A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).
A family of signaling adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many members of this family are involved in transmitting signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS to MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.
A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.
A binding partner for several RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES, including INSULIN RECEPTOR and INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR. It contains a C-terminal SH2 DOMAIN and mediates various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.
A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.
Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.
An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The subunits that make up the large, medium and small chains of adaptor proteins.
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A death domain receptor signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in signaling the activation of INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 2. It contains a death domain that is specific for RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES and a caspase-binding domain that binds to and activates CASPASES such as CASPASE 2.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.
An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A SH2 DOMAIN-containing protein that mediates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways from multiple CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, including the EPHB1 RECEPTOR. It interacts with FOCAL ADHESION KINASE and is involved in CELL MIGRATION.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A family of small adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 19 KDa in size.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A NOD signaling adaptor protein that contains two C-terminal leucine-rich domains which recognize bacterial PEPTIDOGLYCAN. It signals via an N-terminal capase recruitment domain that interacts with other CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES. The protein plays a role in the host defense response by signaling the activation of CASPASES and the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Mutations of the gene encoding the nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 protein have been associated with increased susceptibility to CROHN DISEASE.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A class of RAS GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are genetically related to the Son of Sevenless gene from DROSOPHILA. Sevenless refers to genetic mutations in DROSOPHILA that cause loss of the R7 photoreceptor which is required to see UV light.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
A signal transducing tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor that is involved in regulation of NF-KAPPA B signalling and activation of JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that play a role in the coupling of SYNDECANS to CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.
The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.
An ATP-dependent protease found in prokaryotes, CHLOROPLASTS, and MITOCHONDRIA. It is a soluble multisubunit complex that plays a role in the degradation of many abnormal proteins.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.
A signal transducing tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor that is involved in TNF RECEPTOR feedback regulation. It is similar in structure and appears to work in conjunction with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 1 to inhibit APOPTOSIS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A 34 kDa signal transducing adaptor protein that associates with TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE 1. It facilitates the recruitment of signaling proteins such as TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2 and FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN to the receptor complex.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A signal transducing adaptor protein that is encoded by the crk ONCOGENE from TYPE C AVIAN RETROVIRUSES. It contains SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and is closely related to its cellular homolog, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
A NOD-signaling adaptor protein that contains a C-terminal leucine-rich domain which recognizes bacterial PEPTIDOGLYCAN. It signals via an N-terminal caspase recruitment domain that interacts with other CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES. It plays a role in the host defense response by signaling the activation of CASPASES and the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Non-receptor tyrosine kinases encoded by the C-ABL GENES. They are distributed in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. c-Abl plays a role in normal HEMATOPOIESIS especially of the myeloid lineage. Oncogenic transformation of c-abl arises when specific N-terminal amino acids are deleted, releasing the kinase from negative regulation.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Protein interaction domains of about 70-90 amino acid residues, named after a common structure found in PSD-95, Discs Large, and Zona Occludens 1 proteins. PDZ domains are involved in the recruitment and interaction of proteins, and aid the formation of protein scaffolds and signaling networks. This is achieved by sequence-specific binding between a PDZ domain in one protein and a PDZ motif in another protein.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A pattern recognition receptor that binds DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA. It mediates cellular responses to certain viral pathogens.
Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
An interferon regulatory factor that is expressed constitutively and undergoes POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION following viral infection. PHOSPHORYLATION of IRF-3 causes the protein to be translocated from the CYTOPLASM to CELL NUCLEUS where it binds DNA, and activates transcription.
Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins that bind directly or indirectly to the cytoplasmic portion of TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A signal transducing tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor that is involved in TNF RECEPTOR feedback regulation. It is similar in structure and appears to work in conjunction with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2 to inhibit APOPTOSIS.
A genetically related subfamily of RAP GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that share homology with RAS PROTEINS. They bind to Ras effectors but do not activate them, therefore they may antagonize the effects of RAS PROTEINS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal catalytic domain and a large C-terminal domain that is enriched in PROLINE, GLUTAMIC ACID, SERINE, and THREONINE residues (PEST sequences). The phosphatase subtype is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in the regulation of a variety of biological processes such as CELL MOVEMENT; CYTOKINESIS; focal adhesion disassembly; and LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
An oncoprotein from the Cas NS-1 murine retrovirus that induces pre- B-CELL LYMPHOMA and MYELOID LEUKEMIAS. v-cbl protein is a tyrosine-phosphorylated, truncated form of its cellular homologue, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CBL.
A signal transducing tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor that is involved in regulation of NF-KAPPA B signaling and activation of MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
A 145-kDa guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is specific for rap1 and ras GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It associates with SH3 domains of the crk family of signaling proteins.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
A family of intracellular signaling kinases that were identified by their ability to signal from the activated INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTORS. Signaling from these kinases involves their interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88 and TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 6.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.50.
One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by interacting with a variety of signaling adaptor proteins such as CRADD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEIN; TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2; and TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Although they were initially described as death domain-binding adaptor proteins, members of this family may contain other protein-binding domains such as those involving caspase activation and recruitment.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Multiprotein complexes that mediate the activation of CASPASE-1. Dysregulation of inflammasomes has also been linked to a number of autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A family of related proteins that associate with cytoskeletal elements and junctional complexes at INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS. Plakins share a common plakin domain or a plakin repeat domain.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.

Card10 is a novel caspase recruitment domain/membrane-associated guanylate kinase family member that interacts with BCL10 and activates NF-kappa B. (1/240)

BCL10 belongs to the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) family of proteins that regulate apoptosis and NF-kappaB signaling pathways. Analysis of BCL10-deficient mice has revealed that BCL10 mediates NF-kappaB activation by antigen receptors in B and T cells. We recently identified a subclass of CARD proteins (CARD9, CARD11, and CARD14) that may function to connect BCL10 to multiple upstream signaling pathways. We report here that CARD10 is a novel BCL10 interactor that belongs to the membrane-associated guanylate kinase family, a class of proteins that function to organize signaling complexes at plasma membranes. When expressed in cells, CARD10 binds to BCL10 and signals the activation of NF-kappaB through its N-terminal effector CARD domain. We propose that CARD10 functions as a molecular scaffold for the assembly of a BCL10 signaling complex that activates NF-kappaB.  (+info)

CARD11 and CARD14 are novel caspase recruitment domain (CARD)/membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family members that interact with BCL10 and activate NF-kappa B. (2/240)

The caspase recruitment domain (CARD) is a protein-binding module that mediates the assembly of CARD-containing proteins into apoptosis and NF-kappaB signaling complexes. We report here that CARD protein 11 (CARD11) and CARD protein 14 (CARD14) are novel CARD-containing proteins that belong to the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family, a class of proteins that functions as molecular scaffolds for the assembly of multiprotein complexes at specialized regions of the plasma membrane. CARD11 and CARD14 have homologous structures consisting of an N-terminal CARD domain, a central coiled-coil domain, and a C-terminal tripartite domain comprised of a PDZ domain, an Src homology 3 domain, and a GUK domain with homology to guanylate kinase. The CARD domains of both CARD11 and CARD14 associate specifically with the CARD domain of BCL10, a signaling protein that activates NF-kappaB through the IkappaB kinase complex in response to upstream stimuli. When expressed in cells, CARD11 and CARD14 activate NF-kappaB and induce the phosphorylation of BCL10. These findings suggest that CARD11 and CARD14 are novel MAGUK family members that function as upstream activators of BCL10 and NF-kappaB signaling.  (+info)

TUCAN, an antiapoptotic caspase-associated recruitment domain family protein overexpressed in cancer. (3/240)

Caspase-associated recruitment domains (CARDs) are protein interaction domains that participate in activation or suppression of CARD-carrying members of the caspase family of apoptosis-inducing proteases. A novel CARD-containing protein was identified that is overexpressed in some types of cancer and that binds and suppresses activation of procaspase-9, which we term TUCAN (tumor-up-regulated CARD-containing antagonist of caspase nine). The CARD domain of TUCAN selectively binds itself and procaspase-9. TUCAN interferes with binding of Apaf1 to procaspase-9 and suppresses caspase activation induced by the Apaf1 activator, cytochrome c. Overexpression of TUCAN in cells by stable or transient transfection inhibits apoptosis and caspase activation induced by Apaf1/caspase-9-dependent stimuli, including Bax, VP16, and staurosporine, but not by Apaf1/caspase-9-independent stimuli, Fas and granzyme B. High levels of endogenous TUCAN protein were detected in several tumor cell lines and in colon cancer specimens, correlating with shorter patient survival. Thus, TUCAN represents a new member of the CARD family that selectively suppresses apoptosis induced via the mitochondrial pathway for caspase activation.  (+info)

CARDINAL, a novel caspase recruitment domain protein, is an inhibitor of multiple NF-kappa B activation pathways. (4/240)

Proteins possessing the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) motif have been implicated in pathways leading to activation of caspases or NF-kappaB in the context of apoptosis or inflammation, respectively. Here we report the identification of a novel protein, CARDINAL, that contains a CARD motif and also exhibits a high degree of homology to the C terminus of DEFCAP/NAC, a recently described member of the Apaf-1/Nod-1 family. In contrast with the majority of CARD proteins described to date, CARDINAL failed to promote apoptosis or NF-kappaB activation. Rather, CARDINAL potently suppressed NF-kappaB activation associated with overexpression of TRAIL-R1, TRAIL-R2, RIP, RICK, Bcl10, and TRADD, or through ligand-induced stimulation of the interleukin-1 or tumor necrosis factor receptors. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that CARDINAL interacts with the regulatory subunit of the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex, IKKgamma (NEMO), providing a molecular basis for CARDINAL function. Thus, CARDINAL is a novel regulator of NF-kappaB activation in the context of pro-inflammatory signals.  (+info)

CARD-8 protein, a new CARD family member that regulates caspase-1 activation and apoptosis. (5/240)

Caspase-associated recruitment domains (CARD) are protein-protein interaction modules found extensively in proteins that play important roles in apoptosis, NFkappaB activation, and cytokine regulation. In this study we identified a novel human protein, CARD-8, which contains a C-terminal CARD domain with high similarity to the CARD domain of caspase-1/ICE. We demonstrate that CARD-8 interacts physically with caspase-1 and negatively regulates caspase-1-dependent IL-1beta generation in the THP-1 monocytic cell line. CARD-8 binds also to ICEBERG and pseudo-ICE, two other recently identified proteins, which bind to the CARD domain of caspase-1 and negatively regulate its activity. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis revealed that CARD-8 is expressed mainly in monocytes, placenta, lymph nodes, and spleen. This pattern of expression is consistent with caspase-1 expression in the same cells and tissues. CARD-8 was also found to negatively regulate NF-kappaB activation by TNF-alpha stimulation and by ectopically expressed RICK, suggesting that this protein may control cell survival. Consistent with these results, stable expression of CARD-8 in U937 or THP-1 cells sensitizes the cells to differentiation-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of CARD-8 can also induce apoptosis in transfected cells. The results suggest that CARD-8 represents a new signaling molecule involved in the regulation of caspase-1 and NF-kappaB activation.  (+info)

TUCAN/CARDINAL and DRAL participate in a common pathway for modulation of NF-kappaB activation. (6/240)

Proteins containing the caspase recruiting domain (CARD) have emerged as critical regulators of different signal transduction pathways, including those controlling apoptosis and activation of necrosis factor (NF)-kappaB transcription factor. TUCAN/CARDINAL is a recently identified CARD-containing protein involved in regulation of caspases and NF-kappaB activation. We find that TUCAN/CARDINAL associates with DRAL, a p53-responsive gene implicated in induction of apoptosis. We also show that, whereas TUCAN/CARDINAL exerts a suppressive effect on NF-kappaB activity, expression of DRAL results in enhancement of NF-kappaB activation. Thus, our observations suggest that DRAL and TUCAN/CARDINAL may participate in a regulatory mechanism that coordinates cellular responses controlled by NF-kappaB transcription factor.  (+info)

CARD11 mediates factor-specific activation of NF-kappaB by the T cell receptor complex. (7/240)

NF-kappaB is a critical target of signaling downstream of the T cell receptor (TCR) complex, but how TCR signaling activates NF-kappaB is poorly understood. We have developed an expression cloning strategy that can identify catalytic and noncatalytic molecules that participate in different pathways of NF-kappaB activation. Screening of a mouse thymus cDNA library yielded CARD11, a membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family member containing CARD, PDZ, SH3 and GUK domains. Using a CARD-deleted variant of CARD11 and RNA interference (RNAi), we demonstrate that CARD11 mediates NF-kappaB activation by alphaCD3/alphaCD28 cross-linking and PMA/ionomycin treatment, but not by TNFalpha or dsRNA. CARD11 is not required for TCR-mediated induction of NFAT or AP-1. CARD11 functions upstream of the IkappaB-kinase (IKK) complex and cooperates with Bcl10 in a CARD domain-dependent manner. RNAi-rescue experiments suggest that the CARD, coiled-coil, SH3 and GUK domains of CARD11 are critical for its signaling function. These results implicate CARD11 in factor- specific activation of NF-kappaB by the TCR complex and establish a role for a MAGUK family member in antigen receptor signaling.  (+info)

CARD6 is a modulator of NF-kappa B activation by Nod1- and Cardiak-mediated pathways. (8/240)

We cloned a novel cDNA derived from the CARD6 gene locus on chromosome 5p12 of 311 amino acids in length. By immunoprecipitation we detected specific binding of this CARD6-encoding protein to Nod1 (CARD4), Cardiak (Rip2/Rick), NAC (NALP1/DEFCAP/CARD7), and TUCAN (CARD8/Cardinal/NDPP/Dakar), caspase recruitment domain (CARD)-containing proteins implicated in NF-kappa B and caspase-1 activation but not to other CARD family proteins. Cardiak and Nod1 (but not other CARD proteins) also exhibited opposing effects on CARD6 protein phosphorylation and expression, providing further evidence of functional interactions among these proteins in cells. In transfection experiments, the CARD6 protein suppressed NF-kappa B induction by Nod1 or Cardiak but did not interfere with NF-kappa B activation by the CARD-containing adapter protein Bcl10 or the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha, demonstrating specificity of CARD6 for Nod-1 and Cardiak-dependent pathways. In contrast to its effects on Nod1- and Cardiak-dependent NF-kappa B activation, CARD6 did not interfere with caspase-1-dependent interleukin-1 beta secretion induced by Cardiak or Nod1. CARD6 also did not affect caspase activation and apoptosis induced by overexpression of Fas, Bax, or other pro-apoptotic stimuli. Thus, CARD6 represents a selective modulator of NF-kappa B activation by Cardiak and Nod1, adding to the repertoire of CARD-family proteins implicated in inflammatory responses and innate immunity.  (+info)

Looking for online definition of recruitment domain-containing protein 15 in the Medical Dictionary? recruitment domain-containing protein 15 explanation free. What is recruitment domain-containing protein 15? Meaning of recruitment domain-containing protein 15 medical term. What does recruitment domain-containing protein 15 mean?
Caspase inhibitor. Acts as a regulator of procaspase-1/CASP1 activation implicated in the regulation of the proteolytic maturation of pro-interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) and its release during inflammation. Inhibits the release of IL1B in response to LPS in monocytes. Also induces NF-kappa-B activation during the pro-inflammatory cytokine response. Also able to inhibit CASP1-mediated neuronal cell death, TNF-alpha, hypoxia-, UV-, and staurosporine-mediated cell death but not ER stress-mediated cell death. Acts by preventing activation of caspases CASP1 and CASP4, possibly by preventing the interaction between CASP1 and RIPK2 ...
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) also known as caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 15 (CARD15) or inflammatory bowel disease protein 1 (IBD1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NOD2 gene located on chromosome 16. NOD2 plays an important role in the immune system. It recognizes bacterial molecules (peptidoglycans) and stimulates an immune reaction. NOD2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor, which is similar in structure to resistant proteins of plants and recognizes molecules containing the specific structure called muramyl dipeptide (MDP) that is found in certain bacteria. The C-terminal portion of the protein contains a leucine-rich repeat domain that is known to play a role in protein-protein interactions. The middle part of the protein is characterized by a NOD domain involved in protein self-oligomerization. The N-terminal portion contains two CARD domains known to play a role in apoptosis and NF-κB activation pathways. ...
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is polygenic with contributions from the immunologically relevant genes HLA-B*27, ERAP1 and IL23R. A recent genome-wide association screen (GWAS) identified associations (P approximately 0.005) with the non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs), rs4077515 and rs3812571, in caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) and small nuclear RNA-activating complex polypeptide 4 (SNAPC4) on chromosome 9q that had previously been linked to AS. We replicated these associations in a study of 730 AS patients compared with 2879 historic disease controls (rs4077515 P=0.0004, odds ratio (OR)=1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.1-1.4; rs3812571 P=0.0003, OR=1.2, 95% CI=1.1-1.4). Meta-analysis revealed strong associations of both SNPs with AS, rs4077515 P=0.000005, OR=1.2, 95% CI=1.1-1.3 and rs3812571 P=0.000006, OR=1.2, 95% CI=1.1-1.3. We then typed 1604 AS cases and 1020 controls for 13 tagging SNPs; 6 showed at least nominal association, 5 of which were in CARD9.
List of Abbreviations ASCA Anti- Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody CD Crohns disease DR3 Death domain receptor 3 ECM Extracellular matrix EMT Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition IBD Inflammatory bowel disease IFN Interferon IL Interleukin MMP Matrix metalloproteinase NOD2/CARD15 Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2/caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 15 SMIT1 Soluble latent membrane-type 1 TGF Transforming growth factor TIMPs Tissue inhibitors…
Abstract Long term contact with pathogens induces an adaptive immune response, which is mainly mediated by T and B cells. Antigen-induced activation of T and B cells is an important event, since it facilitates the transition of harmless, low proliferative lymphocytes into powerful and fast expanding cells, which can, if deregulated, be extremely harmful and dangerous for the human body. One of the most important events during lymphocyte activation is the induction of NF-xB activity, a transcription factor that controls not only cytokine secretion, but also lymphocyte proliferation and survival. Recent discoveries identified the CBM complex as the central regulator of NF-xB activity in lymphocytes. The CBM complex consists of the three proteins Carma1, Bcl10 and Malt1, in which Carma1 serves as recruitment platform of the complex and Bcl10 as an adaptor to recruit Malt1 to this platform. But exactly how Malt1 activates NF-x6 is still poorly understood. We discovered that Malt1 is a prot
PYCARD, often referred to as ASC (Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PYCARD gene. It is localized mainly in the nucleus of monocytes and macrophages. In case of pathogen infection, however, it relocalizes rapidly to the cytoplasm, perinuclear space, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria and it is a key adaptor protein in activation of the inflammasome . NMR structure of full-length ASC: PDB ID 2KN6 [1] This gene encodes an adaptor protein that is composed of two protein-protein interaction domains: a N-terminal PYRIN-PAAD-DAPIN domain (PYD) and a C-terminal caspase-recruitment domain (CARD). The PYD and CARD domains are members of the six-helix bundle death domain-fold superfamily that mediates assembly of large signaling complexes in the inflammatory and apoptotic signaling pathways via the activation of caspase. In normal cells, this protein is localized to the cytoplasm; however, in cells undergoing apoptosis, it forms ...
Like the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) protein CARMA1, which acts downstream of antigen receptors in a complex with Bcl10, the structurally related CARD9 binds Bcl10--suggesting that CARD9 might modulate CARMA1-Bcl10-dependent activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling and thereby regulate antigen-dependent lymphocyte activation and differentiation. However, Gross et al. found that mice lacking CARD9 (Card9-/- mice) exhibited normal T cell and B cell development and normal antigen-dependent lymphocyte activation. Moreover, mice lacking CARD9 (which is also expressed in myeloid cells) responded normally to various Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. However, the immune response of Card9-/- mice to infection with the fungal pathogen Candida albicans was markedly impaired, as was cytokine production by bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) in response to stimulation with C. albicans or with the yeast cell wall component zymosan. Zymosan is recognized by both TLR2 and the non-TLR ...
CARD8 (caspase recruitment domain family, member 8), Authors: Frank A. Kruyt. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Index: mtg_helper_card.php =================================================================== --- mtg_helper_card.php (revision 785690) +++ mtg_helper_card.php (working copy) @@ -4,24 +4,32 @@ function mtgh_card($content){ //preload all image-files - preg_match_all(/(\[CARD\])(.*)(\[\/CARD\])/iU,$content,$result); + preg_match_all(/(\[CARD([^\]]*)\])(.*)(\[\/CARD\])/iU,$content,$result); + + $result[2] = trim($result[2][0]); + if (strlen($result[2]) == 0) + $result[2] = $result[3]; $preload = cache_cards($result[2]); //replace the [card]-tags with the referer for the card images $content = preg_replace_callback( - /(\[CARD\])(.*)(\[\/CARD\])/iU, + /(\[CARD([^\]]*)\])(.*)(\[\/CARD\])/iU, parse_card_url, $content); return $content.$preload; - + } function parse_card_url ($card_names){ - return ,a href= . get_bloginfo(wpurl) . MTGH_DIR - ./mtg_helper_cardfinder.php?find= . urlencode($card_names[2]) . &width=223&height=310 class=jTip name=, - . $card_names[2] . ,/a,; + ...
1:N protection allows a single card to protect up to five working cards of the same DS-N level. A DS1N-14 card protects DS1-14 cards, a DS3N-12 card protects DS3-12 cards, and DS3N-12E cards protect DS3-12E cards. The standard DS1-14, DS3-12, and DS3-12E cards provide 1:1 protection only. Currently, 1:N protection operates only at the DS-1 and DS-3 levels. 1:N cards have added circuitry to act as the protection card in a 1:N protection group. Otherwise, the card is identical to the standard card and can serve as a normal working card. The physical DS-1 or DS-3 interfaces on the ONS 15454 backplane use the working card until the working card fails. When the node detects this failure, the protection card takes over the physical DS-1 or DS-3 electrical interfaces through the relays and signal bridging on the backplane. Figure 6-2 shows the ONS 15454 in a 1:N protection configuration. Each side of the shelf assembly has only one card protecting all of the cards on that side. Figure 6-2 ONS 15454 ...
A card reader/writer which interfaces between a host application program and a data storage card. The card reader/writer reads from and writes to the application program with high level language of the commands. The card reader/writer translates the high level language commands of the host program to corresponding sequences of low level commands for reading and writing to the data storage card. The card reader/writer stores a plurality of sets of such low level commands, and is able to establish the card type for any card interfaced with the card reader/writer, and to use the appropriate command set for the established card type. The card reader/writer also translates low level commands from the card to high level commands for the host application program. The card reader/writer can be loaded with low level command sets for additional card types as required.
A card reader/writer which interfaces between a host application program and a data storage card. The card reader/writer reads from and writes to the application program with high level language of the commands. The card reader/writer translates the high level language commands of the host program to corresponding sequences of low level commands for reading and writing to the data storage card. The card reader/writer stores a plurality of sets of such low level commands, and is able to establish the card type for any card interfaced with the card reader/writer, and to use the appropriate command set for the established card type. The card reader/writer also translates low level commands from the card to high level commands for the host application program. The card reader/writer can be loaded with low level command sets for additional card types as required.
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In Edge of Darkness, coming to Kickstarter on February 20th, crafting amazing cards and getting those cards into your hand is one of the secrets to victory. When the game begins each Guild owns a small set of cards but most cards are unowned. After each Guild Leader (player) completes their turn they discard their cards. Cards owned by their own Guild or unowned cards go into a common discard pile. Cards owned by another Guild go to that Guilds Guildhall. At the start of each turn a Guild Leader fills their hand first from their Guildhall before drafting from the shared tableau. So over time you will get cards you own more frequently. (Also, if a card you own is in the Threat Tower and it attacks the City or is defeated in a Hunt, it is sent to your Guildhall instead of the common discard pile afterwards.). When scoring Victory Points at the end of the game a Guild Leader gets one Victory Point for every Advancement sleeved into the cards their Guild owns. So claiming an unowned card ...
A method of issuing cards by using a card issuing machine including a memory having stored therein an initial secret code, a card reader and a keyboard. Checking whether a secret code keyed in matches the initial secret code stored in the memory; storing in a memory a code keyed in for associating a first card with the card issuing machine and recording the associating keyed-in code in the first card by the card reader to issue the first card when the two secret codes are found to match; issuing a new card upon confirming a keyed-in first secret code of the first card; and issuing another new card upon confirming a secret code on the new card issued.
MALT1 reglerar medfödd immunitet men hur detta sker är fortfarande oklara. Vi använde den selektiva MALT1 paracaspase hämmaren MLT-827...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
CARD18 - CARD18 (untagged)-Human caspase recruitment domain family, member 18 (CARD18) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Great cards, could not find any that I wanted till I found Greeting Card Universe. I will be ordering from you again. I found a Navy Commissioning card for my nephew, a twins baby shower card for my niece, a cowgirl b-day card for another niece, a coworker a kitty bridle shower card and a coworkers cats b-day card. Thank you so much for the quick shipping & well package. Also, kept me update on when processing & shipping. Thanks again ...
Theres good news for anyone who buys supplies online at the Digital Check store: We now have a single type of cleaning card that works for both Digital Check and SmartSource-branded check scanners.. Actually, theres no change to the cards themselves - we simply confirmed, through extensive testing, that existing Digital Check-branded cleaning cards also work in SmartSource scanners. Going forward, well be consolidating both brands of scanner onto the same card.. What does this mean for our customers? First of all, you dont need to do anything right away. Any cleaning cards you already own will continue to work just the same as always, so go ahead and keep using them until theyre gone. Well also continue selling SmartSource-branded cleaning cards until inventory is depleted.. After that, just order Digital Check cleaning cards and use them the same way you normally do. The cards may have slightly different shapes, but the cleaning process is identical. In the long run, we hope that ...
Account Monitoring Service means the optional Service associated with Payments Pro Payflow that receives notifications of suspicious activity, as described in more fully on the PayPal website.. Account Updater Service means the Service in which PayPal may update applicable customer Card Data of eligible Cards using information and third-party sources available to PayPal, as further described in Section 13. In providing this Service, PayPal may obtain, on Merchants behalf, applicable updated customer Card Data of eligible Cards from participating card issuing banks and other third-party sources for use in the processing of Merchants Recurring Billing, Recurring Payments, or other eligible transactions using the Services.. Acquiring Bank means each of the financial institutions PayPal partners with to process your Card payments, including your Direct Payments and VT Payments, and each of your Card funded PayPal Checkout payments, and with whom you entered into a Commercial Entity ...
Always enjoyed collecting these all-star cards when I was a kid... especially in 1982 and 1983. Id get all excited to find guys like Jackson who had three different cards in the set. For some reason, it just looks so cool to see his base card, all-star card, and in-action card lined up in a 9-pocket page. The same thing goes for 1983... where my all-star Pete Rose is joined with his base card and super veteran subset card in my 80s binder.. ReplyDelete ...
Prepaid cards are more common due to recent restrictions on issuing credit cards to college students with no income and for persons without bank accounts. Learn more from Consumer Action: A low-fee, reloadable prepaid card can be a useful financial tool for many consumers, but it wont be the best option for everyone or every situation. The Prepaid Cards series, which includes a 12-page booklet, a backgrounder written in question-and-answer format and two short videos, will help you decide if a reloadable prepaid card is right for you and teach you how to choose, use and manage a prepaid card wisely. Info available in English, Spanish, Korean, Chinese and Vietnamese. http://www.consumer-action.org/modules/module_prepaid_cards ...
With its embedded RF chip the electronic ID card can be used in the future as an ID card on the internet in the future. This is served by the so-called eID application. E.g. the one or another trip to a local authority can be dispensed with, because one can authenticate himself through the internet using the electronic ID card (eGovernment).. The ID card can also be used in the field of eBusiness. I.e. private service providers (e.g. companies using online shopping) can apply for access to certain data stored on the electronic ID card. Before such an authorization is granted, a verification is carried out concerning what data the service provider really needs for his purposes from the ID card and if he is trustworthy. The authorization is always only valid for a limited time period and can also be withdrawn. The authorization is technically realized with digital certificates, which are retrieved during Terminal Authentication.. Before a service provider is allowed to access the data stored on ...
I have a request having to do with the card exchange. Rosco and Harville are on the card list and their mom just wrote and asked if they could receive only E-mail cards this year? There is a chance that they will be moving and they dont want the cards to get lost or not get them. If you have already mailed their cards, I suggested that they put in a change of address in so that they will get there. If you havent mailed theirs yet, please send theirs by E-mail. Thanks!! We want every doggie/cat to be able to get their cards ...
CARD9 antibody [N1N3] (caspase recruitment domain family, member 9) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-CARD9 pAb (GTX110789) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Members - Over the next couple of weeks, I will start to add cards that are available for SASE Requests. I have a boatload of cards that I would like to get into your hands as set fillers, TTM card fodder, etc. Some points: 1) Cards will be tagged to the either the SCF Storefront or the SASE Request account. This will be determined by November 27th 2) Each card will be listed for 1 RP (this will trigger the transaction to be created automatically) 3) You will need to either send a
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Hi, my wife just showed me the video... watching your shuffling at the beginning you can figure out that the random part does not at all change the positions of the aces in the resulting pile. The random set of x cards is on the right pile, the remaining 15-x cards on the middle pile under the next ace. In the end the middle pile goes on the right pile making it exactly the same 15 cards between the two aces that were on the middle pile before - just randomly restacked (only those 15 cards) - the same thing happens with the other random part and the right pile. To puzzle the audience more you do the 4 cards-thing at the end ...
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fast 4-32GB microSD card from a well-known manufacturer. Capacities of up to 64GB are supported. Some cards are currently incompatible with the Lumia phone. Smaller capacities than 4GB are not supported. formatted with FAT32 (4-32GB cards, 32 KB allocation unit size) or exFAT (64GB cards, 128KB allocation unit size). ...
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Capitalised terms not listed in this clause are defined in the User Agreement or above in this Card Agreement.. a. Acquiring Institution: means a financial institution or bank that provides services to you to enable you to (a) accept payment by cardholders using cards; and (b) receive value in respect of Card Transactions.. b. Activation Date: The date on which you complete all of the steps for Getting started as listed in clause 1(a) above.. c. AVS: Information returned by the Address Verification System operated by or on behalf of Card Associations, which compares address data provided by an apparent cardholder with address data on file for the card at the card issuer.. d. Card Association: A company or consortium of financial institutions which promulgates rules to govern Card Transactions that involve the card that carries the companys or the consortiums brand. Examples include (where applicable) Visa USA, Visa Europe, and the other Visa regions; MasterCard International Incorporated; ...
Dear Parents, Today you will notice an ID card attached to your childs bag. This is their ID card that will allow them to enter the school. Starting Tuesday, September 20th, we will open the turnstiles and all children and adults will need to go through with their card or fingerprint. PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE THE…
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLCBL) is the most frequent form of lymphoid cancer, accounting for 30% to 35% of all nodal lymphomas.1 Based on gene expression profiling (GEP), 3 distinct subtypes of DLBCL have been identified, namely the germinal center (GC) B-cell (GCB), activated B-cell (ABC), and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma subtypes.2 The ABC subtype of DLBCL is characterized by adverse prognosis and constitutive activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB).3 This is thought to be the consequence of somatic mutations in the genes encoding the B-cell receptor (BCR)-associated CD79A and CD79B chains,4 or the BCR signal transducer caspase recruitment domain-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase-1 (CARMA1) (also known as CARD11),5 and polymorphisms in RNF31 (also known as HOIP),6 which result in constitutive BCR signaling. These can be present alone or in combination with activating mutations in genes encoding the Toll-like receptor (TLR) downstream ...
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O43353: Receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2; 2.7.11.1; CARD-containing interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme-associated kinase; CARD-containing IL-1 beta ICE-kinase; RIP-like-interacting CLARP kinase; Receptor-interacting protein 2; RIP-2; Tyrosine-protein kinase RIPK2; 2.7. ...
There are several different types of credit cards which card issuers are offering these days to attract card holders. There is intense competition amongst major card issuers too. The credit CARD Act has put a lot of restrictions on credit card companies. So getting more card holders is the only way to really make up for the lost revenue as far as card issuers are concerned. Here are some of the top incentives that are being offered by card companies. One should notice that the best rewards are always available for those customers who have an excellent credit history. Cash back credit cards Cash back credit cards are the cards for which there is the greatest demand amongst card holders. This is largely because of the amount of saving one can make with these cards. The cash back credit cards usually offer 1% cash back on all expenses and sometimes as high as 5% cash back on specific expenses like groceries, medicines or fuel. This could literally translate to a $100 saving every month, if the ...
https://www.psmarketresearch.com/enquiry-form.php?enqid=160&title=Report%20sample. Credit cards transaction value reported at POS terminals was greater than at ATMs. The credit card transaction value at POS terminals was TRY424 billion in 2014, representing 91% of the total credit cards transaction value, compared to TRY39 billion at ATMs. Widespread acceptance of credit cards by merchants, growing consumer demand, and increase in number of POS terminals contributed to the growth of the credit card segment in Turkey. By scheme, Visa dominates in credit card segment with a market share of 55% of the total credit cards in circulation in 2014.. Consumer preference for cashless payments enables growth of card payments. Banks and card issuers have implemented different pricing and marketing strategies to encourage consumers to increase card payments rather than paying in cash. Common strategies used by banks and card issuers are product discounts and reward points. The increase in number of internet ...
An information card and card system that eliminates forgery and illegal use of a card. The information card includes a memory that stores information data, which includes one of image data and acoustic data and contains inherent data that is embedded in the information data according to steganographic information hiding. The inherent data is data that authenticates a legitimacy of a card owner of the information card. The information card system include the information card and a data processing terminal for authenticating the owner of the card and/or the authenticity of the card itself.
FIX 3A: If file corruptions are occurring occassionally or intermittently (such as for every few files or movies taken, the camera states file unrecognized or something similar), take a close look at your card to determine its Class, or in other words its write speed. Written on the face of the card should be the word Class with a number, or a number circled with a capital C. See the above photo for an example of a Class 6 card (on the left), with an older/slower unmarked card on the right. If neither Class or C is written, the card is likely Class 2 or lower. Todays newer cameras take very high-resolution pictures, AND high-definition videos. File sizes can be very large. Some of the older SD cards just cannot keep up with the write speed required to save these files before youre ready to take another picture. As a result, some of your files can become corrupted if youre using older cards with newer cameras. The fix in this case is to purchase a higher speed card for your newer ...
FIX 3A: If file corruptions are occurring occassionally or intermittently (such as for every few files or movies taken, the camera states file unrecognized or something similar), take a close look at your card to determine its Class, or in other words its write speed. Written on the face of the card should be the word Class with a number, or a number circled with a capital C. See the above photo for an example of a Class 6 card (on the left), with an older/slower unmarked card on the right. If neither Class or C is written, the card is likely Class 2 or lower. Todays newer cameras take very high-resolution pictures, AND high-definition videos. File sizes can be very large. Some of the older SD cards just cannot keep up with the write speed required to save these files before youre ready to take another picture. As a result, some of your files can become corrupted if youre using older cards with newer cameras. The fix in this case is to purchase a higher speed card for your newer ...
[...] the major financial institutions continue to deluge college students with offers for credit cards carrying interest rates that can approach 30 percent. [...] even people with good-paying jobs can get caught in a vicious cycle of debt with credit card spending. [...] wasnt curtailment of the marketing of plastic to college students an element of the Card Act passed by Congress in 2009? [...] the Card Act required credit card issuers to disclose their once-secret marketing agreements with colleges, universities and alumni groups on affinity cards. Considering the political clout of the financial industry - and the competition to hook customers on high-interest credit cards before their first paychecks - Congress is not likely to revisit this portion of the Card Act anytime soon. Perhaps the federal Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, established in 2011 to police an industry whose reckless and exploitative practices were hurting consumers and the economy, can close the Card Acts obvious
Its difficult to imagine making it through in the current consumer world with no charge card. The credit card in the bank is required to book low-cost plane tickets in order to secure rooms in hotels online, and a number of other activities. But using cards on the internet is only one for reds from the gold coin finding a low interest rate cards can be achieved on the internet too. So, using for any Chase charge card online makes perfect financial sense.. Obtaining a charge card on the internet has a number of benefits. From low rates of interest to fast card approval, companies offer bargains because they know they need to attract business in exactly what is a greatly competitive sector. Little surprise then that incentives and rewards schemes happen to be devised too.. And despite such great competition, Chase a credit card has consistently been rated among the very best found, either on the internet or from the financial institution branches themselves.. Do you know the Real Benefits?. When ...
The most impactful card lost to rotation is Ditto Prism Star from SM Lost Thunder, and is also my personal top pick. You can read two previous reviews here: the 5th best card of the set and the 8th best card of 2018! If you arent able to read them, then its ability is the reason why it is worth being a prism star card and it has a lot of potential, despite being a one-of in a deck with a fragile 40 HP body! Almighty Evolution lets you play any Stage 1 card on Ditto (*), and I believe Stage 1 GX Pokemon also does count as being one.. Some of the reasons why Ditto (*) is an amazing card is due to how this card is going to be used. If youre running a certain Stage 1 Evolutionary line, then you would want as many opportunities to get them out as soon as possible. Ditto acts as a fifth evolving basic for a particular Stage 1 card. During the Sun & Moon era, weve got many Stage 1 Pokémon that have their regular single-prize counterpart and GX counterpart, but you can only run so much evolving ...
Black Jack is a fairly basic card game played with one to eight standard 52-card decks. Cards 2-10 are worth their face value. Kings, queens, and jacks are worth 10, and aces can be worth 1 or 11 depending on how the holder judges the situation. The object of the game is to come closer to 21 than the dealer, without going over. The perfect total is achieving 21 with two cards, a jack and an ace for example. If your total is too low you may choose to hit, where you will receive another card from the deck. You may hit as many times as you like, until you bust (go over 21). If you do not want to hit you may stand and receive no cards. There are also some additional strategies that can help once youve got the basics down. You may also double down, where you receive one more card and also double your bet. This is usually only done when your hand amounts to 11. Another strategy, splitting, is done when you are dealt two cards of the same value. By splitting you essentially create two hands, ...
Family Math. Over the summer, I set a few kids of varying ages up with a deck of cards each and put them to the task of testing what they know about probability in relation to a deck of cards to see how well the chance of drawing a certain kind of card holds up. Because the goal was a short family math activity, we used the Pick a Card, Any Card project as a guide and foundation. The Science Buddies Project Idea is one with a low level of difficulty, a project geared toward younger students. There is also a family-friendly adaptation of the project at Scientific American in the Bring Science Home area.. Because of the age range of the kids I had on hand, and their differing levels of interest in, and comfort with, math, we talked first about what we already knew about the odds of drawing different types of cards (or specific card numbers), and they each marked their data charts with the odds of drawing each different number or type of card based on the pure math at hand. With a younger ...
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Is that even true? Well, B&H Photo has a nice guide on the speediest memory cards, and it seems that the write speed of Sony’s latest cards do in fact beat the previous champions, which top out at 260MB/s. This is great stuff for photographers who are shooting at demanding burst modes and recording video at 4K resolution. And to complement most rigs that are usually weather sealed nowadays, these cards will be waterproof, temperature resistant, shockproof and X-Ray proof. SD cards still can’t approach the kind of speeds CFast 2.0 and XQD cards boast, but that’s not stopping Sony from upping their SD game in a big way. Earlier today, Sony officially announced the world’s fastest SD cards, their new SF-G series. Announced ahead of CP+, the SF-G cards come in 32GB, 64GB, and 128GB sizes and boast some blistering fast read/speeds. Specifically, these little cards can read and write photos at 300MB/s and 299MB/s respectively. As long as your camera supports UHS-II, you&rsquo
Complete information for CARD10 gene (Protein Coding), Caspase Recruitment Domain Family Member 10, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
and nowhere was it compulsory to send a card. So if you dont send a card to the person you do not like nothing will happen to you, honest. In fact, if you do not send them a card you may well benefit them also as they will be freed next year from the need to keep in touch with you! Hallelujah! One year I put this to the test. I worked out all those I WANTED to send cards to, and all those I thought I ought to keep in touch with. I considered whether it was worth while sending to some, and whether they rally wanted or needed to contact me. After considering how many cards either party might send needlessly I made a list of those I would bless with my cheap cards. I felt no guilt! The next year, those I had omitted from my must/want to send list, omitted me from theirs. We were all glad. Money and effort was no longer wasted. Friendships, occasional and worthwhile, remained. I tell you not to be oppressed by the need to send cards to folk you wish to drop. They may feel the same towards you! ...
Based on the amount of money I was given, I set up two goals. I wanted to finish my 77-78 Topps and my 79-80 Topps sets. I needed 18 cards for the 77 set and 9 for the complete 79 set. Thankfully there were plenty of options for nearly ALL the cards I needed and I could look at scan after scan and get the quality of card I wanted. In my case the both sets I wanted them to be as close to mint as I could find. I do say nearly all because there was one card I needed and there was only one available and man oh man did they price it that way too. All the cards I needed I got for very great prices except one 79-80 Topps Stan Mikita. The card was clearly an ungraded NrMt-Mt for sure and would probably book in the 2-3 dollar range given the quality. The ask, 15 dollars!!!!! I couldnt believe it. I wanted to finish these sets and when you factor in all the cards I needed, this was a huge barrier. I went on eBay and there were none too. What to do ...
Based on the amount of money I was given, I set up two goals. I wanted to finish my 77-78 Topps and my 79-80 Topps sets. I needed 18 cards for the 77 set and 9 for the complete 79 set. Thankfully there were plenty of options for nearly ALL the cards I needed and I could look at scan after scan and get the quality of card I wanted. In my case the both sets I wanted them to be as close to mint as I could find. I do say nearly all because there was one card I needed and there was only one available and man oh man did they price it that way too. All the cards I needed I got for very great prices except one 79-80 Topps Stan Mikita. The card was clearly an ungraded NrMt-Mt for sure and would probably book in the 2-3 dollar range given the quality. The ask, 15 dollars!!!!! I couldnt believe it. I wanted to finish these sets and when you factor in all the cards I needed, this was a huge barrier. I went on eBay and there were none too. What to do ...
The increasing adoption of virtual card payments by accounts payable departments has created an unex-pected complication for suppliers: more friction in the processing, posting and reconciliation of payments and receivables. The root of the problem is that most suppliers rely on a manual approach to processing e-mailed virtual card payments. Suppliers are forced to balance their organizations need for operational efficiency and control with rising customer demand to pay with a virtual card. But a new breed of tech-nology enables suppliers to process virtual card payments straight-through, addressing the needs of buyers and suppliers. This paper details the growth of electronic business-to-business (B2B) payments, shows how manual approaches to processing virtual card payments cause friction in accounts receivables, describes a way to process virtual card payments straight-through, and highlights the benefits of friction-less payments ...
Design premium thank you cards at Tiny Prints. Choose any of the thank you cards and embellish them with your own photos and personal text. Add style to your thank you! Show your family and friends how much you appreciate their love and support with unique, customizable thank you cards! Tiny Prints modern and contemporary thank you cards can be customized with your favorite family photos and name to create a one-of-a-kind card for your loved ones. Plus, all thank you cards are printed on Tiny Prints luxe paper, so your cards will look great and last for years to come!
I started writing this post thinking Id find some other Environmental/Green-related APIs to mash up with CARMAs data. At the moment, though, I couldnt find many data sources that make available a comparable data set as openly as the CARMA API does. Its disappointing, as this represents a barrier to creating really interesting applications. The bar [...]. ...
ABOUT THE JAVA CARD FORUM What is the Java Card Forum (JCF)? How is the Java Card Forum organized? Who are the members of the Java Card Forum? How do I join? Does the JCF interact with other industry associations? ABOUT JAVA CARD TECHNOLOGY What is Java Card technology and why should I use it?…
Fuel Cards in the US 2018 is invaluable for issuers of fleet cards, fuel retailers, fleet leasing companies and other suppliers to the sector. Based on research with issuers and fuel retailers it provides commercial (B2B) fuel card volume (split by fleet and CRT), value and market share forecasts to 2022, key data on independent and oil company card issuers and an analysis of fuel card competition in the US. Total fleet card volumes increased by 1.5% in 2017 to total 82.8 billion liters after rising 4.8% in 2016.. ...
Ok, so the worst of the worst has happened and youve lost your bank card or had it stolen. Im going to assume here that youve done the obvious, retraced your steps and thoroughly searched everywhere for it. Youve asked house cleaning checked all last locations, banks and police stations. Now your card is gone and you have no other cards with you. Panicking will not help, take deep breaths and get logical. Follow the steps below and you should be able to survive.. Step 1 - Once you have called your bank and cancelled your card, there really is no going back even if you do find it again. So, providing you still have the details, get onto PayPal and stock it up with credit from your account ASAP swell as some Skype credit (youre going to need to make some phone call). This will save you a lot of hassle. Now cancel your card. This is hugely important, if you know its gone. Cancel it asap.. Step 2 - You now need money to survive on. If you have a credit card, good stuff, you were smart. If ...
Fields such as Title and Assigned to are generally wanted on every card, but its often nice to bring a bit more information to cards so you can take action on them without having to open them for more details. We turned on the ability to add additional fields to cards on the Kanban board. For example, you could add Severity and Priority fields to Bug cards. This new setting is per team and work item type, and it allows for up to 10 additional fields to be added. You can also filter the Kanban board. Type any text you like in the filter box, and the board automatically hides all cards that do not match the text entered. Filtering works on all data displayed on the cards-including the Title, ID, and Assigned to tags, and any added fields. For more information, see Add fields to cards, board filtering - Apr 27 ...
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Attos tech support response is as follows. The way I read this, one can either have an obnoxiously loud Mac Pro, or you can risk failure or malfunction of the Atto R380 RAID card (with unknown effects on your data). I will look for an alternative RAID card, but I am very unhappy about spending $1000 on a card with this catch-22.. The reason why it was not working before was because the fan controller suite in the driver package was not updated to support the 5,1 platform. After the 5,1 came out, we posted a separate installer on our website, and now that a new driver is out, the installer was included in the driver.. The PCI fan is raised to 3000 RPM with the plist in place, per the Intel spec and our testing to provide enough airflow to cool the RAID processing chip on the R380 accordingly.. The only reason we give this information out to users is so they can turn the fans down if the card is not in the machine. If the card is in the machine, I strongly recommend keeping the plist in place and ...
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However, Id like as many as possible. Therefore, I will still be trying to accumulate the 1972 Topps cards that I need, and even though I dont have a want list for it, if you think theres a fine 1973 Topps card that deserves inclusion in the countdown -- such as the Dave Nelson card up above or specifically the Pat Corrales card (hint, hint, I dont have it yet), -- please think of me. Im sure I can deliver unto you some cards in return ...
I havent gotten any business leads from cards yet, but Ive had a lot of good conversations. I think theyre worth carrying. I try to not rely on them, though. Whenever possible, I get the other persons contact information, because Im often good at following up.. Mostly, I want my cards to make people to think, Oh, Im also interested in that! Let me go check out her site and get in touch.. I designed the current set of cards in November, a month before I came up with the Experivis name and logo. For fun, I drew the front of the card. I took advantage of Moos ability to print individual designs on the backs of the cards, using scaled-down images of my sketchnotes.. Lessons learned. ...
Includes approximately 50 high quality images related to real life situations. ♦ Activity cards designed by Tahel for use by parents, therapists and educators. ♦ Cards are suitable for professional, theraputic and personal use.. ♦ Tahel Cards offer an interactive and creative method to discuss a sensitive topic.. ♦ Cards have Rabbinical Approval. Produced in partnership with Tchelet Cards. Cost: 150 shekels per set. ...
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Bubbles Card - posted in Forum Event: Design a Card Effect: Im not really sure if there is a Bubbles Kafra, but there should be. ____ of Amorous Pursuit Slot: Weapon Effect: The player is immune to the Agility Down status. Since the Kafra are forbidden to love, many of them develop disturbing stalker-like tendencies that are here personified by this card.
Read about mmp SD card requirement on element14.com. Hi We have copied SD card images from a working mmp board into a new SD card for the second mmp board. We have realized that (1) SD card formating is
Read about mmp SD card requirement on element14.com. Hi We have copied SD card images from a working mmp board into a new SD card for the second mmp board. We have realized that (1) SD card formating is
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Sam tells Dillon some sob story about how her father has lost a reason to live because he needs those old playing cards and that she knows the cards are in the Quartermaine mansion. She basically tells Dillon what Jax told her about his father owning the cards. Dillon tells her that he doesnt know where the cards are but will let her know if he finds them. Sam leaves his room. Meanwhile, Skye lets Luke inside the living room at the Quartermaines. She tells him to go and look around for some money and get out of her life for good. He tells her he needs the other playing cards. She asks him to give her the one he has. He shows it to her but refuses to give it to her and puts it in his shirt pocket. She brings out a bunch of decks of old playing cards that Lila has collected and looks through them for any signs of the dead mans hands cards. She hands him back the card he let her look at. He puts the card away and leaves. Skye takes the real old card out of her sleeve. She calls Jax over. Jax had ...
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A prepared pack, several yards of wide ribbon, an easel with a blackboard having four thin strips across it to hold the cards, a tray and a chair are required. One half of the pack consists of double-faced cards, the cards on the backs being duplicates of the unprepared half of the pack. The cards are placed on the easel so that the two top rows are the ordinary cards, the two bottom rows are the double-faced cards. They overlap a little so that they can be picked up quickly. The performer takes off the two top rows, which the spectator puts into a faced packet and then winds the center part of the ribbon round it. The two ends of the ribbon are handed to the two ladies. He takes the two remaining rows from the easel and secretly turns them over in getting the tray, thus bringing the duplicates of the cards wrapped in ribbon into view. Each lady in turn is asked to merely think of one of these cards. He gathers up the cards, has each lady hold them to her end of the ribbon and as the cards are ...
Isoform 4 is not able to act as an adaptor protein in NLR signalling and its role remains elusive. PYCARD has been shown to ... Srinivasula SM, Poyet JL, Razmara M, Datta P, Zhang Z, Alnemri ES (2002). "The PYRIN-CARD protein ASC is an activating adaptor ... NMR structure of full-length ASC: PDB ID 2KN6 [1] This gene encodes an adaptor protein that is composed of two protein-protein ... PYCARD, often referred to as ASC (Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD), is a protein that in humans is ...
Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 is an adaptor protein of the CARD-CC protein family, which in humans is encoded ... Card9 mediates signals from so called pattern recognition receptors (Dectin-1) to downstream signalling pathways such as NF-κB ... CARD). CARD is a protein interaction domain known to participate in activation or suppression of CARD containing members of the ... Hsu YM, Zhang Y, You Y, Wang D, Li H, Duramad O, Qin XF, Dong C, Lin X (2007). "The adaptor protein CARD9 is required for ...
... where the signaling proteins contain their own CARDs, like in NLRP1 and NLRC4, the CARD -CARD interaction is direct, meaning ... there is no adaptor protein in the complex. There are a variety of sensor and adaptor proteins, the various combinations of ... CARD) . It interacts with other CARD containing proteins such as Apoptosis-Associated Speck-like Protein Containing a CARD (ASC ... CARD only proteins (COPs) as their name implies, are proteins that only contain the non-catalytic CARDs. Owing to the ...
O'Neill LA, Dunne A, Edjeback M, Gray P, Jefferies C, Wietek C (2003). "Mal and MyD88: adapter proteins involved in signal ... Within these proteins, the DD domains can be found in combination with other domains, including: CARDs, DEDs, ankyrin repeats, ... Other DD-containing proteins, such as ankyrin, MyD88 and pelle, are probably not directly involved in cell death signalling. DD ... In addition to cancer, deregulation of death receptor protein signaling and death domain recruitment is seen to influence many ...
This protein interacts with pyrin domain (PYD) of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC). Proteins ... These signals release HSP90 and SGT1 from and recruit ASC protein and caspase-1 to the inflammasome complex. Caspase-1 within ... subfamily of PRRs and NLRP3 together with the adaptor ASC protein PYCARD forms a caspase-1 activating complex known as the ... and PYRIN-containing APAF1-like protein 1 (PYPAF1). This gene encodes a pyrin-like protein which contains a pyrin domain, a ...
This molecule binds an adaptor protein (APAF-1), which recruits initiator Caspase-9 (via CARD-CARD interactions). This leads to ... Some pathogenic signals that lead to Pyroptosis by Caspase-1 are listed below:. *DNA in the host cytosol binds to AIM2-Like ... which is facilitated by binding to adaptor proteins via protein-protein interaction motifs that are collectively referred to as ... The adaptor protein FADD will recruit (by a Death domain-Death domain interaction). The other end of the adaptor contains a DED ...
This molecule binds an adaptor protein (APAF-1), which recruits initiator Caspase-9 (via CARD-CARD interactions). This leads to ... Some pathogenic signals that lead to Pyroptosis by Caspase-1 are listed below: *DNA in the host cytosol binds to AIM2-Like ... which is facilitated by binding to adaptor proteins via protein-protein interaction motifs that are collectively referred to as ... The adaptor protein FADD will recruit (by a Death domain-Death domain interaction) pro-Caspase 8 via the DED domain. This FasR ...
... has received signal one and signal two) it alters its cell surface expression of a variety of proteins. Markers of T cell ... The cytosolic domains bind an adapter BCL10 via CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domains) domains; that then binds ... CD8+ T cells are also able to use small signaling proteins, known as cytokines, to recruit other types of cells when mounting ... The other proteins in the complex are the CD3 proteins: CD3εγ and CD3εδ heterodimers and, most important, a CD3ζ homodimer, ...
Lu Y, Brush J, Stewart TA (Apr 1999). "NSP1 defines a novel family of adaptor proteins linking integrin and tyrosine kinase ... Gene Cards. Retrieved 18 September 2017. Near RI, Zhang Y, Makkinje A, Vanden Borre P, Lerner A (Sep 2007). "AND-34/BCAR3 ... receptors to the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase signaling pathway". The Journal of Biological ... SH2 domain-containing protein 3A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SH2D3A gene. The protein may be useful in ...
CARD) or via the CARD of the adaptor protein ASC which it binds to during inflammasome formation. In its full form, the ... Cai X, Chen J, Xu H, Liu S, Jiang QX, Halfmann R, Chen ZJ (2014). "Prion-like Polymerization Underlies Signal Transduction in ... while its N-terminal PYD homotypically interacts with the PYD of adaptor protein ASC, whose CARD can then recruit another pro- ... the inflammasome receptors interact with the adaptor protein ASC, which then recruits pro-caspase-1 via its CARD domain and ...
The signalling motifs involved in TCR signalling are tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic tail of these adaptor proteins that ... CARMA1 then undergoes a conformational change which allow it to oligomerise and bind the adapter proteins BCL10, CARD domain ... hence the CD3 adaptor proteins contain the signalling motifs needed for propagating the signal from the triggered TCR into the ... LAT associates with another scaffolding protein Slp-76 via the Grap2 adaptor protein, which provides additional binding sites. ...
The apoptosome is a multimolecular holoenzyme complex assembled around the adaptor protein Apaf1 (apoptotic protease activating ... The CARD domain will only be released from this lock when Apaf-1 is bound to (d) ATP/ATP; when ATP binds, the CARD domain will ... T. F. Reubold; S. Wohlgemuth; S. Eschenburg (2011). "Crystal structure of full-length Apaf-1: how the death signal is relayed ... WD-40 repeats are sequences around 40 amino acids long which end in Trp-Asp and are typically involved in protein-protein ...
Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein also known as CARD adapter inducing interferon-beta (Cardif/IPS-1) [13] CRADD: ... Ipaf-1 recruits a CARD-containing adapter termed ASC and caspase-1 in unknown stoichiometry via CARD-CARD association. This ... The adaptor protein VISA further activates the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase (IKK)-protein-kinase family members. ... CARD domains are found on a strikingly wide range of proteins, including helicases, kinases, mitochondrial proteins, caspases, ...
Through its CARD domain, this protein interacts with, and thus recruits, caspase 2/ICH1 to the cell death signal transduction ... a novel human apoptotic adaptor molecule for caspase-2, and FasL/tumor necrosis factor receptor-interacting protein RIP". ... The protein encoded by this gene is a death domain (CARD/DD)-containing protein and has been shown to induce cell apoptosis. ... Chou JJ, Matsuo H, Duan H, Wagner G (1998). "Solution structure of the RAIDD CARD and model for CARD/CARD interaction in ...
... a sensor protein (PRRs), an adaptor (ASC) and an effector (caspase-1). Generally, inflammasome-forming NLR proteins share a ... Both pro-caspase-1 and ASC contain a caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD), and this homotypic CARD-CARD interaction ... When the "danger" signal is sensed, the quiescent cells will be activated to undergo pyroptosis and produce inflammatory ... recruits ASC adaptor protein via PYD-PYD interaction. ... Some non-NLR proteins like absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) and ...
... has received signal one and signal two) it alters its cell surface expression of a variety of proteins. Markers of T cell ... The cytosolic domains bind an adapter BCL10 via CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domains) domains; that then binds ... The other proteins in the complex are the CD3 proteins: CD3εγ and CD3εδ heterodimers and, most important, a CD3ζ homodimer, ... T cell membrane protein-3 (TIM3), and lymphocyte activation gene 3 protein (LAG3).[59][60] Soluble molecules such as cytokines ...
Interaction with other proteins (e.g. the adaptor molecule ASC) is mediated via N-terminal pyrin (PYD) domain. There are 14 ... NODs signal via N-terminal CARD domains to activate downstream gene induction events, and interact with microbial molecules by ... BDCA2 signaling via ITAM and signaling through ITIM belong among the TLR-dependent signaling. TLR-independent signaling such as ... Among other proteins the most important are: the MHC Class II transactivator (CIITA), IPAF, BIRC1 etc. Some of these proteins ...
CARD) and the CARD-containing adaptor MAVS changes. In parallel, when toll-like receptors in the endocytic compartments ... For example, the Influenza A virus produces NS1 protein, which can bind to host and viral RNA, interact with immune signaling ... This leads to antiviral protein production, such as protein kinase R, which inhibits viral protein synthesis, or the 2′,5′- ... "Resistance" (R) proteins, encoded by R genes, are widely present in plants and detect pathogens. These proteins contain domains ...
Adapter proteins involved in signal transduction by toll-like receptors", Journal of Endotoxin Research, 9 (1): 55-59, doi: ... DD-containing proteins are associated with apoptosis and inflammation, similar to the CARD domain. It has also been linked with ... Protein modules containing the CARD domain are associated with apoptosis, through the regulation of caspases that they are ... Hofmann, K; Bucher, P; Tschopp, J (1997). "The CARD domain: A new apoptotic signalling motif". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. ...
It is suggested that it acts as an adaptor protein in events related to immune response and cholesterol regulation, for example ... After VISA activation, its accumulation allows the recruitment of signaling components which play a role in RLR-mediated ... SNX8 also plays a role in RIG-I containing CARD domain-mediated and MDA5-mediated activation of the IFNβ promoter, since VISA ... are involved in protein-protein interactions. The SNX8 protein, even though is very similar to the other sorting nexins, ...
This protein is reported to interact with other CARD and coiled coil domain containing proteins including CARD9, -10, -11 and - ... 2018). "Ancient Origin of the CARD-Coiled Coil/Bcl10/MALT1-Like Paracaspase Signaling Complex Indicates Unknown Critical ... Lin Q, Liu Y, Moore DJ, Elizer SK, Veach RA, Hawiger J, Ruley HE (2012). "Cutting edge: the "death" adaptor CRADD/RAIDD targets ... The protein encoded by this gene contains a caspase recruitment domain (CARD), and has been shown to induce apoptosis and to ...
... to the inflammsome via the CARD domains or a CARD/PYR-containing adaptor protein called apoptosis-associated speck-like protein ... There it functions as an "eat me" signal for professional phagocytes. Other important surface exposed DAMPs are heat-shock ... These proteins contain oligomerization NACHT domains, CARD domains and some also contain similar pyrin (PYR) domains. Caspase 1 ... Spisek R, Dhodapkar MV (August 2007). "Towards a better way to die with chemotherapy: role of heat shock protein exposure on ...
"Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of T cell receptor signaling reveals system-wide modulation of protein-protein ... "Serine/threonine-protein kinase RIO1". Target Report Card. Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, CB10 1SD, UK: EMBL-EBI, Wellcome Genome ... For instance, in the binding of PRMT5 in which RIOK1 and PICln are involved, suggest that RIOK1 is a more general adapter than ... 6:7,389,496-7,418,037) Effects on modified protein - protein degradation, triggered by K411-m1; protein stabilization, ...
The signaling pathways activated by STING combine to induce an innate immune response to cells with ectopic DNA in the cytosol ... "TMEM173 Expression". Gene Cards. Ishikawa H, Ma Z, Barber GN (October 2009). "STING regulates intracellular DNA-mediated, type ... Upon binding DNA, the protein cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase (cGAS) triggers reaction of GTP and ATP to form cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). ... STING's general role as an adapter molecule in the cytosolic DNA-type 1 IFN response across cell types has been suggested to ...
This interaction allows L1 protein connect with the cell's cytoskeleton. Also, L1 protein cytoplasmic tail can bind adaptor 2 ( ... This position allows the protein to activate chemical signals which spread through the neurone. There are a wide variety of ... "L1CAM Gene". Gene Cards. Reid RA, Hemperly JJ (1992). "Variants of human L1 cell adhesion molecule arise through alternate ... L1, also known as L1CAM, is a transmembrane protein member of the L1 protein family, encoded by the L1CAM gene. This protein, ...
The signaling cascades in MDA5 is initiated via CARD domain. Some observations made in cancer cells show that MDA5 also ... Meylan E, Curran J, Hofmann K, Moradpour D, Binder M, Bartenschlager R, Tschopp J (October 2005). "Cardif is an adaptor protein ... Activated MDA5 interacts with the mitochondrial antiviral signalling proteins (MAVS) through its caspase activation and ... This gene encodes a DEAD box protein that is upregulated in response to treatment with beta-interferon (IFN-β) and a protein ...
FAM43 is predicted to be a nuclear protein, to identify function, structure and function for LDL receptor adaptor protein ( ... "FAM43A motif search for nuclear protein". ELM. Retrieved 22 April 2018. "SRPK2 Gene". Gene Cards. Retrieved 1 May 2018. " ... The translated protein contains a primary and secondary nuclear localization signal and has a predicted GPI-linkage site at ... A distant homolog was identified using NCBI protein BLAST, low density lipoprotein receptor adaptor protein 1-like in [ ...
Oligonucleotide adaptors are then added to the small stretches of DNA that were bound to the protein of interest to enable ... "Calling Cards enable multiplexed identification of the genomic targets of DNA-binding proteins". Genome Research. 21 (5): 748- ... Kumar V, Muratani M, Rayan NA, Kraus P, Lufkin T, Ng HH, Prabhakar S (July 2013). "Uniform, optimal signal processing of mapped ... The cross-links are made between the protein and DNA, but also between RNA and other proteins. The second step is the process ...
2018). "Ancient Origin of the CARD-Coiled Coil/Bcl10/MALT1-Like Paracaspase Signaling Complex Indicates Unknown Critical ... "14-3-3 proteins associate with A20 in an isoform-specific manner and function both as chaperone and adapter molecules". J. Biol ... The A20 protein is ancient, and protein homolog can be found as far back as cnidaria (corals, jellyfish, anemones) with a ... Tumor necrosis factor, alpha-induced protein 3 or A20 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFAIP3 gene. This gene was ...
CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins*CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins. *Caspase Activation and Recruitment Domain Signaling Proteins ... "CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins" was a major ... "CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain CASPASE ACTIVATION AND RECRUITMENT DOMAINS (CARD). They play ...
ASC/TMS1 is an adaptor protein activating caspase-1 that stimulates processing of proIL-1beta and proIL-18. ASC was reported to ... CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins * Caspase 1 / metabolism* * CpG Islands * Cytoskeletal Proteins * DNA (Cytosine-5-)- ... ASC/TMS1 is an adaptor protein activating caspase-1 that stimulates processing of proIL-1beta and proIL-18. ASC was reported to ... ASC/TMS1, a caspase-1 activating adaptor, is downregulated by aberrant methylation in human melanoma Int J Cancer. 2003 Nov 1; ...
CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins * Carrier Proteins / metabolism* * Caspase 1 / metabolism * Cytoskeletal Proteins / metabolism ... NLRP3 recruits apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) and caspase-1 to form the NLRP3-inflammasome, activating IL-1β. ...
DED SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS; and CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Once activated, the initiator caspases can activate other ... The pro-domain regions contain protein-protein interaction motifs that can interact with specific signaling adaptor proteins ... DED SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS; and CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Once activated, the initiator caspases can activate other ... The pro-domain regions contain protein-protein interaction motifs that can interact with specific signaling adaptor proteins ...
Protein Coding), BCL10 Immune Signaling Adaptor, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression ... Self-associates by CARD-CARD interaction and forms a tight complex with MALT1. Interacts with other CARD-proteins such as CARD9 ... CARD containing apoptotic signaling protein,B cell CLL/lymphoma 10,cellular homolog of equine herpesvirus-2 E10 gene,inducing ... BCL10 (BCL10 Immune Signaling Adaptor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with BCL10 include Lymphoma, Mucosa- ...
A gradient of EGFR-ERK signaling has been classically implicated in various developmental processes. In this issue of ... It signals via an N-terminal caspase recruitment domain that interacts with other CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as RIP ... Nod1 Signaling Adaptor Protein. A NOD-signaling adaptor protein that contains a C-terminal leucine-rich domain which recognizes ... Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein. A NOD signaling adaptor protein that contains two C-terminal leucine-rich domains which ...
Srinivasula SM, Poyet JL, Razmara M, Datta P, Zhang Z, Alnemri ES.; The PYRIN-CARD protein ASC is an activating adaptor for ... Protein. P10415 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) BCL2L1 Protein. Q07817 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) BIRC2 Protein. Q13490 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) BIRC3 Protein. ... Protein. P52564 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) MAP3K7 Protein. O43318 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) MAPK11 Protein. Q15759 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) MAPK12 Protein ... Protein. Q9NPP4 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) NLRC4. Protein. Q9NPP4 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) NLRP1 Protein. Q9C000 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) NLRP1. Protein ...
Science Signaling. 08 Oct 2019. Without the kinase Lyn, the adaptor protein CARD9 amplifies cytokine production in autoimmune ... Lyn-deficient autoimmunity shows its CARDs. Both the adaptor protein CARD9 and loss of the kinase Lyn are associated with ... Science Signaling. 08 Oct 2019. Without the kinase Lyn, the adaptor protein CARD9 amplifies cytokine production in autoimmune ... CARD9 is an immune adaptor protein in myeloid cells that is involved in C-type lectin signaling and antifungal immunity. CARD9 ...
CARD can bind to the adaptor protein mitochondrial antiviral signalling (MAVS), which interacts with TRAF3 and TRAF2/6, thereby ... Signalling via TRAF2/6 results in the activation of NF-κB [24,26] (Figure 1A). MDA5 is thought to trigger the same signalling ... Piret, J.; Carbonneau, J.; Rhéaume, C.; Baz, M.; Boivin, G. Predominant role of IPS-1 over TRIF adaptor proteins in early ... TLR3 is activated by double-strand RNA (dsRNA) and upon activation, it will signal through TRIF (TIR-domain-containing adapter- ...
Caspases with large prodomains interact with signaling adaptor molecules through motifs in the prodomains called CARDs 2 ,(1 , ... between CARDs in the adaptor molecule FADD and the prodomain of procaspase-8 allows the formation of a death-inducing signaling ... a novel human apoptotic adaptor molecule for caspase-2 and Fas/TNF receptor interacting protein RIP. Cancer Res., 57: 615-619, ... The inhibitor of apoptosis protein family of proteins, including XIAP, has also been shown to bind and inhibit caspase-9 and ...
CARD) containing molecules. Several molecules including caspases and adaptor FADD contain DEDs. A novel protein that interacts ... Cell death signals are transduced by death domain (DD) death effector domain (DED), and caspase recruitment domain (CARD) ... Several molecules including caspases and adaptor FADD contain DEDs. A novel protein that interacts with DED of caspase 8 and 10 ... Proteins and Peptides. By product type. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Cell lines and ...
In the apoptosis signaling DD containing adaptor proteins might play decisive role in the recognition of the next protein in ... The first CARD containing proteins that are activated during apoptosis signaling are recognized through DED or other domains. ... DDs are present in receptor and adaptor proteins and are involved in decision making interactions during apoptosis signaling. ... protein-protein interaction and gene expression data to assign Gene Ontology functional categories to proteins of Arabidopsis ...
TRAF3 binds to the adaptor protein Cardif [caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) adaptor-inducing interferon-β (IFN- ... Science Signaling. 13 Nov 2012. : ra81 Two single amino acid changes enable the adaptor protein TRAF5 to promote antiviral ... Science Signaling. 13 Nov 2012. : ra81 Two single amino acid changes enable the adaptor protein TRAF5 to promote antiviral ... family of cytoplasmic adaptor proteins link cell-surface receptors to intracellular signaling pathways that regulate innate and ...
... the key adaptor molecules TIR domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-β (TRIF), mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS ... The expression plasmids encoding full-length RIG-I, RIG-I (2 CARD), MDA5, MAVS, TBK1, IKKi, IRF3, IRF3-5D, IRF3 S386A, MyD88 ... 4A). Next, we examined which adaptor protein in IFN-I signaling physically interacts with FBXO17. Fig. 4B illustrated that ... we found that FBXO17 does not cause the degradation of the key adaptor proteins in signaling pathway, including TBK1, IKKi, ...
... signaling pathway inhibition, and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). ... as low concentrations of ROS generation are required for the fight against invading microorganisms and cell survival signaling ... Upon activation by PAMPs or DAMPs, NLRP3 interacts with the adapter protein apoptosis associated speck-like protein (ASC). Then ... like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD; ASC) and caspase-1 (CASP1) termed the inflammasome. ...
... from antigen donor cells activate inflammasomes by providing first and second signals required for IL-1β production by PMBC. ... and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2), but not TLR3, TLR5, or TLR9. DRibbles induced PBMCs ... DRibbles triggered innate receptor signaling via Toll-like Receptors (TLR)-2, TLR4, TLR7, TLR8, ... a group of multimeric protein complexes with the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck like CARD-domain-containing protein ...
TRIF is a TLR adaptor protein; STAT1 is an interferon receptor signaling protein). Consistent with this, Tlr4-/- and Trif-/- ... the CARD domain-containing inflammasome NLRC4 can signal directly to caspase-1, which results in pyroptosis, as well as ... signal through the ASC adaptor protein to recruit caspase-1 (fig. S1). Many diverse agonists cause cytosolic perturbations that ... The protein SdhA maintains the integrity of the Legionella-containing vacuole. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109, 3481 (2012). ...
Signalling through TLRs proceeds mainly via TRAF6 with a variety of adaptor proteins acting as intermediaries between receptor ... Signalling through CLRs utilises cytoplasmic ITAM domains to interact with the SYK adaptor molecule, activating the Card-9- ... L. A. J. ONeill and A. G. Bowie, "The family of five: TIR-domain-containing adaptors in Toll-like receptor signalling," Nature ... As these phosphatases are activated by the MAPK proteins as a result of MAPK signalling, they form part of a negative feedback ...
Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 is an adaptor protein of the CARD-CC protein family, which in humans is encoded ... Card9 mediates signals from so called pattern recognition receptors (Dectin-1) to downstream signalling pathways such as NF-κB ... CARD). CARD is a protein interaction domain known to participate in activation or suppression of CARD containing members of the ... Hsu YM, Zhang Y, You Y, Wang D, Li H, Duramad O, Qin XF, Dong C, Lin X (2007). "The adaptor protein CARD9 is required for ...
1); this is supported by nuclear magnetic resonance structure analysis and mutagenesis studies (28). An adapter protein called ... RAIDD binds through a death domain to the death domain of RIP and through a CARD motif to a similar sequence in the death ... TRADD functions as a platform adapter that recruits several signaling molecules to the activated receptor: TNFR-associated ... A family of viral proteins called vFLIPs and a related cellular protein called cFLIP (also called Casper, I-FLICE, FLAME, or ...
These proteins are considered dsRNA sensors and are thought to transmit the signal to the mitochondrial adapter, IPS-1 (also ... Another helicase protein, LGP2, lacks the CARD region and does not activate IFN-beta gene expression. LGP2 mRNA is induced by ... A) In the steady state, the absence of virus infection or cytosolic dsRNA maintains the CARD-helicase RNA sensor protein in an ... LGP2 interaction displaces IKKi from the IPS-1 C terminus to disengage signal propagation. In this case, the CARD-helicase can ...
The TNF receptor R1 can signal to NSMase via the adaptor protein, factor associated with neutral sphingomyelinase (FAN) and ... CARD) and associated caspases. Both IL-1 and TNF receptors can induce ceramide-dependent cytotoxic signaling via activation of ... Ceramide generated at the plasma membrane is critical for the assembly of proteins involved in the death inducing signaling ... ceramide-activated protein kinases (CAPK) that promote death signaling by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEKK) ...
CARD) 6 (Figure 1A). Activation platforms generally include a receptor protein and an adaptor protein. The receptor is usually ... Similar protein interactions result in the assembly of the CD95 death inducing signaling complex (DISC) that leads to caspase-8 ... p53-induced protein with a death domain) and the adaptor RAIDD (RIP-associated ICH-1/CAD-3 homologous protein with a death ... For example, mutation of the residue D59 to E in the prodomain of caspase-1 disrupts binding to the adaptor protein ASC ( ...
low density lipoprotein receptor adaptor pr.... 26228. 26228. STAP1. signal transducing adaptor family member 1. ... Gene Set: GO_PROTEIN_PHOSPHORYLATED_AMINO_ACID_BINDING. Standard name. GO_PROTEIN_PHOSPHORYLATED_AMINO_ACID_BINDING. ... Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a phosphorylated amino acid residue within a protein.. ...
... pro-caspase-1 with or without an adapter molecule such as the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC). ... Ferritin functions as a proinflammatory cytokine via iron-independent protein kinase C ζ/nuclear factor κB-regulated signaling ... TLR4 activation can lead to ROS signaling, and ROS may modulate signaling downstream of TLR4 via NOX activation. Kupffer cells ... an oligomeric amyloid signaling complex. Necroptosis, as defined by RIP3-dependent mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein ...
... the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), and caspase-1, allowing proteolytic ... 2013) Toll-like receptor signaling adapter proteins govern spread of neuropathic pain and recovery following nerve injury in ... S1) (23, 24). TLR4 signaling primes the inflammasome by increasing the expression of NLRP3 and pro-IL-1β (25). A second signal ... TLR4 mRNA and P2X7R protein levels, which represent the respective first (priming) and second (activation) signals, were ...
The core of NLRP9 inflammasomes consists of a signal sensor component (NLRP9), an adapter (ASC/PYCARD), which recruits an ... Clustered PYCARD nucleates the formation of CASP1 filaments through the interaction of their respective CARD domains, acting as ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q7RTR0. UPI0005D0023C. UPI00027437E0. ...
... but guanylate-binding protein-independent manner. Notably, OMV-associated flagellin is crucial for Salmonella OMV-induced ... inflammasome activation via OMV-associated flagellin in addition to a mild induction of non-canonical inflammasome signaling ... This complex consists mostly of sensor protein, adaptor protein, and procaspase-1, leading to the generation of active caspase- ... NAIP5, NLR family, apoptosis inhibitory protein 5; NLRC4, NLR family, CARD domain-containing protein 4; NLRP3, NLR family, ...
Huh7.5 cells express RIG-I protein with a T55I point mutation in the RIG-I CARDs, which blocks downstream signaling (38), ... This activated RIG-I conformer then engages the adaptor, mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), to mediate ... Protein-RNA complexes were captured on a filter membrane for scintillation counting, normalized to the 32P-RNA signal in the ... Step 4) The released CARDs of the activated RIG-I:RNA complex are ubiquitinated and signal downstream. This process is ...
... and Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Moreover, NLRs and their downstream signaling components engage in an ... and Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Moreover, NLRs and their downstream signaling components engage in an ... Finally, we outline novel therapeutic approaches that target NLR signaling and speculate how these could be developed as ... Finally, we outline novel therapeutic approaches that target NLR signaling and speculate how these could be developed as ...
  • Among its related pathways are B cell receptor signaling pathway (KEGG) and NF-KappaB Family Pathway . (genecards.org)
  • The TRAF [tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor] family of cytoplasmic adaptor proteins link cell-surface receptors to intracellular signaling pathways that regulate innate and adaptive immune responses. (sciencemag.org)
  • Caspase recruitment domain family member 9 (CARD9) is a myeloid-specific regulatory protein that is critical for signaling through multiple immune pathways. (sciencemag.org)
  • Activated Syk triggers the formation of a CARD9-BCL10 (B cell lymphoma/leukemia 10)-Malt1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1) complex, which leads to the activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • It has developed multiple mechanisms to sense invading viruses, and subsequent signal transduction pathways are targeted at the initial containment of infection in the body. (mdpi.com)
  • Conserved microbial structures, known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), can be sensed by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system, resulting in the activation of downstream signalling pathways that then elicit an effective antimicrobial response [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Card9 mediates signals from so called pattern recognition receptors (Dectin-1) to downstream signalling pathways such as NF-κB and by this activates pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-23, IL-6, IL-2) and an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) and subsequently an appropriate innate and adaptive immune response to clear an infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this review we briefly summarize the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathological production of the toxic sphingolipid, ceramide and address questions of how cytokine and cellular stress pathways that are perturbed in HAND converge to deregulate ceramide-associated signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Signals that can be received by the inflammasomes include viral double stranded RNA, urea, free radicals, and other signals associated with cellular danger, even byproducts of other immune response pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, NLRs and their downstream signaling components engage in an intricate crosstalk with cell death and autophagy pathways, both critical processes for cancer development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Overexpression of Lgp2 inhibits SV and Newcastle disease virus signaling to IFN-stimulated regulatory element- and NF-κB-dependent pathways. (jimmunol.org)
  • This chapter reviews the various PRRs that recognize chlamydiae and the ensuing cellular signaling pathways that result in cytokine induction. (asmscience.org)
  • Although cell lines and mouse macrophages provide clues about the specific use of receptors and signaling pathways, the results have to be confirmed with the cells that are infected in the natural host. (asmscience.org)
  • Schematic representation of the recognition of chlamydiae by TLR and NOD signaling pathways. (asmscience.org)
  • The PYD and CARD domains are members of the six-helix bundle death domain-fold superfamily that mediates assembly of large signaling complexes in the inflammatory and apoptotic signaling pathways via the activation of caspase. (origene.com)
  • In this paper we focus on signaling pathways involved in pathogen recognition and activation of the innate immune response in zebrafish embryos and larvae. (hindawi.com)
  • Upon PAMP recognition, PRRs signal the presence of infection and initiate proinflammatory and antimicrobial responses by activating several intracellular signaling pathways [ 19 ], ultimately leading to activation of gene expression and synthesis of a broad range of molecules. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present review, we will discuss the recent progress in the study of pathogen recognition by TLRs, RLRs and NLRs and their signalling pathways. (biochemj.org)
  • A major goal in this area has been to identify the mechanisms that link biomechanical forces to the activation of signaling pathways that mediate the hypertrophic as well as maladaptive responses of cardiac myocytes to mechanical stress. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, the mechanical signaling pathways responsible for activation of the growth pathways are complex and poorly understood. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • An important gene associated with Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus is SCN1B (Sodium Voltage-Gated Channel Beta Subunit 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Developmental Biology and G-Beta Gamma Signaling . (malacards.org)
  • RIP1 and RIP2 (CARDIAK/RICK) also bear a C-terminal domain belonging to the death domain (DD) superfamily, namely, a DD and a caspase recruitment domain (CARD), respectively, allowing recruitment to large protein complexes initiating different signaling pathways. (axonmedchem.com)
  • RIP1 is a crucial adaptor kinase on the crossroad of stress-induced signaling pathways ( NF-κB , MAPK , Ubiquitin ) and a cell's decision to live or die. (axonmedchem.com)
  • The constitutively active Lyn is directly connected with pro-survival and anti-apoptotic pathways, as Lyn inhibition results in lymphoma cell death and the CD40-CD40 ligand signalosome sends co-stimulatory signals via the NF-κB pathway. (eurekaselect.com)
  • An important gene associated with Intravascular Large B-Cell Lymphoma is BCL6 (BCL6 Transcription Repressor), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and Cytokine Signaling in Immune system . (malacards.org)
  • Engagement of TLRs results in the activation of MAPK and NF-κB signalling pathways leading to expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial peptides as well as induction of cell death. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Thus, the signaling pathways of the innate immune system are tightly regulated to avoid either deficient or excessive responses. (rupress.org)
  • Third, mice lacking the adaptor protein MyD88, which are unable to activate most TLR signaling pathways, are remarkably resistant to infection with several viruses ( 4 ). (rupress.org)
  • Apoptotic cell death can be triggered through different intracellular signaling pathways that lead to morphological changes and eventually cell death. (intechopen.com)
  • The precise control of the signaling pathways that lead to apoptosis is crucial for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. (intechopen.com)
  • In our body, GTP-Binding Proteins control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Derakhshan A, Chen Z, Van Waes C. Therapeutic Small Molecules Target Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins in Cancers with Deregulation of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Cell Death Pathways. (harvard.edu)
  • many of these proteins are also involved in controlling cellular activation and proliferation pathways [ PMID: 12719729 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Other CARD proteins participate in NF-kappaB signalling pathways associated with innate or adaptive immune responses. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In general, Pyrin is a subfamily of the Death Domain (DD) superfamily and functions in several signaling pathways. (umbc.edu)
  • They serve as adaptors in signaling pathways and can recruit other proteins into signaling complexes. (umbc.edu)
  • They are known to be important in the signaling pathways for apoptosis, inflammation and host-defense mechanisms. (umbc.edu)
  • Although aberrant Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling is widespread in cancer, EGFR inhibition is effective only in a subset of NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer) with EGFR activating mu. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Signaling from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) elicits multiple biological responses, including cell proliferation, migration, and survival. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A sub-family of smad proteins that inhibit cell signaling by RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In response to activation of RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I), a component of a pattern recognition receptor that detects viruses, TRAF3 binds to the adaptor protein Cardif [caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) adaptor-inducing interferon-β (IFN-β)], leading to induction of type I IFNs. (sciencemag.org)
  • The acronym NLR, once standing for NOD-like receptor, now is an abbreviation of 'nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat containing' protein. (wikipathways.org)
  • The term NOD-like receptor is officially outdated and replaced by NLRC where the C refers to the CARD domain. (wikipathways.org)
  • explored this connection in mice and found that CARD9 amplified Toll-like receptor signaling and subsequent cytokine production in Lyn-deficient bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, but not in macrophages. (sciencemag.org)
  • Mechanistically, CARD9 was a vital component of the Lyn-mediated regulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR2 and TLR4) signaling in dendritic cells, but not in macrophages. (sciencemag.org)
  • IL-1 can activate acidic sphingomyelinase following ligandinduced receptor internalization by a mechanism that involves the adaptor protein RacP. (nih.gov)
  • Shown are the assembly of TNF receptor associated death domain (TRADD), Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), caspase and RIP-adaptor with death domain (RAIDD), RIP-associated ICH-1/CED-3 homologous protein with a death domain (RAIDD), caspase recruitment domain (CARD) and associated caspases. (nih.gov)
  • It interacts with other CARD containing proteins such as Apoptosis-Associated Speck-like Protein Containing a CARD (ASC) and Nod-Like Receptor (NLR) Family CARD Domain-Containing Protein 4 (NLRC4) through CARD-CARD interactions in the formation of inflammasomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • low density lipoprotein receptor adaptor pr. (broadinstitute.org)
  • NOD-like receptor family, CARD domain-containing 4 (NLRC4) is the most professional sensor molecule that responds to bacterial infections ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Apoptotic adaptor molecule specific for caspase-2 and FASL/TNF receptor-interacting protein RIP. (abcam.com)
  • The HGF receptor is a heterodimer with tyrosine kinase activity and associates with a multiprotein complex involved in downstream signal transduction. (broadinstitute.org)
  • The HGF receptor can associate with several different signaling systems, including src, Grb2/SOS, PI3 kinase and Gab1. (broadinstitute.org)
  • One of the major substrates of the activated HGF receptor tyrosine kinase is the adaptor protein Gab1. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Structurally, inflammasomes consist of a Nod-like receptor (NLR), the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) adaptor protein, and caspase-1 ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Constitutively active signalosomes have been identified in B-lymphoma cell membranes that either lock the Lyn kinase in a permanently active configuration by association with the Csk-binding protein (Cbp) Cbp/phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-rich domains (PAG) adaptor, or maintain the CD40 receptor permanently active by engagement with its ligand CD154. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Thus, although TLRs can detect viral infection, a second, more widely expressed receptor system must signal the presence of virus from within all cells. (rupress.org)
  • demonstrated that the signaling proteins Fas-associated via death domain (FADD) and receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) were essential for the production of type I IFNs in response to infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and transfection with poly I:C ( 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
  • NOD‐like receptor family protein 3 (NLRP3)‐mediated inflammasome activation promotes caspase‐1‐dependent production of interleukin‐1β (IL‐1β) and requires the adaptor. (naver.com)
  • Receptor Activity-Modifying Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Receptor Activity-Modifying Proteins" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Loss of function of the melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein 2 is associated with mammalian obesity. (harvard.edu)
  • Calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunoreactivity in the rat trigeminovascular system: differences between peripheral and central CGRP receptor distribution. (harvard.edu)
  • Adrenomedullin and its receptor complexes in remnant kidneys of rats with renal mass ablation: decreased expression of calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor-activity modifying protein-3. (harvard.edu)
  • Acts as an adapter for the receptor ERBB2 , in epithelia. (rcsb.org)
  • Proteins containing this domain include the low affinity neurotrophin receptor p73, Fas, FADD (Fas-associated death domain protein), TNF-1 (tumour necrosis factor receptor-1), Pelle protein kinase, and the Tube adaptor protein [ PMID: 15226512 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The NBS-LRR family is also referred to as the NLR (Nod-like Receptor) or CATERPILLER (for CARD, transcription enhancer, R-(purine)-binding, pyrin, lots of LRRs) family. (umbc.edu)
  • ASC, an adaptor molecule, and NALP1, a member of the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family, are involved in the assembly of the 'inflammasome', a multiprotein platform, which is responsible for caspase-1 activation and regulation of IL-1beta maturation. (umbc.edu)
  • Cell death signals are transduced by death domain (DD) death effector domain (DED), and caspase recruitment domain (CARD) containing molecules. (abcam.com)
  • Several molecules including caspases and adaptor FADD contain DEDs. (abcam.com)
  • In addition, induction of IFN-I signaling pathway is often accompanied by NF-κB activation during microbial infection, which act in concert to induce a number of other proinflammatory molecules required for successful host defense ( 18 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Mutations in several members of the NLR protein family have been linked to inflammatory diseases, suggesting these molecules play important roles in maintaining host-pathogen interactions and inflammatory responses. (wikipathways.org)
  • Some molecules that transmit signals from death receptors contain death domains themselves. (sciencemag.org)
  • Modified nucleotides, when present in RNA molecules, diminish the magnitude of these signaling responses. (asm.org)
  • These are signalling molecules that allow recruitment of immune cells to an infected cell or tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • BCL10, with an N-terminal caspase recruitment domain (CARD), is found in a number of apoptotic regulatory molecules. (fishersci.com)
  • TMS1 is localized to chromosome 16p11.2-12.1 and encodes a 22-kDa predicted protein containing a COOH-terminal caspase recruitment domain, a recently described protein interaction motif found in apoptotic signaling molecules. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. (curehunter.com)
  • In our body, as a membrane proteins , Membrane Transport Proteins are a type of carrier protein (transport protein) whose primary function is as a permease enzyme to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • DED or CARD could mediate signals dimerization and/or upstream adapter molecules recognition. (chromoscience.com)
  • The inflammasomes are regulated by pyrin domain- or CARD (caspase activation and recruitment domain)-only proteins, which sequester the signalling molecules. (nature.com)
  • During the processes of viral infection and replication, host pattern recognition receptors sense the nucleic acid and other components from viruses, termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns, to mount a series of signaling cascade resulting in the production of IFN-Is and other cytokines ( 13 - 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages lacking CARD9 have signaling defects downstream of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG)-like receptors, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Specifically, mitochondrial-targeted peptides such as elamipretide have the potential to mitigate mitochondrial dysfunction and aberrant inflammatory response through activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like family receptors, such as the pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway inhibition, and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). (mdpi.com)
  • It mediates signals from pattern recognition receptors to activate pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, regulating inflammation and cell apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Danger signals generated by cellular damage are recognized by host innate immune cells via innate immune signaling receptors, called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). (nature.com)
  • Both IL-1 and TNF receptors can induce ceramide-dependent cytotoxic signaling via activation of ceramide-activated protein kinases (CAPK) that promote death signaling by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEKK) activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). (nih.gov)
  • Death receptors detect the presence of extracellular death signals and, in response, they rapidly ignite the cell's intrinsic apoptosis machinery. (sciencemag.org)
  • Death receptors-cell surface receptors that transmit apoptosis signals initiated by specific "death ligands"-play a central role in instructive apoptosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • The inflammasome complex is a ring complex composed of trimers of a signal specific sensor protein such as those of the NLR family and the AIM-1 (Absent in Melanoma) like receptors, an adaptor protein such as ASC, and a caspase, in this case Caspase-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Invading pathogen nucleic acids are recognized and bound by cytoplasmic (retinoic acid-inducible gene I [RIG-I]-like) and membrane-bound (Toll-like) pattern recognition receptors to activate innate immune signaling. (asm.org)
  • Three homologous helicases, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5), and laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2), constitute the cytosolic RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs). (asm.org)
  • Ipaf-1 features an N-terminal CARD domain, a nucleotide-binding domain, and C-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), thought to function in a similar fashion to those found in Toll-like receptors . (wikidoc.org)
  • Immunoreceptors such as T-cell receptors (TCRs), B-cell receptors (BCRs), some members of Fc receptors (FcRs), and activating NK receptors (NKRs) transduce activation signals by associating with signaling chains (e.g. (springer.com)
  • Upon engagement of ITAM-coupled receptors, an activation signal cascade is initiated with phosphorylation of specific tyrosines in ITAMs, culminating in the activation of transcription factors including NF-κB, nuclear factor-activated T cells (NFAT), and activating protein-1 (AP-1). (springer.com)
  • Innate receptors are evolutionarily conserved germ-line-encoded proteins and include TLRs (Toll-like receptors), RLRs [RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I)-like receptors] and NLRs (Nod-like receptors). (biochemj.org)
  • Until recently, the identity of specific innate immune pattern recognition receptors or sensors that recognize diverse metabolic "danger signals" to initiate a proinflammatory cascade during obesity and diabetes was unknown. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Caspase recruitment domain (CARD) protein-B cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10)-MALT1 paracaspase (MALT1) [CBM] complexes are critical signaling adaptors that facilitate immune and inflammatory responses downstream of both cell surface and intracellular receptors. (bvsalud.org)
  • Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. (umassmed.edu)
  • Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS. (umassmed.edu)
  • A family of proteins that bind to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and alter their specificity, signaling mechanism, or mode of intracellular transport. (harvard.edu)
  • The death domain (DD) is a conserved region of about 80 residues found on death receptors, and which is required for death signalling, as well as a variety of non-apoptotic functions [ PMID: 11828422 , PMID: 12655292 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Signalling by pattern recognition or cytokine receptors primes the cell and induces NLRP3 (NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing 3) and pro-IL-1β expression, whereas signalling by type I interferons and activated T cells reduces inflammasome activation. (nature.com)
  • It plays a role in the host defense response by signaling the activation of CASPASES and the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein kinase binding and transcription factor binding . (genecards.org)
  • During studies of cell cycle regulators, the F-box motif was first found in cyclin F and was shown to interact with S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1) ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Both the adaptor protein CARD9 and loss of the kinase Lyn are associated with autoimmune disease, notably inflammatory bowel disease. (sciencemag.org)
  • The NHEJ pathway contains six protein members namely Ku70, Ku80, XRCC4, DNA ligase 4 (Lig4), DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), and Artemis. (iscb.org)
  • Moreover, Artemis interacts with the checkpoint kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM) and ATM-/Rad3-related proteins (ATR) after exposure of cells to ionizing radiation (IR) or UV irradiation, respectively. (iscb.org)
  • Upon activation, some NLRs form multi-protein complexes called inflammasomes, while others orchestrate caspase-independent nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. (frontiersin.org)
  • Protein kinase R (PKR) activation and IFN-β induction followed the kinetics of dsRNA accumulation. (asm.org)
  • CARMA1 is a member of CARD-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family and was found to be a binding partner of BCL10 via CARD-CARD interaction (Bertin et al. (springer.com)
  • Peripheral mature T cells from these knockout mice show almost complete abrogation of proliferation and cytokine production upon stimulation through TCR or with a direct protein kinase C (PKC) activator, PMA plus Ca 2+ -ionophore (P/I). Accordingly, these mice exhibit severely impaired T-cell immunity. (springer.com)
  • Protein kinase C-delta ( PRKCD ), activated upon CLEC7A (Dectin-1)-SYK signaling, phosphorylates CARD9 leading to NF-kB activation (Strasser et al. (reactome.org)
  • Activated protein kinase C alpha (PRKCA), as well as delta ( PRKCD ) and epsilon (PRKCE), can phosphorylate SHC1 splicing isoforms SHC1-1 (p66Shc) and SHC1-2 (p52Shc) on serine residues S139 and S29, respectively (Habib et al. (reactome.org)
  • FAK signaling was disrupted by infecting NRVM with adenovirus expressing FAK-related non-kinase (FRNK). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Further involvement of the Syk kinase and the B-cell linker (BLNK) adaptor depend on the kinase activity of Lyn to phosphorylate specific motifs in the cytoplasmic portion of the BCR complex, and to maintain this complex in its "open" conformation. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Signaling proceeds by way of phospholipase-Cγ activation, protein kinase Cβ activation and phosphorylation of the "caspase-recruitement domain (CARD)-membraneassociated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) protein-1" (CARMA1) protein. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Credit card payments size large T-shirt his the adaptor protein Shc, leading to an enhanced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). (syncstudio.net)
  • For example, polyubiquitin chainslinked through lysine 48 (K48) of ubiquitin normally targeta protein for degradation by the proteasome, whereas K63polyubiquitin chains have functions independent of proteoly-sis, including protein kinase activation, DNA repair, andmembrane trafficking. (documents.tips)
  • Upon its activation, NLRP3 recruits apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) and caspase-1 to form the NLRP3-inflammasome, activating IL-1β. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, the CARD domain-containing inflammasome NLRC4 can signal directly to caspase-1, which results in pyroptosis, as well as indirectly through ASC to promote IL-1β and IL-18 secretion (fig. S1) ( 1 , 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In contrast to the well-established inhibitory effect of autophagy on the inflammasome activation of APCs, our study demonstrates that isolated autophagosomes (DRibbles) from antigen donor cells activate inflammasomes by providing first and second signals required for IL-1 β production by PMBC. (nature.com)
  • The inflammasomes are a group of multimeric protein complexes with the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck like CARD-domain-containing protein (ASC) and caspase-1 as the key components of the core inflammasome machinery. (nature.com)
  • 4 The danger signals stimulate the generation of inflammasome complexes in two steps. (nature.com)
  • Second, the ATP-dependent assembly of inflammasome triggers the process and release of the functional IL-1 β via unconventional secretory pathway (Signal 2). (nature.com)
  • Owing to the importance of CARD-CARD interactions in inflammasome formation, many COPs are known inhibitors of Caspase activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • INCA, on the other hand, directly blocks inflammasome assembly by capping Caspase-1 CARD oligomers, thus blocking further polymerization into the inflammasome filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, some POPs (Pyrin only proteins) are also known to regulate Caspase-1 activation through inhibition of inflammasome activation by binding to and blocking PYD interactions, which also play a role in the formation of the inflammasomes, though the exact mechanisms are not yet well established. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings indicate that Salmonella OMV triggers NLRC4 inflammasome activation via OMV-associated flagellin in addition to a mild induction of non-canonical inflammasome signaling via OMV-bound lipopolysaccharide. (frontiersin.org)
  • The maturation and secretion of IL-1β requires formation of inflammasome multi-protein complex ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • PDF] Inflammasome adaptor protein Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) is critical for the immune response and survival in west Nile virus encephalitis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • IL-1R signaling also participates in AD-related Aβ-induced inflammasome activation. (intechopen.com)
  • This, in turn, initiates the activation of a complex of proteins called the inflammasome, which includes the Caspase-1 protein ( Taniguchi and Sagara, 2007 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • The activated inflammasome leads to the cleavage of Pro-IL1β to make a mature signal protein called IL-1β, while also initiating processes that will lead to the death of the cell. (elifesciences.org)
  • The studies from knock-in reporter mice in which Nlrp3 coding sequence is substituted with green fluorescent protein demonstrate that the Nlrp3 inflammasome is predominantly active in myeloid cells ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Metabolic stress-induced "danger signals" in type 2 diabetes such as islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), urate, extracellular ATP, fatty acids, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be sensed by Nlrp3 inflammasome. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The assembly of activated Nlrp3 inflammasome in myeloid cells by protein-protein interaction between Nlrp3, Asc, and (Cardinal) with procaspase-1 causes caspase-1 cleavage into P20 and P10 enzymatically active heterodimers that causes posttranslational processing of IL-1β and IL-18. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Interleukin (IL)-1β, a proinflammatory cytokine, is related to the host defences against pathogens, and its synthesis, maturation, and secretion are tightly regulated by the activation of the inflammasome, an inflammatory signalling complex. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study examined the signalling mechanism of IL-1β secretion and the inflammasome pathway induced by S. mutans to explain the molecular mechanism through which systemic infection by oral streptococci can occur. (bvsalud.org)
  • S. mutans induced IL-1β secretion via caspase-1 activation, and S. mutans-induced IL-1β secretion required absent in melanoma (AIM2), NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) and NLR family CARD domain-containing 4 (NLRC4) inflammasome activation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Among the different inflammasomes known, NLRP3 inflammasome is one of the most extensively studied and is capable of sensing a wide variety of alarm signals. (amrita.edu)
  • Upon activation NALP3 assembles with the adaptor protein ASC to form a protein-complex termed the PF-5274857 NALP3 inflammasome [4]. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • CARD-8 (also known as TUCAN) has been suggested to PF-5274857 be a binding partner of NALP3 but its functional role in inflammasome regulation is not clear. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • We have previously reported PF-5274857 on a patient with a long history of inflammatory disease resulting from excessive IL-1β production who was found to be a heterozygous carrier of two common polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins of the NALP3 inflammasome (Q705K) and (C10X) (Gen Lender: NM 001184900) [25]. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • In response to pathogens and other damage-associated signals, initiates the formation of the inflammasome polymeric complex, made of NLRP1, CASP1, and possibly PYCARD. (genecards.org)
  • The deubiquitinating enzyme, ubiquitin-specific peptidase 50, regulates inflammasome activation by targeting the ASC adaptor protein. (naver.com)
  • Manganese activates NLRP3 inflammasome signaling and propagates exosomal release of ASC in microglial cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Cell-extrinsic signalling can regulate inflammasome activation. (nature.com)
  • Other proteins that are known to regulate apoptosis also have a role in inflammasome signalling. (nature.com)
  • In this Review, we discuss the complex regulatory mechanisms that facilitate a balanced but effective inflammasome-mediated immune response, and we highlight the similarities to another molecular signalling platform - the apoptosome - that monitors cellular health. (nature.com)
  • In the absence of Lyn, signaling through a CD11b-Syk-PKCδ-CARD9 pathway was amplified, leading to increased TLR-induced production of inflammatory cytokines. (sciencemag.org)
  • 1 For unicellular organisms, the survival is largely dependent on the autophagy pathway as a cell-intrinsic defense mechanism to acquire nutrients by recycling damaged proteins and other biomolecules. (nature.com)
  • The results suggest that RNAs containing modified nucleotides interrupt signaling at early steps of the RIG-I-like innate immune activation pathway and also that nucleotide modifications with similar chemical structures can be organized into classes that suppress or evade innate immune signaling steps. (asm.org)
  • a ) Schematic signaling pathway mediated by CARMA1 in T and B lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • b ) Schematic signaling pathway mediated by CARMA1 in NK cells. (springer.com)
  • CLEC6A (Dectin-2) and CLEC4E (Mincle) also induces intracellular signaling through PRKCD and CARD9-BCL10-MALT1 pathway. (reactome.org)
  • This suggests that the NRLP6-dependent signaling pathway is necessary for the development of colitis. (asmblog.org)
  • The authors also noted an increase in the CCL5 cytokine signaling pathway, which is known to drive the cleavage of pro-IL-18 to IL-18. (asmblog.org)
  • Importantly, based on the findings that RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I) can be induced by retinotic acid and can activate NF-κB through a CARD-containing adaptor protein VISA, we proposed a hypothesis that RIG-I was involved in the signal pathway of NF-κB activation induced by CD437 through the adaptor protein VISA. (ovid.com)
  • Activation of the RLR/MAVS signaling pathway by the L protein of Mopeia virus. (ptglab.com)
  • Caspase 3 is the canonical effector Caspase, which could react to both death-inducing signaling complex (DISC)-mediated extrinsic pathway and Bcl-2 family-Caspase 9-mediated intrinsic pathway. (chromoscience.com)
  • In this study we show that SV induces IFN-αβ gene expression normally in cells from mice with targeted deletions of the Toll-IL-1 resistance domain containing adapters MyD88, Mal, Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β (TRIF), and TRIF-related adaptor molecule TLR3, or the E3 ubiquitin ligase, TNFR-associated factor 6. (jimmunol.org)
  • MyD88 is the common adaptor molecule for most TLRs and is necessary for TLR2/4-mediated activation of NF-κB and MAPK. (asmscience.org)
  • Thus far, all known inflammasomes recruit caspase-1 via direct protein-protein interaction (NLRP1, NLRC4) or via apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) adaptor molecule (NLRP1, 3, 6, 12, AIM2) leading to cleavage of caspase-1. (amrita.edu)
  • Whereas the mechanism of activation and secretion of interleukin 1β, which critically regulates the function of this molecule, has remained mysterious for some 30 years following its discovery, the identification of a new cytoplasmic complex of proteins regulating IL-1β activation and secretion has carried our understanding of the role of IL1 in biology and disease one big step further. (smw.ch)
  • Survival signals from the cell's environment and internal sensors for cellular integrity normally keep a cell's apoptotic machinery in check. (sciencemag.org)
  • EVs, which include exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies ( 8 ), contain cargoes such as effector proteins and miRNAs that enable cells to transmit signals. (jci.org)
  • In normal and tumoral B-lymphocytes, proximal signaling requires assemblies of proteins to generate prosurvival and anti-apoptotic information. (eurekaselect.com)
  • IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. (harvard.edu)
  • Proteins containing CARD include Raidd, APAF-1 (apoptotic protease activating factor 1), procaspase 9 and iceberg (inhibitor of interleukin-1-beta generation). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain CASPASE ACTIVATION AND RECRUITMENT DOMAINS (CARD). (ucdenver.edu)
  • It signals via an N-terminal caspase recruitment domain that interacts with other CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene contains a caspase recruitment domain (CARD), and has been shown to induce apoptosis and to activate NF-kappaB. (genecards.org)
  • The decrease of IRF3 dimerization and nuclear translocation is due to the recruitment of protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A) mediated by FBXO17, resulting in IRF3 dephosphorylation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Together, our studies identify a previously unreported role of FBXO17 in regulating IFN-I signaling and further demonstrate a novel mechanism for IRF3 deactivation by F-box protein-mediated recruitment of PP2A. (jimmunol.org)
  • Structurally NLRs can be subdivided into the caspase-recruitment domain (CARD)-containing NLRCs (NODs) and the pyrin domain (PYD)-containing NLRPs (NALPs), plus outliers including ice protease (caspase-1) activating factor (IPAF) (Martinon & Tschopp, 2005). (wikipathways.org)
  • Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 is an adaptor protein of the CARD-CC protein family, which in humans is encoded by the CARD9 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • CARD9 is a member of the CARD protein family, which is defined by the presence of a characteristic caspase-associated recruitment domain (CARD). (wikipedia.org)
  • CARD9 is a novel caspase recruitment domain-containing protein that interacts with BCL10/CLAP and activates NF-kappa B". J. Biol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can be detected by the cytoplasmic RNA helicase proteins RIG-I and MDA5, two proteins that share sequence similarities within a caspase recruitment domain (CARD) and a DExD/H box RNA helicase domain. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast to RIG-I or melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5, Lgp2 lacks signaling caspase recruitment and activation domains. (jimmunol.org)
  • Caspase recruitment domains , or CARD domains , are interaction motifs found in a wide array of proteins , typically those involved in processes relating to inflammation and apoptosis . (wikidoc.org)
  • This gene encodes an adaptor protein that is composed of two protein-protein interaction domains: a N-terminal PYRIN-PAAD-DAPIN domain (PYD) and a C-terminal caspase-recruitment domain (CARD). (origene.com)
  • In addition, RIG-I and MDA5 harbor two N-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs) which, upon virus sensing, initiate downstream signaling, leading to type I IFN gene expression. (asm.org)
  • Their screen turned up the caspase-recruitment domain (CARD)-containing cytosolic RNA helicase RIG-I and the closely related MDA5 ( 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • Ced-family members contain a caspase recruitment domain (CARD) and are known to be key mediators of programmed cell death. (genecards.org)
  • Caspase 8 and/or Caspase 2 are classified into the initiator Caspase family as the death effector domains (DED) or caspase-recruitment domains (CARD) in the N-teminus [13]. (chromoscience.com)
  • Proteins containing the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) are involved in the recruitment and activation of caspases during apoptosis [ PMID: 12101092 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • NALP1 contains an additional Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) at the C-terminus. (umbc.edu)
  • Caspase activation and recruitment domain found in Human ASC, NALP1, and similar proteins. (umbc.edu)
  • Caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) similar to those found in human ASC (Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD) and NALP1 (CARD7, NLRP1). (umbc.edu)
  • They play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Parasitic infection dose dependently diminished cleavage of caspase 8, the BH3-only protein Bid, and the downstream caspases 9 and 3. (curehunter.com)
  • In practical terms, NLRs can be divided into the relatively well characterized NOD1/2 which signal via RIP2 primarily to NFkappaB, and the remainder, some of which participate in macromolecular structures called Inflammasomes that activate caspases. (wikipathways.org)
  • They are named caspases due to their specific cysteine protease activity - a cysteine in its active site nucleophilically attacks and cleaves a target protein only after an aspartic acid residue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumour growth can occur by a combination of factors, including a mutation in a cell cycle gene which removes the restraints on cell growth, combined with mutations in apoptopic proteins such as Caspases that would respond by inducing cell death in abnormally growing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] Caspases involved with processing inflammatory signals are also implicated in disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • CARD motifs are present on a number of proteins that promote apoptosis, primarily caspases 1,4,5,9, and 15 in mammals. (wikidoc.org)
  • We observed that three es-caspases mRNA had specific expression patterns during spermiogenesis, with weak signal around the nucleus and invaginated acrosomal vesicle in early-stage spermatids, became stronger in middle-stage, finally focused on the acrosomal tube and nucleus in mature sperm. (chromoscience.com)
  • They are divided into initiator Caspases and effector Caspases according to the specific protein domains and their functions. (chromoscience.com)
  • Proteins containing this domain include FADD (DED N-terminal, DD C-terminal), PEA-15 (phosphoproteins enriched in astrocytes 15kDa), caspases and FLIP. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • For example, the DED of FADD recruits two DED-containing caspases, caspase-8 and caspase-10, to form the death-inducing signal complex, which initiates apoptosis. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In general, CARDs are death domains (DDs) associated with caspases. (umbc.edu)
  • IPS-1 coordinates the activity of protein kinases that activate transcription factors needed to induce beta interferon (IFN-beta) gene transcription. (nih.gov)
  • Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases have been implicated in hemodynamic load induced heart failure. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • DEDAF interacts with FADD and augments the formation of CD95/FADD/capase 8 complexes at the cell membrane, and interacts with DED-containing DNA biding protein (DEDD) in the nucleus indicating it is involved in the regulation of both cytoplasmic and nuclear events of apoptosis. (abcam.com)
  • The F-box proteins were originally identified as the key component of SKP1-Cullin1-F-box E3 ligase complexes that control the stability of their specific downstream substrates essential for cell growth and survival. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we used several independent biological assays, including inhibition of virus replication, RIG-I:RNA binding assays, and limited trypsin digestion of RIG-I:RNA complexes, to begin to understand how RNAs containing modified nucleotides avoid or suppress innate immune signaling. (asm.org)
  • These domains mediate the formation of larger protein complexes via direct interactions between individual CARDs. (wikidoc.org)
  • A number of NLRs and the PYHIN family member AIM2 form multi-protein complexes called inflammasomes, which play key roles in regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses. (jci.org)
  • In our body, F-Box Proteins are a family of proteins that share the F-box motifs , that are involved in protein-protein interactions, which play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF ubiquitin ligase complexes. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Canonical inflammasomes, such as NLRP3, NLRC4, and AIM2, are cytosolic sensors that detect pathogens or danger signals and activate caspase-1, which leads to secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 and pyroptosis, a form of programmed cell death ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Two of the inflammatory cytokines that are increased in the brains of patients with HAND, IL-1 and TNF are potent inducers of ceramide generation by signaling that involves the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin by a neutral sphingomyelinse (NSMase). (nih.gov)
  • Caspase-1/Interleukin-1 converting enzyme (ICE) is an evolutionarily conserved enzyme that proteolytically cleaves other proteins, such as the precursors of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and interleukin 18 as well as the pyroptosis inducer Gasdermin D, into active mature peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once matured, the cytokines initiate downstream signaling events to induce a proinflammatory response as well as to activate the expression of antiviral genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In microglia, IL-1R activation triggers the downstream signaling and the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. (intechopen.com)
  • Inflammasomes are key signalling platforms that detect pathogenic microorganisms and sterile stressors, and that activate the highly pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. (nature.com)
  • A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. (curehunter.com)
  • In our body, Carrier Proteins (Transport Proteins) are proteins that carry specific substances in the blood and across cell membranes. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In our body, the carrier proteins , Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins are a type of blood protein, that bind to and transfer cholesterol esters between lipoproteins, such as low-density lipoproteins and high-density lipoproteins. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In our body, as carrier proteins , GTP-Binding Proteins are regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In our body, Iron-Binding Proteins are proteins that act as carrier proteins (transport proteins) for iron (Fe) . (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • BCL10 (BCL10 Immune Signaling Adaptor) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • This protein was identified by its selective association with the CARD domain of BCL10, a positive regulator of apoptosis and NF-κB activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought to function as a molecular scaffold for the assembly of a BCL10 signaling complex that activates NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • The figure refers to the human CARMA1, BCL10, and MALT1 protein. (springer.com)
  • BCL10 Antibody (N-term) western blot analysis in mouse kidney tissue lysates (35µg/lane).This demonstrates the BCL10 antibody detected the BCL10 protein (arrow). (antibodies-online.com)
  • Sphingolipids are a class of lipids enriched in the central nervous system that have important roles in signal transduction. (nih.gov)
  • PRR superfamilies are broadly classified based upon structural homology and the requirement of different adaptor proteins that ensure their function and downstream signal transduction ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Signal transduction mechanisms, Lipid transport and metabolism]. (inra.fr)
  • In most cases the amino-terminal domain includes protein-interaction modules, such as CARD or PYD, some harbour baculovirus inhibitor repeat (BIR) or other domains. (wikipathways.org)
  • CARD is a protein interaction domain known to participate in activation or suppression of CARD containing members of the caspase family, and thus plays an important regulatory role in cell apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results provide the first demonstration of protein interaction as an element of negative-feedback regulation of intracellular antiviral signaling by LGP2. (nih.gov)
  • In some cases, where the signaling proteins contain their own CARDs, like in NLRP1 and NLRC4, the CARD -CARD interaction is direct, meaning there is no adaptor protein in the complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, it is thought to inhibit Caspase-1 activation by interfering with the interaction of Caspase-1 with other important CARD containing proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CARD domain mediates the interaction with caspase-2. (abcam.com)
  • This processing makes the CARD domains available for interaction with the CARD motif of IPS-1/MAVS/VISA/Cardif, a downstream adapter anchored in the mitochondria. (wikidoc.org)
  • Gab1 interacts with Crk and CrkL, two proteins with SH2 and SH3 protein interaction domains that couple to signaling further downstream. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Vajjhala, P. R., Mirams, R. E. & Hill, J. M. Multiple binding sites on the pyrin domain of ASC protein allow self-association and interaction with NLRP3 protein. (nature.com)
  • NALPs are members of the NBS-LRR family of proteins possessing a tripartite domain structure including a C-terminal LRR (leucine-rich repeats), a central nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain or NACHT (for neuronal apoptosis inhibitor protein, CIITA, HET-E and TP1), and an N-terminal protein-protein interaction domain, which is a Pyrin domain in the case of NALPs. (umbc.edu)
  • DDs are protein-protein interaction domains found in a variety of domain architectures. (umbc.edu)
  • Pyrin domain-containing inflammasomes, including NLRP3, signal through the ASC adaptor protein to recruit caspase-1 (fig. S1). (sciencemag.org)
  • First, the danger factor binding to PRRs activates the transcription factor nuclear factor- κ B (NF- κ B), which induces the generation of a subunit of inflammasomes, such as NLRP3, and IL-1 β precursor protein (pro-IL-1 β ) (Signal 1). (nature.com)
  • mRNA and protein expression of NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1 in synovial tissue were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • mRNA and protein expression of NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1 also significant increase, compared with normal control group. (bvsalud.org)
  • mRNA and protein expression of NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1 were significantly decrease in PCE treatment group compared with model group. (bvsalud.org)
  • To explore the expression and significance of NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis associated speck like protein containing a CRAD (ASC) and absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) of patients with acute leukemia. (bvsalud.org)
  • A novel protein that interacts with DED of caspase 8 and 10, and FADD was identified recently and designated DEDAF for DED associated factor. (abcam.com)
  • This protein is found to form a complex with MALT1, a protein encoded by another gene known to be translocated in MALT lymphoma. (genecards.org)
  • The products of the mammalian Bcl-2 gene family are related to CED-9 but include two subgroups of proteins that either inhibit or promote apoptosis ( 7 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Another helicase protein, LGP2, lacks the CARD region and does not activate IFN-beta gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • For Caspase-1, genes for specific COPs-ICEBERG, COP1 (ICE/Pseudo-ICE), and INCA (Inhibitory Card)-are all found near its locus, and are thus thought to have emerged from gene duplication events and subsequent deletions of the catalytic domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each gene encodes a single major protein, with the exception of the P/C gene, which encodes the P protein in one open reading frame (ORF) and a nested set of four carboxy-coterminal C proteins (C′, C, Y1, and Y2) expressed from individual start sites in a second open reading frame. (asm.org)
  • IFN-β promoter stimulator (IPS)-1 was recently identified as an adapter for retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (Mda5), which recognize distinct RNA viruses. (rupress.org)
  • Mice lacking the adaptor protein that initiates an antiviral response downstream of the RNA helicases retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) have recently been described. (rupress.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the Ced-4 family of apoptosis proteins. (genecards.org)
  • NLRP1 (NLR Family Pyrin Domain Containing 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • CARD 15 gene mutations in sarcoidosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Intracellular RNA virus infection is detected by the cytoplasmic RNA helicase RIG-I that plays an essential role in signaling to the host antiviral response. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • There are a variety of sensor and adaptor proteins, the various combinations of which confer the inflammasomes' responses to specific signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though they all interact with the inflammasomes using CARD-CARD interactions, they differ in the way they carry out their inhibitory functions as well as in their effectiveness at doing so. (wikipedia.org)
  • When inflammasomes recognize one of many relevant signals, they assemble into a multiprotein complex, usually together with an adaptor protein called ASC (for apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD ). (asmblog.org)
  • For the known inflammasomes, new cofactors such as caspase 11 and the NAIPs (NLR family, apoptosis inhibitory proteins) have been described. (nature.com)
  • Figure 2: Extracellular signals regulate the inflammasomes. (nature.com)
  • This protein interacts strongly with caspase 2 and weakly with caspase 9. (genecards.org)
  • Interacts with NOD2 (via CARD domain) (PubMed:16203728). (rcsb.org)
  • Unlike NLRs, these proteins, termed RIG-I and MDA5, contain twin N-terminal CARD domains and C-terminal RNA helicase domains that directly interact with and process the double-stranded viral RNA. (wikidoc.org)
  • All RLRs are members of the DExD/H family of RNA helicases and contain an ATP-dependent helicase domain and a C-terminal regulatory domain (RD). The N termini of RIG-I and MDA5 contain two tandem CARD domains required for downstream signaling through their adaptor, MAVS ( 15 - 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • Thus, IPS-1 is the sole adapter in both RIG-I and Mda5 signaling that mediates effective responses against a variety of RNA viruses. (rupress.org)
  • MAVS is able to interact with various cellular proteins including DDX58/RIG-I, IFIH1/MDA5, TRAF2, TRAF6, TMEM173/MITA, IFIT3 and etc. (ptglab.com)
  • These proteins are considered dsRNA sensors and are thought to transmit the signal to the mitochondrial adapter, IPS-1 (also known as MAVS, VISA, or CARDIF) via CARD interactions. (nih.gov)
  • MAVS/IPS-1-1/VISA/Cardif contains an amino-terminal CARD domain and a carboxyl-terminal mitochondrial transmembrane sequence that localizes to the mitochondrial membrane. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • With a novel search program written in python, we also identified an uncharacterized protein, KIAA1271 (K1271), containing a single CARD-like domain at the N terminus and a Leu-Val-rich C terminus that is identical to that of MAVS/IPS-1/VISA/Cardif. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Using a combination of biochemical analysis, subcellular fractionation, and confocal microscopy, we now demonstrate that NS3-4A cleavage of MAVS/IPS-1/VISA/Cardif/K1271 results in its dissociation from the mitochondrial membrane and disrupts signaling to the antiviral immune response. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • the C-terminal RD domain is proposed to interact with the N-terminal CARD domain and block it from association with MAVS. (pnas.org)
  • RNA binding to the RD of RIG-I likely induces a conformational change in the protein, resulting in CARD exposure and association with the CARD domain of MAVS. (pnas.org)
  • Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) is also known as virus-induced-signaling adapter (VISA) or interferon beta promoter stimulator protein 1 (IPS-1), it is widely involved and required for innate immune defense against viruses. (ptglab.com)
  • MAVS, present in T cells, monocytes, epithelial cells and hepatocytes, contains CARD and transmembrane domains which are essential for antiviral functions. (ptglab.com)
  • Indirubin, a bisindole alkaloid from Isatis indigotica, reduces H1N1 susceptibility in stressed mice by regulating MAVS signaling. (ptglab.com)
  • HIV and the HIV-proteins gp120 and Tat can perturb the function of glial cells in brain and deregulate cytokine balance. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibits NOD2 -dependent NF-kappa-B signaling and proinflammatory cytokine secretion (PubMed:16203728). (rcsb.org)
  • They share an N-terminalRel homology domain (RHD), which mediates dimerization,nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and association with theinhibitory proteins IBs. (documents.tips)
  • The speed, specificity and types of response are dependent on the signal received as well as the sensor protein that received it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The last step requires a member of a very largefamily of ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3), which, together withE2s, determine substrate specificity. (documents.tips)
  • Results indicate that LGP2 can inhibit antiviral signaling independently of dsRNA or virus infection intermediates by engaging in a protein complex with IPS-1. (nih.gov)
  • This protein is reported to interact with other CARD domain containing proteins including CARD9, 10, 11 and 14, which are tho. (genecards.org)
  • Upon dsRNA recognition and binding by its RNA helicase activity, RIG-I dimerizes and undergoes conformational alterations that enable the N-terminal CARD domain to interact with another downstream adapter protein(s). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This allows the cell to have varying degrees of inflammatory responses based on the severity of the danger signal received. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the active role of NLRs in regulating pro-inflammatory signals and recruiting the adaptive arm of the immune system, dysregulation of microbial sensing has been reported to influence disease outcomes and tumorigenesis ( 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Because of their role as regulators of inflammation, constitutive activation of certain CARD proteins, either conferred by mutation or by constant presence of stress signals, has been suggested to play a causative role in a number of inflammatory syndromes. (wikidoc.org)
  • Inflammatory signals originating from gastric cancer cells are important for recruiting inflammatory cells and regulation of metastasis of gastric cancer. (ku.dk)
  • miRNA-146a (miR-146a) is a modulator of inflammatory signals, but little is known about its importance in gastric cancer. (ku.dk)
  • These studies reveal that autophagy-related proteins are involved in the innate immune response and may contribute to the development of inflammatory disorders. (rupress.org)
  • Mammals contains at least 14 NALP proteins, named NALP1-14 (or NLRP1-14). (umbc.edu)
  • CARD9 is an immune adaptor protein in myeloid cells that is involved in C-type lectin signaling and antifungal immunity. (sciencemag.org)
  • The viral genome, 15.6 kb in length, consists of six genes (3′-N-P/C-M-F-HN-L-5′) that encode the nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), C proteins, matrix (M) protein, fusion (F) protein, hemagglutinin (HA)-neuraminidase (HN) protein, and the large polymerase (L) protein. (asm.org)
  • The C proteins play a critical role in HPIV1 virulence by inhibiting apoptosis, regulating type I interferon (IFN) production and signaling, and controlling the transcription of a large number of host genes ( 6 , 8 , 9 , 64 ). (asm.org)
  • This domain occurred 16 times on human genes ( 32 proteins). (umbc.edu)
  • The cellular mechanism connecting CARD9 to CLRs, particularly Dectin-1-mediated signaling, has been established ( 2 - 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Besides CLR signaling, CARD9 has also been implicated in TLR-related signaling ( 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • 2001 ), similar to CARD9 and the other member of CARD-MAGUKs, CARMA2 and CARMA3. (springer.com)
  • LGP2 mRNA is induced by interferon, dsRNA treatments, or Sendai virus infection and acts as a feedback inhibitor for antiviral signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Oligomerization of phosphorylated CARMA1 proteins generates a CARMA1 signalosome, which is anchored in rafts and permits phosphorylation of the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), its degradation in the proteasome and activation of NF-κB. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat. (harvard.edu)
  • Chen KW, Lawlor KE, von Pein JB, Boucher D, Gerlic M, Croker BA, Bezbradica JS, Vince JE, Schroder K. Cutting Edge: Blockade of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins Sensitizes Neutrophils to TNF- but Not Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Cell Death and IL-1ß Secretion. (harvard.edu)
  • Gain-of-function mutations in the intracellular NOD2 protein has been linked to increased risk for Crohn's disease . (wikidoc.org)
  • The mammalian Artemis proteins have important functions in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks and in the V(D)J recombination. (iscb.org)
  • However, despite the data obtained with mammalian cells on Artemis, little is known about how and when Artemis protein is recruited for DNA repair. (iscb.org)
  • Modulation of the Mitochondrial Antiviral Signaling by Human Herpesvirus 8 Interferon Regulatory Factor 1. (ptglab.com)
  • NLRC4 monomer is assembled into active oligomeric complex upon engagement by bacterial flagellin-bound neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein 5 (NAIP5), which is the actual sensor for bacterial flagellin ( 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • A NOD-signaling adaptor protein that contains a C-terminal leucine-rich domain which recognizes bacterial PEPTIDOGLYCAN. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These were also associated with the processing of procaspase-8 and Bid (cytosolic, proapoptotic BH3 domain containing protein). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Contains 1 CARD domain. (abcam.com)
  • Contains a death domain involved in the binding of RIP protein. (abcam.com)
  • Recombinant human PYD and CARD domain containing (PYCARD), transcript variant 3 (transcript variant 3) protein expressed in HEK293 cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • In our body, F-Box Proteins are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP domain proteins. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • This superfamily represents the death domain and other structurally similar domains, including DED, CARD and the DAPIN domain. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The death effector domain protein family: regulators of cellular homeostasis. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The HECT domain E3s contain an active-site cysteine, which can accept ubiquitin from an E2 andtransfer the ubiquitin to a target protein. (documents.tips)
  • Pyrin death domain found in NALP proteins. (umbc.edu)
  • Their common feature is that they form homodimers by self-association or heterodimers by associating with other members of the DD superfamily including CARD and DED (Death Effector Domain). (umbc.edu)
  • If you've navigated here from a protein, hovering over a position on the weblogo will display the corresponding protein position for that domain position. (umbc.edu)
  • Salmonella typhimurium -derived OMVs caused a robust NLRC4-mediated caspase-1 activation and interleukin-1β secretion in macrophages in an endocytosis-dependent, but guanylate-binding protein-independent manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • Many strains of Helicobacter pylori encode a protein secreting type IV secretion system called the Cag‐T4SS. (naver.com)
  • Erv26, Transmembrane adaptor Erv26. (inra.fr)
  • May be an adapter protein between upstream TNFR1-TRADD-RIP complex and the downstream NIK-IKK-IKAP complex. (genecards.org)
  • The ER-α36/EGFR Signaling Loop Promotes Growth of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • During evolution, eukaryotic cells have developed a complex network of proteins that, by sensing all types of DNA-damage and inducing the appropriate response, maintain the genome s integrity. (iscb.org)
  • In normal cells, this protein is localized to the cytoplasm however, in cells undergoing apoptosis, it forms ball-like aggregates near the nuclear periphery. (antibodies-online.com)
  • In addition, compared with cells from healthy participants, the myeloid cells of type 2 diabetic patients respond with elevated caspase-1 activation and produce higher levels of IL-1β and IL-18 when exposed to metabolic danger signals such as urate, free fatty acids, and extracellular ATP ( 11 ) ( Fig. 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast, plasmacytoid dendritic cells utilize TLR-mediated signaling in preference to RIG-I. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Such signalosomes reflect the dependence of lymphoma cells on a narrow spectrum of signaling proteins for the generation of survival signals, and could be exploited therapeutically. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Rab proteins are important regulators of GLUT4 trafficking in muscle and adipose cells. (naver.com)
  • Thus, the exact role of IL-1R signaling in AD development and neuronal functions is somehow tricky. (intechopen.com)