C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include DIGITOXIN and DIGOXIN and their derivatives and the STROPHANTHINS.
A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. It is a very poisonous plant that contains cardioactive agents.
The dogbane family of the order Gentianales. Members of the family have milky, often poisonous juice, smooth-margined leaves, and flowers in clusters. Asclepiadacea (formerly the milkweed family) has been included since 1999 and before 1810.
The milkweed plant family of the order Gentianales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes many tropical herbs and shrubby climbers; most with milky juice. Flowers have five united petals. Fruits are podlike, usually with tufted seeds.
The aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES. The ring structure is basically a cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene nucleus attached to a lactone ring at the C-17 position.
A genus of toxic herbaceous Eurasian plants of the Plantaginaceae which yield cardiotonic DIGITALIS GLYCOSIDES. The most useful species are Digitalis lanata and D. purpurea.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain cardenolide oligoglycosides such as adoniside, adonisidum and alepposide.
A plant family of the order Celastrales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. They are found in BUFONIDAE and often possess cardiotonic properties.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
A cardiac glycoside sometimes used in place of DIGOXIN. It has a longer half-life than digoxin; toxic effects, which are similar to those of digoxin, are longer lasting. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p665)
Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.
A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Alpha- or beta-acetyl derivatives of DIGOXIN or lanatoside C from Digitalis lanata. They are better absorbed and longer acting than digoxin and are used in congestive heart failure.
Cardioactive derivatives of lanatoside A or of DIGITOXIN. They are used for fast digitalization in congestive heart failure.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE that contains OUABAIN cardiac glycosides.
A carbamate insecticide with anticholinesterase activity.
3 beta,14-Dihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digitoxin. Synonyms: Cerberigenin; Echujetin; Evonogenin; Thevetigenin.
A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. Members contain thevetin.
Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE that is a short plant with a distinct whorl of 3 broad leaves.
A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE. This is the true milkweed; APOCYNUM & EUPHORBIA hirta are rarely called milkweed. Asclepias asthmatica has been changed to TYLOPHORA.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A plant genus of the family BORAGINACEAE. Members contain TRITERPENES and naphthoxirene.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE with strong-smelling foliage. It is a source of SANTONIN and other cytotoxic TERPENES.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
The reproductive organs of plants.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
Facilities which provide information concerning poisons and treatment of poisoning in emergencies.

A probable relationship between an endogenous digitalis-like substance and concentric cardiac hypertrophy in primary aldosteronism. (1/165)

A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to severe hypertension. An electrocardiogram (ECG) and an echocardiogram showed severe left ventricular hypertrophy. Her plasma aldosterone level was elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small mass in the right adrenal gland. Before removal of the tumor, plasma endogenous digitalis-like substance (EDLS) levels were elevated. After removal of the tumor, EDLS levels quickly returned to the normal level. A series of echocardiograms and ECGs over a 6- year period after removal of the tumor showed marked regression of cardiac hypertrophy. These findings suggest that EDLS may be closely related to the development of concentric cardiac hypertrophy in primary aldosteronism.  (+info)

Increases in plasma ouabainlike immunoreactivity during surgical extirpation of pheochromocytoma. (2/165)

The ouabainlike factor (OLF) is thought to be an important modulator of salt and water metabolism. Plasma OLF could be derived from the central nervous system and/or the adrenal gland. Since the adrenal medulla is of neural origin, the cytology of pheochromocytoma of adrenomedullary origin resembles that of neuronal cells. Ouabainlike immunoreactivity (OLI) is, in fact, present in the adrenal medulla as shown by immunohistochemistry. The plasma levels of catecholamines and OLI were significantly elevated during surgical extirpation of pheochromocytoma in this case. To clarify the origin of circulating OLI in a patient with pheochromocytoma, the relationship between plasma OLI and catecholamines during adrenalectomy was investigated. Plasma catecholamine levels exceeded the normal reference interval, and plasma OLI was positively correlated with the patient's plasma level of norepinephrine. The peak level during operation was about 10 times higher than the baseline level. Both levels reached a maximum when the tumor was mechanically pressed, and then gradually decreased thereafter. The level of OLI in the tumor was higher than that of the normal adrenal cortex. When OLI in the tumor was characterized by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, the retention time of OLI corresponded with that of authentic ouabain. These results suggest that the circulating OLI in this patients was derived mainly from the pheochromocytoma of adrenomedullary origin.  (+info)

Brain "ouabain" and angiotensin II contribute to cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction. (3/165)

In chronic heart failure (CHF), sympathetic activity increases in parallel with the impairment of left ventricle (LV) function, and sympathetic hyperactivity has been postulated to contribute to the progression of heart failure. In the brain, compounds with ouabain-like activity ("ouabain," for brevity) and the renin-angiotensin system contribute to sympathetic hyperactivity in rats with CHF after myocardial infarction (MI). In the present studies, we assessed whether, in rats, chronic blockade of brain "ouabain" or the brain renin-angiotensin system inhibits the post-MI LV dysfunction. In rats, an MI was induced by acute coronary artery ligation. At either 0.5 or 4 wk post-MI, chronic treatment with Fab fragments for blocking brain "ouabain" or with losartan for blocking brain AT(1) receptors was started and continued until 8 wk post-MI using osmotic minipumps connected to intracerebroventricular cannulas. At 8 wk post-MI, in conscious rats, LV pressures were measured at rest and in response to volume and pressure overload, followed by LV passive pressure-volume curves in vitro. At 8 wk post-MI, control MI rats exhibited clear increases in LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) at rest and in response to pressure and volume overload. LV pressure-volume curves in vitro showed a marked shift to the right. Intravenous administration of the Fab fragments or losartan at rates used for central blockade did not affect these parameters. In contrast, chronic central blockade with either Fab fragments or losartan significantly lowered LVEDP at rest (only in 0.5- to 8-wk groups) and particularly in response to pressure or volume overload. LV dilation, as assessed from LV pressure-volume curves, was also significantly inhibited. These results indicate that chronic blockade of brain "ouabain" or brain AT(1) receptors substantially inhibits development of LV dilation and dysfunction in rats post-MI.  (+info)

Sodium pump inhibition and regional expression of sodium pump alpha-isoforms in lens. (4/165)

Both hypertension and cataract formation have been associated with reductions in sodium pump activity, possibly as a result of an endogenous inhibitor. The objective of the present study was to answer 4 closely related questions: (1) Is the lens sodium pump effectively inhibited by a labile, digitalis-like factor we have identified in the peritoneal dialysate from hypertensive patients in end-stage renal failure? (2) How does that inhibition compare to that induced by ouabain? (3) Does sodium pump isoform distribution determine the degree of lens sodium pump inhibition? (This question was precipitated by the unanticipated finding that the labile DLF was more effective in inhibiting lens sodium pump than was anticipated.) (4) Is sodium pump activity altered in lens in response to increased salt intake, a maneuver known to increase endogenous digitalis-like factor? We found that whereas ouabain produced equivalent or significantly less inhibition of lens Na(+), K(+)-ATPase from calf or rabbit, respectively, compared with brain, labile digitalis-like factor preferentially inhibited lens compared with brain. Analysis of whole-lens preparations from rabbit, calf, and normal human lens revealed substantial alpha2- and alpha3-isoforms of the sodium pump but little alpha1-isoform. Ouabain inhibition of whole-lens Na(+),K(+)-ATPase from rabbit and calf were comparable: for rabbit lens, K(i)=5.2x10(-7) mol/L; for calf lens, K(i)=1.0x10(-6) mol/L. Limited quantities of labile digitalis-like factor prohibited similar determinations; however, its concentration-activity profile paralleled that of ouabain. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, measured in the 3 major anatomic regions of lens and normalized to nucleus, was greatest in epithelium (56. 9+/-17.9) compared with cortex (5.8+/-1.4) and nucleus (1.0+/-0.0; P=0.01). Immunohistochemistry of rabbit lens found abundant alpha2- and alpha3-isoforms in epithelium and limited alpha3 but undetectable alpha1 in cortex and nucleus. Finally, rats randomized to a high Na diet showed significantly reduced lens Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity compared with those on a low Na diet, consistent with the effects of a sodium pump inhibitor. In conclusion, the present study suggests that digitalis-like factor may provide a link between hypertension and cataract formation.  (+info)

Recent aspects in the genetic renal mechanisms involved in hypertension. (5/165)

The kidney plays an important role in the blood pressure regulation primarily by modulating tubular sodium reabsorption. Various hormones, vasoactive peptides, autacoids and transporters or channels in renal tubules are involved in this process. Genes associated with renal tubular sodium handling are possibly related to the development of hypertension. Genes of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are thought to be especially important as causal genes of hypertension. Na-K-ATPase, biochemically equal to Na pump, exists on the basolateral membrane of renal epithelial cells. It plays a central role in Na reabsorption and creates a driving force for transepithelial transport. Na-K-ATPase activity is regulated by adducin, a membrane-bound skeletal protein, as well as by several hormones such as dopamine, endogenous ouabain-like factor or cytochrome P450 metabolites. Genes of these factors involved in Na-K-ATPase regulation should be related to the development of hypertension. The endothelin system, atrial natriuretic peptide and nitric oxide regulate the tonus of blood vessels as well as renal sodium excretion. Several reports have indicated that genes of these substances are crucial in the pathogenesis of hypertension.  (+info)

Increased digitalis-like immunoreactive substances in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (6/165)

