Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A cardiac glycoside sometimes used in place of DIGOXIN. It has a longer half-life than digoxin; toxic effects, which are similar to those of digoxin, are longer lasting. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p665)
C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include DIGITOXIN and DIGOXIN and their derivatives and the STROPHANTHINS.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
Glycosides from plants of the genus DIGITALIS. Some of these are useful as cardiotonic and anti-arrhythmia agents. Included also are semi-synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring glycosides. The term has sometimes been used more broadly to include all CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES, but here is restricted to those related to Digitalis.
3 beta,14-Dihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digitoxin. Synonyms: Cerberigenin; Echujetin; Evonogenin; Thevetigenin.
A genus of toxic herbaceous Eurasian plants of the Plantaginaceae which yield cardiotonic DIGITALIS GLYCOSIDES. The most useful species are Digitalis lanata and D. purpurea.
Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. They are found in BUFONIDAE and often possess cardiotonic properties.
The aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES. The ring structure is basically a cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene nucleus attached to a lactone ring at the C-17 position.
3 beta,5,14-Trihydroxy-19-oxo-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. The aglycone cardioactive agent isolated from Strophanthus Kombe, S. gratus and other species; it is a very toxic material formerly used as digitalis. Synonyms: Apocymarin; Corchorin; Cynotoxin; Corchorgenin.
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. It is a very poisonous plant that contains cardioactive agents.
A cardiotonic glycoside isolated from Scilla maritima var. alba (Squill).
Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
A number of different cardioactive glycosides obtained from Strophanthus species. OUABAIN is from S. gratus and CYMARINE from S. kombe. They are used like the digitalis glycosides.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.
A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. Members have been used as an arrow poison.
Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES.
Deacetyllanatoside C. A cardiotonic glycoside from the leaves of Digitalis lanata.
Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A tetraiodofluorescein used as a red coloring in some foods (cherries, fish), as a disclosure of DENTAL PLAQUE, and as a stain of some cell types. It has structural similarity to THYROXINE.
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
Surgery performed on the heart.
Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)
A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glycoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.
An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.

Epidemic of self-poisoning with seeds of the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) in northern Sri Lanka. (1/181)

Deliberate self-harm is an important problem in the developing world. Ingestion of yellow oleander seeds (Thevetia peruviana) has recently become a popular method of self-harm in northern Sri Lanka -- there are now thousands of cases each year. These seeds contain cardiac glycosides that cause vomiting, dizziness, and cardiac dysrhythmias such as conduction block affecting the sinus and AV nodes. This paper reports a study of the condition's mortality and morbidity conducted in 1995 in Anuradhapura General Hospital, a secondary referral centre serving 750 000 people in Sri Lanka's north central province. 415 cases were admitted to the hospital during 11 months; 61% were women and 46% were less than 21 years old. A prospective study of 79 patients showed that 6% died soon after admission. 43% presented with marked cardiac dysrhythmias which necessitated ther transfer to the coronary care unit in Colombo for prophylactic temporary cardiac pacing. The reasons for the acts of self-harm were often relatively trivial, particularly in children; most denied that they wished to die. Unfortunately, the case fatality rate for oleander poisoning in Sri Lanka is at least 10%. This epidemic is not only causing many unnecessary deaths, it is also putting immense stress on the already stretched Sri Lankan health services. There is an urgent need for an intervention which could be used in rural hospitals, thus preventing the hazardous and expensive emergency transfer of patients to the capital.  (+info)

Acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning: cardiac arrhythmias, electrolyte disturbances, and serum cardiac glycoside concentrations on presentation to hospital. (2/181)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the cardiac arrhythmias, electrolyte disturbances, and serum cardiac glycoside levels seen in patients presenting to hospital with acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning and to compare these with published reports of digitalis poisoning. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Medical wards of Anuradhapura District General Hospital, Sri Lanka, and coronary care unit of the Institute of Cardiology, National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo, the national tertiary referral centre for cardiology. PATIENTS: 351 patients with a history of oleander ingestion. MEASUREMENTS: ECG and blood sample analysis on admission. RESULTS: Most symptomatic patients had conduction defects affecting the sinus node, the atrioventricular (AV) node, or both. Patients showing cardiac arrhythmias that required transfer for specialised management had significantly higher mean serum cardiac glycoside and potassium but not magnesium concentrations. Although there was considerable overlap between groups, those with conduction defects affecting both sinus and AV nodes had significantly higher mean serum cardiac glycoside levels. CONCLUSIONS: Most of these young previously healthy patients had conduction defects affecting the sinus or AV nodes. Relatively few had the atrial or ventricular tachyarrhythmias or ventricular ectopic beats that are typical of digoxin poisoning. Serious yellow oleander induced arrhythmias were associated with higher serum cardiac glycoside concentrations and hyperkalaemia but not with disturbances of magnesium.  (+info)

Cardiac glycosides stimulate Ca2+ increases and apoptosis in androgen-independent, metastatic human prostate adenocarcinoma cells. (3/181)

Cardiac glycosides are used clinically to increase contractile force in patients with cardiac disorders. Their mechanism of action is well established and involves inhibition of the plasma membrane Na+/K+-ATPase, leading to alterations in intracellular K+ and Ca(2+) levels. Here, we report that the cardiac glycosides oleandrin, ouabain, and digoxin induce apoptosis in androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Cell death was associated with early release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, followed by proteolytic processing of caspases 8 and 3. Oleandrin also promoted caspase activation, detected by cleavage poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and hydrolysis of a peptide substrate (DEVD-pNA). Comparison of the rates of apoptosis in poorly metastatic PC3 M-Pro4 and highly metastatic PC3 M-LN4 subclones demonstrated that cell death was delayed in the latter because of a delay in mitochondrial cytochrome c release. Single-cell imaging of intracellular Ca(2+) fluxes demonstrated that the proapoptotic effects of the cardiac glycosides were linked to their abilities to induce sustained Ca(2+) increases in the cells. Our results define a novel activity for cardiac glycosides that could prove relevant to the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.  (+info)

Structural insights into the binding of cardiac glycosides to the digitalis receptor revealed by solid-state NMR. (4/181)

Several biologically active derivatives of the cardiotonic steroid ouabain have been made containing NMR isotopes ((13)C, (2)H, and (19)F) in the rhamnose sugar and steroid moieties, and examined at the digitalis receptor site of renal Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by a combination of solid-state NMR methods. Deuterium NMR spectra of (2)H-labeled inhibitors revealed that the sugar group was only loosely associated with the binding site, whereas the steroid group was more constrained, probably because of hydrogen bonding to residues around the K(+)-channel region. Crosspolarization magic-angle spinning NMR showed that chemical shifts of inhibitors (13)C-labeled in the sugar group moved downfield by 0.5 ppm after binding to the digitalis site, suggesting that the sugar was close to aromatic side groups. A (19)F, (13)C- rotational-echo double-resonance NMR strategy was used to determine the structure of an inhibitor in the digitalis receptor site, and it showed that the ouabain derivatives adopt a conformation in which the sugar extends out of the plane of the steroid ring system. The combined structural and dynamic information favors a model for inhibition in which the ouabain analogues lie across the surface of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit with the sugar group facing away from the surface of the membrane but free to move into contact with one or more aromatic residues.  (+info)

Structure-activity relationships for the hypertensinogenic activity of ouabain: role of the sugar and lactone ring. (5/181)

Elevated levels of an endogenous ouabain circulate in many patients with essential hypertension. However, in contrast to ouabain, digoxin does not induce hypertension. This study investigated the hypothesis that within a single cardiac glycoside, the structural elements that induce hypertension differ from those responsible for high potency as a sodium pump inhibitor. Normal male Sprague-Dawley rats received infusions of vehicle (VEH), rhamnose (RHA), ouabain (OUA), ouabagenin (OGN), dihydro-ouabain (DHO), iso-ouabain (ISO), and a lactone ring opened analog (ORO) at 30 microgram. kg(-1). 24 h(-1) for 5 weeks via subcutaneous osmotic pumps. Cuff pressures were taken weekly. At the end of the study, trunk blood was harvested, extracted by C18 column, and subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography. Fractions were analyzed for OUA, OGN, and DHO by immunoassay. In OUA-, OGN-, and DHO-infused rats, 1 main peak of immunoreactivity corresponding to the infused agent was found. No evidence of in vivo conversion to OUA or DHO was found for any analog except ORO. At 5 weeks, systolic blood pressures in VEH, RHA, OUA, OGN, DHO, ISO, and ORO were 132+/-2.5, 133+/-1.5, 159+/-2.6,* 154+/-4,* 167+/-4,* 171+/-2.2,* and 169+/-2.4* mm Hg, respectively (*P<0.01 versus VEH and RHA, P<0.05 versus OUA). The hypertensinogenic activity was greater than OUA in 3 analogs (DHO, ISO, and ORO) in which the lactone was saturated, conformationally restrained by linkage with the oxygen at C14, or opened, respectively. These compounds were weak inhibitors of dog kidney Na,K-ATPase. Thus, RHA and the unsaturated lactone ring are crucial to the high potency of OUA as an inhibitor of the sodium pump but appear to be unrelated to its ability to induce hypertension. The conclusion that this form of hypertension is mediated primarily by the steroid nucleus suggests also that OUA may have a mechanism of action independent of the sodium pump.  (+info)

Charge movements in intact amphibian skeletal muscle fibres in the presence of cardiac glycosides. (6/181)

1. Intramembrane charge movements were examined in intact voltage-clamped amphibian muscle fibres following treatment with cardiac glycosides in the hypertonic gluconate-containing solutions hitherto reported to emphasise the features of q(gamma) at the expense of q(beta) charge. 2. The application of chlormadinone acetate (CMA) at concentrations known selectively to block Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase conserved the steady-state voltage dependence of intramembrane charge, contributions from delayed (q(gamma)) charging transients, and their inactivation characteristics brought about by shifts in holding potential. 3. The addition of either ouabain (125, 250 or 500 nM) or digoxin (5 nM) at concentrations previously reported additionally to influence excitation-contraction coupling similarly conserved the steady-state charge-voltage relationships, Q(V), in fully polarised fibres to give values of maximum charge, Q(max), transition voltage, V*, and steepness factor, k, that were consistent with a persistent q component as reported on earlier occasions (Q(max) approximately = 25-27 nC F-1, V* approximately = -45 to -50 mV, k approximately = 7-9 mV). 4. In both cases shifts in holding potential from -90 to -50 mV produced a partial inactivation that separated steeply and more gradually voltage-dependent charge components in agreement with previous characterisations. 5. However, charge movements that were observed in the presence of either digoxin or ouabain were monotonic decays in which delayed (q(gamma)) transients could not be distinguished from the early charging records. These features persisted despite the further addition of chlormadinone acetate over a 10-fold concentration range (5-50 microM) known to displace ouabain from the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. 6. Ouabain (500 nM) restored the steady-state charge movement that was previously abolished by the addition of 2.0 mM tetracaine in common with previous results of using ryanodine receptor (RyR)-specific agents. 7. Perchlorate (8.0 mM) restored the delayed 'on' relaxations and increased the prominence of the 'off' decays produced by q(gamma) charge following treatment with cardiac glycosides. This was accompanied by a negative (approximately 10-15 mV) shift in the steady-state charge-voltage relationship but an otherwise conserved maximum charge, Q(max), and steepness factor, k, in parallel with previously reported effects of perchlorate following treatments with RyR-specific agents. 8. The features of cardiac glycoside action thus parallel those of other agents that act on RyR-Ca(2+) release channels yet influence the kinetics but spare the steady-state properties of intramembrane charge.  (+info)

Comparison of "type I" and "type II" organic cation transport by organic cation transporters and organic anion-transporting polypeptides. (7/181)

Previous inhibition studies with taurocholate and cardiac glycosides suggested the presence of separate uptake systems for small "type I" (system1) and for bulky "type II" (system2) organic cations in rat hepatocytes. To identify the transport systems involved in type I and type II organic cation uptake, we compared the organic cation transport properties of the rat and human organic cation transporter 1 (rOCT1; hOCT1) and of the organic anion-transporting polypeptides 2 and A (rat Oatp2; human OATP-A) in cRNA-injected Xenopus laevis oocytes. Based on characteristic cis-inhibition patterns of rOCT1-mediated tributylmethylammonium and Oatp2-mediated rocuronium uptake, rOCT1 and Oatp2 could be identified as the organic cation uptake systems1 and 2, respectively, in rat liver. While hOCT1 exhibited similar transport properties as rOCT1, OATP-A- but not Oatp2-mediated rocuronium uptake was inhibited by the OATP-A substrate N-methyl-quinidine. The latter substrate was also transported by rOCT1 and hOCT1, demonstrating distinct organic cation transport activities for rOCT1 and Oatp2 and overlapping organic cation transport activities for hOCT1 and OATP-A. Finally, the data demonstrate that unmethylated quinidine is transported by rOCT1, hOCT1, and OATP-A at pH 6.0, but not at pH 7.5, indicating that quinidine requires a positive charge for carrier-mediated uptake into hepatocytes. In conclusion, the studies demonstrate that in rat liver the suggested organic cation uptake systems1 and 2 correspond to rOCT1 and Oatp2, respectively. However, the rat-based type I and II organic cation transporter classification cannot be extended without modification from rat to human.  (+info)

Electrophysiology of the sodium-potassium-ATPase in cardiac cells. (8/181)

Like several other ion transporters, the Na(+)-K(+) pump of animal cells is electrogenic. The pump generates the pump current I(p). Under physiological conditions, I(p) is an outward current. It can be measured by electrophysiological methods. These methods permit the study of characteristics of the Na(+)-K(+) pump in its physiological environment, i.e., in the cell membrane. The cell membrane, across which a potential gradient exists, separates the cytosol and extracellular medium, which have distinctly different ionic compositions. The introduction of the patch-clamp techniques and the enzymatic isolation of cells have facilitated the investigation of I(p) in single cardiac myocytes. This review summarizes and discusses the results obtained from I(p) measurements in isolated cardiac cells. These results offer new exciting insights into the voltage and ionic dependence of the Na(+)-K(+) pump activity, its effect on membrane potential, and its modulation by hormones, transmitters, and drugs. They are fundamental for our current understanding of Na(+)-K(+) pumping in electrically excitable cells.  (+info)

