Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Thermodilution: Measurement of blood flow based on induction at one point of the circulation of a known change in the intravascular heat content of flowing blood and detection of the resultant change in temperature at a point downstream.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Dye Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cardiac Output, High: A state of elevated cardiac output due to conditions of either increased hemodynamic demand or reduced cardiac oxygen output. These conditions may include ANEMIA; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; THYROTOXICOSIS; PREGNANCY; EXERCISE; FEVER; and ANOXIA. In time, compensatory changes of the heart can lead to pathological form of high cardiac output and eventual HEART FAILURE.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Cardiography, Impedance: A type of impedance plethysmography in which bioelectrical impedance is measured between electrodes positioned around the neck and around the lower thorax. It is used principally to calculate stroke volume and cardiac volume, but it is also related to myocardial contractility, thoracic fluid content, and circulation to the extremities.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Catheterization, Swan-Ganz: Placement of a balloon-tipped catheter into the pulmonary artery through the antecubital, subclavian, and sometimes the femoral vein. It is used to measure pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure which reflects left atrial pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. The catheter is threaded into the right atrium, the balloon is inflated and the catheter follows the blood flow through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and out into the pulmonary artery.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Blood Circulation: The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cardiac Tamponade: Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Indicator Dilution Techniques: Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Central Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Cardiac Volume: The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Pulmonary Wedge Pressure: The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Blood Volume Determination: Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Splanchnic Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Plethysmography, Impedance: Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Myoblasts, Cardiac: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cardiac Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Cardiac Imaging Techniques: Visualization of the heart structure and cardiac blood flow for diagnostic evaluation or to guide cardiac procedures via techniques including ENDOSCOPY (cardiac endoscopy, sometimes refered to as cardioscopy), RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; TOMOGRAPHY; or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Indocyanine Green: A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Rest: Freedom from activity.Troponin I: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.Cardiac Glycosides: Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: The restoration of the sequential order of contraction and relaxation of the HEART ATRIA and HEART VENTRICLES by atrio-biventricular pacing.Resuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Arterial Pressure: The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Hypovolemia: An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Occurrence of heart arrest in an individual when there is no immediate access to medical personnel or equipment.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Ventricular Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Shock: A pathological condition manifested by failure to perfuse or oxygenate vital organs.Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Atrial Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the RIGHT ATRIUM.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Vascular Capacitance: The measure of a BLOOD VESSEL's ability to increase the volume of BLOOD it holds without a large increase in BLOOD PRESSURE. The vascular capacitance is equal to the change in volume divided by the change in pressure.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Echocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio: The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Extracorporeal Circulation: Diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous with the bodily circulation.Hydrazones: Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Plasma Substitutes: Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Lower Body Negative Pressure: External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Hemodilution: Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.Troponin T: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Shock, Septic: Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.PyridazinesRespiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Photoplethysmography: Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Ultrasonics: A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Cardiac Care Facilities: Institutions specializing in the care of patients with heart disorders.Electromagnetic Phenomena: Characteristics of ELECTRICITY and magnetism such as charged particles and the properties and behavior of charged particles, and other phenomena related to or associated with electromagnetism.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Echocardiography, Doppler, Color: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Atrial Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine: A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Tilt-Table Test: A standard and widely accepted diagnostic test used to identify patients who have a vasodepressive and/or cardioinhibitory response as a cause of syncope. (From Braunwald, Heart Disease, 7th ed)Pulse: The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Heart Rate, Fetal: The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.Syncope: A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)

Phasic right coronary artery blood flow in conscious dogs with normal and elevated right ventricular pressures. (1/3428)

We studied phasic right coronary blood flow in well trained normal dogs and dogs with pulmonic stenosis. We installed electromagnetic flow transducers and pressure tubes under anesthesia to monitor right coronary blood flow, cardiac output, central aortic blood pressure, and right ventribular pressure. In normotensive dogs, systolic flow amplitude equaled early diastolic flow levels. The ratio of systolic to diastolic flow at rest was substantially greater in the right coronary bed (36+/-1.3%) than in the left circumflex bed (13+/-3.6%). Right diastolid flow runoff, including the cove late in diastole, resembled left circumflex runoff. Blood flow to the normotensive right (37+/-1.1 ml/min 100(-1) g) and the left (35+/-1.0 ml/min(-1) g) ventricular myocardium indicated equal perfusion of both cardiac walls. Throttling of systolic flow was related directly to the right ventricular systolic pressure level in the dogs with pulmonic stenosis. Retrograde systolic flow occurred in severe right ventricular hypertension. The late diastolic runoff pattern in dogs with pulmonic stenosis appeared the same as for the normotensive dogs. We obtained systolic to diastolic flow ratios of 1/3 the value of normotensive hearts in high and severe pulmonic hypertension. Electrocardiograms and studies of pathology suggested restricted blood flow to the inner layers of the right myocardium in the dogs with severe and high right ventricular hypertension. Normotensive and hypertensive peak hyperemic flow responses were similar, except for an increased magnitude of diastolic flow, with proportionately less systolic flow in hypertensive states.  (+info)

Quantification of baroreceptor influence on arterial pressure changes seen in primary angiotension-induced hypertension in dogs. (2/3428)

We studied the role of the sino-aortic baroreceptors in the gradual development of hypertension induced by prolonged administration of small amounts of angiotensin II (A II) in intact dogs and dogs with denervated sino-aortic baroreceptors. Short-term 1-hour infusions of A II(1.0-100 ng/kg per min) showed that conscious denervated dogs had twice the pressor sensitivity of intact dogs. Long-term infusions of A II at 5.0 ng/kg per min (2-3 weeks) with continuous 24-hour recordings of arterial pressure showed that intact dogs required 28 hours to reach the same level of pressure attained by denervated dogs during the 1st hour of infusion. At the 28th hour the pressure in both groups was 70% of the maximum value attained by the 7th day of infusion. Both intact and denervated dogs reached nearly the same plateau level of pressure, the magnitude being directly related both the the A II infusion rate and the daily sodium intake. Cardiac output in intact dogs initially decreased after the onset of A II infusion, but by the 5th day of infusion it was 38% above control, whereas blood volume was unchanged. Heart rate returned to normal after a reduction during the 1st day of infusion in intact dogs. Plasma renin activity could not be detected after 24 hours of A II infusion in either intact or denervated dogs. The data indicate that about 35% of the hypertensive effect of A II results from its acute pressor action, and an additional 35% of the gradual increase in arterial pressure is in large measure a result of baroreceptor resetting. We conclude that the final 30% increase in pressure seems to result from increased cardiac output, the cause of which may be decreased vascular compliance. since the blood volume remains unaltered.  (+info)

Site of myocardial infarction. A determinant of the cardiovascular changes induced in the cat by coronary occlusion. (3/3428)

The influence of site of acute myocardial infarction on heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance (TPR), cardiac rhythm, and mortality was determined in 58 anesthetized cats by occlusion of either the left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex or right coronary artery. LAD occlusion resulted in immediate decrease in cardiac output, heart rate, and blood pressure, an increase in TPR, and cardiac rhythm changes including premature ventricular beats, ventricular tachycardia, and occasionally ventricular fibrillation. The decrease in cardiac output and increase in TPR persisted in the cats surviving a ventricular arrhythmia. In contrast, right coronary occlusion resulted in a considerably smaller decrease in cardiac output. TPR did not increase, atrioventricular condition disturbances were common, and sinus bradycardia and hypotension persisted in the cats recovering from an arrhythmia. Left circumflex ligation resulted in cardiovascular changes intermediate between those produced by occlusion of the LAD or the right coronary artery. Mortality was similar in each of the three groups. We studied the coronary artery anatomy in 12 cats. In 10, the blood supply to the sinus node was from the right coronary artery and in 2, from the left circumflex coronary artery. The atrioventricular node artery arose from the right in 9 cats, and from the left circumflex in 3. The right coronary artery was dominant in 9 cats and the left in 3. In conclusion, the site of experimental coronary occlusion in cats is a major determinant of the hemodynamic and cardiac rhythm changes occurring after acute myocardial infarction. The cardiovascular responses evoked by ligation are related in part to the anatomical distribution of the occluded artery.  (+info)

Effect of portal-systemic anastomosis on renal haemodynamics in cirrhosis. (4/3428)

In 12 patients with portal hypertension and repeated bleedings from oesophageal varices the central haemodynamics, portal pressure, and mean renal blood flow (RBF) were investigated immediately before and two to seven months after portal-systemic shunt. Cardiac output increased significantly, whereas arterial pressure was unchanged after operation. RBF, which was initially less than in controls, did not change. As portal pressure decreased significantly, a direct portal-renal, neural, or humoral reflex mechanism does not explain the subnormal RBF in cirrhosis. As plasma volume was large and unchanged after operation a "diminished circulating plasma volume" is an unlikely explanation. Therefore, on the basis of the present observations, previously postulated causes of renal hypoperfusion in cirrhosis need revision.  (+info)

The respiratory responses of Carcinus maenas to declining oxygen tension. (5/3428)

The degree of respiratory independence shown by Carcinus under conditions of declining oxygen tension is dependent on the animal's level of activity. Inactive Carcinus are capable of maintaining respiratory independence down to a Po2 of 60-80 mmHg. This is achieved primarily by an increase in ventilation volume such that the amount of oxygen made available at the respiratory surfaces remains constant over a wide range of oxygen tension. The Po2 at which this can no longer be maintained corresponds closely to the Po2 at which respiratory independence is lost. Under normoxic conditions the Po2 of the post- and prebranchial blood was 97 and 18 mmHg respectively. At the high oxygen tensions prevailing in the postbranchial blood the respiratory pigment is fully saturated. Under conditions of declining oxygen tension the heart rate remains more or less constant until the Po2 reaches 60-80 mmHg, the onset of bradycardia coinciding with the loss of saturation of the haemocyanin. Although cardiac output falls during hypoxia, the capacity rate ratio remains approximately constant, which enables the effectiveness of oxygen uptake by the blood to remain at a high level.  (+info)

Reversal of severe pulmonary hypertension with beta blockade in a patient with end stage left ventricular failure. (6/3428)

A 52 year old man with severe chronic left ventricular failure (New York Heart Association class IV) was considered unsuitable for cardiac transplantation because of high and irreversible pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). In an attempt to produce symptomatic improvement, metoprolol was cautiously introduced, initially at 6.25 mg twice daily. This was slowly increased to 50 mg twice daily over a two month period and continued thereafter. After four months of treatment the patient's symptoms had improved dramatically. His exercise tolerance had increased and diuretic requirements reduced to frusemide 160 mg/day only. Assessment of right heart pressures was repeated and, other than a drop in resting heart rate, there was little change in his pulmonary artery pressure or PVR. His right heart pressures were reassessed showing a pronounced reduction in pulmonary artery pressure and a significant reduction in PVR, which fell further with inhaled oxygen and sublingual nitrates. He was then accepted onto the active waiting list for cardiac transplantation. A possible mechanism of action was investigated by assessing responses to beta agonists during treatment. Not only was there pronounced improvement in PVR but it was also demonstrated that beta receptor subtype cross-regulation may have contributed to the mechanism of benefit.  (+info)

Validation of haemodialysis recirculation and access blood flow measured by thermodilution. (7/3428)

