C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include DIGITOXIN and DIGOXIN and their derivatives and the STROPHANTHINS.
Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Terminology as Topic
Volatile Organic Compounds
Gonadal Steroid Hormones
A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)
Pharmacopoeias as Topic
Authoritative treatises on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc. They are usually published under governmental jurisdiction (e.g., USP, the United States Pharmacopoeia; BP, British Pharmacopoeia; P. Helv., the Swiss Pharmacopoeia). They differ from FORMULARIES in that they are far more complete: formularies tend to be mere listings of formulas and prescriptions.
Glycosides from plants of the genus DIGITALIS. Some of these are useful as cardiotonic and anti-arrhythmia agents. Included also are semi-synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring glycosides. The term has sometimes been used more broadly to include all CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES, but here is restricted to those related to Digitalis.
Role of catecholamines in the central mechanism of emetic response induced by peruvoside and ouabain in cats. (1/37)1 Peruvoside, (a glycoside obtained from the plant, Thevetia neriifolia Juss) and ouabain produce emesis in cats. Vomiting is not produced by these drugs in animals pretreated with catecholamine depleting drugs like reserpine, tetrabenazine or syrosingopine. Chloropromazine hydrochloride, mepyramine maleate, or BOL-148 administered intravenously or intracerebro-ventricularly do not afford protection.2 Phenoxybenzamine produces partial protection against peruvoside-induced emesis.3 Haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.v.) prevents vomiting induced by peruvoside or ouabain. Intracerebroventricularly administered haloperidol is ineffective.4 Cats pretreated with SKF-525-A, are not protected by haloperidol. Animals pretreated with phenobarbitone in a dose of 25 mg/kg for a week were protected by haloperidol, 250 mug/kg i.e. one quarter of the effective antiemetic dose in normal cats.5 It is postulated that catecholamines are involved in the mechanism of vomiting induced by cardiac gycosides. Further, a metabolite of haloperidol seems to be responsible for its effective antiemetic action. (+info)
Systolic time intervals in constrictive pericarditis. A study before and after digitalis. (2/37)Systolic time intervals were studied in 9 patients with documented constrictive pericarditis before and 15 to 20 minutes after intravenous administration of peruvoside (a quick acting digitalis-like glycoside) to determine underlying myocardial dysfunction. Data were compared with those of similarly studied normal subjects and patients with known myocardial dysfunction. Left ventricular ejection time index (LVETI) decreased in normal subjects (P less than 0.01) and in most patients with constrictive pericarditis, and increased marginally in those with myocardial dysfunction (NS) after peruvoside administration. Pre-ejection period index (PEPI) shortened significantly (P less than 0.01) after peruvoside in normal subjects and in patients with myocardial failure, but not in constrictive pericarditis. Likewise the predicted ejection fraction was insignificantly altered in constrictive pericarditis but significantly so (P less than 0.01) in myocardial failure and normal subjects. The response of one patient with constrictive pericarditis to parenteral peruvoside administration was similar to that seen in patients with myocardial failure. This patient had a delayed recovery after pericardiectomy. PEPI/LVETI ratio and ejection fraction were also abnormal in other patients with constrictive pericarditis when compared to normal subjects. Such abnormalities and the unusual response of some patients to administration of peruvoside may reflect underlying myocardial dysfunction in patients with constrictive pericarditis. However, it is possible that the rigid pericardium also contributes to these abnormalities to a varying extent. Systolic time indices and their response to digitalis appear to be a useful, atraumatic method for detecting underlying myocardial dysfunction in patients with constrictive pericarditis. (+info)
Cardiotonic steroids: correlation of sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphate inhibition and ion transport in vitro with inotropic activity and toxicity in dogs. (3/37)1. A new series of cardiotonics based on five steroid nuclei has been evaluated for inhibition of Na-+/K-+-ATPase and Rb uptake by red blood cells, and for inotropic activity and toxicity in dogs. Structure-activity relationships are discussed. 2. The in vitro tests can be used satisfactorily to predict inotropic activity, but not toxicity or therapeutic ratio. 3. Although compounds with greatly improved therapeutic ratios relative to ouabain and tolusin have been obtained, they proved to be strongly emetic in the conscious dog. (+info)
