Hybridization between two polyploid Cardamine (Brassicaceae) species in North-western Spain: discordance between morphological and genetic variation patterns. (1/13)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hybridization is an important evolutionary phenomenon, and therefore a detailed understanding of the dynamics of interspecific gene flow and resulting morphological and genetic patterns is of widespread interest. Here hybridization between the polyploids Cardamine pratensis and C. raphanifolia at four localities is explored. Using different types of data, the aim is to provide simultaneous and direct comparisons between genotype and phenotype variation patterns in the studied hybrid populations. METHODS: Evidence of hybridization has been gathered from morphology, molecular markers (amplified fragment length polymorphism and chloroplast DNA sequences), pollen viability, karyology and nuclear DNA content. KEY RESULTS: All data support extensive gene flow occurring in the hybrid populations. A wide range of morphological and genetic variation is observed, which includes both parental and intermediate types. Unbalanced pollen fertility and several ploidy levels are recorded. CONCLUSIONS: Incongruence reported between genotype and phenotype suggests that parental phenotypes are affected by introgression, and intermediate hybrid phenotypes can be genetically closer to one of the parents. Thus, it is evident that morphology, when used alone, can be misleading for interpreting hybridization, and critical evaluation of other data is needed.  (+info)

Regulation of SHOOT MERISTEMLESS genes via an upstream-conserved noncoding sequence coordinates leaf development. (2/13)

The indeterminate shoot apical meristem of plants is characterized by the expression of the Class 1 KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEOBOX (KNOX1) genes. KNOX1 genes have been implicated in the acquisition and/or maintenance of meristematic fate. One of the earliest indicators of a switch in fate from indeterminate meristem to determinate leaf primordium is the down-regulation of KNOX1 genes orthologous to SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) in Arabidopsis (hereafter called STM genes) in the initiating primordia. In simple leafed plants, this down-regulation persists during leaf formation. In compound leafed plants, however, KNOX1 gene expression is reestablished later in the developing primordia, creating an indeterminate environment for leaflet formation. Despite this knowledge, most aspects of how STM gene expression is regulated remain largely unknown. Here, we identify two evolutionarily conserved noncoding sequences within the 5' upstream region of STM genes in both simple and compound leafed species across monocots and dicots. We show that one of these elements is involved in the regulation of the persistent repression and/or the reestablishment of STM expression in the developing leaves but is not involved in the initial down-regulation in the initiating primordia. We also show evidence that this regulation is developmentally significant for leaf formation in the pathway involving ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1/2 (AS1/2) gene expression; these genes are known to function in leaf development. Together, these findings reveal a regulatory point of leaf development mediated through a conserved, noncoding sequence in STM genes.  (+info)

A conserved molecular framework for compound leaf development. (3/13)

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Molecular evolution of phytochromes in Cardamine nipponica (Brassicaceae) suggests the involvement of PHYE in local adaptation. (4/13)

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Application of the isolation with migration model demonstrates the pleistocene origin of geographic differentiation in Cardamine nipponica (Brassicaceae), an endemic Japanese alpine plant. (5/13)

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Cytotype diversity and genome size variation in eastern Asian polyploid Cardamine (Brassicaceae) species. (6/13)

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Demographic signatures accompanying the evolution of selfing in Leavenworthia alabamica. (7/13)

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Three new megastigmane glucopyranosides from the Cardamine komarovii. (8/13)

Three new megastigmane glucopyranosides, komaroveside A [(3S,4R,5Z,7E)-3,4-dihydroxy-5,7-megastigmadien-9-one-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (1), komaroveside B [(3S,4S,5S,6R,7E)-5,6-epoxy-3,4-dihydroxy-7-megastigmen-9-one-3-O-beta-D-glucopyr anoside] (2) and komaroveside C [(3S,4S,5S,6R,7E,9S)-5,6-epoxy-3,4,9-trihydroxy-7-megastigmen-3-O-beta-D-glucopyr anoside] (3) were isolated, together with eight known compounds, from Cardamine komarovii. The identification of these compounds and the elucidation of their structures were based on 1D- and 2D-NMR spectral data analysis. The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, HCT15) in vitro using the sulforhodamine B bioassay.  (+info)

  • aka: Dentaria quinquefolia) Cardamine quinquefolia is a lovely spring ephemeral groundcover that can be found growing wild in slightly moist beech/oak forests around the Black Sea, stretching from Romania to Iran. (plantdelights.com)
  • The name cardamine is derived from the Greek kardamon, cardamom - an unrelated plant in the ginger family, used as a pungent spice in cooking. (wikipedia.org)
  • The receding tide exposes sandy mudflats that provide habitat for the globally rare Long's bittercress ( Cardamine longii , State listed as Endangered) and the rare wetland flower, spongy lophotocarpus ( Sagittaria calycina ). (maryland.gov)
  • Useful Temperate Plants Database 2016 by If you would like to support this site, please consider, http://www.ars-grin.gov/~sbmljw/cgi-bin/taxnodul.pl?language=en, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. (rapsessions.org)