The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Measurement of blood flow based on induction at one point of the circulation of a known change in the intravascular heat content of flowing blood and detection of the resultant change in temperature at a point downstream.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A state of elevated cardiac output due to conditions of either increased hemodynamic demand or reduced cardiac oxygen output. These conditions may include ANEMIA; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; THYROTOXICOSIS; PREGNANCY; EXERCISE; FEVER; and ANOXIA. In time, compensatory changes of the heart can lead to pathological form of high cardiac output and eventual HEART FAILURE.
Surgery performed on the heart.
A type of impedance plethysmography in which bioelectrical impedance is measured between electrodes positioned around the neck and around the lower thorax. It is used principally to calculate stroke volume and cardiac volume, but it is also related to myocardial contractility, thoracic fluid content, and circulation to the extremities.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Placement of a balloon-tipped catheter into the pulmonary artery through the antecubital, subclavian, and sometimes the femoral vein. It is used to measure pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure which reflects left atrial pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. The catheter is threaded into the right atrium, the balloon is inflated and the catheter follows the blood flow through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and out into the pulmonary artery.
Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.
Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.
Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).
Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.
The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.
Visualization of the heart structure and cardiac blood flow for diagnostic evaluation or to guide cardiac procedures via techniques including ENDOSCOPY (cardiac endoscopy, sometimes refered to as cardioscopy), RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; TOMOGRAPHY; or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
Freedom from activity.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.
Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
The restoration of the sequential order of contraction and relaxation of the HEART ATRIA and HEART VENTRICLES by atrio-biventricular pacing.
The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.
The posture of an individual lying face up.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.
The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.
The position or attitude of the body.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).
The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.
Occurrence of heart arrest in an individual when there is no immediate access to medical personnel or equipment.
Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A pathological condition manifested by failure to perfuse or oxygenate vital organs.
The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the RIGHT ATRIUM.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The measure of a BLOOD VESSEL's ability to increase the volume of BLOOD it holds without a large increase in BLOOD PRESSURE. The vascular capacitance is equal to the change in volume divided by the change in pressure.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.
The period following a surgical operation.
The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous with the bodily circulation.
Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.
Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.
Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.
Institutions specializing in the care of patients with heart disorders.
Characteristics of ELECTRICITY and magnetism such as charged particles and the properties and behavior of charged particles, and other phenomena related to or associated with electromagnetism.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
A standard and widely accepted diagnostic test used to identify patients who have a vasodepressive and/or cardioinhibitory response as a cause of syncope. (From Braunwald, Heart Disease, 7th ed)
The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.
Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.
A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)
The study of the electrical activity and characteristics of the HEART; MYOCARDIUM; and CARDIOMYOCYTES.

Phasic right coronary artery blood flow in conscious dogs with normal and elevated right ventricular pressures. (1/3428)

We studied phasic right coronary blood flow in well trained normal dogs and dogs with pulmonic stenosis. We installed electromagnetic flow transducers and pressure tubes under anesthesia to monitor right coronary blood flow, cardiac output, central aortic blood pressure, and right ventribular pressure. In normotensive dogs, systolic flow amplitude equaled early diastolic flow levels. The ratio of systolic to diastolic flow at rest was substantially greater in the right coronary bed (36+/-1.3%) than in the left circumflex bed (13+/-3.6%). Right diastolid flow runoff, including the cove late in diastole, resembled left circumflex runoff. Blood flow to the normotensive right (37+/-1.1 ml/min 100(-1) g) and the left (35+/-1.0 ml/min(-1) g) ventricular myocardium indicated equal perfusion of both cardiac walls. Throttling of systolic flow was related directly to the right ventricular systolic pressure level in the dogs with pulmonic stenosis. Retrograde systolic flow occurred in severe right ventricular hypertension. The late diastolic runoff pattern in dogs with pulmonic stenosis appeared the same as for the normotensive dogs. We obtained systolic to diastolic flow ratios of 1/3 the value of normotensive hearts in high and severe pulmonic hypertension. Electrocardiograms and studies of pathology suggested restricted blood flow to the inner layers of the right myocardium in the dogs with severe and high right ventricular hypertension. Normotensive and hypertensive peak hyperemic flow responses were similar, except for an increased magnitude of diastolic flow, with proportionately less systolic flow in hypertensive states.  (+info)

Quantification of baroreceptor influence on arterial pressure changes seen in primary angiotension-induced hypertension in dogs. (2/3428)

We studied the role of the sino-aortic baroreceptors in the gradual development of hypertension induced by prolonged administration of small amounts of angiotensin II (A II) in intact dogs and dogs with denervated sino-aortic baroreceptors. Short-term 1-hour infusions of A II(1.0-100 ng/kg per min) showed that conscious denervated dogs had twice the pressor sensitivity of intact dogs. Long-term infusions of A II at 5.0 ng/kg per min (2-3 weeks) with continuous 24-hour recordings of arterial pressure showed that intact dogs required 28 hours to reach the same level of pressure attained by denervated dogs during the 1st hour of infusion. At the 28th hour the pressure in both groups was 70% of the maximum value attained by the 7th day of infusion. Both intact and denervated dogs reached nearly the same plateau level of pressure, the magnitude being directly related both the the A II infusion rate and the daily sodium intake. Cardiac output in intact dogs initially decreased after the onset of A II infusion, but by the 5th day of infusion it was 38% above control, whereas blood volume was unchanged. Heart rate returned to normal after a reduction during the 1st day of infusion in intact dogs. Plasma renin activity could not be detected after 24 hours of A II infusion in either intact or denervated dogs. The data indicate that about 35% of the hypertensive effect of A II results from its acute pressor action, and an additional 35% of the gradual increase in arterial pressure is in large measure a result of baroreceptor resetting. We conclude that the final 30% increase in pressure seems to result from increased cardiac output, the cause of which may be decreased vascular compliance. since the blood volume remains unaltered.  (+info)

Site of myocardial infarction. A determinant of the cardiovascular changes induced in the cat by coronary occlusion. (3/3428)

The influence of site of acute myocardial infarction on heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance (TPR), cardiac rhythm, and mortality was determined in 58 anesthetized cats by occlusion of either the left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex or right coronary artery. LAD occlusion resulted in immediate decrease in cardiac output, heart rate, and blood pressure, an increase in TPR, and cardiac rhythm changes including premature ventricular beats, ventricular tachycardia, and occasionally ventricular fibrillation. The decrease in cardiac output and increase in TPR persisted in the cats surviving a ventricular arrhythmia. In contrast, right coronary occlusion resulted in a considerably smaller decrease in cardiac output. TPR did not increase, atrioventricular condition disturbances were common, and sinus bradycardia and hypotension persisted in the cats recovering from an arrhythmia. Left circumflex ligation resulted in cardiovascular changes intermediate between those produced by occlusion of the LAD or the right coronary artery. Mortality was similar in each of the three groups. We studied the coronary artery anatomy in 12 cats. In 10, the blood supply to the sinus node was from the right coronary artery and in 2, from the left circumflex coronary artery. The atrioventricular node artery arose from the right in 9 cats, and from the left circumflex in 3. The right coronary artery was dominant in 9 cats and the left in 3. In conclusion, the site of experimental coronary occlusion in cats is a major determinant of the hemodynamic and cardiac rhythm changes occurring after acute myocardial infarction. The cardiovascular responses evoked by ligation are related in part to the anatomical distribution of the occluded artery.  (+info)

Effect of portal-systemic anastomosis on renal haemodynamics in cirrhosis. (4/3428)

In 12 patients with portal hypertension and repeated bleedings from oesophageal varices the central haemodynamics, portal pressure, and mean renal blood flow (RBF) were investigated immediately before and two to seven months after portal-systemic shunt. Cardiac output increased significantly, whereas arterial pressure was unchanged after operation. RBF, which was initially less than in controls, did not change. As portal pressure decreased significantly, a direct portal-renal, neural, or humoral reflex mechanism does not explain the subnormal RBF in cirrhosis. As plasma volume was large and unchanged after operation a "diminished circulating plasma volume" is an unlikely explanation. Therefore, on the basis of the present observations, previously postulated causes of renal hypoperfusion in cirrhosis need revision.  (+info)

The respiratory responses of Carcinus maenas to declining oxygen tension. (5/3428)

The degree of respiratory independence shown by Carcinus under conditions of declining oxygen tension is dependent on the animal's level of activity. Inactive Carcinus are capable of maintaining respiratory independence down to a Po2 of 60-80 mmHg. This is achieved primarily by an increase in ventilation volume such that the amount of oxygen made available at the respiratory surfaces remains constant over a wide range of oxygen tension. The Po2 at which this can no longer be maintained corresponds closely to the Po2 at which respiratory independence is lost. Under normoxic conditions the Po2 of the post- and prebranchial blood was 97 and 18 mmHg respectively. At the high oxygen tensions prevailing in the postbranchial blood the respiratory pigment is fully saturated. Under conditions of declining oxygen tension the heart rate remains more or less constant until the Po2 reaches 60-80 mmHg, the onset of bradycardia coinciding with the loss of saturation of the haemocyanin. Although cardiac output falls during hypoxia, the capacity rate ratio remains approximately constant, which enables the effectiveness of oxygen uptake by the blood to remain at a high level.  (+info)

Reversal of severe pulmonary hypertension with beta blockade in a patient with end stage left ventricular failure. (6/3428)

A 52 year old man with severe chronic left ventricular failure (New York Heart Association class IV) was considered unsuitable for cardiac transplantation because of high and irreversible pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). In an attempt to produce symptomatic improvement, metoprolol was cautiously introduced, initially at 6.25 mg twice daily. This was slowly increased to 50 mg twice daily over a two month period and continued thereafter. After four months of treatment the patient's symptoms had improved dramatically. His exercise tolerance had increased and diuretic requirements reduced to frusemide 160 mg/day only. Assessment of right heart pressures was repeated and, other than a drop in resting heart rate, there was little change in his pulmonary artery pressure or PVR. His right heart pressures were reassessed showing a pronounced reduction in pulmonary artery pressure and a significant reduction in PVR, which fell further with inhaled oxygen and sublingual nitrates. He was then accepted onto the active waiting list for cardiac transplantation. A possible mechanism of action was investigated by assessing responses to beta agonists during treatment. Not only was there pronounced improvement in PVR but it was also demonstrated that beta receptor subtype cross-regulation may have contributed to the mechanism of benefit.  (+info)

Validation of haemodialysis recirculation and access blood flow measured by thermodilution. (7/3428)

BACKGROUND: Recirculation (R) and access blood flow (Qac) measurements are considered useful indicators of adequate delivery of haemodialysis. It was the purpose of this study to compare measurements of R and Qac obtained by two different techniques which are based on the same principle of indicator dilution, but which differ because of the characteristics of the injection and detection of the different indicators used. METHODS: Recirculation measured by a thermal dilution technique using temperature sensors (BTM, Fresenius Medical Care) was compared with recirculation measured by a validated saline dilution technique using ultrasonic transducers placed on arterial and venous segments of the extracorporeal circulation (HDM, Transonic Systems, Inc.). Calculated access flows were compared by Bland Altman analysis. Data are given as mean +/- SD. RESULTS: A total of 104 measurements obtained in 52 treatments (17 patients, 18 accesses) were compared. Recirculation measured with correct placement of blood lines and corrected for the effect of cardiopulmonary recirculation using the 'double recirculation technique' was -0.02 +/- 0.14% by the BTM technique and not different from the 0% measured by the HDM technique. Recirculation measured with reversed placement of blood lines and corrected for the effect of cardiopulmonary recirculation was 19.66 +/- 10.77% measured by the BTM technique compared with 20.87 +/- 11.64% measured by the HDM technique. The difference between techniques was small (-1.21 +/- 2.44%) albeit significant. Access flow calculated from BTM recirculation was 1328 +/- 627 ml/min compared with 1390 +/- 657 ml/min calculated by the HDM technique. There was no bias between techniques. CONCLUSION: BTM thermodilution yields results which are consistent with the HDM ultrasound dilution technique with regard to both recirculation and access flow measurement.  (+info)

Factors mediating the hemodynamic effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in portal hypertensive rats. (8/3428)

Nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and glucagon have been implicated in promoting the hyperdynamic circulatory state of portal hypertension. Recent evidence also indicates that increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production is involved in the pathogenesis of this hemodynamic abnormality. This study was aimed at investigating in rats with portal vein stenosis (PVS) the effects on splanchnic hemodynamics of blocking circulating TNF-alpha and the factors mediating the vascular action of this cytokine in this setting. Anti-TNF-alpha polyclonal antibodies or placebo was injected into rats (n = 96) before and 4 days after PVS (short-term inhibition) and at 24 h and 4, 7, 10 days after PVS (long-term inhibition). Short-term TNF-alpha inhibition reduced portal venous inflow and cardiac index and increased splanchnic and systemic resistance. Portal pressure was unchanged, but portal-systemic shunting was decreased. After long-term TNF-alpha inhibition, portal venous inflow and portal pressure were unchanged, but arterial pressure and systemic resistance rose significantly. Anti-TNF-alpha PVS rats exhibited lower increments of systemic resistance after Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and indomethacin administration and lower serum levels of TNF-alpha, nitrates-nitrites, and 6-keto-PGF1alpha, both over the short and the long term. Serum glucagon levels rose after long-term inhibition. In conclusion, the specific role played by TNF-alpha in the development of the hyperdynamic state of portal hypertension appears to be mainly mediated through an increased release of nitric oxide and prostacyclin. Maintenance of the splanchnic hyperemia after long-term TNF-alpha inhibition could be due to a compensatory release of glucagon.  (+info)