Novel digitalis-like factor, marinobufotoxin, isolated from cultured Y-1 cells, and its hypertensive effect in rats. (4/37)Marinobufagenin and telecinobufagin have been identified as digitalis-like factors in mammals. In toads, marinobufagenin-related compounds, such as marinobufotoxin (MBT), have been isolated in some tissues but not in mammals, and its biological action has not been elucidated. Herein, we aimed to explore the possible production and/or secretion of MBT and the biological action in rats. First, the MBT in culture supernatant of the adrenocortical-originated cell line Y-1 was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and sensitive ELISA for marinobufagenin-like immunoreactivity. Moreover, the structural information was obtained by mass spectrometry. To determine the biological action, MBT (9.6 and 0.96 microg/kg per day) was intraperitoneally infused via an osmotic minipump for 1 week. Blood pressure and renal excretion of marinobufagenin-like immunoreactivity were measured. Marinobufagenin-like immunoreactivity was found in Y-1 cell culture media, and the concentration increased until 24 hours. The structural analysis suggested that marinobufagenin-like immunoreactivities were marinobufagenin and MBT, and tandem mass spectrum analysis revealed them with the specific daughter ions. The highest sensitive ELISA-positive peak of marinobufagenin-like immunoreactivity in the media was MBT. Continuous administration of MBT in rats for 1 week significantly increased systolic blood pressure and renal excretion of marinobufagenin-like immunoreactivity compared with control rats (135+/-3.0 versus 126+/-2.0 mm Hg and 1.41+/-0.286 versus 0.34+/-0.064 ng/day, respectively). These data suggest that MBT, arginine-suberoyl ester of marinobufagenin, can be a novel digitalis-like factor with hypertensive action and is secreted from the adrenocortical cells. (+info)
Analyses of biologically active steroids: antitumor active OSW-1 and cardiotonic marinobufotoxin, by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. (5/37)Naturally occurring constituents of biological or pharmaceutical interest often exist in the form of glycosides or conjugates. Mass spectral investigations of these compounds require soft ionization techniques if information on molecular mass, sugar sequence, or conjugate content is desired. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) quadrupole ion trap (QIT) time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (TOF-MS(n)) was used to identify both OSW-1, an acetylated cholestane diglycoside showing antitumor activity, and the cardiotonic steroid, bufotoxin. Each molecular-related ion was identified, and subsequent collision-induced dissociation experiments in which a molecular-related ion was selected as a precursor ion produced the characteristic product ions that are essential for structural elucidation. OSW-1 and its analogue with a modified side chain, thienyl OSW-1, were synthesized, and bufotoxins, i.e., marinobufotoxin and its homologue, marinobufagin 3-pimeloylarginine ester, were isolated from toad venom. On MALDI-TOF-MS, sodium-adduct [M+Na](+) ions were observed in the steroid glycosides, although protonated [M+H](+) ions were relatively more abundant than sodium-adduct [M+Na](+) ions in the bufotoxins. On the basis of tandem MS results, we propose key fragmentation pathways. The sugar moiety or side chain from the precursor ion was eliminated in OSW-1. However, characteristic product ions originating from the cleavage of the side chain with an ester formation were observed in the bufotoxins. Post-source decay (PSD) on MALDI-TOF-MS is also described when evaluating alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid or 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid as a matrix to obtain useful ions required for the identification of compound. (+info)
Photoaffinity labeling of the ouabain-binding site on (Na+ plus K+) adenosinetriphosphatase. (6/37)An ethyl diazomalonyl derivative of cymarin was synthesized in order to photoaffinity label the cardiac glycoside-binding site on (Na(+) + K(+)) adenosinetriphosphate (EC 22.214.171.124). When a noncovalent complex of the enzyme and this cardiac glycoside derivative was photolyzed, a covalent bond was formed between the ligand and the larger of the two polypeptide subunits of the enzyme. Several control experiments demonstrate that this photochemical reaction occured while the ligand was bound to the site at which it inhibits the enzyme activity. Another specific inhibitor, tentatively identified as the ethyl chloromalonyl derivative of cymarin, produced similar photoaffinity labeling of the larger subunit, demonstrating that the photolytic dissociation of the diazo group may not be responsible for the photochemical reaction. Since the cardiac glycoside-binding site, which is accessible from the outside surface of the plasma membrane, and the phosphorylation site, which is accessible from the inside surface, are both on the larger polypeptide subunit of (Na(+) + K(+)) adenosinetriphosphatase, this polypeptide has sequences exposed to both sides of the membrane. (+info)
