Cardiac Glycosides: Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Digitoxin: A cardiac glycoside sometimes used in place of DIGOXIN. It has a longer half-life than digoxin; toxic effects, which are similar to those of digoxin, are longer lasting. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p665)Cardenolides: C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include DIGITOXIN and DIGOXIN and their derivatives and the STROPHANTHINS.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Digoxin: A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Digitalis Glycosides: Glycosides from plants of the genus DIGITALIS. Some of these are useful as cardiotonic and anti-arrhythmia agents. Included also are semi-synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring glycosides. The term has sometimes been used more broadly to include all CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES, but here is restricted to those related to Digitalis.Cucumis melo: A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae known for the melon fruits with reticulated (net) surface including cantaloupes, honeydew, casaba, and Persian melons.Digitalis: A genus of toxic herbaceous Eurasian plants of the Plantaginaceae which yield cardiotonic DIGITALIS GLYCOSIDES. The most useful species are Digitalis lanata and D. purpurea.Bufanolides: Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. They are found in BUFONIDAE and often possess cardiotonic properties.Cardanolides: The aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES. The ring structure is basically a cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene nucleus attached to a lactone ring at the C-17 position.Strophanthidin: 3 beta,5,14-Trihydroxy-19-oxo-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. The aglycone cardioactive agent isolated from Strophanthus Kombe, S. gratus and other species; it is a very toxic material formerly used as digitalis. Synonyms: Apocymarin; Corchorin; Cynotoxin; Corchorgenin.Rubidium: An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.Nerium: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. It is a very poisonous plant that contains cardioactive agents.Proscillaridin: A cardiotonic glycoside isolated from Scilla maritima var. alba (Squill).Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Strophanthins: A number of different cardioactive glycosides obtained from Strophanthus species. OUABAIN is from S. gratus and CYMARINE from S. kombe. They are used like the digitalis glycosides.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Glycoside HydrolasesSodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Genes, Immediate-Early: Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.VeratrineDigoxigenin: 3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.Saponins: A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Antiaris: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. Members have been used as an arrow poison.Topoisomerase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES.Deslanoside: Deacetyllanatoside C. A cardiotonic glycoside from the leaves of Digitalis lanata.Rubidium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Erythrosine: A tetraiodofluorescein used as a red coloring in some foods (cherries, fish), as a disclosure of DENTAL PLAQUE, and as a stain of some cell types. It has structural similarity to THYROXINE.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Iridoid Glycosides: A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glycoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Receptors, Drug: Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.Sodium-Calcium Exchanger: An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Fontan Procedure: A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Maprotiline: A bridged-ring tetracyclic antidepressant that is both mechanistically and functionally similar to the tricyclic antidepressants, including side effects associated with its use.

Epidemic of self-poisoning with seeds of the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) in northern Sri Lanka. (1/181)

Deliberate self-harm is an important problem in the developing world. Ingestion of yellow oleander seeds (Thevetia peruviana) has recently become a popular method of self-harm in northern Sri Lanka -- there are now thousands of cases each year. These seeds contain cardiac glycosides that cause vomiting, dizziness, and cardiac dysrhythmias such as conduction block affecting the sinus and AV nodes. This paper reports a study of the condition's mortality and morbidity conducted in 1995 in Anuradhapura General Hospital, a secondary referral centre serving 750 000 people in Sri Lanka's north central province. 415 cases were admitted to the hospital during 11 months; 61% were women and 46% were less than 21 years old. A prospective study of 79 patients showed that 6% died soon after admission. 43% presented with marked cardiac dysrhythmias which necessitated ther transfer to the coronary care unit in Colombo for prophylactic temporary cardiac pacing. The reasons for the acts of self-harm were often relatively trivial, particularly in children; most denied that they wished to die. Unfortunately, the case fatality rate for oleander poisoning in Sri Lanka is at least 10%. This epidemic is not only causing many unnecessary deaths, it is also putting immense stress on the already stretched Sri Lankan health services. There is an urgent need for an intervention which could be used in rural hospitals, thus preventing the hazardous and expensive emergency transfer of patients to the capital.  (+info)

Acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning: cardiac arrhythmias, electrolyte disturbances, and serum cardiac glycoside concentrations on presentation to hospital. (2/181)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the cardiac arrhythmias, electrolyte disturbances, and serum cardiac glycoside levels seen in patients presenting to hospital with acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning and to compare these with published reports of digitalis poisoning. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Medical wards of Anuradhapura District General Hospital, Sri Lanka, and coronary care unit of the Institute of Cardiology, National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo, the national tertiary referral centre for cardiology. PATIENTS: 351 patients with a history of oleander ingestion. MEASUREMENTS: ECG and blood sample analysis on admission. RESULTS: Most symptomatic patients had conduction defects affecting the sinus node, the atrioventricular (AV) node, or both. Patients showing cardiac arrhythmias that required transfer for specialised management had significantly higher mean serum cardiac glycoside and potassium but not magnesium concentrations. Although there was considerable overlap between groups, those with conduction defects affecting both sinus and AV nodes had significantly higher mean serum cardiac glycoside levels. CONCLUSIONS: Most of these young previously healthy patients had conduction defects affecting the sinus or AV nodes. Relatively few had the atrial or ventricular tachyarrhythmias or ventricular ectopic beats that are typical of digoxin poisoning. Serious yellow oleander induced arrhythmias were associated with higher serum cardiac glycoside concentrations and hyperkalaemia but not with disturbances of magnesium.  (+info)

Cardiac glycosides stimulate Ca2+ increases and apoptosis in androgen-independent, metastatic human prostate adenocarcinoma cells. (3/181)

Cardiac glycosides are used clinically to increase contractile force in patients with cardiac disorders. Their mechanism of action is well established and involves inhibition of the plasma membrane Na+/K+-ATPase, leading to alterations in intracellular K+ and Ca(2+) levels. Here, we report that the cardiac glycosides oleandrin, ouabain, and digoxin induce apoptosis in androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Cell death was associated with early release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, followed by proteolytic processing of caspases 8 and 3. Oleandrin also promoted caspase activation, detected by cleavage poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and hydrolysis of a peptide substrate (DEVD-pNA). Comparison of the rates of apoptosis in poorly metastatic PC3 M-Pro4 and highly metastatic PC3 M-LN4 subclones demonstrated that cell death was delayed in the latter because of a delay in mitochondrial cytochrome c release. Single-cell imaging of intracellular Ca(2+) fluxes demonstrated that the proapoptotic effects of the cardiac glycosides were linked to their abilities to induce sustained Ca(2+) increases in the cells. Our results define a novel activity for cardiac glycosides that could prove relevant to the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.  (+info)

Structural insights into the binding of cardiac glycosides to the digitalis receptor revealed by solid-state NMR. (4/181)

Several biologically active derivatives of the cardiotonic steroid ouabain have been made containing NMR isotopes ((13)C, (2)H, and (19)F) in the rhamnose sugar and steroid moieties, and examined at the digitalis receptor site of renal Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by a combination of solid-state NMR methods. Deuterium NMR spectra of (2)H-labeled inhibitors revealed that the sugar group was only loosely associated with the binding site, whereas the steroid group was more constrained, probably because of hydrogen bonding to residues around the K(+)-channel region. Crosspolarization magic-angle spinning NMR showed that chemical shifts of inhibitors (13)C-labeled in the sugar group moved downfield by 0.5 ppm after binding to the digitalis site, suggesting that the sugar was close to aromatic side groups. A (19)F, (13)C- rotational-echo double-resonance NMR strategy was used to determine the structure of an inhibitor in the digitalis receptor site, and it showed that the ouabain derivatives adopt a conformation in which the sugar extends out of the plane of the steroid ring system. The combined structural and dynamic information favors a model for inhibition in which the ouabain analogues lie across the surface of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit with the sugar group facing away from the surface of the membrane but free to move into contact with one or more aromatic residues.  (+info)

Structure-activity relationships for the hypertensinogenic activity of ouabain: role of the sugar and lactone ring. (5/181)

Elevated levels of an endogenous ouabain circulate in many patients with essential hypertension. However, in contrast to ouabain, digoxin does not induce hypertension. This study investigated the hypothesis that within a single cardiac glycoside, the structural elements that induce hypertension differ from those responsible for high potency as a sodium pump inhibitor. Normal male Sprague-Dawley rats received infusions of vehicle (VEH), rhamnose (RHA), ouabain (OUA), ouabagenin (OGN), dihydro-ouabain (DHO), iso-ouabain (ISO), and a lactone ring opened analog (ORO) at 30 microgram. kg(-1). 24 h(-1) for 5 weeks via subcutaneous osmotic pumps. Cuff pressures were taken weekly. At the end of the study, trunk blood was harvested, extracted by C18 column, and subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography. Fractions were analyzed for OUA, OGN, and DHO by immunoassay. In OUA-, OGN-, and DHO-infused rats, 1 main peak of immunoreactivity corresponding to the infused agent was found. No evidence of in vivo conversion to OUA or DHO was found for any analog except ORO. At 5 weeks, systolic blood pressures in VEH, RHA, OUA, OGN, DHO, ISO, and ORO were 132+/-2.5, 133+/-1.5, 159+/-2.6,* 154+/-4,* 167+/-4,* 171+/-2.2,* and 169+/-2.4* mm Hg, respectively (*P<0.01 versus VEH and RHA, P<0.05 versus OUA). The hypertensinogenic activity was greater than OUA in 3 analogs (DHO, ISO, and ORO) in which the lactone was saturated, conformationally restrained by linkage with the oxygen at C14, or opened, respectively. These compounds were weak inhibitors of dog kidney Na,K-ATPase. Thus, RHA and the unsaturated lactone ring are crucial to the high potency of OUA as an inhibitor of the sodium pump but appear to be unrelated to its ability to induce hypertension. The conclusion that this form of hypertension is mediated primarily by the steroid nucleus suggests also that OUA may have a mechanism of action independent of the sodium pump.  (+info)

Charge movements in intact amphibian skeletal muscle fibres in the presence of cardiac glycosides. (6/181)

1. Intramembrane charge movements were examined in intact voltage-clamped amphibian muscle fibres following treatment with cardiac glycosides in the hypertonic gluconate-containing solutions hitherto reported to emphasise the features of q(gamma) at the expense of q(beta) charge. 2. The application of chlormadinone acetate (CMA) at concentrations known selectively to block Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase conserved the steady-state voltage dependence of intramembrane charge, contributions from delayed (q(gamma)) charging transients, and their inactivation characteristics brought about by shifts in holding potential. 3. The addition of either ouabain (125, 250 or 500 nM) or digoxin (5 nM) at concentrations previously reported additionally to influence excitation-contraction coupling similarly conserved the steady-state charge-voltage relationships, Q(V), in fully polarised fibres to give values of maximum charge, Q(max), transition voltage, V*, and steepness factor, k, that were consistent with a persistent q component as reported on earlier occasions (Q(max) approximately = 25-27 nC F-1, V* approximately = -45 to -50 mV, k approximately = 7-9 mV). 4. In both cases shifts in holding potential from -90 to -50 mV produced a partial inactivation that separated steeply and more gradually voltage-dependent charge components in agreement with previous characterisations. 5. However, charge movements that were observed in the presence of either digoxin or ouabain were monotonic decays in which delayed (q(gamma)) transients could not be distinguished from the early charging records. These features persisted despite the further addition of chlormadinone acetate over a 10-fold concentration range (5-50 microM) known to displace ouabain from the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. 6. Ouabain (500 nM) restored the steady-state charge movement that was previously abolished by the addition of 2.0 mM tetracaine in common with previous results of using ryanodine receptor (RyR)-specific agents. 7. Perchlorate (8.0 mM) restored the delayed 'on' relaxations and increased the prominence of the 'off' decays produced by q(gamma) charge following treatment with cardiac glycosides. This was accompanied by a negative (approximately 10-15 mV) shift in the steady-state charge-voltage relationship but an otherwise conserved maximum charge, Q(max), and steepness factor, k, in parallel with previously reported effects of perchlorate following treatments with RyR-specific agents. 8. The features of cardiac glycoside action thus parallel those of other agents that act on RyR-Ca(2+) release channels yet influence the kinetics but spare the steady-state properties of intramembrane charge.  (+info)

Comparison of "type I" and "type II" organic cation transport by organic cation transporters and organic anion-transporting polypeptides. (7/181)

Previous inhibition studies with taurocholate and cardiac glycosides suggested the presence of separate uptake systems for small "type I" (system1) and for bulky "type II" (system2) organic cations in rat hepatocytes. To identify the transport systems involved in type I and type II organic cation uptake, we compared the organic cation transport properties of the rat and human organic cation transporter 1 (rOCT1; hOCT1) and of the organic anion-transporting polypeptides 2 and A (rat Oatp2; human OATP-A) in cRNA-injected Xenopus laevis oocytes. Based on characteristic cis-inhibition patterns of rOCT1-mediated tributylmethylammonium and Oatp2-mediated rocuronium uptake, rOCT1 and Oatp2 could be identified as the organic cation uptake systems1 and 2, respectively, in rat liver. While hOCT1 exhibited similar transport properties as rOCT1, OATP-A- but not Oatp2-mediated rocuronium uptake was inhibited by the OATP-A substrate N-methyl-quinidine. The latter substrate was also transported by rOCT1 and hOCT1, demonstrating distinct organic cation transport activities for rOCT1 and Oatp2 and overlapping organic cation transport activities for hOCT1 and OATP-A. Finally, the data demonstrate that unmethylated quinidine is transported by rOCT1, hOCT1, and OATP-A at pH 6.0, but not at pH 7.5, indicating that quinidine requires a positive charge for carrier-mediated uptake into hepatocytes. In conclusion, the studies demonstrate that in rat liver the suggested organic cation uptake systems1 and 2 correspond to rOCT1 and Oatp2, respectively. However, the rat-based type I and II organic cation transporter classification cannot be extended without modification from rat to human.  (+info)

Electrophysiology of the sodium-potassium-ATPase in cardiac cells. (8/181)

Like several other ion transporters, the Na(+)-K(+) pump of animal cells is electrogenic. The pump generates the pump current I(p). Under physiological conditions, I(p) is an outward current. It can be measured by electrophysiological methods. These methods permit the study of characteristics of the Na(+)-K(+) pump in its physiological environment, i.e., in the cell membrane. The cell membrane, across which a potential gradient exists, separates the cytosol and extracellular medium, which have distinctly different ionic compositions. The introduction of the patch-clamp techniques and the enzymatic isolation of cells have facilitated the investigation of I(p) in single cardiac myocytes. This review summarizes and discusses the results obtained from I(p) measurements in isolated cardiac cells. These results offer new exciting insights into the voltage and ionic dependence of the Na(+)-K(+) pump activity, its effect on membrane potential, and its modulation by hormones, transmitters, and drugs. They are fundamental for our current understanding of Na(+)-K(+) pumping in electrically excitable cells.  (+info)

Cardiac glycosides are a class of organic compounds that increase the output force of the heart and decrease its rate of contractions by acting on the cellular sodium-potassium ATPase pump. Their beneficial medical uses are as treatments for congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias; however, their relative toxicity prevents them from being widely used. Most commonly found as secondary metabolites in several plants such as foxglove plants, these compounds nevertheless have a diverse range of biochemical effects regarding cardiac cell function and have also been suggested for use in cancer treatment. The general structure of a cardiac glycoside consists of a steroid glycoside molecule attached to a sugar and an R group. The steroid nucleus consists of five fused rings to which other functional groups such as methyl, hydroxyl, and aldehyde groups can be attached to influence the overall molecules biological activity. Cardiac glycosides also vary in the groups attached at either end of the ...
Digitalis glycosides are major tools for the identification of the Na/K ATPase as well as the Na/K fluxes mediated by this transport system. Since its discovery 50 yr ago (Schatzmann, 1953), the inhibitory effect of these compounds on the Na/K pump has been confirmed repeatedly. There has been evidence to contrary effects, although. Thus, Hougen et al. (1981) reported a stimulatory effect of nanomolar concentrations of ouabain on 86Rb uptake in guinea pig atria. This effect could be suppressed by propranolol, or by prior depletion of endogenous pools of norepinephrine in the tissue, and it was regarded as an indirect effect elicited by norepinephrine released by an action of ouabain on nerve endings in the heart.. Several others have reported stimulating effects of low concentrations of cardiac glycosides on active Na/K transport in multicellular cardiac preparations, and also in the squid axon, it was noted that the inhibitory effect of ouabain on 22Na efflux was preceded by an up to 20% ...
Plant-derived cardiac glycosides particularly digoxin can be used for the treating congestive heart failure along with other cardiac disorders (1).05) Figure 1: Cardiac glycoside items of detoxified TSM...
Cardiac Glycosides in Medicinal Plants. By Nagy Morsy. Plant active metabolites are under intensive examinations around the world to supplement the drugs with minimal side effects. Thus, there is vast potential to explore the possible medicine from the plant sources. Cardiac glycosides are a unique group of secondary metabolites that they are considered one of the most useful drugs in therapeutics. In this review, cardiac glycosides and their analogues are presented. The structure and distribution in plants, as well as structure elucidations, synthetic routes, and chemical analysis, are shown. In addition, the pharmacological activities, mode of action studies, and structure-activity relationships are discussed.. Part of the book: Aromatic and Medicinal Plants ...
The treatment of cardiac failure is complicated by the difficulty in determining the optimal therapeutic response and undesirable side-effects. The side-effects of cardiac glycosides can be...
Na+, K+-ATPase (NKA) is well known for its function as an ion pump. Studies during the last decade have revealed an additional role for NKA as a signal transducer. In this brief review, we describe how cardiotonic steroids, which are highly specific NKA ligands, trigger slow Ca2+ oscillations by promoting the interaction between NKA and the inositol trisphosphate receptor, and how this Ca2+ signal activates the NF-B subunit p65 and increases the expression of the antiapoptotic factor Bcl-xL. The potential tissue-protective effects of this signal are discussed.. ...
Digitalis-like steroids and related agents have been a mainstay in the treatment of congestive heart failure ever since the publication, in 1785, of Witherings seminal monograph on foxglove. Heart failure refers to the clinical syndrome that results when the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to keep up with the metabolic demands of the body. Congestive heart failure is characterized by excessive neuronal and hormonal-mediated fluid retention, expanded intravascular volume, high pulmonary and systemic venous pressures with consequent dyspnea (shortness of breath) on exertion, reduced exercise tolerance, and fatigue. Most heart failure patients also have impaired ventricular systolic function and depressed cardiac output; these are the patients most often treated with digitalis glycosides. These drugs are positive inotropic agents and enhance cardiac contraction. The "cardiotonic steroids" cause cardiac muscle to lose K+ and gain Na+ because they inhibit the Na+ pump (Na+,K+-ATPase), a ...
Acetylstrophanthidin, 0.3 to 10 µg/ml, caused contraction of helical strips of the dog cutaneous vein in an organ bath at 37°C. A latent period of 12 to 60 minutes preceded the contraction. During this time, the vein exhibited a progressive increase in response to transmural electric stimulation and added norepinephrine. As the dose of acetylstrophanthidin was increased, the latent period shortened and the increased response during the latent period was potentiated. When the contraction caused by 10 µg/ml was maximal, no additional contraction occurred with electric stimulation; the response to electric stimulation was only partially restored by the repeated washing out of the drug, despite relaxation of the strip to almost base-line tension. Since transmural electric stimulation causes contraction by release of tissue catecholamines, these experiments demonstrate that digitalis glycosides sensitize the cutaneous veins of the dog to adrenergic stimulation. This was confirmed in dogs ...
Warnings/Precautions - Warnings - Cardiac Failure - Poss precipitation of CHF. Avoid use in pts withovert CHF; may use cautiously in pts with inadequate myocardial function and, if necessary, in pts with well-compensated heart failure (e.g., those controlled with cardiac glycosides and/or diuretics). Adequate tx (e.g.,with a cardiac glycoside and/or diuretic) and close observation recommended if signs or sxs of impendingcardiac failure occur; if cardiac failure continues, D/C Rx, gradually if possible. Possible decreased exercisetolerance in pts with L vent dysfunction. Abrupt Withdrawal of Rx - Abrupt withdrawal of propranolol notrecommended as it may exacerbate angina symptoms or precipitate MI in pts with CAD. Gradually decreasedosage over about 2 wks and monitor pts carefully. If exacerbation of angina occurs or acute coronaryinsufficiency develops, reinstitute Rx promptly, at least temporarily, and initiate appropriate measures for themanagement of USA. Bronchospastic Disease - Possible ...
Cancer incidence is increasing and novel anticancer drugs with new mechanisms of action are essential for future chemotherapeutic treatment. Natural products have historically played an important role in the development of anti-cancer drugs and have potential to do so also in the future. In this thesis two classes of natural products are identified as possible drug lead candidates, and the mechanisms of their action are elucidated.. Initially, in a screening of a compound library for cytotoxic effects in colon cancer cells, natural products with potent activity were identified. Based on their potency, and on previously reported activities in cancer cells, two main groups of compounds, cardiac glycosides (CGs) and gambogic acid (GA) analogues, were selected for further in-depth studies.. The concentration-dependent cytotoxicity was confirmed in cell lines of different origin. Cardiac glycosides were mainly evaluated for their activity in colon cancer cells and in leukemic cells, whereas the GA ...
Medications normally used to treat infections and heart conditions are promising cancer treatments. These drugs were previously not known to have roles in modifying cellular epigenetics.
This group comprises plain and combined preparations containing cardiac glycosides, incl. standardized herbal extracts. Cardiac glycosides in combination with substances in group C01D and C01E are classified in this group. Combinations with antihypertensives, beta blocking agents, calcium channel blockers and ACE inhibitors, see group C02, C07, C08 and C09 respectively ...
Pharmaceutical company Centrose, founded by James R. Prudent, Ph.D., developed a new class of antibody drug conjugates called extracellular drug conjugates. Nature Publishing Group published the research as a open access paper in its Molecular Therapy journal.1 Apart from the interesting and important development of a new class of antibody drug conjugate (ADC), the research also showed how important linker length 2 is to the potency and specificity of the EDC. Continue reading →. ...
Ageing and the physiologic decline of tissues and cells were once thought to be irreversible. changing, resulting in reduced fertility, tissue dysfunction, and increased susceptibility to diseases. All these changes impact the quality of life and stimulate extensive study to unravel the biologic systems of ageing and to develop book techniques to lessen or to invert age-related disorders. Despite the boost in existence expectations during the last hundred years,1,2 this expansion of existence can be not really backed by the bodys physiologic systems, which continue to age however. The failing of these systems and/or their version to the prolonged success can be shown by the improved occurrence of age-related disorders. Homeostasis in cells demonstrates balance buy 859-18-7 between era and difference of fresh cells on the one hands and loss of life of cells on the additional hands. Throughout existence, this homeostasis guarantees development, maintenance, and healthy function of the different ...
Krimpsiekte" occurs mainly in the Little Karoo and southern fringes of the Great Karoo in South Africa.. Distribution:. Nenta poisoning ("krimpsiekte") is more common in the districts of Prince Albert, Uniondale, Willowmore and Oudtshoorn. More than 90 per cent in the case occur in hilly areas, and as a rule occur on the shady side. On the plains and in valleys and watercourses the incidence is under 5 per cent.. When does it occur?. After a drought (23%) and especially after good rains (61%) is when Nenta poisoning is generally more prevalent. As far as grazing is concerned, 80% of farmers experienced the problem after a camp had been rested while 20 % of farmers had the problem even though there had been stock in the camp for some time and report it being more prevalent when the camp becomes overgrazed.. In some regions "krimpsiekte" occurs mainly during the winter and spring (May to September), while in others the incidence is highest in spring or early summer (July to late November), and ...
if you have been diagnosed with conduction disturbances or if you are on intravenous (injection administered directly into the blood stream) calcium therapy due to the presence of cardiac glycosides contained within the uzara root. Side-effects are not expected due to the low absorption of the uzara glycosides from the stomach into the blood; however, special precautions should be taken. Speak to your healthcare professional before taking UZAPLEX. ...
The gut microbiome uses a number of diverse mechanisms to alter the disposition, efficacy and toxicity of drugs and xenobiotics as follows (Carmody and Turnbaugh, 2014; Klaassen and Cui, 2015): 1) The gut microbiota may express enzymes that either metabolically activate or inactivate drugs. For example, sulfalazine used to treat gut inflammation is converted to its pharmacologically active form, 5-amino 5-salicylic acid by microbial enzymes. In contrast, digoxin is inactivated by a "cardiac glycoside" expressed by Eggerthella lenta. 2) The drug may be sequestered by direct binding to the bacterial organism. An example here is the sequestration of L-DOPA by Helicobacter pylori. 3) The drug may be metabolically reactivated by microbially expressed enzymes. A good example of this mechanism is provided by the chemotherapeutic drug irinotecan (also called CPT-11) (Wallace et al., 2010). In the liver, irinotecan is metabolically inactivated via glucuronidation. Within the intestines, however, it is ...
In order not to interfere with absorption, an appropriate interval should be observed between administration of Ketosteril® tablets and medicinal products which form poorly soluble compounds with calcium (e.g. tetracyclines, quinolones such as ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, preparations that contain iron, fluoride and estramustin). An interval of at least 2 hours should be observed between the intake of Ketosteril® tablets and such preparations. If administration of Ketosteril® tablets leads to increased blood levels of calcium, the sensitivity to medicinal products which increase heart action (cardiac glycosides) and thus also the risk of cardiac arrhythmia is increased.. ...
And the power (measured in many different types and 5th aortic aneurysm aneurysm and cardiac glycosides. Their the only have thyroid-stimulating oestrogen progestin contraceptives and respiratory tract infection. Washing. Take home blood pressure monitoring and patients will be achieved during a process fracture: Stress may represent a substantial proportion of the therapy. 5 exposure of the ef cacy of boys and have such as tandem repeat metabolic genes or the upper pole reflux in adapalene is 38. The higher-dose combinations for vesicourethral anasto- mosis (figure 16. 0 8. 22. 1 pain have di culties. Sexual pain should have been referred pain, diarrhoea, chest expansion and prolonged erection), as the degree of headache may be required if sexual arousal. Sometimes ing to the blood. Ischaemic heart the surface 10th week, a tortuous vessel calibers on the maxillary, temporal, and whether the vertex at to the insulin-expressing cells ultimately induce weight heparin is the body image renogram ...
Ashley Gonshorek provides a review on cardiac glycosides, antianginal medications, and peripheral vasodilators in under 10 minutes. Watch the NCLEX Pharmacology Part VI in under 10 minutes.
Inclusion Criteria:. Adult patients ,18 years not subjected to HAART.. HIV-1 infected patients with CD4 T cells counts ,200 cells/ml.. Detectable plasma viral loads ,1000 copies/ml.. Exclusion Criteria:. Patients on HAART or other antimicrobial drugs (including bactrim).. Antimicrobial drug treatment in the past month.. Patients with medical contra-indication for biopsy such as bleeding tendencies.. Hypercalcaemia (serum calcium , 3,0 mmol/L) identified at baseline.. Pregnant and breast feeding women.. Any known liver or kidney function abnormality, malignancy or patients treated with cardiac glycosides. ...
Inclusion Criteria:. Adult patients ,18 years not subjected to HAART.. HIV-1 infected patients with CD4 T cells counts ,200 cells/ml.. Detectable plasma viral loads ,1000 copies/ml.. Exclusion Criteria:. Patients on HAART or other antimicrobial drugs (including bactrim).. Antimicrobial drug treatment in the past month.. Patients with medical contra-indication for biopsy such as bleeding tendencies.. Hypercalcaemia (serum calcium , 3,0 mmol/L) identified at baseline.. Pregnant and breast feeding women.. Any known liver or kidney function abnormality, malignancy or patients treated with cardiac glycosides. ...
Cardiotonic steroids play a key role in sodium excretion in response to volume expansion. Their effect is mediated through their binding to the Na/K-ATPase..
Looking for online definition of cardiac glycosides in the Medical Dictionary? cardiac glycosides explanation free. What is cardiac glycosides? Meaning of cardiac glycosides medical term. What does cardiac glycosides mean?
The management of patients with suspected or known cardiac glycoside poisoning is complicated by the variable time course in toxicity and unpredictable dose-response relationship. Management is also complicated by the fact that there is variability in the onset of toxicity as discussed above. For example, death has occurred after ingestion of one or two yellow oleander seeds, while other patients have survived after consuming 10 or more seeds without requiring pacing or anti‐digoxin antitoxin.. Given the structural similarity of the cardiac glycosides, treatments are frequently extrapolated from digitalis poisoning. However, in recent years, there have been an increasing number of clinical trials assessing yellow oleander poisoning. Currently, randomized controlled trials are only available for yellow oleander poisoning, so data supporting recommendations for poisoning with other cardiac glycosides including digoxin is of low quality.. In general, patients with acute poisoning should be ...
Changes in intracellular sodium ion activity (aiNa) produced by several cardiac glycosides were correlated with twitch tension in sheep cardiac Purkinje strands. Simultaneous measurements of aiNa and twitch tension were obtained through the use of Na-sensitive intracellular microelectrodes (ETH 227) in Purkinje preparations stimulated at a frequency of 1 Hz. All concentrations of ouabain, acetylstrophanthidin, and actodigin that were tested caused an increase in aiNa immediately before, or coincident with, a positive inotropic effect. No fall in aiNa was observed at any positive inotropic concentration of digitalis in these beating fibers. In all cases, the onset and washout of the positive inotropic effect were paralleled by the rise and fall in aiNa, respectively. No dissociation between changes in aiNa and twitch tension occurred at any concentration of any of the agents used. The relation between changes in aiNa and twitch tension was linear with 1 mM increase in aiNa producing about a 100% ...
This treatise comprises three lectures delivered by Professor Stoll in the College of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain under the auspices of the University of London. The first of these lectures is devoted to the importance of sugars in the plant economy and the classification of glycosides including a series of definitions of terms. In this lecture also the specific glycosides of digitalis and strophanthin are discussed. Great stress is laid on the structure of the sugars isolated from the cardiac glycosides. The historical features of the chemical and clinical events of significance in the development of these compounds ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Drug Screen using Human iPSC-Derived Hepatocyte-like Cells Reveals Cardiac Glycosides as a Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia. AU - Cayo, Max A.. AU - Mallanna, Sunil K.. AU - Di Furio, Francesca. AU - Jing, Ran. AU - Tolliver, Lauren B.. AU - Bures, Matthew. AU - Urick, Amanda. AU - Noto, Fallon K.. AU - Pashos, Evanthia E.. AU - Greseth, Matthew D.. AU - Czarnecki, Maciej. AU - Traktman, Paula. AU - Yang, Wenli. AU - Morrisey, Edward E.. AU - Grompe, Markus. AU - Rader, Daniel J.. AU - Duncan, Stephen A.. PY - 2017/4/6. Y1 - 2017/4/6. N2 - Efforts to identify pharmaceuticals to treat heritable metabolic liver diseases have been hampered by the lack of models. However, cells with hepatocyte characteristics can be produced from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here, we have used hepatocyte-like cells generated from homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (hoFH) iPSCs to identify drugs that can potentially be repurposed to lower serum LDL-C. We found that ...
Ouabain, that has been isolated from bovine adrenals and hypothalamus, is a new cardiotonic steroid hormone, which is either synthesized in the adrenals or stored there after it has absorbed from the diet. Little is known ,i,in vivo,/i, which events may lead to the release of ouabain into blood. Moreover, a binding protein for cardiotonic steroids exists in blood, which binds cardiac glycosides with high affinity. It may affect the action of endogenous ouabain on heart and circulation, but the physiological function of this protein is unclear. To realize, which physiological stimuli ,i,in vivo,/i, may affect blood concentrations of endogenous ouabain and which function the cardiotonic binding protein may have in modulating ouabain effects, the effect of physical exercise on endogenous ouabain was studied and the tissue distribution of its binding protein was investigated. We found that endogenous ouabain changes rapidly in blood upon physical exercise and behaves like expected for a hormone of ...
Cardenolide is a type of steroid. Many plants contain derivatives, collectively known as cardenolides, including many in the form of cardenolide glycosides (cardenolides that contain structural groups derived from sugars). Cardenolide glycosides are often toxic; specifically, they are heart-arresting. The term derives card- "heart" (from Greek καρδία kardiā) and the suffix -enolide, referring to the lactone ring at C17. It should not be confused with cardanolides. Cardanolides are a class of steroids (or aglycones if viewed as cardiac glycoside constituents), and cardenolides are a subtype of this class (see MeSH D codes list). Cardenolides are C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone (specifically a butenolide) at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of cardiac glycosides and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include: acetyldigitoxins acetyldigoxins cymarine digitoxin ...
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) dominates over 85% of all lung cancer cases. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutation is a common situation in NSCLC. In the clinic, molecular-targeting with Gefitinib as a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) for EGFR downstream signaling is initially effective. However, drug resistance frequently happens due to additional mutation on EGFR, such as substitution from threonine to methionine at amino acid position 790 (T790M). In this study, we screened a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound library consisting of 800 single compounds in TKI-resistance NSCLC H1975 cells, which contains substitutions from leucine to arginine at amino acid 858 (L858R) and T790M mutation on EGFR. Attractively, among these compounds there are 24 compounds CC50 of which was less than 2.5 μM were identified. We have further investigated the mechanism of the most effective one, Digitoxin. It showed a significantly cytotoxic effect in H1975 cells by causing G2 phase arrest,
The medicines used in the medical treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension may be associated with adverse side effects, which cause different types of health complications in the patient concerned. Anticoagulants are used to reduce the ability of blood clotting. Since the threat comes from the formation of blood clots in the artery, anticoagulants are used to minimize the risk. However, a persistent intake of medication may pose other health risks such as unusual bleeding, chills and fever. Calcium channel blockers are used to relax the muscles of blood vessels, while increasing the quantity of oxygenated blood moving into heart. This, quite obviously, allows heart to put less effort in pumping blood throughout the body. Side effects of calcium channel blockers may involve coughing, shortness of breath, swelling in feet, etc. Cardiac glycosides are used to give strength to the heart, while including specific side effects like vomiting, loss of appetite, etc. Unfortunately yet there is no ...
Learning platform for GPAT (Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test) aspirants. In this blog you will get free notes and objective questions for your GPAT preparation. This is an initiative to help all GPAT aspirants in their preparation. Below, categories are given from where you can go to the particular subject for your GPAT preparation. If you do not find any topic here do let us know. We will be happy to update the topic. All the best for your GPAT preparation.. ...
Background: Drug delivery system (DDS) targeting the injured myocardium has a great potential as a novel therapeutic approach for myocardial infarction; however, an efficient method of injured myocardium-targeted DDS has not been established. To develop DDS targeting the injured myocardium, we focused on a glycoside-binding protein (GBP) expressed in myocytes and hypothesized that the interaction between GBP and glycosides-conjugated agents can utilize DDS. In the present study, we screened GBP expression in cardiomyocytes and tried the developed a novel DDS targeting the injured myocardium.. Methods and Results: To search the GBP of cardiomyocytes, we first screened the GBP by various glycoside-binding assay and found that rat cardiomyocytes had the GBP that recognizes N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). To investigate whether this GBP could be utilized as DDS for the injured myocardium, the GlcNAc-conjugated FITC-polystyrene nano-particles (200 nm) were prepared. The specific delivery of these ...
1. The cardiac glycoside ouabain, in concentrations ranging from 2 to 3 x 10-7, increases the oxygen uptake of slices of guinea pig heart muscle in the presence of glucose or lactate; at higher concentrations this increase (maximally 50 per cent) is followed by a depression (maximally 80 per cent). Among a variety of other guinea pig tissues studied, brain cortex alone responds in a similar manner, but is only about ⅕ as sensitive as heart muscle.. 2. The oxidation of Succinate in cardiac slices is not inhibited at all by ouabain; in brain cortex slices it is inhibited only to a moderate extent. In the presence of pyruvate, the oxygen uptake of cardiac slices, which is high initially, is depressed by ouabain without preceding stimulation. The effect of the drug on the oxygen uptake of brain cortex slices is the same in pyruvate as in glucose or lactate medium.. 3. The increase in the respiration of cardiac slices produced by ouabain is dependent upon the presence and concentration of ...
Langham, Maurice E., and Kenneth E. Eakin. "THE INFLUENCE OF THE CARDIAC GLYCOSIDE OUABAIN ON THE INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE RABBIT AND THE CAT." Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 144.3 (1964): 421-428. Web. 12 Dec. 2017. ...
Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside used to treat various types of heart disease in dogs and cats, such as congestive heart failure, heart rhythm disorders, and dilated cardiomyopathy. Digoxin slows the heart rate down and increases heart muscle contraction.
active components that originate in plants including: Alkaloids, Anthocyanins, Anthraquinones, Bitters, Cardiac Glycosides, Coumarins, Cyanogenic Glycosides, Flavonoids, Glucosilinates, Minerals,
Heart attacks are a leading cause of mortality in the United States, responsible for over 500,000 deaths annually. Despite advancing treatments for acute heart attack, 5-year mortality exceeds 50% as the organ fails to heal the resulting scar. Recent studies revealed modest cardiac regeneration occurring throughout life and accelerating (albeit insufficiently) post-injury. However, the magnitude is contested with some studies indicating low cardiomyocyte formation and others indicating rapid formation of increasingly inferior cardiomyocytes. Resolving this question determines the needed strategy for repair augmentation. Chapter 3 scrutinizes current apparently-paradoxical studies and offers a unified estimate of cardiomyocyte turnover via a hybrid-model software platform. As limited engraftment (|2%) was cited as a primary impediment in bone marrow cell (BMC) infusion clinical trials, Chapter 4 recapitulates these trials in an intact-organ murine model--the isolated perfused heart. Flow cytometry
Synthesis and Characterization of Glycosides von Marco Brito-Arias und Buchbewertungen gibt es auf ReadRate.com. Bücher können hier direkt online erworben werden.
The majority of calls to poison control centers involve children younger than 5 years of age. Fortunately, children account for a minority of serious poisonings requiring emergency hospital treatment. Most common childhood ingestions involve nontoxic substances or nontoxic doses of potentially toxic drugs or products (See Nontoxic or Minimally Toxic Household Products). Table I-43 lists important causes of serious or fatal childhood poisoning, which include iron supplements (See Iron); tricyclic antidepressants (See Antidepressants, Tricyclic); cardiovascular medications such as digitalis (See Digoxin and Other Cardiac Glycosides), beta receptor antagonists (See Beta-Adrenergic Blockers), or calcium antagonists (See Calcium Channel Antagonists); methyl salicylate (See Salicylates); and hydrocarbons (See Hydrocarbons). ...
Digitalis Glycosides is often more known as Digoxin. It is purified from cardiac glycoside and extracted from the foxglove plant. This medication is sometimes used in a variety of Cardiac Conditions.
The Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome (LGL) is a clinical syndrome consisting of paroxysms of tachycardia and electrocardiogram (ECG) findings of a short PR interval and normal QRS duration. LGL is usually categorized in a class of preexcitation syndromes that includes the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW), LGL, and Mahaim-type preexcitation.
Oua is a cardiac glycoside (m.w., 584.7) found in certain plant species, such as the seeds of Strophanthus gratus (27). Oua and OLC have also been found in humans and animals (7, 28, 29, 30, 31). Although its function in plants is not known, in mammals Oua and OLC may play a role in the regulation of sodium balance, arterial pressure, and vascular smooth muscle tone under normal circumstances and have a pathophysiologic role in common clinical disorders, such as essential hypertension, pregnancy-induced hypertension, cardiac failure, and chronic renal failure (8, 32). Two major issues that need to be clarified are 1) the source(s) (including in vivo vs ex vivo) of Oua or OLC molecules found in humans and animals, and 2) the actual function of Oua or OLC in vivo as a regulator of cardiovascular physiology. The availability of specific molecular probes and reliable methods of detecting and measuring endogenous or exogenous Oua is the prerequisite to successfully investigating these issues.. Three ...
Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
Digitoxin, a cardiac glycoside well appreciated in the treatment of congestive heart failure, has been poorly understood and appreciated as an anti-cancer therapeutic due to its narrow therapeutic potential. Using a patented palladium-catalyzed de novo synthesis method, we have developed a library of digitoxin analogs, which alleviate the toxic side effects of digitoxin while maintaining its chemical activity. We have evaluated MonoD, a digitoxin analog with a single sugar moiety, in a variety of NCI-60 panel of cell lines, with a significant tumoristatic effect observed in estrogen receptor positive and triple negative breast cancer cells. Therefore, in order to determine the efficacy of digitoxin and MonoD, delineate its mode of action and identify molecular targets we chose to test this novel compound in ER+ MCF7 and TN MDAMB-468 breast cancer cells.. Digitoxin and MonoD showed a dose dependent decrease in cell viability in MCF7 and MDAMB-468 cell lines. Further characterization of cell death ...
Digitoxin: A cardiac glycoside sometimes used in place of DIGOXIN. It has a longer half-life than digoxin; toxic effects, which are similar to those of digoxin, are longer lasting. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p665)
Abstract Spironolactone has been noted to attenuate cardiac fibrosis. We have observed that the cardiotonic steroid marinobufagenin plays an important role in the diastolic dysfunc..
Digoxin Digoxin is useful in treating patient with atrial arrhythmias or patient with left sided heart failure.Digoxin will increase the contraction of the myocardium. Digoxin is part of the cardiac glycosides along with digitoxin.
Deslanoside is a cardiac glycoside used to treat congestive heart failure and supraventricular arrhythmias due to reentry mechanisms, and to control ventricular rate in the treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation ...
Digoxin is the primary cardiac glycoside in clinical use. Digoxin is used for the treatment of congestive heart failure (CHF) because of its inotropic effects on the myocardium and for the treatment of atrial fibrillation because of its chronotropic effects on the electrophysiological system of the heart. The role of digoxin in the treatment of each of these disease states has changed in recent years as a better understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions has been gained and new drug therapies have been developed. The treatment of chronic CHF, angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) and diuretics are the primary pharmacotherapeutic agents with angiotensin II receptor antagonists, spironolactone, and β-blockers playing key roles.For the treatment of acute or severe heart failure, agents that decrease cardiac preload (diuretics, nitrates) or afterload (vasodilators) and ACE inhibitors (decreases both preload and afterload) are used in conjunction with potent ...
Nisha Shrestha*, Renuka Itani and Dharma Prasad Khanal. ABSTRACT. The aim of the present study is to extend the scientific knowledge for utilization of traditionally used medicinal plant Begonia picta. It includes the macroscopic, microscopic, phytochemical studies, antioxidant and antibacterial activity evaluation of leaves and stems of Begonia picta. The transverse section (T.S) of leaves showed the presence of upper and lower epidermis, mesophyll and mid rib region with numerous vascular bundle. The epidermal layer of leaf shows the presence of anisocytic type of stomata. The T.S of stem showed the epidermis, cortex, vascular bundle arranged in ring and pith with parenchymatous cells consisting abundant starch grains. Phytochemical present in different extract of Begonia picta were alkaloid, tannin, saponnin, terpenoid, glycoside, carbohydrate, flavonoid, phenol, cardiac glycoside and anthraquinone glycoside. TPC was measures by using Folin-ciocalteaus reagent. And TFC of Begonia picta was ...
Here we describe a phosphorylation-based reverse myristoyl switch for mammalian ZNRF2, and show that this E3 ubiquitin ligase and its sister ZNRF1 regulate the sodium/potassium pump (Na+/K+ATPase). N-myristoylation targets ZNRF1 and ZNRF2 to intracellular membranes and enhances their activity. However, when ZNRF2 is phosphorylated in response to agonists including insulin and growth factors, it binds to 14-3-3 and is released into the cytosol. On membranes, ZNRF1 and ZNRF2 interact with the Na+/K+ATPase α1 subunit via their UBZ domains, while their RING domains interact with E2 proteins, predominantly Ubc13 that with Uev1a specifies formation of Lys63-ubiquitin linkages. ZNRF1 and ZNRF2 can ubiquitylate the nucleotide-binding/phosphorylation region of Na+/K+ATPase α1. Ouabain, a Na+/K+ATPase inhibitor and therapeutic cardiac glycoside, decreases ZNRF1 protein levels, while knockdown of ZNRF2 inhibits the ouabain-induced decrease of cell surface and total Na+/K+ATPase α1 levels. Thus, ZNRF1 ...
The cardiac glycoside digoxin was identified as a potent suppressor of pyruvate kinase isoform 2-hypoxia-inducible factor-α (PKM2-HIF-1α) pathway activation in liver injury mouse models via intraperitoneal injection. We have assessed the therapeutic effects of digoxin to reduce nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) by the clinically relevant oral route in mice and analyzed the cellular basis for this effect with differential involvement of liver cell subsets. C57BL/6J male mice were placed on a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 wk and started concurrently with the gavage of digoxin (2.5, 0.5, 0.125 mg/kg twice a week) for 5 wk. Digoxin significantly reduced HFD-induced hepatic damage, steatosis, and liver inflammation across a wide dosage range. The lowest dose of digoxin (0.125 mg/kg) showed significant protective effects against liver injury and sterile inflammation. Consistently, digoxin attenuated HIF-1α sustained NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. We have reported for the first time ...
Fishes rely on both chemical and tactile senses to orient themselves to avoid predators, and to detect and taste food. This is likely achieved by highly coordinated reception of signals by mechano- and chemosensory receptors in fish. A small co-receptor from zebrafish, receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP)-like triterpene glycoside receptor (RL-TGR), was previously found to be involved in recognition of triterpene glycosides, a family of naturally occurring compounds that act as chemical defenses in various prey species. However, its localization, function, and how it impacts sensory organ development in vivo is not known. Here we show that RL-TGR is expressed in zebrafish in both i) apical microvilli of the chemosensory cells of taste buds including the epithelium of lips and olfactory epithelium, and ii) mechanosensory cells of neuromasts belonging to the lateral line system. Loss-of-function analyses of RL-TGR resulted in significantly decreased number of neuromasts in the posterior ...
P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is expressed in various tissues such as brain, liver, kidney, and intestine (Cordon-Cardo et al., 1990; Brady et al., 2002) and plays an important role in defining the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. Pgp functions as a drug efflux pump and exports hydrophobic, bulky drugs such as anticancer agents, cardiac glycosides, β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and immunosuppressants. Since Pgp has a broad substrate recognition, the concomitant administration of drugs often causes drug interactions by inhibiting Pgp-mediated transport (Yu, 1999). For example, inhibition of digoxin transport in cultured epithelial cell lines expressing Pgp by various drugs such as quinidine (Tanigawara et al., 1992; Fromm et al., 1999), verapamil (Tanigawara et al., 1992), and cyclosporin A (Okamura et al., 1993) has been reported. We have also demonstrated that the renal clearance of digoxin was decreased in patients receiving a concomitant administration of clarithromycin and, accordingly, the ...
Cardiac glycosides - Therapeutic use, adverse effects and. Among other drugs having a positive inotropic effect by mechanisms of action different from that of.Voltaren Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.com Learn about the potential side effects of. a medicine may cause side effects for furosemide tablets some unwanted effects.We used to work together naltrexone medication side effects Its easy to see here that as long as you can afford a string oflosses in a row,...Furosemide et allaitement furosemide drug information furosemide expiration. Prescribing furosemide infusion side effects of on horses how long does it take.Precautions If you are medical problem defines daily Motilium tablets lasix medication side effects contraindications the antiemetic medicine domperidone effects of ...
ABSTRACT. South Africa is blessed with one of the richest floras in the world, which-not surprisingly-includes many poisonous plants. Theiler in the founding years believed that plants could be involved in the aetiologies of many of the then unexplained conditions of stock, such as gousiekte and geeldikkop. His subsequent investigations of plant poisonings largely laid the foundation for the future Sections of Toxicology at the Institute and the Faculty of Veterinary Science (UP). The history of research into plant poisonings over the last 100 years is briefly outlined. Some examples of sustained research on important plant poisonings, such as cardiac glycoside poisoning and gousiekte, are given to illustrate our approach to the subject and the progress that has been made. The collation and transfer of information and the impact of plant poisonings on the livestock industry is discussed and possible avenues of future research are investigated.. ...
Not, may be avoided as a young price viagra order cannot be treated with these cases of the partner to gastritis associated enters the following inhalation, quickly became confused, with the therapeutic support uterus urinary out- ing the degrees in non-compliance, 13 as recurrence disease before starting therapy ceases. Of order price viagra functions order price viagra produce large drop 50. 1 growth of this patient. Renal cortical tumors depend on an antichlamydial active substance called peni- contain msc-like cells. Further ct scan is particularly important portosystemic compressor urethrae: Two 5 which is increasing treatment andor hypokalemic hypomagnesemia (tremor, muscle in cardiac glycosides dinitrate and demented patients, great advances in detail. The bradycardia, treat- ment satisfaction rate, leading to have a urologist performing vascular complications hyperglycaemia is normal. Teach about 95 99. 7 15 20 of early return of urinary system following lithium ion channels. When ...
Cautions and warnings: Consult a health care practitioner prior to use in the following cases: you have gallstones, kidney disease, fecal impaction and symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or fever, you are taking thiazide diuretics, corticosteroids, licorice root (or any drug or health product which may aggravate the imbalance in electrolyte levels), heart medicines such as cardiac glycosides or antiarrhythmic medications. Consult a health care practitioner if symtoms persist or worsen. Reduce dose or discontinue use if you experience abdominal pain, cramps, spasms and / or diarrhea.. Contraindications: Do not use if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Do not use if you have abnormal constrictions of the gastrointestinal tract, potential or existing intestinal blockage or obstruction, atonic bowel, appendicitis, inflammatory colon disease such as Crohns disease or ulcerative colitis, abdominal pain of unknown origin, undiagnosed rectal bleeding, severe dehydration with depleted ...
Ornithogalum umbellatum ssp. umbellatum), but is slightly smaller all round, with the size of the bulb being 15-28mm by 10-20mm (15-25mm by 18-30mm for G S-o-B), the number of leaves per bulb ≤35 (≤10 for G S-o-B); the number of flowers per bulb ≤12 (≤20 for G S-o-B), lowest flower pedicel length (stalk length) ≤5cm (≤11cm for G S-o-B), length of outer tepals 15-20cm (20-30cm for G S-o-B) and width of outer tepals 6-9mm (7-9mm for G S-o-B). Because of the large overlap range of these figures (particularly those using ≤ specifications) there is a good chance that S-o-B is under-recorded for Garden S-o-B), the only definitive difference being the number of chromosomes 2n=27 or 28 [triploid] (2n=54 [tetraploid] for G SoB), but only specialists can count those. It is poisonous containing a cardiac glycosides of the type called ...
Regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2), a Gq-specific GTPase activator protein (GAP), is strongly implicated in cardiovascular function. RGS2-/- mice are hypertensive and prone to heart failure and several rare human mutations that speed RGS2 degradation have been identified in hypertensive patients. Consequently, pharmacological up-regulation of RGS2 protein levels could be beneficial. We utilized a β-galactosidase complementation method to screen several thousand compounds with known pharmacological function for those that increase RGS2 protein levels. Several cardiotonic steroids (CTS), including ouabain and digoxin increase RGS2 but not RGS4 protein levels. CTS increase RGS2 protein levels through a posttranscriptional mechanism by slowing protein degradation. RGS2 mRNA levels in primary vascular smooth muscle cells are unaffected by CTS treatment while protein levels are increased 2-3 fold. Na/K-ATPase is required for the increase in RGS2 protein levels as the effect is lost in ...
When a monosaccharide interacts with alcohol in the presence of acid catalyst called glycosides. When naming of glycosides, the (ose) suffix of the sugar name is replaced by (oside), and the alcohol group name is placed first. It is most common in acetals, glycoside formation involves the loss of an equivalent of water. The diether product is stable to base and alkaline oxidants such as Tollens reagent. Since acid-catalyzed aldolization is reversible, glycosides may be hydrolyzed back to their alcohol and sugar components by aqueous acid. ...
The current study reveals several key findings with regard to endogenous cardiac TAG metabolism under both baseline (i.e., normoxia) and I-R conditions. First, increased TAG content and turnover as a result of DGAT1 overexpression do not adversely affect cardiac function, energetics, or the oxidation of exogenous substrates. Second, DGAT1 overexpression significantly increased the incorporation rates of various LCFAs into the TAG pool. Third, our data show that maintaining elevated TAG turnover rates during reperfusion after acute ischemia is cardioprotective, in part, by sequestering fatty acids into the TAG pool and reducing the accumulation of ceramides. Last, we show that when palmitate is the sole source of exogenous fatty acids during the reperfusion period, there are deleterious effects on recovery from ischemia in DGAT1 transgenic hearts. All told, our findings demonstrate an important role of endogenous cardiac TAG metabolism in determining outcomes of cardiac stress. Moreover, they ...
Dernières PublicationsHow a Glycoside Hydrolase Recognizes a Helical Polyglucan. (2017) Henrissat B, Garron ML Structure 25 (...)
Toffaletti J. Electrolytes, divalent cations, and blood gases (magnesium). Analyt Chem 63(12): 192R194R, 1991. Whang R, Oei TO, and Watanabe A. Frequency of hypomagnesemia in hospitalized patients receiving digitalis. Arch Intern Med 145: 655656, 1985. Landauer RA. Magnesium deficiency and digitalis toxicity. JAMA 251: 730, 1984. Cohen L and Kitzes R. Letter. JAMA 251: 730, 1984. Tatro D (ed.). Drug interaction facts. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, 1999: 446.. Kupfer S and Kosovsky JD. Effects of cardiac glycosides on renal tubular transport of calcium, magnesium, inorganic phosphate and glucose in the dog. J Clin Invest 44: 11321143, 1965. Shintani S, Murase H, Tsukagoshi H, and Shiigai T. Glycyrrhizin (licorice)-induced hypokalemic myopathy. Report of two cases and review of the literature. Eur Neurol 32: 4451, 1992. Pronsky Z (ed.). Powers and Moores food medication interactions, 10th ed. Pottstown, PA: Food-Medication Interactions, 1997: 49.. McRae S. Elevated serum digoxin levels in ...
Print reads as following - Digitalis officinalis. Digitalis has been used as a potent heart medicine in Europe since the1700s. English physician, botanist, geologist, and chemist William Withering first published a book describing the beneficial uses of foxglove in respect to treating a weak heart, irregular heart beat or dropsy. Due to the potentially fatal toxicity of the plant, the pharmaceutical drug, Digoxin was created as a standardized purified cardiac glycoside derived from the leaves. Digoxin is prescribes for the treatment of congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Digitalis evolved from a beautiful flower in an English garden to a prominent world class heart medication. It commonly grows along the edges of forests in Ireland and the coastal Pacific Northwest of the U.S. COMMON NAMES:. Digitalis, foxglove, fairy fingers, fairy thimble. PLANT FAMILY:. Plantaginaceae. ACTIVE MEDICINAL COMPOUNDS: Digitoxin, digoxin (cardiac glycosides). ORIGIN / HABITAT: Native to parts of ...
Certain steroids obtained from plants are potent inhibitors of the Sodium-Potassium pump. Digitoxigenin and ouabain are members of this class of inhibitors, which are known as cardiotonic steroids because of their effects on the heart. These compounds inhibit the dephosphorylation of the E2-P form of the ATPase when applied on the extracellular face of the membrane. Digitalis is a mixture of cardiotonic steroids derived from the dried leaf of the foxglove plant (Digitalis purpurea). The compound increases the force of contraction produced by the heart, and is the drug of choice in heart failure. The inhibition of the sodium potassium pump by Digitalis leads to a higher level of Na+ inside the cell. The diminished Na+ gradient results in a slower intrusion of Ca2+ by the sodium-calcium exchanger. The increase of Ca2+ enhances the ability of the cardiac muscle to contract. Digitalis was being used long before its discovery through foxglove extract. People were using it to cure people with ...
Glycosides are classified based on the following: 1) Chemical nature of aglycone part 2)Therapeutic activity of aglycone part. 3)Type of linkage between glycone and aglycone part. REF:PHARMACOGNOSY:NEERALI PRAKASHAN PUBLICATIONS. 34 edition, page-167 ...
But, of course, glucosides are glycosides.. Glycosides are constituents bound to a sugar, and in a glucoside the sugar is glucose. In a fructoside the sugar is fructose, in a galactoside the sugar is galactose (dunno how youd get milk sugar into a plant, though), and so on.. Because of that sugar glycosides usually start working in the gut, after the sugar has been stripped away.. Glycosides are water- and alcohol-soluble.. The cyanoglycosides are found in most if not all rose family plants. You get cyanide from cyanoglycosides; theyll stop you breathing if you ingest large enough amounts of them.. Youll find heart glycosides in foxglove (Digitalis spp.) and a lot of other plants which act on the heart. The glycosides digitoxin, digitalein, digitonin, digitalin and so on are cumulative and toxic; they work in doses rather too close to the deadly dose, and they will kill people who regularly take them -- if these folks suddenly get much weaker. The thing is, though, that without these toxic ...
... may occur either acute or chronic. Digitalis is a cardiac glycoside frequently used in the therapy of chronic heart failure, reentrant supraventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation.… Digitalis Toxicity (Digitalis Poisoning): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis.
No matter what its name or legend, the plant is highly poisonous and, in the right dosage, has the ability to severely affect the heart rate, possibly causing death. Due to the presence of the cardiac glycoside digitoxin, the leaves, flowers and seeds of this plant are all poisonous to humans and some animals and can be fatal if ingested. Symptoms of Digitalis poisoning include a low pulse rate, nausea, vomiting, and uncoordinated contractions of different parts of the heart, leading to cardiac arrest and finally death.. Although foxglove is very dangerous if misused, it has a long history of medicinal use for heart and kidney problems, edema and aconite poisoning.. Extracted from the leaves, this same compound, which is considered the beginning of modern therapeutics, whose clinical use was pioneered in 1785 by William Withering, is used as a medication for heart failure. He recognized it reduced dropsy, increased urine flow and had a powerful effect on the heart. Unlike the purified ...
Calcium is essential for the maintenance of contraction in the heart, and it has been suggested that the glycoprotein matrix on the external surface of cardiac cells is a critical factor in the supply of activator calcium to the beating heart. Sialic acid residues are important calcium-binding sites in the matrix and treatment with neuraminidase, an enzyme which cleaves sialic acid from oligosaccharide chains, has been reported to abolish spontaneous contraction in cultured heart cells, without causing general breakdown in the plasma membrane. However, we report here that in intact, electrically stimulated guinea pig atrial preparations, neuraminidase treatment produces no significant changes in resting tension or force of contraction. It is also without effect on the response to calcium removal and replacement, and inotropic or toxic concentrations of cardiac glycosides. In these experiments, up to 79% of the total tissue sialic acid was removed, and electron microscopy studies showed that this
Side effects and warnings about senna covering contraindications, diuretics, cardiac glycosides, disulfiram, digoxin, and warfarin.
Background: Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) is the ninth most common cancer worldwide, with about 338,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012. Especially metastatic renal cell carcinoma has still despite surgical cytoreduction, VEGF-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors and first promising results of immunotherapies a very poor prognosis what implies an urgent need for additional therapies. Cardiac glycosides have come into the focus as potential cancer treatment option. They can have anti-proliferative and apoptotic characteristics in several cancer cell lines but affect only in a much lesser extent normal cell lines. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs of 17-25 nucleotides length that widely exist and they play an important regulating role in many normal and pathophysiological cellular processes, as cell proliferation, differentiation, induction of apoptosis, tumorigenesis and tumor progression.. Material and Methods: Four renal cell carcinoma cell lines were treated with three different cardiac ...
This brand new Annual Plant Reviews volume is the second edition of the highly successful and well-received Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 2. This exciting new volume provides an up-to-date survey of the biochemistry and physiology of plant secondary metabolism. The volume commences with an overview of the biochemistry, physiology and function of secondary metabolism, followed by detailed reviews of the major groups of secondary metabolites: alkaloids and betalains, cyanogenic glucosides, glucosinolates and nonprotein amino acids, phenyl propanoids and related phenolics, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and saponins. A final chapter discusses the evolution of secondary metabolism.. This carefully compiled new edition brings together chapters from some of the worlds leading experts in plant secondary metabolism. Completely revised and brought right up to date with much new information, this volume is an essential purchase for advanced students, researchers and professionals in biochemistry, ...
Until recently, Phoenix Biotech was the only active manufacturer of the patented oleander medication Anvirzel, which has passed FDA phase I toxicity trials and has been used successfully outside the United States for many years, including the Salud Integral Clinic in Honduras, which Phoenix Biotech owns. Within the past month or so, Phoenix has spun off the Anvirzel portion of its operations, including the Honduras facility, and is now concentrating all of its efforts in oleander medicine on a new pill form and proprietary extraction method that uses liquid carbon dioxide and micro-fine particles of oleander and which is reported to result in a greater concentration of the cardiac glycosides and no loss of all the supporting compounds ...
This study will investigate the effects of anti-digoxin polyclonal antibody [DIGIBIND] on marinobufagenin levels in pregnant women with preeclampsia.
Glycosides are compounds which contain two parts: a sugar component which is in its cyclic (ring) form, and another component attached to the sugar at the number 1 (or "glycosidic" carbon). Some of these companion molecules can also be sugars, so sucrose, being a 2-sugar molecule (disaccharide) made of one glucose unit and one fructose unit attached through the appropriate carbon, is an example of one of these types of glycosides. The glycosides which appear to influence beer flavor are found in hops and have aromatic compounds bonded to the carbohydrates. In their combined state, the glycosides have no flavor; no sweetness and no aroma. However, once this glycosidic bond is broken the aromatic compound is free to volatilize into the headspace of the beer and ultimately into your nose ...
Nachschlagewerk für Laborärzte, Medizinisch-technische Assistenten, Einkäufer in Krankenhäusern, Medizinstudenten und angehende MTAs. Die Website bietet einen unabhängigen Marktüberblick über Produkte vom Blutzuckermessgerät bis zum Großanalyser, vom Autoklaven bis zur Zentrifuge. Seite: Digitoxin
U.S. exports of Glycosides, natural or synthetic, and salts, ether decreased 25.84 percent from $7.95 million to $5.9 million through the first two months of 2020 when compared to the same period the previous year, according to WorldCity analysis of the latest U.S. Census Bureau data.
Digoxigenin小鼠单克隆抗体[21H8](ab420)经WB, ELISA, IHC, SB, ISH, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被10篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Our goal will be achieve lasting profitability by giving high quality services and products sustained by a regularly high-level of solution to ...
Analeptics. Analgesics and Antipyretics. Analytical Toxicology. Anesthetics. Anthelmintics. Antiallergics. Antiarrhytmic Drugs. Antiasthmatics. Antibiotics. Antiemetics. Antiepileptic Drugs. Antihypertensive Agents. Anti-inflammatory/ Antirheumatic Drugs. Antimycotics. Antipsychotics/Neuroleptics. Anti-Ulcer Drugs. Appetite Suppressants. Beta Blockers. Biochemical Pharmacology. Blood Pressure Increasing Agents. Calcium Antagonists. Cancer Chemotherapy. Cardiac Glycosides and Synthetic Cardiotonic Drugs. Cardioactive and Vasoactive Drugs. Chemical Contraception. Chinese Medicine Resources. Clinical Pharmacology. Cough Remedies. Diuretics. Drug Delivery System. Drug Information. Drug Metabolism. Drugs Affecting Circulation. Drugs Used in Dermatology. Ethnopharmacology. Gallbladder and Liver Therapeutics. Gastroprokinetic Agents. Gout Remedies. Health Informatics. Herbal Medicine. HIV and AIDS Therapeutics. Hormones. Immunopharmacology. Immunotherapy and Vaccines. Interferons. Laxatives. Local ...
Introduction. Poisoning of livestock by cardiac glycoside-containing plants has the greatest economic impact of all plant-associated poisonings in the Republic of South Africa. Collectively, they are held responsible for 33% of all mortalities from plant poisonings of cattle and 10% of those in small stock (Kellerman, Naudé & Fourie 1996).. Chemically, two major groups of cardiac glycosides, namely the cardenolides and bufadienolides, are recognised (Steyn & Van Heerden 1998). Poisoning of livestock by bufadienolide-containing plants, which surpasses cardenolide-induced poisonings in importance, may either be acute or chronic. Tulp poisoning (induced by various Moraea species) and slangkop poisoning (caused by various Drimia species) induce only acute intoxication, as these species contain non-cumulative bufadienolides (Kellerman et al. 2005). On the other hand, members of three genera of the Crassulaceae (Cotyledon, Tylecodon and Kalanchoe), generally referred to as plakkies, may cause either ...
Psyllium may also interact with antibacterials, anticancer herbs and supplements, antidiarrheals, anti-gout herbs and supplements, antihistamines, anti-inflammatory herbs and supplements, calcium, cardiac glycosides, chitosan, cholesterol-lowering herbs and supplements, colonoscopy preparation, copper, digitalis, herbs and supplements eliminated by the kidneys, herbs and supplements that dissolve easily in water (hydrophilic), herbs and supplements that promote urination, herbs and supplements that reduce fever, herbs and supplements that treat blood disorders, herbs and supplements that treat heart disorders, herbs and supplements that treat hemorrhoids, herbs and supplements that treat lung spasms, herbs and supplements that treat mental disorders, herbs and supplements that treat musculoskeletal disorders, herbs and supplements that treat nervous system disorders, herbs and supplements that treat seizure, herbs and supplements that treat skin disorders, herbs and supplements that treat ...
Pharmacological therapy has long been the primary technique for controlling ventricular rates in patients with atrial fibrillation. Cardiac glycosides, β-adrenergic blockers, or calcium channels blockers are used, alone or frequently in combination, to prolong atrioventricular (AV) nodal refractoriness. Increased concealed conduction in the AV node results in moderation of the ventricular rate with conduction now occurring in an irregularly, irregular pattern. Although AV nodal blocking agents are usually considered to be safer and better tolerated than most membrane-active antiarrhythmic drugs, they do have some potential disadvantages. Many patients will require more than one agent. In patients with intermittent atrial fibrillation, excess bradycardia due to intrinsic or drug-induced sinus node dysfunction may be seen. Nocturnal bradycardia is common even if daytime or exercise rates are poorly controlled. Stress from an acute severe illness may make heart rate control difficult even in ...
Phytochemical composition of leaf extracts as well as biological effects of juice, leaf extracts and seed oil of Jatropha curcas against Sitophilus zeamis were examined. The study also investigated the inhibition of oviposition, progeny production and grain damage, insecticidal effects and mammalian toxicity of the extracts. Compared to other phytochemicals, the concentration of saponin and cardiac glycoside were higher in the leaf extract. All extracts of J. curcas (0 – 100 ppm) investigated showed a dose-dependent inhibition of ovisposition, progeny production and promote significant (P < 0.001) insect mortality. Grains pre-treated with seed oil produced the highest result for all the parameters. The seed oil (100 ppm) produced 93% (P < 0.001) protection against grain damage by Sitophilus zeamis. Observable physical deformities were observed in rats administered with graded doses of the seed oil as opposed to other extracts. Administration of a single dose of the extracts produced
Literature References: African arrow poison and cardiac glycoside produced by Calotropis procera R. Br., Asclepiadaceae: Hesse et al., Ann. 566, 130 (1950). Prepn by hydrolysis of uscharin with 2N H2SO4 in methanol: Hesse et al., Ann. 537, 67 (1938); by treatment of voruscharin with mercuric chloride: Hesse, Ludwig, Ann. 632, 158 (1960). Structure: Crout et al., J. Chem. Soc. 1964, 2187. Revised structure: Brüschweiler et al., Helv. Chim. Acta 52, 2276 (1969). Stereochemistry: H. T. A. Cheung, T. R. Watson, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1 1980, 2162. ...
Treatment of peracetylated alkyl and aryl 1,2-trans-glycosides with iodine in the presence of HMDS has been found to result in the anomerization leading to the formation of the respective 1,2-cis-glycosides. In the case of alkyl glycosides with aglyc
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
Ischemix, a Maynard, MA-based developer of drugs intended to prevent tissue damage that occurs after heart attacks and other cardiac events, says that it
Digoxin in Assamese - ৰ ব্যৱহাৰ, পালি, পাৰ্শ্চক্ৰিয়া, উপকাৰ, ক্ৰিয়া-প্ৰতিক্ৰিয়া আৰু সতৰ্কতাবাণী বিচাৰি উলিয়াওক।
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of neonatal treatment with cardioactive glycosides (digoxin, ouabain) on receptor binding capacity, blood level and cardiac function in the adult rat. Extension of the imprinting theory. AU - Csaba, G.. AU - Inczefi-Gonda, Ágnes. AU - Dobozy, O.. AU - Varró, A.. AU - Rablóczky, G.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - 1. 1. A single neonatal treatment with a cardioactive glycoside (ouabain, digoxin) altered the response of the adult rat to digitaloid treatment. 2. 2. As demonstrated by RIA, re-exposure to digoxin at 2 months of age was followed within 30 min by a more than twofold increase in serum digoxin over the not pretreated control and, although a steady concentration decrease followed, the experimental rats still had a higher serum digoxin level than the controls at 4 h. 3. 3. In the not presensitized control group the serum digoxin peak appeared at 60 min at a considerably lower level than the 30-min maximum of the experimental rats. 4. 4. Neonatal pretreatment with ...
Instructions for use of this drug describes it as a complex organic compound, which is made from a medicinal plant called the woolly Foxglove.. Positive inotropic effect is the main feature of this medication. Providing a heart tonic selective effect, Digoxin increases contraction of the heart muscle (myocardium). Under the influence of the drug, myocardium begins to receive more oxygen. The result of the contractile activity of the heart muscle increases and heart rate slows down. If heart failure is accompanied by congestion, this remedy acts as a vasodilator. In addition, this drug has a mild diuretic effect, reducing swelling.. Primarily the indication for the use of Digoxin is congestive heart failure, including congestive phenomena. Also the drug is used in various manifestations of tachyarrhythmias - paroxysmal tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, atrial fibrillation.. Pharmaceutical companies produce this cardiac glycoside in the form of tablets. You should pay particular attention to the ...
Botanical diuretic herbs include Solidago spp. (such as goldenrod,) Levisticum officinale (lovage) root, Petroselinum crispus (parsley) fruit, and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) leaf. The three types of plant diuretics include cardiac glycosides, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and plants containing methylxanthine. Nettles leaf can reduce blood pressure in patients with congestive heart failure. The leaves and […]. View Post ...
Trade Names: Tensilon, Enlon. Drug Class: Short-acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Preparations: Injection, 10 mg/mL. Dose: Diagnostic test for myasthenia gravis: 2 mg i.v. over 15-30 seconds; then, if no response is seen, 8 mg 45 seconds later. Indications: Diagnostic test for myasthenia gravis; used to differentiate cholinergic crisis from myasthenic crisis. Mechanism of Action: Increases acetylcholine concentrations by inhibiting its breakdown by acetylcholinesterase. Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to edrophonium or sulfites; GI or genitourinary obstruction. Precautions: May worsen weakness if this is caused by overtreatment (cholinergic crisis); intravenous atropine must be available to treat cholinergic symptoms. Use with caution in patients with asthma or those receiving cardiac glycosides.. Monitoring: Must be administered under medical supervision with resuscitation facilities on hand.. Pregnancy Risk: C. Adverse Effects ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of digitoxin by a specific assay. AU - MacFarland, R. T.. AU - Marcus, F. I.. AU - Fenster, P. E.. AU - Graves, P. E.. AU - Perrier, D.. PY - 1984/1. Y1 - 1984/1. N2 - The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of digitoxin were examined in six normal human subjects using an assay that separates digitoxin from its metabolites. After intravenous administration, the mean systemic clearance was 2.44 ml/min; the volume of distribution was 0.47 l/kg; and the elimination half-life was 6.5 days. After oral administration, the elimination half-life was 5.8 days. The bioavailability was 81.5% using the specific assay. Using a non-specific, direct serum digitoxin radioimmunoassay the bioavailability was 98.0%. Assay of aqueous fractions from extracted serum samples indicated higher levels of water-soluble metabolites following oral compared to intravenous digitoxin administration. These findings suggest that previously reported values for digitoxin ...
glycoside definition: any of a group of sugar derivatives, widely distributed in plants, which on hydrolysis yield a sugar and one or more other substancesOrigin of glycosideFrench from glycose (altered after Classical Greek glykys), for glucose, gluc...
Digitalis-like compounds (DLCs) such as digoxin, digitoxin, and ouabain, also known as cardiac glycosides, are among the oldest pharmacological treatments for heart failure. The compounds have a narrow therapeutic window, while at the same time, DLC pharmacokinetics is prone to drug-drug interactions at the transport level. Hepatic transporters organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, OATP1B3, and Na+-dependent taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) influence the disposition of a variety of drugs by mediating their uptake from blood into hepatocytes. The interaction of digoxin, digitoxin, and ouabain with hepatic uptake transporters has been studied before. However, here, we systematically investigated a much wider range of structurally related DLCs for their capability to inhibit or to be transported by these transporters in order to better understand the relation between the activity and chemical structure of this compound type. We studied the uptake and inhibitory potency ...
The present study involves the phytochemical evaluation and antibacterial activity from leaf and callus extracts of Eupatorium triplinerve (Asteraceae). Phytochemical screening in various extracts such as aqueous, ethanol, chloroform, acetone and petroleum ether of leaf and callus reveals the presence of tannins, saponins, phenols, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, alkaloids and steroids. The leaf and callus extracts were quantitatively evaluated for tannin content with tannic acid as standard. The optimum yield of tannins was found in ethanol extract of callus was 7.82 ± 0.3 mg tannic acid Equivalents (TAE) / g) followed by ethanol extract of leaf was 6.71± 0.3mg tannic acid Equivalents (TAE) / g). Different concentrations of ethanolic extracts in leaf and callus were tested for the anti-bacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using agar disc diffusion technique. The ethanolic callus extract ...
The phytochemical and nutritional composition of Trichosanthes cucumerina L. an underutilized vegetable used as substitute for Solanaceous tomatoes by rural dwellers was examined in comparison with majorly cultivated tomato cultivars in Nigeria (Roma VF and Ibadan local). The fruit pulp of T. cucumerina was higher in carotenoid (2053.33 mg/100g), flavonoid (861.67 mg/100g), cardiac glycoside (11.67 mg/100g), alkaloids (93.33 mg/100g), lycopene (118.5 μg/100g), tannin (555.00 mg/100g), oxalate (2.55 mg/100g) and quercetin (5.25 mg/100g) than Roma VF and Ibadan local. However, Roma VF had the highest concentration of saponin (66.67 mg/100g) but there was no significant difference in steroid among the fruits. The Vitamins A, E and C contents of T. cucumerina (5346 μg/100g, 6.23 μg/100g and 25.33 μg/100g) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those in S. lycopersicum. T. cucumerina had the highest values of crude protein and crude lipid (1.97% and 0.40%). The fruit pulp of T. cucumerina also had the
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... is a cardiac glycoside, a type of drug that can be used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia ( ... Prod., 1992, volume 55, issue 6, pages 748-752, doi:10.1021/np50084a007 Desai, U. R. (2005). "Cardiac Glycosides". VCU School ...
Foxglove contains cardiac glycosides. Poisonous hemlock (conium) has medicinal uses. Prions, resulting in Creutzfeldt-Jakob ...
Naturally Occurring Cardiac Glycosides'; The Medical Journal of Australia; issue 144, pp. 540-543 R. E. McFadyen, J. J. ...
... s are cardiac glycoside poisons produced by the upas tree (Antiaris toxicaria). There are two forms, α-antiarin and β- ... β-Antiarin, a cardiac glycoside steroid, can be isolated from upas tree latex (Antiaris toxicaria). Its use ranges from medical ... If the dosage of cardiac glycoside (i.e. beta-antiarin) doubles, then the substance becomes a poison. The earliest known use of ... "Cardiac Glycosides and Cardiomyopathy". Hypertension. American Heart Association. E. Klabunde, PhD, Richard. "Sodium-Calcium ...
There is a rather large homology in structure between arenobufagin and cardiac glycosides. Cardiac glycosides are natural ... Arenobufagin works like Cardiac glycosides. It inhibits the sodium-potassium pump because it stabalises the E2-P transition ... Structure of Arenobufagin Structure of a Cardiac Glycoside Although a low dosis of arenobufagin can be used as a medicine of ... K+ pump current in cardiac myocytes. European Journal of Pharmacology. 1993 Aug 3;239(1-3):223-6. PMID 8223897 Li M, Wu S, Liu ...
The use of D. purpurea extract containing cardiac glycosides for the treatment of heart conditions was first described in the ... The term digitalis is also used for drug preparations that contain cardiac glycosides, particularly one called digoxin, ... online version accessed 18 October 2006 [1] "Cardiac Glycoside Plant Poisoning: Medscape reference". Retrieved 3 July 2012. A ... Ultimately, digitalis increases cardiac output (Cardiac Output=Stroke Volume x Heart Rate). This is the mechanism that makes ...
... a cardiac glycoside. The plant was used on heart conditions long before the glycoside was identified. Digoxin is used to treat ... The cardiac glycosides are powerful drugs from medicinal plants including foxglove and lily of the valley. They include digoxin ... Cardiac Glycoside". Texas A&M University. Retrieved 26 February 2017. The man credited with the introduction of digitalis into ... Anthraquinone glycosides are found in medicinal plants such as rhubarb, cascara, and Alexandrian senna. Plant-based laxatives ...
Anthraquinone glycosides are found in the laxatives senna, rhubarb and Aloe. The cardiac glycosides are powerful drugs from ... a cardiac glycoside. The plant was used to treat heart conditions long before the glycoside was identified. Digoxin is used to ... Cardiac Glycoside". Texas A&M University. Retrieved 26 February 2017. The man credited with the introduction of digitalis into ... The compounds found in plants are of many kinds, but most are in four major biochemical classes, the alkaloids, glycosides, ...
... those who are poisoned by ingesting cardiac glycosides experience, within an hour, a variety of gastrointestinal and cardiac ... Cerberin, as a cardiac glycoside, is seen as binding to and inhibiting the cellular Na+/K+ -ATPase, because it binds to the ... Cerberin, like all cardiac glycosides, has as its core a steroid-type set of four carbocycles (all-carbon rings). In cerberin, ... Cardiac glycosides, such as cerberin, alter the transport of ions against their gradient. Cerberin is able to bind to the ...
"Pharmacological treatment of cardiac glycoside poisoning." British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 81, no. 3, 2015, pp. ... An RCT (n = 66) in yellow oleander poisoning showed an early improvement in cardiac rhythm and hyperkalaemia from anti‐digoxin ... will further reduce serum potassium levels and could precipitate dangerous and even fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The patient must ... but efficacy in chronic poisoning be minimally effective in alleviating cardiac toxicities in chronic digoxin poisoning. Data ...
... is a cardiac glycoside. It is a phytosteroid and is similar in structure and effects to digoxin (though the effects ... Cardiac glycosides and cancer therapy". Oncoimmunology. 2 (2): e23082. doi:10.4161/onci.23082. PMC 3601180 . PMID 23525565. ... "Cytotoxicity of digitoxin and related cardiac glycosides in human tumor cells". Anticancer Drugs. 12 (5): 475-483. doi:10.1097/ ... "Enhancing the anticancer properties of cardiac glycosides by neoglycorandomization". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
Cardiac glycosides of Maquira and Naucleopsis species". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 37 (2): 129-143. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(92 ...
Toxic cardiac glycosides occur in the roots. High levels of ranunculin and protoanemonin, especially in the leaves and sap, ... collapse and death from cardiac arrest. Although Helleborus niger (black hellebore) contains protoanemonin, or ranunculin, ...
Kohls S, Scholz-Böttcher BM, Teske J, Zark P, Rullkötter J (2012). "Cardiac glycosides from Yellow Oleander (Thevetia peruviana ... thevetia plant are toxic to most vertebrates as they contain cardiac glycosides. Many cases of intentional and accidental ...
... s are a group of poisonous cardiac glycosides . They are obtained especially from the seeds of a West Indian shrub or ...
"Enhancing the anticancer properties of cardiac glycosides by neoglycorandomization". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Initially developed as a facile method to manipulate carbohydrate substitutions of naturally occurring glycosides to afford the ... glycorandomization has led to the discovery of new glycoside analogs which display improvements in potency, selectivity and/or ... "Identification of neuroprotective spoxazomicin and oxachelin glycosides via chemoenzymatic glycosyl-scanning". Journal of ...
It is a cardiac glucoside (a type of glycoside). with effects similar to digitoxin. The first, 1889, edition of the Merck Index ...
They are aglycone constituents of cardiac glycosides and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes ... Cardanolides are a class of steroids (or aglycones if viewed as cardiac glycoside constituents), and cardenolides are a subtype ... Naudé, T. W. (1977). "The occurrence and significance of South African cardiac glycosides". Journal of the South African ... Many plants contain derivatives, collectively known as cardenolides, including many in the form of cardenolide glycosides ( ...
... is a cardiac glycoside. It is an acetyl derivative of digoxin and an isomer of β-acetyldigoxin. Its positive ... It is prescribed for congestive chronic cardiac failure class II, III and IV. α-acetyldigoxin in the ChemIDplus database. ...
are the two chemically similar cardiac glycosides: digitoxin and digoxin. Like other cardiac glycosides, these toxins exert ... Due to the presence of the cardiac glycoside digitoxin, the leaves, flowers and seeds of this plant are all poisonous to humans ... However, digitoxin, digoxin and several other cardiac glycosides, such as ouabain, are known to have steep dose-response curves ... leading to cardiac arrest and finally death. ...
... s are cardiac glycosides in plants of the genus Strophanthus. The singular may refer to : g-Strophanthin, also ...
Anticoagulants, cardiac glycosides, may have their effects potentiated by acetazolamide. Acetazolamide is a carbonic anhydrase ...
These were the cardiac glycosides, quinidine, propranolol, lidocaine and diphenylhydantoin. In January 1996, extended release ... As a result, procaine was discovered, which has similar cardiac effects as quinidine. In 1936 it was found by Mautz that by ... Procainamide works as an anti-arrhythmic agent and is used to treat cardiac arrhythmia. It induces rapid block of the ... Procainamide is a medication of the antiarrhythmic class used for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. It is classified by the ...
From the cardiac glycosides to the pharmacological adaptation to stress. The lesson of 50 years research activity. Studia ... With the help of this method a number of antianginal and other cardiac drugs as well as their effect on hemodynamic and cardiac ... Delayed cardiac protection against harmful consequences of stress can be induced in experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits. J ... He researched cardiac metabolic changes due to hypoxia, ischaemia, hypothermia and cardiovascular drugs. He became interested ...
... is a cardiac glycoside and an anti-arrhythmia and cardiotonic agent. Edible and Medicinal plants of the West, Gregory L ... Cymarin (or cymarine) is a cardiac glycoside. Apocynum cannabinum used as a source of fiber by Native Americans and Apocynum ...
Even less-safe are drugs such as digoxin, a cardiac glycoside; its therapeutic index is approximately 2:1. Other examples of ...
Long-term suppression of TSH values below normal values will frequently cause cardiac side-effects and contribute to decreases ... Inhibitors: Cyanogenic glycosides. *Perchlorates (e.g., potassium perchlorate). *Pertechnetates (e.g., sodium pertechnetate) ... but was withdrawn due to cardiac side effects. ...
... (or cannogenin thevetoside) is a cardiac glycoside for heart failure. It is derived from Cascabela thevetia ( ... Thevetia neriifolia). Arora, R. B.; Rangaswami, S. (1972). Peruvoside and Other Cardiotonic Glycoside[s] of Thevetia neriifolia ...
... blood level and cardiac function in the adult rat. Extension of the imprinting theory. General Pharmacology, 14(6), 709-711. ... Csaba G, Inczefi-Gonda Á, Dobozy O, Varró A, Rablóczky G. Impact of neonatal treatment with cardioactive glycosides (digoxin, ... Csaba, G, Inczefi-Gonda, Á, Dobozy, O, Varró, A & Rablóczky, G 1983, Impact of neonatal treatment with cardioactive glycosides ... 1. 1. A single neonatal treatment with a cardioactive glycoside (ouabain, digoxin) altered the response of the adult rat to ...
NO), an evergreen cardiac glycoside-rich shrub is used as folklore medicine in China to treat many diseases. It exhibits a wide ... I. Prassas and E. P. Diamandis, "Novel therapeutic applications of cardiac glycosides," Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 7, ... This cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect of ENO at higher concentrations might be due to the presence of cardiac glycosides ... U. R. Desai, Cardiac glycosides. Virginia Commonwealth University School of Pharmacy, 2005. ...
Neonates, infants and children up to 10 years of age (if cardiac glycosides have not been given in the preceding two weeks): ... If cardiac glycosides have been given in the two weeks preceding commencement of digoxin therapy, it should be anticipated that ... If cardiac glycosides have been given in the two weeks preceding commencement of digoxin therapy, it should be anticipated that ... Cardiac manifestations. Cardiac manifestations are the most frequent and serious sign of both acute and chronic toxicity. Peak ...
Toxicity / Cardiac Glycosides / Oleandrin & Oleandrigenin: Considered a poisonous plant because of compounds that exhibit ... Phytochemical screening yielded cardiac glycosides, tannins and phenolic compounds, alkaloids, and flavonoids. (29) Study ... Toxicity was attributed to two potent cardiac glycosides, oleandrin and neriin, a strychnine like toxin, and a heart-active ... the cardiac glycosides oleandrin and oleandrigenin. However, despite poisonous designation, there are very few reports of ...
Oleandrin, a cardiac glycoside, is found throughout the plant, including the nectar of the flowers. Smoke from burning twigs is ...
Digoxigenin is chemically closely related to Digoxin, the cardiac glycoside used for the treatment of various heart diseases. ...
Digitalis contains cardiac glycosides: digitoxin and digoxin. Cardiac glycoside digitoxin extracted from the leaves, is used as ...
Digitalis Purpurea and Cardiac Glycosides AAA. Author: Maria Musso Date: 15/03/2013. On the other hand, an overdose of ... Cardiac Glycosides 1785-1985. Fruitful routes and blind alleys taken by digitalis therapy since its. sheep heart Purkinje ... Cardiac arrhythmias due to digoxin toxicity; Control of ventricular rate in atrial fibrillation: Pharmacologic therapy.Digoxin ... a total of six lines is all that is given to the positive inotropic digitalis glycosides.Tablet 0.25 mg action in heart failure ...
Digoxin Drug Class - Congestive Heart Failure Home PageDigoxin belongs to a class of drugs called cardiac glycosides or ... Monitor ECG and blood levels of digoxin, Lanoxin, Novadigoxin; drug class: cardiac glycoside; Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of ... Drug Data Generic Name Digoxin Trade Name Cardioxin, Classification Pharmacologic Class Cardiac Glycoside Cardiotonic ... Health Information Brought To Life As a part of the cardiac glycoside drug class, digoxin works by improving the efficiency of ...
The use of prepa-rations of cardiac glycoside (synonyms: digi-Digoxin in heart failure and cardiac arrhythmiasusually in the ... monographs.iarc.frDigoxin is a cardiac glycoside isolated from plants of the genus Digitalis. ...
The side-effects of cardiac glycosides can be... ... The treatment of cardiac failure is complicated by the ... Tissue Distribution of Cardiac Glycosides. In: Bodem G., Dengler H.J. (eds) Cardiac Glycosides. International Boehringer ... The side-effects of cardiac glycosides can be categorized into two generai classes, those of a neurologic nature including ... Rietbrock, N., Kuhlmann, J.: Clinical significance of distribution and elimination of cardiac glycosides. Internal symposium on ...
Cardiac glycosides are medicines for treating heart failure and certain irregular heartbeats. They are one of several classes ... The medicine digoxin contains cardiac glycosides.. Besides the foxglove plant, cardiac glycosides also occur naturally in ... Cardiac glycoside overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. This can be ... Cardiac glycoside is a chemical that has effects on the heart, stomach, intestines, and nervous system. It is the active ...
The Na+-Ca2+ exchanger is essential for the action of cardiac glycosides. Circ Res. 2002; 90: 305-308. ... The presence of endogenous cardiac glycosides, including marinobufagenin (MBG)3 and endogenous ouabain (EO)4 in the human ... These drugs are positive inotropic agents and enhance cardiac contraction. The "cardiotonic steroids" cause cardiac muscle to ... a growing number of studies suggest that elevated levels of endogenous cardiac glycosides, such as EO,4 may have a primary role ...
Glycoside Cardiac Glycoside Cardenolides Strophanthidin Digitoxigenin Institute of the Chemistry of Plant Substances, Academy ...
Cardiac glycosides are a type of steroid medications used to treat heart failure. They can have both positive and negative ... Cardiac glycosides are a class of steroid medications used to treat heart failure. These medications can have both positive and ... Cardiac glycosides can be poisonous if taken in large amounts. Care should be taken in calculating dosage, because the correct ... Medications containing cardiac glycosides work directly on the tissues of the heart. A bitter taste is typical of both ...
Anticancer Properties of Cardiac Glycosides. By Varisa Pongrakhananon. Submitted: April 18th 2012Reviewed: December 4th 2012 ... Varisa Pongrakhananon (May 9th 2013). Anticancer Properties of Cardiac Glycosides, Cancer Treatment Letícia Rangel, IntechOpen ... Varisa Pongrakhananon (May 9th 2013). Anticancer Properties of Cardiac Glycosides, Cancer Treatment Letícia Rangel, IntechOpen ... www.intechopen.com/embed/cancer-treatment-conventional-and-innovative-approaches/anticancer-properties-of-cardiac-glycosides ...
... as done by cardiac glycosides.[8]. Nevertheless, due to questions of toxicity and dosage, cardiac glycosides have been replaced ... Cardiac glycosides affect the sodium-potassium ATPase pump in cardiac muscle cells to alter their function.[1] Normally, these ... The general structure of a cardiac glycoside consists of a steroid molecule attached to a sugar (glycoside) and an R group.[4] ... Cardiac glycosides have long served as the main medical treatment to congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia, due to ...
... as done by cardiac glycosides. Nevertheless, due to questions of toxicity and dosage, cardiac glycosides have been replaced ... Cardiac glycosides have long served as the main medical treatment to congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia, due to ... The general structure of a cardiac glycoside consists of a steroid glycoside molecule attached to a sugar and an R group. The ... Cheeke, Peter R. (1989-07-31). Toxicants of Plant Origin: Glycosides. CRC Press. ISBN 9780849369919. "Cardiac Glycoside Plant ...
Because the cardiac glycosides did not reduce HIF-1α mRNA levels (Fig. 2D), this result implied that cardiac glycosides inhibit ... Our screen of 3,120 drugs revealed that cardiac glycosides are potent inhibitors of HIF-1α synthesis. Cardiac glycosides are a ... were cardiac glycosides.. Cardiac Glycosides Inhibit HIF-1α and HIF-2α Protein Expression.. A dose-response study revealed that ... in the absence of cardiac glycosides) or the ability of cardiac glycosides to inhibit HIF-1α expression. The levels of mRNA ...
Cardiac glycosides. Class Summary. Decrease AV nodal conduction, primarily by increasing vagal tone. ... Cardiac glycoside with direct inotropic effects in addition to indirect effects on cardiovascular system. Acts directly on ... Shah A, Hocini M, Haissaguerre M, Jaïs P. Non-invasive mapping of cardiac arrhythmias. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2015 Aug. 17 (8):60. [ ... Daniel M Beyerbach, MD, PhD Medical Director, Cardiac Rhythm Program, The Christ Hospital; Affiliate Clinical Assistant ...
Pharmacology of Cardiac Glycosides within the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, which was foun ... Introduction and Remarks on the History of Cardiac Glycosides. * Introduction and Remarks on the History of Cardiac Glycosides ... Influence of Cardiac Glycosides on Electrolyte Exchange and Content in Cardiac Muscle Cells ... Biological Methods for the Evaluation of Cardiac Glycosides. * Front Matter Pages 115-115 ...
Great stress is laid on the structure of the sugars isolated from the cardiac glycosides. The historical features of the ... The Cardiac Glycosides.. Ann Intern Med. ;11:857. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-11-5-857_1 ... Serum Glycoside Concentrations in Digitalis Toxic Patients. Annals of Internal Medicine; 70 (5): 1080 ... Reduction of Digitalis Toxicity by Computer-Assisted Glycoside Dosage Regimens Annals of Internal Medicine; 77 (6): 891-906 ...
Any of several glycosides obtained chiefly from plant sources such as the foxglove, used medicinally to increase the force of ... n. Any of several glycosides obtained chiefly from plant sources such as the foxglove, used medicinally to increase the force ...
... cardiac glycosides explanation free. What is cardiac glycosides? Meaning of cardiac glycosides medical term. What does cardiac ... Looking for online definition of cardiac glycosides in the Medical Dictionary? ... Endogenous cardiac glycosides, a new class of steroid hormones.. Biosynthesis of endogenous cardiac glycosides by mammalian ... Cardiac Glycosides - Steroids + Fraction 2 Tannins - (Dark green) Alkaloids ++ Cardiac Glycosides + Steroids - Fraction 3 ...
Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are natural compounds used traditionally to treat congestive heart diseases. Recent investigations ... Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are natural compounds used traditionally to treat congestive heart diseases. Recent investigations ... Cardiac Glycoside Glucoevatromonoside Induces Cancer Type-Specific Cell Death. Naira F. Z. Schneider1†, Claudia Cerella2,3†, ... 2009). Cardiac glycosides inhibit p53 synthesis by a mechanism relieved by Src or MAPK inhibition. Cancer Res. 69, 6556-6564. ...
  • In early times, it is assumed that all parts of the oleander plant are highly toxic to humans, animals, and certain insects due to the presence of cardiac glycosides mainly nerine and oleandrin at higher concentration [ 12 , 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Nerium oleander Linn is one such polyphenol- and glycoside-rich evergreen shrub belonging to the Apocynaceae, an important Chinese folk medicine [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The presence of endogenous cardiac glycosides, including marinobufagenin (MBG) 3 and endogenous ouabain (EO) 4 in the human circulation, should be taken into account. (ahajournals.org)
  • Similarly, longer term infusion of plant-derived ouabain (15 μg/kg per day for 18 weeks), at doses that just double the plasma levels (from 0.3 to 0.7 nmol/L), produced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • Eleven of these drugs were cardiac glycosides, including digoxin, ouabain, and proscillaridin A, which inhibited HIF-1α protein synthesis and expression of HIF-1 target genes in cancer cells. (pnas.org)
  • Strophanthin and ouabain are glycosides found in Strophanthus spp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the presence of pyruvate, the oxygen uptake of cardiac slices, which is high initially, is depressed by ouabain without preceding stimulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 3. The increase in the respiration of cardiac slices produced by ouabain is dependent upon the presence and concentration of appropriate substrate in the surrounding. (aspetjournals.org)
  • While knockout mice demonstrated the importance of the alpha1- and alpha2-isoforms for survival, the knockin mice, in which each isoform can be individually inhibited by ouabain and its function determined, demonstrated that both isoforms are regulators of cardiac muscle contractility. (nih.gov)
  • Our recent study demonstrates that the cardiac glycoside binding site of the Na+-K+-ATPase plays a role in the regulation of blood pressure and that it mediates both ouabain-induced and ACTH-induced hypertension in mice. (nih.gov)
  • Several others have reported stimulating effects of low concentrations of cardiac glycosides on active Na/K transport in multicellular cardiac preparations, and also in the squid axon, it was noted that the inhibitory effect of ouabain on 22 Na efflux was preceded by an up to 20% stimulation possibly related to the low occupancy of the receptors in the early phase of exposure ( Baker and Willis, 1972 ). (rupress.org)
  • using whole-cell patch-clamp technique, have demonstrated that dihydro-ouabain and ouabain in the concentration range 10 −10 -10 −7 M stimulate the Na/K pump-mediated current in single cardiac myocytes obtained from guinea pigs, dogs, and human subjects. (rupress.org)
  • Crystal structure of NKA bound to the cardiac glycoside ouabain (PDB:4HYT). (elifesciences.org)
  • Estimated co-crystal structure of Drosophila melanogaster NKA bound to the cardiac glycoside (CG) ouabain. (elifesciences.org)
  • To more accurately define differences between cardiac glycoside agents and further evaluate cardiac glycoside structure-activity relationships, six cardiac glycosides (ouabain, ouabagenin, DHO, actodigin, digoxin, and resibufogenin) were chosen for electrophysiology and contractility studies in single cat ventricular myocytes. (moggling.com)
  • Impact of neonatal treatment with cardioactive glycosides (digoxin, ouabain) on receptor binding capacity, blood level and cardiac function in the adult rat. (elsevier.com)
  • A single neonatal treatment with a cardioactive glycoside (ouabain, digoxin) altered the response of the adult rat to digitaloid treatment. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we describe a crystal structure of Na + ,K + -ATPase with bound ouabain, a representative cardiac glycoside, at 2.8 Å resolution in a state analogous to E2·2K + ·Pi. (pnas.org)
  • By contrast, adriamycin (100-300 microM), a putative inhibitor of cardiac Na+-Ca++ antiporter, dose-dependently prevented ouabain-induced (3H)DA release from TIDA neurons. (osti.gov)
  • Effects of ASI 222 on contractile force in the isolated rabbit atria, cardia contractile force, cardiac rate, ventricular excitability and functional refractory period in dogs, and acute toxicity in mice have been compared to those effects of ouabain. (elsevier.com)
  • In the dog, ASI 222 increased cardiac contractile force more rapidly and at a lower cumulative dose than ouabain. (elsevier.com)
  • However, digitoxin , digoxin and several other cardiac glycosides, such as ouabain , are known to have steep dose-response curves, i.e., minute increases in the dosage of these drugs can make the difference between an ineffective dose and a fatal one. (wikipedia.org)
  • These drugs are positive inotropic agents and enhance cardiac contraction. (ahajournals.org)
  • These drugs were antibiotics and cardiac glycosides with previously unknown epigenetic actions. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • We need more research on drugs that target intracellular calcium signalling, such as cardiac glycosides and antibiotics. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • These drugs can increase cardiac output, but there is a risk of serious side effects. (arrhythmia.center)
  • Similarly, an overdose of digoxin or other drugs that contain cardiac glycosides can have an adverse effect on the user's health. (healthhearty.com)
  • Cardiac glycosides have a positive inotropic action, which means that these drugs can improve the heart's strength of contraction. (healthhearty.com)
  • In individuals affected by heart failure, these drugs can cause a reduction of the size of the heart in diastole, which can increase cardiac output. (healthhearty.com)
  • Cardiac glycosides - drugs that are used to treat heart failure and various rhythm disturbances . (vsebolezni.com)
  • Caution in using drugs such as beta-blockers, anti-hypertensives and/or cardiac glycosides is advised. (drugs.com)
  • Here, we have used hepatocyte-like cells generated from homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (hoFH) iPSCs to identify drugs that can potentially be repurposed to lower serum LDL-C. We found that cardiac glycosides reduce the production of apolipoprotein B (apoB) from human hepatocytes in culture and the serum of avatar mice harboring humanized livers. (elsevier.com)
  • The cardiac glycosides are an important class of naturally occurring drugs whose actions include both beneficial and toxic effects on the heart. (brainstrom.org)
  • Plants containing cardiac steroids have been used as poisons and heart drugs at least since 1500 B.C. Throughout history these plants or their extracts have been variously used as arrow poisons, emetics, diuretics, and heart tonics. (brainstrom.org)
  • Pharmacology of the cardiac glycosides is also of prime importance as they are the only class of drugs offering successful treatment of CHF. (gpatcrackers.com)
  • Your horse may also be given anti-arrhythmic drugs in the event that there are any cardiac irregularities. (wagwalking.com)
  • ICD-10 T46.0X6S is a billable code used to specify a medical diagnosis of underdosing of cardiac-stimulant glycosides and drugs of similar action, sequela. (icdlist.com)
  • The biosynthesis of steroids and terpenoids were well-represented by unigenes in the subcategories of lipid metabolism and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, allowing the effective identification of cardiac glycoside biosynthesis-related genes in D. purpurea (Figure 3B, C). (moggling.com)
  • In early times, it is assumed that all parts of the oleander plant are highly toxic to humans, animals, and certain insects due to the presence of cardiac glycosides mainly nerine and oleandrin at higher concentration [ 12 , 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Though it is believed that Egyptians and Romans were aware of the therapeutic properties of cardiac glycosides found in the foxglove plant, it is a British botanist, chemist, and physician named William Withering who is credited with the discovery of the foxglove plant. (healthhearty.com)
  • Following the monographs by STRAUB (1924) and LENDLE (1935), this is the third contribution to the "Pharmacology of Cardiac Glycosides" within the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, which was founded by ARTHUR HEFFTER and con- tinued by WOLFGANG HEUBNER. (springer.com)
  • Because of the need created by the length of time that had elapsed since LENDLE'S work, the editorial board requested the rapid ap- pearance of this 56th volume, which represents current knowledge of the pharma- cology and clinical pharmacology of cardiac glycosides. (springer.com)
  • be the pdf Cardiac Glycosides 1785-1985: Biochemistry - Pharmacology and engineering of good cognitive biophysics followed to the discovered software state during buildup light. (lumeneeringinnovations.com)
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  • In the pharmacology, mechanism of action and drug interaction of cardiac glycosides plays an important role so should be dealt carefully. (gpatcrackers.com)
  • This is what a student is expected to study in the chemistry and pharmacology of the cardiac glycosides. (gpatcrackers.com)
  • Caldwell, RW & Nash, CB 1976, ' Pharmacological studies of a new 4 aminosugar cardiac glycoside (ASI 222) ', Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics , vol. 197, no. 1, pp. 19-26. (elsevier.com)
  • The treatment of cardiac failure is complicated by the difficulty in determining the optimal therapeutic response and undesirable side-effects. (springer.com)
  • In young offspring of hypertensive individuals, plasma EO levels positively correlate with certain indexes of diastolic cardiac dysfunction that precede the development of hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
  • Effects of thyroid hormone on sodium pump sites, sodium content, and contractile responses to cardiac glycosides in cultured chick ventricular cells. (jci.org)
  • idiopathic cardiac myopathies), ischemic cardiovascular illnesses that leads to myocardial infarctions effecting left ventricular purpose (eg. (silt3.com)
  • How does inhibition of the Na + pump augment cardiac contraction? (ahajournals.org)
  • This inhibition causes activation of Na-Ca-exchanger and increase of intracellular Ca levels, which interact with contractile proteins of myocardial cells and increasing the contractility of cardiac muscle. (brainstrom.org)
  • This mimics aspects of the effect of cardiac glycosides, which are known to increase contractility through inhibition of NKA. (luc.edu)
  • The results implicate L30 as an important functional determinant and suggest that expression of L30A PLM could increase cardiac contractility while providing physiological reversibility of NKA inhibition. (luc.edu)
  • Acts directly on cardiac muscle, increasing myocardial systolic contractions. (medscape.com)
  • cardiac glycosides in 1985 are considered tobe the basis for medical treatment of myocardial failure, together with diuretics and vasodilators in the more severe cases. (ebooks-downloads.net)
  • The report then estimates 2016-2021 market development trends of Cardiac glycosides industry. (marketstudyreport.com)
  • Tables and Figures Figure Cardiac glycosides Product Picture Table Development of Cardiac glycosides Manufacturing Technology Figure Manufacturing Process of Cardiac glycosides Table Trends of Cardiac glycosides Manufacturing Technology Figure Company A Cardiac glycosides Product and Specifications Table 2011-2016 Company A Cardiac glycosides Product Capacity, Production, and Production Value etc. (marketstudyreport.com)
  • List Figure 2011-2016 Company A Cardiac glycosides Capacity Production and Growth Rate Figure 2011-2016 Company A Cardiac glycosides Production Global Market Share Figure Company B Cardiac glycosides Product and Specifications Table 2011-2016 Company B Cardiac glycosides Product Capacity, Production, and Production Value etc. (marketstudyreport.com)
  • List Figure 2011-2016 Company G Cardiac glycosides Capacity Production and Growth Rate Figure 2011-2016 Company G Cardiac glycosides Production Global Market Share Figure Company H Cardiac glycosides Product and Specifications Table 2011-2016 Company H Cardiac glycosides Product Capacity, Production, and Production Value etc. (marketstudyreport.com)
  • Other cardiac glycosides are present in the skin of toads ( Bufo maritimus , B. vulgaris ), but are of toxicological rather than therapeutic interest. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Toxicity from herbal cardiac glycosides was well known by 1785, when William Whiting published his classic work describing the therapeutic use and toxicity of digitalis D purpurea. (arrhythmia.center)
  • This paper reviews such evidence and discusses experimental approaches that could be used to reveal the cancer therapeutic potential of cardiac glycosides in preclinical studies. (mendeley.com)
  • Read Now Cardiac Glycosides 1785 1985 by E. Erdmann and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. (ebooks-downloads.net)
  • The isolates showed a wide variety of structures including pregnane and cardiac glycosides, pentacyclic triterpenes, glycosylated flavonoids and lignans, among others. (ku.edu)
  • Cardiac glycosides can also block tumor growth in rodent models, which further supports the idea that they have potential for cancer therapy. (mendeley.com)
  • The refractory period of the AV node is increased, so cardiac glycosides also function to decrease heart rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The refractory period is prolonged in all cardiac tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Amiodarone increases the cardiac refractory period without influencing resting membrane potential, except in automatic cells where the slope of the prepotential is reduced, generally reducing automaticity. (nih.gov)
  • Example of the chemical structure of oleandrin , a potent toxic cardiac glycoside extracted from the Oleander bush. (wikipedia.org)
  • All parts of the plant containing cardiac glycosides are toxic, with the roots and seeds typically containing the highest percentage of toxins. (calpoison.org)
  • The cardiac glycoside Oleandrin is named under a blossoming plant oleander which synthesizes this chemical as a secondary metabolite and has been known for its toxic effects for centuries. (ku.dk)
  • these are the patients most often treated with digitalis glycosides. (ahajournals.org)
  • This study will examine the effectiveness of Cistanche Total Glycosides(CTG) in treating patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) - a fatal neurological degenerative disease that causes adult-onset, progressive motor neurons loss in the spinal cord, brain stem and motor cortex. (clinicaltrials.gov)