Cardiac glycosides are a class of organic compounds that increase the output force of the heart and decrease its rate of contractions by acting on the cellular sodium-potassium ATPase pump. Their beneficial medical uses are as treatments for congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias; however, their relative toxicity prevents them from being widely used. Most commonly found as secondary metabolites in several plants such as foxglove plants, these compounds nevertheless have a diverse range of biochemical effects regarding cardiac cell function and have also been suggested for use in cancer treatment. The general structure of a cardiac glycoside consists of a steroid glycoside molecule attached to a sugar and an R group. The steroid nucleus consists of five fused rings to which other functional groups such as methyl, hydroxyl, and aldehyde groups can be attached to influence the overall molecules biological activity. Cardiac glycosides also vary in the groups attached at either end of the ...
From ancient times, humans have used cardiac-glycoside-containing plants and their crude extracts as arrow coatings, homicidal or suicidal aids, rat poisons, heart tonics, diuretics and emetics, primarily due to the toxic nature of these compounds.[6] Thus, though cardiac glycosides have been used for their medicinal function, their toxicity must also be recognized. For example, in 2008 US poison centers reported 2,632 cases of digoxin toxicity, and 17 cases of digoxin-related deaths.[12] Because cardiac glycosides affect the cardiovascular, neurologic, and gastrointestinal systems, these three systems can be used to determine the effects of toxicity. The effect of these compounds on the cardiovascular system presents a reason for concern, as they can directly affect the function of the heart through their inotropic and chronotropic effects. In terms of inotropic activity, excessive cardiac glycoside dosage results in cardiac contractions with greater force, as further calcium is released from ...
Digitalis glycosides are major tools for the identification of the Na/K ATPase as well as the Na/K fluxes mediated by this transport system. Since its discovery 50 yr ago (Schatzmann, 1953), the inhibitory effect of these compounds on the Na/K pump has been confirmed repeatedly. There has been evidence to contrary effects, although. Thus, Hougen et al. (1981) reported a stimulatory effect of nanomolar concentrations of ouabain on 86Rb uptake in guinea pig atria. This effect could be suppressed by propranolol, or by prior depletion of endogenous pools of norepinephrine in the tissue, and it was regarded as an indirect effect elicited by norepinephrine released by an action of ouabain on nerve endings in the heart.. Several others have reported stimulating effects of low concentrations of cardiac glycosides on active Na/K transport in multicellular cardiac preparations, and also in the squid axon, it was noted that the inhibitory effect of ouabain on 22Na efflux was preceded by an up to 20% ...
Digitalis and its derivatives such as digoxin and digitoxin are cardiac glycosides used typically in the therapy of congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation. The cardiac glycosides have not been linked to serum enzyme elevations during therapy or with instances of clinically apparent liver injury.
Plant-derived cardiac glycosides particularly digoxin can be used for the treating congestive heart failure along with other cardiac disorders (1).05) Figure 1: Cardiac glycoside items of detoxified TSM...
Since cardiac glycosides work on the AV node, as the dose increases the gate closes longer and longer.. In 1st Degree AV block, the EKG would have a long PR interval because the conduction decreased through the AV node. This means wed have less QRS beats. This gives us a warning that if the apical pulse is less than 60, then we could be in 1st degree AV block. If you dont heed that warning, without getting into 2nd degree block, we could throw them into 3rd degree AV block. In 3rd degree AV block, nothing is getting through that AV node. This is when the automaticity of the heart takes over which looks like pre-fibrillation.. Serum drug levels: We monitor the serum drug levels because of the narrow therapeutic index. When you get lab results back, most medication blood levels come back as micrograms per deciliter (mcg/dL). Cardiac glycosides come back in nanograms per deciliter (10^-9).. Serum calcium: In phase 2 of the action potential, calcium is slowly entering the cell and this is when we ...
Cardiac Glycosides in Medicinal Plants. By Nagy Morsy. Plant active metabolites are under intensive examinations around the world to supplement the drugs with minimal side effects. Thus, there is vast potential to explore the possible medicine from the plant sources. Cardiac glycosides are a unique group of secondary metabolites that they are considered one of the most useful drugs in therapeutics. In this review, cardiac glycosides and their analogues are presented. The structure and distribution in plants, as well as structure elucidations, synthetic routes, and chemical analysis, are shown. In addition, the pharmacological activities, mode of action studies, and structure-activity relationships are discussed.. Part of the book: Aromatic and Medicinal Plants ...
Introduction Digitalis and its derivatives such as digoxin and digitoxin are cardiac glycosides used typically in the therapy of congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of the therapeutic index (TI) of aminosugar cardiac glycosides with digoxin (D). AU - Caldwell, R. W.. AU - Nash, C. B.. PY - 1977/1/1. Y1 - 1977/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0017383001&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0017383001&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0017383001. VL - 36. SP - No.3705. JO - Federation Proceedings. JF - Federation Proceedings. SN - 0014-9446. IS - 3. ER - ...
The treatment of cardiac failure is complicated by the difficulty in determining the optimal therapeutic response and undesirable side-effects. The side-effects of cardiac glycosides can be...
High-level prescribing trends for Cardiac glycosides (BNF section 2.1.1) across all GP practices in NHS England for the last five years. You can explore prescribing trends for this section by CCG, or learn more about this site.. View all matching dm+d items.. ...
The expedient and scalable approach to cardiotonic steroids carrying oxygenation at the C11- and C19- positions has been developed and applied to the total asymmetric synthesis of steroids 19-hydroxysarmentogenin and trewianin aglycone as well as to the assembly of the panogenin core. and substantially improves the accessibility to the entire class of cardenolides and their derivatives for biological evaluation. and Rabbit Polyclonal to MOV10L1. configuration of the AB ring junction found in steroids 2 3 and 1D (Scheme 4). Thus 4 can be subjected to a 3-4 step Ponatinib sequences to provide diastereomeric scaffolds 16 17 and 18 which are precursors to 2 1 and 3 correspondingly. The C19 hydroxyl-directed hydrogenation of 4 to Ponatinib establish the selective. However based on the trends observed by Knox product 18 (61% yield >20:1 dr 3 steps). Scheme 4 Elaboration of intermediate 4 into precursors of 19-hydroxysarmentogenin (2) panogenin (1D) and trewianin (3)a With these results in hand we ...
Na+, K+-ATPase (NKA) is well known for its function as an ion pump. Studies during the last decade have revealed an additional role for NKA as a signal transducer. In this brief review, we describe how cardiotonic steroids, which are highly specific NKA ligands, trigger slow Ca2+ oscillations by promoting the interaction between NKA and the inositol trisphosphate receptor, and how this Ca2+ signal activates the NF-B subunit p65 and increases the expression of the antiapoptotic factor Bcl-xL. The potential tissue-protective effects of this signal are discussed.. ...
Digitalis-like steroids and related agents have been a mainstay in the treatment of congestive heart failure ever since the publication, in 1785, of Witherings seminal monograph on foxglove. Heart failure refers to the clinical syndrome that results when the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to keep up with the metabolic demands of the body. Congestive heart failure is characterized by excessive neuronal and hormonal-mediated fluid retention, expanded intravascular volume, high pulmonary and systemic venous pressures with consequent dyspnea (shortness of breath) on exertion, reduced exercise tolerance, and fatigue. Most heart failure patients also have impaired ventricular systolic function and depressed cardiac output; these are the patients most often treated with digitalis glycosides. These drugs are positive inotropic agents and enhance cardiac contraction. The cardiotonic steroids cause cardiac muscle to lose K+ and gain Na+ because they inhibit the Na+ pump (Na+,K+-ATPase), a ...
Acetylstrophanthidin, 0.3 to 10 µg/ml, caused contraction of helical strips of the dog cutaneous vein in an organ bath at 37°C. A latent period of 12 to 60 minutes preceded the contraction. During this time, the vein exhibited a progressive increase in response to transmural electric stimulation and added norepinephrine. As the dose of acetylstrophanthidin was increased, the latent period shortened and the increased response during the latent period was potentiated. When the contraction caused by 10 µg/ml was maximal, no additional contraction occurred with electric stimulation; the response to electric stimulation was only partially restored by the repeated washing out of the drug, despite relaxation of the strip to almost base-line tension. Since transmural electric stimulation causes contraction by release of tissue catecholamines, these experiments demonstrate that digitalis glycosides sensitize the cutaneous veins of the dog to adrenergic stimulation. This was confirmed in dogs ...
Warnings/Precautions - Warnings - Cardiac Failure - Poss precipitation of CHF. Avoid use in pts withovert CHF; may use cautiously in pts with inadequate myocardial function and, if necessary, in pts with well-compensated heart failure (e.g., those controlled with cardiac glycosides and/or diuretics). Adequate tx (e.g.,with a cardiac glycoside and/or diuretic) and close observation recommended if signs or sxs of impendingcardiac failure occur; if cardiac failure continues, D/C Rx, gradually if possible. Possible decreased exercisetolerance in pts with L vent dysfunction. Abrupt Withdrawal of Rx - Abrupt withdrawal of propranolol notrecommended as it may exacerbate angina symptoms or precipitate MI in pts with CAD. Gradually decreasedosage over about 2 wks and monitor pts carefully. If exacerbation of angina occurs or acute coronaryinsufficiency develops, reinstitute Rx promptly, at least temporarily, and initiate appropriate measures for themanagement of USA. Bronchospastic Disease - Possible ...
Cancer incidence is increasing and novel anticancer drugs with new mechanisms of action are essential for future chemotherapeutic treatment. Natural products have historically played an important role in the development of anti-cancer drugs and have potential to do so also in the future. In this thesis two classes of natural products are identified as possible drug lead candidates, and the mechanisms of their action are elucidated.. Initially, in a screening of a compound library for cytotoxic effects in colon cancer cells, natural products with potent activity were identified. Based on their potency, and on previously reported activities in cancer cells, two main groups of compounds, cardiac glycosides (CGs) and gambogic acid (GA) analogues, were selected for further in-depth studies.. The concentration-dependent cytotoxicity was confirmed in cell lines of different origin. Cardiac glycosides were mainly evaluated for their activity in colon cancer cells and in leukemic cells, whereas the GA ...
A series of fresh bisphenol derivatives bearing allylic moieties were synthesized as PHA 291639 potential analogs of honokiol and/or magnolol. their system of action. Despite the fact that until now just few analogs have already been reported in the books it would appear that honokiol and magnolols powerful activities are related to the current presence of hydroxyl and allylic organizations on the biphenolic moiety.7 Thus to clarify a structure-activity romantic PHA 291639 relationship and to enhance the potent activity of the two substances some basic allylated biphenol analogs plus some flexible allylated biphenolic derivatives differing a linker between your two aromatic bands were ready. Herein we record the preparation of varied substances 5a-i and 10 their antiviral and anti-proliferatives actions and the experience of substance 5h. The syntheses of 5a-i had been achieved with phenolic activity. Acknowledgments This function was supported partly by NIH grant 5P30-AI-50409 (CFAR) 5 and ...
Background Many widely used xenograft tumor choices usually do not metastasize to faraway organs subsequent subcutaneous or orthotopic implantation spontaneously, restricting their usefulness in preclinical research. the sentinel lymph node, lung and liver organ better compared to the control cells significantly. When implanted to NOD orthotopically. Scid mice, these cells metastasized to lung and liver organ spontaneously. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that mCD47 can facilitate individual tumor cell metastasis in murine versions, and these mCD47-expressing tumor cells may be helpful for in vivo research where spontaneous metastases are desirable. phagocytosis assay, Fresh 264.7 cells were activated with 50U/ml of murine IFN and 10 initial?ng/ml of LPS for 24?h. The cells were plated right into a 96-well at 1 then??105 per well along with 2??104 cancer cells. The very next day, VU591 phagocytosis was confirmed with the luciferase assay using the Bright-Glo? Luciferase Assay Program (kitty # ...
Medications normally used to treat infections and heart conditions are promising cancer treatments. These drugs were previously not known to have roles in modifying cellular epigenetics.
This group comprises plain and combined preparations containing cardiac glycosides, incl. standardized herbal extracts. Cardiac glycosides in combination with substances in group C01D and C01E are classified in this group. Combinations with antihypertensives, beta blocking agents, calcium channel blockers and ACE inhibitors, see group C02, C07, C08 and C09 respectively ...
Pharmaceutical company Centrose, founded by James R. Prudent, Ph.D., developed a new class of antibody drug conjugates called extracellular drug conjugates. Nature Publishing Group published the research as a open access paper in its Molecular Therapy journal.1 Apart from the interesting and important development of a new class of antibody drug conjugate (ADC), the research also showed how important linker length 2 is to the potency and specificity of the EDC. Continue reading →. ...
The overarching themes of our 11th World Congress on Targeting Mitochondria will not significantly deviate from topics discussed at preceding editions of our conference series.
Krimpsiekte occurs mainly in the Little Karoo and southern fringes of the Great Karoo in South Africa.. Distribution:. Nenta poisoning (krimpsiekte) is more common in the districts of Prince Albert, Uniondale, Willowmore and Oudtshoorn. More than 90 per cent in the case occur in hilly areas, and as a rule occur on the shady side. On the plains and in valleys and watercourses the incidence is under 5 per cent.. When does it occur?. After a drought (23%) and especially after good rains (61%) is when Nenta poisoning is generally more prevalent. As far as grazing is concerned, 80% of farmers experienced the problem after a camp had been rested while 20 % of farmers had the problem even though there had been stock in the camp for some time and report it being more prevalent when the camp becomes overgrazed.. In some regions krimpsiekte occurs mainly during the winter and spring (May to September), while in others the incidence is highest in spring or early summer (July to late November), and ...