The action of digitonin on rat liver mitochondria. Phospholipid content. (7/37)1. The amount and types of phospholipid and the fatty acid composition of the various phospholipids were examined in intact rat liver mitochondria, in mitochondria devoid of their outer membrane (preparation A) and in very small pieces derived from the disruption of the inner-membrane complexes (preparation B). The latter two preparations were obtained by digitonin treatment and carry out oxidative phosphorylation. 2. The ratio mug.atoms of phospholipid P/mg. of protein was 0.163 for intact mitochondria, decreased to 0.118 on removal of the outer membrane and increased markedly to 0.292 on disruption of the inner-membrane complex. 3. Examination of the various types of phospholipid present showed that the molar proportions cardiolipin:phosphatidylcholine:phosphatidylethanolamine were approx. 1:6:6 for intact mitochondria and 1:3:3 for preparations A and B. 4. There was a correlation between the recovery of cardiolipin and adenosine triphosphatase activity in the conversion of intact mitochondria into preparations A and B. 5. The fatty acid contents of the various types of phospholipid purified by thin-layer chromatography were identical in all three preparations. Our results show a considerably higher content of arachidonic acid and lower content of oleic acid for phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol than have previously been reported for mitochondrial phospholipids. (+info)
Fluorometric measurement of pyridine nucleotide reduction in the giant axon of the squid. (8/37)By monitoring the fluorescence of the isolated giant axon of the squid Loligo pealei, it was possible to follow changes in its oxidation-reduction state as caused by the action of anoxia, cyanide, Amytal, and azide. The response to oxygen depletion was very rapid, the NAD within the axon being 90% reduced within 1-2 min. Cyanide and Amytal gave essentially similar results, although somewhat longer periods of time elapsed during their onset and washout periods. The extent of NAD reduction was essentially the same under conditions of anoxia and treatment with cyanide and Amytal. Azide was less effective in this respect, and at comparatively high levels of concentration (25-50 mM) gave values of 40% or less of the reduction observed with the other inhibitors. The application of ouabain and strophanthidin gave no observable NAD reduction. Variations in the time required to consume given quantities of dissolved oxygen before and after stimulation indicated an increase of 10-20% in oxygen uptake rate associated with activity, although this figure appeared to be a function of the surface-to-volume ratio of the axon. A biochemical analysis of axoplasm for oxidized and reduced pyridine nucleotide was made. Fluorometric examination of centrifuged axoplasm indicated that the NAD-NADH was largely confined to the mitochondria of the axon. (+info)
Low sodium cotransport in red cells with physiological internal sodium concentration in essential hypertension. | Hypertension
Ouabain-resistant Na and Li effluxes in erythrocytes from 18 normal subjects and 19 hypertensive subjects were studied in fresh cells that contained about 9 mmol Li and 2.5 or 6.5 mmol Na per liter of erythrocytes after intact cells had been incubated for 5 hours in 110 mM Li, 40 mM Na medium, with or without ouabain 10(-4) M. Outward Na cotransport was estimated at both internal Na concentrations as the furosemide-sensitive unidirectional 22Na efflux from erythrocytes into a Na free-medium containing 75 mM MgCl2. The changes in furosemide-sensitive outward Na transport between the two levels of internal Na were considered as a measure of the response of Na cotransport to the changes in internal Na within its physiological range. At both levels of internal Na, outward Na cotransport was reduced in the majority but not in all of the patients with essential hypertension (p less than 0.05 at 2.5 mmol; p less than 0.001 at 6.5 mmol). The ratio of the changes in Na cotransport to those in internal Na ...
Cardenolide - Wikipedia
Cardenolide is a type of steroid. Many plants contain derivatives, collectively known as cardenolides, including many in the form of cardenolide glycosides (cardenolides that contain structural groups derived from sugars). Cardenolide glycosides are often toxic; specifically, they are heart-arresting. The term derives card- heart (from Greek καρδία kardiā) and the suffix -enolide, referring to the lactone ring at C17. It should not be confused with cardanolides. Cardanolides are a class of steroids (or aglycones if viewed as cardiac glycoside constituents), and cardenolides are a subtype of this class (see MeSH D codes list). Cardenolides are C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone (specifically a butenolide) at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of cardiac glycosides and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include: acetyldigitoxins acetyldigoxins cymarine digitoxin ...
Ethacrynic Acid Test | Toxicology | Neogen
Neogens Ethacrynic Acid ELISA (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay) test kit is a qualitative one-step kit designed for use as a screening device for the detection of Ethacrynic acid. The kit was designed for screening purposes and is intended for forensic use only.. ...
