Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesAdaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport: A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.GRB2 Adaptor Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins: A family of signaling adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many members of this family are involved in transmitting signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS to MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Adaptor Protein Complex 2: An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins: A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.Adaptor Protein Complex 3: An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.Adaptor Protein Complex 1: A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.GRB10 Adaptor Protein: A binding partner for several RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES, including INSULIN RECEPTOR and INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR. It contains a C-terminal SH2 DOMAIN and mediates various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways.src Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Adaptor Protein Complex alpha Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Adaptor Protein Complex beta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.Adaptor Protein Complex mu Subunits: A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-crk: Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.Adaptor Protein Complex 4: An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.PhosphoproteinsAdaptor Protein Complex gamma Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Adaptor Protein Complex Subunits: The subunits that make up the large, medium and small chains of adaptor proteins.Clathrin: The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.CRADD Signaling Adaptor Protein: A death domain receptor signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in signaling the activation of INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 2. It contains a death domain that is specific for RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES and a caspase-binding domain that binds to and activates CASPASES such as CASPASE 2.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Adaptor Protein Complex delta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88: An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.GRB7 Adaptor Protein: A SH2 DOMAIN-containing protein that mediates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways from multiple CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, including the EPHB1 RECEPTOR. It interacts with FOCAL ADHESION KINASE and is involved in CELL MIGRATION.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Adaptor Protein Complex sigma Subunits: A family of small adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 19 KDa in size.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Crk-Associated Substrate Protein: Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl: Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Clathrin-Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein: A NOD signaling adaptor protein that contains two C-terminal leucine-rich domains which recognize bacterial PEPTIDOGLYCAN. It signals via an N-terminal capase recruitment domain that interacts with other CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES. The protein plays a role in the host defense response by signaling the activation of CASPASES and the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Mutations of the gene encoding the nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 protein have been associated with increased susceptibility to CROHN DISEASE.Receptors, Interleukin-1: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins: A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Son of Sevenless Proteins: A class of RAS GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are genetically related to the Son of Sevenless gene from DROSOPHILA. Sevenless refers to genetic mutations in DROSOPHILA that cause loss of the R7 photoreceptor which is required to see UV light.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Nerve Tissue ProteinsHEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.trans-Golgi Network: A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Phospholipase C gamma: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein: A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Mice, Inbred C57BLProto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs: Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Coated Pits, Cell-Membrane: Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase: A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src): Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.LIM Domain Proteins: A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.Ubiquitination: The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Ubiquitin: A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6: A signal transducing tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor that is involved in regulation of NF-KAPPA B signalling and activation of JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Syntenins: Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that play a role in the coupling of SYNDECANS to CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.14-3-3 Proteins: A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Cullin Proteins: A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins: Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.Clathrin Heavy Chains: The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Caspase 1: A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.ADP-Ribosylation Factors: MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Arrestins: Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.Endopeptidase Clp: An ATP-dependent protease found in prokaryotes, CHLOROPLASTS, and MITOCHONDRIA. It is a soluble multisubunit complex that plays a role in the degradation of many abnormal proteins.