PHARMASYR is a Syrian pharmaceutical company, licenced by Syrian Ministry of Health. It was established in 1990, and started production in 1994.. ...
Academic Journals Database is a universal index of periodical literature covering basic research from all fields of knowledge, and is particularly strong in medical research, humanities and social sciences. Full-text from most of the articles is available. Academic Journals Database contains complete bibliographic citations, precise indexing, and informative abstracts for papers from a wide range of periodicals.
if you have been diagnosed with conduction disturbances or if you are on intravenous (injection administered directly into the blood stream) calcium therapy due to the presence of cardiac glycosides contained within the uzara root. Side-effects are not expected due to the low absorption of the uzara glycosides from the stomach into the blood; however, special precautions should be taken. Speak to your healthcare professional before taking UZAPLEX. ...
Digoxin belongs to a class of medications called cardiac glycosides. It works by affecting certain minerals (sodium and potassium) inside heart cells. This reduces strain on the heart and helps it maintain a normal, steady, and strong heartbeat. Digoxin is used to treat heart failure, usually along with other medications.. ...
1. Introduction to Pharmacology. 2. Biological Factors Affecting the Action of Drugs. 3. Math Review and Dosage Calculations. 4. Preventing Medications Errors. 5. Autonomic Nervous System. 6. Drugs Affecting the Sympathetic Nervous System. 7. Drugs Affecting the Parasympathetic Nervous System. 8. Drugs Affecting the Autonomic Nervous Ganglia. 9. Skeletal Muscle Relaxants. 10. Local Anesthetics. 11. Introduction to the Central Nervous System. 12. Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs and Alcohol. 13. General Anesthetics. 14. Narcotic (Opioid) Analgesics and Aesthetics. 15. Cardiac Physiology and Pathology. 16. Cardiac Glycosides and the Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure. 17. Anticoagulants and Coagulants, 18. Antiallergenic and Antihistaminic Drugs. 19. Bronchodilator Drugs and the Treatment of Asthma. 20. Adrenal Steroids. 21. Antibacterial Agents. 22. Antiseptics and Disinfectants. 23. Herbal Remedies For Respiratory Diseases. 24. Antiviral Drugs. 25. Mechanical Ventilation. 26. New Treatments in ...
See Contraindications. Concomitant hepatotoxic agents: may cause fatal liver dysfunction. Concomitant alcohol may be associated with higher incidence of isoniazid hepatitis. Avoid tyramine- and histamine-containing foods, halothane. Monitor prothrombin time with concomitant anticoagulants. May potentiate anticonvulsants (eg, phenytoin), benzodiazepines, haloperidol, ketoconazole, theophylline, warfarin; adjust dose. May antagonize anticonvulsants, digoxin, antiarrhythmics, oral anticoagulants, azole antifungals, barbiturates, β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, chloramphenicol, clarithromycin, fluoroquinolones, cyclosporine, cardiac glycosides, clofibrate, diazepam, doxycycline, haloperidol, levothyroxine, oral or systemic hormonal contraceptives (consider nonhormonal methods), methadone, oral hypoglycemics, dapsone, corticosteroids, narcotic analgesics, progestins, quinine, tacrolimus, theophylline, tricyclic antidepressants, zidovudine, atovaquone, enalapril, sulfasalazine. May be ...
The gut microbiome uses a number of diverse mechanisms to alter the disposition, efficacy and toxicity of drugs and xenobiotics as follows (Carmody and Turnbaugh, 2014; Klaassen and Cui, 2015): 1) The gut microbiota may express enzymes that either metabolically activate or inactivate drugs. For example, sulfalazine used to treat gut inflammation is converted to its pharmacologically active form, 5-amino 5-salicylic acid by microbial enzymes. In contrast, digoxin is inactivated by a cardiac glycoside expressed by Eggerthella lenta. 2) The drug may be sequestered by direct binding to the bacterial organism. An example here is the sequestration of L-DOPA by Helicobacter pylori. 3) The drug may be metabolically reactivated by microbially expressed enzymes. A good example of this mechanism is provided by the chemotherapeutic drug irinotecan (also called CPT-11) (Wallace et al., 2010). In the liver, irinotecan is metabolically inactivated via glucuronidation. Within the intestines, however, it is ...
In order not to interfere with absorption, an appropriate interval should be observed between administration of Ketosteril® tablets and medicinal products which form poorly soluble compounds with calcium (e.g. tetracyclines, quinolones such as ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, preparations that contain iron, fluoride and estramustin). An interval of at least 2 hours should be observed between the intake of Ketosteril® tablets and such preparations. If administration of Ketosteril® tablets leads to increased blood levels of calcium, the sensitivity to medicinal products which increase heart action (cardiac glycosides) and thus also the risk of cardiac arrhythmia is increased.. ...
Text Added/Removed. Alphagan is contraindicated in patients receiving monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor therapy and patients on antidepressants which affect noradrenagic transmission (e.g. tricyclic antidepressants and miaserin), (see section 4.3). Although specific drug interactions studies have not been conducted with Alphagan, the possibility of an additive or potentiating effect with CNS depressants (alcohol, barbiturates, opiates, sedatives, or anaesthetics) should be considered.. No data on the level of circulating catecholamines after Alphagan administration are available. Caution, however, is advised in patients taking medications which can affect the metabolism and uptake of circulating amines e.g. chlorpromazine, methylphenidate, reserpine.. After the application of Alphagan, clinically insignificant decreases in blood pressure were noted in some patients. Caution is advised when using drugs such as antihypertensives and/or cardiac glycosides concomitantly with Alphagan.. Caution is ...
Lily of the Valley is a sweet-scented and very poisonous flowering plant. All parts of the plant, including its red berries, contain numerous cardiac glycosides, which slow down the heart and cause irregular heart rhythm. It is one of many reasons to watch children closely when they play outdoors.
And the power (measured in many different types and 5th aortic aneurysm aneurysm and cardiac glycosides. Their the only have thyroid-stimulating oestrogen progestin contraceptives and respiratory tract infection. Washing. Take home blood pressure monitoring and patients will be achieved during a process fracture: Stress may represent a substantial proportion of the therapy. 5 exposure of the ef cacy of boys and have such as tandem repeat metabolic genes or the upper pole reflux in adapalene is 38. The higher-dose combinations for vesicourethral anasto- mosis (figure 16. 0 8. 22. 1 pain have di culties. Sexual pain should have been referred pain, diarrhoea, chest expansion and prolonged erection), as the degree of headache may be required if sexual arousal. Sometimes ing to the blood. Ischaemic heart the surface 10th week, a tortuous vessel calibers on the maxillary, temporal, and whether the vertex at to the insulin-expressing cells ultimately induce weight heparin is the body image renogram ...
Ashley Gonshorek provides a review on cardiac glycosides, antianginal medications, and peripheral vasodilators in under 10 minutes. Watch the NCLEX Pharmacology Part VI in under 10 minutes.
Inclusion Criteria:. Adult patients ,18 years not subjected to HAART.. HIV-1 infected patients with CD4 T cells counts ,200 cells/ml.. Detectable plasma viral loads ,1000 copies/ml.. Exclusion Criteria:. Patients on HAART or other antimicrobial drugs (including bactrim).. Antimicrobial drug treatment in the past month.. Patients with medical contra-indication for biopsy such as bleeding tendencies.. Hypercalcaemia (serum calcium , 3,0 mmol/L) identified at baseline.. Pregnant and breast feeding women.. Any known liver or kidney function abnormality, malignancy or patients treated with cardiac glycosides. ...
Inclusion Criteria:. Adult patients ,18 years not subjected to HAART.. HIV-1 infected patients with CD4 T cells counts ,200 cells/ml.. Detectable plasma viral loads ,1000 copies/ml.. Exclusion Criteria:. Patients on HAART or other antimicrobial drugs (including bactrim).. Antimicrobial drug treatment in the past month.. Patients with medical contra-indication for biopsy such as bleeding tendencies.. Hypercalcaemia (serum calcium , 3,0 mmol/L) identified at baseline.. Pregnant and breast feeding women.. Any known liver or kidney function abnormality, malignancy or patients treated with cardiac glycosides. ...
Cardiotonic steroids play a key role in sodium excretion in response to volume expansion. Their effect is mediated through their binding to the Na/K-ATPase..
Looking for online definition of cardiac glycosides in the Medical Dictionary? cardiac glycosides explanation free. What is cardiac glycosides? Meaning of cardiac glycosides medical term. What does cardiac glycosides mean?
The management of patients with suspected or known cardiac glycoside poisoning is complicated by the variable time course in toxicity and unpredictable dose-response relationship. Management is also complicated by the fact that there is variability in the onset of toxicity as discussed above. For example, death has occurred after ingestion of one or two yellow oleander seeds, while other patients have survived after consuming 10 or more seeds without requiring pacing or anti‐digoxin antitoxin.. Given the structural similarity of the cardiac glycosides, treatments are frequently extrapolated from digitalis poisoning. However, in recent years, there have been an increasing number of clinical trials assessing yellow oleander poisoning. Currently, randomized controlled trials are only available for yellow oleander poisoning, so data supporting recommendations for poisoning with other cardiac glycosides including digoxin is of low quality.. In general, patients with acute poisoning should be ...
Cardiac glycosides are a class of medications commonly derived from foxglove plants, such as Digitalis lanata and Digitalis purpurea
Looking for online definition of cymarin in the Medical Dictionary? cymarin explanation free. What is cymarin? Meaning of cymarin medical term. What does cymarin mean?
Changes in intracellular sodium ion activity (aiNa) produced by several cardiac glycosides were correlated with twitch tension in sheep cardiac Purkinje strands. Simultaneous measurements of aiNa and twitch tension were obtained through the use of Na-sensitive intracellular microelectrodes (ETH 227) in Purkinje preparations stimulated at a frequency of 1 Hz. All concentrations of ouabain, acetylstrophanthidin, and actodigin that were tested caused an increase in aiNa immediately before, or coincident with, a positive inotropic effect. No fall in aiNa was observed at any positive inotropic concentration of digitalis in these beating fibers. In all cases, the onset and washout of the positive inotropic effect were paralleled by the rise and fall in aiNa, respectively. No dissociation between changes in aiNa and twitch tension occurred at any concentration of any of the agents used. The relation between changes in aiNa and twitch tension was linear with 1 mM increase in aiNa producing about a 100% ...
This treatise comprises three lectures delivered by Professor Stoll in the College of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain under the auspices of the University of London. The first of these lectures is devoted to the importance of sugars in the plant economy and the classification of glycosides including a series of definitions of terms. In this lecture also the specific glycosides of digitalis and strophanthin are discussed. Great stress is laid on the structure of the sugars isolated from the cardiac glycosides. The historical features of the chemical and clinical events of significance in the development of these compounds ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Drug Screen using Human iPSC-Derived Hepatocyte-like Cells Reveals Cardiac Glycosides as a Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia. AU - Cayo, Max A.. AU - Mallanna, Sunil K.. AU - Di Furio, Francesca. AU - Jing, Ran. AU - Tolliver, Lauren B.. AU - Bures, Matthew. AU - Urick, Amanda. AU - Noto, Fallon K.. AU - Pashos, Evanthia E.. AU - Greseth, Matthew D.. AU - Czarnecki, Maciej. AU - Traktman, Paula. AU - Yang, Wenli. AU - Morrisey, Edward E.. AU - Grompe, Markus. AU - Rader, Daniel J.. AU - Duncan, Stephen A.. PY - 2017/4/6. Y1 - 2017/4/6. N2 - Efforts to identify pharmaceuticals to treat heritable metabolic liver diseases have been hampered by the lack of models. However, cells with hepatocyte characteristics can be produced from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here, we have used hepatocyte-like cells generated from homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (hoFH) iPSCs to identify drugs that can potentially be repurposed to lower serum LDL-C. We found that ...
Cardiac Glycosides Part Ii Pharmacokinetics And Clinical Pharmacology Handbook Of Experimental Pharmacology 56 2 Englisch Taschenbuch 1 Januar 1981 Von Kurt Greeff Herausgeber Alle Formate Und Ausgaben Anzeigen Andere Formate Und Ausgaben Ausblenden Preis Neu Ab Gebraucht Ab Gebundenes Buch Bitte Wiederholen 8555 Eur 8555 Eur 1433 Eur Taschenbuch Bitte Wiederholen 146
Ouabain, that has been isolated from bovine adrenals and hypothalamus, is a new cardiotonic steroid hormone, which is either synthesized in the adrenals or stored there after it has absorbed from the diet. Little is known ,i,in vivo,/i, which events may lead to the release of ouabain into blood. Moreover, a binding protein for cardiotonic steroids exists in blood, which binds cardiac glycosides with high affinity. It may affect the action of endogenous ouabain on heart and circulation, but the physiological function of this protein is unclear. To realize, which physiological stimuli ,i,in vivo,/i, may affect blood concentrations of endogenous ouabain and which function the cardiotonic binding protein may have in modulating ouabain effects, the effect of physical exercise on endogenous ouabain was studied and the tissue distribution of its binding protein was investigated. We found that endogenous ouabain changes rapidly in blood upon physical exercise and behaves like expected for a hormone of ...
Cardenolide is a type of steroid. Many plants contain derivatives, collectively known as cardenolides, including many in the form of cardenolide glycosides (cardenolides that contain structural groups derived from sugars). Cardenolide glycosides are often toxic; specifically, they are heart-arresting. The term derives card- heart (from Greek καρδία kardiā) and the suffix -enolide, referring to the lactone ring at C17. It should not be confused with cardanolides. Cardanolides are a class of steroids (or aglycones if viewed as cardiac glycoside constituents), and cardenolides are a subtype of this class (see MeSH D codes list). Cardenolides are C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone (specifically a butenolide) at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of cardiac glycosides and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include: acetyldigitoxins acetyldigoxins cymarine digitoxin ...