Cardiac Glycosides. 1.<sup>1</sup> A Systematic Study of Digitoxigenin d...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cardiac Glycosides. 1.1 A Systematic Study of Digitoxigenin d-Glycosides. AU - Fullerton, Dwight S.. AU - Kihara, Masaru. AU - Deffo, Tamboue. AU - Kitatsuji, Eitaro. AU - Ahmed, Khalil. AU - Simat, Bruce. AU - From, Arthur H.L.. AU - Rohrer, Douglas C.. PY - 1984/6. Y1 - 1984/6. N2 - A series of digitoxigenin glycosides was studied: five with β-D-sugars varying stepwise in sugar structure from β-D-digitoxose to β-D-galactose, including one β-D/α-D pair. I50 values for these glycosides and digitoxigenin were determined with hog kidney Na+,K+-ATPase. These data suggest a major and unexpected role for 4-OH conformation in the sugar. All the glycosides with an equatorial 4-OH were more active than the two with the 4-OH axial [digitoxigenin β-D-galactoside (6) I50 = 6.45 X 10-8 M; digitoxigenin 2-deoxy-α-D-rtbo-hexopyranoside (α-3a) I50 = 9.33 X 10-8M; digitoxigenin I50 = 1.17 X 10-7 M], Stereochemistry of the 3-OH had much less of an activity role than that of the ...
Interaction of benzoquinones with mitochondria interferes with oxidative phosphorylation characteristics
Studies with four benzoquinones, viz. juglone, embelin, maesaquinone and maesanin, on rat liver mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation have been carried out. Three of the benzoquinones are uncouplers in the order juglone , maesoquinone , embelin, while maesanin is an inhibitor of electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation ...
Ethacrynic Acid (Oral Route) Description and Brand Names - Mayo Clinic
Ethacrynic acid belongs to a group of medicines called loop diuretics or water pills. Ethacrynic acid is given to help treat fluid retention (edema) and swelling that is caused by congestive heart failure, liver disease, kidney disease, or other medical conditions. It works by acting on the kidneys to increase the flow of urine . ...
Ethacrynic acid (Oral route) - Loyola University Health System
In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For this medicine, the following should be considered: Allergies- Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully. Children- Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of ethacrynic acid in children below 2 years of age. Safety and efficacy have not been established . Older adults- Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatrics-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of ethacrynic acid in the elderly. However, elderly patients are more likely to have age-related kidney problems, which may ...
Ethacrynic Acid - Side Effects, Dosage, Interactions - Drugs - Everyday Health
Ethacrynic acid is a loop diuretic (water pill) that prevents your body from absorbing too much salt, allowing the salt to instead be passed in your urine.
Ethacrynic acid - definition of ethacrynic acid by The Free Dictionary
Define ethacrynic acid. ethacrynic acid synonyms, ethacrynic acid pronunciation, ethacrynic acid translation, English dictionary definition of ethacrynic acid. n. A compound, C13H12Cl2O4, used as a diuretic primarily to treat severe edema. Noun 1. ethacrynic acid - diuretic used to treat edema Edecrin diuretic,...
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Lithium Ion Battery Electrolyte Market: 2019 Global Industry Growth with Key Manufacturers Analysis
According to this study, over the next five years the Lithium ion Battery Electrolyte market will register a 6.2% CAGR in terms of revenue, the global market size will reach US$ 1813.4 million by 2024, from US$ 1424.3 million in 2019. In particular, this report presents the global market share (sales and revenue) of key companies in Lithium ion Battery Electrolyte business, shared in Chapter 3. This report presents a comprehensive overview, market shares, and growth opportunities of Lithium ion Battery Electrolyte market by product type, application, key manufacturers and key regions and countries. Browse the complete report and table of contents @ https://www.decisiondatabases.com/ip/41889-lithium-ion-battery-electrolyte-market-analysis-report ...
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Thermal Stability of Lithium Ion Battery Electrolyte
One of the components found in a lithium ion battery that is typically responsible for mishaps is the electrolyte. In the following article…
Building a Better Lithium Ion Battery
The batteries in everything from computers to future electric cars might be improved by adding a compound containing boron and fluorine
A better electrolyte for lithium ion batteries - MaterialsViews
Solid nanoporous electolyte developed at ORNL could solve many of the safety concerns associated with current lithium-ion technology.