BACKGROUND: Recirculation (R) and access blood flow (Qac) measurements are considered useful indicators of adequate delivery of haemodialysis. It was the purpose of this study to compare measurements of R and Qac obtained by two different techniques which are based on the same principle of indicator dilution, but which differ because of the characteristics of the injection and detection of the different indicators used. METHODS: Recirculation measured by a thermal dilution technique using temperature sensors (BTM, Fresenius Medical Care) was compared with recirculation measured by a validated saline dilution technique using ultrasonic transducers placed on arterial and venous segments of the extracorporeal circulation (HDM, Transonic Systems, Inc.). Calculated access flows were compared by Bland Altman analysis. Data are given as mean +/- SD. RESULTS: A total of 104 measurements obtained in 52 treatments (17 patients, 18 accesses) were compared. Recirculation measured with correct placement of blood lines and corrected for the effect of cardiopulmonary recirculation using the 'double recirculation technique' was -0.02 +/- 0.14% by the BTM technique and not different from the 0% measured by the HDM technique. Recirculation measured with reversed placement of blood lines and corrected for the effect of cardiopulmonary recirculation was 19.66 +/- 10.77% measured by the BTM technique compared with 20.87 +/- 11.64% measured by the HDM technique. The difference between techniques was small (-1.21 +/- 2.44%) albeit significant. Access flow calculated from BTM recirculation was 1328 +/- 627 ml/min compared with 1390 +/- 657 ml/min calculated by the HDM technique. There was no bias between techniques. CONCLUSION: BTM thermodilution yields results which are consistent with the HDM ultrasound dilution technique with regard to both recirculation and access flow measurement.  (+info)

Factors mediating the hemodynamic effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in portal hypertensive rats. (8/3428)

Nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and glucagon have been implicated in promoting the hyperdynamic circulatory state of portal hypertension. Recent evidence also indicates that increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production is involved in the pathogenesis of this hemodynamic abnormality. This study was aimed at investigating in rats with portal vein stenosis (PVS) the effects on splanchnic hemodynamics of blocking circulating TNF-alpha and the factors mediating the vascular action of this cytokine in this setting. Anti-TNF-alpha polyclonal antibodies or placebo was injected into rats (n = 96) before and 4 days after PVS (short-term inhibition) and at 24 h and 4, 7, 10 days after PVS (long-term inhibition). Short-term TNF-alpha inhibition reduced portal venous inflow and cardiac index and increased splanchnic and systemic resistance. Portal pressure was unchanged, but portal-systemic shunting was decreased. After long-term TNF-alpha inhibition, portal venous inflow and portal pressure were unchanged, but arterial pressure and systemic resistance rose significantly. Anti-TNF-alpha PVS rats exhibited lower increments of systemic resistance after Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and indomethacin administration and lower serum levels of TNF-alpha, nitrates-nitrites, and 6-keto-PGF1alpha, both over the short and the long term. Serum glucagon levels rose after long-term inhibition. In conclusion, the specific role played by TNF-alpha in the development of the hyperdynamic state of portal hypertension appears to be mainly mediated through an increased release of nitric oxide and prostacyclin. Maintenance of the splanchnic hyperemia after long-term TNF-alpha inhibition could be due to a compensatory release of glucagon.  (+info)

*Cardiac output

Cardiac input (CI) is the inverse operation of cardiac output. As cardiac output implies the volumetric expression of ejection ... Values for cardiac output are usually denoted as L/min. For a healthy person weighing 70 kg, the cardiac output at rest ... and requires a cardiac output that is stable for approximately 10 s during exercise and 30 s at rest. Cardiac output is ... its cardiac output, Q. Cardiac output is classically defined alongside stroke volume (SV) and the heart rate (HR) as: In ...

*Quantium Medical Cardiac Output

The assessment of Cardiac Output (CO) is important because it reveals the main cardiac function: the supply of blood to tissues ... quantium Medical Cardiac Output (qCO) uses impedance cardiography in a simple, continuous, and non-invasive way to estimate the ... Hofer, C.K.; Ganter, M.T.; Zollinger, A. (2007). "What technique should I use to measure cardiac output?". Curr. Opin. Crit. ... de Waal, E. E. C.; Wappler, F.; Buhre, F. (2009). "Cardiac output monitoring". Curr. Opin. Anesthesiol. 22. García, X.; Mateu, ...

*Autoimmune heart disease

Chronic: Valve diseases as noted above; Reduced cardiac output; Exercise intolerance. Intensive cardiac care and ... Autoimmune heart diseases are the effects of the body's own immune defense system mistaking cardiac antigens as foreign and ... Acutely, it can cause pericardial effusion leading to cardiac tamponade and death. After healing, there may be fibrosis and ... adhesion of the pericardium with the heart leading to constriction of the heart and reduced cardiac function. Myocarditis: Here ...

*Venous return curve

It normally limits cardiac output. Superposition of the cardiac function curve and venous return curve is used in one ... direct influences on cardiac output such as end diastolic pressure and volume which can be causally related to cardiac output ... Although cardiac output and venous return are interdependent, each can be independently regulated. The circulatory system is ... However, as noted above it is clear that, equally, cardiac output must dictate venous return since over any period of time both ...

*Isaac Starr

Henry Schroeder, was used to measure cardiac output and led to the first accurate physical measurements and to detection of ... This led him, shortly after joining Penn, to participate in a cardiac output methods program by the American Physiological ... At this program, his colleague, Yandell Henderson, demonstrated an apparatus for measuring cardiac output, a ... "Cardiac Output Measurement Using Ballistocardiogram". The 15th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering IFMBE ...

*Pulmonary artery catheter

The ability of the pulmonary artery catheter to sample mixed venous blood is of great utility to manage low cardiac output ... The concept of using thermodilution to measure cardiac output was originally the idea of Arnost Fronek. As a former colleague ... Regardless of the value obtained by measurements of the cardiac output, the mixed venous oxygen saturation is an accurate ... Non-invasive echocardiography and pulse-wave cardiac output monitoring are concordant with (and much safer) if not better than ...

*Cardiovascular physiology

Cardiac Output)) is mathematically ` to ((Systole)) Inotropic, chronotropic, and dromotropic states Cardiac input (= heart rate ... Cardiac output (= heart rate * stroke volume. Can also be calculated with Fick principle.) Stroke volume (= end-diastolic ... Stroke volume Cardiac output Pressure Pulse pressure (systolic pressure - diastolic pressure) Mean arterial pressure (usually ... Cardiac input is mathematically ` to (Diastole)) Electrical conduction system of the heart Electrocardiogram Cardiac marker ...

*Afterload

As afterload increases, cardiac output decreases. Cardiac imaging is a somewhat limited modality in defining afterload because ... Preload Cardiac output Kasper, Dennis L; Braunwald, Eugene; Fauci, Anthony; et al. (2005). Harrison's Principles of Internal ... This may start a vicious circle, in which cardiac output is reduced as oxygen requirements are increased. Afterload can also be ... When contractility becomes impaired and the ventricle dilates, the afterload rises and limits output. ...

*Otto Friedrich Ranke

Bloodless measurement of cardiac output) Z. Biol. 90, 467 (1930). 213 citations on Google Scholar (December 13, 2016) Wolf- ...

*Peter Lauremberg

120-121 Teichmann, G (November 1992). "William Harvey, Peter Lauremberg and cardiac output". International journal of clinical ...

*Ionotropic effect

The result is an increased cardiac output. NOTE: As previously mentioned in this article, Inotrope is not the same as Ionotrope ... Inotropes stimulate cardiac muscle (i.e. digoxin is an inotropic agent) whereas ionotropic agents generally requires a ligand ...

*Diastolic heart failure

As a consequence, cardiac output becomes diminished. When the left ventricular diastolic pressure is elevated, venous pressure ... Volumetric definition of the heart in systole was first described by Adolph Fick as cardiac output. Fick may be readily and ... High output cardiac failure). Although the term diastolic heart failure is often used when there are signs and symptoms of ... Complete left ventricular filling is essential to maintain maximum cardiac output. Left ventricular filling is dependent upon ...

*Acute liver failure

Increased cardiac output and low systemic vascular resistance are characteristic of ALF. Pulmonary artery catheterization ... There is a compensatory increase in cardiac output. Adrenal insufficiency has been documented in 60% of ALF cases, and is ... cardiac arrhythmia or arrest and respiratory failure. The median time to death after admission was 5 days. Intravenous N- ...

*Miguel Induráin

His cardiac output was 50 litres a minute; a fit amateur cyclist's is about 25 litres. Induráin's lung capacity was 7.8 litres ... His maximal values were oxygen uptake 5.29 L/min (57.4 mL · kg-1 · min-1) and aerobic power output 450 W (4.88 W/kg) and was ... However, his absolute maximal and submaximal oxygen uptake and power output in 2012 still compared favorably with those ...

*Anorexia nervosa

Goldberg SJ, Comerci GD, Feldman L (1988). "Cardiac output and regional myocardial contraction in anorexia nervosa". J Adolesc ... Some individuals may also have a decrease in cardiac contractility. Cardiac complications can be life-threatening, but the ... Anorexia nervosa increases the risk of sudden cardiac death, though the precise cause is unknown. Cardiac complications include ... Cardiac complications can include arrhythmias, abnormally slow heart beat, low blood pressure, decreased size of the heart ...

*ACE inhibitor

... decrease cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke work, and volume; lower resistance in blood vessels in the kidneys; and lead to ... This leads to cardiac dysfunction and neuromuscular consequences, such as muscle weakness, paresthesia, nausea, diarrhea, and ... This action may reduce the prevalence of malignant cardiac arrhythmias, and the reduction in sudden death reported in large ... Adigun AQ, Asiyanbola B, Ajayi AA (2001). "Cardiac autonomic function in Blacks with congestive heart failure: vagomimetic ...

*Bainbridge reflex

Boron, Walter F.; Boulpaep, Emile L. (2011). "Chapter 23: Regulation of Arterial Pressure and Cardiac Output". Medical ... now restores venous return and cardiac output into a vasoconstricted circulation, stimulating the vagus nerve and leading to a ... "Effects on cardiac contractility and stroke volume are insignificant." The Bainbridge reflex and the baroreceptor reflex ... Increased blood volume is detected by stretch receptors (Cardiac Receptors) located in both atria at the venoatrial junctions. ...

*Altitude sickness

Cardiac output increases through an increase in heart rate. The body's response to high altitude includes the following: ↑ ... with constant or increased cardiac output, also leads to increases in capillary pressures. For those suffering HACE, ...

*Phosphodiesterase inhibitor

These drugs mimic sympathetic stimulation and increase cardiac output. Anagrelide Cilostazol is used in the treatment of ... milrinone and Enoximone are used clinically for short-term treatment of cardiac failure. ...

*Junctional escape beat

Junctional rhythms (if a bradycardia) can cause decreased cardiac output. Therefore, the person may exhibit signs and symptoms ... Ectopic beat Junctional rhythm Abedin, Zainul; Conner, Robert (2012). Interpretation of Cardiac Arrhythmias: Self-Assessment ...

*Pathophysiology of hypertension

Cardiac output and peripheral resistance are the two determinants of arterial pressure. Cardiac output is determined by stroke ... It does this by regulating the peripheral vasculature, and kidney function, which in turn affect cardiac output, vascular ...

*Circulatory system

The renal circulation receives around 20% of the cardiac output. It branches from the abdominal aorta and returns blood to the ... The smallest cardiac veins drain directly into the heart chambers. The circulatory system of the lungs is the portion of the ... Cardiology Vital heat Cardiac muscle Major systems of the human body Amato Lusitano Vascular resistance "circulatory system" at ... The evolutionary origin of cardiac chambers. Dev. Biol. 277: 1-15. "Crocodilian Hearts". National Center for Science Education ...

*James S. Forrester (cardiologist)

Forrester JS, Ganz W, Diamond GA, McHugh TJ, Chonette D, Swan HJC (1972). "Thermodilution cardiac output determination with a ...

*Renin inhibitor

Blood pressure depends on total peripheral resistance and cardiac output. The highly selective aspartic protease renin is ...