AIMS: Although increased digitalis-like immunoreactive substances have been found in cases of hypertension and heart failure, no information is available about digitalis-like immunoreactive substances in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We investigated digitalis-like immunoreactive substances in the plasma and biopsied specimens of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 40 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (27 with the non-obstructive type and 13 with the obstructive type), the plasma concentration of digitalis-like immunoreactive substances was studied by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy specimens were analysed immunohistochemically, using a monoclonal antibody against digoxin. An increase in digitalis-like immunoreactive substances of more than 0.2 ng. ml(-1)in plasma was found in six of 27 patients with non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (22.2%) and five of 13 with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (38.4%). Under light microscopy, positive staining against the antibody was observed heterogeneously on some cardiocytes. In non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, digitalis-like immunoreactive substances in the plasma correlated with the left atrial dimension and inversely with the cardiac index. In obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, plasma and myocardial digitalis-like immunoreactive substances were positively correlated; they also correlated with left ventricular end-diastolic pressures. Under electron microscopy, digitalis-like immunoreactive substances were detected at the sarcolemma in the free wall, T-tubules, intercalated discs and Z-bands of cardiocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Increased digitalis-like immunoreactive substances in plasma and cardiocytes, which may have been caused by pressure and/or volume overload, were found in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Digitalis-like immunoreactive substances may act on the sarcolemma of cardiocytes and be transported into the cytoplasm.  (+info)

Interleukin-13 prevents diaphragm muscle deterioration in a septic animal model. (7/165)

The effects of an intravenous injection of Interleukin-13 (IL-13) after endotoxin administration on diaphragm muscle were studied using Wistar rats. Two treatment groups, a control (saline+endotoxin) group and an IL-13 (IL-13+endotoxin) group were studied. E. coli endotoxin (10 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 5 minutes after saline or IL-13 (0.25 microg) injection. The force-frequency curves, twitch kinetics and fatigability were measured at 0 and 4 hours after endotoxin injection. The force-frequency curves and twitch tension in the control group were significantly lower at 4 hours than those at 0 hour due to endotoxin. On the other hand, IL-13 prevented the decrement of the force-frequency curves and twitch tension induced by endotoxin. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) diaphorase histochemistry showed positive staining at 4 hours due to endotoxin in the control group; however, IL-13 also blocked NADPH diaphorase staining at 4 hours. Furthermore, the positive muscle fibers detected by the NADPH diaphorase staining were classified as type I (slow twitch) muscle fibers by ATPase staining. We conclude that IL-13 prevents the deterioration of contraction induced by endotoxin by inhibiting nitric oxide production in the diaphragm muscle, mainly the type I muscle fibers.  (+info)

Cardiac glycosides stimulate Ca2+ increases and apoptosis in androgen-independent, metastatic human prostate adenocarcinoma cells. (8/165)

Cardiac glycosides are used clinically to increase contractile force in patients with cardiac disorders. Their mechanism of action is well established and involves inhibition of the plasma membrane Na+/K+-ATPase, leading to alterations in intracellular K+ and Ca(2+) levels. Here, we report that the cardiac glycosides oleandrin, ouabain, and digoxin induce apoptosis in androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Cell death was associated with early release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, followed by proteolytic processing of caspases 8 and 3. Oleandrin also promoted caspase activation, detected by cleavage poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and hydrolysis of a peptide substrate (DEVD-pNA). Comparison of the rates of apoptosis in poorly metastatic PC3 M-Pro4 and highly metastatic PC3 M-LN4 subclones demonstrated that cell death was delayed in the latter because of a delay in mitochondrial cytochrome c release. Single-cell imaging of intracellular Ca(2+) fluxes demonstrated that the proapoptotic effects of the cardiac glycosides were linked to their abilities to induce sustained Ca(2+) increases in the cells. Our results define a novel activity for cardiac glycosides that could prove relevant to the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.  (+info)

1. Endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactivity (EDLI) was measured by radioimmunoassay for digoxin in 13 paired samples of arterial and venous umbilical cord serum. EDLI was present in vein and artery, but was higher in the venous samples (P , 0.025).. 2. The venous cord serum inhibited the ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux rate constant of a normal mixed leucocyte population when compared with the effect of arterial cord serum (P , 0.005).. 3. It is suggested that the placenta may be involved in the production or metabolism of neonatal EDLI and of the inhibitor of sodium transport. ...
Cardenolide is a type of steroid. Many plants contain derivatives, collectively known as cardenolides, including many in the form of cardenolide glycosides (cardenolides that contain structural groups derived from sugars). Cardenolide glycosides are often toxic; specifically, they are heart-arresting. The term derives card- heart (from Greek καρδία kardiā) and the suffix -enolide, referring to the lactone ring at C17. It should not be confused with cardanolides. Cardanolides are a class of steroids (or aglycones if viewed as cardiac glycoside constituents), and cardenolides are a subtype of this class (see MeSH D codes list). Cardenolides are C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone (specifically a butenolide) at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of cardiac glycosides and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include: acetyldigitoxins acetyldigoxins cymarine digitoxin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A digoxin-like factor associates with erythrocyte sodium concentration, sodium transport, and ouabain binding. AU - Hunt, Steven. AU - Wu, Lily L.. AU - Stults, Barry M.. AU - Williams, Roger R.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - To investigate what effects a circulating digoxin-like factor (DLF) might have on sodium metabolism, we examined data collected on 1,327 individuals screened in the Cardiovascular Genetics Clinic at the University of Utah. This sample included 639 unmedicated adults, 582 youths under age 18, and 106 medicated hypertensive individuals, all on an unrestricted diet when attending clinic. No individuals took digitalis. A digoxin assay detected measurable levels of plasma DLF in 13.4% of the youths, 17.2% of the normotensive adults, and 25.5% of the hypertensive adults. In all three groups of individuals, those with a measurable DLF had a significantly lower erythrocyte ouabain sensitive sodium efflux rate constant (adjusted for age, sex and body mass) than those ...
Recent studies have pointed to the existence of an endogenous digoxin-like immuno-active factor (DLIF), which may be associated with hypertension and pre-eclampsia. The DLIF levels in the umbilical venous and umbilical arterial blood of neonates, as well as the maternal serum of primigravidas and multigravidas with and without pre-eclampsia, were determined by means of a commercially available radioimmunoassay kit, which is cross-reactive with DLIF, in 44 mothers and their babies in search for a possible placental, fetal or maternal origin of the DLIF. The mean placental and neonatal masses were significantly lower in the pre-eclampsia group than in the control group (P , 0,01). However, the DLIF levels in the maternal serum, umbilical cord venous and umbilical cord arterial serum were statistically significantly higher in the pre-eclampsia group than in the control pregnant group (P , 0,05). A very strong correlation was found between umbulical cord venous and arterial DLIF levels (r = 0,90; P ...
What is the definition of oleandrin? What is the meaning of oleandrin? How do you use oleandrin in a sentence? What are synonyms for oleandrin?
Nonoliguric hyperkalemia of premature infants probably results from a transient inhibition of membrane-bound Na+/K+-ATPase during the first 24 h after birth. We hypothesized that the endogenous digitalis-like activity of the serum of premature infants, which inhibits the Na+/K+-ATPase, triggered hyperkalemia. Serum concentrations of potassium ([K+]) and of the digoxin-like immunoreactive ...
Knowledge of the details of migration is relatively recent. Their lifecycle was proven by chemical analysis of their cardenolides, the toxic substance the larvae acquire from feeding on milkweed. There are differences in the chemical fingerprint of the cardenolides. Studies showed that the chemical found in wintering butterflies and those first heading north from Mexico was distinctive, produced only in milkweed plants from the Northern US and Canada. Their wintering grounds werent even discovered until 1975 ...
Exposure of PC-3 cells to UNBS5162 (1 µM for 5 successive days) dramatically decreases the expression of the proangiogenic CXCL chemokines. UNBS5162 displays weak in vitro antiproliferative activity with IC50 values of 17.3 μM, 16 μM, 4.7 μM, 8.5 μM, 28.8 μM, 8.9 μM, 46.5 μM, 21.2 μM, 9.1 μM in PC-3, DU-145, U373-MG, Hs683, HCT-15, LoVo, MCF-7, A549 and Bx-PC-3 cells. At 10 µM UNBS5162 markedly impairs PC-3 tumor cell growth kinetics, without inducing senescence, whereas the reverse feature is observed with respect to DU-145 cells. This difference might result from their respective p53 status and/or the extent of p16 expression. At 1 µM, UNBS5162 induces no such antitumor effects. UNBS5162 at 10 µM markedly increased the levels of heterochromatin in PC-3 cells through an increase in number of histones, at least at the mRNA levels[1]. UNBS5162 has been identified to decrease levels of CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) chemokines, including CXCL1, CXCL5 and CXCL8, in experimental prostate ...
The lungs of newborn rats exposed to 60% O(2) for 14 d were found to have a greatly increased cyanide-insensitive O(2… Expand ...
Figure 3. Uptake of fluorescent oleandrin analogue (BODIPY-oleandrin) by living cells. A, concentration-dependent uptake of oleandrin within BxPC-3 human pancreatic cells was observed at concentrations as high as 50 nmol/L over the 24 h observation period. In contrast, drug uptake was easily noted within Panc-1 cells with concentrations as low as 5 nmol/L. B, time-dependent uptake of oleandrin was evident in Panc-1 cells as early as 2 h, whereas at 24 h, nearly all cells contained marked concentrations of the drug. In contrast, no drug is observed in BxPC3 cells. Living cells were counterstained with MitoTracker orange CM-H2XRos (red) to detect viable mitochondria and DAPI, which is excluded from viable cells with intact plasma membranes. More yellow signals indicate where mitochondria and BODIPY-oleandrin colocalize. DAPI uptake was minimal over this 2-h timeframe. Insets, a higher magnification of representative cells. ...
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Application of [14C]-progesterone to the leaves of Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae) resulted in the formation of [14C]-digitoxigenin and [14C]-oleandrigenin glycosides; the labelled aglycones were obtained after hydrolysis from the cardenolide extract. Both radioactive cardenolide aglycones were further transformed by the leaves of Nerium oleander L. to the corresponding 3-O-β-glucosides digitoxigenin glucoside and oleandrigenin glucoside. It could be shown that both cardenolide glucosides are genuine constituents of the cardenolide fraction of Nerium oleander L. leaves. The structures of these newly identified compounds were verified by 1H-NMR and FAB+ mass spectroscopy and by enzymatic cleavage of the glycosidic bond with a β-glucosidase from Helix pomatia. ...
We showed before that in isolated cardiac myocytes, digitalis binding to NaK- ATPase α1 isoform initiates selective activation of the class 1A PI3K/Akt signaling pathways, causing myocyte hypertrophy akin to physiological growth. This suggests that putative endogenous digitalis-like compounds (EDLs) may have beneficial effects on cardiac function and growth, including the ability to antagonize pressure overload-induced hypertrophy. To test this hypothesis, it was necessary to use a transgenic mouse, because the natural rodent NaK-ATPase α1 (in contrast to that of man) is highly insensitive to digitalis, and not likely to respond to physiological levels of EDLs. Hence we generated a NaK-ATPase α1-sensitive mouse (α1 S/S) by amino acid substitutions, leaving the other Na,K-ATPase isoforms in their natural states. This transgenic mouse and the Wt control (α1R/R) were then subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham operation, and compared. There were no differences in body ...
Human Anti-Mouse Antibodies (HAMA) may be present in samples from patients who have received immunotherapy utilizing monoclonal antibodies. Additionally, other heterophile antibodies such as human anti-goat antibodies may be present in patient samples. Manufacturers formulate assays to minimize the effects of these antibodies; however careful evaluation of patient results must be done when patients are known to have such antibodies. These specimens should not be assayed with this Digoxin procedure.. Digoxin-Like Immunoreactive Factors (DLIF) or Digoxin-Like Immunoreactive Substances (DLIS) have been identified in blood from patients in renal failure, liver failure, newborns and pregnant women in the third trimester. Studies have established that the presence of DLIF or DLIS in a sample can result in a false elevation of Digoxin by this method.. Specimens from patients undergoing Digoxin Immune FAB (i.e. Digibind) treatment should not be assayed with this Digoxin procedure until 48 hours after ...
A new cardenolide, 12 beta, 14 beta-dihydroxy-3 beta, 19-epoxy-3 alpha-methoxy-5 alpha-card-20(22)-enolide (6), and a new doubly linked cardenolide glycoside, 12 beta-hydroxycalotropin (13), together with eleven known compounds, coroglaucigenin (1), 12 beta-hydroxycoroglaucigenin (2), calotropagenin (3), desglucouzarin (4), 6-O-feruloyl-desglucouzarin (5), calotropin (7), uscharidin (8), asclepin (9), 16 alpha-hydroxyasclepin (10), 16 alpha-acetoxycalotropin (11), and 16 alpha-acetoxyasclepin (12), were isolated from the aerial part of ornamental milkweed, Asclepias curassavica and chemically elucidated through spectral analyses. All the isolates were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against HepG2 and Raji cell lines. The results showed that asclepin (9) had the strongest cytotoxic activity with an IC(50) value of 0.02 mu M against the two cancer cell lines and the new compound 13 had significant cytotoxic activity with IC(50) values of 0.69 and 1.46 mu M, respectively. (C) 2009 Elsevier ...
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Looking for online definition of peruvoside in the Medical Dictionary? peruvoside explanation free. What is peruvoside? Meaning of peruvoside medical term. What does peruvoside mean?
div class=citation vocab=http://schema.org/,,i class=fa fa-external-link-square fa-fw,,/i, Data from ,span resource=http://link.liverpool.ac.uk/portal/Spectroscopic-data-of-steroid-glycosides-Volume/QhnrCqASxto/ typeof=Book http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/Item,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a href=http://link.liverpool.ac.uk/portal/Spectroscopic-data-of-steroid-glycosides-Volume/QhnrCqASxto/,Spectroscopic data of steroid glycosides, Volume 4, Cardenolides and pregnanes, edited by Viqar Uddin Ahmad and Anwer Basha, (electronic book),/a,,/span, - ,span property=potentialAction typeOf=OrganizeAction,,span property=agent typeof=LibrarySystem http://library.link/vocab/LibrarySystem resource=http://link.liverpool.ac.uk/,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a property=url href=http://link.liverpool.ac.uk/,University of Liverpool,/a,,/span,,/span,,/span,,/span,,/div ...