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A Sodium-based Battery May Offer More Cost-effective Storage than Lithium
Stanford researchers have developed a sodium-based battery that can store the same amount of energy as a lithium ion battery, at substantially lower cost.
Battery Safety | Dank Terpenes UK
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Differential effects of chloramphenicol and nitrosoanalogue on protein synthesis and oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential effects of chloramphenicol and nitrosoanalogue on protein synthesis and oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver mitochondria. AU - Abou-Khalil, S.. AU - Abou-Khalil, W. H.. AU - Yunis, Adel A. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - Protein synthesis and oxidative phosphorylation were chosen as measures to study the differences between the effects of chloramphenicol (CAP) and its derivative nitroso-chloramphenicol (NO-CAP) on rat liver mitochondria. [14C]Leucine incorporation into mitochondrial protein was inhibited 83 per cent by 30 μM CAP and was equally inhibited by a similar concentration of thiamphenicol; 30μM NO-CAP, however, inhibited [14C]leucine incorporation only 34 per cent and 30μM nitrosobenzene had no effect. A millimolar concentration of CAP was required to inhibit oxidative phosphorylation, whereas 75μM NO-CAP was inhibitory. Unlike CAP, NO-CAP at 100 μM slightly inhibited state 4 respiration with glutamate as substrate, but slightly activated it with ...
Scientists spy on lithium ions
Lithium ion batteries are at the energetic heart of almost all things tech, from cell phones to tablets to electric vehicles. Thats because they are a proven technology, light, long-lasting and p ...
Patent US6428933 - Lithium ion batteries with improved resistance to sustained self-heating - Google Patents
A lithium ion battery that includes: (a) a cathode; (b) an anode in the form of a thin film which, when lithiated, does not exhibit sustained self-heating at temperatures up to about 100 C.; and (c) an electrolyte separating the anode and the cathode. The battery has a capacity of at least 600 milliamp-hours, a specific energy of at least 100 watt-hours/kg, and a volumetric energy of at least 250 watt-hours/liter.
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Characteristics and Behavior of Cycled Aged Lithium Ion Cells
Data collected on standard Li-ion cells confirms a change in kinetic behavior as Li-ion cells cycle. The data shows distinct regions through out the cycle life of the cell. The data suggests that the net coulombic output as well as the relative state-of-charge maintained throughout the cells use is as important as total cycles and calendar time when considering cell aging. The data provides a valuable base for both improved charge routines and safety analysis.
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Pdf História Da Arte Fundamentos Semióticos 1998
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Novel structured electrolyte for all-solid-state lithium ion batteries<...
TY - GEN. T1 - Novel structured electrolyte for all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. AU - Liu, Wei. AU - Milcarek, Ryan. AU - Wang, Kang. AU - Ahn, Jeongmin. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - In this study, a multi-layer structure solid electrolyte (SE) for all-solid-state electrolyte lithium ion batteries (ASSLIBs) was fabricated and characterized. The SE was fabricated by laminating ceramic electrolyte Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP) with polymer (PEO)10-Li(N(CF3SO2)2 electrolyte and gel-polymer electrolyte of PVdF-HFP/ Li(N(CF3SO2)2. It is shown that the interfacial resistance is generated by poor contact at the interface of the solid electrolytes. The lamination protocol, material selection and fabrication method play a key role in the fabrication process of practical multi-layer SEs.. AB - In this study, a multi-layer structure solid electrolyte (SE) for all-solid-state electrolyte lithium ion batteries (ASSLIBs) was fabricated and characterized. The SE was fabricated by laminating ceramic ...
Materials | Free Full-Text | Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms
Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed.
Nanotechnology Now - Press Release: CNano Launches Carbon Nanotube Based Conductive Paste Products for Lithium Ion Battery...
Santa Clara, CA, , Posted on June 9th, 2010. The super conductive paste is leveraging both physical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes, and is used as the conductive additive for both Lithium ion battery cathodes and anodes to enhance battery energy and power density, cycle life and safety. This paste product is based on the volume produced carbon nanotubes from CNano. It replaces the traditional conductive additives for Lithium ion batteries with less loading but greatly improving battery performance, especially for high power applications such as electrical vehicles and power tools ...
LiFePO4 Battery Pack 48V-100Ah,lithium ion iron phosphate cells,LiFePO4, large lithium phosphate batteries, high discharge rate...