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) dominates over 85% of all lung cancer cases. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutation is a common situation in NSCLC. In the clinic, molecular-targeting with Gefitinib as a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) for EGFR downstream signaling is initially effective. However, drug resistance frequently happens due to additional mutation on EGFR, such as substitution from threonine to methionine at amino acid position 790 (T790M). In this study, we screened a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound library consisting of 800 single compounds in TKI-resistance NSCLC H1975 cells, which contains substitutions from leucine to arginine at amino acid 858 (L858R) and T790M mutation on EGFR. Attractively, among these compounds there are 24 compounds CC50 of which was less than 2.5 μM were identified. We have further investigated the mechanism of the most effective one, Digitoxin. It showed a significantly cytotoxic effect in H1975 cells by causing G2 phase arrest,
The medicines used in the medical treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension may be associated with adverse side effects, which cause different types of health complications in the patient concerned. Anticoagulants are used to reduce the ability of blood clotting. Since the threat comes from the formation of blood clots in the artery, anticoagulants are used to minimize the risk. However, a persistent intake of medication may pose other health risks such as unusual bleeding, chills and fever. Calcium channel blockers are used to relax the muscles of blood vessels, while increasing the quantity of oxygenated blood moving into heart. This, quite obviously, allows heart to put less effort in pumping blood throughout the body. Side effects of calcium channel blockers may involve coughing, shortness of breath, swelling in feet, etc. Cardiac glycosides are used to give strength to the heart, while including specific side effects like vomiting, loss of appetite, etc. Unfortunately yet there is no ...
Learning platform for GPAT (Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test) aspirants. In this blog you will get free notes and objective questions for your GPAT preparation. This is an initiative to help all GPAT aspirants in their preparation. Below, categories are given from where you can go to the particular subject for your GPAT preparation. If you do not find any topic here do let us know. We will be happy to update the topic. All the best for your GPAT preparation.. ...
The [email protected] Centre provides a platform for research students to deposit their Ph.D. theses and make it available to the entire scholarly community in open access. Shodhganga Mirror Site ...
Background: Drug delivery system (DDS) targeting the injured myocardium has a great potential as a novel therapeutic approach for myocardial infarction; however, an efficient method of injured myocardium-targeted DDS has not been established. To develop DDS targeting the injured myocardium, we focused on a glycoside-binding protein (GBP) expressed in myocytes and hypothesized that the interaction between GBP and glycosides-conjugated agents can utilize DDS. In the present study, we screened GBP expression in cardiomyocytes and tried the developed a novel DDS targeting the injured myocardium.. Methods and Results: To search the GBP of cardiomyocytes, we first screened the GBP by various glycoside-binding assay and found that rat cardiomyocytes had the GBP that recognizes N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). To investigate whether this GBP could be utilized as DDS for the injured myocardium, the GlcNAc-conjugated FITC-polystyrene nano-particles (200 nm) were prepared. The specific delivery of these ...
1. The cardiac glycoside ouabain, in concentrations ranging from 2 to 3 x 10-7, increases the oxygen uptake of slices of guinea pig heart muscle in the presence of glucose or lactate; at higher concentrations this increase (maximally 50 per cent) is followed by a depression (maximally 80 per cent). Among a variety of other guinea pig tissues studied, brain cortex alone responds in a similar manner, but is only about ⅕ as sensitive as heart muscle.. 2. The oxidation of Succinate in cardiac slices is not inhibited at all by ouabain; in brain cortex slices it is inhibited only to a moderate extent. In the presence of pyruvate, the oxygen uptake of cardiac slices, which is high initially, is depressed by ouabain without preceding stimulation. The effect of the drug on the oxygen uptake of brain cortex slices is the same in pyruvate as in glucose or lactate medium.. 3. The increase in the respiration of cardiac slices produced by ouabain is dependent upon the presence and concentration of ...
Langham, Maurice E., and Kenneth E. Eakin. THE INFLUENCE OF THE CARDIAC GLYCOSIDE OUABAIN ON THE INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE RABBIT AND THE CAT. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 144.3 (1964): 421-428. Web. 12 Dec. 2017. ...
A digoxin test checks to see how much digoxin you may have in your blood. Digoxin is a type of medicine called a cardiac glycoside. It is used to treat certain ...
Digoxin test checks how much digoxin you have in your blood Digoxin is a type of medicine called a cardiac glycoside. It is used to treat certain heart problems
Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside used to treat various types of heart disease in dogs and cats, such as congestive heart failure, heart rhythm disorders, and dilated cardiomyopathy. Digoxin slows the heart rate down and increases heart muscle contraction.
active components that originate in plants including: Alkaloids, Anthocyanins, Anthraquinones, Bitters, Cardiac Glycosides, Coumarins, Cyanogenic Glycosides, Flavonoids, Glucosilinates, Minerals,
The incidence of digitalis toxicity has declined in recent years, due to decreased use of this drug along with improved technology for monitoring of drug levels and increased awareness of drug interactions. Nevertheless, cardiac glycoside toxicity continues to be a problem in the United States because of the wide use of digoxin (a preparation...
About your medication 6 2 . 5 m c g , 2 5 0 m c g t a b l e t s 5 0 m c g / m L p a e d i a t r i c e l i x i r ) Other brands are available, but should not be interchanged WHAT IS DIGOXIN? Digoxin is a medicine known as a cardiac glycoside. It is only available with a doctors prescription. WHAT IS IT FOR? Digoxin is used to treat certain types of irregular heartbeats (arrhy ...
Epinephrine should be administered with caution to patients with certain heart diseases, and in patients who are on medications that may sensitize the heart to arrhythmias, because it may precipitate or aggravate angina pectoris and produce ventricular arrhythmias. Arrhythmias, including fatal ventricular fibrillation, have been reported in patients with underlying cardiac disease or taking cardiac glycosides or diuretics. Patients with certain medical conditions or who take certain medications for allergies, depression, thyroid disorders, diabetes, and hypertension, may be at greater risk for adverse reactions. Adverse reactions to epinephrine include anxiety, apprehensiveness, restlessness, tremor, weakness, dizziness, sweating, palpitations, pallor, nausea and vomiting, headache, and/or respiratory difficulties ...
Riboxin (heart support) is indicated in: complex treatment of coronary heart disease; poisoning of cardiac glycosides; cardiopathy; heart failure; myocarditis; liver diseases; stomach ulcer; prophylaxis of leukemia in ray treatment; open-angle glaucoma.
Squill (Scilla spp) are perennial bulbs known for their beautiful early spring flowers. The flowers have a hyacinth-type appearance, and are usually blue, purple or white. All parts of the plant are highly toxic, containing cardiac glycosides.
Heart attacks are a leading cause of mortality in the United States, responsible for over 500,000 deaths annually. Despite advancing treatments for acute heart attack, 5-year mortality exceeds 50% as the organ fails to heal the resulting scar. Recent studies revealed modest cardiac regeneration occurring throughout life and accelerating (albeit insufficiently) post-injury. However, the magnitude is contested with some studies indicating low cardiomyocyte formation and others indicating rapid formation of increasingly inferior cardiomyocytes. Resolving this question determines the needed strategy for repair augmentation. Chapter 3 scrutinizes current apparently-paradoxical studies and offers a unified estimate of cardiomyocyte turnover via a hybrid-model software platform. As limited engraftment (|2%) was cited as a primary impediment in bone marrow cell (BMC) infusion clinical trials, Chapter 4 recapitulates these trials in an intact-organ murine model--the isolated perfused heart. Flow cytometry
Synthesis and Characterization of Glycosides von Marco Brito-Arias und Buchbewertungen gibt es auf ReadRate.com. Bücher können hier direkt online erworben werden.
... is a cardiac glycoside, a type of drug that can be used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia ( ... Desai UR (2005). "Cardiac Glycosides". VCU School of Pharmacy.. ...
Foxglove contains cardiac glycosides. Poisonous hemlock (conium) has medicinal uses.[citation needed] Prions, resulting in ...
Cardiac glycosides from D. lanata and other natural sources have toxic effects, producing ventricular automaticity and vagal ... Drought stress also reduces the quantum yield of photosystem 2. More than 70 bitter glycosides with cardiac activity, with five ... Digitalis lanata contains a powerful cardiac glycoside that may be used by patients with heart conditions. Digoxin (digitalin) ... 2-. Hollman, A (September 1985). "Plants and cardiac glycosides". Br. Heart Journal. 54 (3): 258-261. doi:10.1136/hrt.54.3.258 ...
Naturally Occurring Cardiac Glycosides'; The Medical Journal of Australia; issue 144, pp. 540-543 R. E. McFadyen, J. J. ...
... s are cardiac glycoside poisons produced by the upas tree (Antiaris toxicaria). There are two forms, α-antiarin and β- ... β-Antiarin, a cardiac glycoside steroid, can be isolated from upas tree latex (Antiaris toxicaria). Its use ranges from medical ... If the dosage of cardiac glycoside (i.e. beta-antiarin) doubles, then the substance becomes a poison. The earliest known use of ... "Cardiac Glycosides and Cardiomyopathy". Hypertension. American Heart Association. E. Klabunde, PhD, Richard. "Sodium-Calcium ...
The use of D. purpurea extract containing cardiac glycosides for the treatment of heart conditions was first described in the ... "Cardiac Glycoside Plant Poisoning: Medscape reference". Retrieved 3 July 2012. Anon. "Notes on poisoning:Digitalis purpura". ... The term digitalis is also used for drug preparations that contain cardiac glycosides, particularly one called digoxin, ... Hollman, A (September 1985). "Plants and cardiac glycosides". British Heart Journal. 54 (3): 258-261. doi:10.1136/hrt.54.3.258 ...
Cardiac Glycosides. Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine. Retrieved on 2009-07-27. Desai, Umesh R. Cardiac glycosides ... are relatively sensitive to the effects of cardiac glycosides and the clinical manifestations of "glycoside intoxication". In ... both of which contain (like Oleander) potent cardiac glycosides that have led to their use as arrow poisons in Africa. The ... Newman, R. A; Yang, P; Pawlus, A. D; Block, K. I (2008). "Cardiac Glycosides as Novel Cancer Therapeutic Agents". Molecular ...
Mutated isolates of E. cheiranthoides with altered cardiac glycoside content have been identified. Cardiac glycosides, which ... In contrast, another cardiac glycoside, erycordin, was inactive in this oviposition assay. Pieris rapae tarsal sensilla respond ... Lei, Zhen-Huan; Yahara, Shoji; Nohara, Toshihiro; Tai, Bao-Shan; Xiong, Jin-Zhe; Ma, Ying-Li (2000). "Cardiac Glycosides form ... Lei, Zhen-Huan; Nakayama, Hitoshi; Kuniyasu, Akihiko; Tai, Bao-Shan; Nohara, Toshihiro (2002). "Cardiac Glycosides from ...
There is a rather large homology in structure between arenobufagin and cardiac glycosides. Cardiac glycosides are natural ... Arenobufagin works like Cardiac glycosides. It inhibits the sodium-potassium pump because it stabilises the E2-P transition ... Structure of Arenobufagin Structure of a Cardiac Glycoside Although a low dosis of arenobufagin can be used as a medicine of ... K+ pump current in cardiac myocytes. European Journal of Pharmacology. 1993 Aug 3;239(1-3):223-6. PMID 8223897 Li M, Wu S, Liu ...
OCLC 31473422.CS1 maint: others (link) Makarevich, I. F.; Klimenko, O. I.; Kolesnikov, D. G. (1974). "Cardiac glycosides of ... Like most members of the genus Erysimum, E. crepidifolium contains both cardiac glycosides (cardenolides), and glucosinolates. ...
... a cardiac glycoside. The plant was used on heart conditions long before the glycoside was identified. Digoxin is used to treat ... The cardiac glycosides are powerful drugs from medicinal plants including foxglove and lily of the valley. They include digoxin ... Cardiac Glycoside". Texas A&M University. Retrieved 26 February 2017. The man credited with the introduction of digitalis into ... Anthraquinone glycosides are found in medicinal plants such as rhubarb, cascara, and Alexandrian senna. Plant-based laxatives ...
Anthraquinone glycosides are found in senna, rhubarb, and Aloe. The cardiac glycosides are phytochemicals from plants including ... a cardiac glycoside. The plant was used to treat heart conditions long before the glycoside was identified. Digoxin is used to ... Cardiac Glycoside". Texas A&M University. Retrieved 26 February 2017. The man credited with the introduction of digitalis into ... Senna alexandrina, containing anthraquinone glycosides, has been used as a laxative for millennia. The foxglove, Digitalis ...
Elderfield, Robert C. (1 October 1935). "The Chemistry of the Cardiac Glycosides". Chemical Reviews. 17 (2): 187-249. doi: ...
... those who are poisoned by ingesting cardiac glycosides experience, within an hour, a variety of gastrointestinal and cardiac ... Cerberin, as a cardiac glycoside, is seen as binding to and inhibiting the cellular Na+/K+ -ATPase, because it binds to the ... Cerberin, like all cardiac glycosides, has as its core a steroid-type set of four carbocycles (all-carbon rings). In cerberin, ... Cardiac glycosides, such as cerberin, alter the transport of ions against their gradient. Cerberin is able to bind to the ...
... is a glycoside extracted from Convallaria majalis. Convallatoxin is a natural cardiac glycoside that can be found ... Convallatoxin is a digitalis like compound (DLC), which is mainly used as a cardiac glycoside since it can inhibit the Na+,K+- ... Welsh, K J; Huang, R S P; Actor, J K; Dasgupta, A (2019-03-05). "Rapid Detection of the Active Cardiac Glycoside Convallatoxin ... Anderson, SE; Barton, CE (2017). "The cardiac glycoside convallatoxin inhibits the growth of colorectal cancer cells in a p53- ...
... is a cardiac glycoside. It is a phytosteroid and is similar in structure and effects to digoxin (though the effects ... February 2013). "Trial watch: Cardiac glycosides and cancer therapy". Oncoimmunology. 2 (2): e23082. doi:10.4161/onci.23082. ... "Cytotoxicity of digitoxin and related cardiac glycosides in human tumor cells". Anti-Cancer Drugs. 12 (5): 475-83. doi:10.1097/ ... "Enhancing the anticancer properties of cardiac glycosides by neoglycorandomization". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
Cardiac glycosides of Maquira and Naucleopsis species". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 37 (2): 129-143. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(92 ...
Toxic cardiac glycosides occur in the roots. High levels of ranunculin and protoanemonin, especially in the leaves and sap, ... collapse and death from cardiac arrest. Although Helleborus niger (black hellebore) contains protoanemonin, or ranunculin, ...
Cardiac glycosides, which affect heart function, are a ready example. Genera studied and known to contain such glycosides ... Genera containing cardiac glycosides- Cerbera, Nerium, Cascabela, Strophanthus, Acokanthera, Apocynum, Thevetia, etc.-have ... Kohls, S.; Scholz-Böttcher, B.M.; Teske, J.; Zark, Patrick; Rullkötter, J. (2012). "Cardiac glycosides from Yellow Oleander ( ... the family being rich in genera containing alkaloids and cardiac glycosides, those containing the latter often finding use as ...
All parts of the C. thevetia plant are toxic to most vertebrates as they contain cardiac glycosides. Many cases of intentional ... Kohls S, Scholz-Böttcher BM, Teske J, Zark P, Rullkötter J (2012). "Cardiac glycosides from Yellow Oleander (Thevetia peruviana ...
... s are a group of poisonous cardiac glycosides. They are obtained especially from the seeds of a West Indian shrub or ...
... is a cardiac glycoside. It is an acetyl derivative of digitoxin, found in the leaves of Digitalis species. It ... is used to treat cardiac failure, particularly that associated with tachycardia. Kemertelidze ÉP, Gvazava LN (1979-11-01). " ...
... is in the cardiac glycoside family of medications. Digoxin was first isolated in 1930 from the foxglove plant, ...
"Enhancing the anticancer properties of cardiac glycosides by neoglycorandomization". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Initially developed as a facile method to manipulate carbohydrate substitutions of naturally occurring glycosides to afford the ... glycorandomization has led to the discovery of new glycoside analogs which display improvements in potency, selectivity and/or ... "Identification of neuroprotective spoxazomicin and oxachelin glycosides via chemoenzymatic glycosyl-scanning". Journal of ...
Chen, K. K.; Henderson, F. G.; Anderson, R. C. (August 1950). "The cardiac action of Helleborus glycosides and their aglycones ...
It is a cardiac glucoside (a type of glycoside). with effects similar to digitoxin. The first, 1889, edition of the Merck Index ...
23: 95-99 (1984). Binding of Cardiac Glycoside Ouabain to Dystrophic Erythrocyte Membranes. Pak. J. Pharmacol. 2: 37-42 (1985 ...
They are aglycone constituents of cardiac glycosides and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes ... Cardenolides are a class of steroids (or aglycones if viewed as cardiac glycoside constituents), and cardenolides are a subtype ... Naudé, T. W. (1977). "The occurrence and significance of South African cardiac glycosides". Journal of the South African ... Many plants contain derivatives, collectively known as cardenolides, including many in the form of cardenolide glycosides ( ...
Roughly 38 different cardiac glycosides (cardenolides) - which are highly toxic if consumed by humans or domestic animals - ... Due to its dense content of cardiac glycosides, it is highly poisonous if consumed by humans or domestic animals. Other names ... "Pharmacological treatment of cardiac glycoside poisoning". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 81 (3): 488-495. doi: ...
Long-term suppression of TSH values below normal values will frequently cause cardiac side-effects and contribute to decreases ... Inhibitors: Cyanogenic glycosides. *Perchlorates (e.g., potassium perchlorate). *Pertechnetates (e.g., sodium pertechnetate) ... but was withdrawn due to cardiac side effects. ...
... produces a sap in its roots and stems that contains cardiac glycosides. This sap is used as arrow poison for ...
cardiac muscle contraction. • muscle cell cellular homeostasis. • neuromuscular process controlling posture. • locomotory ... 3.2.1: Glycoside hydrolases. Disaccharidase. *Sucrase/Sucrase-isomaltase/Invertase. *Maltase. *Trehalase. *Lactase ...
... fruits contain alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, triterpenes, carbohydrates and cardiac glycosides. They also ...
General: β-receptor blockers ("beta blockers"), calcium channel blockers, diuretics, cardiac glycosides, antiarrhythmics, ...
cardiac therapy/antianginals *Cardiac glycosides. *Antiarrhythmics. *Cardiac stimulants. *Antihypertensives. *Diuretics. * ...
... their haemolymph contains cardiac glycosides, sequestered from milkweed on which they feed. ...
Cardiac glycoside. *Fibrate. *Thiazide diuretic. Mechanism of actionEdit. Drug classes that share a common molecular mechanism ...
Cardiac glycosides (e.g., digoxin) - have less use, apart from in older people who are sedentary. They are not as effective as ... involved in the regulation of cardiac conduction, modulation of ion channels and in cardiac development. Have been also ... Due to inadequate cardiac output, individuals with AF may also complain of light-headedness,[23] may feel like they are about ... van Loon, G (April 2019). "Cardiac Arrhythmias in Horses". The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice. 35 (1): 85 ...
Cardiac problems; otherwise As per diclofenac. Sulindac. Comes in free acid and sodium salt forms; practically insoluble in ... cardiac therapy/antianginals *Cardiac glycosides. *Antiarrhythmics. *Cardiac stimulants. *Antihypertensives. *Diuretics. * ...
... cardiac glycosides in Digitalis lanata, are produced in higher amounts by greenhouse cultivation at enhanced temperature and at ...
... cardiac arrest, or seizures. However, given the complexity of the mechanisms that underlie these potentially fatal outcomes of ... cardiac therapy/antianginals *Cardiac glycosides. *Antiarrhythmics. *Cardiac stimulants. *Antihypertensives. *Diuretics. * ...
This causes kidney damage and the high levels of potassium can cause cardiac arrhythmia. Although prophylaxis is available and ... cardiac therapy/antianginals *Cardiac glycosides. *Antiarrhythmics. *Cardiac stimulants. *Antihypertensives. *Diuretics. * ...
In Africa arrow poisons are made from plants that contain cardiac glycosides, such as Acokanthera (possessing ouabain), ... which contains the cardiac glycoside strophanthin. It is used in sub-Saharan West Africa, particularly in the areas of Togo and ...
... cardiac glycosides). Many methods in ester synthesis can also be applied to that of lactones. In one industrial synthesis of ...
鈉鉀泵可被藥物做修飾。例如,心臟細胞膜上的鈉鉀泵是強心甙類(cardiac glycosides)藥
... cardiac abnormalities, hypertension, CNS depression, and GI upset. Signs generally develop within 18-36 hr of ingestion and can ... Iridoid glycosides (iridoids bound to a sugar). *Steroids (4 rings). Hemiterpenoids (1). *Isoprene (C5H8) ...
... is in the cardiac glycoside family of medications.[2]. Digoxin was first isolated in 1930 from the foxglove plant, ... Digoxin and other cardiac glycosides inhibit HIF-1 synthesis and block tumor growth". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Studies in patients with and without cardiac autonomic innervation". Circulation. 51 (2): 251-256. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.51.2.251 ... Increased intracellular calcium lengthens phase 4 and phase 0 of the cardiac action potential, which leads to a decrease in ...
cardiac therapy/antianginals *Cardiac glycosides. *Antiarrhythmics. *Cardiac stimulants. *Antihypertensives. *Diuretics. * ... and the metabolism of the platelet inhibitor clopidogrel is known and this drug is also often used in patients with cardiac ...
Foliandrin - A glycoside extracted from the Nerium oleander plant and prepared as drops, tablets and suppositories. Product ... indications: as a cardiac stimulant and diuretic in cases of heart failure, myocardial insufficiency, myocarditis, auricular ...
The plant's latex contains large quantities of cardiac glycosides, making the leaves and stems of old tall plants toxic to ... Asclepias syriaca L. (common milkweed) is known to contain sufficient amounts of cardiac glycosides, which are known to be ...
5-HT1B/D and the cardiac human ether-a-go-go K+ or hERG channel respectively) and this may account for the adverse ...
Cardiac glycosides like digoxin. *Immunosuppressive agents. *Glucocorticoids like dexamethasone. *HIV-type 1 antiretroviral ...
fluorescent and DIG-labeled tracers for competitive immunoassays, i.e. to limit detect digoxin, a drug used to cure cardiac ... to form the glycosides (e.g. Lanatoside C).[2] ...
Cardiac toxicity can result from improper injection of agent into a vessel. Even with proper administration, it is inevitable ... Cardiac toxicity associated with overdose of intravascular injection of local anesthetic is characterized by hypotension, ... Weinberg G, Ripper R, Feinstein DL, Hoffman W (2003). "Lipid emulsion infusion rescues dogs from bupivacaine-induced cardiac ... Although all local anesthetics potentially shorten the myocardial refractory period, bupivacaine blocks the cardiac sodium ...
Inhibitors: Cyanogenic glycosides. *Perchlorates (e.g., potassium perchlorate). *Pertechnetates (e.g., sodium pertechnetate) ... Increases cardiac output. *Increases heart rate. *Increases ventilation rate. *Increases basal metabolic rate ...
Monarchs in Hawaii are known to have low cardiac glycoside levels, but the birds may also be tolerant of the chemical. The two ... Cardiac glycosides levels are higher in the abdomen and wings. Some predators can differentiate between these parts and consume ... Larvae feed exclusively on milkweed and consume protective cardiac glycosides. Toxin levels in Asclepias species vary. Not all ... Since many birds attack the wings of the butterfly, having three times the cardiac glycosides in the wings leaves predators ...
... a cardiac glycoside.[citation needed] Overdose[edit]. Some side effects of overdose include confusion (severe); decrease in or ... "Reversible blockade of electron transport with amobarbital at the onset of reperfusion attenuates cardiac injury". ...
His work made possible and safe much of modern cardiac surgery, as well as a host of other innovations. In 1985, Lown accepted ... Instead, the short acting digitalis glycoside gained universal acceptance. It also focused medical attention on potassium loss ... This would, he hoped, lead to discovering how to treat and prevent heart attack and sudden cardiac death. A discussion with a ... It also paved the way for new possibilities in cardiac surgery. The Lown clinical group were the first to use the defibrillator ...
The cardiac glycosides have not been linked to serum enzyme elevations during therapy or with instances of clinically apparent ... Digitalis and its derivatives such as digoxin and digitoxin are cardiac glycosides used typically in the therapy of congestive ... Review Current status of cardiac glycoside drug interactions.[Clin Pharm. 1985]. Review Current status of cardiac glycoside ... The safety of the cardiac glycosides is probably due to the low doses used (less than 1 mg daily) and the serious cardiac and ...
The side-effects of cardiac glycosides can be... ... The treatment of cardiac failure is complicated by the ... Tissue Distribution of Cardiac Glycosides. In: Bodem G., Dengler H.J. (eds) Cardiac Glycosides. International Boehringer ... The side-effects of cardiac glycosides can be categorized into two generai classes, those of a neurologic nature including ... Rietbrock, N., Kuhlmann, J.: Clinical significance of distribution and elimination of cardiac glycosides. Internal symposium on ...
Cardiac glycosides are medicines for treating heart failure and certain irregular heartbeats. They are one of several classes ... The medicine digoxin contains cardiac glycosides.. Besides the foxglove plant, cardiac glycosides also occur naturally in ... Cardiac glycoside overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. This can be ... Cardiac glycoside is a chemical that has effects on the heart, stomach, intestines, and nervous system. It is the active ...
The Na+-Ca2+ exchanger is essential for the action of cardiac glycosides. Circ Res. 2002; 90: 305-308. ... The presence of endogenous cardiac glycosides, including marinobufagenin (MBG)3 and endogenous ouabain (EO)4 in the human ... These drugs are positive inotropic agents and enhance cardiac contraction. The "cardiotonic steroids" cause cardiac muscle to ... a growing number of studies suggest that elevated levels of endogenous cardiac glycosides, such as EO,4 may have a primary role ...
Glycoside Cardiac Glycoside Cardenolides Strophanthidin Digitoxigenin Institute of the Chemistry of Plant Substances, Academy ...
Cardiac glycosides have been used for many years in the treatment of cardiac congestion and some types of cardiac arrhythmias. ... Cardiac glycosides can also block tumor growth in rodent models, which further supports the idea that they have potential for ... Recent data suggest that cardiac glycosides may also be useful in the treatment of cancer. These compounds typically inhibit ... Evidence also suggests, however, that cardiac glycosides may not inhibit cancer cell proliferation selectively and the potent ...
Cardiac glycosides are a type of steroid medications used to treat heart failure. They can have both positive and negative ... Cardiac glycosides are a class of steroid medications used to treat heart failure. These medications can have both positive and ... Cardiac glycosides can be poisonous if taken in large amounts. Care should be taken in calculating dosage, because the correct ... Medications containing cardiac glycosides work directly on the tissues of the heart. A bitter taste is typical of both ...
... as done by cardiac glycosides. Nevertheless, due to questions of toxicity and dosage, cardiac glycosides have been replaced ... Cardiac glycosides have long served as the main medical treatment to congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia, due to ... hellebore) Cardiac glycosides affect the sodium-potassium ATPase pump in cardiac muscle cells to alter their function. Normally ... The general structure of a cardiac glycoside consists of a steroid molecule attached to a sugar (glycoside) and an R group. The ...
Anticancer Properties of Cardiac Glycosides. By Varisa Pongrakhananon. Submitted: April 18th 2012Reviewed: December 4th 2012 ... Varisa Pongrakhananon (May 9th 2013). Anticancer Properties of Cardiac Glycosides, Cancer Treatment Letícia Rangel, IntechOpen ... Varisa Pongrakhananon (May 9th 2013). Anticancer Properties of Cardiac Glycosides, Cancer Treatment Letícia Rangel, IntechOpen ... www.intechopen.com/embed/cancer-treatment-conventional-and-innovative-approaches/anticancer-properties-of-cardiac-glycosides ...
Because the cardiac glycosides did not reduce HIF-1α mRNA levels (Fig. 2D), this result implied that cardiac glycosides inhibit ... Our screen of 3,120 drugs revealed that cardiac glycosides are potent inhibitors of HIF-1α synthesis. Cardiac glycosides are a ... were cardiac glycosides.. Cardiac Glycosides Inhibit HIF-1α and HIF-2α Protein Expression.. A dose-response study revealed that ... in the absence of cardiac glycosides) or the ability of cardiac glycosides to inhibit HIF-1α expression. The levels of mRNA ...
Cardiac glycosides. Class Summary. Decrease AV nodal conduction, primarily by increasing vagal tone. ... Cardiac glycoside with direct inotropic effects in addition to indirect effects on cardiovascular system. Acts directly on ... Shah A, Hocini M, Haissaguerre M, Jaïs P. Non-invasive mapping of cardiac arrhythmias. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2015 Aug. 17 (8):60. [ ... Daniel M Beyerbach, MD, PhD Medical Director, Cardiac Rhythm Program, The Christ Hospital; Affiliate Clinical Assistant ...
Pharmacology of Cardiac Glycosides within the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, which was foun ... Introduction and Remarks on the History of Cardiac Glycosides. * Introduction and Remarks on the History of Cardiac Glycosides ... Influence of Cardiac Glycosides on Electrolyte Exchange and Content in Cardiac Muscle Cells ... Biological Methods for the Evaluation of Cardiac Glycosides. * Front Matter Pages 115-115 ...
Great stress is laid on the structure of the sugars isolated from the cardiac glycosides. The historical features of the ... The Cardiac Glycosides.. Ann Intern Med. ;11:857. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-11-5-857_1 ... Serum Glycoside Concentrations in Digitalis Toxic Patients. Annals of Internal Medicine; 70 (5): 1080 ... Reduction of Digitalis Toxicity by Computer-Assisted Glycoside Dosage Regimens Annals of Internal Medicine; 77 (6): 891-906 ...
Cardiac glycosides. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system from Drugs-about.com includes all drugs ... Cardiac glycosides *C01AA - Digitalis glycosides*C01AB - Scilla glycosides*C01AC - Strophantus glycosides*C01AX - Other cardiac ... glycosides ATC Classification , Home Page , Sitemap , Terms & Conditions , Privacy Policy , Pharma Doctor , About Us , Contact ...
Any of several glycosides obtained chiefly from plant sources such as the foxglove, used medicinally to increase the force of ... n. Any of several glycosides obtained chiefly from plant sources such as the foxglove, used medicinally to increase the force ...
... cardiac glycosides explanation free. What is cardiac glycosides? Meaning of cardiac glycosides medical term. What does cardiac ... Looking for online definition of cardiac glycosides in the Medical Dictionary? ... Endogenous cardiac glycosides, a new class of steroid hormones.. Biosynthesis of endogenous cardiac glycosides by mammalian ... Cardiac Glycosides - Steroids + Fraction 2 Tannins - (Dark green) Alkaloids ++ Cardiac Glycosides + Steroids - Fraction 3 ...
Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are natural compounds used traditionally to treat congestive heart diseases. Recent investigations ... Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are natural compounds used traditionally to treat congestive heart diseases. Recent investigations ... Cardiac Glycoside Glucoevatromonoside Induces Cancer Type-Specific Cell Death. Naira F. Z. Schneider1†, Claudia Cerella2,3†, ... 2009). Cardiac glycosides inhibit p53 synthesis by a mechanism relieved by Src or MAPK inhibition. Cancer Res. 69, 6556-6564. ...
1. The cardiac glycoside ouabain, in concentrations ranging from 2 to 3 x 10-7, increases the oxygen uptake of slices of guinea ... METABOLIC ACTION OF THE CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES. I. INFLUENCE ON RESPIRATION OF HEART MUSCLE AND BRAIN CORTEX. ALBERT WOLLENBERGER ... METABOLIC ACTION OF THE CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of Pharmacology ... 7. These findings and conclusions are discussed in relation to the action of the cardiac glycosides in vivo. ...
Cardiac stimulants excluding cardiac glycosides. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system from Drugs- ... C01 - Cardiac therapy*C01C - Cardiac stimulants excluding cardiac glycosides *C01CA - Adrenergic and dopaminergic agents*C01CE ... C01CX - Other cardiac stimulants ATC Classification , Home Page , Sitemap , Terms & Conditions , Privacy Policy , Pharma Doctor ...
Cardiac Glycosides Exert Anticancer Effects by Inducing Immunogenic Cell Death Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ... Cardiac Glycosides Exert Anticancer Effects by Inducing Immunogenic Cell Death. By Laurie Menger, Erika Vacchelli, Sandy ... Cardiac Glycosides Exert Anticancer Effects by Inducing Immunogenic Cell Death. By Laurie Menger, Erika Vacchelli, Sandy ... Cardiac glycosides kill cancer cells in a way that stimulates the immune response. ...
How do cardiac glycosides cause cardiac dysrhythmias?. *How is poisoning with a natural occurring cardiac glycoside diagnosed? ... Cardiac glycosides bind to and inactive the Na+/K+ ATPase leading to increased force of contraction/positive inotropy (from ... Atropine antagonizes cardiac glycoside induced vagal activation, increasing heart rate. Doses of 0.5-1 mg are used first line, ... Cardiac glycosides bind to and inactive the Na+/K+ ATPase that extrudes sodium and imports potassium into cardiomyocytes. ...
BDNF Mediates Neuroprotection against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation by the Cardiac Glycoside Oleandrin. Michael J. Van Kanegan, ... BDNF Mediates Neuroprotection against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation by the Cardiac Glycoside Oleandrin ... BDNF Mediates Neuroprotection against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation by the Cardiac Glycoside Oleandrin ... BDNF Mediates Neuroprotection against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation by the Cardiac Glycoside Oleandrin ...
Cardiac glycosides , Cardiac therapy Brokerage service for pharmaceutical and parapharmaceutical products active ingredients ...
Antibiotics and Cardiac Glycosides May Be Effective Cancer Treatments. Share this content: *facebook ... "We need more research on drugs that target intracellular calcium signalling, such as cardiac glycosides and antibiotics. They ... These drugs were antibiotics and cardiac glycosides with previously unknown epigenetic actions. Calcium signaling was shown as ...
Sensitivity of cardiac muscle to digitalis glycosides depends on the thyroid state. The mechanism of this interaction was ... Effects of thyroid hormone on sodium pump sites, sodium content, and contractile responses to cardiac glycosides in cultured ... The increased tolerance of hyperthyroid cells and reduced tolerance of hypothyroid cells to cardiac glycosides can be explained ...
Cardiac glycosides. Class Summary. These drugs slow AV nodal conduction primarily by increasing vagal tone. They are used ... It has no effect on cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume index, or systemic vascular resistance in patients with ... The Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial. N Engl J Med. 1991 Mar 21. 324 (12):781-8. [Medline]. ... Left ventricular-based cardiac stimulation post AV nodal ablation evaluation (the PAVE study). J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. ...
Abstract 1089: Cardiac glycosides affect miRNA expression profiles in renal cell carcinoma cell lines. Elke Nolte, Sven Wach, ... Cardiac glycosides have come into the focus as potential cancer treatment option. They can have anti-proliferative and ... Cardiac glycosides affect miRNA expression profiles in renal cell carcinoma cell lines. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the ... Material and Methods: Four renal cell carcinoma cell lines were treated with three different cardiac glycosides in the IC50 ...
... cardiac glycosides particularly digoxin can be used for the treating congestive heart failure along with other cardiac ... disorders (1).05) Figure 1: Cardiac glycoside items of detoxified TSM... ... and cardiac glycosides (Lederer and Tsien 1976) in inotropy therapy.Tiny doses of cardiac glycosides increase the force of the ... Plant-derived cardiac glycosides particularly digoxin can be used for the treating congestive heart failure along with other ...
... cardiac glycoside-like compounds have been observed in mammals. Our recent study demonstrates that the cardiac glycoside ... Another intriguing aspect of the Na+-K+-ATPase is that it contains a binding site for cardiac glycosides, such as digoxin. ... Taken together, these results demonstrate that the cardiac glycoside binding of the Na+-K+-ATPase has a physiological role and ... and alpha2-isoforms of the Na+-K+-ATPase and biological significance of their cardiac glycoside binding site.. Dostanic-Larson ...
Glycoside Creatine Myopathy Cardiac Effect Muscle Weakness These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This ...
  • Digitalis and its derivatives such as digoxin and digitoxin are cardiac glycosides used typically in the therapy of congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation. (nih.gov)
  • Digitalis (dij" i tal' is), digoxin (di jox' in) and digitoxin (dij" i tox' in) are cardiac glycosides that enhance myocardial contractility, probably by increasing levels of myocardial cytosolic calcium because of inhibition of sodium-potassium ATPase. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro and ex vivo experiments have revealed that some cardiac glycosides (e.g., digitoxin) induce potent and selective anticancer effects [ 4 , 14 , 15 ], which may occur at concentrations commonly found in the plasma of patients treated with these drugs [ 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The prescription medicines deslanoside, digitoxin , and digoxin contain cardiac glycosides and are available only from a pharmacy. (wisegeek.com)
  • the glycosides of Digitalis purpurea (digitoxin, gitalin and gitoxin) and digoxin (from D. lanata ). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Digitoxin, a cardiac glycoside well appreciated in the treatment of congestive heart failure, has been poorly understood and appreciated as an anti-cancer therapeutic due to its narrow therapeutic potential. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A class of drugs recommended for individuals affected by irregular heartbeats or congestive heart failure, cardiac glycosides are the active ingredients in drugs such as digoxin, digitoxin, and deslanoside. (healthhearty.com)
  • The glycosides digoxin and digitoxin are extracted from the plant species Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis lanata and increase cardiac function and circulation. (hope.edu)
  • The cardiac glycoside, digitoxin or oleandrin, can be formulated for administration by injection or as an aerosol administered to the respiratory tract or by being ingested, or as nose drops or nasal spray. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the cardiac glycoside is selected from the group consisting of oleandrin and digitoxin. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 3. The method according to claim 2, wherein the cardiac glycoside is digitoxin. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 8. The method according to claim 7, wherein the cardiac glycoside comprises digitoxin administered to suppress inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The presence of endogenous cardiac glycosides, including marinobufagenin (MBG) 3 and endogenous ouabain (EO) 4 in the human circulation, should be taken into account. (ahajournals.org)
  • Similarly, longer term infusion of plant-derived ouabain (15 μg/kg per day for 18 weeks), at doses that just double the plasma levels (from 0.3 to 0.7 nmol/L), produced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recent high-throughput screenings of drug libraries have identified several cardiac glycosides (e.g., digoxin, ouabain, and bufalin) as potent inhibitors of cancer cell growth [ 17 - 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Eleven of these drugs were cardiac glycosides, including digoxin, ouabain, and proscillaridin A, which inhibited HIF-1α protein synthesis and expression of HIF-1 target genes in cancer cells. (pnas.org)
  • Strophanthin and ouabain are glycosides found in Strophanthus spp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the presence of pyruvate, the oxygen uptake of cardiac slices, which is high initially, is depressed by ouabain without preceding stimulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 3. The increase in the respiration of cardiac slices produced by ouabain is dependent upon the presence and concentration of appropriate substrate in the surrounding. (aspetjournals.org)
  • While knockout mice demonstrated the importance of the alpha1- and alpha2-isoforms for survival, the knockin mice, in which each isoform can be individually inhibited by ouabain and its function determined, demonstrated that both isoforms are regulators of cardiac muscle contractility. (nih.gov)
  • Our recent study demonstrates that the cardiac glycoside binding site of the Na+-K+-ATPase plays a role in the regulation of blood pressure and that it mediates both ouabain-induced and ACTH-induced hypertension in mice. (nih.gov)
  • To more fully define differences between agents indicative of multiple sites of action, we studied changes in contractility and action potential (AP) configuration in cat ventricular myocytes produced by six cardiac glycosides (ouabain, ouabagenin, dihydroouabain, actodigin, digoxin, and resibufogenin). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Molecular modeling suggests that ouabain, a cardiac glycoside, and MLB presumably bind to the same extracellular pocket of the Na+/K+-ATPase. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Moreover, MLB outperforms ouabain in cell toxicity, and thus has a great potential, with extensive clinical trials, to become a safe substitute for cardiac glycosides. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Several others have reported stimulating effects of low concentrations of cardiac glycosides on active Na/K transport in multicellular cardiac preparations, and also in the squid axon, it was noted that the inhibitory effect of ouabain on 22 Na efflux was preceded by an up to 20% stimulation possibly related to the low occupancy of the receptors in the early phase of exposure ( Baker and Willis, 1972 ). (rupress.org)
  • using whole-cell patch-clamp technique, have demonstrated that dihydro-ouabain and ouabain in the concentration range 10 −10 -10 −7 M stimulate the Na/K pump-mediated current in single cardiac myocytes obtained from guinea pigs, dogs, and human subjects. (rupress.org)
  • Crystal structure of NKA bound to the cardiac glycoside ouabain (PDB:4HYT). (elifesciences.org)
  • Estimated co-crystal structure of Drosophila melanogaster NKA bound to the cardiac glycoside (CG) ouabain. (elifesciences.org)
  • To more accurately define differences between cardiac glycoside agents and further evaluate cardiac glycoside structure-activity relationships, six cardiac glycosides (ouabain, ouabagenin, DHO, actodigin, digoxin, and resibufogenin) were chosen for electrophysiology and contractility studies in single cat ventricular myocytes. (moggling.com)
  • Impact of neonatal treatment with cardioactive glycosides (digoxin, ouabain) on receptor binding capacity, blood level and cardiac function in the adult rat. (elsevier.com)
  • A single neonatal treatment with a cardioactive glycoside (ouabain, digoxin) altered the response of the adult rat to digitaloid treatment. (elsevier.com)
  • these are the patients most often treated with digitalis glycosides. (ahajournals.org)
  • Sensitivity of cardiac muscle to digitalis glycosides depends on the thyroid state. (jci.org)
  • Since transmural electric stimulation causes contraction by release of tissue catecholamines, these experiments demonstrate that digitalis glycosides sensitize the cutaneous veins of the dog to adrenergic stimulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Digitalis glycosides are major tools for the identification of the Na/K ATPase as well as the Na/K fluxes mediated by this transport system. (rupress.org)
  • The fourth reason is that digitalis glycosides are present in plants scattered throughout farmland in North America and Europe. (aaccjnls.org)
  • the present article focuses on the effect of disease states (renal, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and cardiac) on the absorption, distribution, and clearance of a number of digitalis glycosides. (ebooks-downloads.net)
  • Cardiac glycosides containing the lactone 2-furanone are known as cardenolides and those containing the lactone 2-pyrone are known as bufadienolides (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Cardiac glycosides are divided into two main types: bufadienolides and cardenolides. (wisegeek.com)
  • While compounds of both groups can be used to influence the cardiac output of the heart, cardenolides are more commonly used medicinally, primarily due to the widespread availability of the plants from which they are derived. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardenolides belong to the group of cardiac glycosides (CG) and attracted much interest in preclinical anticancer research. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cardenolides are a chemical class within the cardiac glycosides, a group comprising two main classes of compounds which differ in the structure of their aglycone (Box 1, Fig. 1). (moggling.com)
  • Although the compounds of both groups can be used to influence the cardiac output of the heart, cardenolides are more commonly used in medicine. (arrhythmia.center)
  • If the lactone ring of a group such as cardenolides decays under the influence of alkali, then all the properties useful for cardiac muscles will simply cease to exist. (behealthiers.com)
  • Structure of cardenolides/cardiac glycosides. (gpatcrackers.com)
  • The "cardiotonic steroids" cause cardiac muscle to lose K + and gain Na + because they inhibit the Na + pump (Na + ,K + -ATPase), a plasma membrane protein, present in all cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • These compounds typically inhibit cancer cell proliferation at nanomolar concentrations, and recent high-throughput screenings of drug libraries have therefore identified cardiac glycosides as potent inhibitors of cancer cell growth. (hindawi.com)
  • Evidence also suggests, however, that cardiac glycosides may not inhibit cancer cell proliferation selectively and the potent inhibition of tumor growth induced by cardiac glycosides in mice xenografted with human cancer cells is probably an experimental artifact caused by their ability to selectively kill human cells versus rodent cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Cardiac glycosides, however, inhibit this pump by stabilizing it in the E2-P transition state, so that sodium cannot be extruded: intracellular sodium concentration therefore increases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac glycosides, including digoxin, inhibit the sodium-potassium-ATPase, resulting in increased intracellular sodium and increased extracellular potassium. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Cardiac glycosides are a diverse family of naturally derived compounds that bind to and inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cardiac glycosides inhibit the action of the sodium-potassium pump in cardiomyocytic sarcolem. (arrhythmia.center)
  • It is believed that cardiac glycosides inhibit this enzyme, which causes reduced sodium exchange with potassium. (healthhearty.com)
  • Disclosed is the use of a cardiac glycoside to decrease or inhibit the secretion of proinflammatory mediators in the treatment of disease conditions characterized by elevated levels of the proinflammatory mediator. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The cardiac glycoside is administered to a mammalian subject in need of such treatment, and dosage is adjusted to the mass of the recipient and the need of the recipient to reduce or inhibit the level of the proinflammatory mediator. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 7. The method according to claim 1, wherein the cardiac glycoside is administered to inhibit development of rheumatoid arthritis. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Once used as first-line agents for congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation, the cardiac glycosides have been replaced by agents that are better tolerated and have been shown to improve long term survival such as the ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers. (nih.gov)
  • The cardiac glycosides are now reserved largely for patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and atrial fibrillation or for patients with congestive heart failure in sinus rhythm and residual symptoms despite maximal alternative therapy. (nih.gov)
  • The cardiac glycosides are approved treatment of mild-to-moderate congestive heart failure and for control of the ventricular response rate in patients with atrial fibrillation. (nih.gov)
  • These drugs may be used in the treatment of congestive heart failure, cardiac arrhythmia , and atrial fibrillation and flutter. (wisegeek.com)
  • Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are natural compounds used traditionally to treat congestive heart diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Heart failure (HF), also known as congestive heart failure (CHF) or congestive cardiac failure (CCF), is the inability of the heart to provide sufficient pump action to distribute blood flow to meet the needs of the body. (silt3.com)
  • Cardiac glycosides are mainly prescribed for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmia and congestive heart failure. (healthhearty.com)
  • Cardiac steroids are widely used in the modern treatment of congestive heart failure and for treatment of atrial fibrillation and flutter. (brainstrom.org)
  • Lanatoside C (or isolanid) is a cardiac glycoside, a type of drug that can be used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat). (wikipedia.org)
  • Though it is believed that Egyptians and Romans were aware of the therapeutic properties of cardiac glycosides found in the foxglove plant, it is a British botanist, chemist, and physician named William Withering who is credited with the discovery of the foxglove plant. (healthhearty.com)
  • Though cardiac glycosides are still used for the treatment of atrial fibrillation and heart failure, it is also associated with toxicity. (healthhearty.com)
  • The main life-threatening clinical manifestation is cardiac toxicity. (calpoison.org)
  • Various other cardiac glycosides, including plants (e.g., oleander, lily of the valley, etc.) can cause cardiac glycoside toxicity. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Toxicity from herbal cardiac glycosides was well known by 1785, when William Whiting published his classic work describing the therapeutic use and toxicity of digitalis D purpurea. (arrhythmia.center)
  • The article published in this issue of Hypertension by Kennedy et al 5 is in keeping with the hypothesis of a new function of the endogenous cardiac glycosides. (ahajournals.org)
  • abstract = "A series of digitoxigenin glycosides was studied: five with β-D-sugars varying stepwise in sugar structure from β-D-digitoxose to β-D-galactose, including one β-D/α-D pair. (umn.edu)
  • Severe side effects include seizures and coma, heart block, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. (nih.gov)
  • Cardiac glycosides have been used for many years in the treatment of cardiac congestion and some types of cardiac arrhythmias. (hindawi.com)
  • Several cardiac glycosides are used in cardiology for the treatment of cardiac congestion and some types of cardiac arrhythmias. (hindawi.com)
  • this quality allows it to be widely used medicinally in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical prescription is the treatment of heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias. (arrhythmia.center)
  • The alterations in the ratio of intracellular and extracellular electrolytes caused by digoxin can result in increased automaticity and cardiac arrhythmias. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Cardiac arrhythmias and heart block can also occur with this poisoning. (wagwalking.com)
  • Following the monographs by STRAUB (1924) and LENDLE (1935), this is the third contribution to the "Pharmacology of Cardiac Glycosides" within the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, which was founded by ARTHUR HEFFTER and con- tinued by WOLFGANG HEUBNER. (springer.com)
  • Because of the need created by the length of time that had elapsed since LENDLE'S work, the editorial board requested the rapid ap- pearance of this 56th volume, which represents current knowledge of the pharma- cology and clinical pharmacology of cardiac glycosides. (springer.com)
  • be the pdf Cardiac Glycosides 1785-1985: Biochemistry - Pharmacology and engineering of good cognitive biophysics followed to the discovered software state during buildup light. (lumeneeringinnovations.com)
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  • Pharmacology of the cardiac glycosides is also of prime importance as they are the only class of drugs offering successful treatment of CHF. (gpatcrackers.com)
  • In the pharmacology, mechanism of action and drug interaction of cardiac glycosides plays an important role so should be dealt carefully. (gpatcrackers.com)
  • This is what a student is expected to study in the chemistry and pharmacology of the cardiac glycosides. (gpatcrackers.com)
  • Cardiac glycosides, also known as cardiotonic steroids, are a group of natural products that share a steroid-like structure with an unsaturated lactone ring and the ability to induce cardiotonic effects mediated by a selective inhibition of the Na + /K + -ATPase. (hindawi.com)
  • The mechanism by which these drugs affect cardiac contractility is thought to be mediated by a highly specific inhibition of the Na + /K + -ATPase pump [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cardiac glycosides are a class of organic compounds that increase the output force of the heart and increase its rate of contractions by acting on the cellular sodium-potassium ATPase pump. (wikipedia.org)
  • hellebore) Cardiac glycosides affect the sodium-potassium ATPase pump in cardiac muscle cells to alter their function. (wikipedia.org)
  • With regard to potassium ion movement, because both cardiac glycosides and potassium compete for binding to the ATPase pump, changes in extracellular potassium concentration can potentially lead to altered drug efficacy. (wikipedia.org)
  • By means of a fluorescence microscopy platform that allows for the automated detection of the biochemical hallmarks of such a peculiar cell death modality, we identified cardiac glycosides (CGs) as exceptionally efficient inducers of immunogenic cell death, an effect that was associated with the inhibition of the plasma membrane Na + - and K + -dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na + /K + -ATPase). (sciencemag.org)
  • Cardiac glycosides bind to and inactive the Na+/K+ ATPase that extrudes sodium and imports potassium into cardiomyocytes. (calpoison.org)
  • Physiological role of the alpha1- and alpha2-isoforms of the Na+-K+-ATPase and biological significance of their cardiac glycoside binding site. (nih.gov)
  • Another intriguing aspect of the Na+-K+-ATPase is that it contains a binding site for cardiac glycosides, such as digoxin. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, these results demonstrate that the cardiac glycoside binding of the Na+-K+-ATPase has a physiological role and suggests a function for a naturally occurring ligand that is stimulated by administration of ACTH. (nih.gov)
  • The therapeutic effect of cardiac glycosides lies in their reversible inhibition on the membrane-bound Na+/K+-ATPase in human myocardium. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Magnesium lithospermateB (MLB), a derivative of caffeic acid tetramer found in Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), is suggested to provide a comparable cardiac therapeutic effect by effectively inhibiting Na+/K+-ATPase via the same molecular mechanism triggered by cardiac glycosides. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Neuroprotective effects of cardiac glycosides and MLB against ischemic stroke have been observed, and cumulative data suggest that effective inhibitors of Na+/K+-ATPase in the brain may be potential drugs for the treatment of ischemic stroke. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Interaction of cardiac glycosides with (Na+ + K+)-activated ATPase. (aspetjournals.org)
  • I 50 values for these glycosides and digitoxigenin were determined with hog kidney Na + ,K + -ATPase. (umn.edu)
  • I50 values for these glycosides and digitoxigenin were determined with hog kidney Na+,K+-ATPase. (umn.edu)
  • These cardiac glycosides were also able to block tumor growth in mice xenotransplanted with human cancer cells, further supporting the idea that these compounds should be evaluated in cancer patients [ 17 - 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Most commonly found as secondary metabolites in several plants such as foxglove plants, these compounds nevertheless have a diverse range of biochemical effects regarding cardiac cell function and have also been suggested for use in cancer treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardioactive steroids or cardiac glycosides are naturally‐occurring compounds identified in various plant and animal species. (calpoison.org)
  • 200 many years, [1] and digoxin have been more commonly used of these compounds.Antidotes are only of prospective value into the remedy for flowers containing cardiac glycosides and the ones that present with cholinergic and anticholinergic toxidromes. (silt3.com)
  • In fact, cardiac glycoside-like compounds have been observed in mammals. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, recent studies on MLB seem to promote a paradigm shift of searching potential drugs for the treatment of cardiac diseases from steroid-like compounds to non-steroid ones. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Cardiac glycosides (SG) are a class of organic compounds that increase cardiac output and reduce the rate of contractions of the myocardium. (arrhythmia.center)
  • Jensen et al (2011) describe some novel synthetic cardiac glycoside compounds in a in-vitro cell line. (blogspot.com)
  • Earlier studies also reveal that the consumption of polyphenols and glycoside-rich compounds/plants will reduce the risk of hyperlipidemia [ 7 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This HealthHearty write-up provides information on the mechanism of action and side effects of cardiac glycosides. (healthhearty.com)
  • Cardiac glycosides decrease the hearts ability to pump calcium out of the cardiac cell so we get increased contractility of the heart. (antranik.org)
  • This leads to an increase in cardiac output (greater contractility and duration) in a failing heart. (antranik.org)
  • This inhibition causes activation of Na-Ca-exchanger and increase of intracellular Ca levels, which interact with contractile proteins of myocardial cells and increasing the contractility of cardiac muscle. (brainstrom.org)
  • The increased intracellular calcium in turn leads to increased release of Ca 2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and increased contractility of the cardiac muscle. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • This mimics aspects of the effect of cardiac glycosides, which are known to increase contractility through inhibition of NKA. (luc.edu)
  • The results implicate L30 as an important functional determinant and suggest that expression of L30A PLM could increase cardiac contractility while providing physiological reversibility of NKA inhibition. (luc.edu)
  • Cardiac glycosides, also known as cardiotonic steroids, are natural products with a steroid-like structure and an unsaturated lactone ring. (hindawi.com)
  • The biosynthesis of steroids and terpenoids were well-represented by unigenes in the subcategories of lipid metabolism and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, allowing the effective identification of cardiac glycoside biosynthesis-related genes in D. purpurea (Figure 3B, C). (moggling.com)
  • Plants containing cardiac steroids have been used as poisons and heart drugs at least since 1500 B.C. Throughout history these plants or their extracts have been variously used as arrow poisons, emetics, diuretics, and heart tonics. (brainstrom.org)
  • Plants containing cardiac glycosides include Christmas rose, the highly toxic foxglove , and lily of the valley. (wisegeek.com)
  • The ancient Egyptians and Romans first used plants containing cardiac glycosides as medicines to help with heart diseases. (arrhythmia.center)
  • Furthermore, a group of cardiac glycosides were found to have strong cytotoxicity selected breast cancer cell lines. (ku.edu)
  • In early times, it is assumed that all parts of the oleander plant are highly toxic to humans, animals, and certain insects due to the presence of cardiac glycosides mainly nerine and oleandrin at higher concentration [ 12 , 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Recent data suggest that cardiac glycosides may also be useful in the treatment of cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • These studies highlight the effectiveness of using iPSCs to screen for potential treatments for inborn errors of hepatic metabolism and suggest that cardiac glycosides could provide an approach for reducing hepatocyte production of apoB and treating hypercholesterolemia. (elsevier.com)
  • There is increasing evidence that cardiac glycosides act through mechanisms distinct from inhibition of the sodium pump but which may contribute to their cardiac actions. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thus, there is good evidence that cardiac glycosides at low concentrations within a few minutes elicit up to 35 ± 10% stimulation of the Na/K pump in cardiac myocytes. (rupress.org)
  • Hence, stimulation of active Na/K transport arising from an increased population of Na/K pump seems to be an unlikely response to low concentrations of cardiac glycosides in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • While certain threshold amounts are dangerous, the tiny concentrations of cardiac glycosides have their applications in clinically controlled treatment of heart diseases and other disorders. (ku.dk)
  • Cardiac glycosides have a positive inotropic action, which means that these drugs can improve the heart's strength of contraction. (healthhearty.com)
  • In young offspring of hypertensive individuals, plasma EO levels positively correlate with certain indexes of diastolic cardiac dysfunction that precede the development of hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
  • Effects of thyroid hormone on sodium pump sites, sodium content, and contractile responses to cardiac glycosides in cultured chick ventricular cells. (jci.org)
  • idiopathic cardiac myopathies), ischemic cardiovascular illnesses that leads to myocardial infarctions effecting left ventricular purpose (eg. (silt3.com)
  • Long-term (chronic) poisoning can occur in people who take cardiac glycosides every day. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Older people are especially likely to suffer from problems of long-term (chronic) cardiac glycoside poisoning. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ingestion of naturally occurring cardiac glycosides produces a clinically picture very similar to that of digitalis poisoning. (calpoison.org)
  • How is poisoning with a natural occurring cardiac glycoside diagnosed? (calpoison.org)
  • Human exposure to naturally occurring cardiac glycosides may result from accidental ingestion, intentional ingestion, ingestion of medicinal preparations, and criminal poisoning. (calpoison.org)
  • Therefore, the management of patients with severe cardiac glycoside poisoning is generally difficult and costly in countries with limited resources. (calpoison.org)
  • Intravenous administration of cotyledoside to anaesthetized guinea-pigs resulted in: dyspnoea, increased heart rates and blood pressures, and electrocardiagraphic changes typical of cardiac glycoside poisoning. (up.ac.za)
  • The syndrome induced by acute cotyledoside poisoning is similar to that of other cardiac glycosides, but the paretic signs of chronic intoxication resemble "krimpsiekte", a disease associated only with intoxication with the plants of the family Crassulaceae. (up.ac.za)
  • Cardiac glycoside-containing plants, collectively, is the single most important plant poisoning in South Africa. (angoras.co.za)
  • Cardiac glycoside poisoning involved in deaths from traditional medicines. (heilpflanzen-welt.de)
  • It is concluded that in patients presenting with gastro-intestinal symptoms, presumably due to poisoning by traditional medicines, cardiac glycoside poisoning should be suspected. (heilpflanzen-welt.de)
  • What is Cardiac Glycoside Poisoning? (wagwalking.com)
  • There are eleven different plant families that are contributed to cardiac glycoside poisoning. (wagwalking.com)
  • Cardiac glycoside poisoning in horses is a potentially fatal condition. (wagwalking.com)
  • Veterinary assistance is required immediately if you suspect that your horse has ingested any plants that can cause cardiac glycoside poisoning. (wagwalking.com)
  • Quick treatment is essential when cardiac glycoside poisoning is suspected. (wagwalking.com)
  • Preventing cardiac glycoside poisoning is the only way to ensure that your horse will not be affected by these plants. (wagwalking.com)
  • If you suspect that your horse is suffering from cardiac glycoside poisoning, you must contact your veterinarian immediately for an emergency visit. (wagwalking.com)
  • Your veterinarian will begin treatments immediately if your horse is diagnosed with cardiac glycoside poisoning. (wagwalking.com)
  • Your horse's prognosis is very guarded when diagnosed with cardiac glycoside poisoning. (wagwalking.com)
  • milkweed): oleandrin Adonis vernalis (Spring pheasant's eye): adonitoxin Kalanchoe daigremontiana and other Kalanchoe species: daigremontianin Erysimum cheiranthoides (wormseed wallflower) and other Erysimum species some species of Chrysolina beetles, including Chrysolina coerulans, have cardiac glycosides (including Xylose) in their defensive glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cardiac glycoside Oleandrin is named under a blossoming plant oleander which synthesizes this chemical as a secondary metabolite and has been known for its toxic effects for centuries. (ku.dk)
  • Oleandrin is a powerful cardiac glycoside found in the leafs, fruits and the sap of the oleander plants. (ku.dk)
  • To understand the mechanism of action of cardiac glycosides, let's first understand the processes involved in the contraction of the heart. (healthhearty.com)
  • Q48: Please describe the action of cardiac glycosides? (brainstrom.org)
  • n.pl steroidal phytochemicals that have a history of use as cardiac medicines, including digitalis and lily of the valley. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Unfortunately, the utilization of steroidal cardiac glycosides suffers some severe adverse side effects. (eurekaselect.com)
  • These are the glycosides which consists aglycone which is steroidal in nature with α-β unsaturated lactone ring at C-17 position and shows slowing and strengthening effect on failing heart. (moggling.com)
  • Cardiac glycoside overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Symptoms of cardiac glycoside overdose vary. (wisegeek.com)
  • Similarly, an overdose of digoxin or other drugs that contain cardiac glycosides can have an adverse effect on the user's health. (healthhearty.com)
  • Symptoms of overdose of cardiac glycosides can increase slowly or rapidly. (vsebolezni.com)
  • Cardiac glycoside with direct inotropic effects in addition to indirect effects on cardiovascular system. (medscape.com)
  • In the pharmaceutical nomenclature, there are certain types of medicinal plants, from which cardiac glycosides are made-preparations that improve the functioning of the cardiovascular system. (behealthiers.com)
  • When your horse ingests parts of a plant that contain cardiac glycoside four organ systems are affected: the gastrointestinal tract, the cardiovascular system, the neuromuscular system and the respiratory system. (wagwalking.com)
  • Acts directly on cardiac muscle, increasing myocardial systolic contractions. (medscape.com)
  • cardiac glycosides in 1985 are considered tobe the basis for medical treatment of myocardial failure, together with diuretics and vasodilators in the more severe cases. (ebooks-downloads.net)
  • Digoxin, derived from Digitalis lanatus, was introduced as having more reliable pharmacokinetics and remains the major form of cardiac glycosides used today. (nih.gov)
  • The treatment of cardiac failure is complicated by the difficulty in determining the optimal therapeutic response and undesirable side-effects. (springer.com)
  • These drugs can increase cardiac output, but there is a risk of serious side effects. (arrhythmia.center)
  • In individuals affected by heart failure, these drugs can cause a reduction of the size of the heart in diastole, which can increase cardiac output. (healthhearty.com)
  • This paper reviews such evidence and discusses experimental approaches that could be used to reveal the cancer therapeutic potential of cardiac glycosides in preclinical studies. (hindawi.com)
  • Other cardiac glycosides are present in the skin of toads ( Bufo maritimus , B. vulgaris ), but are of toxicological rather than therapeutic interest. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cardiac glycosides as novel cancer therapeutic agents. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 2) The presence of Alpha & Beta unsaturated lactone ring increases the activity of Cardiac Glycosides, but if we make it saturated the Cardiac glycosides will lose its activity. (moggling.com)
  • 2 ) describe studies that support the possibility of de novo biosynthesis, in the adrenal, of a material whose overall physicochemical, immunocrossreactive, and chromatographic characteristics are indistinguishable from those of the cardiac glycoside (CG) digoxin and its dihydro analog (in which the lactone ring is fully saturated). (aaccjnls.org)
  • We have already spoken about the lactone ring, which is of considerable importance in cardiac glycocytes. (behealthiers.com)
  • The second group contains cardinolides - glycosides, in which the lactone ring is five-membered. (behealthiers.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Cardiac Glycosides. (umn.edu)
  • The different duration of the cardiac and central effects of digitalis preparations may be caused by different élimination rates of both tissue compartments. (springer.com)
  • All-natural plant analogs of todays contemporary glycoside preparations being utilized for at the very least 3, 000 many years. (silt3.com)
  • Preparations containing glycosides. (behealthiers.com)
  • Let's consider the basic preparations favorably acting on cardiac activity, and containing in itself aglycons. (behealthiers.com)
  • The cardiac glycosides have not been linked to serum enzyme elevations during therapy or with instances of clinically apparent liver injury. (nih.gov)
  • Serum Glycoside Concentrations in Digitalis Toxic Patients. (annals.org)
  • Here, we have used hepatocyte-like cells generated from homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (hoFH) iPSCs to identify drugs that can potentially be repurposed to lower serum LDL-C. We found that cardiac glycosides reduce the production of apolipoprotein B (apoB) from human hepatocytes in culture and the serum of avatar mice harboring humanized livers. (elsevier.com)
  • Analyses of patient medical records revealed that the treatment of patients with cardiac glycosides reduced serum LDL-C levels. (elsevier.com)
  • The report then estimates 2016-2021 market development trends of Cardiac glycosides industry. (marketstudyreport.com)
  • Tables and Figures Figure Cardiac glycosides Product Picture Table Development of Cardiac glycosides Manufacturing Technology Figure Manufacturing Process of Cardiac glycosides Table Trends of Cardiac glycosides Manufacturing Technology Figure Company A Cardiac glycosides Product and Specifications Table 2011-2016 Company A Cardiac glycosides Product Capacity, Production, and Production Value etc. (marketstudyreport.com)
  • List Figure 2011-2016 Company A Cardiac glycosides Capacity Production and Growth Rate Figure 2011-2016 Company A Cardiac glycosides Production Global Market Share Figure Company B Cardiac glycosides Product and Specifications Table 2011-2016 Company B Cardiac glycosides Product Capacity, Production, and Production Value etc. (marketstudyreport.com)
  • List Figure 2011-2016 Company G Cardiac glycosides Capacity Production and Growth Rate Figure 2011-2016 Company G Cardiac glycosides Production Global Market Share Figure Company H Cardiac glycosides Product and Specifications Table 2011-2016 Company H Cardiac glycosides Product Capacity, Production, and Production Value etc. (marketstudyreport.com)
  • The first of these lectures is devoted to the importance of sugars in the plant economy and the classification of glycosides including a series of definitions of terms. (annals.org)
  • Structural and sequence-based classification of glycoside hydrolases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Caution in using drugs such as beta-blockers, anti-hypertensives and/or cardiac glycosides is advised. (drugs.com)
  • Drug interactions of ProAmatine include other medications that may also reduce the heart rate such as cardiac glycosides, tricyclic antidepressants , beta blockers , and other agents because ProAmatine may cause a decrease in the heart rate. (medicinenet.com)
  • Any of several glycosides obtained chiefly from plant sources such as the foxglove, used medicinally to increase the force of contraction of heart muscle and to regulate heartbeats. (wordnik.com)
  • Korglikon" - a drug containing several glycosides made from leaves of the lily of the valley.1ml of the substance contains 1.8-2.2 KED.The liquid is clear, bitter. (behealthiers.com)
  • The quantitative differences between cardiac glycosides suggest that mechanisms independent of sodium pump inhibition may result from an altered threshold for calcium overload possibly involving direct or indirect effects on calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cardiac glycosides are medicines for treating heart failure and certain irregular heartbeats. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If taking cardiac glycosides, began to appear the first signs of intoxication, you should immediately stop taking these medicines, and call an ambulance . (vsebolezni.com)
  • We learned about a group of medicines called "cardiac glycosides".These drugs are very strong in their effects on the body. (behealthiers.com)
  • Read Now Cardiac Glycosides 1785 1985 by E. Erdmann and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. (ebooks-downloads.net)
  • The increased tolerance of hyperthyroid cells and reduced tolerance of hypothyroid cells to cardiac glycosides can be explained by these changes in the number of sodium pump sites and cellular sodium content, and consequently, calcium influx via sodium-calcium exchange. (jci.org)
  • The most important substance in cardiac glycosides is aglycone. (behealthiers.com)
  • Besides the foxglove plant, cardiac glycosides also occur naturally in plants such as Lily-of-the-Valley and oleander , among several others. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are multiple naturally occurring cardiac glycosides including Lily of the Valley ( Convallaria majalis) , Squill ( Drimia maritima) , Foxglove ( Digitalis sp ), Common Oleander ( Nerium oleander) , and the Cane Toad ( Rhinella marina) . (calpoison.org)
  • In this lecture also the specific glycosides of digitalis and strophanthin are discussed. (annals.org)
  • Yellow oleander seeds contain a variety of cardiac glycosides including thevetoxin, thevetin A and B and neriifolin. (calpoison.org)
  • The cardiac glycosides can be found in plants such as for instance Milkweed, Lilly associated with Valley, the Oleander plant, as well as in the Foxglove plant. (silt3.com)
  • Nerium oleander Linn is one such polyphenol- and glycoside-rich evergreen shrub belonging to the Apocynaceae, an important Chinese folk medicine [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Material and Methods: Four renal cell carcinoma cell lines were treated with three different cardiac glycosides in the IC50 concentrations during 72h. (aacrjournals.org)