Cardanolides: The aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES. The ring structure is basically a cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene nucleus attached to a lactone ring at the C-17 position.Cardenolides: C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include DIGITOXIN and DIGOXIN and their derivatives and the STROPHANTHINS.Cardiac Glycosides: Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.Digitoxin: A cardiac glycoside sometimes used in place of DIGOXIN. It has a longer half-life than digoxin; toxic effects, which are similar to those of digoxin, are longer lasting. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p665)Acetyldigoxins: Alpha- or beta-acetyl derivatives of DIGOXIN or lanatoside C from Digitalis lanata. They are better absorbed and longer acting than digoxin and are used in congestive heart failure.Acetyldigitoxins: Cardioactive derivatives of lanatoside A or of DIGITOXIN. They are used for fast digitalization in congestive heart failure.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Anabolic Agents: These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Strophanthus: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE that contains OUABAIN cardiac glycosides.Digitalis: A genus of toxic herbaceous Eurasian plants of the Plantaginaceae which yield cardiotonic DIGITALIS GLYCOSIDES. The most useful species are Digitalis lanata and D. purpurea.Digitalis Glycosides: Glycosides from plants of the genus DIGITALIS. Some of these are useful as cardiotonic and anti-arrhythmia agents. Included also are semi-synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring glycosides. The term has sometimes been used more broadly to include all CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES, but here is restricted to those related to Digitalis.Emodin: Purgative anthraquinone found in several plants, especially Rhamnus frangula. It was formerly used as a laxative, but is now used mainly as tool in toxicity studies.Clusiaceae: The mangosteen plant family (sometimes classified as Guttiferae; also known as Hypericaceae) of the order THEALES, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes trees and shrubs with resinous, sticky sap, usually with broad-ended, oblong, leathery leaves with a strong, central vein, flowers with many stamens.Digoxin: A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)Pharmacopoeias as Topic: Authoritative treatises on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc. They are usually published under governmental jurisdiction (e.g., USP, the United States Pharmacopoeia; BP, British Pharmacopoeia; P. Helv., the Swiss Pharmacopoeia). They differ from FORMULARIES in that they are far more complete: formularies tend to be mere listings of formulas and prescriptions.

Role of catecholamines in the central mechanism of emetic response induced by peruvoside and ouabain in cats. (1/37)

1 Peruvoside, (a glycoside obtained from the plant, Thevetia neriifolia Juss) and ouabain produce emesis in cats. Vomiting is not produced by these drugs in animals pretreated with catecholamine depleting drugs like reserpine, tetrabenazine or syrosingopine. Chloropromazine hydrochloride, mepyramine maleate, or BOL-148 administered intravenously or intracerebro-ventricularly do not afford protection.2 Phenoxybenzamine produces partial protection against peruvoside-induced emesis.3 Haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.v.) prevents vomiting induced by peruvoside or ouabain. Intracerebroventricularly administered haloperidol is ineffective.4 Cats pretreated with SKF-525-A, are not protected by haloperidol. Animals pretreated with phenobarbitone in a dose of 25 mg/kg for a week were protected by haloperidol, 250 mug/kg i.e. one quarter of the effective antiemetic dose in normal cats.5 It is postulated that catecholamines are involved in the mechanism of vomiting induced by cardiac gycosides. Further, a metabolite of haloperidol seems to be responsible for its effective antiemetic action.  (+info)

Systolic time intervals in constrictive pericarditis. A study before and after digitalis. (2/37)

Systolic time intervals were studied in 9 patients with documented constrictive pericarditis before and 15 to 20 minutes after intravenous administration of peruvoside (a quick acting digitalis-like glycoside) to determine underlying myocardial dysfunction. Data were compared with those of similarly studied normal subjects and patients with known myocardial dysfunction. Left ventricular ejection time index (LVETI) decreased in normal subjects (P less than 0.01) and in most patients with constrictive pericarditis, and increased marginally in those with myocardial dysfunction (NS) after peruvoside administration. Pre-ejection period index (PEPI) shortened significantly (P less than 0.01) after peruvoside in normal subjects and in patients with myocardial failure, but not in constrictive pericarditis. Likewise the predicted ejection fraction was insignificantly altered in constrictive pericarditis but significantly so (P less than 0.01) in myocardial failure and normal subjects. The response of one patient with constrictive pericarditis to parenteral peruvoside administration was similar to that seen in patients with myocardial failure. This patient had a delayed recovery after pericardiectomy. PEPI/LVETI ratio and ejection fraction were also abnormal in other patients with constrictive pericarditis when compared to normal subjects. Such abnormalities and the unusual response of some patients to administration of peruvoside may reflect underlying myocardial dysfunction in patients with constrictive pericarditis. However, it is possible that the rigid pericardium also contributes to these abnormalities to a varying extent. Systolic time indices and their response to digitalis appear to be a useful, atraumatic method for detecting underlying myocardial dysfunction in patients with constrictive pericarditis.  (+info)