LiFePO4 Battery Pack 48V-100Ah,lithium ion iron phosphate cells,LiFePO4, large lithium phosphate batteries, high discharge rate lithium iron phosphate batteries,rechargable LiIon LiFePO4 cells,high capacity LiIon LiFePO4, high discharge rate LiIon LiFePO4
Erythrocyte concentrations of the lithium ion: Clinical correlates and mechanisms of accumulation<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Erythrocyte concentrations of the lithium ion. T2 - Clinical correlates and mechanisms of accumulation. AU - Frazer, A.. AU - Mendels, D.. AU - Brunswick, PY - 1978/12/1. Y1 - 1978/12/1. N2 - In spite of the continued uncertainty about the clinical significance of differences in the Lithium Ratio, the authors and others have been studying factors which determine the distribution of Li+ across the RBC membrane in an effort to understand the considerable intersubject variation which has been observed by all investigators. In brief, it appears that the major reason for interindividual variation in the magnitude of the Lithium Ratio is the Li-Na counterflow system.. AB - In spite of the continued uncertainty about the clinical significance of differences in the Lithium Ratio, the authors and others have been studying factors which determine the distribution of Li+ across the RBC membrane in an effort to understand the considerable intersubject variation which has been observed by all ...
China Lithium Ion Battery manufacturer, Lithium Polymer Batteries, Power Bank supplier - Aug Enegy Electronic Co., Ltd
China Lithium Ion Battery supplier, Lithium Polymer Batteries, Power Bank Manufacturers/ Suppliers - Aug Enegy Electronic Co., Ltd
Underwater Kinetics 12816 18650 2200mAh 3.7V Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) Button Top Battery for Nitex / Nitex Pro Lights - Bulk
Underwater Kinetics 12816 18650 2200mAh 3.7V Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) Button Top Battery for Nitex / Nitex Pro Lights - Bulk - Underwater Kinetics 3.7V 2200mAh Replacement Li-ion Battery (12816) What we have here is a genuine Underwater Kinetics lithium-ion battery, which fits the Nitex and Nitex Pro eLED rechargeable flashlights. Purchase a replacement battery or have extras, so youll be ready to go at any time. Specifications: Fits UK Nitex and Nitex Pro eLED flashlights Chemistry: Li-ion Voltage: 3.7V Capacity: 2200mAh
Analytics for US Patent Application No. 2016/0372,790, ELECTROLYTE FORMULATIONS FOR LITHIUM ION BATTERIES
Electrolyte formulations including additives or combinations of additives. The electrolyte formulations are useful in lithium ion battery ce
Scavengers Blog: DIY Powerbank 2014
Next thing is the battery. Lithium ion is a very sensitive type of battery. Misusing that may cause severe damage to the battery and may cause damage to the user. Lithium ion needs to be charged with a constant current at the first stage then a constant voltage is needed. To keep stuffs simple Im going to use low current constant voltage. Another thing is lithium ion shouldnt be charged with more than 50% of its current capacity. That means if you have a 2000mAHr pack you should not cross the charging current over 1000mA, higher current will generate more heat and damage valuable battery life. To learn more about how to charge lithium ion battery you can read this post. For my purpose Im using two 4.2V Cell each rated at about 3300mAHr-3500mAHr, and Im charging that with a maximum of 1000mA at 4.15V per cell so it should be fine. ...
Ethacrynic Acid tablets
Visit your doctor or health care professional for regular check ups. Check your blood pressure regularly. Ask your doctor or health care professional what your blood pressure should be, and when you should contact him or her. If you are diabetic, check your blood sugar as directed. Do not stop taking your medicine unless your doctor tells you to.. You may need to be on a special diet while taking this medicine. Ask your doctor. Also, ask how many glasses of fluids you need to drink each day. You must not get dehydrated.. This medication can make you feel confused, dizzy or lightheaded. Drinking alcohol can make this worse. Do not drive, use machinery, or do anything that needs mental alertness until you know how this medicine affects you. To reduce the risk of dizzy or fainting spells, do not sit or stand up quickly.. ...
Lithium Polymer and Lithium ION batteries from Ultralife Batteries
Ultralife Batteries started as a battery company and at present offers products as well as services ranging from portable and standby power solutions up to communication and electronic systems.
New All-Solid Sulfur Based Battery Outperforms Lithium Ion - Slashdot
olsmeister writes The new all-solid battery design uses solid sulfur and lithium, and outperforms existing lithium-ion batteries with four times the energy density. The battery can maintain a capacity of 1200 milliampere-hours per gram after 300 charge-discharge cycles. More work needs to be done, ...