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn: Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 2: A signal transducing tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor that is involved in TNF RECEPTOR feedback regulation. It is similar in structure and appears to work in conjunction with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 1 to inhibit APOPTOSIS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.TNF Receptor-Associated Death Domain Protein: A 34 kDa signal transducing adaptor protein that associates with TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE 1. It facilitates the recruitment of signaling proteins such as TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2 and FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN to the receptor complex.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Oncogene Protein v-crk: A signal transducing adaptor protein that is encoded by the crk ONCOGENE from TYPE C AVIAN RETROVIRUSES. It contains SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and is closely related to its cellular homolog, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal: Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.Nod1 Signaling Adaptor Protein: A NOD-signaling adaptor protein that contains a C-terminal leucine-rich domain which recognizes bacterial PEPTIDOGLYCAN. It signals via an N-terminal caspase recruitment domain that interacts with other CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES. It plays a role in the host defense response by signaling the activation of CASPASES and the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-abl: Non-receptor tyrosine kinases encoded by the C-ABL GENES. They are distributed in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. c-Abl plays a role in normal HEMATOPOIESIS especially of the myeloid lineage. Oncogenic transformation of c-abl arises when specific N-terminal amino acids are deleted, releasing the kinase from negative regulation.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.PDZ Domains: Protein interaction domains of about 70-90 amino acid residues, named after a common structure found in PSD-95, Discs Large, and Zona Occludens 1 proteins. PDZ domains are involved in the recruitment and interaction of proteins, and aid the formation of protein scaffolds and signaling networks. This is achieved by sequence-specific binding between a PDZ domain in one protein and a PDZ motif in another protein.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Toll-Like Receptor 3: A pattern recognition receptor that binds DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA. It mediates cellular responses to certain viral pathogens.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Interferon Regulatory Factor-3: An interferon regulatory factor that is expressed constitutively and undergoes POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION following viral infection. PHOSPHORYLATION of IRF-3 causes the protein to be translocated from the CYTOPLASM to CELL NUCLEUS where it binds DNA, and activates transcription.Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Peptides and Proteins: Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins that bind directly or indirectly to the cytoplasmic portion of TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport: A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 1: A signal transducing tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor that is involved in TNF RECEPTOR feedback regulation. It is similar in structure and appears to work in conjunction with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2 to inhibit APOPTOSIS.rap1 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAP GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that share homology with RAS PROTEINS. They bind to Ras effectors but do not activate them, therefore they may antagonize the effects of RAS PROTEINS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 12: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal catalytic domain and a large C-terminal domain that is enriched in PROLINE, GLUTAMIC ACID, SERINE, and THREONINE residues (PEST sequences). The phosphatase subtype is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in the regulation of a variety of biological processes such as CELL MOVEMENT; CYTOKINESIS; focal adhesion disassembly; and LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Oncogene Protein v-cbl: An oncoprotein from the Cas NS-1 murine retrovirus that induces pre- B-CELL LYMPHOMA and MYELOID LEUKEMIAS. v-cbl protein is a tyrosine-phosphorylated, truncated form of its cellular homologue, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CBL.TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3: A signal transducing tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor that is involved in regulation of NF-KAPPA B signaling and activation of MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Guanine Nucleotide-Releasing Factor 2: A 145-kDa guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is specific for rap1 and ras GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It associates with SH3 domains of the crk family of signaling proteins.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases: A family of intracellular signaling kinases that were identified by their ability to signal from the activated INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTORS. Signaling from these kinases involves their interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88 and TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 6.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Dynamins: A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.50.Interferon-beta: One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by interacting with a variety of signaling adaptor proteins such as CRADD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEIN; TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2; and TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Although they were initially described as death domain-binding adaptor proteins, members of this family may contain other protein-binding domains such as those involving caspase activation and recruitment.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Inflammasomes: Multiprotein complexes that mediate the activation of CASPASE-1. Dysregulation of inflammasomes has also been linked to a number of autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Plakins: A family of related proteins that associate with cytoskeletal elements and junctional complexes at INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS. Plakins share a common plakin domain or a plakin repeat domain.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.