In this study, we have examined the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of different extracts (including water, methanol, water : methanol and acetone) of Nerium oleander L. grown in the north of Iran by employing various in-vitro assay, i.e. DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity through the Mo (VI) reduction. The extracts showed different levels of efficacy in each assay in a dose-dependent manner. Methanolic and aqueous methanolic extracts with the highest amount of total phenolic (by using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent method), were the most potent antioxidant in all of the assays that were used. According to the results of present study, Nerium oleander L. flowers were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants.
Looking for online definition of cardenolide in the Medical Dictionary? cardenolide explanation free. What is cardenolide? Meaning of cardenolide medical term. What does cardenolide mean?
Although volume and vasoconstriction have been considered polar elements in a useful pathogenetic hypertension model, many observations suggest that vasoconstriction is involved in volume-dependent hypertension, reflecting the effect of a digitalis-like factor. To examine that possibility, we assessed the depressor responses to Digibind, an antibody Fab directed against digoxin, in a volume-dependent model--DOCA-salt-induced hypertension in rats. Digibind (10 mg/kg, intravenously) induced a gradual blood pressure fall over 2 h that was sustained for 4 h (P | .001). Blood pressure did not fall with Digibind when DOCA was administered without salt or a high-salt intake was provided without DOCA. The intracellular sodium content of the rat aorta, measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy after cold choline wash, was increased in the DOCA-high-salt rats (23.3 +/- 2.7 mEq/L) compared to control rats (12.1 +/- 0.8 mEq/L; P | .001). Aorta sodium content, in parallel with blood pressure, was not increased
Oleander, Nerium oleander,[1] is a poisonous shrub. It is commonly used in gardens because of its pink colored flowers.[2][3] Nerium oleander is native to northern Africa, the eastern Mediterranean basin and southeast Asia. Oleander prefers dry, warm climates and may naturalize in such areas.[4] Recently, scientific studies on cardenolide oleandrin show that it may be used to prevent mutagenesis.[5]. ...
Nerium oleander is an evergreen shrub reaching 6 to 12 feet in height and spread, occasionally 20 feet. Not cold hardy, so subject to freeze damage. The leaves
Flores em Israel - flores exóticas (Marthas backyard) - Digitalis purpurea,Foxglove, Purple Foxglove, Ladys Glove,אצבעונית ארגמנית
Nerium skin care is an age-defying skin care cream developed from Nerium oleander. Nerium skin care will help you Retain that youthful, healthy glow for life.
Journal of Chemistry is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles on all aspects of fundamental and applied chemistry.
Oleander is a tough plant that blooms even in drought and punishing heat but, unfortunately, the shrub is sometimes preyed upon by a few common oleander pests. Click here to learn what you can do about oleander plant pests.
Prolonged exposure to 17-beta-estradiol (E2) is important in causing breast cancer. The carcinogenic effects are imposed on the estrogen receptors on the surface of breast cells. Anti-estrogen treatments, such as by tamoxifen and by the aromatase inhibitors, are beneficial at first, but, resistance to them develops and the cancer grows. Aromatase enzyme promotes the conversion […]. View Post ...
Man, I hate articles like the one in Axios about Donalds latest snake oil. Im not going to link to it. It should have started with. OLEANDRIN CAN KILL YOU, AND OTHER EXTRACTS FROM THE OLEANDER PLANT *WILL* KILL YOU. Instead, it cites papers to look authoritative and buries a quote from one researcher that translates to. DO NOT DO THIS. and shows pretty flowers in the pill bottle.. One of the heuristics Ive carried with me from my time in California is Oleander is poison. Do not eat. The flowers are pretty, and its everywhere in California. So when I saw this a week or so ago, I did some research. Apparently oleandrin is one of the less toxic oleander components. Its being used experimentally against cancer. God only knows why anyone is researching it for COVID-19, because its still pretty toxic. Not a path I would take until less toxic alternatives are exhausted. ...
Novotny, J; Mudgett, hunter M.; Haber, E; and Margolies, M N., Primary structure of a mouse anti-digoxin hybridoma antibody. Abstr. (1981). Subject Strain Bibliography 1981. 1000 ...
Light micrograph of the central region of a foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) flower. At centre are the female reproductive parts of the plant (the carpal). The long style is topped by the stigma. Surrounding the carpal are the male stamens. Each stamen consists of a filament (stalk) and an anther (yellow) that contains pollen grains (white). The cream petal is in the background. - Stock Image C036/0907
Anatomy and Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function with OLC Bind-in Card Hardcover: 1216 pages Publisher: McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math; 3 edition (December 31, 2002) Language: English ISBN: 0072429038 Author: Kenneth S. Saladin Format: PDF Size: 85M
Network Forgetting a new co-workers name is a common problem, but admitting it openly is a surprisingly welcomed solution, and it can open the door to positive rapport. Eric Cai writes more from his experience.. ...
SMART goals For some of us, pursuing our dreams might be completely out of our comfort zone. Were happy to work in jobs we feel are our best option at the time. The problem with this is that we become complacent and our motivation and passion slowly start to dwindle.. ...
Adelfa / Nerium oleander / SOUTH SEA ROSE - Philippine Herbal Medicine - An illustrated compilation of Philippine medicinal plants by Dr Godofredo Stuart
A garden picture of Digitalis purpurea, Preferred common namecommon foxglove FamilyPlantaginaceae Digitalis can be biennials or usually short-lived perennials forming a rosette of simple leaves with bell-shaped flowers in slender, erect, usually one-sided racemes D. purpurea is a biennial or short-lived perennial, freely self-sowing, with a rosette of softly hairy, oval leaves and tall, one-sided spires of pendant, tubular, bright rosy-purple flowers 6cm long, spotted within, in summer Other common names bloody bells bloody finger cow flop dead mans bells dead mens bells dogs lugs dragons mouth fairy bells fairy fingers fairy gloves fairy thimbles fairys cap fairys petticoat fairys thimble finger flower flap dock folks gloves fox finger gloves of Mary ladys fingers ladys gloves ladys thimble lions mouth lusmore lustmore pop dock thimble finger thimble flower throat root witches bells witches fingers witches gloves witches thimbles
Digitalis purpurea is a biennial foxglove that produces only a basal rosette of light green, oblong leaves in the first year from seed. Flowers are borne in the second year in terminal, one-sided racemes atop leafy, 2-4 tall (infrequently to 5) spires arising from the centers of the basal rosettes. Pendulous, 2-3 long, tubular, funnel-shaped, dark rose-pink to purple (sometimes white) flowers with purple and white spots inside are closely grouped along each spike. Flowers are attractive to hummingbirds. Plant leaves are a source of the drug digitalis and are highly poisonous. A late spring bloomer that reaches its peak about the same time as roses begin to bloom. After flowering, plants can become somewhat scraggly by late summer, and, because they are biennials, consideration may be given to removing them from the garden as soon as they release their seed. Individual flowers resemble the snipped off fingers of a glove, hence the common name of foxglove ...
A new cardenolide tupichinolide (1) and a new steroidal saponin tupichinin A (2), together with seven known compounds, were isolated from the rhizomes of Tupistra chinensis. Their structures were established using spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. Compound 1 was the first cardenolide isolated from Tupistra chinensis and exhibited potent cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines: HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW480. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved ...
Next to the main building a dwarf, pink-blossomed oleander is at its peak of flowering, as shown at http://www.backyardnature.net/n/11/110918om.jpg.. Most oleanders, which are NERIUM OLEANDER, are taller, up to 20 feet (6m), less bushy, and often have leaves with a grayer bloom. But theres a whole world of different kinds of oleanders, because of their prettiness, drought tolerance and ability to thrive in poor soil and fairly polluted air. Oleanders are among the worlds most planted woody species, at least in warmer areas. Over 400 cultivars have been named, some with flower colors not generally seen in Nature. You might enjoy browsing a page featuring many oleander cultivars -- ones with evocative names like Marrakesh, Mary Constance, Mrs. Kelso, Sister Agnes and Pleasants Postoffice Pink -- at http://www.oleander.org/varieties.html.. If you have a highly modified oleander cultivar, how do you know you have a real oleander? For one thing, an oleanders flower clusters, or ...
Preeclampsia (PE) complicates from 5 to 10% of pregnancies and it is a number one cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nevertheless, a specific and highly effective therapy of this disorder does not exist. As illustrated by therapeutic efficacy of anti-digoxin antibody (DIGIBIND) in preeclampsia, endogenous digitalis-like sodium pump ligands play an important role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. Previously, we demonstrated that levels of endogenous bufadienolide Na/KATPase inhibitors are elevated in patients with PE, and that antibody to marinobufagenin lower blood pressure in rats with pregnancy-induced hypertension and ex vivo reverse inhibition of the Na/K-ATPase from erythrocytes from patients with PE. Most recently, we developed three anti-MBG monoclonal antibodies which in lower blood pressure in several rat experimental models.. We are proposing a pilot proof-of concept study aimed to demonstrate that MBG is target for DIGIBIND in preeclampsia. If ...
Mesotelioma de pulmão - DR H. Ziya Ozel - Nerium oleander Nerium oleander Usou ANVIRZEL extrato da planta CASE REPORT Diagnosis: Mesothelioma - HD A 53-year-old woman presented in September 1991 to Adiyaman
Journal of Parasitology Research is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of basic and applied parasitology. Articles covering host-parasite relationships and parasitic diseases will be considered, as well as studies on disease vectors. Articles highlighting social and economic issues around the impact of parasites are also encouraged. As an international, Open Access publication, Journal of Parasitology Research aims to foster learning and collaboration between countries and communities.
Until recently, Phoenix Biotech was the only active manufacturer of the patented oleander medication Anvirzel, which has passed FDA phase I toxicity trials and has been used successfully outside the United States for many years, including the Salud Integral Clinic in Honduras, which Phoenix Biotech owns. Within the past month or so, Phoenix has spun off the Anvirzel portion of its operations, including the Honduras facility, and is now concentrating all of its efforts in oleander medicine on a new pill form and proprietary extraction method that uses liquid carbon dioxide and micro-fine particles of oleander and which is reported to result in a greater concentration of the cardiac glycosides and no loss of all the supporting compounds ...
From the parotid secretion of the South African toad, Bufo regularis, the following principles have been isolated and studied pharmacologically:. A. Cholesterol.. B. Regularo-bufagin, C23H34O5, which has a digitalis-like action. The minimal emetic dose in pigeons is 0.3 mgm., that in cats 0.09 mgm., and the average fatal dose in cats is 0.15 mgm. per kilogram.. C. Regularo-bufotoxin, C37H60O10N4, which also has a digitalis-like action. The minimal emetic dose in pigeons is 0.35 mgm., that in cats 0.275 mgm., and the average fatal dose in 10 cats is 0.48 mgm. per kilogram. Both regularo-bufagin and -bufotoxin have a pressor action, and stimulate isolated smooth muscle organs. The cardiac action of regularo-bufotoxin seems to be relatively more persistent than that of regularo-bufagin.. D. Regularo-bufotenine, which is an indole derivative, in the form of a flavianate. It stimulates both the isolated rabbits intestines and guinea pigs uteri, and raises the arterial blood pressure, its activity ...
Nephritis after scarlatina. Cystitis. Inflammation of neck of bladder ; after passing a few drops the desire to urinate is increased and the patient walks about in great distress, associated with tenesmus of rectum ; these symptoms have indicated the use of the drug for the relief of acute inflammation in chronic enlargement of the prostate. In inflammation of the kidneys of the chronic form it is sometimes of temporary value when there is threatened failure of the heart, or very scanty or suppressed urine, with œdema of the lungs, etc ...
While the monarchs might be fun to spot in your garden, make sure to keep pets and children from trying to sample the insects. As larvae, the monarchs eat a strict diet of only milkweed, which helps them develop cardenolides - a poison that works like digitalis - as adults. How much the larvae ate is directly proportionate to how poisonous the adult becomes ...
Brown thrashers, grackles, robins, cardinals, sparrows, scrub jays and pinyon jays are known to feed on monarchs. Some of these birds avoid the body parts with higher concentrations of cardenolides by eating only the abdomens or by eating this kind of food in moderation. When monarchs arrive in their wintering grounds in Mexico they are plump with stored fats that will keep them through the winter. A whole new set of predators is eagerly awaiting them. Mice feast mostly on dead and dying butterflies that have fallen to the ground. Several species of birds, especially black-backed orioles and black-headed grosbeaks take a heavy toll on the millions of wintering butterflies. A few months after their arrival in Mexico, the monarchs may have lost a fair amount of toxins, making them more appetizing. It is estimated that between 7 and 40% of them fall victims to predation in their roosting grounds ...
The duality of death and beauty extends to the seed cases. Flourished with golden plumes and parachuting seeds, the oleander is a dreamy design. I still remember how a friend remarked that they made her want to fly. And indeed, that is what they do, with a passing breeze. And yes, these beauties are also poisonous, stopping the heart - literally and figuratively, if you will.. Romantics aside, the oleander is an interesting specimen of form and function, particularly in the seed pod. Lets start at the beginning: pollination. Its numerous flowers offer neither nectar nor easy access to pollen, so while few blossoms will yield fruit, each pod can hold hundreds of seeds. This strategy allows the flower to allocate lots of resources to each pod and its concentrated stuffing of downy seeds. The high thread count is unwoven when the pod bursts open and the tufted clouds disperse. And while the oleander does grow quite well in dry conditions, its native habitats are along stream banks in the ...
In this study, an efficient protocol for the regeneration of encapsulated explants of oleander (Nerium oleander L.) has been developed. Shoot tips and 1st nodal segments below the shoot tip, from in vitro-derived oleander microshoots, were encapsulated in 2.5% sodium alginate prepared in liquid MS sucrose-free nutrient medium and hardened in 50 mM of calcium chloride producing solid beads, uniform ...
Following in vitro safety testing and IUCAC approval, we applied increasing concentrations of topical NSPI drops (0.002% to 0.7%) in two canines with normal intraocular pressures. Drops were applied routinely in both animals. We collected ophthalmic data including: rebound tonometry (ICARER), indirect ophthalmoscopic video fundus examination, and slit lamp and external inspection for surface and intraocular toxicity. We monitored for systemic toxicity with urine analysis and venous blood sampling for hematology, serum chemistries and liver function tests.. ...
Oleander Extract for Cancer Successfully Passes Phase I FDA Trial by Tony Isaacs A recently concluded FDA phase 1 human toxicity trial of a concentrated oleander extract has found that it can safely be administered in large doses and that it apparently can be effective against a wide variety of cancers. The results of the trial were presented at this year s American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) which was held June 3-7 at Memphis, Tennessee. The primary purpose of the trial was to determine maximum safe dosage levels. Even so, 7 of the 46 trial partic ...
Phoenix Biotechnology is developing therapeutics derived from herbal extracts of Nerium oleander for viral infections, including HIV infections and
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Although the name foxglove (Digitalis spp.) refers to a group of short-lived perennial and biennial plants, it is most often used to refer to the most common of those plants, Digitalis purpurea. The ...
This plant grows upto 3 feet tall producing purple, white or pink, sometimes dotted inside the central stalk. Its Latin name is Digitalis purpurea. If we eat any part of the plants in wild, we would likely get heart problems, after a spell of nausea, vomiting, cramps, diarrhoea and pain in the mouth. If we a doctor, he might administer charcoal to absorb the toxin or pump your stomach, and might also administer drugs to bring your heart rate back to normal. Other names for this plant include fairy bells, rabbit flower, throatwort and witches thimbles ...
Nerium International launched Prolistic Pre & Probiotic Plus Vitamins powder packets and Prolistic Skin-Balancing Lotion with Probiotic Technology. This new line of Prolistic products expands Nerium Int
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Question: My oleanders are losing lots of lower leaves, which turn yellow and fill with black spots. Is this normal?Answer: Its that time of the year when many plants change out the foliage. The
Oleander can offer a gardener beautiful flowers and privacy, but should be approached with caution since the plant is extremely poisonous.
Though the appearance of oleanders varies by species, most exhibit thick, lance-like leaves and beautiful flowers that develop in clusters.
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Yang L, Ravikanthachari N, Mariño-Pérez R, Deshmukh R, Wu M, Rosenstein A, Kunte K, Song H, Andolfatto P. 2019. Predictability in the evolution of Orthopteran cardenolide insensitivity.. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 374(1777):20180246. ...
Yang L, Ravikanthachari N, Mariño-Pérez R, Deshmukh R, Wu M, Rosenstein A, Kunte K, Song H, Andolfatto P. 2019. Predictability in the evolution of Orthopteran cardenolide insensitivity.. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 374(1777):20180246. ...
UPDATE: Two days working under the oleanders in moderate temps (85-degrees) wearing the Comp-Tac, and and the sweat has helped soften the leather and make it more comfortable. Plus I got six yard-bags filled with cuttings and the silk-tree is becoming more visible. I know oleanders can-or-are supposed to cause a reaction since theyre poisonous,…
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... , a cardenolide, is the aglycone of digitoxin. Digitoxigenin can be used to prepare actodigin. In Lednicer's book ... "Synthetic Cardenolides and Related Products. III. Isocardenolides". Canadian Journal of Chemistry. 52 (9): 1652-1661. doi: ...
Many insects acquire toxins from their food plants; Danaus caterpillars accumulate toxic cardenolides from milkweeds ( ...
... is a cardenolide glycoside extracted from Convallaria majalis. Viqar Uddin Ahmad & Anwer Basha (2006). ... ISBN 978-0-387-31162-3. Komissarenko, N. F.; Stupakova, E. P. (1986). "Neoconvalloside - a cardenolide glycoside from plants of ... Spectroscopic Data of Steroid Glycosides: Cardenolides and Pregnanes. 4. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-39576-0_386. ...
... produces cardenolide chemicals. Digitalis minor is endemic to the eastern Balearic Islands, where it occurs on ... Sales, Ester; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan (June 2007). "Enhancement of cardenolide and phytosterol ... and expression of the new gene resulted in an increased sterol and cardenolide production in the resultant plants. "Digitalis ...
Phytochemical Cardenolide Cardiac glycoside Hostettmann, K.; A. Marston (1995). Saponins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ...
1992). "Effectiveness of cardenolides as feeding deterrents to Peromyscus mice". Journal of Chemical Ecology. 18 (9): 1559-1575 ... Unusually, they are able to tolerate very bitter cardenolide chemicals, allowing them to consume relatively large quantities of ...
All parts of E. crepidifolium are toxic due to their cardenolide content. There are at least 20 different cardenolides in the ... Among 48 tested Erysimum species, E. crepidifolium had the highest cardenolide content in the leaves, at least three-fold ... Progesterone 5β-reductase, which was initially proposed as an enzyme of cardenolide biosynthesis in Digitalis, also has been ... Makarevich, I. F.; Zhernoklev, K. V.; Slyusarskaya, T. V.; Yarmolenko, G. N. (1994). "Cardenolide-containing plants of the ...
It is a common feeder on Apocynum cannabinum (dogbane, Indian hemp) which produces a milky latex containing cardenolides, toxic ... Cycnia tenera tenera Cycnia tenera sciurus (Boisduval, 1869) James A. Cohen & Lincoln P. Brower (1983). "Cardenolide ...
... from 5β-cardenolide-free and 5β-cardenolide-producing angiosperms". Phytochemistry. 71 (13): 1495-1505. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem ... Cardenolides such as calotropin inhibit the sodium-potassium pump, Na+/K+-ATPase. This enzyme is responsible for active ... However, it is believed that many cardenolides are synthesized in plants by a similar process, but this process is not yet well ... Calotropin is a toxic compound and is classified as a cardenolide-type cardiac glycoside. These molecules are related to ...
"Functional receptor mapping for modified cardenolides: Use of the PROPHET system." 1979. 259-279. Weeks, Charles M., et al. " ...
It has been found that monarchs are able to sequester cardenolides most effectively from plants of intermediate cardenolide ... Monarchs and other cardenolide resistant insects rely on a resistant form of the Na+/ K+-ATPase enzyme to tolerate ... The latex of A. tuberosa seems to be different from other Asclepias species due to the fact that even though cardenolides are ... As a result, orioles and grosbeaks will periodically have high levels of cardenolides in their bodies, and they will be forced ...
Common defenses include: cardiac glycosides (or cardenolides), pyrrolizidine alkaloids, pyrazines and histamines. Larvae ...
If threatened, the beetle can secrete the cardenolides as a defense mechanism. It is believed that they can consume this plant ... Plants in this genus contain toxins (cardenolides) that, when ingested, are fatal to many organisms, including humans, causing ... However, the Dogbane beetle is able to consume the plant and compartmentalize the cardenolides into glands. ...
... , with its five-membered ring, belongs to the cardenolide class; cardenolides are 23-carbon steroids with methyl groups ... Cheenpracha, S.; Karalai, C.; Rat-A-Pa, Y.; Ponglimanont, C.; Chantrapromma, K. (2004). "New cytotoxic cardenolide glycoside ... The cardenolide substructure to which the sugar is attached has also been independently characterised, and can be referred to ... "Cytotoxic cardenolide glycoside from the seeds of Cerbera odollam". Phytochemistry. 65: 507-510. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem. ...
The ability of D. chrysippus to store cardenolides varies across populations, so likely both cardenolides and pyrrolizidine ... Brower, Lincoln P.; Gibson, D. O.; Moffitt, C. M.; Panchen, A. L. (1978-06-01). "Cardenolide content of Danaus chrysippus ... Previously, it was thought that cardenolides obtained from food sources during the larval stage were responsible for the ... Milkweed contains toxic compounds, cardenolides, which are often consumed and stored by many butterflies. Because of their ...
Lichius, J. J.; Wichtl, M. (December 1991). "Quantitative Analysis of Cardenolide Glycosides in the Leaves of Digitalis ... However, this particular species seems to have the lowest cardenolide content. https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/474605930 " ...
... is a cardenolide found in species of the genus Strophanthus. It is the aglycone of k-strophanthin, an analogue ... Fricke U, Klaus W (1981). "The influence of reduced serum potassium level on the toxicity of some cardenolides in guinea pigs ...
A Bioactive Cardenolide". Science. 339 (6115): 59-63. Bibcode:2013Sci...339...59R. doi:10.1126/science.1230631. ISSN 0036-8075 ...
Brower, Lincoln P.; Gibson, D. O.; Moffitt, C. M.; Panchen, A. L. (1978-06-01). "Cardenolide content of Danaus chrysippus ...
A Bioactive Cardenolide". Science. 339 (6115): 59-63. Bibcode:2013Sci...339...59R. doi:10.1126/science.1230631. PMC 4365795. ... synthetically useful Norrish type II reaction can be found early in the total synthesis of the biologically active cardenolide ...
Levrier, C; Kiremire, B; Guéritte, F; Litaudon, M (2012). "Toxicarioside M, a new cytotoxic 10β-hydroxy-19-nor-cardenolide from ... "Cytotoxic effects of the cardenolide convallatoxin and its Na, K-ATPase regulation". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 428 ( ... invasion and migration by the cardenolides digitoxigenin monodigitoxoside and convallatoxin in human lung cancer cell line". ...
Many Scilloideae produce poisonous steroidal saponins such as bufadienolides and cardenolides, making them inedible.[citation ...
It was shown that queens reared on the high-cardenolide A. curassavica sequester and store levels of cardenolides similar to ... However, queens reared on S. clausum, a larval host plant known to be a very poor cardenolide source, contain no detectable ... Most of the toxic cardenolides that make queens so unpalatable to its predators are sequestered from larval host plants. For ... Unpalatability is correlated with the level of cardenolides obtained via the larval diet, but other compounds like alkaloids ...
The cardenolide syriogenin has also been isolated in the root of 'D. contrajerva'. In roots of Dorstenia species that are used ...
Cardenolides at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Steyn, PS; Heerden, FR van (1998). ... the other being the cardenolide glycosides. Both bufadienolides and their glycosides are toxic; specifically, they can cause an ... Proscillaridin Daigremontianin Cardenolides Mutschler, Ernst; Schäfer-Korting, Monika (2001). Arzneimittelwirkungen (in German ...
In studies, the restriction of calcium ions resulted in cardenolide accumulation in D. thapsi. Calcium quantity affects the ... 1 October 1991). "Effect of calcium, manganese and lithium on growth and cardenolide content in cell suspension cultures of ... 1995). "Calcium restriction induces cardenolide accumulation in cell suspension cultures of Digitalis thapsi L". Plant Cell ... "Relationship between active oxygen species and cardenolide production in cell cultures of Digitalis thapsi: effect of calcium ...
Milkweeds contain cardenolide toxins, but monarch butterfly caterpillars have evolved to remain unaffected by the toxin. ... Lincoln Brower also published a series of important ecological studies on monarch sequestration of cardenolides. Brower has ...
A. melanocephalus, unlike many Lygaeinae species, only stored less than 7% of the cardenolides [3H]-ouabain or [3H]-digoxin ten ... the other Arocatus which could not store cardenolides. It has been found on Ulmus (elm) species, Platanus orientalis (old world ... "Na+/K+-ATPase resistance and cardenolide sequestration: basal adaptations to host plant toxins in the milkweed bugs (Hemiptera ...
Many of the caterpillars feed on poisonous host plants and acquire toxic cardenolides that make them unpleasant to predators. ...
... cardenolides), which are found only within the genus Erysimum. However, unlike other analyzed members of the genus Erysimum, E ... collinum contains only trace amounts of cardiac glycosides (cardenolides). Nevertheless, extracts of E. collinum showed some ... inhibitory activity of the mammalian sodium-potassium ATPase pump (Na+/K+-ATPase), the main molecular target of cardenolides. ...
Cardenolides are a class of steroids (or aglycones if viewed as cardiac glycoside constituents), and cardenolides are a subtype ... Cardenolide is a type of steroid. Many plants contain derivatives, collectively known as cardenolides, including many in the ... The cardenolide content in butterflies deters most vertebrate predators, except a few which have evolved to become cardenolide- ... form of cardenolide glycosides (cardenolides that contain structural groups derived from sugars). Cardenolide glycosides are ...
... plural cardenolides) 1. (organic chemistry) Any of many steroid lactones present in plants as glycosides; they are all toxic, ... cardenolide. Noun (plural cardenolides). *(organic chemistry) Any of many steroid lactones present in plants as glycosides; ... "cardenolide." YourDictionary, n.d. Web. 05 December 2018. ,https://www.yourdictionary.com/cardenolide,. ... cardenolide. (n.d.). Retrieved December 05th, 2018, from https://www.yourdictionary.com/cardenolide ...
Cardenolide storage in Danaus chrysippus (L.) with additional notes on D. plexippus. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B., 190:1.Google ... Cardenolides of some species of the genus Asclepias. Farm. Glas., 23:3. [Chem. Abstr., 67:8686g]Google Scholar ... Cardenolides in the milkweed plant and feeding by the milkweed bug. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 64:1173.Google Scholar ... Cardenolides in leaves of Asclepias glaucophylla. Rev. Port. Quim., 6: 97. [Chem. Abstr., 64:5549f]Google Scholar ...
Cardenolides by Viqar Uddin Ahmad, Anwer Basha from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get ... Spectroscopic Data of Steroid Glycosides: Spirostanes, Bufanolides, Cardenolides: Volume 3 (Paperback). Viqar Uddin Ahmad ( ...
Kharkov Chemical and Pharmaceutical Scientific-Research Institute. Leningrad Chemical and Pharmaceutical Institute. Translated from Khimiya Prirodnykh Soedinenii, No. 6, pp. 848-849, November-December, 1971. ...
Each of the 6 cardenolides deterred feeding by S. littoralis, while two cardenolide standards, digoxin and digitoxin, did not ... Differences among cardenolides in their effect on feeding were associated with specific structural features. C. acutum is the ... Abdel-Azim NS (1998) A cardenolide glycoside from Gomphocarpus sinaicus. Phytochemistry 49:273-275CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... El-Askary H, Hölzl J, Hilal S, El-Kashoury E-S (1995a) A comparative study of the cardenolide content of different organs of ...
resulted in the isolation and identification of two new cardenolides-adonioside A (1) and adonioside B (6)-as well as four ... known cardenolides: tupichinolide (2) oleandrine (3), cryptostigmin II (4), and cymarin (5). Their structures were elucidated ... Two New Cyototoxic Cardenolides from the Whole Plants of Adonis multiflora Nishikawa & Koki Ito by Jae-Woo Jung ... "Two New Cyototoxic Cardenolides from the Whole Plants of Adonis multiflora Nishikawa & Koki Ito." Molecules 20, no. 11: 20823- ...
... cardenolide explanation free. What is cardenolide? Meaning of cardenolide medical term. What does cardenolide mean? ... Looking for online definition of cardenolide in the Medical Dictionary? ... Cardenolides are a secondary chemical that milkweeds use as a defense compound; many plant and animal species use cardenolides ... Cardenolide , definition of cardenolide by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/cardenolide ...
In this review, we focus on two compound classes, iridoid glycosides and cardenolides, which can be found in the food plants of ... Cardenolides, on the other hand, may lose their toxicity if their target site is modified and this strategy has evolved ... Cardenolides, on the other hand, are highly specific inhibitors of an essential ion carrier, the sodium pump. In insects ... Coping with toxic plant compounds--the insects perspective on iridoid glycosides and cardenolides Phytochemistry. 2011 Sep;72( ...
Cardenolides are plant-derived toxic substances. Their cytotoxicity and the underlying mechanistic signaling axes have been ... The cardenolide ouabain suppresses coronaviral replication via augmenting a Na/K-ATPase-dependent PI3K_PDK1 axis signaling.. 08 ... Ouabain, a representative cardenolide, was found to potently diminish TGEV titers and inhibit the TGEV-induced production of IL ... Summary of "The cardenolide ouabain suppresses coronaviral replication via augmenting a Na/K-ATPase-dependent PI3K_PDK1 axis ...
Cardenolide. Ion pump effector. Cardiotonic. 0.44. 0.47. 2.1. 0.23. 0.04. Digoxin. Cardenolide. Ion pump effector. Prevention ... Cardenolide. Ion pump effector. Cardiotonic. 0.44. 0.47. 2.1. 0.23. 0.04. Digoxin. Cardenolide. Ion pump effector. Prevention ... Cardenolide. Ion pump effector. -. 2.6. 7. 4.6. 1.9. 3.8. Propachlor. Chlorophenylacetamide. Herbicide. -. 2.1. 2.1. 7.1. 6.2. ... Cardenolide. Ion pump effector. -. 2.6. 7. 4.6. 1.9. 3.8. Propachlor. Chlorophenylacetamide. Herbicide. -. 2.1. 2.1. 7.1. 6.2. ...
The binding of cardenolides to the sodium pump causes rapid modifications in the levels of Src family kinase activity and ... The data from the present study thus show that the use of a cardenolide (UNBS1450) that binds to the sodium pump and therefore ... The binding of the UNBS1450 cardenolide to the sodium pump in human glioblastoma (GBM) cells dramatically impairs both their ... The binding of the UNBS1450 cardenolide to the sodium pump in human glioblastoma (GBM) cells dramatically impairs both their ...
Cardenolides: Insights from chemical structure and pharmacological utility. El-Seedi, Hesham R. ...
It could be shown that both cardenolide glucosides are genuine constituents of the cardenolide fraction of Nerium oleander L. ... the labelled aglycones were obtained after hydrolysis from the cardenolide extract. Both radioactive cardenolide aglycones were ... the labelled aglycones were obtained after hydrolysis from the cardenolide extract. Both radioactive cardenolide aglycones were ... Paper, D. und Franz, Gerhard (1989) Glycosylation of Cardenolide Aglycones in the Leaves of Nerium oleander L. Planta Medica 55 ...
A new semisynthetic cardenolide analog 3β-[2-(1-amantadine)-1-on-ethylamine]-digitoxigenin (AMANTADIG) affects G2/M cell cycle ... A new semisynthetic cardenolide analog 3β-[2-(1-amantadine)- 1-on-ethylamine]-digitoxigenin (AMANTADIG) affects G2/M cell cycle ... A new semisynthetic cardenolide analog 3β-[2-(1-amantadine)- 1-on-ethylamine]-digitoxigenin (AMANTADIG) affects G2/M cell cycle ... The new semisynthetic cardenolide analog AMANTADIG ((3β-[2-(1-amantadine)-1-on-ethylamine]-digitoxigenin) was previously ...
... a cardenolide glycoside from Erysimum cancescens Roth]. by Luca Nover ... On the structure of erycanoside, a cardenolide glycoside from Erysimum cancescens Roth].. *. Luca Nover ...
Digitoxigenin, a cardenolide, is the aglycone of digitoxin. Digitoxigenin can be used to prepare actodigin. In Lednicers book ... "Synthetic Cardenolides and Related Products. III. Isocardenolides". Canadian Journal of Chemistry. 52 (9): 1652-1661. doi: ...
Cryptolepis buchanani;Asclepiadaceae;cardenolide; 3β-(d-deoxy glucose-oxy)-14β,11β-di- hydroxy-7α,8α-epoxy-12-oxo-5β-card-20 ( ... A new cardenolide named cryptosin was isolated from the leaves of Cryptolepis buchanani. By spectral studies and single crystal ... Venkateswara, R and Narendra, N and Viswamitra, MA and Vaidyanathan, CS (1989) Cryptosin, a cardenolide from the leaves of ...
To discover novel cytotoxic CG scaffolds, we selected the cardenolide glucoevatromonoside (GEV) out of 46 CGs for its low ... To discover novel cytotoxic CG scaffolds, we selected the cardenolide glucoevatromonoside (GEV) out of 46 CGs for its low ... Cardenolides and Chemicals. The origin of all tested cardenolides is indicated in Supplementary Table 1. Compounds were ... 2006). The cardenolide UNBS1450 is able to deactivate nuclear factor kappaB-mediated cytoprotective effects in human non-small ...
Spectroscopic data of steroid glycosides spirostanes bufanolides cardenolides. Ideal for general use and large samples. ...
Keywords: Cardenolides / Toxicity Broad Subjects: Cardenolides ,isolation & purification ,Cytotoxicity Immunologic , ... Citation: N. D. El Tanbouly , Cytotoxic cardenolides from cheiranthus cheiri L.flowers, Bull. Fac. Pharm. -Cairo Univ. 1998; 36 ... Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of 2 cardenolides, strophanthidin 1, and helveticoside 2, where the latter ... This study was the first report for the isolation of cardenolides from the flower of Cheiranthus cheiri L. and the first report ...
Cardenolides and pregnanes. Statement of responsibility edited by Viqar Uddin Ahmad and Anwer Basha. Title variation ... The item Spectroscopic data of steroid glycosides, Volume 4, Cardenolides and pregnanes, edited by Viqar Uddin Ahmad and Anwer ... Spectroscopic data of steroid glycosides, Volume 4, Cardenolides and pregnanes. Title Spectroscopic data of steroid glycosides ... Data Citation of the Item Spectroscopic data of steroid glycosides, Volume 4, Cardenolides and pregnanes, edited by Viqar Uddin ...
Apoptotic activities of cardenolide glycosides from Asclepias subulata. L. A. Rascón-Valenzuela, C. Velázquez, A. Garibay- ... Apoptotic activities of cardenolide glycosides from Asclepias subulata. / Rascón-Valenzuela, L. A.; Velázquez, C.; Garibay- ... Apoptotic activities of cardenolide glycosides from Asclepias subulata. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016 Dec 4;303-311. https ... title = "Apoptotic activities of cardenolide glycosides from Asclepias subulata",. author = "Rasc{\o}n-Valenzuela, {L. A.} and ...
Cardenolides-glycosides and genins. Phytochemistry 9: 315-331. *^ Singh, B. and Rastogi, R.P. 1972. Structure of ascelpin and ...
For example, cardenolides have been primarily derived from the foxglove plants Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis lanata, while ... Plants from which cardenolides can be derivedEdit. *Convallaria majalis (Lily of the Valley): convallotoxin[7] ... Cardenolides differ from bufadienolides due to the presence of an "enolide," a five-membered ring with a single double bond, at ... cardenolides are more commonly used medicinally, primarily due to the widespread availability of the plants from which they are ...
Cardenolides and bufanolides --. Ecdysteroids --. Estrogens --. Pregnanes and corticoids --. Sterols --. Vitamin D.. Series ... Cardenolides and bufanolides -- Ecdysteroids -- Estrogens -- Pregnanes and corticoids -- Sterols -- Vitamin D."@en ;. schema: ...
Cardenolides. M. philippinensis seeds contain cardenolides. The seeds of M. philippinensis were found to contain after ... Cardenolides of the seed of Mallotus philippinensis," Helvetica Chimica Acta, vol. 46, pp. 2886-2893, 1963. View at Google ... The phenols, diterpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, cardenolides, triterpenoids, coumarins, and isocoumarins are mostly ... cardenolides, triterpenoids, coumarin, isocoumarins, and many more to discover. Present knowledge about this endangered species ...
Digoxin - the cardenolide that may give you van Goghs "yellow vision". NATURAL TOXIN. In the final years of Vincent van Goghs ... Digoxin - the cardenolide that may give you van Goghs "yellow vision" - University of Copenhagen. ...
Cardenolide-3β,14,16β-triol-3-([2,6-dideoxy-3-O-methyl-α-L-ar... ... 5β,20(22)-Cardenolide-3β,14,16β-triol-3-([2,6-dideoxy-3-O-methyl-α-L-arabinohexopyranosyl]oxy) 16-acetate ...
  • Many plants contain derivatives, collectively known as cardenolides, including many in the form of cardenolide glycosides (cardenolides that contain structural groups derived from sugars). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1971. Cardenolides from Gomphocarpus fruticosus and partial synthesis of uzarigenin glycosides. (springer.com)
  • Abdel-Azim NS, Hammouda FM, Hunkler D, Rimpler H (1996) Re-investigation of the cardenolide glycosides from Gomphocarpus sinaicus . (springer.com)
  • Chen RF, Abe F, Yamauchi T, Taki M (1987) Cardenolide glycosides of Strophanthus divaricatus . (springer.com)
  • Cheung HTA, Nelson CJ, Watson TR (1989) New cardenolide glycosides with doubly linked sugars from Asclepias vestita . (springer.com)
  • The cardenolide glycosides of the drug are qualitatively digitoxin-like in their action, but generally weaker, probably due to the lower rate of absorption. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this review, we focus on two compound classes, iridoid glycosides and cardenolides, which can be found in the food plants of a large number of insect species that display various degrees of adaptation to them. (nih.gov)
  • Among them were several cardiac glycosides, a class of cardenolides historically associated with the prevention and treatment of congestive heart failure. (arvojournals.org)
  • Cardenolides belong to the group of cardiac glycosides (CG) and attracted much interest in preclinical anticancer research. (frontiersin.org)
  • The item Spectroscopic data of steroid glycosides, Volume 4, Cardenolides and pregnanes, edited by Viqar Uddin Ahmad and Anwer Basha, (electronic book) represents a specific, individual, material embodiment of a distinct intellectual or artistic creation found in University of Liverpool . (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Plants in the Apocynaceae produce toxic cardenolides (aka cardiac glycosides) [ 3 ], which are specific inhibitors of the ubiquitous animal enzyme Na + /K + -ATPase, a cation carrier essential for a variety of physiological functions [ 4 , 5 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Milkweed is named for its latex , a milky substance containing cardiac glycosides termed cardenolides that is exuded where cells are damaged. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac glycosides are divided into two main types: bufadienolides and cardenolides. (wisegeek.com)
  • Asclepiadaceae plants are widely used in traditional medicine and have been reported to be rich in steroidal glycosides, cardenolides, flavonoids, triterpenes and polyoxypregnane derivatives 5 - 9 . (scialert.net)
  • Species such as the monarch, queen, and plain tiger ingest the cardenolides contained in the milkweeds (Asclepias) that they mostly feed on and sequester as larvae for defense as adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • Describes the chemical structure of humistratin, a cardenolide isolated from leaves and stems of Asclepias humistrata. (wildflower.org)
  • The large milkweed bug ( Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas, 1852)) and the small milkweed bug ( Lygaeus kalmii Stål, 1874) are well known to sequester cardenolides from Asclepias seeds [ 16 ] which protect them against predator attacks [ 17 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Cardenolides are a class of steroids (or aglycones if viewed as cardiac glycoside constituents), and cardenolides are a subtype of this class (see MeSH D codes list). (wikipedia.org)
  • Abdel-Azim NS (1998) A cardenolide glycoside from Gomphocarpus sinaicus . (springer.com)
  • The signal intensity is inversely proportional to the amount of cardiac glycoside or mammalian cardenolide in the well. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • On the structure of erycanoside, a cardenolide glycoside from Erysimum cancescens Roth]. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A cardenolide glycoside compound consisting of digitoxin having an acetyl substituent at the 3-position on the D - ribo -hexopyranosyl residue at the non-reducing end. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • UNBS1450 displayed in vitro higher inhibitory effects on U373 and Hs683 glioblastoma cell population growth than several cytotoxic agents and other cardenolides. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To discover novel cytotoxic CG scaffolds, we selected the cardenolide glucoevatromonoside (GEV) out of 46 CGs for its low nanomolar anti-lung cancer activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • N. D. El Tanbouly , Cytotoxic cardenolides from cheiranthus cheiri L.flowers, Bull. (who.int)
  • These include hairs on their leaves, heart poisons called cardenolides in their tissues and milky-white toxic latex that pours from the plants' tubes. (redorbit.com)
  • In particular, their production of heart poisons called cardenolides differed. (innovations-report.com)
  • Results: The results indicate that the honey polyphenol extracts have different rates of phenolic compounds (Flavonoids, Tannins and Cardenolides). (scopemed.org)
  • There are many types of milkweed plants, and some contain very high levels of cardenolides. (naturalnews.com)
  • Monarch caterpillars feed on any of dozens of species of milkweed plants, including some species that contain high levels of cardenolides. (eurekalert.org)
  • Herbivorous insects in six different orders have evolved resistance to the toxic effects of cardenolides in the food sources that they utilize. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multidrug transporters and organic anion transporting polypeptides protect insects against the toxic effects of cardenolides. (uni-hamburg.de)
  • Due to the ubiquity of their target, cardenolides are considered universal toxins potentially affecting any animal species. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • hairs on the leaves, cardenolide toxins, and latex fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • For most animals, the milkweed plant is far from appetizing: It contains nasty toxins called cardenolides that can make the creatures vomit and, should they ingest enough, cause their hearts to beat out of control. (scientificamerican.com)
  • They can tolerate this food source because of a peculiarity in a crucial protein in their bodies, a sodium pump, that the cardenolide toxins usually interfere with. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The toxins in question, called cardenolides, are made by several plants including milkweed, which is the staple food for monarch butterfly caterpillars. (philly.com)
  • Each of the 6 cardenolides deterred feeding by S. littoralis , while two cardenolide standards, digoxin and digitoxin, did not affect feeding. (springer.com)
  • Digitoxigenin, a cardenolide, is the aglycone of digitoxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • It could be shown that both cardenolide glucosides are genuine constituents of the cardenolide fraction of Nerium oleander L. leaves. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Begum S, Siddiqui BS, Sultana R, Zia A, Suria A (1999) Bio-active cardenolides from the leaves of Nerium oleander . (springer.com)
  • Glycosylation of Cardenolide Aglycones in the Leaves of Nerium oleander L. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Paper, D. und Franz, Gerhard (1989) Glycosylation of Cardenolide Aglycones in the Leaves of Nerium oleander L. Planta Medica 55, S. 30-34. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Both radioactive cardenolide aglycones were further transformed by the leaves of Nerium oleander L. to the corresponding 3-O-β-glucosides digitoxigenin glucoside and oleandrigenin glucoside. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • 2007. Bioactive Cardenolides from the Stems and Twigs of Nerium oleander. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alongside many other plants, its leaf tissues contain cardenolide poisons as a natural defense. (icr.org)
  • Oleander contains naturally-occurring poisons that affect the heart, specifically cardenolides or bufadienolides. (petpoisonhelpline.com)
  • In addition to milkweeds and other members of the Apocynaceae, plants in at least 12 botanical families have convergently evolved cardenolides, used as a chemical defense mechanism against herbivores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a phylogenetic approach comprising species from four continents, we analysed the ability to sequester toxic cardenolides in the hemipteran subfamily Lygaeinae, which is widely associated with cardenolide-producing Apocynaceae. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • On a broad scale, several studies have shown that a community of distantly related insects evolved the same strategies to overcome two major defence traits of Apocynaceae, latex and cardenolides [ 6 - 8 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Bang, M.-H. Two New Cyototoxic Cardenolides from the Whole Plants of Adonis multiflora Nishikawa & Koki Ito. (mdpi.com)
  • Cryptosin-a new cardenolide in tissue culture and intact plants of Cryptolepis buchanani Roem & Schult. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • [5] While compounds of both groups can be used to influence the cardiac output of the heart, cardenolides are more commonly used medicinally, primarily due to the widespread availability of the plants from which they are derived. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, cardenolides have been primarily derived from the foxglove plants Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis lanata , while bufadienolides have been derived from the venom of the cane toad Bufo marinus , from which they receive the "bufo" portion of their name. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardenolides are one group of plant secondary compounds that insects eating the plants sequester as a defense mechanism from predators. (wildflower.org)
  • Moreover, specialization on cardenolides was not an evolutionary dead end, but enabled this insect lineage to host shift to cardenolide-producing plants from distantly related families. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • S.B. Malcolm , Cardenolide-Meditated Interactions between Plants and Herbivores. (elsevier.com)
  • The Princeton researchers sequenced the expression of a poison-resistant protein in insect species that feed on plants such as milkweed and dogbane that produce a class of steroid-like cardiotoxins called cardenolides as a natural defense. (princeton.edu)
  • Fourteen of these species have evolved a nearly identical characteristic due to one external influence - they feed on plants that produce cardenolides, a class of steroid-like cardiotoxins that are a natural defense for plants such as milkweed and dogbane. (princeton.edu)
  • Scientists have known for some time that monarchs-and many of the other insects, from a total of six orders, that feed on milkweed or other cardenolide-producing plants-have mutations in at least one of the genes that carry instructions for making sodium pumps. (scientificamerican.com)
  • To find some answers, scientists dug deep into the genetics and biochemistry of 18 different kinds of insects that all live on cardenolide-producing plants. (icr.org)
  • The researchers discovered that, in creatures that can eat such plants, specific mutations change the shape of that binding pocket so that it excludes the cardenolide. (icr.org)
  • De La Mater has been testing the plants for cardenolide levels and nitrogen-carbon ratio. (wm.edu)
  • Cardenolides, on the other hand, may lose their toxicity if their target site is modified and this strategy has evolved multiple times independently in cardenolide-adapted insects. (nih.gov)
  • Larvae of monarch butterflies are an example of insects that use cardenolides. (wildflower.org)
  • The protein in these insects eventually evolved a resistance to cardenolides, which usually cripple the protein's ability to "pump" potassium into cells and excess sodium out. (princeton.edu)
  • The authors wrote that cardenolides do their damage by inserting themselves into a specific binding pocket on a protein pump that animal cells-including insects-constantly use. (icr.org)
  • Cardenolides differ from bufadienolides due to the presence of an "enolide," a five-membered ring with a single double bond, at the lactone end. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardenolide is a type of steroid. (wikipedia.org)
  • a cardenolide whose steroid moiety has the cis-trans-cis configuration between its ring junctions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The researchers measured the concentration of cardenolide (a type of steroid) in each plant type. (prweb.com)
  • Dussourd DE, Hoyle AM (2000) Poisoned plusiines: toxicity of milkweed latex and cardenolides to some generalist caterpillars. (springer.com)
  • In addition, depending on the specific type of cardenolide involved, linearly linked sugars extend from the aglycone C-3 position. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cardenolides are C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone (specifically a butenolide) at C-17. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary and ecological implications of cardenolide sequestration in the monarch butterfly. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Our data indicate that cardenolide sequestration and cardenolide-resistant Na + /K + -ATPase are basal adaptations in the Lygaeinae. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Activity-guided fractionation of the methanol extracts of G. sinaicus and P. tomentosa resulted in the isolation of six cardenolides: 7,8-dehydrocalotropin, calotropin and coroglaucigenin 3-(6-deoxy-β-allopyranoside)-19-acetate (frugoside 19-acetate) from G. sinaicus , and coroglaucigenin, 16α-acetoxycalotropin and calactin from P. tomentosa . (springer.com)
  • resulted in the isolation and identification of two new cardenolides-adonioside A ( 1 ) and adonioside B ( 6 )-as well as four known cardenolides: tupichinolide ( 2 ) oleandrine ( 3 ), cryptostigmin II ( 4 ), and cymarin ( 5 ). (mdpi.com)
  • A new semisynthetic cardenolide analog 3β-[2-(1-amantadine)- 1-on-ethylamine]-digitoxigenin (AMANTADIG) affects G2/M cell cycle arrest and miRNA expression. (oncotarget.com)
  • The cardenolide ouabain suppresses coronaviral replication via augmenting a Na/K-ATPase-dependent PI3K_PDK1 axis signaling. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Ouabain, a representative cardenolide, was found to potently diminish TGEV titers and inhibit the TGEV-induced production of IL-6 in a dose dependent manner, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 37 nM and 23 nM respectively. (bioportfolio.com)
  • When tested in a xenograft model of retinoblastoma, the cardenolide ouabain induced complete tumor regression in the treated mice. (arvojournals.org)
  • Some plant and animal species use cardenolides as defense mechanisms, notably the milkweed butterflies. (wikipedia.org)
  • New cardenolides isolated from Antiaris toxicaria latex-derived dart poison. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Using DNA sequence data to look at relationships between 38 species of milkweed, Agrawal and colleague Mark Fishbein, a Portland State University biologist, found evolutionary declines in milkweed's three most important resistance traits (hairs, cardenolides and latex) and an escalation in the plant's ability to regrow. (redorbit.com)
  • many plant and animal species use cardenolides in this manner, in particular, monarch butterfly larva sequester them from feeding on milkweed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • [4] Recently, scientific studies on cardenolide oleandrin show that it may be used to prevent mutagenesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • These cardenolide-resistant insect species convergently evolved this resistance through similar amino acid substitutions in the alpha subunit of the enzyme Na+/K+‐ATPase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, we analysed cardenolide resistance of their Na + /K + -ATPases, the molecular target of cardenolides. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of 2 cardenolides, strophanthidin 1, and helveticoside 2, where the latter demonstrated potent activity against 6 cell lines tested, especially A-549 [human lung carcinoma]. (who.int)
  • Cardenolides, on the other hand, are highly specific inhibitors of an essential ion carrier, the sodium pump. (nih.gov)
  • In fact, monarchs are famous for their ability to sequester cardenolides, thereby making both caterpillar and adult unpalatable to predators. (wm.edu)
  • 1974. Palatability dynamics of cardenolides in the monarch butterfly. (springer.com)
  • Compound 1 was the first cardenolide isolated from Tupistra chinensis and exhibited potent cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines: HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW480. (kib.ac.cn)
  • Bramer C., Schweitzer C., Dobler S. (2018) Cardenolide-defended milkweed bugs do not evoke learning in Nephila senegalensis spiders. (uni-hamburg.de)
  • the labelled aglycones were obtained after hydrolysis from the cardenolide extract. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Substitutions in the cardenolide binding site and interaction of subunits affect kinetics besides cardenolide sensitivity of insect Na,K-ATPase. (uni-hamburg.de)
  • The cardenolide content in butterflies deters most vertebrate predators, except a few which have evolved to become cardenolide-tolerant, such as the black-backed orioles (Icterus abeillei Lesson) and black-headed grosbeaks (Pheucticus melanocephalus Swainson) that account for 60% of monarch butterfly mortalities in the overwintering sites in central Mexico. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardenolides are toxic to predators, but safe for Monarch butterflies. (naturalnews.com)
  • The "milk" in milkweed is filled with compounds called cardenolides, toxic to almost all predators, but not a problem for monarchs. (wm.edu)
  • Evidence for a cardenolide carrier in Oncopeltus fasciatus (Insecta: Hemiptera). (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • The binding of cardenolides to the sodium pump causes rapid modifications in the levels of Src family kinase activity and therefore in those of EGF-R because the sodium pump, Src and EGF-R are partners in a cellular compartment named the sodium pump signalosome. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The aim of the present work was therefore to investigate whether the partial inhibition of the sodium pump activity in human glioblastoma cells by the UNBS1450 cardenolide (Van Quaquebeke et al. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The data from the present study thus show that the use of a cardenolide (UNBS1450) that binds to the sodium pump and therefore markedly impairs Src- and EGF-R-related signalling pathways could be added to the limited set of drugs aiming to efficiently combat glioblastoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Monarch butterfly larvae eat milkweed leaves, which contain cardenolides that taste really bad and are toxic, impacting heart function in most animals. (victoriaadvocate.com)
  • Analyses of extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection indicated that methanol extracts of P. tomentosa and G. sinaicus contained cardenolides, while these compounds were not detected in extracts of C. acutum . (springer.com)
  • The observed feeding deterrent activity of the cardenolide-free methanol extract of C. acutum would suggest that compounds other than cardenolides are responsible for the deterrent activity. (springer.com)
  • A new cardenolide tupichinolide (1) and a new steroidal saponin tupichinin A (2), together with seven known compounds, were isolated from the rhizomes of Tupistra chinensis. (kib.ac.cn)
  • Cardenolides, induced responses, and interactions between above? (cornell.edu)
  • Antiproliferative Cardenolides from the Aerial Parts of Pergularia tomentosa. (nih.gov)