Fundamental Understanding of Metallic Nanowires as Negative Electrodes for Durable High power and Energy Density Lithium Ion...
Research Areas: Energy. Departments: Chemical and Materials Engineering. Primary Investigator: Yang-Tse Cheng. The first goal of this task is to experimentally determine the parameters that can ...
Green Explored: May 2013
The lithium ion batteries are charged with 472 kwh of primary energy per kwh of battery capacity as well as the AC energy from the grid to charge up the batteries. Grid emissions (average US) were estimated at 1.3 pounds of CO2 per kwh. My analysis goes through a tedious calculation but is honest and fair. The one variable affecting the outcome is the number of miles driven over the life of the battery pack. For the Tesla model S, I used 8,000 miles per year (their user blog states the average is about 7,500 miles per year) and 10 years of battery life, allowing the energy in the production of the battery pack to be amortized over 80,000 miles in total ...
Cardanolide is the same core structure but having a saturated lactone ring instead of one containing an alkene. Some plant and ...
According to MeSH, bufadienolides and bufanolides are classified as follows: Polycyclic compounds Steroids Cardanolides Cardiac ...
The molecular formula C23H36O2 (molar mass: 344.53 g/mol, exact mass: 344.2715 u) may refer to: Cardanolide Dimepregnen Luteone ...
... is a steroid with a molecular weight of 344.531. Cardiac glycoside Cardanolides at the US National Library of ...
Cardanolide - Wikipedia
Cardanolides Summary Report | CureHunter
Category:Steroids - Wikimedia Commons
esteroide (es); Стероидтар (kk-kz); Steroid (ms); ستەروىيدتار (kk-cn); Стероид (bg); Steroid (ro); 甾體 (zh-hk); Steroid (sk); Esteroïde (oc); 甾體 (zh-hant); 甾体 (zh-cn); 스테로이드 (ko); Стероидтар (kk); steroido (eo); steroidy (cs); Steroidogeneza (bs); স্টেরয়েড (bn); stéroïde (fr); Steroid (jv); steroid (hr); סטערויד (yi); Steroid (vi); ستەروىيدتار (kk-arab); Steroïdtar (kk-latn); Steroïed (af); Стероиди (sr); 甾体 (zh-sg); Стероидтар (kk-cyrl); steroid (nn); steroid (nb); Stéroid (su); steroid (en); ستيرويد (ar); 類固醇 (yue); Steroïdtar (kk-tr); Esteroide (eu); Esteroide (ast); esteroide (ca); Steroid (cy); Stéaróideach (ga); ստերոիդներ (hy); 甾體 (zh); steroid (da); ステロイド (ja); סטרואיד (he); स्टेरॉयड (hi); Steroidi (fi); steroide (it); Estewoyid (ht); Стэроіды (be-tarask); Στεροειδές (el); steroīds ...
Strophanthins | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
LIPID MAPS® Lipidomics Gateway
Cardenolide - Wikipedia
steroid | Definition, Structure, & Types | Britannica.com
Digoxin - DrugBank
Digitoxin - DrugBank
cardenolide glycoside (CHEBI:28544) / cardanolide, Cardanolides and derivatives, Cardanolide and derivatives, Cardiac ... Cardanolide-glycoside / Steroidal glycoside / Oligosaccharide / 14-hydroxysteroid / Hydroxysteroid / Glycosyl compound / O- ... glycosides (C06955) / Cardanolides and derivatives (LMST01120018) Targets. Details1. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase ...
ZFIN Chebi: 20,22-dihydrodigoxin
Digitonin | Profiles RNS
Search | Global Index Medicus
DeCS Ingl s+escopo
Blättern Schreiben C (Seite 43) | Frei German Wörterbuch | internationale-worterbuch.com
Suchergebnis: Iriarte, L. M.
Digitoxin Summary Report | CureHunter
Steroids | CTD
ChemIDplus - 3786-76-3 - WWCGMGNIMDOEGK-BYMUNCBLSA-N - Dihydrodigitoxin - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas,...
MH DELETED MN ADDED MN
REDUCED SODIUM FOOD PRODUCTS - Patent application
2-Naphthylamine-5,7-disulfonic acid supplier | CasNO.118-33-2
Steroids | Profiles RNS
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawleys Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed ...