Death, Sudden, Cardiac
Epidemic of self-poisoning with seeds of the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) in northern Sri Lanka. (1/181)Deliberate self-harm is an important problem in the developing world. Ingestion of yellow oleander seeds (Thevetia peruviana) has recently become a popular method of self-harm in northern Sri Lanka -- there are now thousands of cases each year. These seeds contain cardiac glycosides that cause vomiting, dizziness, and cardiac dysrhythmias such as conduction block affecting the sinus and AV nodes. This paper reports a study of the condition's mortality and morbidity conducted in 1995 in Anuradhapura General Hospital, a secondary referral centre serving 750 000 people in Sri Lanka's north central province. 415 cases were admitted to the hospital during 11 months; 61% were women and 46% were less than 21 years old. A prospective study of 79 patients showed that 6% died soon after admission. 43% presented with marked cardiac dysrhythmias which necessitated ther transfer to the coronary care unit in Colombo for prophylactic temporary cardiac pacing. The reasons for the acts of self-harm were often relatively trivial, particularly in children; most denied that they wished to die. Unfortunately, the case fatality rate for oleander poisoning in Sri Lanka is at least 10%. This epidemic is not only causing many unnecessary deaths, it is also putting immense stress on the already stretched Sri Lankan health services. There is an urgent need for an intervention which could be used in rural hospitals, thus preventing the hazardous and expensive emergency transfer of patients to the capital. (+info)
Acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning: cardiac arrhythmias, electrolyte disturbances, and serum cardiac glycoside concentrations on presentation to hospital. (2/181)OBJECTIVE: To describe the cardiac arrhythmias, electrolyte disturbances, and serum cardiac glycoside levels seen in patients presenting to hospital with acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning and to compare these with published reports of digitalis poisoning. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Medical wards of Anuradhapura District General Hospital, Sri Lanka, and coronary care unit of the Institute of Cardiology, National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo, the national tertiary referral centre for cardiology. PATIENTS: 351 patients with a history of oleander ingestion. MEASUREMENTS: ECG and blood sample analysis on admission. RESULTS: Most symptomatic patients had conduction defects affecting the sinus node, the atrioventricular (AV) node, or both. Patients showing cardiac arrhythmias that required transfer for specialised management had significantly higher mean serum cardiac glycoside and potassium but not magnesium concentrations. Although there was considerable overlap between groups, those with conduction defects affecting both sinus and AV nodes had significantly higher mean serum cardiac glycoside levels. CONCLUSIONS: Most of these young previously healthy patients had conduction defects affecting the sinus or AV nodes. Relatively few had the atrial or ventricular tachyarrhythmias or ventricular ectopic beats that are typical of digoxin poisoning. Serious yellow oleander induced arrhythmias were associated with higher serum cardiac glycoside concentrations and hyperkalaemia but not with disturbances of magnesium. (+info)
Cardiac glycosides stimulate Ca2+ increases and apoptosis in androgen-independent, metastatic human prostate adenocarcinoma cells. (3/181)Cardiac glycosides are used clinically to increase contractile force in patients with cardiac disorders. Their mechanism of action is well established and involves inhibition of the plasma membrane Na+/K+-ATPase, leading to alterations in intracellular K+ and Ca(2+) levels. Here, we report that the cardiac glycosides oleandrin, ouabain, and digoxin induce apoptosis in androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Cell death was associated with early release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, followed by proteolytic processing of caspases 8 and 3. Oleandrin also promoted caspase activation, detected by cleavage poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and hydrolysis of a peptide substrate (DEVD-pNA). Comparison of the rates of apoptosis in poorly metastatic PC3 M-Pro4 and highly metastatic PC3 M-LN4 subclones demonstrated that cell death was delayed in the latter because of a delay in mitochondrial cytochrome c release. Single-cell imaging of intracellular Ca(2+) fluxes demonstrated that the proapoptotic effects of the cardiac glycosides were linked to their abilities to induce sustained Ca(2+) increases in the cells. Our results define a novel activity for cardiac glycosides that could prove relevant to the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. (+info)