Methods 36 patients who had signed informed consent form and had been scheduled for CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were included into the study. Age of the enrolled subjects ranged from 50 to 65 years of age (mean 58.5 ± 4.6). 30 subjects were males and 6 were females. In all cases patients underwent general anaesthesia on the base of sevoflurane and fentanyl. Anesthetic concentration (from 0.75 to 2.5 vol.%.) was adjusted according to spectral EEG analysis data (Entropy, General Electric) to ensure target anaesthesia depth, corresponding to Entropy index not exceeding 40. Analgesia was provided by fentanyl infusion 5 mcg/kg/hour. To assess the influence of the cardiac output on sevoflurane pharmacodynamics we measured cardiac index (CI) simultaneously with anaesthetic concentration in the end tidal gas mixture (ETsev) and anaesthesia depth based on Entropy monitor data. Studied variables were measured at the following time points: 1 - 5 minutes after sternotomy, 2 - during internal ...
The recent introduction of direct-current external electric shock for the restoration of a normal sinus mechanism in patients with atrial fibrillation has reopened the question of the desirability of restoring a normal sinus pacemaker. To determine whether restoration of a sinus rhythm is hemodynamically beneficial to some or all patients, we have measured the cardiac output in a group of 47 patients with atrial fibrillation in whom an attempt at conversion was about to be made. The cardiac output determination was repeated if restoration of a normal sinus rhythm was accomplished.. All patients were given digitalis in doses sufficient to ...
The relationship between peripheral venous saturation and central hemodynamics (including right and left heart filling pressures and cardiac output), mixed venous oxygen saturation, and contemporary biomarkers of heart failure is not clear. We aim to determine the relationship between mixed venous, central venous, and peripheral venous oxygen saturation in patients with advanced (class III or IV) heart failure. We will determine the relationship between cardiac output measured via thermodilution and the Fick equation calculated using concurrent oxygen saturations from the distal PA, central vein, and peripheral vein. We also aim to examine the relationship of selected cardiac biomarkers with cardiac filling pressures and cardiac output over time in patients with decompensated heart failure ...
Cardiac Output Swimming Meet During exercise, the amount of blood pumped by the heart increases in order to deliver more oxygen to the body s muscles. In a healthy adult, cardiac output a measure of the amount of blood pumped by the heart can increase from 3 liters of blood per minute per square meter of body surface to 18 liters per minute per square meter of body surface. Photo Researchers, Inc./Tim Davis To determine overall heart function, doctors measure cardiac output, the amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute. Cardiac output is equal to the heart rate multiplied by the stroke volume, the amount of blood pumped by a ventricle with each beat. Stroke volume, in turn, depends on several factors: the rate at which blood returns to the heart through the veins; how vigorously the heart contracts; and the pressure of blood in the arteries, which affects how hard the heart must work to propel blood into them. Normal cardiac output in an adult is about 3 liters per minute per ...
Note: PEEP is not a ventilatory mode in and of itself. Does not allow alveolar pressure to equilibrate with the atmosphere. PEEP displaces the entire pressure waveform, thus mean intrathoracic pressure increases and the effects on cardiac output are amplified. Low levels of PEEP can be very dangerous, even 5 cm H20, especially in patients with hypovolemia or cardiac dysfunction. When measuring the effectiveness of PEEP, cardiac output must always be calculated because at high saturations, changes in Q will be more important than SaO2 - never use SaO2 as an endpoint for PEEP. The effects of PEEP are not caused by the PEEP itself but by its effects on Ppeak and Pmean, both of which it increases. Risk of barotrauma is dependent on Ppeak, while cardiac output response depends on Pmean. In fact, in a recent study of ARDS patients, it was shown that increasing PEEP from 0 to 5, 10, and 15 cm H2O was met with corresponding decreases in CO [Crit Care Med 31: 2719, 2003] PEEP is indicated clinically for ...
As previously discussed, the blood supply to a given organ/location is finely regulated and depends on current demand. This asset allocation and in particular, the preference to perfuse the locomotor system during activity is the basis of the hypothetical use of muscle O2 monitoring of the chest wall to optimally pace an effort. Recently a paper was published that sheds further light on cardiac output distribution to both exercising muscle versus other tissue. Simplistically, the amount of blood pumped by the heart(cardiac output) is related to the heart rate and the stroke volume. As the demand for O2 increases (with the VO2 max being the maximum O2 consumption), cardiac output rises. However to a variable degree, choices are made as to where to perfuse, either active muscle (vasodilitation) vs vasoconstriction at other sites. Cardiac output attempts to keep pace with VO2 (consumption) but may not rise to the same degree depending on the individual. So there is a measure of cardiac output minus ...
Cardiac output; Adolf Eugen Fick (1829-1901) in 1870, was the first to measure cardiac output; assumes oxygen consumption is a function of rate of blood flow and rate of oxygen pick pick up by RBCs.
Several rebreathing methods are available for cardiac output (QT) measurement. The aims of the study were threefold: first, to compare values for resting QT produced by the equilibrium-CO2, exponential-CO2 and inert gas-N2O rebreathing methods and, second, to evaluate the reproducibility of these three methods at rest. The third aim was to assess the agreement between estimates of peak exercise QT derived from the exponential and inert gas rebreathing methods. A total of 18 healthy subjects visited the exercise laboratory on different days. Repeated measures of QT, measured in a seated position, were separated by a 5 min rest period. Twelve participants performed an incremental exercise test to determine peak oxygen consumption. Two more exercise tests were used to measure QT at peak exercise using the exponential and inert gas rebreathing methods. The exponential method produced significantly higher estimates at rest (averaging 10.91min -1) compared with the equilibrium method (averaging ...
article{42cd1e76-58ed-4440-9f9b-09869aa11dbd, author = {Chew, Michelle and Poelaert, Jan}, issn = {0342-4642}, language = {eng}, number = {11}, pages = {1889--1894}, publisher = {Springer}, series = {Intensive Care Medicine}, title = {Accuracy and repeatability of pediatric cardiac output measurement using Doppler: 20-year review of the literature.}, url = {}, volume = {29}, year = {2003 ...
Driscoll, Andrea, Shanahan, Andrea, Crommy, Lynne and Gleeson, Alice 2000, The effect of patient position on the reproducibility of cardiac output measurements, Heart & lung : the journal of acute and critical care, vol. 24, no. 1, January-February, pp. 38-44, doi: 10.1016/S0147-9563(05)80093-7. ...
Objective - To determine the association of non-invasive cardiac stress testing before elective intermediate to high risk non-cardiac surgery with survival and hospital stay.. Design - Population based retrospective cohort study.. Setting - Acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, between 1 April 1994 and 31 March 2004.. Participants - Patients aged 40 years or older who underwent specific elective intermediate to high risk non-cardiac surgical procedures.. Interventions - Non-invasive cardiac stress testing performed within six months before surgery.. Main Outcome Measures - Postoperative one year survival and length of stay in hospital.. Results - Of the 271 082 patients in the entire cohort, 23 991 (8.9%) underwent stress testing. After propensity score methods were used to reduce important differences between patients who did or did not undergo preoperative stress testing and assemble a matched cohort (n=46 120), testing was associated with improved one year survival (hazard ratio (HR) 0.92, ...
Chantler, P D (2004) Age-and-exercise-related effects on cardiac power output. Doctoral thesis, Liverpool John Moores University. ...
Pheochromocytomas and extraadrenal paragangliomas are catecholamin-producing tumours deriving from the adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglia. The only causal therapy is surgical resection. Nowadays, laparoscopic adrenalectomy is thought to be the optimal approach. Chronic volume depletion due to chronic hypertension and preoperative α-adrenoreceptor-blockade (to avoid the effects of intraoperative catecholamine-excess) often lead to hypotension after resection of the tumour. Volume reload with high amounts of fluid is often needed. Therefor some authors recommended invasive measurement (pulmonary artery catheter) to control cardiac output parameters and fluid balance. However, there are non-invasive methods to measure cardiac output(CO), systemic vascular resistance(SVR), stroke volume(SV) and corrected aortic flow time(FTc) to estimate volume status. Except transesophageal echocardiography, other techniques such as transoesophageal doppler and pulse pressure methods exist but have not been ...
Kathleen Dracup, mentor extraordinaire. Maximizing therapy in the advanced heart failure patient. Cardiac power output during transition from mechanical to spontaneous ventilation in canines
Non-Invasive & Minimally Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring Device market research report covering industry trends, market share, market growth analysis and projection by Non-Invasive & Minimally Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring Device market report includes,|Key question answered| What are market estimates and forecasts; which of Non-Invasive & Minimally Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring Device markets are doing well and which are not? and |Audience for this report| Non-Invasive & Minimally Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring Device companies.
BSL Analysis software is a FREE download Click for BSL Analysis Download. BSL Analysis downloads provide a Review Saved Data (RSD) version of the Biopac Student Lab software for students to install on their own computer outside of the lab. BSL Analysis software works without any data acquisition hardware connected and can be installed on multiple computers.. Students can use the free BSL Analysis software ...
Cardiac output is the volume of blood the heart pumps per minute. Cardiac output is calculated by multiplying the stroke volume by the heart rate. Stroke volume is determined by preload, contractility, and afterload.
In the operating room, the concept of supranormal oxygen transport values as a therapeutic goal has been validated in high-risk surgical patients. Several studies have shown that perioperative oxygen delivery maximization (which is proportional to cardiac output, hemoglobin and arterial oxygen saturation) in high-risk surgical patients decreases the length of stay in the ICU and in hospital, while decreasing morbidity and mortality. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated that perioperative cardiac output maximization is able to decrease the length of hospital stay and ICU admissions, and may influence long-term outcome.40 Most of these studies used colloid titration to increase cardiac output by leading patients to the plateau of the Frank-Starling curve. Cardiac output maximization was performed using cardiac output monitoring (the plateau of the Frank-Starling curve is achieved when cardiac output no longer increases after fluid challenge). However, a recent survey among North American ...
Acute Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise  Effects on cardiac output (Q). At rest, cardiac output is 4 to 6 litres per minute; That is. 70 beats per minute x 8- ml per beat. = 5.6 litres per minute. Cardiac output increases linearly with in the intensity of exercise up to exhaustion.
Background. We investigated whether cardiac output measured with pulse wave transit time (esCCO, Nihon Kohden, Tokyo, Japan) is able to track changes in cardiac output induced by an increase in preload (volume expansion/passive leg-raising) or by changes in vasomotor tone (variation in norepinephrine dosage) in critically ill patients.. Methods. Eighty patients for whom the decision to give fluid (500 mL of saline over 15 min) (n=20), to perform passive leg-raising (n=20), and to increase (n=20) or to decrease (n=20) norepinephrine were included by the physician. Cardiac output was measured with pulse wave transit time (CO-esCCO) and transthoracic echocardiography (CO-TTE) before and after therapeutic intervention.. Results. Comparison between CO-TTE and CO-esCCO showed a bias of −0.7 l min−1 and limits of agreement of −4.4 to 2.9 l min−1, before therapeutic intervention and a bias of −0.5 l min−1 and limits of agreement of −4.2 to 3.2 l min−1 after therapeutic intervention. Bias ...
Currently, no non-invasive cardiac pacing device acceptable for prolonged use in conscious patients exists. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) can be used to perform remote pacing using reversibility of electromechanical coupling of cardiomyocytes. Here we described an extracorporeal cardiac stimulation device and study its efficacy and safety. We conducted experiments ex vivo and in vivo in a large animal model (pig) to evaluate clinical potential of such a technique. The stimulation threshold was determined in 10 different ex vivo hearts and different clinically relevant electrical effects such as consecutive stimulations of different heart chambers with a single ultrasonic probe, continuous pacing or the inducibility of ventricular tachycardia were shown. Using ultrasonic contrast agent, consistent cardiac stimulation was achievable in vivo for up to 1 hour sessions in 4 different animals. No damage was observed in inversion-recovery MR sequences performed in vivo in the 4 animals. Histological
In a longitudinal study of 400 primigravidae studied with doppler echocardiography by Bosio et al, the researchers reported that the gestational hypertension developed in 24 (6.34%) women and preeclampsia in 20 (5.29%) women out of the 378 women who completed the pregnancy [7]. Women with preeclampsia had significantly elevated CO before clinical diagnosis of hypertensive compared to normotensive controls, but total peripheral resistance was not significantly different during this latent phase. Study findings supported the hyperdynamic disease model with a subsequent crossover to low cardiac output state. In the study by De Paco et al [12,] CO was significantly higher in the preeclampsia and PIH cases, and in these cases alterations in maternal CO predated the clinical onset of the disorders by several months. Maternal CO in the first trimester was found to be increased in women who developed preeclampsia later. Most of the research and studies about the relationship with cardiac output have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cardiac output and renal function during insulin hypertension in Sprague-Dawley rats. AU - Brands, Michael W.. AU - Lee, William F.. AU - Keen, Henry L.. AU - Alonso-Galicia, Magdalena. AU - Zappe, Dion H.. AU - Hall, John E.. PY - 1996/7/1. Y1 - 1996/7/1. N2 - Hyperinsulinemia has been reported to cause hypertension in rats; however, the renal and hemodynamic mechanisms are not known. In this study, changes in renal function, cardiac output (CO), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were measured during chronic insulin infusion in eight rats (~350 g). After a 4-day control period, a 7-day insulin infusion was begun (1.5 mU · kg-1 · min-1 iv), together with glucose (22 mg · kg-1 · min-1 iv) to prevent hypoglycemia. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), CO, TPR, and heart rate were measured 24 h/day. MAP increased from 92 ± 1 to 100 ± 2 mmHg on day 1 and was 108 ± 4 mmHg by day 7 of insulin. CO tended to decrease during insulin infusion, although not significantly, averaging 94 ± ...
Hachamovitch R, Nutter B, Hlatky MA, Shaw LJ, Ridner ML, Dorbala S, Beanlands RS, Chow BJ, Branscomb E, Chareonthaitawee P, Weigold WG, Voros S, Abbara S, Yasuda T, Jacobs JE, Lesser J, Berman DS, Thomson LE, Raman S, Heller GV, Schussheim A, Brunken R, Williams KA, Farkas S, Delbeke D, Schoepf UJ, Reichek N, Rabinowitz S, Sigman SR, Patterson R, Corn CR, White R, Kazerooni E, Corbett J, Bokhari S, Machac J, Guarneri E, Borges-Neto S, Millstine JW, Caldwell J, Arrighi J, Hoffmann U, Budoff M, Lima J, Johnson JR, Johnson B, Gaber M, Williams JA, Foster C, Hainer J, Di Carli MF. Patient management after noninvasive cardiac imaging results from SPARC (Study of myocardial perfusion and coronary anatomy imaging roles in coronary artery disease). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Jan 31; 59(5):462-74 ...
Recall from the Cardiac Physiology section of this WikiBook that the primary determinant of cardiac output is the oxygen requirement of peripheral tissues: during pregnancy the maternal VO2 increases to levels greater than 30% of the values before pregnancy. Stroke volume and heart rate therefore increase throughout pregnancy, elevating the cardiac output by more than 40%; cardiac output reaches its zenith at approximately the 20th week of gestation. This may be compounded by the concomitant fall in total peripheral resistance which also peaks at 20 weeks of gestation (maintenance of stable mean arterial pressure would require the increase in cardiac output; see the Cardiac Physiology section.) Left ventricular preload, however, is compromised later in pregnancy due to fetal compression of the inferior vena cava, reducing venous return from the lower extremities. Positional changes, especially the supine position, can result in supine hypotensive syndrome of pregnancy, a condition which can ...
In patients with cardiac failure, bioreactance-based cardiac output (CO) monitoring provides a valid non-invasive method for assessing cardiac performance during exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of this technique during strenuous exercise in healthy, trained individuals. Fourteen recreational cyclists, mean (SD) age of 34 (8) years and relative peak oxygen uptake of (VO(2)) 56 (6) ml kg(-1) min(-1), underwent incremental maximal exercise testing, whilst CO was recorded continuously using a novel bioreactance-based device (CO(bio)). The CO(bio) was evaluated against relationship with VO(2), theoretical calculation of arterial-venous oxygen difference (C(a - v) O(2)) and level of agreement with an inert gas rebreathing method (CO(rb)) using a Bland-Altman plot. Bioreactance-based CO measurement was practical and straightforward in application, although there was intermittent loss of electrocardiograph signal at high-intensity exercise. At rest and during exercise, ...
Kutter, A P N (2013). Invasive and non-invasive measurement and importance of cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance in animals. In: 23rd ECVIM-CA Congress, Liverpool, Great Britain, 12 September 2013 - 14 September 2013. ...
Cardiac output, in human physiology, volume of blood expelled by either ventricle of the heart. It is customarily expressed as minute volume, or litres of blood per minute, calculated as the product of stroke volume (output of either ventricle per heartbeat) and the number of beats per minute.
Clinical and experimental observations indicate that only a very slight increase of cardiac output is requisite for maintenance of normal metabolism and uncomplicated recovery after a major operation. Patients with extensive sepsis or gangrene and experimental animals with induced abscesses must satisfy circulatory requirements more than double the basal value. Failure of the circulatory system to meet this demand results in acidosis and sudden death. Experiments indicate that an inflammatory area behaves in a fashion similar to an arterio-venous aneurysm. In experimental burns an increase of pulmonary vascular resistance and a decrease of compliance was found related to blood protein denaturation and red cell agglutination. Fever, water evaporation, and excess respiratory work also were demonstrated as contributing to increased crculatory demand. Observations of patients with respiratory complications indicate an efficient respirator is capable of reducing the cardiac output requirements by as
The powerful health benefits of CoQ10 have been widely recognized. Initially, in controlled trials of heart patients in Japan, positive effects on cardiac output and hypertension were noted. Subsequently hundreds of other scientific papers published in the United States and around the world expanded the recognized benefits of CoQ10 to include is antioxidant role, preventing damage to cell membranes by reactive chemicals called free radicals, which are formed naturally as a result of the bodys normal activity and free radicals are also found in the environment in the form of every day pollutants such as exhaust fumes and cigarette smoke. Countering the effects of aging and stress on tissues with high energy requirements such as the heart, brain, kidney, and immune system is another key function to CoQ10 ...
We appreciate the comments that Dr. Rossi expressed concerning our recent study (1)Compensatory Changes in Atrial Volumes With Normal Aging: Is Atrial Enlargement Inevitable? We are grateful to be given the chance to respond to the issues raised in the letter.. Our findings demonstrated that, in the younger age group, total left atrial volume change (passive emptying volume + conduit volume + active emptying volume) was approximately 60 ml per cardiac cycle. Thus, one may extrapolate that the left ventricular stroke volume in the absence of valvular regurgitation is approximately 60 ml. For a mean heart rate of 71 beats/min and body surface area (BSA) of 1.8 m2, the cardiac output would be 4.3 l/min or 2.4 l/min/m2, which is a reasonable estimate for the cardiac output of a normal young patient at rest. We agree with Dr. Rossi that correlating the left atrial volume estimation with cardiac output may be useful. However, we elected not to include the data, as insertion of a pulmonary artery ...
The heart is an organ with but one function. Its function is to pump the blood; it does nothing else. For this reason we have a clearer understanding of the heart than of any other organ. We can make pumps; but who can manufacture a working model of any other viscus? One can consider the hearts function in much the same way as one would consider the performance of any man-made pump.. There is no need to present the details of the methods available for measuring the amount of blood pumped by the heart, the cardiac output. All these methods ...
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A non-invasive cardiac output and left ventricular ejection volume monitor system comprising a first arrangement disposed on a given portion of a patients body having a fluid passageway therein in juxtaposition with the given portion of the body; a second arrangement coupled to an inlet of the passageway to cause a fluid to continously flow therethrough at a controllable input temperature and flow rate; and a third arrangement coupled to the second arrangement and an outlet of the passageway to determine energy transferred between the fluid and the given portion of the body, the determined energy transfer being a measure of cardiac output. A fourth arrangement disposed at an extremity of the body and coupled to the third arrangement, the fourth arrangement measuring the heart rate of the body and the third arrangement dividing the cardiac output by the heart rate to provide an indication of the left ventricular ejection volume.
We were unable to demonstrate that increasing the amount and direction of lateral table tilt has a significant effect on maternal cardiac output in healthy pregnant women. Maternal cardiac output was significantly reduced when maternal position was changed from lying on the left side to lying supine with lateral table tilt to the right. This observed reduction in cardiac output may not have been clinically important in our study population of healthy volunteers but may have greater importance in women with compromised cardiac output or uteroplacental circulation.. Previous studies examining the benefits of a lateral tilt position compared with the supine position have found that umbilical venous oxygenation is improved (10-12). Investigations of the effect of increasing the amount of lateral tilt have been limited to measuring maternal blood pressure, fetal heart rate, and maternal toe pulse pressure (13,14). No significant differences for variable tilt positions were found for any of these ...
Get an answer for Give an example of a factor that would tend to raise arterial blood pressure by producing a change in cardiac output, peripheral resistance, and blood volume. Give an example of each one. and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Vasodilation directly affects the relationship between Mean Arterial Pressure and Cardiac Output and Total Peripheral Resistance (TPR). Mathematically, cardiac output is computed by multiplying the heart rate (in beats/minute) and the stroke volume (the volume of blood ejected during systole). TPR depends on several factors including the length of the vessel, the viscosity of blood (determined by hematocrit), and the diameter of the blood vessel. The latter is the most important variable in determining resistance. An increase in either of these physiological components (cardiac output or TPR) cause a rise in the mean arterial pressure. Vasodilators work to decrease TPR and blood pressure through relaxation of smooth muscle cells in the tunica media layer of large arteries and smaller arterioles.[1] Vasodilation occurs in superficial blood vessels of warm-blooded animals when their ambient environment is hot; this process diverts the flow of heated blood to the skin of the animal, where heat can ...
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Remember that Oxygen Delivery is composed of two parts: What is Shock? [Oxygen Delivery] = [Oxygen Content] [Cardiac Output] In the first video, lets go over problems with that second part: cardiac output. How can cardiac output go wrong? All of these can lead to decreased cardiac output. Cardiac: problems with the PUMP. The heart…
Minimally-invasive cardiac output (CO) monitoring to follow changes in CO would be helpful in anaesthesia practice. Two Doppler systems marketed for this purpose include the CardioQ (Deltex Medical Group, Chichester, United Kingdom), which uses an oesophageal probe, and the USCOM (USCOM Ltd., Sydney, NSW, Australia), which uses a hand-held probe. The aim of the study was to assess the ability of these two methods to track CO during major surgery and to determine their relationship. Twenty patients, age 58 (26 to 81) years, (m/f) 15/5, requiring abdominal surgery were studied. The surgical procedures lasted between 128 and 408 minutes and a total of 285 data pairs (8 to 22 per case) were collected. Time plots showed good tracking ability across a wide range of CO in most patients. Correlation between the two devices was excellent in 14 patients (R-2 >0.85), good in another four (R-2 >0.64) and poor in two. Regression line data supported the hypothesis that CardioQ under-reads at low CO and ...
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Post a Comment for The Relationship Between Cardiac Output and the Apparent Diffusing Capacity of the Lung in Normal Men During Treadmill Exercise ...
Пп Page 79 пппппппппппппппппппппппппппппппппппппппп50 Unit II UNDERSTANDINGHEALTHANDILLNESS пF i g u r e 5в2 Patient in high Fowlerвs position with oxygen. Anesthesia reduces the typical cardiac output response to anemia (34).
Cardiac output (Q or or CO ) is the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by a left or right ventricle in the time interval of one minute.
Cardiac preload refers to pressure in the left or right ventricles immediately after end-diastole or before systole, notes the Columbia Center for New Media Teaching and Learning. Cardiac preload...
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Pacing optimization using information from an electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography (Echo) has been conducted in efforts to improve pacing therapy but is known to be very time consuming and costly. Schaumann et al. showed that an improved method of optimizing AV and VV delays with the Electrical Cardiometry (EC) Monitors. Schaumann determined that by recording stroke volume and cardiac output at fixed atrial rates, for three different AV timing and 5 different VV delays in left-to-right ventricular pacing, optimization could be conducted more effectively. [1] The setup of the EC Monitors and real-time hemodynamic measurements during pacemaker optimization of both the AV timing and interventricular pacing delay proved to be a superior pacing optimization method compared to using ECG and Echo.. ...
A critique is provided for the field of physical modeling of the cardiovascular system and its relation to physiology, medicine, and health science. The description of a mechanical model of the CVS and experimental results obtained with it are presented in some detail in order to be able to effectively relate the science of physical modeling to the several cognate fields. Principal variables of the subjects, such as heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output are discussed along with their importance in defining cardiac performance. The interface between engineering and medical science is examined insofar as it relates to model analysis. Finally, a set of specific references to the technical literature as well as a more general bibliography are appended. Author
SigmaPlot 2000 graphing software from SPSS Inc. of Chicago has new graph types and an electrophysiology add-on module for biomedical data. The module reads large data sets directly into SigmaPlot without extra data acquisition software.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of room-temperature thermodilution cardiac output measurements from the right ventricular port. In addition, waveform patterns were evaluated to determine the actual location of the right ventricular port. DESIGN: Central venous port cardiac output measurements were compared with right ventricular port cardiac output measurements using the same right-heart catheter. SETTING: The general intensive care unit of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. PATIENTS: Thirty-seven critically ill cancer patients with 38 different right-heart catheters were evaluated. INTERVENTION: Four injections of 10 mL normal saline at room temperature were made through each port; the results of the last three injections were averaged. Cardiac output determinations from both ports were completed in less than 10 minutes. The order of port injection was random. RESULTS: No difference was noted between cardiac output determinations from the two ports in a paired t test. Of 38 right-heart ...
Twenty-five patients were enrolled; all presented cardiac index , 4 l/min/m2. The following parameters were evaluated: heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure (CVP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (Pw), CO, systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) and diastolic pulmonary artery pressure (DPAP), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI), left ventricular stroke work index (LVSWI) and right ventricular stroke work index (RVSWI). The determinations were performed before disconnection from mechanical ventilation, 30 min after disconnection and 4-6 hours after disconnection. ...
OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy and reproducibility of thermodilution cardiac output measurements obtained from the injectate and infusion ports of a multilumen pulmonary artery catheter. The thermodilution results were compared with an independent measure of flow obtained from an electromagnetic flow meter. METHODS: In an experimental study conducted at an animal research laboratory of a health sciences university, two virgin western breed ewes were surgically instrumented with an inferior vena cava occluder, which reduced venous return and thus lowered cardiac output, and an ascending aortic electromagnetic flow probe, which provided an independent reference measure of cardiac output. On the day of study, a multilumen pulmonary artery catheter was inserted. Cardiac output was manipulated over a range of 2.9 to 12.1 L/min with i.v. isoproterenol or inferior vena cava occlusion. Approximately 30 simultaneous thermodilution and electromagnetic flow meter measurements of cardiac output were ...
The pressure gradient technique was used to evaluate effects of respiration on left ventricular stroke volume in 22 patients: 11 normal patients; eight patients with airway obstruction; and three patients with pericardial tamponade. In normals, stroke volume, systolic pressure, and pulse pressure fell an average of 7, 3 and 11% (P , 0.01), respectively, during inspiration. In patients with airway obstruction, these parameters decreased by 25, 12 and 23% (P , 0.001), respectively. After breath-holding, stroke volume also fell immediately with the onset of inspiration in both groups. These results are consistent with a reduction in left ventricular filling during inspiration as the factor primarily responsible for the fall in stroke volume. In patients with pericardial tamponade, variations in left ventricular stroke volume, systolic pressure and pulse pressure were related to: (1) an immediate fall in stroke volume with the onset of inspiration; and (2) a subsequent increase in stroke volume ...
A noninvasive technique for assessing cardiac output (CO) was evaluated by comparing it with thermodilution determinations in patients in the intensive care unit. The new method uses pulsed ultrasound to measure aortic diameter and continuous-wave Doppler ultrasound to obtain aortic blood velocity. An initial study evaluating just the velocity measurement showed that changes of the Doppler index of output (DI) correlated well with those of thermodilution cardiac output (TDCO). Linear regression analysis yielded delta DI = 0.87 delta TDCO + 0.14 (r = 0.83, n = 95). Using a university research instrument these measurements were possible in 54 of 60 patients (90%). A second study using a prototype commercial device incorporated the diameter measurement. Ultrasonic cardiac output (UCO), calculated as the time integral of velocity multiplied by the aortic area, was compared to TDCO. The data, obtained from 45 of 53 patients (85%), are described by the linear regression UCO = 0.95TDCO + 0.38 (r = ...
Measurements and results: Subjects were observed for 24 hours; during surgery, 6 and 24 hours after aortic clamp removed. During July 2012 - December 2013, there were 52 patients who became subjects. There were proportion differences between cardiac lactate and cardiac output change after cardiac surgery. Increase of cardiac lactate has a correlation with increasing levels of sTNFR-1 and IL-6 and decreasing index of Tc, ScvO2 and cardiac output. There were correlations among low index of ScvO2, high index of cardiac lactate and decrease of cardiac output. High sTNFR-1 and IL-6 were correlated to low cardiac output. Cardiac lactate, ScvO2 and MAP can be used as predictors of cardiac output change in patients with cardio-pulmonary bypass. sTNFR-1 and IL-6 levels were correlated with cardiac output changes after cardiac surgery ...
BIOPACSs noninvasive cardiac output sensor noninvasively records the parameters associated with Cardiac Output measurements and is ideal for use in Biopac Student Lab Lesson H21, Impedance Cardiography. The sensor incorporates a precision high frequency current source, which injects a small (400 µA rms @ 100 kHz sine wave) current through the measurement tissue volume defined by the placement of a set of current source electrodes. A separate set of monitoring electrodes then measures the voltage developed across the tissue volume. Because the current is constant, the voltage measured is proportional to the characteristics of the biological impedance of the tissue volume. The sensor can be used to measure changes in Cardiac Output under a variety of conditions: laying down, sitting up, standing up, and post-exercise. ...
Cardiac output was measured by the injection method, using I131-labeled human serum albumin as indicator, and measuring concentration-time curves through the intact skin with a collimated scintillation counter. Although, in principle, any number of blood vessels could be used as the measuring site, it was found that because of recirculation, ... read more suitable curves were obtained only if the counter was directed toward the head or the heart. Cardiac output values calculated from these curves were compared with values found with the classical sampling method. Head, heart, and arterial sampling curves were measured simultaneously with one injection of radioactive indicator. The measurements show that a head curve could be used in measuring cardiac output by the injection method, but it is not very successful because of the rather high standard deviation of the result (25 per cent). A heart curve, however, can successfully replace an arterial sampling curve. The accuracy of heart and arterial ...
Cardiac Output, High; High Cardiac Output. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Simultaneous determination of the accuracy and precision of closed-circuit cardiac output rebreathing techniques. AU - Jarvis, S. S.. AU - Levine, B. D.. AU - Prisk, G. K.. AU - Shykoff, B. E.. AU - Elliott, A. R.. AU - Rosow, E.. AU - Blomqvist, C. G.. AU - Pawelczyk, J. A.. PY - 2007/9. Y1 - 2007/9. N2 - Foreign and soluble gas rebreathing methods are attractive for determining cardiac output (Q̇c) because they incur less risk than traditional invasive methods such as direct Fick and thermodilution. We compared simultaneously obtained Q̇c measurements during rest and exercise to assess the accuracy and precision of several rebreathing methods. Q̇c measurements were obtained during rest (supine and standing) and stationary cycling (submaximal and maximal) in 13 men and 1 woman (age: 24 ± 7 yr; height: 178 ± 5 cm; weight: 78 ± 13 kg; V̇O2max: 45.1 ± 9.4 ml·kg -1·min-1; mean ± SD) using one-N 2O, four-C2H2, one-CO2 (single-step) rebreathing technique, and two criterion ...
(Medical Xpress) -- A new Australian study has confirmed the accuracy of a modern non-invasive cardiac output monitor that can replace a 40-year-old standard in this field.
Synonyms for Impedance cardiography in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Impedance cardiography. 1 synonym for cardiography: electrocardiography. What are synonyms for Impedance cardiography?
OBJECTIVE: To compare non-invasive hemodynamic measurements obtained in pregnant and postpartum women using two automated cardiac output monitors against those obtained by two-dimensional (2D) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). METHODS: This was a cross-comparison study into which we recruited 114 healthy women, either with normal singleton pregnancy (across all three trimesters) or within 72 hours following delivery. Cardiac output estimations were obtained non-invasively using two different monitors, Ultrasound Cardiac Output Monitor (USCOM®, which uses continuous-wave Doppler analysis of transaortic blood flow) and Non-Invasive Cardiac Output Monitor (NICOM®, which uses thoracic bioreactance), and 2D-TTE ...
We injected neuroexcitatory and neuroinhibitory agents into the depressor region of the caudal ventrolateral medulla of anesthetized rabbits and determined the effect on arterial pressure, myocardial contractility, cardiac output, and plasma catecholamines and neuropeptide Y. Brief excitation of the sympathoinhibitory neurons with medullary injection of L-glutamate reduced arterial pressure, peripheral vascular resistance, and myocardial contractility. Cardiac output was unaffected. Prolonged inhibition of the sympathoinhibitory neurons with medullary injection of muscimol increased arterial pressure, peripheral vascular resistance, and myocardial contractility. There was a progressive fall in cardiac output. These changes were accompanied by an increase in plasma neuropeptide Y and plasma norepinephrine, but no change in plasma epinephrine. Our findings indicate that the sympathoinhibitory vasomotor neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla tonically suppress the activity of sympathetic ...
CLICK HERE CLICK HERE CLICK HERE CLICK HERE CLICK HERE. Ordering Viagra In Australia. Aspirin and FOSAMAX were discontinued and the patient recovered. In the Study 1 and Study 2 populations, 49-54 had a history of ordering viagra in australia gastrointestinal disorders at baseline and 54-89 used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or aspirin at some time during the studies. There were significant reductions in systemic blood pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and heart rate. Initial effects on cardiac output, stroke volume index, and systemic vascular resistance were small and variable. Next ordering viagra in australia No satisfied supplier? Customized Sourcing Click here immediately to post your buying lead for suppliers to contact you directly. Post Buying Request Now You may also be interested in: Promethazine Hcl Promethazine Hydrochloride Cough remedy Coughing Ashtray Cough Cure COUGH CAPSULES China actavis codeine. Discount Buspar - Visit our Online ...
A direct indicator device for determining the cardiac output according to the thermodilution method embodying two temperature sensors connected to the blood circulation for respectively determining the inlet- and dilution temperatures. A clock generator and a scaler connected at the output of the clock generator are provided, the scaler forming a control signal. A respective one of the sensors is connected in circuit with inputs of an associated temperature-pulse frequency converter, the outputs of which are connected with a respective input of a multiplexer. A control input of the multiplexer connected with the output of the scaler serves for the alternate switching-through of a signal from one input and from the other input of the multiplexer to the output thereof in time-dependent function of the control signal. A gate circuit has one input connected with the output of the multiplexer, another input connected with the output of the clock generator and a further input connected with the output of the
Simultaneous investigations of maternal cardiac output and fetal blood flow during hypervolemic hemodilution in preeclampsia - preliminary ...
In standard pharmacologic tests in man and animals, Visken® (pindolol) attenuates increases in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and cardiac output resulting from exercise and isoproterenol administration, thus confirming its beta-blocking properties. The ISA or partial agonist activity of Visken® (pindolol) is mediated directly at the adrenergic receptor sites and may be blocked by other beta-blockers. In catecholamine-depleted animal experiments, ISA is manifested as an increase in the inotropic and chronotropic activity of the myocardium. In man, ISA is manifested by a smaller reduction in the resting heart rate (4-8 beats/min) than is seen with drugs lacking ISA. There is also a smaller reduction in resting cardiac output. The clinical significance of this observation has not been evaluated and there is no evidence, or reason to believe, that exercise cardiac output is less affected by Visken® (pindolol).. ...
Research in the Physiologic Signal Processing & Modeling Laboratory includes cardiovascular physiology, mathematical modeling, physiologic measurement, signal processing, system identification.. Hemodynamic Monitoring by Blood Pressure Waveform Analysis. Blood pressure waveform analysis represents a potential, practical approach for achieving sorely needed reliable, automated, and less invasive monitoring of hemodynamics. As a result, investigation of this approach has been longstanding. However, the previous techniques have neglected key aspects of the physiology and are therefore only able to monitor a limited number of variables that show accuracy over a narrow hemodynamic range. We have developed a suite of blood pressure waveform analysis techniques that account for the crucial facets of the physiology omitted hitherto via diverse (black-box to physical) models to estimate various essential hemodynamic variables (e.g., cardiac output, left atrial pressure, ejection fraction) from more ...
Definition : Instruments designed to measure the volume and flow rate of blood pumped by the heart. The measurements are typically displayed on the device in terms of liters and liters per minute respectively. These instruments typically include an electronic computerized unit, generators (e.g., radiofrequency, ultrasound), controls, a display, and appropriate sensors. Cardiac output is a vital indicator of overall cardiac status and the quality of tissue perfusion. There are several methods of measuring cardiac output, including thermal, impedance, radioisotope, dye dilution, and ultrasonic techniques.. Related Terms : Monitors, Physiologic, Cardiac Output, Bedside , Physiologic Monitor Modules, Cardiac Output , Software, Physiologic Monitoring, Cardiac Output. Entry Terms : Computers, Cardiac Output. UMDC code : 10613 ...
Cardiac output (CO) is commonly measured using the thermodilution technique at the time of right heart catheterisation (RHC). However inter-operator variability, and the operator characteristics...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measurement of cardiac output during exercise by open-circuit acetylene uptake. AU - Barker, Rebecca C.. AU - Hopkins, Susan R.. AU - Kellogg, Nancy. AU - Olfert, I. Mark. AU - Brutsaert, Tom D. AU - Gavin, Timothy P.. AU - Entin, Pauline L.. AU - Rice, Anthony J.. AU - Wagner, Peter D.. PY - 1999/10. Y1 - 1999/10. N2 - Noninvasive measurement of cardiac output (Q̇T) is problematic during heavy exercise. We report a new approach that avoids unpleasant rebreathing and resultant changes in alveolar PO2 or PCO2 by measuring short-term acetylene (C2H2) uptake by an open-circuit technique, with application of mass balance for the calculation of Q̇T. The method assumes that alveolar and arterial C2H2 pressures are the same, and we account for C2H2 recirculation by extrapolating end-tidal C2H2 back to breath 1 of the maneuver. We correct for incomplete gas mixing by using He in the inspired mixture. The maneuver involves switching the subject to air containing trace amounts of C2H2 ...
Conclusion: The present study was the first using EV for NICOM during the transition period in a larger cohort of newborn infants. Results of NICOM were similar to available echocardiography data. The possibility of NICOM offers continuous CO measurement. The present study supports the idea that CO is closely related to HR in newborn infants. ...
The pathogenic processes responsible for cardiovascular disease have their origins in childhood. Although childrens measures of heart rate and blood pressure have been found to be reliable, the reliability of impedance cardiography derived measures have not been evaluated. Thirty-three children, ages 8-11 participated in two sessions. Stressors included serial subtraction, isometric handgrip, and mirror-image tracing. Results indicated the impedance measures showed moderately high temporal stability (average scores r(avg) = 74; difference scores r(avg) = .53) and intertask consistency (average scores r(avg) = .78; difference scores r(avg) = .53). Blood pressure demonstrated the lowest reliability; Heather index, preejection period, and stroke volume demonstrated the highest. These findings suggest childrens cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory stressors can be reliably and consistently assessed using impedance cardiography.
Introduction Electric velocimetry (EV) is normally a kind of impedance cardiography, and it is a non-invasive and applicable approach to cardiac result monitoring continuously. acquired a bias/MPE of 39.00%/46.27%. Bias/MPE for EVMM was 8.07%/37.26% where in fact the OTX and NEURO subgroups were within the number of H0, however the PREM and SEPSIS subgroups were beyond your range. Mechanical venting, noninvasive constant positive airway pressure venting, body weight, and supplementary stomach closure had been elements that affected evaluation of the techniques significantly. Conclusions This scholarly research implies that EV can be compared with aortic flow-based TTE for pediatric sufferers. Launch TC-DAPK6 supplier In the 1960s, impedance cardiography originated to monitor cardiac result (CO) [1]. This technique is dependant on a big change in level of resistance through the cardiac routine to a transcutaneously used electric AC Rabbit polyclonal to BMPR2 voltage, and can be used to calculate ...
CARDIAC OUTPUT IN INFANTS OF DIABETIC MOTHERS G. Sabatino, L. Quartulli, S. Di Fabio, L. A. Ramenghi, A. Di Bari, A. R. Pecoraro, V. Resta, S. Gerboni ABSTRACT: Cardiac output (CO) in 12 infants of diabetic mothers (I DMs) and in 20 normal neonates (control group) was estimated evaluating blood velocity in ascending
S Saeki, T Namba, Y Nakayama, H Tokioka, K Morita, F Kosaka; A511 COMPARISON OF CARDIAC OUTPUTS MEASURED BY TRANSTRACHEAL DOPPLER AND THERMODILUTION IN ANESTHETIZED PATIENTS. Anesthesiology 1990; 73:NA doi: Download citation file:. ...
Catecholamines are used to increase cardiac output and blood pressure, aiming ultimately at restoring/improving tissue perfusion. While intuitive in its concept, this approach nevertheless implies to be effective that regional organ perfusion would increase in parallel to cardiac output or perfusion pressure and that the catecholamine does not have negative effects on the microcirculation. Inotropic agents may be considered in some conditions, but it requires prior optimization of cardiac preload. Alternative approaches would be either to minimize exposure to vasopressors, tolerating hypotension and trying to prioritize perfusion but this may be valid as long as perfusion of the organ is preserved, or to combine moderate doses of vasopressors to vasodilatory agents, especially if these are predominantly acting on the microcirculation. In this review, we will discuss the pros and cons of the use of catecholamines and alternative agents for improving tissue perfusion in septic shock.
Central venous pressure (CVP) is at the crucial intersection of the force returning blood to the heart and the force produced by cardiac function, which drives the blood back to the systemic circulation. The normal range of CVP is small so that before using it one must ensure proper measurement, specifically the reference level. A useful approach to hypotension is to first determine if arterial pressure is low because of a decrease in vascular resistance or a decrease in cardiac output. This is done by either measuring cardiac output or making a clinical assessment blood flow. If the cardiac output is decreased, next determine whether this is because of a cardiac pump problem or a return problem. It is at this stage that the CVP is most helpful for these options can be separated by considering the actual CVP or even better, how it changed with the change in cardiac output. A high CVP is indicative of a primary pump problem, and a low CVP and return problem. Understanding the factors that determine CVP
Repeatability of Impedance Cardiography Hemodynamic Variables During Treadmill Exercise Purpose To analyze the day to day repeatability of cardiac hemodynamic measurements using a Physio Flow 07 Enduro during treadmill submaximal exercise. Methods 21 male subject ages 18 and older were studied. Two graded treadmill exercise tests consisting of two 5-minute steady state stages (Moderate and Vigorous intensity) were performed using the PhysioFlow device at least 48 hours apart. Cardiac hemodynamic measurements were compared between stages and trials using repeated measures ANOVA, intraclass correlations, and Bland-Altman plots. Results Oxygen consumption (VO2) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER), were not different between the two trials for either Moderate or Vigorous intensities. There was a main effect for intensity for all variables with the exception early diastolic filling ratio (EDFR) and ejection fraction (EF%). Intraclass correlation coefficients between exercise trials were | 0.7 for all
An improved apparatus and method for determining the cardiac output of a living subject. The improved apparatus generally comprises one or more electrode assemblies or patches affixed to the skin of the subject in the vicinity of the thoracic cavity. In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises a constant current source impedance cardiography (ICG) monitor adapted as a stand-alone system. In another embodiment, the apparatus comprises a module adapted for use with a host monitoring system, the latter providing ECG, blood pressure, and/or other inputs to the module. Method of detecting a loss of electrical continuity in one or more of the terminals of the electrode patch, and selecting between a plurality of signal inputs based on signal quality, are also disclosed.
Hassan, M., K. Wagdy, A. Kharabish, P. Philip, A. N. A, A. ElGuindy, A. ELFaramawy, M. F. Elmahdy, H. Mahmoud, and M. H. Yacoub, Validation of Noninvasive Measurement of Cardiac Output Using Inert Gas Rebreathing in a Cohort of Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction, Circulation Heart Failure, vol. 10, issue 3, pp. e003592 1-8, 2017 ...
See the Bradycardia and Tachycardia articles for more detailed limits. Voit asettaa selaimesi estmn nm Overview This website uses cookies kaikki Trafi Neuvonta eivt silloin toimi.. Increasing heart rate and increasing is provided in a subsequent. UD has been specialised for Doppler to measure Cardiac Output Suomeksi velocity to improve your experience while.. Invasive PP monitoring involves inserting a manometer pressure sensor into measures temperatures changes from central femoral artery -and continuously measuring.. Real-time, automatic tracing of the Doppler flow profile allows beat-to-beat an artery-usually the radial or venous line to a central time of acquisition compared to.. When the saline indicator is injected into the AV loop, changes, and requires a cardiac simplifying operation and reducing the approximately 10 s during exercise patients hearts right atrium.. This method does not allow measurement of beat to beat it is detected by the output that is stable for loop before it ...
A variable indication estimator which determines an output value representative of a set of input data. For example, the estimator can reduce input data to estimates of a desired signal, select a time, and determine an output value from the estimates and the time. In one embodiment, the time is selected using one or more adjustable signal confidence parameters determine where along the estimates the output value will be computed. By varying the parameters, the characteristics of the output value are variable. For example, when input signal confidence is low, the parameters are adjusted so that the output value is a smoothed representation of the input signal. When input signal confidence is high, the parameters are adjusted so that the output value has a faster and more accurate response to the input signal.
W E Johnston, P G Robertie, L H Dudas, N G Kon, J Vinten-Johansen; A81 CARDIAC OUTPUT FAILS TO INCREASE WITH PACING IN CARDIAC SURGICAL PATIENTS. Anesthesiology 1990; 73:NA doi: Download citation file:. ...
Ahmed Zaky-Failure of the Flotracâ ¢/Vigileoâ ¢ (3.01) to Track Rapid Hemodynamic Changes in an Unstable Cardiac Surgical Patient
There has been considerable interest in magnesium as a treatment to limit myocardial damage in myocardial infarction (MI). Experimentally it has been shown to have a role in myocardial salvage, possibly by inhibiting calcium influx to ischaemic myocytes and/or by reducing coronary tone. It has also been shown to increase the threshold for depolarisation of cardiac myocytes, theoretically reducing the risk of malignant arrhythmia. In healthy humans it can reduce peripheral vascular resistance and increase cardiac output with no effect on cardiac work.1. Prior to 1995 a number of small studies and one large study had all produced positive outcomes for magnesium intervention in acute MI. The LIMIT-2 study, a randomised controlled trial (RCT) with 2316 subjects, demonstrated a statistically significant 16% reduction in all cause mortality for magnesium compared with placebo (95% CI 2% to 29%) mainly because of a reduction in early left ventricular failure.2. However, the ISIS-4 study 3 with 58 050 ...
I recently had a stress echo which found that with exercise my heart did not squeeze properly which looked like balanced cardiac disease to my cardiologist. I was able to do 12 min on the treadmill. I ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Determination of cardiac output by external detection of the radio-activity of aortic blood (human serum albumin labelled with iodine 131)]. by Petruska Marques et al.
EECP Treatment: EECP (enhanced external counter pulsation) therapy is an outpatient treatment used to improve blood circulation and increase cardiac output. It is normally used for angina and heart failure. In ME/CFS the treatment sessions are 30-45 minutes and are given once a week. During the treatment, the patient lies on a comfortable treatment table with large blood pressure-like cuffs wrapped around the legs and buttocks. These cuffs inflate and deflate continuously at specific times between heartbeats, a continuous electrocardiogram (EKG) set the timing so the cuffs inflate while the heart is at rest, in diastole, when it normally gets its supply of blood and oxygen. The cuffs deflate at the end of that rest period, just before the next heartbeat, systole. When timed correctly, this will decrease the afterload that the heart has to pump against, and increase the preload that fills the heart, increasing the cardiac output ...
The rate of blood flow out of the heart (often expressed in L/min) is known as the cardiac output (CO). ... the cardiac output).[8] Because of this, the velocity of blood flow across each level of the circulatory system is primarily ... between the peak systolic velocity and the minimum diastolic velocity divided by the mean velocity during the cardiac cycle. ...
Cardiac output 4.0-8.0 L/minute[5] 4.0-8.0 L/minute[5] ... Cardiac dysrhythmia is an irregular heartbeat that can occur in ... Lang, Roberto M. (1985). "Adverse Cardiac Effects of Acute Alcohol Ingestion in Young Adults". Annals of Internal Medicine. 102 ... During most of the cardiac cycle, ventricular pressure is less than the pressure in the aorta, but during systole, the ... The most severe form of arrhythmia is ventricular fibrillation which is the most common cause of cardiac arrest and subsequent ...
Increases cardiac output. *Increases heart rate. *Increases ventilation rate. *Increases basal metabolic rate ...
Effects on cardiac output *Negative chronotropic effect, or a decrease in heart rate. ... Cardiac arrest.[1][2]. Causes. Hypoparathyroidism, vitamin D deficiency, kidney failure, pancreatitis, calcium channel blocker ... The neuromuscular excitability, cardiac electrical instability, and associated symptoms are then not cured or relieved by ... The implications of intermittent QTc prolongation predisposes to life-threatening cardiac electrical instability (and this is ...
Anand, I. S.; Florea, V. G. (2001). "High Output Cardiac Failure". Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine. 3 (2 ... In advanced cases, the disease may cause high-output cardiac failure and death. ... Vasodilation leading to decreased systemic vascular resistance, and high output heart failure[20] ... "Cardiac Beriberi: Two Modes of Presentation". BMJ. 3 (5774): 567-9. doi:10.1136/bmj.3.5774.567. PMC 1798841 . PMID 5571454 ...
Eccentric contractions and cardiac output: With lower cost of oxygen how would eccentric exercise affect the heart? A study was ... The unique trait of greater overloads to the muscle with less strenuous impact on the body, as well as cardiac and respiratory ... Add to these factors disease and cardiac and respiratory illness. Eccentric training enables the elderly, and those with the ... An increase in cardiac vagal modulation during recovery was also concluded.[17] ...
Cardiac output is dependent on stroke volume and heart rate. A significant portion (55-77%) of HFpEF patients are unable to ... Volumetric definition of the heart in systole was first described by Adolph Fick as cardiac output. Fick may be readily and ... As a consequence, cardiac output becomes diminished. When the left ventricular diastolic pressure is elevated, venous pressure ... As patients display normal ejection fraction but reduced cardiac output they are especially sensitive to changes in preloading ...
His cardiac output was 50 litres a minute; a fit amateur cyclist's is about 25 litres. Induráin's lung capacity was 7.8 litres ... His maximal values were oxygen uptake 5.29 L/min (57.4 mL · kg-1 · min-1) and aerobic power output 450 W (4.88 W/kg) and was ... However, his absolute maximal and submaximal oxygen uptake and power output in 2012 still compared favorably with those ...
Bradycardia, hypotension, reduced cardiac output, small vessel vasculopathy. Neurologic. Global development delay, loss of knee ... have decreased urine output, and may be cool to touch.[42] ...
Goldberg SJ, Comerci GD, Feldman L (1988). "Cardiac output and regional myocardial contraction in anorexia nervosa". J Adolesc ... Cardiac complications[edit]. Anorexia nervosa increases the risk of sudden cardiac death, though the precise cause is unknown. ... Some individuals may also have a decrease in cardiac contractility. Cardiac complications can be life-threatening, but the ... Cardiac complications can include arrhythmias, abnormally slow heart beat, low blood pressure, decreased size of the heart ...
Reduced cardiac output (e.g. heart failure or hypovolaemia). *Cold exposure. *Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ...
Cardiac output (Lit./Min.): 6.26 Stoke Volume (Ml.): 75 Heart Rate (Per min.): 85 Blood Pressure: Unaffected Cardiac output ... Estrogen mediates this rise in cardiac output by increasing the pre-load and stroke volume, mainly via a higher overall blood ... Increases in blood sugar, breathing, and cardiac output are all expected changes that allow a pregnant woman's body to ... The increased GFR leads to increased urinary output, which the woman may experience as increased urinary frequency. ...
Chronic: Valve diseases as noted above; Reduced cardiac output; Exercise intolerance. Intensive cardiac care and ... Autoimmune heart diseases are the effects of the body's own immune defense system mistaking cardiac antigens as foreign and ... Acutely, it can cause pericardial effusion leading to cardiac tamponade and death. After healing, there may be fibrosis and ... adhesion of the pericardium with the heart leading to constriction of the heart and reduced cardiac function. Myocarditis: Here ...
In advanced cases, the disease may cause high-output cardiac failure and death. Symptoms may occur concurrently with those of ... Anand, I. S.; Florea, V. G. (2001). "High Output Cardiac Failure". Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine. 3 (2 ... McIntyre, Neil; Stanley, Nigel N. (1971). "Cardiac Beriberi: Two Modes of Presentation". BMJ. 3 (5774): 567-9. doi:10.1136/bmj. ... and high output heart failure Elevated jugular venous pressure Dyspnea (shortness of breath) on exertion Paroxysmal nocturnal ...
Increases in blood sugar, breathing, and cardiac output are all required. Levels of progesterone and oestrogens rise ...
It normally limits cardiac output. Superposition of the cardiac function curve and venous return curve is used in one ... direct influences on cardiac output such as end diastolic pressure and volume which can be causally related to cardiac output ... Although cardiac output and venous return are interdependent, each can be independently regulated. The circulatory system is ... However, as noted above it is clear that, equally, cardiac output must dictate venous return since over any period of time both ...
Henry A. Schroeder, was used to measure cardiac output and led to the first accurate physical measurements and to detection of ... This led him, shortly after joining Penn, to participate in a cardiac output methods program by the American Physiological ... At this program, his colleague, Yandell Henderson, demonstrated an apparatus for measuring cardiac output, a ... Cardiac Output Measurement Using Ballistocardiogram. The 15th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering IFMBE ...
Total Peripheral Resistance = (Mean Arterial Pressure - Mean Venous Pressure) / Cardiac Output Therefore, Mean arterial ... In medicine, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) is an average blood pressure in an individual during a single cardiac cycle.[1] ...
Cardiac output increases throughout early pregnancy, and peaks in the third trimester, usually to 30-50% above baseline.[3] ... Increases in blood sugar, breathing, and cardiac output are all expected changes that allow a pregnant woman's body to ... Estrogen mediates this rise in cardiac output by increasing the pre-load and stroke volume, mainly via a higher overall blood ... The increased GFR leads to increased urinary output, which the woman may experience as increased urinary frequency. ...
Tissue hypoxia from low oxygen delivery may be due to low haemoglobin concentration (anaemic hypoxia), low cardiac output ( ... "Effect of acute progressive hypoxemia on cardiac output and plasma excess lactate". Ann Surg. 177 (2): 199-202. doi:10.1097/ ...
The ability of the pulmonary artery catheter to sample mixed venous blood is of great utility to manage low cardiac output ... The concept of using thermodilution to measure cardiac output was originally the idea of Arnost Fronek. As a former colleague ... Regardless of the value obtained by measurements of the cardiac output, the mixed venous oxygen saturation is an accurate ... Non-invasive echocardiography and pulse-wave cardiac output monitoring are concordant with (and much safer) if not better than ...
Cardiac output is mathematically ` to systole[clarification needed] Inotropic, chronotropic, and dromotropic states Cardiac ... Cardiac output (= heart rate * stroke volume. Can also be calculated with Fick principle.) Stroke volume (= end-diastolic ... Stroke volume Cardiac output Pressure Pulse pressure (systolic pressure - diastolic pressure) Mean arterial pressure (usually ... Electrical conduction system of the heart Electrocardiogram Cardiac marker Cardiac action potential Frank-Starling law of the ...
... is a determinant of cardiac output. Cardiac output is the product of stroke volume and heart rate. Afterload is a ... As afterload increases, cardiac output decreases. Cardiac imaging is a somewhat limited modality in defining afterload because ... This may start a vicious circle, in which cardiac output is reduced as oxygen requirements are increased. Afterload can also be ... Cardiac output Hemodynamics Preload Mohrman, David E. (2018). Cardiovascular Physiology, 9e. McGraw-Hill Education LLC. ISBN ...
They do not suppress cardiac output or alter the function of the hemoglobin. Rather, they cause asphyxiation only when present ... Loss of consciousness may be accompanied by convulsions[10] and is followed by cyanosis and cardiac arrest. About 7 minutes of ...
Muscle dysfunction and weakness - This occurs in major muscles, but also may manifest as: diplopia, low cardiac output, ... Cardiac monitoring is also advised.. See also[edit]. *X-linked hypophosphatemia. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m ...
It increases cardiac output and heart rate, lowers blood pressure and dries secretions.[1] It may antagonize serotonin.[2] At ...
... and cardiac output remain higher than normal during immersion. The increased respiratory and cardiac workload causes increased ... Bradycardia and cardiac output[edit]. Bradycardia is the response to facial contact with cold water: the human heart rate slows ... humans also display reduced left ventricular contractility and diminished cardiac output,[8][17] effects that may be more ... but bradycardia reduces the overall cardiac output, particularly due to the diving reflex in breath-hold diving.[15] ...
Pulseless VT is associated with no effective cardiac output, hence, no effective pulse, and is a cause of cardiac arrest. In ... Some VT is associated with reasonable cardiac output and may even be asymptomatic. The heart usually tolerates this rhythm ... In those with cardiac arrest due to ventricular tachycardia, survival is about 45%.[1] An implantable cardiac defibrillator or ... 7% of people in cardiac arrest[1]. Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach or VT) is a type of regular, fast heart rate that arises ...
Kelainan yang terkait dengan high cardiac output *Arteriovenous fistula. *Beriberi. *Anemia. *Tirotoksikosis ...
Bloodless measurement of cardiac output) Z. Biol. 90, 467 (1930). 213 citations on Google Scholar (December 13, 2016) Wolf- ...
These electron are then focus using electron lenses inside the intensifier to an output screen coated with phosphorescent ... The image from the output can then be recorded via a camera and displayed.[21] ...
A 24-hour urine collection can be used to quantify daily protein loss (see proteinuria), urine output, creatinine clearance or ...
Sustained energy output (joules) of a typical reptile versus a similar size mammal as a function of core body temperature. The ... cardiac involuntary muscles.[68] The main structures of the heart are the sinus venosus, the pacemaker, the left atrium, the ... It is generally assumed that reptiles are unable to produce the sustained high energy output necessary for long distance chases ... mammal has a much higher peak output, but can only function over a very narrow range of body temperature. ...
One of the most important things to take into consideration when either trying to lose or put on weight is output versus input ... as well as improved cardiac health.[24] ...
... implications for motor output". Muscle Nerve. 31 (2): 135-56. CiteSeerX doi:10.1002/mus.20261. PMID 15736297. ... "Static and dynamic gamma-motor output to ankle flexor muscles during locomotion in the decerebrate cat". J. Physiol. 571 (Pt 3 ...
In one series of famous experiments on the cardiac ganglion in lobsters, Bullock demonstrated that neurons can communicate not ... which he used to explore the neural mechanisms that work together to produce an output in response to a stimulus, both at the ... and built a model that accurately predicted the input-output relationships for a range of different stimuli. Bullock maintained ...
Gas exchange is affected by increases in the dispersion of both alveolar ventilation and cardiac output because bronchial and ... is characterized by the abrupt onset of significant hypoxemia and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in the absence of cardiac ...
The electrodes are placed in contact with the outer wall of the ventricle (epicardium) to maintain satisfactory cardiac output ... These studies demonstrated the restoration of heart rate, cardiac output and mean aortic pressures in animal subjects with ... Main article: Cardiac resynchronization therapy. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is used for people with heart failure ... Lidwell M C, "Cardiac Disease in Relation to Anaesthesia" in Transactions of the Third Session, Australasian Medical Congress, ...
The best way to determine if a person will benefit from fluids is by doing a passive leg raise followed by measuring the output ... Advanced cardiac life support (ACLS). *Advanced trauma life support (ATLS). *Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) ...
Taylor CW, Nisbet A, McGale P, Darby SC (December 2007). "Cardiac exposures in breast cancer radiotherapy: 1950s-1990s". ... and fluence output rate (dose rate) of the medical linear accelerator. VMAT has an advantage in patient treatment, compared ...
... pilot utilizes the g-race suit interactively by muscle straining and breathing techniques to achieve an improved cardiac output ...
Some systems also assign scores to other parameters including urine output, oxygen saturation, flow rate of oxygen ... Scores were developed in the late 1990s when studies showed that in-hospital deterioration and cardiac arrest was often ...
... factors decreases the contractile force that the myocardium must exert in order to achieve the same level of cardiac output. ... The potential for these contraindications and drug-drug interaction could lead to asystole and cardiac arrest. ...
The increase in salt and water retention caused by low cardiac output can also result in anasarca as a long term maladaptive ...
An output of one watt continuously for eighty years yields a total work output of two and a half gigajoules.[18] ... Cardiac muscle fibers are interconnected by intercalated discs,[12] giving that tissue the appearance of a syncytium. ... Estimates of the power output of the human heart range from 1 to 5 watts. This is much less than the maximum power output of ... this amounts to about 20 percent efficiency at 250 watts of mechanical output. The mechanical energy output of a cyclic ...
Part 8: Adult Advanced Cardiac Life Support: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and ... one of the key advantages is that a direct air-tight passageway is provided from the output of the manual resuscitator to the ... "Unrecognized and inadvertent hyperventilation may be contributing to the currently dismal survival rates from cardiac arrest."[ ... lungs in simulated cardiac arrest with all three devices." [19] ... Advanced cardiac life support (ACLS). *Advanced trauma life ...
Silver cells may have a stable output voltage until it suddenly drops at end of life. This varies for individual types; one ... Artificial cardiac pacemaker. *Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. ReferencesEdit. *^ a b BBC News:'Button battery' warning ...
Cardiac output is directly derived from heart rate and stroke volume of the blood;[69] an active microbat can reach a heart ... Carnivorous and vampire bats consume large amounts of protein and can output concentrated urine; their kidneys have a thin ...
Cardiac output)以及血氧飽和(英语:Oxygen_saturation)也是應密切注意的數據,視情況需要採取必要處置以
Intravenous infusion of this compound increases cardiac output, stroke volume, venous return and blood pressure in man and ... Marked falls in pulse rate, cardiac output, stroke volume and peripheral bloodflow, accompanied by rises in mean arterial ... Intravenous etilefrine increases the pulse rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, central venous pressure and mean arterial ... Etilefrine is a cardiac stimulant used as an antihypotensive. It is a sympathomimetic amine of the 3-hydroxy-phenylethanolamine ...
The rapid uncoordinated heart rate may result in reduced output of blood pumped by the heart (cardiac output), resulting in ... Due to inadequate cardiac output, individuals with AF may also complain of light-headedness,[23] may feel like they are about ... resulting in a severe reduction of cardiac output. This dangerous situation is prevented by the AV node since its limited ... involved in the regulation of cardiac conduction, modulation of ion channels and in cardiac development. Have been also ...
... but that the measured femoral and kidney fractions of cardiac output are respectively increased and reduced, suggesting that ... Hecker and Sherlock specifically identified that individuals with HRS had low urinary output, very low sodium in the urine, and ...
The electrodes are placed in contact with the outer wall of the ventricle (epicardium) to maintain satisfactory cardiac output ... Halperin, Daniel (2008). Pacemakers and Implantable Cardiac Defibrillators: Software Radio Attacks and Zero-Power Defenses (PDF ... Cleland J, Daubert J, Erdmann E, Freemantle N, Gras D, Kappenberger L, Tavazzi L (2005). "The effect of cardiac ... "Cardiac-resynchronization therapy with or without an implantable defibrillator in advanced chronic heart failure". N Engl J Med ...
Since blood pressure is in intimate feedback with cardiac output and peripheral resistance, with relatively low blood pressure ... He named this herbal drug "Zarnab" and used it as a cardiac remedy. This was the first known use of a calcium channel blocker ... By having both cardiac depressant and vasodilator actions, benzothiazepines are able to reduce arterial pressure without ... By acting on cardiac muscles (myocardium), they reduce the force of contraction of the heart. ...
Indeed, NIRS is able to measure venous oxygen saturation (SVO2), which is determined by the cardiac output, as well as other ... examining the NIRS provides critical care physicians with an estimate of the cardiac output. NIRS is favoured by patients, ... "Peripheral Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Methodologic Aspects and a Systematic Review in Post-Cardiac Surgical Patients". Journal ... NIRS is starting to be used in pediatric critical care, to help manage patients following cardiac surgery. ...
... the normal physiological response to low blood pressure in the renal arteries is to increase cardiac output (CO) to maintain ... and norepinephrine which increase blood output from the heart and constrict arteries. People with neurogenic hypertension ... which results in peripheral vasoconstriction and cardiac stimulation. This diagnosis is confirmed by demonstrating increased ...
Medical definition of cardiac output: the volume of blood ejected from the left side of the heart in one minute -called also ... Resources for cardiac output. Time Traveler: Explore other words from the year cardiac output first appeared Time Traveler! ... Comments on cardiac output. What made you want to look up cardiac output? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including ... Post the Definition of cardiac output to Facebook Share the Definition of cardiac output on Twitter ...
... recently had a stress echo which found that with exercise my heart did not squeeze properly which looked like balanced cardiac ... I have strong family hx so I had a cath done which was normal with clean arteries,normal pressures,ef 55% but my cardiac output ... Hi cardiac output could be caused by vitamin deficiencies, thyroid problems, multiple myeloma, pagets disease, arterio-venous ... recently had a stress echo which found that with exercise my heart did not squeeze properly which looked like balanced cardiac ...
... , Cardiac Index, Stroke Volume, Stroke Index, Clinical Assessment of Cardiac Output, Cardiac Function. ... Cardiac Output, Cardiac Outputs, Output, Cardiac, Outputs, Cardiac, heart output, cardiac output, Cardiac output, CO - Cardiac ... Cardiac Output. Aka: Cardiac Output, Cardiac Index, Stroke Volume, Stroke Index, Clinical Assessment of Cardiac Output, Cardiac ... cardiac functions, Cardiac function, Cardiac function (observable entity), Cardiac function, NOS, Cardiac function (function). ...
Learn about the causes of cardiac output (CO), the physiology of unbalanced CO, and strategies to optimize CO in ... This course examines cardiac output (CO), a leading measure of hemodynamic stability. The course begins with a close look at ... the determinants of cardiac output, including a review of terms that were introduced in the previous course, Basics of ...
The results show that the mice, following myocardial infarction, have improved cardiac output as a result of this method, as ... The results show that the mice, following myocardial infarction, have improved cardiac output as a result of this method, as ... Microbubble-ultrasound method improves cardiac output after heart attack. *Download PDF Copy ... Tags: Anesthesiology, Cardiac Surgery, Cardiology, Diagnostic, Frequency, Gene, Gene Therapy, Heart, Heart Attack, Hormone, ...
... based on chest bio-reactance compared with cardiac output measured... ... Objective To evaluate the clinical utility of a new device for continuous noninvasive cardiac output monitoring (NICOM) ... A total of 65,888 pairs of cardiac output measurements were collected. Mean reference values for cardiac output ranged from ... Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Cardiac Output Tricuspid Regurgitation Cardiac Output Measurement High Peep ...
... cardiac output is greatest during intense exercise and when a person is approximately in his 20s. The more intense the exercise ... Cardiac output is thought of by doctors as a combination of heart rate and stroke volume. Stroke volume is increased when the ... According to WebMD, cardiac output is greatest during intense exercise and when a person is approximately in his 20s. The more ... Therefore, the amount of blood that flows out of the heart in one minute, cardiac output, is great in both cases. ...
Changes in Cardiac Output with Age. MARTIN BRANDFONBRENER, MILTON LANDOWNE, NATHAN W. SHOCK ... carefully standardized application of dye dilution technic to the measurement of cardiac output are reported. A substantially ... reduced output was a consistent finding in older subjects. Factors responsible for this are analyzed in this article, and ...
Minimally Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring Device. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of ... The primary outcome of this work is to establish a dataset that would enable the calculation of a predicted cardiac output ... some patients did not have PA catheters placed and subsequently data was not obtained on cardiac output. ... Establishment of a Dataset to Create an Algorithm to Measure Cardiac Output ...
Noninvasive Cardiac Output Sensor. BIOPACSs noninvasive cardiac output sensor noninvasively records the parameters associated ... Cardiac Output. Differential Pressure. Electrodermal. Feedback & Markers. Force. General. Goniometers. Microphone. Output. ... Cardiac Output. Differential Pressure. Electrodermal. Feedback & Markers. Force. General. Goniometers. Microphone. Output. ... Output. Oxygen Saturation. Transducer Connector Interface. Tri-axial Accelerometers. Breadboard. Cardiac Output. Electrodermal ...
... Equations. The program FICK will calculate:. * CO: Cardiac Output (L/min). * SV: Stroke ... output. PRINT();. PRINT("Cardiac Output (l/min)");. PRINT(co);. PRINT("Stroke Volume (ml)");. PRINT(sv);. PRINT("Cardiac Index ... Fick Cardiac Output. // HP 65, 1972. // EWS 2017-04-10. // inputs. LOCAL ca,cv,vo,hr,h,w;. INPUT({ca,cv,vo,hr,h,w},. "Fick ... RE: Fick Cardiac Output (04-11-2017 04:22 AM)Eddie W. Shore Wrote: STPD: Standard Temperature Pressure Density. Ha! Thats what ...
Cardiac output during exercise increases the amount of blood cycling through the heart from 6L/min to 25L. ... Therefore, your heart can maintain a high cardiac output with less effort. Most improvement to cardiac output is contributed to ... Heart health and exercise performance are regulated by your cardiac output ability. Understanding cardiac output during ... cardiac output is the amount of blood flowing out of your heart per minute. Cardiac output is calculated by multiplying heart ...
Noninvasive Cardiac Output Measurement: Troubled Technologies and Troubled Studies Anesthesia & Analgesia74(6):790-792, June ... Inhaled Nitric Oxide Versus Intravenous Vasodilators in Severe Pulmonary Hypertension After Cardiac Surgery ...
Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped out of one side of the heart in a minute. The average for a normal adult is ... decreasing resistance to blood flow and thus increasing cardiac output. Increased cardiac output is also an early response to ... can block these negative hormonal effects and help support cardiac output. Other drugs can directly increase cardiac output, ... Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped out of one side of the heart in a minute. The average for a normal adult is ...
Linear cardiac output was measured as minute distance by Doppler ultrasound in 40 patients with haemopoietic disorders who had ... Haemoglobin concentration and linear cardiac output, peripheral resistance, and oxygen transport. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986; ... Haemoglobin concentration and linear cardiac output, peripheral resistance, and oxygen transport.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986 ... of peripheral resistance in response to oxygen availability overrides the influence of blood viscosity on cardiac output and ...
The method of the invention includes estimating the cardiac output or pulmonary capillary blood flow of a patient based on ... A computer program for calculating the cardiac output or pulmonary capillary blood flow of a patient is also disclosed. ... Apparatus and methods for non-invasively determining the cardiac output or pulmonary capillary blood flow of a patient using ... Methods of Determining Cardiac Output or Pulmonary Capillary Blood Flow. The determination of cardiac output or pulmonary ...
Establishment of a Dataset to Create an Algorithm to Measure Cardiac Output [ Time Frame: 8 hours post cardiac surgery ]. The ... Minimally Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring Device. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of ... The specific objective is to establish an auto-calibration algorithm that conveniently yields cardiac output (CO) in units of ... Development of a Minimally Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring Device for Critically Ill Patients. ...
1.5 Cardiac Output To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports HTML5 ...
Taurine tunes cuttlefish cardiac output Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Journal of Experimental Biology ... the authors applied taurine to it and the cardiac output halved - as they had expected, knowing that the amino acid decreases ... allowing them to continuously monitor cardiac output (the amount of blood pumped per minute). Having confirmed that the ... Here, taurine impaired cardiac muscle relaxation, at least when the muscle was electrically stimulated to contract at high ...
The holy grail for the measurement of cardiac output would be a method that is accurate, precise, operato ... Many methods of cardiac output measurement have been developed, but the number of methods useful for human pharmacological ... Cardiac Output / physiology*. Heart Function Tests / methods*. Humans. Indicator Dilution Techniques. Models, Theoretical. ... Many methods of cardiac output measurement have been developed, but the number of methods useful for human pharmacological ...
A gate circuit has one input connected with the output of the multiplexer, another input connected with the output of the clock ... the output of the gate circuit being connected with the input of a counter. The output of the counter is connected with the ... the computer having inputs connected respectively with the output of the intermediate storage, the output of the clock ... The gate circuit has an output at which there appears the clock rate of the clock generator as a function of time on the one ...
The Report Low Cardiac Output Syndrome Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2016 provides information on pricing, market analysis ... medical sciencemarket research reportsictequipmentchemicalsoutputlow cardiacsyndromelow cardiac outputlow cardiac output ... Low Cardiac Output Syndrome Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2016" provides an overview of Low Cardiac Output Syndrome ... Global Low Cardiac Output Syndrome Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2016. Press Release • Jan 05, 2017 06:20 EST ...
... minimally invasive way to measure cardiac output or heart function in children undergoing surgery does not exist. ... Cardiac output, the volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute, is a crucial component of vital signs monitored in surgical ... Ultrasound offers precise, minimally invasive way to measure cardiac output in children. *Download PDF Copy ... Most devices used to monitor cardiac output are adapted from adult patients with limited use in children, due to differences in ...
Dye Dilution Curves and Cardiac Output in Newborn Infants. KLARA J. PREC, DONALD E. CASSELS ... The pattern of dye dilution curves and the cardiac output was studied in 29 healthy newborn infants during the first 26 hours ...
Effect of hemodialysis on blood volume distribution and cardiac output.. M Chaignon, W T Chen, R C Tarazi, E L Bravo, S ... Effect of hemodialysis on blood volume distribution and cardiac output.. M Chaignon, W T Chen, R C Tarazi, E L Bravo and S ... Effect of hemodialysis on blood volume distribution and cardiac output.. M Chaignon, W T Chen, R C Tarazi, E L Bravo and S ... Effects of hemodialysis on extracellular fluid volume distribution, left ventricular volumes, and cardiac output were ...
Vasodepressor neurons in medulla alter cardiac contractility and cardiac output.. G Drolet, J Chalmers, W Blessing ... Cardiac output was unaffected. Prolonged inhibition of the sympathoinhibitory neurons with medullary injection of muscimol ... There was a progressive fall in cardiac output. These changes were accompanied by an increase in plasma neuropeptide Y and ... cardiac output, and plasma catecholamines and neuropeptide Y. Brief excitation of the sympathoinhibitory neurons with medullary ...
Encyclopedia , Cardiac output. Cardiac output (CO) is the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by a ... Physiology & Psychology: Performance Benchmarks -- Cardiac Output (574 words). Cardiac output, - is the total volume of blood ... However, the cardiac output of Olympic medal winners in cross country skiing increased 8 times above resting cardiac output to ... Normal Output Cardiac output is equal to the stroke volume (SV) multiplied by the heart rate (HR). SV is the volume pumped per ...
Forcing fields are applied to the heart to give cardiac output on an emergency basis until the arrhythmia ceases or other ... The method and apparatus maintain some cardiac output and not necessarily defibrillation. ... An electrical method and apparatus for stimulating cardiac cells causing contraction to force hemodynamic output during ... The method is referred to as Electrical Cardiac Output Forcing and the apparatus is the Electrical Cardiac Output Forcer (ECOF ...
A method of monitoring cardiac output. The method uses a blood pressure waveform as input. The waveform is digitized and ... A method of monitoring cardiac output. The method uses a blood pressure waveform as input. The waveform is digitized and ...
  • Measurement of cardiac output, as first described by the German physiologist Adolf E. Fick in 1870, makes possible an evaluation of respiratory exchange, i.e., the delivery of oxygen to the tissues. (
  • In the first of two papers, the details and results of a systematic, carefully standardized application of dye dilution technic to the measurement of cardiac output are reported. (
  • Direct measurement of cardiac output requires invasive measurements in a clinical setting. (
  • Methods in pharmacology: measurement of cardiac output. (
  • The 'holy grail' for the measurement of cardiac output would be a method that is accurate, precise, operator independent, fast responding, non-invasive, continuous, easy to use, cheap and safe. (
  • The impact of pulmonary disease on noninvasive measurement of cardiac output by the inert gas rebreathing method. (
  • Zoremba N, Bickenbach J, Krauss B, Rossaint R, Kuhlen R, Schalte G. Comparison of electrical velocimetry and thermodilution techniques for the measurement of cardiac output. (
  • Ganz W, Donoso R, Marcus HS, et al (1971) A new technique for measurement of cardiac output by thermodilution in man. (
  • Capek JM, Roy RJ (1988) Nonivasive measurement of cardiac output using partial CO2 rebreathing. (
  • Snyder JV, Powner DJ (1982) Effects of mechanical ventilation on the measurement of cardiac output by thermodilution. (
  • Measurement of cardiac output makes possible an evaluation of respiratory exchange, i.e., the delivery of oxygen to the tissues. (
  • No. 10/153,387, filed May 21, 2002, entitled "Measurement of Cardiac Output and Blood Volume by Non-Invasive Detection of Indicator Dilution. (
  • No. 10/487,480, filed May 17, 2004, entitled "Measurement of Cardiac Output and Blood Volume by Non-Invasive Detection of Indicator Dilution," attorney docket 64693-100. (
  • No. 60/292,580, filed May 21, 2001, entitled "Method and Apparatus for Measurement of Cardiac Output by Transcutaneous Detection of Fluorescent Indicator. (
  • The benefit of routine measurement of cardiac output after cardiac surgery is still discussed. (
  • The present study was done to know the predictive value of measurement of cardiac output in early pregnancy for knowing the occurrence of hypertensive disorders. (
  • Cardiac output measurements obtained from NICOM and thermodilution were simultaneously recorded minute by minute and compared in 110 patients. (
  • A total of 65,888 pairs of cardiac output measurements were collected. (
  • The device promises the accuracy of measurements of cardiac output equal or better to traditional Swan-Ganz catheter. (
  • After surgery, five consecutive repeated cardiac measurements were performed using both methods simultaneously, for a total of 215 cardiac output measurements. (
  • The precision of cardiac output measurements with PA-TD and TP-TD was very similar. (
  • Post-operatively, cardiac output measurements with the PA-TD and pulse contour methods did not agree, but the pulse contour method reliably tracked pacing-induced changes in cardiac output. (
  • As such, PAC procedures are still considered the gold standard for calculating cardiac output as well as performing other essential measurements related to drug administration, particularly in high risk surgical theaters. (
  • Isotonic saline, which is the indicator, is injected to obtain COstatus cardiac output measurements. (
  • Comparison of FloTrac cardiac output monitoring system in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with pulmonary artery cardiac output measurements. (
  • Cardiac output measurements based on the pulse wave transit time and thoracic impedance exhibit limited agreement with thermodilution method during orthotopic liver transplantation. (
  • and generating a histogram of cardiac output measurements as a function of activity level. (
  • 6. The method of claim 1, further comprising acquiring hemoglobin-related information via a third implantable sensor, wherein the derivation of cardiac output measurements is further based on the hemoglobin-related information. (
  • and deriving cardiac output measurements based on the venous oxygen saturation information, thehemoglobin-related information, and the estimates of oxygen consumption. (
  • 10. The method of claim 7, further comprising determining a pacing rate during atrial fibrillation based on the cardiac output measurements. (
  • 11. The method of claim 7, further comprising not administering a shock during ventricular tachyarrhythmia if the cardiac output measurements indicate that cardiac output is substantially stable. (
  • and adjusting at least one pacing parameter based on the cardiac output measurements to optimize cardiac output. (
  • Davis CC, Jones NL, Sealy BJ (1978) Measurements of cardiac output in seriously ill patients using a CO2 rebreathing method. (
  • A pacemaker provides multi-chamber pacing with a pacing interval that can be programmed and adapted in response to cardiac output measurements for a given patient. (
  • First measurements of cardiac output during surgery (from Heilbrunn and Allbritten 5 with permission). (
  • Measurements of pulsatile cardiac output were made simultaneously with trout ventilation, and revealed ventilatory interactions with blood flow that varied depending on environmental oxygen condition. (
  • BACKGROUND: We compared cardiac output (CO) measurements by the non-invasive electrical velocimetry (Aesculon) monitor with the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) thermodilution method in children. (
  • Measurements of stroke volume and cardiac output (CO) are important parameters in the management of pregnant women who have or develop serious cardiorespiratory or renal complications, Measurement by thermodilution utilising a pulmonary artery flotation catheter has numerous limitations. (
  • Schraverus P, Kuijpers MM, Coumou J, Boly CA, Boer C, van Kralingen S. Level of agreement between cardiac output measurements using Nexfin( ® ) and thermodilution in morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. (
  • This is the 'fight or flight' response, part of which includes an increase in cardiac output to provide oxygen and nutrients necessary as fuel for sudden activity. (
  • When low blood pressure is sensed by receptors in the blood vessels, the nervous system releases hormones -- principally adrenaline and related compounds -- that increase the force of the heart's contractions and tighten the blood vessels, producing an increase in cardiac output and blood pressure. (
  • Thus, an increase in heart rate results in an increase in cardiac output. (
  • In a complete animal or human model, there are various reflexes that work to maintain cardiac output in the face of increased afterload but they shouldn't cause an increase in cardiac output relative to the baseline. (
  • This technique involved a real fluid challenge, because the response was uncertain, and indeed only half the patients responded with an increase in cardiac output. (
  • A 70% increase in butanol flux was noted with a 50% increase in cardiac output, but there was no increase in butanol flux with a 100% increase in ventilation volume. (
  • Overshoot of cardiac output was defined as a further increase in cardiac output at 1 min of recovery above the cardiac output at peak exercise. (
  • However, because of a continued increase in cardiac output at 1 min of recovery in patients with overshoot, there were no differences in cardiac index after the first minute of recovery. (
  • This course examines cardiac output (CO), a leading measure of hemodynamic stability. (
  • An electrical method and apparatus for stimulating cardiac cells causing contraction to force hemodynamic output during fibrillation, hemodynamically compromising tachycardia, or asystole. (
  • quantium Medical Cardiac Output (qCO) uses impedance cardiography in a simple, continuous, and non-invasive way to estimate the Cardiac output (CO) and other hemodynamic parameters such as the Stroke Volume (SV) and Cardiac index (CI). (
  • In 2014, the results of the POEMAS Study (Peri Operative goal-directed thErapy in Major Abdominal Surgery) were published: "a perioperative hemodynamic protocol guided by a noninvasive cardiac output monitor was not associated with a decrease in the incidence of overall complications or length of stay in major abdominal surgery. (
  • Hemodynamic monitoring is mandatory for perioperative management of cardiac surgery. (
  • VALHALLA, N.Y., Dec. 17, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Retia Medical, LLC, a medical device company focused on advancing the quality and clinical use of hemodynamic monitoring, today announced that its Argos Cardiac Output (CO) Monitor has received U.S. Food and Drug Administration 510k clearance and is now available for sale in the United States. (
  • It is intended to be used as a hemodynamic monitor for cardiac output monitoring and its derived parameters on patients in the intensive care unit or the operating room. (
  • Retia Medical designed the Argos Cardiac Output (CO) Monitor to provide members of the Critical Care team in the OR and ICU with a more accurate, intuitive and affordable hemodynamic monitor that supports confident, data-based patient care decision making. (
  • Retia Medical aims to advance the use of cardiac output (CO) monitoring to improve patient care by providing members of the critical care team with a more accurate, easy-to-use, and affordable hemodynamic monitor that supports confident, data-based decisions. (
  • (7) provide further data to support the disconnect between cardiac output and renal function in a HF population with careful cardiac and hemodynamic profiling. (
  • Therefore, this analysis is consistent with previous data, and together with the finding of a lack of success of treatment strategies focused at improvement of renal function through enhanced cardiac output, it is evident to conclude that a reduced CI is not a hemodynamic driver for renal dysfunction in patients hospitalized for HF who are not in shock. (
  • The study population consisted of patients with advanced heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction (mean ejection fraction 23 ± 12%) with an average cardiac index (CI) of 2.3 ± 2.1 l/min/m 2 and a right atrial pressure of 14 ± 9 mm Hg. (
  • To evaluate the clinical utility of a new device for continuous noninvasive cardiac output monitoring (NICOM) based on chest bio-reactance compared with cardiac output measured semi-continuously by thermodilution using a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC-CCO). (
  • Su NY, Huang CJ, Tsai P, Hsu YW, Hung YC, Cheng CR (2002) Cardiac output measurement during cardiac surgery: esophageal Doppler versus pulmonary artery catheter. (
  • The current gold standard cardiac monitor is the Pulmonary Artery Catheter (PAC), which involves insertion of a catheter into a patient's neck or groin. (
  • They concluded a post hoc subanalysis from the randomized and registry portions of the ESCAPE (Evaluation Study of Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Artery Catheter Effectiveness) trial to specifically evaluate the association between cardiac output and renal function (7) . (
  • Barin E, Haryadi D, Schookin S, Westenskow D, Zubenko V, Beliaev K, Morozov A (2000) Evaluation of a thoracic bioimpedance cardiac output monitor during cardiac catheterization. (
  • Evaluation of a thoracic bioimpedance cardiac output monitor during cardiac catheterization. (
  • Having confirmed that the cuttlefish heart was functioning normally, the authors applied taurine to it and the cardiac output halved - as they had expected, knowing that the amino acid decreases contractility when calcium levels are high in mammals. (
  • Vasodepressor neurons in medulla alter cardiac contractility and cardiac output. (
  • We injected neuroexcitatory and neuroinhibitory agents into the depressor region of the caudal ventrolateral medulla of anesthetized rabbits and determined the effect on arterial pressure, myocardial contractility, cardiac output, and plasma catecholamines and neuropeptide Y. Brief excitation of the sympathoinhibitory neurons with medullary injection of L-glutamate reduced arterial pressure, peripheral vascular resistance, and myocardial contractility. (
  • Whilst 'frequency modulation' of cardiac output dominates amongst vertebrates, changes in heart rate have ensuing effects on cardiac filling and contractility. (
  • A higher contractility allows the heart to pump out more of its blood during systole, due to the increased ejection force of the cardiac muscles. (
  • The learning activity represented how cardiac output is affected by heart rate, stroke volume, contractility, and preload. (
  • The ultrasound sensors showed a statistically similar precision for measuring cardiac output when compared to the results obtained using the periaortic flow probe. (
  • The collaborative paper by researchers at The University of Queensland School of Medicine, the Florey Neuroscience Institute and the University of Melbourne compared the current accepted method of measuring cardiac output with a non-invasive accurate ultrasound monitor called USCOM. (
  • Changes in cardiac output during exercise increase blood cycling rate up to 25 L per minute in active individuals and 35 L per minute in elite athletes, says the American Council on Exercise . (
  • The aims of this study were to determine the agreement between pulmonary artery thermodilution (PA-TD), transpulmonary thermodilution (TP-TD) and the pulse contour method, and to test the ability of the pulse contour method to track changes in cardiac output. (
  • The changes in cardiac output with atrial pacing were in the same direction and of the same magnitude in 15 of the 16 patients. (
  • They now report that [changes in pulse pressure variation] during the fluid challenge reflected better the changes in cardiac output, with a smaller gray zone. (
  • 4 evaluate a new technique to assess changes in cardiac output during fluid administration in the surgical patient. (
  • It is widely appreciated that changes in arterial pressure do not reliably reflect changes in cardiac output, because the body employsmechanisms to preserve tissue perfusion pressure when stroke volume falls. (
  • As expected, although there were some changes in arterial pressure, these did not reliably reflect the changes in cardiac output. (
  • Maintaining and regulating cardiac output, which is usually proportional to the tissues' need for oxygen and other nutrients, is one of the circulatory system's most intricate functions. (
  • Cardiac output normally increases in response to increased demand for oxygen by muscles during exercise, in reaction to danger, in response to certain classes of drugs and in some altered health conditions. (
  • In pregnancy, the mother's heart increases its output to help supply the fetus and placenta with adequate oxygen and nutrients. (
  • Haemoglobin concentration and linear cardiac output, peripheral resistance, and oxygen transport. (
  • These results suggest that adjustment of peripheral resistance in response to oxygen availability overrides the influence of blood viscosity on cardiac output and that the optimum packed cell volume for oxygen transport is the highest that can be achieved. (
  • Daniel M K , Bennett B , Dawson A A , Rawles J M . Haemoglobin concentration and linear cardiac output, peripheral resistance, and oxygen transport. (
  • Oxygen delivery (DO2 mL/min) is the resultant of blood flow (cardiac output CO) times the blood oxygen content (CaO2). (
  • Mathematically this is calculated as follows: Oxygen delivery = cardiac output × arterial oxygen content DO2 = CO × CaO2. (
  • With a resting cardiac output of 5-litre min−1 a 'normal' oxygen delivery is around 997.5 ml min. (
  • Factors that could lead to changes in a patient's functional capacities because of decreased cardiac output might include physical exercise of a type or intensity that the patient cannot tolerate because of diminished oxygen supply, ingestion of large meals that place an added workload on the heart, obesity, retention of fluid (edema), hypovolemia or hypervolemia, emotional stress, and smoking. (
  • Could low oxygen (decreased lung expansion) decreases cardiac output? (
  • An implantable medical device calculates cardiac output on a repeated basis based on acquired cardiac information that relates to one or more parameters of the Fick equation, including venous oxygen saturation, arterial oxygen saturation, estimated oxygen consumption and hemoglobin information. (
  • During exercise, your body may need three or four times your normal cardiac output, because your muscles need more oxygen when you exert yourself. (
  • Sufficient cardiac output helps keep blood pressure at the levels needed to supply oxygen-rich blood to your brain and other vital organs. (
  • The equilibration method, using a bag containing a high concentration of carbon dioxide in oxygen, has been shown to accurately measure oxygenated pvCO 2 and application of this method has led to the development of the non-invasive determination of cardiac output (CO) by the CO 2 rebreathing. (
  • Cardiac output, the product of heart rate and stroke volume, delivers oxygen to respiring cells and must be adjusted as metabolic requirements change. (
  • The oxygen saturation sensors provide a differential measurement that can be used to calculate cardiac output in accordance with the Fick method. (
  • and an activity level sensor that senses an activity level of the patient, wherein the memory stores oxygenconsumption data for different activity levels of the patient, and the processor computes the cardiac output based on oxygen consumption data in the memory that corresponds to the sensed activity level. (
  • Cardiac Output is usually measured using the Fick Principle (German physiologist Adolf E. Fick), which relates the cardiac output of the patient to the oxygen consumption, or by thermodilution, in which cold saline is injected into the right atrium and changes in the temperature in the pulmonary artery are recorded. (
  • A. Fick a German physiologist in 1870 described a simple method of calculating cardiac output from measurement of oxygen consumption (or carbon dioxide production) and the difference between oxygen (or carbon dioxide) contents of blood entering and leaving the heart. (
  • Kinetics of oxygen uptake (VO 2 ) and carbon dioxide output (VCO 2 ) during recovery were characterized by T1/2, the time to reach 50% of the peak values. (
  • In patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), exercise capacity is limited by inadequate oxygen transport to working skeletal muscle due to reduced exercise cardiac output (1-3) . (
  • However, the kinetics of recovery cardiac output and their relation to oxygen uptake kinetics during recovery have not been evaluated in CHF. (
  • We hypothesized that the time course of cardiac output during recovery is also slower in patients with severe CHF, and delayed recovery of oxygen uptake kinetics reflects the prolonged recovery of cardiac output after maximal exercise in severe CHF. (
  • The specific objective is to establish an auto-calibration algorithm that conveniently yields cardiac output (CO) in units of liters-per-minute. (
  • Cardiac output is the amount of blood that is pumped by the heart per unit time, measured in liters per minute (l/min). (
  • Along with the Department of Cardiology, the Departments of Cardiac Surgery and Anesthesiology and the Institute of Physiology took part in the investigations. (
  • Consecutive adult patients immediately after cardiac surgery. (
  • Sensors will be placed on the patient and connected to an amplifier that produces a waveform for 8 hours post cardiac surgery. (
  • patients had undergone routine cardiac surgery. (
  • All adult patients admitted to the University of Michigan ICU following cardiac surgery with both a pulmonary and radial artery catheter. (
  • Currently, a practical, precise, minimally invasive way to measure cardiac output or heart function in children undergoing surgery does not exist. (
  • Forty-three children between the ages of one and 44 months scheduled for corrective cardiac surgery were studied. (
  • Cardiac output was determined twice before cardiac surgery with both PA-TD and TP-TD. (
  • Objectives To investigate the influence of cardiac output reduction on volatile agent concentration required for maintenance of the targeted anaesthesia depth during cardiac surgery. (
  • Do We Need to Monitor Cardiac Output during Major Surgery? (
  • Victor Bautista-Hernandez and Melvin C. Almodovar, "Editorial (Thematic Issue: Pharmacologic Strategies with Afterload Reduction in Low Cardiac Output Syndrome After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery)", Current Vascular Pharmacology (2016) 14: 3. (
  • Clinicians also do not really know what value of cardiac output is necessary after cardiac surgery. (
  • The aim of the present study was to verify whether the commonly accepted lower value of cardiac index of 2.2 l/min/m 2 [ 4 ] at arrival in the ICU was a good predictor of complications after cardiac surgery. (
  • Preoperative and intraoperative predictors of cardiac adverse events after general, vascular, and urological surgery. (
  • Broch O, Renner J, Gruenewald M, Meybohm P, Schottler J, Caliebe A, Steinfath M, Malbrain M, Bein B. A comparison of the Nexfin and transcardiopulmonary thermodilution to estimate cardiac output during coronary artery surgery. (
  • In view of these favorable effects, levosimendan has been tested in patients undergoing cardiac surgery for the prevention or treatment of low cardiac output syndrome. (
  • Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, 4th ed. (
  • The course begins with a close look at the determinants of cardiac output, including a review of terms that were introduced in the previous course, Basics of Hemodynamics, such as preload, and afterload. (
  • In a physiologic model, increased blood pressure or "hypertension" or increased "afterload" tends to decrease cardiac output . (
  • Similarly, a decrease in the afterload (arterial blood pressure) can also increase cardiac output, by reducing the input resistance the heart must overcome in order to pump blood into the vasculature. (
  • This interactive hands-on learning activity was developed as part of a senior level adult-health course to provide understanding on advanced cardiac concepts such pre-load and afterload. (
  • Future use may include a wide mouth bucket and a narrow mouth bucket to demonstrate the effect of afterload (resistance) on cardiac output. (
  • Assessment of the cardiac output is important in determining the work that the heart is actually performing with respect to the rest of the cardiovascular system. (
  • Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) enables non-invasive quantification of cardiac output (CO) and thereby cardiac index (CI, CO indexed to body surface area). (
  • Intravascular indicators are stimulated, and emissions patterns detected for computation of cardiac output, cardiac index, blood volume and other indicators of cardiovascular health. (
  • Pulse contour cardiac output derived from non-invasive arterial pressure in cardiovascular disease. (
  • Estimated continuous cardiac output based on pulse wave transit time in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: a comparison with transpulmonary thermodilution. (
  • When, the control heart ranging between 140 and 190 per minute, atrial tachycardia of a rate only slightly higher than the control rate was induced, a very temporary initial decrease in arterial blood pressure, cardiac output and coronary blood flow occurred, then all three parameters essentially returned to control level. (
  • With atrial tachycardia of a higher rate, blood pressure, cardiac output and coronary flow fell more markedly, then blood pressure and cardiac output rose to or toward control level, remaining below control level with higher rates of tachycardia, whereas the coronary flow rose to or above control level and only exceptionally remained below control level. (
  • GlobalData's clinical trial report, Low Cardiac Output Syndrome Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2016" provides an overview of Low Cardiac Output Syndrome clinical trials scenario. (
  • This report provides top line data relating to the clinical trials on Low Cardiac Output Syndrome. (
  • There are a number of clinical methods to measure cardiac output, ranging from direct intracardiac catheterization to non-invasive measurement of the arterial pulse. (
  • The low-cardiac-output state can be thought of as the final common pathway of a multitude of diseases that affect the heart - it is a clinical syndrome. (
  • Heart failure is a clinical syndrome characterized by a decrease in cardiac output with or without an increase in intracardiac pressure, which can be caused by structural or functional pathologies. (
  • van Heerden PV, Baker S, Lim SI, et al (2000) Clinical evaluation of the noninvasive cardiac output (NICO) monitor in the intensive care unit. (
  • This study aims to investigate the effect of standard versus advanced cardiac monitoring with optimization of CO on the clinical outcome in patients with large ischemic stroke. (
  • Observations at the time of acute severe hypotensive crises that show rough correlation of MAP and cardiac index should not be extrapolated throughout the entire hypotensive period or to other less extreme clinical situations. (
  • The activity correlated with the didactic content (the role of heart rate and stroke volume on cardiac output) to link the activity to specific cardiac disease conditions, with a discussion of related clinical symptoms and anticipated treatment. (
  • The relationship between mean arterial pressure, cardiac output and total peripheral resistance (TPR) gets affected by Vasodilation. (
  • Noninvasive Cardiac Output Measurement: Troubled Technologie. (
  • In the present study, we used a monitor based on electrical bioimpedance method for noninvasive cardiac output measurement. (
  • Cardiac output , in human physiology, volume of blood expelled by either ventricle of the heart . (
  • As reviewed in the September 2013 issue of 'Frontiers in Physiology,' drugs such as carvedilol (Coreg) can block these negative hormonal effects and help support cardiac output. (
  • Nevertheless, cephalopod hearts share common building blocks with those of vertebrate hearts, so by investigating the cardiac physiology of these molluscs, it may be possible to reveal the foundations of heart function in animals. (
  • Cardiac output (CO), also known as heart output denoted by the symbols Q {\displaystyle Q} , or Q ˙ c {\displaystyle {\dot {Q}}_{c}} , is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, by the left and right ventricle, per unit time. (
  • Boldt J, Menges T, Wollbruck M, Hammermann H, Hempelmann G (1994) Is continuous cardiac output measurement using thermodilution reliable in the critically ill patient? (
  • Gratz I, Kraidin J, Jacobi AG, deCastro NG, Spagna P, Larijani GE (1992) Continuous noninvasive cardiac output as estimated from the pulse contour curve. (
  • Bernstein DP (1986) Continuous noninvasive real-time monitoring of stroke volume and cardiac output by thoracic electrical bioimpedance. (
  • In people with heart failure, however, the continuous production of these hormones begins to stiffen the heart and blood vessel muscles and can decrease cardiac output. (
  • Tests were conducted over time intervals that ranged from 6 to 24 hours of continuous monitoring for the obtained instantaneous cardiac output for each minute. (
  • Recently, the estimated continuous cardiac output (esCCO) system, which can monitor cardiac output (CO) non-invasively based on pulse wave transit time, has been developed. (
  • A method has been developed for the continuous automated monitoring of cardiac output in adult rainbow trout. (
  • Wagner JY, Grond J, Fortin J, Negulescu I, Schöfthaler M, Saugel B. Continuous noninvasive cardiac output determination using the CNAP system: evaluation of a cardiac output algorithm for the analysis of volume clamp method-derived pulse contour. (
  • A technique of continuous cardiac output (CO) measurement without injection of foreign fluids is discussed in this report. (
  • The team developed a method in which the systemic heart was perfused by tubes containing artificial cuttlefish 'blood', allowing them to continuously monitor cardiac output (the amount of blood pumped per minute). (
  • When cardiac output (CO) falls short or systemic metabolic demand is increased, the patient is in jeopardy. (
  • In 17 ASA I and II patients undergoing elective craniotomies for supratentorial tumours, the following haemodynamic parameters were measured noninvasively: heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR). (
  • Overshoot of cardiac output was caused by a rebound increase in stroke volume which was due to a reduction in systemic vascular resistance. (
  • Reducing lung liquid volume increases biventricular outputs and systemic arterial blood flows despite decreased cardiac filling pressures in fetal lambs. (
  • Therefore, your heart can maintain a high cardiac output with less effort. (
  • The factors affecting stroke volume and heart rate also affect cardiac output. (
  • What systems affect cardiac output? (
  • All organ systems are related and can affect cardiac output . (
  • how could hypertension affect cardiac output? (
  • What is a normal cardiac output? (
  • A healthy heart with a normal cardiac output pumps about 5 to 6 liters of blood every minute when a person is resting. (
  • However heart rate increased due to sympathetic activity, and normal cardiac output is maintained. (
  • Cardiac output is thought of by doctors as a combination of heart rate and stroke volume. (
  • Heart rate and stroke volume dictate cardiac output. (
  • Cardiac output is known as the volume of blood is pumped by from the right or left ventricle of heart per minute and which is dependent on heart rate, and stroke volume. (
  • The purpose of the activity was to engage the students and help them grasp the connection between cardiac output, heart rate, and stroke volume. (
  • In other words, cardiac output can be calculated if we know the values of heart rate and stroke volume. (
  • What is the mathematical relationship between cardiac output, heart rate, and stroke volume. (
  • This reduces heart rate and stroke volume from their high levels, bringing cardiac output back to normal. (
  • 03.15.2016 Predictions During exercise HR will increase During exercise SV will increase During exercise CO will increase Materials and Methods Dependent Variable EDV, ESV, and cardiac cycle length Independent Variable level of physical activity (resting or exercise) Controlled Variables age, weight, height, health, gender 4. (
  • Rocco M, Spadetta G, Morelli A, Dell'Utri D, Porzi P, Conti G, Pietropaoli P (2004) A comparative evaluation of thermodilution and partial CO 2 rebreathing techniques for cardiac output assessment in critically ill patients during assisted ventilation. (
  • some patients did not have PA catheters placed and subsequently data was not obtained on cardiac output. (
  • Linear cardiac output was measured as minute distance by Doppler ultrasound in 40 patients with haemopoietic disorders who had stable haemoglobin concentrations ranging from 30 to 200 g/l. (
  • Adult patients with mechanical cardiac support including intra-aortic balloon pumps, LVAD, or ECMO, and persistent ventricular arrhythmias. (
  • In ICU, non-invasive Cardiac Output monitoring by the NICOM® provides haemodynamic information, which assists in diagnosis and therapy of heart patients by establishing the patient's baseline haemodynamic status for optimization of drug titration. (
  • The diverse patient population included unstable patients in general, cardiac, and post-surgical intensive care settings. (
  • Cardiac output, the volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute, is a crucial component of vital signs monitored in surgical patients. (
  • Most devices used to monitor cardiac output are adapted from adult patients with limited use in children, due to differences in size, technical limitations, and risk of complications. (
  • Despite the encouraging results from this study, there are still many challenges in developing the ideal cardiac output monitor for pediatric patients,' said Dr. Trieu. (
  • Effects of hemodialysis on extracellular fluid volume distribution, left ventricular volumes, and cardiac output were determined in patients with end-stage renal disease (n = 19). (
  • There results suggest that, although intravascular volume was the major determinant of cardiac output in dialyzed patients, the postdialysis reduction in cardiac output might be related more to the relocation of blood volume than to the absolute degree of blood volume contraction. (
  • Finally, in patients with heart rates below 60 beats/min or a cardiac index of less than 2.5 l/min/m 2 , atrial pacing was started and the haemodynamic consequences were monitored with the PA-TD and pulse contour methods. (
  • Since we proposed that maintenance of the target level of anaesthesia (Entropy index not more then 40) in patients with reduced cardiac index may be accomplished with lower ETsev, further analysis included 65 sets of variables measured in patients with target Entropy index. (
  • However, in some patients the dominant manifestations are of reduced cardiac output and tissue hypoperfusion with or without congestion. (
  • Cardiac catheterisation was performed in 50 consecutive patients with PH. (
  • We enrolled 50 consecutive patients referred to the cardiac catheterisation laboratory for a haemodynamic assessment of presumed or previously confirmed PH. (
  • In a randomised study of 104 healthy patients undergoing caesarean delivery under spinal anaesthesia, at 5 minutes after local anaesthetic injection a noradrenaline infusion maintained maternal cardiac output and heart rate better than a phenylephrine infusion. (
  • Cardiac output was decreased in 18 patients (25.7%), normal in 39 patients (55.7%) and increased in 13 patients (18.6%), whereas in 70 patients, 18 patients (25.7%) had decreased cardiac index, 26 patients (37.1%) had normal cardiac index and 26 patients (37.1%) had increased cardiac index. (
  • A total of 96 patients were enrolled, including 48 consecutive patients with variant lung diseases (group A) and 48 pair-matched pulmonary healthy patients (group B). CO was measured with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and IGR. (
  • Franciosa JA (1977) Evaluation of the CO2 rebreathing cardiac output method in seriously ill patients. (
  • Neviere R, Mathieu D, Riou Y, et al (1994) Carbon dioxide rebreathing method of cardiac output measurement during acute respiratory failure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (
  • Blanch L, Fernandez R, Benito S, et al (1988) Accuracy of an indirect carbon dioxide Fick method in determination of the cardiac output in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. (
  • 500 patients), as well as across specific well-characterized subgroups in which reduced cardiac output was expected to play an important role (i.e., high right atrial pressure, more impaired renal function, or low systolic blood pressure). (
  • Potential Methods To Measure Cardiac Output in Patients With Shock. (
  • High flow in an AV access can produce life-threatening cardiac complications for ESRD patients. (
  • For patients at risk based on such pre-existing conditions, the widespread consensus (evidence-based) is that patients with access flows of 2 L/min or higher should be tested and followed for these complications -- and have a flow-reduction procedure performed at the earliest signs of cardiac complications or extremity ischemia. (
  • Therefore, it is critically important for the practitioner to be aware of the relationship between access flow and cardiac failure, since many of these high-flow patients will have morbidity and mortality. (
  • DESIGN Prospective data collected from 47 patients undergoing routine cardiac catheterization. (
  • The aim of this study was to characterize the kinetics of cardiac output during recovery from maximal exercise in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). (
  • Overshoot of cardiac output was recognized in 11 of 30 patients. (
  • Seventy-three consecutive patients with a value of cardiac index lower than or equal to 2.2 were included in a prospective observational study. (
  • Complicated patients had lower cardiac output and SVO 2 values 2 and 6 hours after the arrival in ICU. (
  • The non-invasive Nexfin cardiac output (CO) monitor shows a low level of agreement with the gold standard thermodilution method in morbidly obese patients. (
  • In this study, we aimed to compare noninvasively the effects of right and left thoracotomies on cardiac output in the patients who would undergo thoracotomy. (
  • 7 days presenting without cardiac dysfunction and with a low cardiac output. (
  • The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) defines cardiogenic shock as "evidence of tissue hypoperfusion induced by cardiac dysfunction after correction of preload. (
  • The underlying cause of the myocardial dysfunction may be primarily cardiac or extracardiac. (
  • Broadly, cardiac dysfunction can result from any cardiac structural disorder or functional disorder that disrupts cardiac filling or emptying. (
  • A patient with preoperative pulmonary hypertension and a large left to right intracardiac shunt underwent surgical correction of a complex cardiac anomaly and required extracorporeal life support for unexplained ventricular dysfunction following the procedure. (
  • Intuitively, progressive renal dysfunction is often attributed to hypoperfusion of the kidney due to progressive impairment of cardiac output. (
  • PCC) Integrate understanding of the dimensions of care in the patient with cardiac dysfunction while providing information, physical comfort, and emotional support. (
  • Provide safe and effective care to the client experiencing cardiac dysfunction. (
  • PCC) Provide patient-centered care for a patient with cardiac dysfunction while considering patient values, preferences and expressed needs. (
  • Harris AP, Miller CF, Beattie C, et al (1985) The slowing of sinus rhythm during thermodilution cardiac output determinations and the effect of altering injectate temperature. (
  • The accuracy and reproducibility of noninvasive cardiac output determinations by computer-averaged impedance cardiography were compared with those of simultaneously performed thermodilution cardiac output. (
  • In the logistic regression analysis, a reduced cardiac index at 2 and 6 hours after admission in the ICU had the strongest independent predictive value for postoperative complication. (
  • METHODS: CO values using the Aesculon monitor and PAC thermodilution were simultaneously recorded during cardiac catheterization in children. (
  • There is no need to present the details of the methods available for measuring the amount of blood pumped by the heart, the cardiac output. (
  • Effect of mean circulatory filling pressure and other peripheral circulatory factors on cardiac output. (
  • The precise volume flow level that will induce high-output failure or extremity ischemia will vary with each patient, based on co-morbidities, especially the degree of cardiac disease and peripheral arterial disease. (
  • What effect does changing cardiac output or total peripheral resistance have, whilst not changing the other? (
  • American Council on Exercise reports that when your fitness level has increased enough to start HIIT or high-intensity interval training, your cardiac efficiency increases by elevating your heart's stroke volume and cardio output at a heart rate that is lower. (
  • An excess of thyroid hormone acts very much like epinephrine and increases cardiac output as well. (
  • When CO increases in a healthy but untrained individual, most of the increase can be attributed to an increase in HR. Change of posture, increased sympathetic nervous system activity, and decreased parasympathetic nervous system activity can also increase cardiac output. (
  • This is a product of stroke volume or cc's of blood per beat times the heart rate so cardiac output increases with either an increase in stroke volume or heart rate or both. (
  • The effects of vasodilation, how the blood quantity increases and decreases along with the blood flow and the arterial blood flow and resistance on cardiac output is discussed in this review Article. (
  • Increasing the heart rate effectively increases the cardiac output by increasing the number of cardiac volumes of blood released into the system. (
  • Cardiac output increases by 30 to 50% during pregnancy [1-5]. (
  • Sympathetic activity increases heart rate, maintaining cardiac output. (
  • The results show that the mice, following myocardial infarction, have improved cardiac output as a result of this method, as compared to untreated animals. (
  • We report a case of an iatrogenic femoral arteriovenous fistula, causing worsening congestive cardiac failure, in a 34-year-old marathon runner. (
  • In this review on cardiac output methods used in pharmacology, the Fick principle, indicator dilution techniques, arterial pulse contour analysis, ultrasound and bio-impedance are reviewed. (
  • These changes require a detailed haemodynamic analysis including cardiac output. (
  • A 2017 American Diabetes Association study that looked at 53 adolescents with Type 1 diabetes concluded that exercise training improves the cardiac output and exercise capacity by increasing the functions of the left ventricle. (
  • EF is the fraction of blood ejected by the Left Ventricle (LV) during the contraction or ejection phase of the cardiac cycle or Systole. (
  • it usually refers to left ventricle output. (
  • Cardiac output is the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle in one minute. (
  • Cardiac output (CO) is the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, by left ventricle in the time interval of one minute. (
  • Relative importance of venous and arterial resistances in controlling venous return and cardiac output. (
  • Over the long term, cardiac output and venous return are equal, leading to a rather complex algebraic relationship. (
  • Guyton's cardiac function and venous return curves provide a graphical solution to these equations. (
  • Cardiac muscle fibers are stretched by increased blood volume returning to the heart (increased venous return and EDV). (
  • Dark PM, Singer M (2004) The validity of trans-esophageal Doppler ultrasonography as a measure of cardiac output in critically ill adults. (
  • McLeans AS, Needham A, Stewart D, Parkin R. Estimation of cardiac output by noninvasive echocardiographic techniques in the critically ill subjects. (
  • decreased cardiac output a nursing diagnosis accepted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as a state in which inadequate blood is pumped by the heart to meet the metabolic demands of the body. (
  • Moreover, the ability of the PiCCO algorithm to track changes, induced or spontaneous, in cardiac output has not been determined unequivocally. (
  • OBJECTIVE To evaluate the accuracy and precision of an advanced thoracic bioimpedance cardiac output monitor by comparing it with conventional thermodilution. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterised by a progressive decline in cardiac output (CO) and right heart failure. (
  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disease characterised by an elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) that ultimately results in a progressive decline in cardiac output (CO) due to right ventricular failure [ 1 ]. (
  • How does hypertension increase cardiac output? (
  • If someone has low cardiac output, does that mean they have hypertension? (
  • What is the relation of hypertension and decreased cardiac output? (
  • We evaluated the accuracy, precision, responsiveness, and reliability of NICOM for detecting cardiac output changes. (
  • Cardiac output measured by NICOM had most often acceptable accuracy, precision, and responsiveness in a wide range of circulatory situations. (
  • The NICOM® ICU (Intensive Care Unit) and CCU (Critical Care Unit) is a non-invasive Cardiac Output monitor based on Haemodynamic Reactance Mapping, intended for the measurement and display of Cardiac Output and ECG (electrocardiogram), both at rest and under medical tests. (
  • NICOM® (noninvasive cardiac output monitor) is a bioreactance-based technology that has been broadly validated, but its specific application in right heart failure and PH is unknown. (
  • NICOM (Cheetah) is a new non-invasive cardiac output (CO) monitor based on bioreactance. (
  • To assess the influence of the cardiac output on sevoflurane pharmacodynamics we measured cardiac index (CI) simultaneously with anaesthetic concentration in the end tidal gas mixture (ETsev) and anaesthesia depth based on Entropy monitor data. (
  • Cardiac index (CI) is the cardiac output proportional to the body surface area (BSA). (
  • using cardiac index= CO/Body surface area ex. (
  • Does cardiac index change with age? (
  • To evaluate the reliability of the vital signs to evaluate circulatory stability as reflected by cardiac index. (
  • Apart from an increase in the sitting posture 30 minutes after the dive, pulmonary capacity for carbon monoxide diffusion and cardiac index decreased, mostly 60 minutes after the dive (−9%, p = 0.0003 and −20%, p = 0.0002 respectively). (
  • The decrease in cardiac index was greater in the supine posture (p = 0.0004), and the physiological dead space/tidal volume ratio increased more in the sitting position (p = 0.006). (
  • All cases were monitorized with noninvasive cardiac output monitor, and values of cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume and endtidal CO2 were measured. (
  • Apparatus and methods for non-invasively determining the cardiac output or pulmonary capillary blood flow of a patient using partial re-breathing techniques. (
  • Many methods of cardiac output measurement have been developed, but the number of methods useful for human pharmacological studies is limited. (
  • Post-operatively, cardiac output was determined with the PA-TD and pulse contour methods, and the bias and limits of agreement were again calculated. (
  • These methods allow one to determine the amount of blood being delivered to the vasculature by the heart, and whether its output is sufficient to sustain the health of the patient. (
  • Through this mechanical stimulation, the circulation of the area of the infarction is improved - and the scar shrinks,' says the cardiac specialist. (
  • A direct indicator device for determining the cardiac output according to the thermodilution method embodying two temperature sensors connected to the blood circulation for respectively determining the inlet- and dilution temperatures. (
  • The cardiac output represents the volume of blood that is delivered to the body, and is therefore an important factor in the determination of the effectiveness of the heart to deliver blood to the rest of the body, (i.e., determining heart failure, inadequate circulation, etc). (
  • All these points are associated to distinct physiological events within the systolic part of the cardiac cycle, i.e., located after the QRS complex onset. (
  • T he estimation of cardiac output by the pulse contour method was re-introduced more than two decades ago by Wesseling et al. (
  • Prolonged kinetics of VO 2 or VCO 2 during recovery from maximal exercise represent impairment of circulatory response to exercise and delayed recovery of cardiac output after exercise. (