Cardiotonic steroids: correlation of sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphate inhibition and ion transport in vitro with inotropic activity and toxicity in dogs. (3/37)

1. A new series of cardiotonics based on five steroid nuclei has been evaluated for inhibition of Na-+/K-+-ATPase and Rb uptake by red blood cells, and for inotropic activity and toxicity in dogs. Structure-activity relationships are discussed. 2. The in vitro tests can be used satisfactorily to predict inotropic activity, but not toxicity or therapeutic ratio. 3. Although compounds with greatly improved therapeutic ratios relative to ouabain and tolusin have been obtained, they proved to be strongly emetic in the conscious dog.  (+info)

Novel digitalis-like factor, marinobufotoxin, isolated from cultured Y-1 cells, and its hypertensive effect in rats. (4/37)

Marinobufagenin and telecinobufagin have been identified as digitalis-like factors in mammals. In toads, marinobufagenin-related compounds, such as marinobufotoxin (MBT), have been isolated in some tissues but not in mammals, and its biological action has not been elucidated. Herein, we aimed to explore the possible production and/or secretion of MBT and the biological action in rats. First, the MBT in culture supernatant of the adrenocortical-originated cell line Y-1 was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and sensitive ELISA for marinobufagenin-like immunoreactivity. Moreover, the structural information was obtained by mass spectrometry. To determine the biological action, MBT (9.6 and 0.96 microg/kg per day) was intraperitoneally infused via an osmotic minipump for 1 week. Blood pressure and renal excretion of marinobufagenin-like immunoreactivity were measured. Marinobufagenin-like immunoreactivity was found in Y-1 cell culture media, and the concentration increased until 24 hours. The structural analysis suggested that marinobufagenin-like immunoreactivities were marinobufagenin and MBT, and tandem mass spectrum analysis revealed them with the specific daughter ions. The highest sensitive ELISA-positive peak of marinobufagenin-like immunoreactivity in the media was MBT. Continuous administration of MBT in rats for 1 week significantly increased systolic blood pressure and renal excretion of marinobufagenin-like immunoreactivity compared with control rats (135+/-3.0 versus 126+/-2.0 mm Hg and 1.41+/-0.286 versus 0.34+/-0.064 ng/day, respectively). These data suggest that MBT, arginine-suberoyl ester of marinobufagenin, can be a novel digitalis-like factor with hypertensive action and is secreted from the adrenocortical cells.  (+info)

Analyses of biologically active steroids: antitumor active OSW-1 and cardiotonic marinobufotoxin, by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. (5/37)

Naturally occurring constituents of biological or pharmaceutical interest often exist in the form of glycosides or conjugates. Mass spectral investigations of these compounds require soft ionization techniques if information on molecular mass, sugar sequence, or conjugate content is desired. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) quadrupole ion trap (QIT) time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (TOF-MS(n)) was used to identify both OSW-1, an acetylated cholestane diglycoside showing antitumor activity, and the cardiotonic steroid, bufotoxin. Each molecular-related ion was identified, and subsequent collision-induced dissociation experiments in which a molecular-related ion was selected as a precursor ion produced the characteristic product ions that are essential for structural elucidation. OSW-1 and its analogue with a modified side chain, thienyl OSW-1, were synthesized, and bufotoxins, i.e., marinobufotoxin and its homologue, marinobufagin 3-pimeloylarginine ester, were isolated from toad venom. On MALDI-TOF-MS, sodium-adduct [M+Na](+) ions were observed in the steroid glycosides, although protonated [M+H](+) ions were relatively more abundant than sodium-adduct [M+Na](+) ions in the bufotoxins. On the basis of tandem MS results, we propose key fragmentation pathways. The sugar moiety or side chain from the precursor ion was eliminated in OSW-1. However, characteristic product ions originating from the cleavage of the side chain with an ester formation were observed in the bufotoxins. Post-source decay (PSD) on MALDI-TOF-MS is also described when evaluating alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid or 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid as a matrix to obtain useful ions required for the identification of compound.  (+info)

