fall in blood levels by increasing cardiac output (as long as that is not impaired) in order to increase oxygen delivery and extraction at the site of the tissues. (
  • First determine whether the setting in which the event occurred, or associated symptoms or signs, suggests a direct result of a disease requiring prompt attention, such as hypoglycemia , meningitis , head trauma , cardiac arrhythmia , or acute pulmonary embolism . (
  • Two major factors affect cardiac output. (
  • Back in the laboratory, they showed in the mouse heart that genetic and pharmacological modulation of clock genes can affect cardiac tolerance to ischaemia-reperfusion injury. (
  • Fan, Z. & Guan, J. Antifibrotic therapies to control cardiac fibrosis. (
  • Design: Ten anesthetized, intubated, and mechanically ventilated swine (weight, 43 to 102 kg) were placed on two ventricular assist devices in order to control cardiac output. (
  • Indications for cardiac ECMO include low cardiac output syndrome (often peri-operative), refractory arrhythmias, cardiogenic shock, septic shock, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (
  • Our first article in this essential section regards our physiological control of cardiac output. (
  • Critically ill patients in the emergency department (ED) have shorter safe apnoea times due to physiological distress from decreased cardiac output, increased shunting and. (
  • Generally speaking, your heart beats both faster and stronger to increase cardiac output during exercise. (
  • Established and evolving indications for cardiac resynchronisation. (
  • Lab values observed contractile impairment of the procedure, decreased cardiac output rises, kenchaiah s gallop may lodge in. (
  • That is the reason why, in some cases, patients are clinically compensated (not necessarily due to the effect of drugs), besides having significant impairment of cardiac function. (
  • 0001). The best-fit line by least-squares analysis produced the equation: P FT CO 2 =4.98+0.012 [cardiac index] (r 2 =.82). (
  • It can result from pancerebral hypoperfusion caused by vasovagal reflexes, orthostatic hypotension, or decreased cardiac output, or from selective hypoperfusion of the brainstem resulting from vertebrobasilar ischemia. (
  • The aim of this project was to test the hypothesis that sympathetic cardiac blockade was beneficial in maintaining ABP stability during orthostatic challenge. (
  • Combine lower cardiac output and higher stress, and tendons (which are like fibrous chords that attach muscles to bone) can reach a point where they never have time to fully recover. (
  • the immune system cell membranes (protects cells from damage) for the prevention of muscle degenerative conditions for cardiac & skeletal muscles. (
  • Correction of cardiac output obtained by Modelflow from finger pulse pressure profiles with a respiratory. (
  • Of course, the variability of heart rate also causes some variability in cardiac output - for some methods, it is recommended that cardiac output be measured at the end of the expiration period (or at another fixed point in the respiratory cycle). (
  • Kynoselen is a cardiac & respiratory tonic & selenium supplement. (
  • With 45 years of experience since the first successful use of ECMO to support a neonate with respiratory failure, ECMO has been utilized to support neonates, infants, children, and adults with a variety of congenital and acquired respiratory and cardiac diseases. (
  • While current management of low cardiac output syndrome includes use of inotropic agents or left ventricular assist devices, some studies have suggested that use of levosimendan, a calcium channel sensitizer, may help reduce occurrence of the syndrome. (
  • The present study is a randomized trial that investigated whether a 24-hour preoperative infusion of levosimendan in patients with left ventricular dysfunction undergoing CABG with bypass would reduce the risk of subsequent low cardiac output syndrome. (
  • Overall, the results of this study suggest levosimendan does not help reduce the risk of low cardiac output failure in patients with left ventricular dysfunction that are undergoing CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass. (
  • Previous studies have suggested that sympathetic cardiac blockade enhances baroreflex function, whereas parasympathetic blockade diminishes baroreflex sensitivity and elicits arterial blood pressure (ABP) instability. (
  • In 8 young healthy subjects, measurements were taken before and after sympathetic cardiac blockade (β 1 -adrenoceptor blockade via metoprolol) in combination with or without parasympathetic blockade (atropine) at rest and during lower body negative pressure (LBNP). (
  • It has been reported that there is an inconsistency between systemic blood flow and tissue perfusion in patients with cardiac arrest ( 7 , 8 ), but the microcirculation is correlated with the prognosis of patients ( 7 , 9-11 ). (
  • We omitted the cardiac output and for individual patient be used in adult patients with modification from an increase in total thoracic surgery or with. (
  • Sections include Pearson's General Thoracic, Esphageal, Adult Cardiac, and Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Surgery. (
  • Adult and Pediatric Cardiac Surgery. (
  • abstract = "Study objective: A number of studies have shown that expired CO2 concentration is closely related to cardiac output, but that cardiac output was not controlled as an independent variable. (
  • it is based on the principle that the frequency of changes in aortic volume with the cardiac cycle can be detected by alternating electrical signals across the thorax. (
  • In two-dimensional mode were studied the cardiac chambers, especially the left atrium, the appearance of the mitral valve, the presence of pericardial effusion, the transverse diameter of mitral annulus and aortic root (Thomas et al . (
  • Upon injury, cardiac fibroblasts in the heart begin to remodel the myocardium by depositing excess extracellular matrix, resulting in increased stiffness and reduced compliance of the tissue. (
  • It is a systemic disease defined as a cardiac dysfunction that causes insufficient blood supply to meet tissue metabolic needs, under normal pulmonary venous return, or only after high filling pressures(1). (
  • Improving the contractile state of the myocardium using enoximone was attempted in 16 neonates with low-cardiac-output syndrome refractory to catecholamines (Dosage: loading-dose 1 mg/kg in 10 min intravenously, followed by an infusion of 10 mcg/kg/min). (
  • All non-responders succumbed due to refractory low-cardiac-output syndrome, while only one responder died in low-cardiac-output syndrome. (
  • The heart rate is established by the Sinoatrial Node (SAN) - the pacemaker of the cardiac muscle. (
  • In their study they demonstrate that Bioreactance (Cheetah Medical Inc., Tel Aviv, Israel) can track changes in cardiac output in patients after cardiac surgery and conclude that its performance is similar to that of the Vigileo version 1.01 (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA). (
  • Those who experience pre-existing or current active cardiac disease, orthopedic surgery or cardiac surgery have been initially shown to have higher risk and mortality with more restricted transfusion goals. (
  • 3.Arevalo VN, Bullerwell ML. Methylene Blue as an Adjunct to Treat Vasoplegia in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery Requiring Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Literature Review. (
  • Despite this, over 70,000 IABP insertions are undertaken annually in the United States alone, with an incidence of between 5-10% amongst all patients undergoing cardiac surgery. (
  • STS Cardiothoracic Surgery E-Book from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons provides expert guidance for Cardiac and Thoracic Surgery. (
  • Validation of Modelflow Estimates of Cardiac Output in Hemodialysis Patients. (
  • A gold standard cardiac output measurement can be obtained using ultrasound dilution in patients with arterio-venous fistulae. (
  • This tool, which has been FDA approved, will enable patients to understand their cardiac issues in a more accurate manner, while reducing their long-term spending. (
  • The microcirculation is correlated with the prognosis of patients with cardiac arrest and changes after resuscitation. (
  • Heart failure (HF) patients have a reduced cardiac reserve and increased work of breathing. (
  • Cardiac output is the term that describes the amount of blood your heart pumps each minute. (
  • A healthy heart with a normal cardiac output pumps about 5 to 6 litres of blood every minute when a person is resting. (
  • The most convenient method for estimating the cardiac output requires the measurement of blood cooling following the injection of cold saline. (
  • Cardiac output is the amount of blood that the ventricle pumps per unit time (minute) . (
  • Conclusion: Under conditions of constant minute ventilation, P ET CO 2 correlated closely with cardiac index over a large range of blood flow rates, including extremely low rates. (
  • Cardiac output refers to the amount or volume of the blood that the heart pumps through the right or left ventricle in an interval of a single minute. (
  • This happens in terms of cardiac volumes that measure the blood that the heart releases into the other parts of the body. (
  • Decreased after-load or the arterial blood pressure may also cause an increase in the cardiac output because it reduces the input resistance that the heart has to overcome while pumping blood to the vasculature. (
  • In healthy humans, brief profound hypoxia produces increased minute ventilation and increased cardiac output, but little or no alteration in blood chemistry. (
  • Because the right coronary artery originates from the aorta, decreased LV output causes decreased right coronary blood flow and ischemia to the RV wall. (
  • Primary end point included a composite of 3 elements reflecting low cardiac output syndrome. (
  • There was minimal bias and reasonable correlation for cardiac output 2 h post-calibration, but limits of agreement remained too wide to meet current clinical standards. (
  • 95.7 to 53 Bioheart MyoCell beats Capricor Cardiac Stem Cells in similar clinical studies - 6 min. (
  • 59% of P ET CO 2 measurements were made at cardiac indexes of less than 1,313 mL/min/m 2 (30 mL/min/kg). (
  • There a cardiac function in the metabolic derangement of immobility in. (
  • Regardless of underlying etiology, heart failure may be associated with an abnormal sequence of ventricular contractions, referred to as cardiac or ventricular dyssynchrony. (
  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy for heart failure. (
  • In for heart failure and output: the dreariness and worsen cardiac death is calculated as the first indicator, hsu la idea that. (
  • Journal of Cardiac Failure. (
  • This trial was designed as a randomized, double-blind, 2-arm, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study within thirteen participating cardiac surgical centers. (
  • During a systole phase, cardiac output refers to the combined amount of output of both the left ventricle and the right ventricle. (
  • To date, there is no method for determining cardiac output and cardiac index that is generally considered the gold standard. (