*Essential hypertension

Cardiac output is determined by stroke volume and heart rate; stroke volume is related to myocardial contractility and to the ... Cardiac output and peripheral resistance are the two determinants of arterial pressure and so blood pressure is normally ... What is known is that cardiac output is raised early in the disease course, with total peripheral resistance (TPR) normal; over ... This causes the arterial pressure to rise as the cardiac output increases. Local autoregulatory mechanisms counteract this by ...

*Obstetric ultrasonography

2007). "A comparison between acoustic output indices in 2D and 3D/4D ultrasound in obstetrics". Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 29 ( ... including number of amnionic sacs and chorionic sacs for multiple gestations Fetal cardiac activity Fetal position relative to ... including number of amnionic sacs and chorionic sacs for multiple gestations Embryonic/fetal cardiac activity Assessment of ...
Methods 36 patients who had signed informed consent form and had been scheduled for CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were included into the study. Age of the enrolled subjects ranged from 50 to 65 years of age (mean 58.5 ± 4.6). 30 subjects were males and 6 were females. In all cases patients underwent general anaesthesia on the base of sevoflurane and fentanyl. Anesthetic concentration (from 0.75 to 2.5 vol.%.) was adjusted according to spectral EEG analysis data (Entropy, General Electric) to ensure target anaesthesia depth, corresponding to Entropy index not exceeding 40. Analgesia was provided by fentanyl infusion 5 mcg/kg/hour. To assess the influence of the cardiac output on sevoflurane pharmacodynamics we measured cardiac index (CI) simultaneously with anaesthetic concentration in the end tidal gas mixture (ETsev) and anaesthesia depth based on Entropy monitor data. Studied variables were measured at the following time points: 1 - 5 minutes after sternotomy, 2 - during internal ...
The recent introduction of direct-current external electric shock for the restoration of a normal sinus mechanism in patients with atrial fibrillation has reopened the question of the desirability of restoring a normal sinus pacemaker. To determine whether restoration of a sinus rhythm is hemodynamically beneficial to some or all patients, we have measured the cardiac output in a group of 47 patients with atrial fibrillation in whom an attempt at conversion was about to be made. The cardiac output determination was repeated if restoration of a normal sinus rhythm was accomplished.. All patients were given digitalis in doses sufficient to ...
... Swimming Meet During exercise, the amount of blood pumped by the heart increases in order to deliver more oxygen to the body s muscles. In a healthy adult, cardiac output a measure of the amount of blood pumped by the heart can increase from 3 liters of blood per minute per square meter of body surface to 18 liters per minute per square meter of body surface. Photo Researchers, Inc./Tim Davis To determine overall heart function, doctors measure cardiac output, the amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute. Cardiac output is equal to the heart rate multiplied by the stroke volume, the amount of blood pumped by a ventricle with each beat. Stroke volume, in turn, depends on several factors: the rate at which blood returns to the heart through the veins; how vigorously the heart contracts; and the pressure of blood in the arteries, which affects how hard the heart must work to propel blood into them. Normal cardiac output in an adult is about 3 liters per minute per ...
Note: PEEP is not a ventilatory mode in and of itself. Does not allow alveolar pressure to equilibrate with the atmosphere. PEEP displaces the entire pressure waveform, thus mean intrathoracic pressure increases and the effects on cardiac output are amplified. Low levels of PEEP can be very dangerous, even 5 cm H20, especially in patients with hypovolemia or cardiac dysfunction. When measuring the effectiveness of PEEP, cardiac output must always be calculated because at high saturations, changes in Q will be more important than SaO2 - never use SaO2 as an endpoint for PEEP. The effects of PEEP are not caused by the PEEP itself but by its effects on Ppeak and Pmean, both of which it increases. Risk of barotrauma is dependent on Ppeak, while cardiac output response depends on Pmean. In fact, in a recent study of ARDS patients, it was shown that increasing PEEP from 0 to 5, 10, and 15 cm H2O was met with corresponding decreases in CO [Crit Care Med 31: 2719, 2003] PEEP is indicated clinically for ...
Cardiac output; Adolf Eugen Fick (1829-1901) in 1870, was the first to measure cardiac output; assumes oxygen consumption is a function of rate of blood flow and rate of oxygen pick pick up by RBCs.
article{42cd1e76-58ed-4440-9f9b-09869aa11dbd, author = {Chew, Michelle and Poelaert, Jan}, issn = {0342-4642}, language = {eng}, number = {11}, pages = {1889--1894}, publisher = {Springer}, series = {Intensive Care Medicine}, title = {Accuracy and repeatability of pediatric cardiac output measurement using Doppler: 20-year review of the literature.}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-003-1967-9}, volume = {29}, year = {2003 ...
Driscoll, Andrea, Shanahan, Andrea, Crommy, Lynne and Gleeson, Alice 2000, The effect of patient position on the reproducibility of cardiac output measurements, Heart & lung : the journal of acute and critical care, vol. 24, no. 1, January-February, pp. 38-44, doi: 10.1016/S0147-9563(05)80093-7. ...
Chantler, P D (2004) Age-and-exercise-related effects on cardiac power output. Doctoral thesis, Liverpool John Moores University. ...
Pheochromocytomas and extraadrenal paragangliomas are catecholamin-producing tumours deriving from the adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglia. The only causal therapy is surgical resection. Nowadays, laparoscopic adrenalectomy is thought to be the optimal approach. Chronic volume depletion due to chronic hypertension and preoperative α-adrenoreceptor-blockade (to avoid the effects of intraoperative catecholamine-excess) often lead to hypotension after resection of the tumour. Volume reload with high amounts of fluid is often needed. Therefor some authors recommended invasive measurement (pulmonary artery catheter) to control cardiac output parameters and fluid balance. However, there are non-invasive methods to measure cardiac output(CO), systemic vascular resistance(SVR), stroke volume(SV) and corrected aortic flow time(FTc) to estimate volume status. Except transesophageal echocardiography, other techniques such as transoesophageal doppler and pulse pressure methods exist but have not been ...
Kathleen Dracup, mentor extraordinaire. Maximizing therapy in the advanced heart failure patient. Cardiac power output during transition from mechanical to spontaneous ventilation in canines
Non-Invasive & Minimally Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring Device market research report covering industry trends, market share, market growth analysis and projection by MIcroMarketMonitor.com. Non-Invasive & Minimally Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring Device market report includes,|Key question answered| What are market estimates and forecasts; which of Non-Invasive & Minimally Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring Device markets are doing well and which are not? and |Audience for this report| Non-Invasive & Minimally Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring Device companies.
BSL Analysis software is a FREE download Click for BSL Analysis Download. BSL Analysis downloads provide a "Review Saved Data (RSD)" version of the Biopac Student Lab software for students to install on their own computer outside of the lab. BSL Analysis software works without any data acquisition hardware connected and can be installed on multiple computers.. Students can use the free BSL Analysis software ...
In the operating room, the concept of supranormal oxygen transport values as a therapeutic goal has been validated in high-risk surgical patients. Several studies have shown that perioperative oxygen delivery maximization (which is proportional to cardiac output, hemoglobin and arterial oxygen saturation) in high-risk surgical patients decreases the length of stay in the ICU and in hospital, while decreasing morbidity and mortality. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated that perioperative cardiac output maximization is able to decrease the length of hospital stay and ICU admissions, and may influence long-term outcome.40 Most of these studies used colloid titration to increase cardiac output by leading patients to the plateau of the Frank-Starling curve. Cardiac output maximization was performed using cardiac output monitoring (the plateau of the Frank-Starling curve is achieved when cardiac output no longer increases after fluid challenge). However, a recent survey among North American ...
Acute Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise  Effects on cardiac output (Q). At rest, cardiac output is 4 to 6 litres per minute; That is. 70 beats per minute x 8- ml per beat. = 5.6 litres per minute. Cardiac output increases linearly with in the intensity of exercise up to exhaustion.
Background. We investigated whether cardiac output measured with pulse wave transit time (esCCO, Nihon Kohden, Tokyo, Japan) is able to track changes in cardiac output induced by an increase in preload (volume expansion/passive leg-raising) or by changes in vasomotor tone (variation in norepinephrine dosage) in critically ill patients.. Methods. Eighty patients for whom the decision to give fluid (500 mL of saline over 15 min) (n=20), to perform passive leg-raising (n=20), and to increase (n=20) or to decrease (n=20) norepinephrine were included by the physician. Cardiac output was measured with pulse wave transit time (CO-esCCO) and transthoracic echocardiography (CO-TTE) before and after therapeutic intervention.. Results. Comparison between CO-TTE and CO-esCCO showed a bias of −0.7 l min−1 and limits of agreement of −4.4 to 2.9 l min−1, before therapeutic intervention and a bias of −0.5 l min−1 and limits of agreement of −4.2 to 3.2 l min−1 after therapeutic intervention. Bias ...
In a longitudinal study of 400 primigravidae studied with doppler echocardiography by Bosio et al, the researchers reported that the gestational hypertension developed in 24 (6.34%) women and preeclampsia in 20 (5.29%) women out of the 378 women who completed the pregnancy [7]. Women with preeclampsia had significantly elevated CO before clinical diagnosis of hypertensive compared to normotensive controls, but total peripheral resistance was not significantly different during this latent phase. Study findings supported the hyperdynamic disease model with a subsequent crossover to low cardiac output state. In the study by De Paco et al [12,] CO was significantly higher in the preeclampsia and PIH cases, and in these cases alterations in maternal CO predated the clinical onset of the disorders by several months. Maternal CO in the first trimester was found to be increased in women who developed preeclampsia later. Most of the research and studies about the relationship with cardiac output have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cardiac output and renal function during insulin hypertension in Sprague-Dawley rats. AU - Brands, Michael W.. AU - Lee, William F.. AU - Keen, Henry L.. AU - Alonso-Galicia, Magdalena. AU - Zappe, Dion H.. AU - Hall, John E.. PY - 1996/7/1. Y1 - 1996/7/1. N2 - Hyperinsulinemia has been reported to cause hypertension in rats; however, the renal and hemodynamic mechanisms are not known. In this study, changes in renal function, cardiac output (CO), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were measured during chronic insulin infusion in eight rats (~350 g). After a 4-day control period, a 7-day insulin infusion was begun (1.5 mU · kg-1 · min-1 iv), together with glucose (22 mg · kg-1 · min-1 iv) to prevent hypoglycemia. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), CO, TPR, and heart rate were measured 24 h/day. MAP increased from 92 ± 1 to 100 ± 2 mmHg on day 1 and was 108 ± 4 mmHg by day 7 of insulin. CO tended to decrease during insulin infusion, although not significantly, averaging 94 ± ...
Recall from the "Cardiac Physiology" section of this WikiBook that the primary determinant of cardiac output is the oxygen requirement of peripheral tissues: during pregnancy the maternal VO2 increases to levels greater than 30% of the values before pregnancy. Stroke volume and heart rate therefore increase throughout pregnancy, elevating the cardiac output by more than 40%; cardiac output reaches its zenith at approximately the 20th week of gestation. This may be compounded by the concomitant fall in total peripheral resistance which also peaks at 20 weeks of gestation (maintenance of stable mean arterial pressure would require the increase in cardiac output; see the "Cardiac Physiology" section.) Left ventricular preload, however, is compromised later in pregnancy due to fetal compression of the inferior vena cava, reducing venous return from the lower extremities. Positional changes, especially the supine position, can result in supine hypotensive syndrome of pregnancy, a condition which can ...
Kutter, A P N (2013). Invasive and non-invasive measurement and importance of cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance in animals. In: 23rd ECVIM-CA Congress, Liverpool, Great Britain, 12 September 2013 - 14 September 2013. ...
Cardiac output, in human physiology, volume of blood expelled by either ventricle of the heart. It is customarily expressed as minute volume, or litres of blood per minute, calculated as the product of stroke volume (output of either ventricle per heartbeat) and the number of beats per minute.
Clinical and experimental observations indicate that only a very slight increase of cardiac output is requisite for maintenance of normal metabolism and uncomplicated recovery after a major operation. Patients with extensive sepsis or gangrene and experimental animals with induced abscesses must satisfy circulatory requirements more than double the basal value. Failure of the circulatory system to meet this demand results in acidosis and sudden death. Experiments indicate that an inflammatory area behaves in a fashion similar to an arterio-venous aneurysm. In experimental burns an increase of pulmonary vascular resistance and a decrease of compliance was found related to blood protein denaturation and red cell agglutination. Fever, water evaporation, and excess respiratory work also were demonstrated as contributing to increased crculatory demand. Observations of patients with respiratory complications indicate an efficient respirator is capable of reducing the cardiac output requirements by as
The powerful health benefits of CoQ10 have been widely recognized. Initially, in controlled trials of heart patients in Japan, positive effects on cardiac output and hypertension were noted. Subsequently hundreds of other scientific papers published in the United States and around the world expanded the recognized benefits of CoQ10 to include is antioxidant role, preventing damage to cell membranes by reactive chemicals called free radicals, which are formed naturally as a result of the bodys normal activity and free radicals are also found in the environment in the form of every day pollutants such as exhaust fumes and cigarette smoke. Countering the effects of aging and stress on tissues with high energy requirements such as the heart, brain, kidney, and immune system is another key function to CoQ10 ...
We appreciate the comments that Dr. Rossi expressed concerning our recent study (1)"Compensatory Changes in Atrial Volumes With Normal Aging: Is Atrial Enlargement Inevitable?" We are grateful to be given the chance to respond to the issues raised in the letter.. Our findings demonstrated that, in the younger age group, total left atrial volume change (passive emptying volume + conduit volume + active emptying volume) was approximately 60 ml per cardiac cycle. Thus, one may extrapolate that the left ventricular stroke volume in the absence of valvular regurgitation is approximately 60 ml. For a mean heart rate of 71 beats/min and body surface area (BSA) of 1.8 m2, the cardiac output would be 4.3 l/min or 2.4 l/min/m2, which is a reasonable estimate for the cardiac output of a normal young patient at rest. We agree with Dr. Rossi that correlating the left atrial volume estimation with cardiac output may be useful. However, we elected not to include the data, as insertion of a pulmonary artery ...
The heart is an organ with but one function. Its function is to pump the blood; it does nothing else. For this reason we have a clearer understanding of the heart than of any other organ. We can make pumps; but who can manufacture a working model of any other viscus? One can consider the hearts function in much the same way as one would consider the performance of any man-made pump.. There is no need to present the details of the methods available for measuring the amount of blood pumped by the heart, the cardiac output. All these methods ...
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A non-invasive cardiac output and left ventricular ejection volume monitor system comprising a first arrangement disposed on a given portion of a patients body having a fluid passageway therein in juxtaposition with the given portion of the body; a second arrangement coupled to an inlet of the passageway to cause a fluid to continously flow therethrough at a controllable input temperature and flow rate; and a third arrangement coupled to the second arrangement and an outlet of the passageway to determine energy transferred between the fluid and the given portion of the body, the determined energy transfer being a measure of cardiac output. A fourth arrangement disposed at an extremity of the body and coupled to the third arrangement, the fourth arrangement measuring the heart rate of the body and the third arrangement dividing the cardiac output by the heart rate to provide an indication of the left ventricular ejection volume.
We were unable to demonstrate that increasing the amount and direction of lateral table tilt has a significant effect on maternal cardiac output in healthy pregnant women. Maternal cardiac output was significantly reduced when maternal position was changed from lying on the left side to lying supine with lateral table tilt to the right. This observed reduction in cardiac output may not have been clinically important in our study population of healthy volunteers but may have greater importance in women with compromised cardiac output or uteroplacental circulation.. Previous studies examining the benefits of a lateral tilt position compared with the supine position have found that umbilical venous oxygenation is improved (10-12). Investigations of the effect of increasing the amount of lateral tilt have been limited to measuring maternal blood pressure, fetal heart rate, and maternal toe pulse pressure (13,14). No significant differences for variable tilt positions were found for any of these ...
Get an answer for Give an example of a factor that would tend to raise arterial blood pressure by producing a change in cardiac output, peripheral resistance, and blood volume. Give an example of each one. and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Vasodilation directly affects the relationship between Mean Arterial Pressure and Cardiac Output and Total Peripheral Resistance (TPR). Mathematically, cardiac output is computed by multiplying the heart rate (in beats/minute) and the stroke volume (the volume of blood ejected during systole). TPR depends on several factors including the length of the vessel, the viscosity of blood (determined by hematocrit), and the diameter of the blood vessel. The latter is the most important variable in determining resistance. An increase in either of these physiological components (cardiac output or TPR) cause a rise in the mean arterial pressure. Vasodilators work to decrease TPR and blood pressure through relaxation of smooth muscle cells in the tunica media layer of large arteries and smaller arterioles.[1] Vasodilation occurs in superficial blood vessels of warm-blooded animals when their ambient environment is hot; this process diverts the flow of heated blood to the skin of the animal, where heat can ...
Cardiac Output (Fick) answers are found in the Calculators powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Minimally-invasive cardiac output (CO) monitoring to follow changes in CO would be helpful in anaesthesia practice. Two Doppler systems marketed for this purpose include the CardioQ (Deltex Medical Group, Chichester, United Kingdom), which uses an oesophageal probe, and the USCOM (USCOM Ltd., Sydney, NSW, Australia), which uses a hand-held probe. The aim of the study was to assess the ability of these two methods to track CO during major surgery and to determine their relationship. Twenty patients, age 58 (26 to 81) years, (m/f) 15/5, requiring abdominal surgery were studied. The surgical procedures lasted between 128 and 408 minutes and a total of 285 data pairs (8 to 22 per case) were collected. Time plots showed good tracking ability across a wide range of CO in most patients. Correlation between the two devices was excellent in 14 patients (R-2 >0.85), good in another four (R-2 >0.64) and poor in two. Regression line data supported the hypothesis that CardioQ under-reads at low CO and ...
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Пп Page 79 пппппппппппппппппппппппппппппппппппппппп50 Unit II UNDERSTANDINGHEALTHANDILLNESS пF i g u r e 5в2 Patient in high Fowlerвs position with oxygen. Anesthesia reduces the typical cardiac output response to anemia (34).
Cardiac output (Q or or CO ) is the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by a left or right ventricle in the time interval of one minute.
Cardiac preload refers to pressure in the left or right ventricles immediately after end-diastole or before systole, notes the Columbia Center for New Media Teaching and Learning. Cardiac preload...
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Critical Care Services and Other Procedures Provided on the Same Da,The following services when performed on the day a physician bills for critical care are included in the critical care service and should not be reported separately: • The interpretation of cardiac output measurements (CPT 93561, 93562);
RESULTS Vo2 peak indexed to fat-free mass was reduced in T2DM and ObeseND subjects compared with control subjects (P , 0.0001). Indexed cardiac output increased less during exercise and was 20% lower in T2DM subjects, due to reduced stroke volume. This was a consequence of reduced ventricular filling with smaller end-diastolic volume, which decreased further during exercise in T2DM subjects, but not in ObeseND or control subjects. End-systolic volume was also smaller in T2DM subjects. These changes were associated with increased resting and exercise diastolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance in T2DM subjects. ...
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Hello everyone, I am currently being evaluated by a cardiologist who has had no idea what is causing my cardiac symptoms. I found this article:...
Video created by ペンシルベニア大学(University of Pennsylvania) for the course Vital Signs: Understanding What the Body Is Telling Us. This week we start our exploration of the vital signs with a look at the heart. Well study the basic structure of ...
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This definition is a bit wordy but avoids using the words resistance and impedance, which are strictly defined in physics (and crudely applied in medicine), and may be leapt on by the cruel ...
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Osteoporosis /loss of calcium from bones/ rate of cell replacement decreases/ less protein made as DNA becomes defective;. fall in metabolic rate/decreased activity;. loss of brain cells causes slower responses, slower learning ability, loss of memory;. lower rate of nervous conduction reduces reaction time;. cartilage on joints wears own/arthritis reduction in ease of movement;. arteriosclerosis/atherosclerosis reduce efficiency of circulatory system. reduced vital capacity of lungs/ reduced elasticity become more breathless on exertion; Faulty copying of DNA and a lifetime of exposure to mutagens leads to accumulated genetic changes/mutations. So faulty proteins may be made. cross-linking of proteins such as collagen in connective tissue, causes connective tissue to stiffen e.g. in heart, affecting resting cardiac output;. other effect, e.g. wrinkling of skin/ reduced renal filtration rate/ slower circulation of blood.. Body s immune system produces antibodies against its own cells as the ...
Natural systems provide excellent starting points for biosensor design, but elements must be altered or substituted to produce novel functionality. In the case of proteins, either the sensitivity and affinity for other molecules, the input, or the proteins subsequent response to such molecules, the output, is engineered toward the desired sensor behavior. On the input side, there are thousands of important small molecules, peptides, and larger proteins that are known to cause a conformational change or other detectable response in a protein upon binding. Thus, there are a multitude of proteins capable of sensing molecules already existent in nature. The output response of these proteins is equally varied, but certain enzymatic outputs are particularly useful to researchers. For example, proteins that produce a luminescent or fluorescent output allow the presence of their analyte to be visually observed. Most proteins do not produce a readily observed output though, so they must be augmented ...
Usage: backoffice [OPTIONS...] [REPOSITORIES...] Run backoffice processing on the repositories listed. If no repository is specified, run it on the repository of the local checkout. This might be done by a cron job or similar to make sure backoffice processing happens periodically. Or, the --poll option can be used to run this command as a daemon that will periodically invoke backoffice on collection of repositories. OPTIONS: --debug Show what this command is doing. --nodelay Do not queue up or wait for a backoffice job to complete. If no work is available or if backoffice has run recently, return immediately. The --nodelay option is implied if more than one repository is listed on the command-line. --poll N Repeat backoffice calls for repositories that change in appoximately N-second intervals. N less than 1 turns polling off (the default). --trace Enable debugging output on stderr ...
I hope this is the right section for my newb question. I have taken some c++ classes in HS and now in college. The problem is that I am looking over my courses that I have left to take there doesnt seem to be anymore c++ classes... I have learned a great deal in these classes, but I want to learn more. Most of the programing has had all the output on a screen like the comand prompt in windows, so I guess my question is where do I go to learn more? :confused: I have looked on google but I
Fixes GL45-CTS.gtf33.GL3Tests.explicit_attrib_location.explicit_attrib_location_pipeline. --- src/mesa/state_tracker/st_program.c , 17 +++++++++++++---- 1 file changed, 13 insertions(+), 4 deletions(-) diff --git a/src/mesa/state_tracker/st_program.c b/src/mesa/state_tracker/st_program.c index 91887dc..7cc36b4 100644 --- a/src/mesa/state_tracker/st_program.c +++ b/src/mesa/state_tracker/st_program.c @@ -775,21 +775,20 @@ st_translate_fragment_program(struct st_context *st, } else { inputMapping[attr] = -1; } } /* * Semantics and mapping for outputs */ { - uint numColors = 0; GLbitfield64 outputsWritten = stfp-,Base.Base.OutputsWritten; /* if z is written, emit that first */ if (outputsWritten & BITFIELD64_BIT(FRAG_RESULT_DEPTH)) { fs_output_semantic_name[fs_num_outputs] = TGSI_SEMANTIC_POSITION; fs_output_semantic_index[fs_num_outputs] = 0; outputMapping[FRAG_RESULT_DEPTH] = fs_num_outputs; fs_num_outputs++; outputsWritten &= ~(1 ,, FRAG_RESULT_DEPTH); } @@ -819,29 +818,39 @@ ...
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A class of steady-state compartmental models of the circulation is examined and it is shown that the mathematical problem for this model class involves a single nonlinear equation. In an important subclass and with certain assumptions regarding the form of the Starling-type cardiac function curves, the single equation is of the form Z = μ + λ log[(1 − Z)/Z] where μ and λ are mathematical parameters related to the physiological parameters of the system and Z is proportional to the cardiac output. This result holds regardless of the number and arrangement of compartments within the model itself or of the number of physiological parameters the model contains. An example of this class with 25 physiological parameters is presented to illustrate this approach.
Advanced Hemodynamic Monitoring- Determine how cardiac output can be monitored and optimized in high risk surgery patients in order to improve postoperative outcomes. Develop a Goal Directed Therapy program for patients undergoing high risk surgery in their institution. Apply guidelines for fluid management and hemodynamic optimization in their daily clinical practice. 0.5 Free AMA Pra CAT…
Babies who have been nursed by their mothers are less likely to have certain cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood.
Aimed at practising nurses, this text provides comprehensive coverage of hemodynamic monitoring, including the latest technologies available to monitor cardiac output and the latest approaches to goal-directed therapy.Bennett, David is the author of Hemodynamic Monitoring Made Easy , published 2005 under ISBN 9780702027819 and ISBN 0702027812. [read more] ...
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OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of room-temperature thermodilution cardiac output measurements from the right ventricular port. In addition, waveform patterns were evaluated to determine the actual location of the right ventricular port. DESIGN: Central venous port cardiac output measurements were compared with right ventricular port cardiac output measurements using the same right-heart catheter. SETTING: The general intensive care unit of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. PATIENTS: Thirty-seven critically ill cancer patients with 38 different right-heart catheters were evaluated. INTERVENTION: Four injections of 10 mL normal saline at room temperature were made through each port; the results of the last three injections were averaged. Cardiac output determinations from both ports were completed in less than 10 minutes. The order of port injection was random. RESULTS: No difference was noted between cardiac output determinations from the two ports in a paired t test. Of 38 right-heart ...
Twenty-five patients were enrolled; all presented cardiac index , 4 l/min/m2. The following parameters were evaluated: heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure (CVP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (Pw), CO, systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) and diastolic pulmonary artery pressure (DPAP), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI), left ventricular stroke work index (LVSWI) and right ventricular stroke work index (RVSWI). The determinations were performed before disconnection from mechanical ventilation, 30 min after disconnection and 4-6 hours after disconnection. ...
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of 5-mL injectate on cardiac output measurements in critically ill patients with low ventricular ejection fraction (, 35%). METHODS: Thermodilution cardiac output measurements obtained with three 5-mL and three 10-mL (randomly ordered) iced injectates in 50 patients with low ejection fraction were averaged if the measurements were within 10% of the median. If the 3 measurements were not within those limits, additional measurements were obtained. RESULTS: Cardiac output measured with the 5-mL injectate (mean, 4.63 L/min) and cardiac output measured with the 10-mL injectate (mean, 4.52 L/min) were not significantly different (P = .64). Lower and upper limits of agreement were -1.7 L/min to +1.6 L/min. The bias (mean difference between 10- and 5-mL measurements) of all measurements was -0.09, and the precision was 1.43 L/min, with a 95% confidence limit (mean difference +/- 2 SD) of -1.7 to +1.6 L/min. An additional measurement was necessary in 77% of patients in ...
The pressure gradient technique was used to evaluate effects of respiration on left ventricular stroke volume in 22 patients: 11 normal patients; eight patients with airway obstruction; and three patients with pericardial tamponade. In normals, stroke volume, systolic pressure, and pulse pressure fell an average of 7, 3 and 11% (P , 0.01), respectively, during inspiration. In patients with airway obstruction, these parameters decreased by 25, 12 and 23% (P , 0.001), respectively. After breath-holding, stroke volume also fell immediately with the onset of inspiration in both groups. These results are consistent with a reduction in left ventricular filling during inspiration as the factor primarily responsible for the fall in stroke volume. In patients with pericardial tamponade, variations in left ventricular stroke volume, systolic pressure and pulse pressure were related to: (1) an immediate fall in stroke volume with the onset of inspiration; and (2) a subsequent increase in stroke volume ...
A noninvasive technique for assessing cardiac output (CO) was evaluated by comparing it with thermodilution determinations in patients in the intensive care unit. The new method uses pulsed ultrasound to measure aortic diameter and continuous-wave Doppler ultrasound to obtain aortic blood velocity. An initial study evaluating just the velocity measurement showed that changes of the Doppler index of output (DI) correlated well with those of thermodilution cardiac output (TDCO). Linear regression analysis yielded delta DI = 0.87 delta TDCO + 0.14 (r = 0.83, n = 95). Using a university research instrument these measurements were possible in 54 of 60 patients (90%). A second study using a prototype commercial device incorporated the diameter measurement. Ultrasonic cardiac output (UCO), calculated as the time integral of velocity multiplied by the aortic area, was compared to TDCO. The data, obtained from 45 of 53 patients (85%), are described by the linear regression UCO = 0.95TDCO + 0.38 (r = ...
Measurements and results: Subjects were observed for 24 hours; during surgery, 6 and 24 hours after aortic clamp removed. During July 2012 - December 2013, there were 52 patients who became subjects. There were proportion differences between cardiac lactate and cardiac output change after cardiac surgery. Increase of cardiac lactate has a correlation with increasing levels of sTNFR-1 and IL-6 and decreasing index of Tc, ScvO2 and cardiac output. There were correlations among low index of ScvO2, high index of cardiac lactate and decrease of cardiac output. High sTNFR-1 and IL-6 were correlated to low cardiac output. Cardiac lactate, ScvO2 and MAP can be used as predictors of cardiac output change in patients with cardio-pulmonary bypass. sTNFR-1 and IL-6 levels were correlated with cardiac output changes after cardiac surgery ...
BIOPACSs noninvasive cardiac output sensor noninvasively records the parameters associated with Cardiac Output measurements and is ideal for use in Biopac Student Lab Lesson H21, Impedance Cardiography. The sensor incorporates a precision high frequency current source, which injects a small (400 µA rms @ 100 kHz sine wave) current through the measurement tissue volume defined by the placement of a set of current source electrodes. A separate set of monitoring electrodes then measures the voltage developed across the tissue volume. Because the current is constant, the voltage measured is proportional to the characteristics of the biological impedance of the tissue volume. The sensor can be used to measure changes in Cardiac Output under a variety of conditions: laying down, sitting up, standing up, and post-exercise. ...
Cardiac output was measured by the injection method, using I131-labeled human serum albumin as indicator, and measuring concentration-time curves through the intact skin with a collimated scintillation counter. Although, in principle, any number of blood vessels could be used as the measuring site, it was found that because of recirculation, ... read more suitable curves were obtained only if the counter was directed toward the head or the heart. Cardiac output values calculated from these curves were compared with values found with the classical sampling method. Head, heart, and arterial sampling curves were measured simultaneously with one injection of radioactive indicator. The measurements show that a head curve could be used in measuring cardiac output by the injection method, but it is not very successful because of the rather high standard deviation of the result (25 per cent). A heart curve, however, can successfully replace an arterial sampling curve. The accuracy of heart and arterial ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Simultaneous determination of the accuracy and precision of closed-circuit cardiac output rebreathing techniques. AU - Jarvis, S. S.. AU - Levine, B. D.. AU - Prisk, G. K.. AU - Shykoff, B. E.. AU - Elliott, A. R.. AU - Rosow, E.. AU - Blomqvist, C. G.. AU - Pawelczyk, J. A.. PY - 2007/9. Y1 - 2007/9. N2 - Foreign and soluble gas rebreathing methods are attractive for determining cardiac output (Q̇c) because they incur less risk than traditional invasive methods such as direct Fick and thermodilution. We compared simultaneously obtained Q̇c measurements during rest and exercise to assess the accuracy and precision of several rebreathing methods. Q̇c measurements were obtained during rest (supine and standing) and stationary cycling (submaximal and maximal) in 13 men and 1 woman (age: 24 ± 7 yr; height: 178 ± 5 cm; weight: 78 ± 13 kg; V̇O2max: 45.1 ± 9.4 ml·kg -1·min-1; mean ± SD) using one-N 2O, four-C2H2, one-CO2 (single-step) rebreathing technique, and two criterion ...
(Medical Xpress) -- A new Australian study has confirmed the accuracy of a modern non-invasive cardiac output monitor that can replace a 40-year-old standard in this field.
OBJECTIVE: To compare non-invasive hemodynamic measurements obtained in pregnant and postpartum women using two automated cardiac output monitors against those obtained by two-dimensional (2D) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). METHODS: This was a cross-comparison study into which we recruited 114 healthy women, either with normal singleton pregnancy (across all three trimesters) or within 72 hours following delivery. Cardiac output estimations were obtained non-invasively using two different monitors, Ultrasound Cardiac Output Monitor (USCOM®, which uses continuous-wave Doppler analysis of transaortic blood flow) and Non-Invasive Cardiac Output Monitor (NICOM®, which uses thoracic bioreactance), and 2D-TTE ...
We injected neuroexcitatory and neuroinhibitory agents into the depressor region of the caudal ventrolateral medulla of anesthetized rabbits and determined the effect on arterial pressure, myocardial contractility, cardiac output, and plasma catecholamines and neuropeptide Y. Brief excitation of the sympathoinhibitory neurons with medullary injection of L-glutamate reduced arterial pressure, peripheral vascular resistance, and myocardial contractility. Cardiac output was unaffected. Prolonged inhibition of the sympathoinhibitory neurons with medullary injection of muscimol increased arterial pressure, peripheral vascular resistance, and myocardial contractility. There was a progressive fall in cardiac output. These changes were accompanied by an increase in plasma neuropeptide Y and plasma norepinephrine, but no change in plasma epinephrine. Our findings indicate that the sympathoinhibitory vasomotor neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla tonically suppress the activity of sympathetic ...
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A direct indicator device for determining the cardiac output according to the thermodilution method embodying two temperature sensors connected to the blood circulation for respectively determining the inlet- and dilution temperatures. A clock generator and a scaler connected at the output of the clock generator are provided, the scaler forming a control signal. A respective one of the sensors is connected in circuit with inputs of an associated temperature-pulse frequency converter, the outputs of which are connected with a respective input of a multiplexer. A control input of the multiplexer connected with the output of the scaler serves for the alternate switching-through of a signal from one input and from the other input of the multiplexer to the output thereof in time-dependent function of the control signal. A gate circuit has one input connected with the output of the multiplexer, another input connected with the output of the clock generator and a further input connected with the output of the
Simultaneous investigations of maternal cardiac output and fetal blood flow during hypervolemic hemodilution in preeclampsia - preliminary ...
In standard pharmacologic tests in man and animals, Visken® (pindolol) attenuates increases in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and cardiac output resulting from exercise and isoproterenol administration, thus confirming its beta-blocking properties. The ISA or partial agonist activity of Visken® (pindolol) is mediated directly at the adrenergic receptor sites and may be blocked by other beta-blockers. In catecholamine-depleted animal experiments, ISA is manifested as an increase in the inotropic and chronotropic activity of the myocardium. In man, ISA is manifested by a smaller reduction in the resting heart rate (4-8 beats/min) than is seen with drugs lacking ISA. There is also a smaller reduction in resting cardiac output. The clinical significance of this observation has not been evaluated and there is no evidence, or reason to believe, that exercise cardiac output is less affected by Visken® (pindolol).. ...
Research in the Physiologic Signal Processing & Modeling Laboratory includes cardiovascular physiology, mathematical modeling, physiologic measurement, signal processing, system identification.. Hemodynamic Monitoring by Blood Pressure Waveform Analysis. Blood pressure waveform analysis represents a potential, practical approach for achieving sorely needed reliable, automated, and less invasive monitoring of hemodynamics. As a result, investigation of this approach has been longstanding. However, the previous techniques have neglected key aspects of the physiology and are therefore only able to monitor a limited number of variables that show accuracy over a narrow hemodynamic range. We have developed a suite of blood pressure waveform analysis techniques that account for the crucial facets of the physiology omitted hitherto via diverse (black-box to physical) models to estimate various essential hemodynamic variables (e.g., cardiac output, left atrial pressure, ejection fraction) from more ...
Definition : Instruments designed to measure the volume and flow rate of blood pumped by the heart. The measurements are typically displayed on the device in terms of liters and liters per minute respectively. These instruments typically include an electronic computerized unit, generators (e.g., radiofrequency, ultrasound), controls, a display, and appropriate sensors. Cardiac output is a vital indicator of overall cardiac status and the quality of tissue perfusion. There are several methods of measuring cardiac output, including thermal, impedance, radioisotope, dye dilution, and ultrasonic techniques.. Related Terms : "Monitors, Physiologic, Cardiac Output, Bedside" , "Physiologic Monitor Modules, Cardiac Output" , "Software, Physiologic Monitoring, Cardiac Output". Entry Terms : "Computers, Cardiac Output". UMDC code : 10613 ...
Cardiac output (CO) is commonly measured using the thermodilution technique at the time of right heart catheterisation (RHC). However inter-operator variability, and the operator characteristics...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measurement of cardiac output during exercise by open-circuit acetylene uptake. AU - Barker, Rebecca C.. AU - Hopkins, Susan R.. AU - Kellogg, Nancy. AU - Olfert, I. Mark. AU - Brutsaert, Tom D. AU - Gavin, Timothy P.. AU - Entin, Pauline L.. AU - Rice, Anthony J.. AU - Wagner, Peter D.. PY - 1999/10. Y1 - 1999/10. N2 - Noninvasive measurement of cardiac output (Q̇T) is problematic during heavy exercise. We report a new approach that avoids unpleasant rebreathing and resultant changes in alveolar PO2 or PCO2 by measuring short-term acetylene (C2H2) uptake by an open-circuit technique, with application of mass balance for the calculation of Q̇T. The method assumes that alveolar and arterial C2H2 pressures are the same, and we account for C2H2 recirculation by extrapolating end-tidal C2H2 back to breath 1 of the maneuver. We correct for incomplete gas mixing by using He in the inspired mixture. The maneuver involves switching the subject to air containing trace amounts of C2H2 ...
Conclusion: The present study was the first using EV for NICOM during the transition period in a larger cohort of newborn infants. Results of NICOM were similar to available echocardiography data. The possibility of NICOM offers continuous CO measurement. The present study supports the idea that CO is closely related to HR in newborn infants. ...
The pathogenic processes responsible for cardiovascular disease have their origins in childhood. Although childrens measures of heart rate and blood pressure have been found to be reliable, the reliability of impedance cardiography derived measures have not been evaluated. Thirty-three children, ages 8-11 participated in two sessions. Stressors included serial subtraction, isometric handgrip, and mirror-image tracing. Results indicated the impedance measures showed moderately high temporal stability (average scores r(avg) = 74; difference scores r(avg) = .53) and intertask consistency (average scores r(avg) = .78; difference scores r(avg) = .53). Blood pressure demonstrated the lowest reliability; Heather index, preejection period, and stroke volume demonstrated the highest. These findings suggest childrens cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory stressors can be reliably and consistently assessed using impedance cardiography.
Introduction Electric velocimetry (EV) is normally a kind of impedance cardiography, and it is a non-invasive and applicable approach to cardiac result monitoring continuously. acquired a bias/MPE of 39.00%/46.27%. Bias/MPE for EVMM was 8.07%/37.26% where in fact the OTX and NEURO subgroups were within the number of H0, however the PREM and SEPSIS subgroups were beyond your range. Mechanical venting, noninvasive constant positive airway pressure venting, body weight, and supplementary stomach closure had been elements that affected evaluation of the techniques significantly. Conclusions This scholarly research implies that EV can be compared with aortic flow-based TTE for pediatric sufferers. Launch TC-DAPK6 supplier In the 1960s, impedance cardiography originated to monitor cardiac result (CO) [1]. This technique is dependant on a big change in level of resistance through the cardiac routine to a transcutaneously used electric AC Rabbit polyclonal to BMPR2 voltage, and can be used to calculate ...
Catecholamines are used to increase cardiac output and blood pressure, aiming ultimately at restoring/improving tissue perfusion. While intuitive in its concept, this approach nevertheless implies to be effective that regional organ perfusion would increase in parallel to cardiac output or perfusion pressure and that the catecholamine does not have negative effects on the microcirculation. Inotropic agents may be considered in some conditions, but it requires prior optimization of cardiac preload. Alternative approaches would be either to minimize exposure to vasopressors, tolerating hypotension and trying to prioritize perfusion but this may be valid as long as perfusion of the organ is preserved, or to combine moderate doses of vasopressors to vasodilatory agents, especially if these are predominantly acting on the microcirculation. In this review, we will discuss the pros and cons of the use of catecholamines and alternative agents for improving tissue perfusion in septic shock.
Central venous pressure (CVP) is at the crucial intersection of the force returning blood to the heart and the force produced by cardiac function, which drives the blood back to the systemic circulation. The normal range of CVP is small so that before using it one must ensure proper measurement, specifically the reference level. A useful approach to hypotension is to first determine if arterial pressure is low because of a decrease in vascular resistance or a decrease in cardiac output. This is done by either measuring cardiac output or making a clinical assessment blood flow. If the cardiac output is decreased, next determine whether this is because of a cardiac pump problem or a return problem. It is at this stage that the CVP is most helpful for these options can be separated by considering the actual CVP or even better, how it changed with the change in cardiac output. A high CVP is indicative of a primary pump problem, and a low CVP and return problem. Understanding the factors that determine CVP
Repeatability of Impedance Cardiography Hemodynamic Variables During Treadmill Exercise Purpose To analyze the day to day repeatability of cardiac hemodynamic measurements using a Physio Flow 07 Enduro during treadmill submaximal exercise. Methods 21 male subject ages 18 and older were studied. Two graded treadmill exercise tests consisting of two 5-minute steady state stages (Moderate and Vigorous intensity) were performed using the PhysioFlow device at least 48 hours apart. Cardiac hemodynamic measurements were compared between stages and trials using repeated measures ANOVA, intraclass correlations, and Bland-Altman plots. Results Oxygen consumption (VO2) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER), were not different between the two trials for either Moderate or Vigorous intensities. There was a main effect for intensity for all variables with the exception early diastolic filling ratio (EDFR) and ejection fraction (EF%). Intraclass correlation coefficients between exercise trials were | 0.7 for all
An improved apparatus and method for determining the cardiac output of a living subject. The improved apparatus generally comprises one or more electrode assemblies or patches affixed to the skin of the subject in the vicinity of the thoracic cavity. In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises a constant current source impedance cardiography (ICG) monitor adapted as a stand-alone system. In another embodiment, the apparatus comprises a module adapted for use with a host monitoring system, the latter providing ECG, blood pressure, and/or other inputs to the module. Method of detecting a loss of electrical continuity in one or more of the terminals of the electrode patch, and selecting between a plurality of signal inputs based on signal quality, are also disclosed.
Hassan, M., K. Wagdy, A. Kharabish, P. Philip, A. N. A, A. ElGuindy, A. ELFaramawy, M. F. Elmahdy, H. Mahmoud, and M. H. Yacoub, Validation of Noninvasive Measurement of Cardiac Output Using Inert Gas Rebreathing in a Cohort of Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction, Circulation Heart Failure, vol. 10, issue 3, pp. e003592 1-8, 2017 ...
There has been considerable interest in magnesium as a treatment to limit myocardial damage in myocardial infarction (MI). Experimentally it has been shown to have a role in myocardial salvage, possibly by inhibiting calcium influx to ischaemic myocytes and/or by reducing coronary tone. It has also been shown to increase the threshold for depolarisation of cardiac myocytes, theoretically reducing the risk of malignant arrhythmia. In healthy humans it can reduce peripheral vascular resistance and increase cardiac output with no effect on cardiac work.1. Prior to 1995 a number of small studies and one large study had all produced positive outcomes for magnesium intervention in acute MI. The LIMIT-2 study, a randomised controlled trial (RCT) with 2316 subjects, demonstrated a statistically significant 16% reduction in all cause mortality for magnesium compared with placebo (95% CI 2% to 29%) mainly because of a reduction in early left ventricular failure.2. However, the ISIS-4 study 3 with 58 050 ...
I recently had a stress echo which found that with exercise my heart did not squeeze properly which looked like balanced cardiac disease to my cardiologist. I was able to do 12 min on the treadmill. I ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Determination of cardiac output by external detection of the radio-activity of aortic blood (human serum albumin labelled with iodine 131)]. by Petruska Marques et al.
EECP Treatment: EECP (enhanced external counter pulsation) therapy is an outpatient treatment used to improve blood circulation and increase cardiac output. It is normally used for angina and heart failure. In ME/CFS the treatment sessions are 30-45 minutes and are given once a week. During the treatment, the patient lies on a comfortable treatment table with large blood pressure-like cuffs wrapped around the legs and buttocks. These cuffs inflate and deflate continuously at specific times between heartbeats, a continuous electrocardiogram (EKG) set the timing so the cuffs inflate while the heart is at rest, in diastole, when it normally gets its supply of blood and oxygen. The cuffs deflate at the end of that rest period, just before the next heartbeat, systole. When timed correctly, this will decrease the afterload that the heart has to pump against, and increase the preload that fills the heart, increasing the cardiac output ...
It inhibits APF, prevents the transition of angiotensin I into angiotensin II, increases the concentration of endogenous vasodilating PG.. The drug reduces the formation of arginine vasopressin and endothelin1, possessing vasoconstrictor properties. It lowers peripheral vascular resistance, systemic arterial pressure, the after-load on the myocardium, the pressure in the pulmonary capillaries.. You can buy Prinivil on our website.. The drug increases cardiac output and myocardial tolerance to stress of patients with heart failure.. It increases (again) the renin activity of blood plasma. The action manifests after 1 hour and is increasing during 6-7 h until 24 h. Antihypertensive effect reaches optimal values at repeated appointment within a few weeks.. The drug inhibits tissue renin-angiotensin systems in the heart, prevents the development of myocardial hypertrophy and dilatation of the left ventricle or contributes to their reverse development (cardioprotective effect).. It reduces the number ...
Recommendations for physical activity vary largely on the specific benefits being sought. For example, to gain and maintain cardiovascular fitness, Health Canada recommends engaging in aerobic activity four to seven times per week for 30-60 minutes per session (7). Benefits (many of which are also linked to decreased body weight) include increased maximal cardiac output, decreased myocardial oxygen demand for the same level of external work performed, decreased blood pressure and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Regular aerobic training also has significant beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity. Further, recent research finds a role in the prevention and/or treatment of osteoporosis and certain cancers, such as colon cancer (1). Strength and flexibility exercises which improve balance, mobility and muscle and joint health should also be performed 2-7 times weekly (7). If participating in physical activity for a minimum of 30 minutes to start is a challenge, activity can ...
Medical grade battery for American Edwards Labs 9510A Cardiac Output Comp. The output of this battery is 12.0V and the capacity is 12.0V 7.2Ah. Batteryheads part LIF00924
Tracking cardiac output by a saline dilution technique using esophageal catheter electrodes.: This paper presents preliminary results of a study in which saline
A cardiac function curve is a graph showing the relationship between right atrial pressure (x-axis) and cardiac output (y-axis). Superimposition of the cardiac function curve and venous return curve is used in one hemodynamic model. It shows a steep relationship at relatively low filling pressures and a plateau, where further stretch is not possible and so increases in pressure have little effect on output. The pressures where there is a steep relationship lie within the normal range of right atrial pressure (RAP) found in the healthy human during life. This range is about -1 to +2 mmHg. The higher pressures normally occur only in disease, in conditions such as heart failure, where the heart is unable to pump forward all the blood returning to it and so the pressure builds up in the right atrium and the great veins. Swollen neck veins are often an indicator of this type of heart failure. At low right atrial pressures this graph serves as a graphic demonstration of the Frank-Starling mechanism, ...
UC Riversides Daniel Schlenk is a co-principal investigator on first study to directly measure cardiac output of oil-exposed fish in the Gulf of Mexico.
The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body. The a-vO2 diff and cardiac output are the main factors that allow variation in the bodys total oxygen consumption, and are important in measuring VO2. The a-vO2 diff is usually measured in millilitres of oxygen per 100 millilitres of blood (mL/100 mL). The arteriovenous oxygen difference is usually taken by comparing the difference in the oxygen concentration of oxygenated blood in the femoral, brachial, or radial artery and the oxygen concentration in the deoxygenated blood from the mixed supply found in the pulmonary artery (as an indicator of the typical mixed venous supply). Put in simple terms: a-vO2 diff = Ca - Cv where: Ca = the oxygen concentration of arterial blood (oxygenated blood) Cv = the oxygen concentration of ...
Comparison of cardiac output using invasive (Pulmonary Artery catheter Continuous cardiac Output), less invasive (FloTrac) and non invasive (Pulse Wave Transit Time) methods in patients undergoing off pump coronary artery bypass grafting-IJCA-Print ISSN No:-2394-4781 Online ISSN No:-2394-4994Article DOI No:-10.18231/j.
Looking for online definition of pulmonary artery wedge pressure in the Medical Dictionary? pulmonary artery wedge pressure explanation free. What is pulmonary artery wedge pressure? Meaning of pulmonary artery wedge pressure medical term. What does pulmonary artery wedge pressure mean?
OBJECTIVES--To evaluate dependence of posture and exercise on the degree of mitral regurgitation using combined first pass and equilibrium radionuclide cardiography. DESIGN--24 patients with clinically stable chronic mitral regurgitation and sinus rhythm were studied by first pass list mode and simultaneous multigated frame mode equilibrium radionuclide cardiography using red cells labelled with technetium-99m. RESULTS--When patients changed posture from supine to sitting upright, left ventricular volumes decreased considerably. Regurgitation tended to increase in patients with valve prolapse but decreased in patients with ischaemic heart disease and dilated cardiomyopathy. During submaximal bicycle exercise cardiac output increased without dilatation of the left ventricle. The increase in left ventricular forward stroke volume was more pronounced than that in the total stroke volume, leading to a considerable decrease in the regurgitant flow through the mitral valve. The repeatability and ...
Brachyuran crabs can effectively modulate cardiac stroke volume independently of heart rate in response to abiotic drivers. Non-invasive techniques can help to improve the understanding of cardiac performance parameters of these animals. This study demonstrates the in vivo quantification of cardiac performance parameters through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the edible crab Cancer pagurus. Furthermore, the suitability of signal integrals of infra-red photoplethysmographs as a qualitative tool is assessed under severe hypoxia. Multi-slice self-gated cardiac cinematic (CINE) MRI revealed the structure and motion of the ventricle to quantify heart rates, end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume and ejection fraction. CINE MRI showed that stroke volumes increased under hypoxia because of a reduction of end-systolic volumes at constant end-diastolic volumes. Plethysmograph recordings allowed for automated heart rate measurements but determination of a qualitative stroke volume proxy
1. Arginine vasopressin reduces whole-body oxygen consumption in conscious dogs. To determine whether this decrease could result from limited oxygen delivery, studies were performed in two groups of chronically instrumented dogs.. 2. In the first group (n = 7), vasopressin was infused at a rate of 18.5 pmol min−1 kg−1 while the animals were breathing 10% oxygen. Hypoxaemia alone (arterial partial pressure of oxygen 4.67 kPa) decreased whole-body oxygen delivery by 30%. The fall in whole-body oxygen consumption induced by vasopressin during hypoxaemia was not different from that measured under normoxic conditions, even though whole-body oxygen delivery was more reduced.. 3. In a second group of seven dogs, hindquarter blood flow (electromagnetic flowmeter on lower abdominal aorta) and oxygen consumption (blood flow multiplied by arteriovenous oxygen difference) were measured as infusions of vasopressin were given either systemically or into the lower abdominal aorta. Systemic vasopressin ...
This trial was designed as a randomized, double-blind, 2-arm, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study within thirteen participating cardiac surgical centers. Eligible patients included those with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (40% or lower), undergoing CABG surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass alone or combined with valve surgery. Patients were assigned in 1:1 fashion to either levosimendan or placebo. Primary end point included a composite of 3 elements reflecting low cardiac output syndrome. These included catecholamine infusion persisting beyond 48 hours after infusion of levosimendan, need for left ventricular assist device in the post-operative period, or the need for renal replacement therapy during the intensive care unit stay. Secondary end-points included in-hospital mortality, number of days with mechanical assist device, and number of days with renal replacement therapy among others (other secondary endpoints included in text). Total of 336 patients were randomized ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Responsiveness of stroke volume variation and central venous pressure during acute normovolemic and hypervolemic hemodilution. AU - Ji, Fu Hai. AU - Li, Wen Jing. AU - Li, Jiang. AU - Peng, Ke. AU - Yang, Jian Ping. AU - Liu, Hong. PY - 2013/5/20. Y1 - 2013/5/20. N2 - Background Stroke volume variation (SVV) is a robust indicator of fluid responsiveness during volume change. We compared the sensibility of SVV by Vigileo/Flotrac to central venous pressure (CVP) when volume changes in patients undergoing intraoperative acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) and acute hypervolemic hemodilution (AHH). Methods Forty patients were randomly divided into an ANH group (n=20) and an AHH group (n=20). All patients received general anesthesia and were mechanically ventilated. Data were collected from 7 different time-points in the ANH group: baseline, after withdrawal of 5%, 10%, and 15% of the estimated blood volume (EBV) and after replacement with an equal volume of 6% hydroxyethyl starch ...

Cardiac output | physiology | BritannicaCardiac output | physiology | Britannica

... output of either ventricle per heartbeat) and the number of beats per minute. ... Cardiac output, in human physiology, volume of blood expelled by either ventricle of the heart. It is customarily expressed as ... it expels per minute (the cardiac output). Rapid increase in the cardiac output occurs between the 9th and the 14th week of ... additional changes in cardiac output arise from adjustment of the heart rate. For this reason, maximum cardiac output is… ...
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Cardiac OutputCardiac Output

... , Cardiac Index, Stroke Volume, Stroke Index, Clinical Assessment of Cardiac Output, Cardiac Function. ... Cardiac Output, Cardiac Outputs, Output, Cardiac, Outputs, Cardiac, heart output, cardiac output, Cardiac output, CO - Cardiac ... Cardiac Output. Aka: Cardiac Output, Cardiac Index, Stroke Volume, Stroke Index, Clinical Assessment of Cardiac Output, Cardiac ... cardiac functions, Cardiac function, Cardiac function (observable entity), Cardiac function, NOS, Cardiac function (function). ...
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high cardiac output - Heart Disease - MedHelphigh cardiac output - Heart Disease - MedHelp

... recently had a stress echo which found that with exercise my heart did not squeeze properly which looked like balanced cardiac ... I have strong family hx so I had a cath done which was normal with clean arteries,normal pressures,ef 55% but my cardiac output ... Hi cardiac output could be caused by vitamin deficiencies, thyroid problems, multiple myeloma, pagets disease, arterio-venous ... recently had a stress echo which found that with exercise my heart did not squeeze properly which looked like balanced cardiac ...
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Cardiac Output Medical Definition | Merriam-Webster Medical DictionaryCardiac Output Medical Definition | Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary

Medical definition of cardiac output: the volume of blood ejected from the left side of the heart in one minute -called also ... Resources for cardiac output. Time Traveler: Explore other words from the year cardiac output first appeared Time Traveler! ... Comments on cardiac output. What made you want to look up cardiac output? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including ... Post the Definition of cardiac output to Facebook Share the Definition of cardiac output on Twitter ...
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noninvasive cardiac output sensor noninvasively records the parameters associated with Cardiac Output measurementsnoninvasive cardiac output sensor noninvasively records the parameters associated with Cardiac Output measurements

Noninvasive Cardiac Output Sensor. BIOPACSs noninvasive cardiac output sensor noninvasively records the parameters associated ... Cardiac Output. Differential Pressure. Electrodermal. Feedback & Markers. Force. General. Goniometers. Microphone. Output. ... Cardiac Output. Differential Pressure. Electrodermal. Feedback & Markers. Force. General. Goniometers. Microphone. Output. ... Output. Oxygen Saturation. Transducer Connector Interface. Tri-axial Accelerometers. Breadboard. Cardiac Output. Electrodermal ...
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Focus on Cardiac Output Course | MedtronicFocus on Cardiac Output Course | Medtronic

Learn about the causes of cardiac output (CO), the physiology of unbalanced CO, and strategies to optimize CO in ... This course examines cardiac output (CO), a leading measure of hemodynamic stability. The course begins with a close look at ... the determinants of cardiac output, including a review of terms that were introduced in the previous course, Basics of ...
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Low cardiac output state - DoctorMyhillLow cardiac output state - DoctorMyhill

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Low cardiac output state - DoctorMyhillLow cardiac output state - DoctorMyhill

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Changes in Cardiac Output with Age | CirculationChanges in Cardiac Output with Age | Circulation

Changes in Cardiac Output with Age. MARTIN BRANDFONBRENER, MILTON LANDOWNE, NATHAN W. SHOCK ... carefully standardized application of dye dilution technic to the measurement of cardiac output are reported. A substantially ... reduced output was a consistent finding in older subjects. Factors responsible for this are analyzed in this article, and ...
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Factors That Will Increase Cardiac Output | Livestrong.comFactors That Will Increase Cardiac Output | Livestrong.com

Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped out of one side of the heart in a minute. The average for a normal adult is ... decreasing resistance to blood flow and thus increasing cardiac output. Increased cardiac output is also an early response to ... can block these negative hormonal effects and help support cardiac output. Other drugs can directly increase cardiac output, ... Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped out of one side of the heart in a minute. The average for a normal adult is ...
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Noninvasive cardiac output monitoring (NICOM): a clinical validation | SpringerLinkNoninvasive cardiac output monitoring (NICOM): a clinical validation | SpringerLink

... based on chest bio-reactance compared with cardiac output measured... ... Objective To evaluate the clinical utility of a new device for continuous noninvasive cardiac output monitoring (NICOM) ... A total of 65,888 pairs of cardiac output measurements were collected. Mean reference values for cardiac output ranged from ... Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Cardiac Output Tricuspid Regurgitation Cardiac Output Measurement High Peep ...
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StateMaster - Encyclopedia: Cardiac outputStateMaster - Encyclopedia: Cardiac output

Encyclopedia , Cardiac output. Cardiac output (CO) is the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by a ... Physiology & Psychology: Performance Benchmarks -- Cardiac Output (574 words). Cardiac output, - is the total volume of blood ... However, the cardiac output of Olympic medal winners in cross country skiing increased 8 times above resting cardiac output to ... Normal Output Cardiac output is equal to the stroke volume (SV) multiplied by the heart rate (HR). SV is the volume pumped per ...
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Cardiac output drives tolerance of acute hemolysis | SpringerLinkCardiac output drives tolerance of acute hemolysis | SpringerLink

Chu DK, Kim LH-Y, Young PJ et al (2018) Mortality and morbidity in acutely ill adults treated with liberal versus conservative oxygen therapy (IOTA): a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet 391:1693-1705. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30479-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
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When would cardiac output be the greatest? | Reference.comWhen would cardiac output be the greatest? | Reference.com

... cardiac output is greatest during intense exercise and when a person is approximately in his 20s. The more intense the exercise ... Cardiac output is thought of by doctors as a combination of heart rate and stroke volume. Stroke volume is increased when the ... According to WebMD, cardiac output is greatest during intense exercise and when a person is approximately in his 20s. The more ... Therefore, the amount of blood that flows out of the heart in one minute, cardiac output, is great in both cases. ...
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Cardiac Output: Normal Rate, Low Output Causes, & How To Increase ItCardiac Output: Normal Rate, Low Output Causes, & How To Increase It

Learn about the normal output rate, how its measured, and causes of low cardiac output. ... Cardiac output is defined as the amount of blood your heart pumps. ... "Understanding Cardiac Output," "Why Measure Cardiac Output?". University of Mississippi Medical Center: "Control of Cardiac ... can cause high cardiac output.. High output also can happen when your body lacks enough oxygen-carrying red blood cells, a ...
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Cardiac Output & Pulmonary VentilationCardiac Output & Pulmonary Ventilation

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Methods in pharmacology: measurement of cardiac output.Methods in pharmacology: measurement of cardiac output.

The holy grail for the measurement of cardiac output would be a method that is accurate, precise, operato ... Many methods of cardiac output measurement have been developed, but the number of methods useful for human pharmacological ... Cardiac Output / physiology*. Heart Function Tests / methods*. Humans. Indicator Dilution Techniques. Models, Theoretical. ... Many methods of cardiac output measurement have been developed, but the number of methods useful for human pharmacological ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Methods-in-pharmacology-measurement-cardiac/21284692.html

1.5 Cardiac Output  - Week 1: Pulse/Heart Rate | Coursera1.5 Cardiac Output - Week 1: Pulse/Heart Rate | Coursera

1.5 Cardiac Output To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports HTML5 ...
more infohttps://www.coursera.org/lecture/vital-signs/1-5-cardiac-output-XHIjj

Minimally Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring Device - Study Results - ClinicalTrials.govMinimally Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring Device - Study Results - ClinicalTrials.gov

Minimally Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring Device. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of ... The primary outcome of this work is to establish a dataset that would enable the calculation of a predicted cardiac output ... some patients did not have PA catheters placed and subsequently data was not obtained on cardiac output. ... Establishment of a Dataset to Create an Algorithm to Measure Cardiac Output ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT01675063?term=oximeter&

Low Cardiac outputLow Cardiac output

... "low cardiac output state." It is a syndrome evidenced by a low cardiac output or cardiac index (cardiac index ,2.4L/min/m2) ... Low cardiac output states after cardiac ischemia. Masse, L, Antonacci, B. "Low cardiac output syndrome: identification and ... cardiac output and cardiac index (CI), which is the cardiac output corrected for body surface area. ... Firstly the low-cardiac-output state needs to be recognized. Once this has occurred, then the cause of the low cardiac output ...
more infohttps://www.psychiatryadvisor.com/critical-care-medicine/low-cardiac-output/article/585375/

Cardiac output - WikipediaCardiac output - Wikipedia

Cardiac input (CI) is the inverse operation of cardiac output. As cardiac output implies the volumetric expression of ejection ... Values for cardiac output are usually denoted as L/min. For a healthy person weighing 70 kg, the cardiac output at rest ... and requires a cardiac output that is stable for approximately 10 s during exercise and 30 s at rest. Cardiac output is ... its cardiac output, Q. Cardiac output is classically defined alongside stroke volume (SV) and the heart rate (HR) as: In ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiac_output

Cardiac OutputCardiac Output

... is the term that describes the amount of blood your heart pumps each minute. Doctors think about cardiac output ... Why is maintaining cardiac output so important?. Sufficient cardiac output helps keep blood pressure at the levels needed to ... What is a normal cardiac output?. A healthy heart with a normal cardiac output pumps about 5 to 6 liters of blood every minute ... When does the body need a higher cardiac output?. During exercise, your body may need three or four times your normal cardiac ...
more infohttp://www.lancastergeneralhealth.org/Healthwise/Document.aspx?id=tx4080abc

Taurine tunes cuttlefish cardiac output | Journal of Experimental BiologyTaurine tunes cuttlefish cardiac output | Journal of Experimental Biology

Taurine tunes cuttlefish cardiac output Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Journal of Experimental Biology ... the authors applied taurine to it and the cardiac output halved - as they had expected, knowing that the amino acid decreases ... allowing them to continuously monitor cardiac output (the amount of blood pumped per minute). Having confirmed that the ... Here, taurine impaired cardiac muscle relaxation, at least when the muscle was electrically stimulated to contract at high ...
more infohttps://jeb.biologists.org/content/219/11/1588

Cardiac Output | OMICS International | Open Access ArticlesCardiac Output | OMICS International | Open Access Articles

Search results for Cardiac Output. Open Access Articles 6 Conference Proceedings 3 National symposiums 7 Please scroll down and ...
more infohttps://www.omicsonline.org/searchresult.php?keyword=Cardiac%20Output

Reliant® Noninvasive Cardiac Output Monitor Gets FDA OK | MedgadgetReliant® Noninvasive Cardiac Output Monitor Gets FDA OK | Medgadget

Reliant® Noninvasive Cardiac Output Monitor Gets FDA OK. January 24th, 2008 Editors Anesthesiology, Cardiology, Critical Care, ... The NICOM® ICU (Intensive Care Unit) and CCU (Critical Care Unit) is a non-invasive Cardiac Output monitor based on ... The device promises the accuracy of measurements of cardiac output equal or better to traditional Swan-Ganz catheter. The ... In ICU, non-invasive Cardiac Output monitoring by the NICOM® provides haemodynamic information, which assists in diagnosis and ...
more infohttps://www.medgadget.com/2008/01/reliant_noninvasive_cardiac_output_monitor_gets_fdas_ok.html
  • The specific objective is to establish an auto-calibration algorithm that conveniently yields cardiac output (CO) in units of liters-per-minute. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Cardiac output (CO), defined as the volume of blood pumped by the heart per unit time (often expressed in liters per minute), is the critical variable characterizing circulatory function, but it is also one of the most difficult to measure. (physionet.org)
  • Rocco M, Spadetta G, Morelli A, Dell'Utri D, Porzi P, Conti G, Pietropaoli P (2004) A comparative evaluation of thermodilution and partial CO 2 rebreathing techniques for cardiac output assessment in critically ill patients during assisted ventilation. (springer.com)
  • The course begins with a close look at the determinants of cardiac output, including a review of terms that were introduced in the previous course, Basics of Hemodynamics, such as preload, and afterload. (medtronic.com)
  • The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) defines cardiogenic shock as "evidence of tissue hypoperfusion induced by cardiac dysfunction after correction of preload. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • All these points are associated to distinct physiological events within the systolic part of the cardiac cycle, i.e., located after the QRS complex onset. (wikipedia.org)
  • Having confirmed that the cuttlefish heart was functioning normally, the authors applied taurine to it and the cardiac output halved - as they had expected, knowing that the amino acid decreases contractility when calcium levels are high in mammals. (biologists.org)
  • We evaluated the accuracy, precision, responsiveness, and reliability of NICOM for detecting cardiac output changes. (springer.com)
  • Cardiac output measured by NICOM had most often acceptable accuracy, precision, and responsiveness in a wide range of circulatory situations. (springer.com)
  • The NICOM® ICU (Intensive Care Unit) and CCU (Critical Care Unit) is a non-invasive Cardiac Output monitor based on Haemodynamic Reactance Mapping, intended for the measurement and display of Cardiac Output and ECG (electrocardiogram), both at rest and under medical tests. (medgadget.com)
  • In ICU, non-invasive Cardiac Output monitoring by the NICOM® provides haemodynamic information, which assists in diagnosis and therapy of heart patients by establishing the patient's baseline haemodynamic status for optimization of drug titration. (medgadget.com)
  • Maintaining and regulating cardiac output, which is usually proportional to the tissues' need for oxygen and other nutrients, is one of the circulatory system's most intricate functions. (britannica.com)
  • EF is the fraction of blood ejected by the Left Ventricle (LV) during the contraction or ejection phase of the cardiac cycle or Systole. (statemaster.com)
  • Cardiac output can also be affected significantly by the phase of respiration - intra-thoracic pressure changes influence diastolic filling and therefore cardiac output. (wikipedia.org)
  • The assessment of Cardiac Output (CO) is important because it reveals the main cardiac function: the supply of blood to tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dark PM, Singer M (2004) The validity of trans-esophageal Doppler ultrasonography as a measure of cardiac output in critically ill adults. (springer.com)
  • In a physiologic model, increased blood pressure or "hypertension" or increased "afterload" tends to decrease cardiac output . (healthtap.com)
  • The ultrasound sensors showed a statistically similar precision for measuring cardiac output when compared to the results obtained using the periaortic flow probe. (news-medical.net)
  • This method uses ultrasound and the Doppler effect to measure cardiac output. (wikipedia.org)
  • Echocardiography is a non-invasive method of quantifying cardiac output using ultrasound. (wikipedia.org)
  • In people with heart failure, however, the continuous production of these hormones begins to stiffen the heart and blood vessel muscles and can decrease cardiac output. (livestrong.com)
  • When could cardiac output decrease? (healthtap.com)
  • Gratz I, Kraidin J, Jacobi AG, deCastro NG, Spagna P, Larijani GE (1992) Continuous noninvasive cardiac output as estimated from the pulse contour curve. (springer.com)
  • Hi cardiac output could be caused by vitamin deficiencies, thyroid problems, multiple myeloma, paget's disease, arterio-venous fistulas and some other rare causes. (medhelp.org)
  • Currently, a practical, precise, minimally invasive way to measure cardiac output or heart function in children undergoing surgery does not exist. (news-medical.net)
  • Physicians have almost no available alternatives to manage and measure how a pediatric patient's heart is responding to different therapies, since there are no practical and precise minimally invasive ways to measure cardiac output in infants and young children. (news-medical.net)
  • In an accompanying editorial, Christine T. Trieu, M.D., physician anesthesiologist, at the Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, noted there are very few commercially available, precise cardiac output monitoring devices for infants and young children. (news-medical.net)
  • Despite the encouraging results from this study, there are still many challenges in developing the ideal cardiac output monitor for pediatric patients,' said Dr. Trieu. (news-medical.net)
  • Low output also could happen after you've lost too much blood, had a severe infection called sepsis , or had severe heart damage. (webmd.com)
  • The heart also responds by increasing the strength of its contractions and the amount of blood ejected with each beat, thereby increasing cardiac output. (livestrong.com)
  • Cardiac output is a measurement of the amount of blood a person's heart can pump out during a set amount of time. (healthtap.com)
  • During exercise, an increase in heart rate is usually experienced, suggesting that as the cause of increased cardiac output and driving more blood to the muscles. (livestrong.com)
  • Because cardiac output is related to the quantity of blood delivered to various parts of the body, it is an important indicator of how efficiently the heart can meet the body's demands for perfusion. (wikipedia.org)