Photoaffinity labeling of the ouabain-binding site on (Na+ plus K+) adenosinetriphosphatase. (6/37)

An ethyl diazomalonyl derivative of cymarin was synthesized in order to photoaffinity label the cardiac glycoside-binding site on (Na(+) + K(+)) adenosinetriphosphate (EC 3.6.1.3). When a noncovalent complex of the enzyme and this cardiac glycoside derivative was photolyzed, a covalent bond was formed between the ligand and the larger of the two polypeptide subunits of the enzyme. Several control experiments demonstrate that this photochemical reaction occured while the ligand was bound to the site at which it inhibits the enzyme activity. Another specific inhibitor, tentatively identified as the ethyl chloromalonyl derivative of cymarin, produced similar photoaffinity labeling of the larger subunit, demonstrating that the photolytic dissociation of the diazo group may not be responsible for the photochemical reaction. Since the cardiac glycoside-binding site, which is accessible from the outside surface of the plasma membrane, and the phosphorylation site, which is accessible from the inside surface, are both on the larger polypeptide subunit of (Na(+) + K(+)) adenosinetriphosphatase, this polypeptide has sequences exposed to both sides of the membrane.  (+info)

The action of digitonin on rat liver mitochondria. Phospholipid content. (7/37)

1. The amount and types of phospholipid and the fatty acid composition of the various phospholipids were examined in intact rat liver mitochondria, in mitochondria devoid of their outer membrane (preparation A) and in very small pieces derived from the disruption of the inner-membrane complexes (preparation B). The latter two preparations were obtained by digitonin treatment and carry out oxidative phosphorylation. 2. The ratio mug.atoms of phospholipid P/mg. of protein was 0.163 for intact mitochondria, decreased to 0.118 on removal of the outer membrane and increased markedly to 0.292 on disruption of the inner-membrane complex. 3. Examination of the various types of phospholipid present showed that the molar proportions cardiolipin:phosphatidylcholine:phosphatidylethanolamine were approx. 1:6:6 for intact mitochondria and 1:3:3 for preparations A and B. 4. There was a correlation between the recovery of cardiolipin and adenosine triphosphatase activity in the conversion of intact mitochondria into preparations A and B. 5. The fatty acid contents of the various types of phospholipid purified by thin-layer chromatography were identical in all three preparations. Our results show a considerably higher content of arachidonic acid and lower content of oleic acid for phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol than have previously been reported for mitochondrial phospholipids.  (+info)

Fluorometric measurement of pyridine nucleotide reduction in the giant axon of the squid. (8/37)

By monitoring the fluorescence of the isolated giant axon of the squid Loligo pealei, it was possible to follow changes in its oxidation-reduction state as caused by the action of anoxia, cyanide, Amytal, and azide. The response to oxygen depletion was very rapid, the NAD within the axon being 90% reduced within 1-2 min. Cyanide and Amytal gave essentially similar results, although somewhat longer periods of time elapsed during their onset and washout periods. The extent of NAD reduction was essentially the same under conditions of anoxia and treatment with cyanide and Amytal. Azide was less effective in this respect, and at comparatively high levels of concentration (25-50 mM) gave values of 40% or less of the reduction observed with the other inhibitors. The application of ouabain and strophanthidin gave no observable NAD reduction. Variations in the time required to consume given quantities of dissolved oxygen before and after stimulation indicated an increase of 10-20% in oxygen uptake rate associated with activity, although this figure appeared to be a function of the surface-to-volume ratio of the axon. A biochemical analysis of axoplasm for oxidized and reduced pyridine nucleotide was made. Fluorometric examination of centrifuged axoplasm indicated that the NAD-NADH was largely confined to the mitochondria of the axon.  (+info)

*Cardanolide

... is a steroid with a molecular weight of 344.531. Cardiac glycoside Cardanolides at the US National Library of ...

*Cardenolide

It should not be confused with cardanolides. Cardanolides are a class of steroids (or aglycones if viewed as cardiac glycoside ...

*Bufadienolide

According to MeSH, bufadienolides and bufanolides are classified as follows: Polycyclic compounds Steroids Cardanolides Cardiac ...
Ouabain-resistant Na and Li effluxes in erythrocytes from 18 normal subjects and 19 hypertensive subjects were studied in fresh cells that contained about 9 mmol Li and 2.5 or 6.5 mmol Na per liter of erythrocytes after intact cells had been incubated for 5 hours in 110 mM Li, 40 mM Na medium, with or without ouabain 10(-4) M. Outward Na cotransport was estimated at both internal Na concentrations as the furosemide-sensitive unidirectional 22Na efflux from erythrocytes into a Na free-medium containing 75 mM MgCl2. The changes in furosemide-sensitive outward Na transport between the two levels of internal Na were considered as a measure of the response of Na cotransport to the changes in internal Na within its physiological range. At both levels of internal Na, outward Na cotransport was reduced in the majority but not in all of the patients with essential hypertension (p less than 0.05 at 2.5 mmol; p less than 0.001 at 6.5 mmol). The ratio of the changes in Na cotransport to those in internal Na ...
Cardenolide is a type of steroid. Many plants contain derivatives, collectively known as cardenolides, including many in the form of cardenolide glycosides (cardenolides that contain structural groups derived from sugars). Cardenolide glycosides are often toxic; specifically, they are heart-arresting. The term derives card- "heart" (from Greek καρδία kardiā) and the suffix -enolide, referring to the lactone ring at C17. It should not be confused with cardanolides. Cardanolides are a class of steroids (or aglycones if viewed as cardiac glycoside constituents), and cardenolides are a subtype of this class (see MeSH D codes list). Cardenolides are C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone (specifically a butenolide) at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of cardiac glycosides and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include: acetyldigitoxins acetyldigoxins cymarine digitoxin ...
Neogens Ethacrynic Acid ELISA (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay) test kit is a qualitative one-step kit designed for use as a screening device for the detection of Ethacrynic acid. The kit was designed for screening purposes and is intended for forensic use only.. ...
Studies with four benzoquinones, viz. juglone, embelin, maesaquinone and maesanin, on rat liver mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation have been carried out. Three of the benzoquinones are uncouplers in the order juglone , maesoquinone , embelin, while maesanin is an inhibitor of electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation ...
Ethacrynic acid belongs to a group of medicines called loop diuretics or "water pills." Ethacrynic acid is given to help treat fluid retention (edema) and swelling that is caused by congestive heart failure, liver disease, kidney disease, or other medical conditions. It works by acting on the kidneys to increase the flow of urine . ...
In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For this medicine, the following should be considered: Allergies- Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully. Children- Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of ethacrynic acid in children below 2 years of age. Safety and efficacy have not been established . Older adults- Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatrics-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of ethacrynic acid in the elderly. However, elderly patients are more likely to have age-related kidney problems, which may ...
Ethacrynic acid is a loop diuretic (water pill) that prevents your body from absorbing too much salt, allowing the salt to instead be passed in your urine.
Define ethacrynic acid. ethacrynic acid synonyms, ethacrynic acid pronunciation, ethacrynic acid translation, English dictionary definition of ethacrynic acid. n. A compound, C13H12Cl2O4, used as a diuretic primarily to treat severe edema. Noun 1. ethacrynic acid - diuretic used to treat edema Edecrin diuretic,...
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Sodium-free High Surcrose Brain Slice Cutting Solution (SHS-BSCS) is used for cutting acute brain slices from rats and mice. Product information Ready to Use SHS-BSCS solution autoclaved Instructions for use: Ready to use: For 1000 ml SHS-BSCS Solution: 1. Oxygenate 500 ml Base A for 10 min 2. Add slowly 500 ml Base B 3. OxygenateSHS-BSCS Solution during use pH 7.4 when oxygenated with 95% O2, 5%
According to this study, over the next five years the Lithium ion Battery Electrolyte market will register a 6.2% CAGR in terms of revenue, the global market size will reach US$ 1813.4 million by 2024, from US$ 1424.3 million in 2019. In particular, this report presents the global market share (sales and revenue) of key companies in Lithium ion Battery Electrolyte business, shared in Chapter 3. This report presents a comprehensive overview, market shares, and growth opportunities of Lithium ion Battery Electrolyte market by product type, application, key manufacturers and key regions and countries. Browse the complete report and table of contents @ https://www.decisiondatabases.com/ip/41889-lithium-ion-battery-electrolyte-market-analysis-report ...
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The batteries in everything from computers to future electric cars might be improved by adding a compound containing boron and fluorine
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Stanford researchers have developed a sodium-based battery that can store the same amount of energy as a lithium ion battery, at substantially lower cost.
Our battery devices are powered using Lithium Ion batteries, which are totally safe when handled correctly - however they can become dangerous if mishandled. It
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential effects of chloramphenicol and nitrosoanalogue on protein synthesis and oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver mitochondria. AU - Abou-Khalil, S.. AU - Abou-Khalil, W. H.. AU - Yunis, Adel A. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - Protein synthesis and oxidative phosphorylation were chosen as measures to study the differences between the effects of chloramphenicol (CAP) and its derivative nitroso-chloramphenicol (NO-CAP) on rat liver mitochondria. [14C]Leucine incorporation into mitochondrial protein was inhibited 83 per cent by 30 μM CAP and was equally inhibited by a similar concentration of thiamphenicol; 30μM NO-CAP, however, inhibited [14C]leucine incorporation only 34 per cent and 30μM nitrosobenzene had no effect. A millimolar concentration of CAP was required to inhibit oxidative phosphorylation, whereas 75μM NO-CAP was inhibitory. Unlike CAP, NO-CAP at 100 μM slightly inhibited state 4 respiration with glutamate as substrate, but slightly activated it with ...
Lithium ion batteries are at the energetic heart of almost all things tech, from cell phones to tablets to electric vehicles. Thats because they are a proven technology, light, long-lasting and p ...
A lithium ion battery that includes: (a) a cathode; (b) an anode in the form of a thin film which, when lithiated, does not exhibit sustained self-heating at temperatures up to about 100 C.; and (c) an electrolyte separating the anode and the cathode. The battery has a capacity of at least 600 milliamp-hours, a specific energy of at least 100 watt-hours/kg, and a volumetric energy of at least 250 watt-hours/liter.
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Data collected on standard Li-ion cells confirms a change in kinetic behavior as Li-ion cells cycle. The data shows distinct regions through out the cycle life of the cell. The data suggests that the net coulombic output as well as the relative state-of-charge maintained throughout the cells use is as important as total cycles and calendar time when considering cell aging. The data provides a valuable base for both improved charge routines and safety analysis.
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Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed.
Santa Clara, CA, , Posted on June 9th, 2010. The super conductive paste is leveraging both physical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes, and is used as the conductive additive for both Lithium ion battery cathodes and anodes to enhance battery energy and power density, cycle life and safety. This paste product is based on the volume produced carbon nanotubes from CNano. It replaces the traditional conductive additives for Lithium ion batteries with less loading but greatly improving battery performance, especially for high power applications such as electrical vehicles and power tools ...
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Electrolyte formulations including additives or combinations of additives. The electrolyte formulations are useful in lithium ion battery ce
Next thing is the battery. Lithium ion is a very sensitive type of battery. Misusing that may cause severe damage to the battery and may cause damage to the user. Lithium ion needs to be charged with a constant current at the first stage then a constant voltage is needed. To keep stuffs simple Im going to use low current constant voltage. Another thing is lithium ion shouldnt be charged with more than 50% of its current capacity. That means if you have a 2000mAHr pack you should not cross the charging current over 1000mA, higher current will generate more heat and damage valuable battery life. To learn more about how to charge lithium ion battery you can read this post. For my purpose Im using two 4.2V Cell each rated at about 3300mAHr-3500mAHr, and Im charging that with a maximum of 1000mA at 4.15V per cell so it should be fine. ...
Visit your doctor or health care professional for regular check ups. Check your blood pressure regularly. Ask your doctor or health care professional what your blood pressure should be, and when you should contact him or her. If you are diabetic, check your blood sugar as directed. Do not stop taking your medicine unless your doctor tells you to.. You may need to be on a special diet while taking this medicine. Ask your doctor. Also, ask how many glasses of fluids you need to drink each day. You must not get dehydrated.. This medication can make you feel confused, dizzy or lightheaded. Drinking alcohol can make this worse. Do not drive, use machinery, or do anything that needs mental alertness until you know how this medicine affects you. To reduce the risk of dizzy or fainting spells, do not sit or stand up quickly.. ...
Ultralife Batteries started as a battery company and at present offers products as well as services ranging from portable and standby power solutions up to communication and electronic systems.
olsmeister writes The new all-solid battery design uses solid sulfur and lithium, and outperforms existing lithium-ion batteries with four times the energy density. The battery can maintain a capacity of 1200 milliampere-hours per gram after 300 charge-discharge cycles. More work needs to be done, ...