Structural insights into the binding of cardiac glycosides to the digitalis receptor revealed by solid-state NMR. (4/181)Several biologically active derivatives of the cardiotonic steroid ouabain have been made containing NMR isotopes ((13)C, (2)H, and (19)F) in the rhamnose sugar and steroid moieties, and examined at the digitalis receptor site of renal Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by a combination of solid-state NMR methods. Deuterium NMR spectra of (2)H-labeled inhibitors revealed that the sugar group was only loosely associated with the binding site, whereas the steroid group was more constrained, probably because of hydrogen bonding to residues around the K(+)-channel region. Crosspolarization magic-angle spinning NMR showed that chemical shifts of inhibitors (13)C-labeled in the sugar group moved downfield by 0.5 ppm after binding to the digitalis site, suggesting that the sugar was close to aromatic side groups. A (19)F, (13)C- rotational-echo double-resonance NMR strategy was used to determine the structure of an inhibitor in the digitalis receptor site, and it showed that the ouabain derivatives adopt a conformation in which the sugar extends out of the plane of the steroid ring system. The combined structural and dynamic information favors a model for inhibition in which the ouabain analogues lie across the surface of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit with the sugar group facing away from the surface of the membrane but free to move into contact with one or more aromatic residues. (+info)
Structure-activity relationships for the hypertensinogenic activity of ouabain: role of the sugar and lactone ring. (5/181)Elevated levels of an endogenous ouabain circulate in many patients with essential hypertension. However, in contrast to ouabain, digoxin does not induce hypertension. This study investigated the hypothesis that within a single cardiac glycoside, the structural elements that induce hypertension differ from those responsible for high potency as a sodium pump inhibitor. Normal male Sprague-Dawley rats received infusions of vehicle (VEH), rhamnose (RHA), ouabain (OUA), ouabagenin (OGN), dihydro-ouabain (DHO), iso-ouabain (ISO), and a lactone ring opened analog (ORO) at 30 microgram. kg(-1). 24 h(-1) for 5 weeks via subcutaneous osmotic pumps. Cuff pressures were taken weekly. At the end of the study, trunk blood was harvested, extracted by C18 column, and subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography. Fractions were analyzed for OUA, OGN, and DHO by immunoassay. In OUA-, OGN-, and DHO-infused rats, 1 main peak of immunoreactivity corresponding to the infused agent was found. No evidence of in vivo conversion to OUA or DHO was found for any analog except ORO. At 5 weeks, systolic blood pressures in VEH, RHA, OUA, OGN, DHO, ISO, and ORO were 132+/-2.5, 133+/-1.5, 159+/-2.6,* 154+/-4,* 167+/-4,* 171+/-2.2,* and 169+/-2.4* mm Hg, respectively (*P<0.01 versus VEH and RHA, P<0.05 versus OUA). The hypertensinogenic activity was greater than OUA in 3 analogs (DHO, ISO, and ORO) in which the lactone was saturated, conformationally restrained by linkage with the oxygen at C14, or opened, respectively. These compounds were weak inhibitors of dog kidney Na,K-ATPase. Thus, RHA and the unsaturated lactone ring are crucial to the high potency of OUA as an inhibitor of the sodium pump but appear to be unrelated to its ability to induce hypertension. The conclusion that this form of hypertension is mediated primarily by the steroid nucleus suggests also that OUA may have a mechanism of action independent of the sodium pump. (+info)
Charge movements in intact amphibian skeletal muscle fibres in the presence of cardiac glycosides. (6/181)1. Intramembrane charge movements were examined in intact voltage-clamped amphibian muscle fibres following treatment with cardiac glycosides in the hypertonic gluconate-containing solutions hitherto reported to emphasise the features of q(gamma) at the expense of q(beta) charge. 2. The application of chlormadinone acetate (CMA) at concentrations known selectively to block Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase conserved the steady-state voltage dependence of intramembrane charge, contributions from delayed (q(gamma)) charging transients, and their inactivation characteristics brought about by shifts in holding potential. 3. The addition of either ouabain (125, 250 or 500 nM) or digoxin (5 nM) at concentrations previously reported additionally to influence excitation-contraction coupling similarly conserved the steady-state charge-voltage relationships, Q(V), in fully polarised fibres to give values of maximum charge, Q(max), transition voltage, V*, and steepness factor, k, that were consistent with a persistent q component as reported on earlier occasions (Q(max) approximately = 25-27 nC F-1, V* approximately = -45 to -50 mV, k approximately = 7-9 mV). 4. In both cases shifts in holding potential from -90 to -50 mV produced a partial inactivation that separated steeply and more gradually voltage-dependent charge components in agreement with previous characterisations. 5. However, charge movements that were observed in the presence of either digoxin or ouabain were monotonic decays in which delayed (q(gamma)) transients could not be distinguished from the early charging records. These features persisted despite the further addition of chlormadinone acetate over a 10-fold concentration range (5-50 microM) known to displace ouabain from the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. 6. Ouabain (500 nM) restored the steady-state charge movement that was previously abolished by the addition of 2.0 mM tetracaine in common with previous results of using ryanodine receptor (RyR)-specific agents. 7. Perchlorate (8.0 mM) restored the delayed 'on' relaxations and increased the prominence of the 'off' decays produced by q(gamma) charge following treatment with cardiac glycosides. This was accompanied by a negative (approximately 10-15 mV) shift in the steady-state charge-voltage relationship but an otherwise conserved maximum charge, Q(max), and steepness factor, k, in parallel with previously reported effects of perchlorate following treatments with RyR-specific agents. 8. The features of cardiac glycoside action thus parallel those of other agents that act on RyR-Ca(2+) release channels yet influence the kinetics but spare the steady-state properties of intramembrane charge. (+info)
Comparison of "type I" and "type II" organic cation transport by organic cation transporters and organic anion-transporting polypeptides. (7/181)Previous inhibition studies with taurocholate and cardiac glycosides suggested the presence of separate uptake systems for small "type I" (system1) and for bulky "type II" (system2) organic cations in rat hepatocytes. To identify the transport systems involved in type I and type II organic cation uptake, we compared the organic cation transport properties of the rat and human organic cation transporter 1 (rOCT1; hOCT1) and of the organic anion-transporting polypeptides 2 and A (rat Oatp2; human OATP-A) in cRNA-injected Xenopus laevis oocytes. Based on characteristic cis-inhibition patterns of rOCT1-mediated tributylmethylammonium and Oatp2-mediated rocuronium uptake, rOCT1 and Oatp2 could be identified as the organic cation uptake systems1 and 2, respectively, in rat liver. While hOCT1 exhibited similar transport properties as rOCT1, OATP-A- but not Oatp2-mediated rocuronium uptake was inhibited by the OATP-A substrate N-methyl-quinidine. The latter substrate was also transported by rOCT1 and hOCT1, demonstrating distinct organic cation transport activities for rOCT1 and Oatp2 and overlapping organic cation transport activities for hOCT1 and OATP-A. Finally, the data demonstrate that unmethylated quinidine is transported by rOCT1, hOCT1, and OATP-A at pH 6.0, but not at pH 7.5, indicating that quinidine requires a positive charge for carrier-mediated uptake into hepatocytes. In conclusion, the studies demonstrate that in rat liver the suggested organic cation uptake systems1 and 2 correspond to rOCT1 and Oatp2, respectively. However, the rat-based type I and II organic cation transporter classification cannot be extended without modification from rat to human. (+info)
Electrophysiology of the sodium-potassium-ATPase in cardiac cells. (8/181)Like several other ion transporters, the Na(+)-K(+) pump of animal cells is electrogenic. The pump generates the pump current I(p). Under physiological conditions, I(p) is an outward current. It can be measured by electrophysiological methods. These methods permit the study of characteristics of the Na(+)-K(+) pump in its physiological environment, i.e., in the cell membrane. The cell membrane, across which a potential gradient exists, separates the cytosol and extracellular medium, which have distinctly different ionic compositions. The introduction of the patch-clamp techniques and the enzymatic isolation of cells have facilitated the investigation of I(p) in single cardiac myocytes. This review summarizes and discusses the results obtained from I(p) measurements in isolated cardiac cells. These results offer new exciting insights into the voltage and ionic dependence of the Na(+)-K(+) pump activity, its effect on membrane potential, and its modulation by hormones, transmitters, and drugs. They are fundamental for our current understanding of Na(+)-K(+) pumping in electrically excitable cells. (+info)
Cardiac glycosides are a group of natural compounds that are found in plants, particularly in the leaves of the foxglove plant (Digitalis purpurea). These compounds have been used for centuries to treat heart failure and arrhythmias, and are still used today in modern medicine. Cardiac glycosides work by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called Na+/K+-ATPase, which is responsible for pumping sodium ions out of the heart muscle cells and potassium ions into them. This action leads to an increase in the concentration of calcium ions inside the cells, which in turn causes the heart muscle to contract more strongly and efficiently. While cardiac glycosides can be effective in treating certain heart conditions, they can also have serious side effects, including nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and an irregular heartbeat. As a result, they are typically used only in patients with severe heart failure or arrhythmias who have not responded to other treatments.
Glycosides are a class of organic compounds that are formed by the attachment of a sugar molecule (a glycosyl group) to a non-sugar molecule (a aglycone). In the medical field, glycosides are often found in plants and are used for a variety of therapeutic purposes, including as heart medications, diuretics, and anti-inflammatory agents. One of the most well-known examples of a glycoside is digitalis, which is derived from the foxglove plant and is used to treat heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Digitalis works by slowing down the heart rate and strengthening the contractions of the heart muscle, which can help to improve blood flow and reduce symptoms of heart failure. Other examples of glycosides used in medicine include strophanthin, which is used as a heart medication, and glycyrrhizin, which is used as an anti-inflammatory agent and to treat liver disease. Glycosides can be synthesized in the laboratory or obtained from natural sources, and they are often used in combination with other medications to enhance their therapeutic effects or to reduce their side effects. However, glycosides can also have toxic effects if they are not used properly, so they must be prescribed and monitored carefully by a healthcare professional.
Digitoxin is a medication that is used to treat heart failure and certain types of abnormal heart rhythms, such as atrial fibrillation. It works by increasing the strength and efficiency of the heart's contractions, which can help to improve blood flow and reduce symptoms such as shortness of breath and fatigue. Digitoxin is a type of medication called a digitalis glycoside, which is derived from the foxglove plant. It is available in tablet form and is usually taken once or twice a day, depending on the specific dosage and the individual patient's needs. It is important to note that digitoxin can have serious side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and irregular heartbeats. It is also toxic in high doses and can cause serious complications if not taken as directed by a healthcare provider. Therefore, it is important to closely follow the instructions provided by your doctor and to report any side effects or concerns to your healthcare provider right away.
Cardenolides are a group of natural compounds that are found in plants, particularly in the Apocynaceae family. They are also known as cardenolide glycosides or cardenolide steroids. In the medical field, cardenolides are used as a class of drugs that have a variety of therapeutic effects. They are primarily used to treat heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and hypertension. Cardenolides work by increasing the strength and efficiency of the heart's contractions, which can help to improve blood flow and reduce the workload on the heart. The most commonly used cardenolide drugs are digoxin and digitoxin. These drugs are typically administered orally or intravenously and are carefully monitored due to their potential for toxicity. Despite their potential side effects, cardenolides remain an important treatment option for certain heart conditions.
Ouabain is a cardiac glycoside that is extracted from the plant Digitalis purpurea, also known as the foxglove plant. It is a potent inhibitor of the sodium-potassium ATPase pump, which is responsible for maintaining the electrochemical gradient across the cell membrane. In the medical field, ouabain is used as a medication to treat heart failure, particularly in cases where other treatments have been ineffective. It works by increasing the strength of the heart's contractions and decreasing the workload on the heart, which can help to improve symptoms and reduce the risk of complications such as heart failure and arrhythmias. However, ouabain can also have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and an irregular heartbeat. It is therefore typically used under close medical supervision and with careful monitoring of the patient's response to the medication.
Digoxin is a medication that is used to treat heart rhythm problems, such as atrial fibrillation and heart failure. It works by slowing down the heart rate and strengthening the contractions of the heart muscle. Digoxin is usually taken by mouth, but it can also be given by injection. It is important to take digoxin exactly as directed by your doctor, as taking too much can be dangerous. Side effects of digoxin can include nausea, vomiting, and an irregular heartbeat.
The Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase (Na+/K+-ATPase) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in maintaining the electrochemical gradient across the cell membrane in animal cells. It is responsible for actively pumping three sodium ions (Na+) out of the cell and two potassium ions (K+) into the cell, using energy from ATP hydrolysis. This process is essential for many cellular functions, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the maintenance of cell volume. The Na+/K+-ATPase is also involved in the regulation of intracellular pH and the transport of other ions across the cell membrane. It is a ubiquitous enzyme found in all animal cells, and its dysfunction can lead to various diseases, including cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and neurological disorders.
Digitalis glycosides are a group of cardiac glycosides that are derived from the foxglove plant (Digitalis purpurea). They are used in the treatment of heart failure and arrhythmias, particularly atrial fibrillation. The most commonly used digitalis glycoside is digoxin. Digitalis glycosides work by increasing the strength and efficiency of the heart's contractions, which can improve the heart's ability to pump blood. They also have a direct effect on the electrical activity of the heart, which can help to regulate heart rate and rhythm. Digitalis glycosides are administered orally or intravenously, and the dosage is carefully monitored to avoid toxicity, which can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and visual disturbances. They are contraindicated in patients with certain heart conditions, such as Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and in those with certain electrolyte imbalances, such as hypokalemia.
Digitoxigenin is a cardiac glycoside, which is a type of natural compound found in plants. It is the active ingredient in the plant Digitalis purpurea, also known as foxglove, and has been used for centuries to treat heart conditions such as congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation. In the medical field, digitoxigenin is used as a medication to regulate heart rate and improve heart function. It works by increasing the strength and efficiency of the heart's contractions, which can help to improve blood flow and reduce symptoms such as shortness of breath and fatigue. However, digitoxigenin can also have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and irregular heartbeats. It is important to use this medication under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as the dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the individual patient's condition and response to the medication.
Bufanolides are a group of chemical compounds that are found in the secretions of the bufonid toads, such as the common toad (Bufo bufo). These compounds have a variety of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antispasmodic effects. They are also known to have potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of a range of conditions, including pain, inflammation, and muscle spasms.
Cardanolides are a group of chemical compounds that are derived from the cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). They are a type of sesquiterpene lactone and are found in the seeds and nuts of the Anacardium occidentale tree, which is native to South America. In the medical field, cardanolides have been studied for their potential therapeutic properties. Some of the potential health benefits of cardanolides include: 1. Anti-inflammatory effects: Cardanolides have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, which may make them useful in the treatment of conditions such as arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. 2. Antimicrobial activity: Cardanolides have been found to have antimicrobial properties, which may make them useful in the treatment of infections caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses. 3. Antioxidant activity: Cardanolides have been shown to have antioxidant properties, which may help protect against damage caused by free radicals and other harmful molecules. 4. Anti-cancer activity: Some studies have suggested that cardanolides may have anti-cancer properties, although more research is needed to confirm this. Overall, cardanolides are a promising area of research in the medical field, and further studies are needed to fully understand their potential therapeutic applications.
Strophanthidin is a medication that is used to treat heart rhythm disorders, such as atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. It works by slowing down the electrical activity in the heart, which can help to regulate the heart rate and improve blood flow. Strophanthidin is typically administered as a tablet or injection and is usually taken once or twice a day. It is important to note that strophanthidin can have side effects, including low blood pressure, dizziness, and an irregular heartbeat, and should only be taken under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
In the medical field, Rubidium is not commonly used as a treatment or diagnostic tool. However, it is sometimes used in medical imaging studies, particularly in nuclear medicine. Rubidium-82 is a radioactive isotope of rubidium that is used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans to evaluate blood flow to the heart muscle. This can help diagnose conditions such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, and myocarditis. Rubidium-82 is produced by bombarding a target material with high-energy protons, and the resulting radioactive isotope is then purified and administered to the patient as a liquid or gas. The rubidium-82 is taken up by the heart muscle and emits positrons, which are detected by the PET scanner. The resulting images can help doctors identify areas of reduced blood flow and plan treatment accordingly.
Proscillaridin is a type of cardiac glycoside, which is a class of natural compounds that are found in plants and have been used in traditional medicine for their effects on the heart. Proscillaridin is a specific type of cardiac glycoside that is found in the plant species Digitalis purpurea, which is commonly known as foxglove. It is a potent medication that is used to treat certain types of heart failure and to control the heart rate in people with certain types of arrhythmias. Proscillaridin works by increasing the strength and efficiency of the heart's contractions, which can help to improve blood flow and reduce symptoms of heart failure. It is typically administered as a medication that is taken by mouth, although it can also be given intravenously in some cases.
Strophanthins are a group of alkaloids found in the plant Strophanthus gratus, which is native to Africa. They have been used in traditional medicine for centuries to treat a variety of conditions, including heart problems, high blood pressure, and respiratory disorders. In the medical field, strophanthins are primarily used as a heart stimulant and vasodilator. They work by increasing the strength and rate of contractions of the heart muscle, as well as by relaxing the blood vessels and improving blood flow. This can help to lower blood pressure and improve circulation, particularly in the lungs. Strophanthins are also used in some countries as a treatment for heart failure, although their effectiveness in this condition is not well-established. They are available as a prescription medication in some countries, but their use is generally limited due to concerns about their potential side effects, including arrhythmias, palpitations, and even cardiac arrest.
Glycoside hydrolases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in carbohydrates. These enzymes are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including digestion, metabolism, and signaling. In the medical field, glycoside hydrolases are often used as diagnostic tools to study carbohydrate metabolism and to develop new treatments for diseases related to carbohydrate metabolism, such as diabetes and obesity. They are also used in the production of biofuels and other industrial products.
Sodium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions. In the medical field, sodium is often measured in the blood and urine to assess its levels and monitor its balance in the body. Sodium is primarily responsible for regulating the body's fluid balance, which is essential for maintaining blood pressure and proper functioning of the heart, kidneys, and other organs. Sodium is also involved in nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the production of stomach acid. Abnormal levels of sodium in the body can lead to various medical conditions, including hyponatremia (low sodium levels), hypernatremia (high sodium levels), and dehydration. Sodium levels can be affected by various factors, including diet, medications, and underlying medical conditions. In the medical field, sodium levels are typically measured using a blood test called a serum sodium test or a urine test called a urine sodium test. These tests can help diagnose and monitor various medical conditions related to sodium levels, such as kidney disease, heart failure, and electrolyte imbalances.
Plant poisoning, also known as phytotoxicity, is a condition that occurs when a person or animal ingests or comes into contact with a toxic substance found in plants. The toxic substances can be present in the plant's leaves, roots, seeds, or fruits, and can cause a range of symptoms depending on the type and amount of the substance ingested. Plant poisoning can be acute or chronic, and the symptoms can range from mild to severe. Acute plant poisoning typically occurs within a few hours to a few days after exposure, and can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, dizziness, headache, and difficulty breathing. Chronic plant poisoning occurs over a longer period of time and can cause more serious symptoms such as liver or kidney damage, neurological problems, and even death. The treatment for plant poisoning depends on the type and severity of the poisoning. In some cases, the person or animal may need to be hospitalized and treated with medications to remove the toxic substance from their system. In other cases, supportive care such as fluid replacement and symptom management may be sufficient. It is important to note that not all plants are toxic, and some plants can even be beneficial for human health. However, it is always best to exercise caution when handling or ingesting unfamiliar plants, and to seek medical attention if you suspect that you or someone else may have been poisoned by a plant.
Potassium is a mineral that is essential for the proper functioning of many bodily processes. It is the most abundant positively charged ion in the body and plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, regulating muscle contractions, transmitting nerve impulses, and supporting the proper functioning of the heart. In the medical field, potassium is often measured in blood tests to assess its levels and determine if they are within the normal range. Abnormal potassium levels can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications, kidney disease, hormonal imbalances, and certain medical conditions such as Addison's disease or hyperaldosteronism. Low levels of potassium (hypokalemia) can cause muscle weakness, cramps, and arrhythmias, while high levels (hyperkalemia) can lead to cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and even cardiac arrest. Treatment for potassium imbalances typically involves adjusting the patient's diet or administering medications to correct the imbalance.
Veratrine is a toxic alkaloid found in certain plants, including Veratrum viride (white hellebore) and Veratrum album (white snake root). It has been used in traditional medicine for a variety of purposes, including as a treatment for depression, anxiety, and insomnia. However, veratrine is highly toxic and can cause serious side effects, including seizures, hallucinations, and cardiac arrhythmias. In the medical field, veratrine is not typically used as a treatment due to its toxicity and the availability of safer and more effective treatments for the conditions it was once used for.
Digoxigenin is a chemical compound that is commonly used in molecular biology and medical research. It is a derivative of the cardiac glycoside digitoxin and is used as a fluorescent label for DNA and RNA molecules. In medical research, digoxigenin is often used in techniques such as Southern blotting, Northern blotting, and in situ hybridization to detect and visualize specific DNA or RNA sequences. It is also used in the development of DNA microarrays and other high-throughput sequencing technologies. In addition to its use in research, digoxigenin has also been used in the development of diagnostic tests for various diseases, including cancer and infectious diseases. It is also used in the treatment of certain heart conditions, such as atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure.
Saponins are a group of natural compounds that are found in many plants, including soapnuts, yams, and quinoa. They are known for their ability to produce a foamy lather when mixed with water, which is why they are often used in soap-making. In the medical field, saponins have been studied for their potential health benefits. Some research suggests that saponins may have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral properties. They may also help to lower cholesterol levels and improve blood sugar control. Saponins are often used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including digestive disorders, respiratory infections, and skin conditions. They are also used in some over-the-counter products, such as cough syrups and cold remedies. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of saponins. Some studies have suggested that high doses of saponins may cause side effects, such as digestive upset and skin irritation. It is important to talk to a healthcare provider before using saponins or any other natural remedy.
Deslanoside is a medication used to treat certain types of cancer, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). It is a type of chemotherapy drug that works by interfering with the growth and division of cancer cells. Deslanoside is usually given intravenously (into a vein) and is typically administered in combination with other chemotherapy drugs. It can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection.
In the medical field, Rubidium Radioisotopes refer to radioactive isotopes of the chemical element Rubidium. These isotopes are used in various medical applications, including diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. One commonly used Rubidium Radioisotope in medical imaging is Rubidium-82 (82Rb), which is produced by bombarding a target with neutrons. 82Rb is taken up by the heart muscle and can be imaged using a gamma camera to assess blood flow and detect areas of ischemia or infarction. This technique is known as Rubidium-82 myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and is used to diagnose coronary artery disease. Another Rubidium Radioisotope used in medical imaging is Rubidium-86 (86Rb), which is used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans to study blood flow in the brain. 86Rb is taken up by the brain and can be imaged using PET to detect areas of reduced blood flow, which may indicate the presence of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or stroke. In radiation therapy, Rubidium Radioisotopes such as Rubidium-86 and Rubidium-87 (87Rb) are used as sources of beta radiation to treat certain types of cancer. These isotopes emit beta particles that can damage cancer cells and shrink tumors. However, they are also toxic to normal cells and can cause side effects, so their use in radiation therapy is carefully controlled and monitored.
Plant extracts refer to the active compounds or bioactive molecules that are extracted from plants and used in the medical field for various therapeutic purposes. These extracts are obtained through various extraction methods, such as solvent extraction, steam distillation, and cold pressing, and can be used in the form of powders, liquids, or capsules. Plant extracts have been used for centuries in traditional medicine and are now widely used in modern medicine as well. They are used to treat a wide range of conditions, including inflammation, pain, anxiety, depression, and cancer. Some examples of plant extracts used in medicine include aspirin (extracted from willow bark), quinine (extracted from cinchona bark), and morphine (extracted from opium poppy). Plant extracts are also used in the development of new drugs and therapies. Researchers extract compounds from plants and test them for their potential therapeutic effects. If a compound shows promise, it can be further developed into a drug that can be used to treat a specific condition. It is important to note that while plant extracts can be effective in treating certain conditions, they can also have side effects and may interact with other medications. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using plant extracts as a form of treatment.
Erythrosine is a synthetic food coloring that is commonly used in a variety of food and beverage products. It is also used in some medical applications, such as in the preparation of certain diagnostic tests and in the treatment of certain medical conditions. In the medical field, erythrosine is sometimes used as a dye to stain cells or tissues for examination under a microscope. It is also used as a contrast agent in certain diagnostic imaging tests, such as X-rays and computed tomography (CT) scans. Erythrosine is available as a powder or a liquid and is typically administered orally or topically. It is generally considered safe for use in medical applications, although it may cause allergic reactions in some people. As with any medical treatment, the use of erythrosine should be supervised by a qualified healthcare professional.
Arrhythmias, cardiac refer to abnormal heart rhythms that are not synchronized with the electrical signals that control the heartbeat. These abnormal rhythms can be caused by a variety of factors, including structural abnormalities of the heart, damage to the heart muscle, or problems with the electrical conduction system of the heart. Arrhythmias can range from relatively harmless to life-threatening. Some common types of cardiac arrhythmias include atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, and atrial flutter. Symptoms of arrhythmias may include palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, or fainting. Treatment for arrhythmias may involve medications, lifestyle changes, or medical procedures such as catheter ablation or implantation of a pacemaker or defibrillator.
In the medical field, "Death, Sudden, Cardiac" refers to a sudden and unexpected death that is caused by a problem with the heart. This type of death is often referred to as sudden cardiac death (SCD) and can occur in people of all ages, including children and young adults. SCD is typically caused by an arrhythmia, which is an abnormal heartbeat that can disrupt the flow of blood to the brain and other vital organs. Other factors that can contribute to SCD include coronary artery disease, heart failure, and inherited heart conditions. Symptoms of SCD may include sudden collapse, loss of consciousness, and difficulty breathing. Treatment for SCD typically involves cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the use of a defibrillator to shock the heart back into a normal rhythm. However, because SCD is sudden and often fatal, prevention is key, and people who are at risk may be prescribed medications or undergo procedures to reduce their risk of experiencing a cardiac event.
Iridoid glycosides are a group of natural compounds found in many plants, particularly in the families Lamiaceae, Scrophulariaceae, and Rubiaceae. They are characterized by the presence of an iridoid nucleus, which is a six-membered ring structure containing a carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group. Iridoid glycosides have a variety of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-cancer properties. They are also known to have antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. In the medical field, iridoid glycosides are used as active ingredients in traditional herbal remedies and as components of modern pharmaceuticals. They have been studied for their potential use in the treatment of a range of conditions, including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal disorders, and cancer. Some examples of iridoid glycosides that are used in medicine include aucubin, catalpol, geniposide, and glycyrrhizin.
Receptors, drug, in the medical field refer to specific proteins or molecules on the surface or inside cells that bind to and respond to drugs or other molecules. These receptors play a crucial role in the body's response to drugs and are the target of many medications. When a drug binds to a receptor, it can activate or inhibit the receptor's function, leading to changes in cellular signaling and ultimately resulting in a therapeutic effect. There are many different types of drug receptors, including ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors, and enzyme-linked receptors, and each type of receptor has a specific role in the body's response to drugs. Understanding the properties and functions of drug receptors is essential for the development of effective and safe medications.
The Sodium-Calcium Exchanger (NCX) is a membrane protein found in many types of cells, including cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, neurons, and smooth muscle cells. It plays a crucial role in regulating the intracellular calcium concentration by exchanging three sodium ions for one calcium ion across the cell membrane. In the heart, the NCX is important for regulating the contraction and relaxation of cardiac muscle cells. During systole (contraction), the NCX helps to remove calcium ions from the cytoplasm, which allows the heart muscle to relax during diastole (relaxation). During diastole, the NCX helps to pump calcium ions back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which prepares the heart muscle for the next contraction. In neurons, the NCX is involved in the transmission of nerve impulses. When a neuron is stimulated, it releases calcium ions into the cytoplasm, which triggers the release of neurotransmitters. The NCX helps to remove the excess calcium ions from the cytoplasm, which allows the neuron to return to its resting state and prepare for the next impulse. Overall, the NCX plays a critical role in regulating intracellular calcium concentration in many types of cells, and its dysfunction can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including heart disease, neurological disorders, and muscle disorders.
Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.
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- Successful treatment of oleander intoxication (cardiac glycosides) with digoxin-specific Fab antibody fragments in a 7-year-old child: case report and review of literature. (nih.gov)
- The medicine digoxin contains cardiac glycosides. (medlineplus.gov)
- Digitalis and its derivatives such as digoxin and digitoxin are cardiac glycosides used typically in the therapy of congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation. (nih.gov)
- Digitalis (dij" i tal' is), digoxin (di jox' in) and digitoxin (dij" i tox' in) are cardiac glycosides that enhance myocardial contractility, probably by increasing levels of myocardial cytosolic calcium because of inhibition of sodium-potassium ATPase. (nih.gov)
- Digoxin, derived from Digitalis lanatus, was introduced as having more reliable pharmacokinetics and remains the major form of cardiac glycosides used today. (nih.gov)
- Is there a place for cardiac glycosides (ie, digitalis) in the treatment of uremic cardiomyopathy in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on chronic dialysis? (medscape.com)
- Cardiac glycosides are found in several plants, including the leaves of the digitalis (foxglove) plant. (medlineplus.gov)
- Originally derived from the purple foxglove flower (Digitalis purpurea), the cardiac glycosides have been used in clinical medicine for more than two centuries. (nih.gov)
- 3. Cellular basis for the species differences in sensitivity to cardiac glycosides (digitalis). (nih.gov)
- 4. Human cell mutants affected in the interaction of the 12 beta-OH group of cardiac glycosides with the digitalis receptor. (nih.gov)
- 17. Selective inhibition of human erythrocyte Na+/K+ ATPase by cardiac glycosides and by a mammalian digitalis like factor. (nih.gov)
- Acts directly on cardiac muscle, increasing myocardial systolic contractions. (medscape.com)
- Besides the foxglove plant, cardiac glycosides also occur naturally in plants such as Lily-of-the-Valley and oleander , among several others. (medlineplus.gov)
- Cardiac glycoside with direct inotropic effects in addition to indirect effects on cardiovascular system. (medscape.com)
- The cardiac glycosides are now reserved largely for patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and atrial fibrillation or for patients with congestive heart failure in sinus rhythm and residual symptoms despite maximal alternative therapy. (nih.gov)
- The cardiac glycosides are approved treatment of mild-to-moderate congestive heart failure and for control of the ventricular response rate in patients with atrial fibrillation. (nih.gov)
- Severe side effects include seizures and coma, heart block, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. (nih.gov)
- Results obtained indicated that the Digibind antibody cross-reacted with a wide range of glycosides contained in Australian plants and therefore could be of use in the treatment of life-threatening plant poisoning. (nih.gov)
- Cardiac Glycosides in the Treatment of Uremic Cardiomyopathy? (medscape.com)
- Cardiac glycoside is a chemical that has effects on the heart, stomach, intestines, and nervous system. (medlineplus.gov)
- The cardiac glycosides have many side effects that are largely dose related and require careful monitoring of drug levels. (nih.gov)
- 10. Effects of K+ on the interaction between cardiac glycosides and Na,K-ATPase. (nih.gov)
- Cardiac glycosides are medicines for treating heart failure and certain irregular heartbeats. (medlineplus.gov)
- Once used as first-line agents for congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation, the cardiac glycosides have been replaced by agents that are better tolerated and have been shown to improve long term survival such as the ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers. (nih.gov)
- Serum concentrations might be detectable after an exposure to plant-derived cardiac glycosides, some of which can cross-react with the various hospital laboratory assays used. (cdc.gov)
- 13. Mutants of HeLa cells resistant to ouabain and cassaine: genetic evidence for the common site of action of cardiac glycosides and erythrophleum alkaloids. (nih.gov)
- 18. The highly conserved cardiac glycoside binding site of Na,K-ATPase plays a role in blood pressure regulation. (nih.gov)
- The cardiac glycosides have not been linked to serum enzyme elevations during therapy or with instances of clinically apparent liver injury. (nih.gov)
- 12. High sensitivity of the Na+, K+-pump of human red blood cells to genins of cardiac glycosides. (nih.gov)