The lithium ion batteries are "charged" with 472 kwh of primary energy per kwh of battery capacity as well as the AC energy from the grid to charge up the batteries. Grid emissions (average US) were estimated at 1.3 pounds of CO2 per kwh. My analysis goes through a tedious calculation but is honest and fair. The one variable affecting the outcome is the number of miles driven over the life of the battery pack. For the Tesla model S, I used 8,000 miles per year (their user blog states the average is about 7,500 miles per year) and 10 years of battery life, allowing the energy in the production of the battery pack to be amortized over 80,000 miles in total ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Lithium ion conductive polymer electrolytes by side group rotation(II). AU - Satou, Akira. AU - Nishimura, Shin. AU - Urabe, Syuuichi. AU - Yamamoto, Hitoshi. AU - Ueyama, Norikazu. PY - 2005/12/1. Y1 - 2005/12/1. N2 - In order to improve ionic conductivity of lithium ion conductive polymer at low temperature, novel styrene derivatives (1-4) were synthesized and their ionic conductivities were measured. An ionic conductivity of polymer 1, was above 10-5 S/cm, even at -60°C. Its activation energy below 20°C exhibited 11 kJ/mol. On the other hand, that of poly(ethylene oxide) electrolyte exhibited 105 kJ/mol. The difference of the activation energy implied that lithium ion transfers in polymer electrolytes was promoted by rotation motion of the dimethoxyphenyl side group instead of segmental motion of polymer main chain.. AB - In order to improve ionic conductivity of lithium ion conductive polymer at low temperature, novel styrene derivatives (1-4) were synthesized and their ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of digitoxin by a specific assay. AU - MacFarland, R. T.. AU - Marcus, F. I.. AU - Fenster, P. E.. AU - Graves, P. E.. AU - Perrier, D.. PY - 1984/1. Y1 - 1984/1. N2 - The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of digitoxin were examined in six normal human subjects using an assay that separates digitoxin from its metabolites. After intravenous administration, the mean systemic clearance was 2.44 ml/min; the volume of distribution was 0.47 l/kg; and the elimination half-life was 6.5 days. After oral administration, the elimination half-life was 5.8 days. The bioavailability was 81.5% using the specific assay. Using a non-specific, direct serum digitoxin radioimmunoassay the bioavailability was 98.0%. Assay of aqueous fractions from extracted serum samples indicated higher levels of water-soluble metabolites following oral compared to intravenous digitoxin administration. These findings suggest that previously reported values for digitoxin ...
Cells of Porphyra perforata, a red marine alga, accumulate K in the absence of concomitant Na or Li extrusion while immersed in Li- or Mg-sea waters lacking Na. This suggests that the coupling observed between K and Na transport is facultative. No evidence is obtained for net extrusion of Li.. Na efflux, with the concentration gradient, is facilitated by K and is proportional to the cellular Na content. Either Na efflux does not involve an ion carrier or the number of Na sites is large.. Because K accumulation has been observed in the absence of Na extrusion, but not vice versa, it seems that K uptake is the primary secretory event, with Na extrusion a secondary process dependent upon K accumulation.. ...
Constrictive pericarditis (CP) is a reduction in the elasticity, or stiffening, of the pericardium, a sack-like covering that surrounds the heart, resulting in impaired filling of the heart with blood. The symptoms of CP, which may include exercise intolerance, liver failure, dyspnea, and renal failure, appear insidiously and may be misleading.
Disclosed herein are methods for making a solid lithium ion electrolyte membrane, the methods comprising combining a first reactant chosen from amorphous, glassy, or low melting temperature solid reactants with a second reactant chosen from refractory oxides to form a mixture; heating the mixture to a first temperature to form a homogenized composite, wherein the first temperature is between a glass transition temperature of the first reactant and a crystallization onset temperature of the mixture; milling the homogenized composite to form homogenized particles; casting the homogenized particles to form a green body; and sintering the green body at a second temperature to form a solid membrane. Solid lithium ion electrolyte membranes manufactured according to these methods are also disclosed herein.
Three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous architectures, possessing high surface area, massive pores, and excellent structural stability, are highly desirable for many applications including catalysts and electrode materials in lithium ion batteries. However, the preparation of such materials remains a major challen
Skil iXO Lithium Ion (Li-ion) Cordless Screwdriver at Lowes. With the convenience of a power tool and the portability of a screwdriver, this 4-volt drill is a handy addition to your toolbox. The variable-speed
The Global Battery Management System Market is Expected to Grow at a CAGR of 19.5% from 2019 to 2024, Reaching USD 12.6 Billion by 2024 from USD 5.2 Billion in 2019.
Thuwal, Saudi Arabia (SPX) Nov 01, 2016 - The mechanism of sodium ion storage in an important two-dimensional material could be a simpler and less toxic route to cheaper batteries, a team of KAUST researchers discovered. Lithium ion b

Cardanolides
     Summary Report | CureHunterCardanolides Summary Report | CureHunter

Cardanolides: The aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES. The ring structure is basically a ... Cardanolides. Subscribe to New Research on Cardanolides The aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES. The ring structure is ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD002297.do

Cardanolide - WikipediaCardanolide - Wikipedia

Cardanolide is a steroid with a molecular weight of 344.531. Cardiac glycoside Cardanolides at the US National Library of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardanolide

Category:Steroids - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Steroids - Wikimedia Commons

esteroide (es); Стероидтар (kk-kz); Steroid (ms); ستەروىيدتار (kk-cn); Стероид (bg); Steroid (ro); 甾體 (zh-hk); Steroid (sk); Esteroïde (oc); 甾體 (zh-hant); 甾体 (zh-cn); 스테로이드 (ko); Стероидтар (kk); steroido (eo); steroidy (cs); Steroidogeneza (bs); স্টেরয়েড (bn); stéroïde (fr); Steroid (jv); steroid (hr); סטערויד (yi); Steroid (vi); ستەروىيدتار (kk-arab); Steroïdtar (kk-latn); Steroïed (af); Стероиди (sr); 甾体 (zh-sg); Стероидтар (kk-cyrl); steroid (nn); steroid (nb); Stéroid (su); steroid (en); ستيرويد (ar); 類固醇 (yue); Steroïdtar (kk-tr); Esteroide (eu); Esteroide (ast); esteroide (ca); Steroid (cy); Stéaróideach (ga); ստերոիդներ (hy); 甾體 (zh); steroid (da); ステロイド (ja); סטרואיד (he); स्टेरॉयड (hi); Steroidi (fi); steroide (it); Estewoyid (ht); Стэроіды (be-tarask); Στεροειδές (el); steroīds ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Steroids

LIPID MAPS Lipidomics GatewayLIPID MAPS Lipidomics Gateway

Cardanolides and derivatives [ST0112]. Bufanolides and derivatives [ST0113]. Brassinolides and derivatives [ST0114] ...
more infohttp://lipidmaps.org/data/classification/LM_classification_exp.php?category=5

Cardenolide - WikipediaCardenolide - Wikipedia

It should not be confused with cardanolides. Cardanolides are a class of steroids (or aglycones if viewed as cardiac glycoside ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardenolide

Digitoxin - DrugBankDigitoxin - DrugBank

cardenolide glycoside (CHEBI:28544) / cardanolide, Cardanolides and derivatives, Cardanolide and derivatives, Cardiac ... Cardanolide-glycoside / Steroidal glycoside / Oligosaccharide / 14-hydroxysteroid / Hydroxysteroid / Glycosyl compound / O- ... glycosides (C06955) / Cardanolides and derivatives (LMST01120018) Targets. Details1. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB01396

steroid | Definition, Structure, & Types | Britannica.comsteroid | Definition, Structure, & Types | Britannica.com

Cardanolide and bufanolide derivatives, found in many plants and in the skin of toads, cause vomiting, visual disturbances, and ... If no other modification is indicated, the nucleus is assumed to be as shown in 2 and 3, except in the cardanolides and ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/steroid

DeCS Ingl s+escopoDeCS Ingl s+escopo

D04.210.500.155 Cardanolides .. D04.210.500.155.580 Cardiac Glycosides .. D04.210.500.155.580.130 Cardenolides .. D04.210. ...
more infohttp://trigramas.bireme.br/cgi-bin/mx/[email protected]?collection=DeCSxi&lang=i&minsim=0.30&maxrel=10&text=Corchsularin

Blättern Schreiben C (Seite 43) | Frei German Wörterbuch | internationale-worterbuch.comBlättern Schreiben C (Seite 43) | Frei German Wörterbuch | internationale-worterbuch.com

Willkommen zu internationale-worterbuch.com. Diese Seite bietet eine Übersicht von Wörtern und Phrasen mit dem Anfangsbuchstaben C. Wenn Sie wissen, was Sie suchen, geben Sie das Wort in die Suchleiste oben ...
more infohttp://internationale-worterbuch.com/browse/c/?page=43

Suchergebnis: Iriarte, L. M.Suchergebnis: Iriarte, L. M.

18,20-Oxido-20,22-dihydroneriifolin, an unusual oxygenated cardanolide (1979). Immunolocalization of the transcription factor ... 18,20-Oxido-20,22-dihydroneriifolin, an unusual oxygenated cardanolide. In: The journal of organic chemistry. - [S.l.] : ...
more infohttp://finden.nationallizenzen.de/Search/Results?lookfor=Iriarte%2C%20L.%20M.&type=Author

ChemIDplus - 3786-76-3 - WWCGMGNIMDOEGK-BYMUNCBLSA-N - Dihydrodigitoxin - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas,...ChemIDplus - 3786-76-3 - WWCGMGNIMDOEGK-BYMUNCBLSA-N - Dihydrodigitoxin - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas,...

5-beta-Cardanolide, 3-beta-((O-2,6-dideoxy-beta-D-ribo-hexopyranosyl-(1-4)-O-2,6-dideoxy-beta-D-hexopyranosyl-(1-4)-2,6-dideoxy ...
more infohttps://chem.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/rn/3786-76-3

Digitoxin
     Summary Report | CureHunterDigitoxin Summary Report | CureHunter

Cardanolides*Cardiac Glycosides: 460*Cardenolides: 46*Digitalis Glycosides: 129*Digitoxin: 288*Acetyldigitoxins: 10 ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD004074-Digitoxin.do

Steroids | CTDSteroids | CTD

Cardanolides carijodienone cattienoid B caudatin caudatin-. 3-. O-. beta-. D-. cymaropyranosyl-. (1-. 4)-. beta-. D- ...
more infohttp://ctd.mdibl.org/detail.go?type=chem&acc=D013256

REDUCED SODIUM FOOD PRODUCTS - Patent applicationREDUCED SODIUM FOOD PRODUCTS - Patent application

... cardanolide steroids, fatty acids, and derivatives may be candidates for taste modulating compounds. It will be further ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20150374021

DeCS Ingl s+escopoDeCS Ingl s+escopo

D04.210.500.155 Cardanolides .. D04.210.500.155.580 Cardiac Glycosides .. D04.210.500.155.580.130 Cardenolides .. D04.210. ...
more infohttp://trigramas.bireme.br/cgi-bin/mx/[email protected]?collection=DeCSxi&lang=i&minsim=0.30&maxrel=10&text=Adipex%20P

DeCS Ingl sDeCS Ingl s

D04.210.500.155 Cardanolides .. D04.210.500.155.580 Cardiac Glycosides .. D04.210.500.155.580.130 Cardenolides .. D04.210. ...
more infohttp://trigramas.bireme.br/cgi-bin/mx/[email protected]?collection=DeCSi&lang=p&minsim=0.30&maxrel=10&text=Digitaria%20ambigua

digoxigenin-11-deoxyuridine triphosphate
     Summary Report | CureHunterdigoxigenin-11-deoxyuridine triphosphate Summary Report | CureHunter

Cardanolides*Cardenolides: 46*Digoxin: 3217*Digoxigenin: 331*digoxigenin-11-deoxyuridine triphosphate: 4 ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC070202-Dg-11-dUTP.do

BufanolideBufanolide

Note that cardenolides have been classified under cardanolides as well as cardiac glycosides in this classification. ...
more infohttps://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Bufanolide.html

alpha-D-Glcp-(1->3)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1->3)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1->3)-D-ribitol - Ontology Browser - Rat...alpha-D-Glcp-(1->3)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1->3)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1->3)-D-ribitol - Ontology Browser - Rat...

alpha-D-Glcp-(1->3)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1->3)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1->3)-D-ribitol - Ontology Browser - Rat Genome Database
more infohttps://crrd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/ontology/view.html?acc_id=CHEBI:61086

Digitoxigenin - RightDiagnosis.comDigitoxigenin - RightDiagnosis.com

Digitoxigenin information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
more infohttps://www.rightdiagnosis.com/medical/digitoxigenin.htm

Digoxin - DrugBankDigoxin - DrugBank

steroid saponin, cardenolide glycoside (CHEBI:4551) / cardanolide, Cardanolides and derivatives, Cardanolide and derivatives, ... Cardanolide-glycoside / Steroidal glycoside / Oligosaccharide / 12-hydroxysteroid / 14-hydroxysteroid / Hydroxysteroid / ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00390