Card10 is a novel caspase recruitment domain/membrane-associated guanylate kinase family member that interacts with BCL10 and activates NF-kappa B. (1/240)

BCL10 belongs to the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) family of proteins that regulate apoptosis and NF-kappaB signaling pathways. Analysis of BCL10-deficient mice has revealed that BCL10 mediates NF-kappaB activation by antigen receptors in B and T cells. We recently identified a subclass of CARD proteins (CARD9, CARD11, and CARD14) that may function to connect BCL10 to multiple upstream signaling pathways. We report here that CARD10 is a novel BCL10 interactor that belongs to the membrane-associated guanylate kinase family, a class of proteins that function to organize signaling complexes at plasma membranes. When expressed in cells, CARD10 binds to BCL10 and signals the activation of NF-kappaB through its N-terminal effector CARD domain. We propose that CARD10 functions as a molecular scaffold for the assembly of a BCL10 signaling complex that activates NF-kappaB.  (+info)

CARD11 and CARD14 are novel caspase recruitment domain (CARD)/membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family members that interact with BCL10 and activate NF-kappa B. (2/240)

The caspase recruitment domain (CARD) is a protein-binding module that mediates the assembly of CARD-containing proteins into apoptosis and NF-kappaB signaling complexes. We report here that CARD protein 11 (CARD11) and CARD protein 14 (CARD14) are novel CARD-containing proteins that belong to the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family, a class of proteins that functions as molecular scaffolds for the assembly of multiprotein complexes at specialized regions of the plasma membrane. CARD11 and CARD14 have homologous structures consisting of an N-terminal CARD domain, a central coiled-coil domain, and a C-terminal tripartite domain comprised of a PDZ domain, an Src homology 3 domain, and a GUK domain with homology to guanylate kinase. The CARD domains of both CARD11 and CARD14 associate specifically with the CARD domain of BCL10, a signaling protein that activates NF-kappaB through the IkappaB kinase complex in response to upstream stimuli. When expressed in cells, CARD11 and CARD14 activate NF-kappaB and induce the phosphorylation of BCL10. These findings suggest that CARD11 and CARD14 are novel MAGUK family members that function as upstream activators of BCL10 and NF-kappaB signaling.  (+info)

TUCAN, an antiapoptotic caspase-associated recruitment domain family protein overexpressed in cancer. (3/240)

Caspase-associated recruitment domains (CARDs) are protein interaction domains that participate in activation or suppression of CARD-carrying members of the caspase family of apoptosis-inducing proteases. A novel CARD-containing protein was identified that is overexpressed in some types of cancer and that binds and suppresses activation of procaspase-9, which we term TUCAN (tumor-up-regulated CARD-containing antagonist of caspase nine). The CARD domain of TUCAN selectively binds itself and procaspase-9. TUCAN interferes with binding of Apaf1 to procaspase-9 and suppresses caspase activation induced by the Apaf1 activator, cytochrome c. Overexpression of TUCAN in cells by stable or transient transfection inhibits apoptosis and caspase activation induced by Apaf1/caspase-9-dependent stimuli, including Bax, VP16, and staurosporine, but not by Apaf1/caspase-9-independent stimuli, Fas and granzyme B. High levels of endogenous TUCAN protein were detected in several tumor cell lines and in colon cancer specimens, correlating with shorter patient survival. Thus, TUCAN represents a new member of the CARD family that selectively suppresses apoptosis induced via the mitochondrial pathway for caspase activation.  (+info)

CARDINAL, a novel caspase recruitment domain protein, is an inhibitor of multiple NF-kappa B activation pathways. (4/240)

Proteins possessing the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) motif have been implicated in pathways leading to activation of caspases or NF-kappaB in the context of apoptosis or inflammation, respectively. Here we report the identification of a novel protein, CARDINAL, that contains a CARD motif and also exhibits a high degree of homology to the C terminus of DEFCAP/NAC, a recently described member of the Apaf-1/Nod-1 family. In contrast with the majority of CARD proteins described to date, CARDINAL failed to promote apoptosis or NF-kappaB activation. Rather, CARDINAL potently suppressed NF-kappaB activation associated with overexpression of TRAIL-R1, TRAIL-R2, RIP, RICK, Bcl10, and TRADD, or through ligand-induced stimulation of the interleukin-1 or tumor necrosis factor receptors. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that CARDINAL interacts with the regulatory subunit of the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex, IKKgamma (NEMO), providing a molecular basis for CARDINAL function. Thus, CARDINAL is a novel regulator of NF-kappaB activation in the context of pro-inflammatory signals.  (+info)

CARD-8 protein, a new CARD family member that regulates caspase-1 activation and apoptosis. (5/240)

Caspase-associated recruitment domains (CARD) are protein-protein interaction modules found extensively in proteins that play important roles in apoptosis, NFkappaB activation, and cytokine regulation. In this study we identified a novel human protein, CARD-8, which contains a C-terminal CARD domain with high similarity to the CARD domain of caspase-1/ICE. We demonstrate that CARD-8 interacts physically with caspase-1 and negatively regulates caspase-1-dependent IL-1beta generation in the THP-1 monocytic cell line. CARD-8 binds also to ICEBERG and pseudo-ICE, two other recently identified proteins, which bind to the CARD domain of caspase-1 and negatively regulate its activity. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis revealed that CARD-8 is expressed mainly in monocytes, placenta, lymph nodes, and spleen. This pattern of expression is consistent with caspase-1 expression in the same cells and tissues. CARD-8 was also found to negatively regulate NF-kappaB activation by TNF-alpha stimulation and by ectopically expressed RICK, suggesting that this protein may control cell survival. Consistent with these results, stable expression of CARD-8 in U937 or THP-1 cells sensitizes the cells to differentiation-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of CARD-8 can also induce apoptosis in transfected cells. The results suggest that CARD-8 represents a new signaling molecule involved in the regulation of caspase-1 and NF-kappaB activation.  (+info)

TUCAN/CARDINAL and DRAL participate in a common pathway for modulation of NF-kappaB activation. (6/240)

Proteins containing the caspase recruiting domain (CARD) have emerged as critical regulators of different signal transduction pathways, including those controlling apoptosis and activation of necrosis factor (NF)-kappaB transcription factor. TUCAN/CARDINAL is a recently identified CARD-containing protein involved in regulation of caspases and NF-kappaB activation. We find that TUCAN/CARDINAL associates with DRAL, a p53-responsive gene implicated in induction of apoptosis. We also show that, whereas TUCAN/CARDINAL exerts a suppressive effect on NF-kappaB activity, expression of DRAL results in enhancement of NF-kappaB activation. Thus, our observations suggest that DRAL and TUCAN/CARDINAL may participate in a regulatory mechanism that coordinates cellular responses controlled by NF-kappaB transcription factor.  (+info)

CARD11 mediates factor-specific activation of NF-kappaB by the T cell receptor complex. (7/240)

NF-kappaB is a critical target of signaling downstream of the T cell receptor (TCR) complex, but how TCR signaling activates NF-kappaB is poorly understood. We have developed an expression cloning strategy that can identify catalytic and noncatalytic molecules that participate in different pathways of NF-kappaB activation. Screening of a mouse thymus cDNA library yielded CARD11, a membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family member containing CARD, PDZ, SH3 and GUK domains. Using a CARD-deleted variant of CARD11 and RNA interference (RNAi), we demonstrate that CARD11 mediates NF-kappaB activation by alphaCD3/alphaCD28 cross-linking and PMA/ionomycin treatment, but not by TNFalpha or dsRNA. CARD11 is not required for TCR-mediated induction of NFAT or AP-1. CARD11 functions upstream of the IkappaB-kinase (IKK) complex and cooperates with Bcl10 in a CARD domain-dependent manner. RNAi-rescue experiments suggest that the CARD, coiled-coil, SH3 and GUK domains of CARD11 are critical for its signaling function. These results implicate CARD11 in factor- specific activation of NF-kappaB by the TCR complex and establish a role for a MAGUK family member in antigen receptor signaling.  (+info)

CARD6 is a modulator of NF-kappa B activation by Nod1- and Cardiak-mediated pathways. (8/240)

We cloned a novel cDNA derived from the CARD6 gene locus on chromosome 5p12 of 311 amino acids in length. By immunoprecipitation we detected specific binding of this CARD6-encoding protein to Nod1 (CARD4), Cardiak (Rip2/Rick), NAC (NALP1/DEFCAP/CARD7), and TUCAN (CARD8/Cardinal/NDPP/Dakar), caspase recruitment domain (CARD)-containing proteins implicated in NF-kappa B and caspase-1 activation but not to other CARD family proteins. Cardiak and Nod1 (but not other CARD proteins) also exhibited opposing effects on CARD6 protein phosphorylation and expression, providing further evidence of functional interactions among these proteins in cells. In transfection experiments, the CARD6 protein suppressed NF-kappa B induction by Nod1 or Cardiak but did not interfere with NF-kappa B activation by the CARD-containing adapter protein Bcl10 or the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha, demonstrating specificity of CARD6 for Nod-1 and Cardiak-dependent pathways. In contrast to its effects on Nod1- and Cardiak-dependent NF-kappa B activation, CARD6 did not interfere with caspase-1-dependent interleukin-1 beta secretion induced by Cardiak or Nod1. CARD6 also did not affect caspase activation and apoptosis induced by overexpression of Fas, Bax, or other pro-apoptotic stimuli. Thus, CARD6 represents a selective modulator of NF-kappa B activation by Cardiak and Nod1, adding to the repertoire of CARD-family proteins implicated in inflammatory responses and innate immunity.  (+info)

Looking for online definition of recruitment domain-containing protein 15 in the Medical Dictionary? recruitment domain-containing protein 15 explanation free. What is recruitment domain-containing protein 15? Meaning of recruitment domain-containing protein 15 medical term. What does recruitment domain-containing protein 15 mean?
Caspase inhibitor. Acts as a regulator of procaspase-1/CASP1 activation implicated in the regulation of the proteolytic maturation of pro-interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) and its release during inflammation. Inhibits the release of IL1B in response to LPS in monocytes. Also induces NF-kappa-B activation during the pro-inflammatory cytokine response. Also able to inhibit CASP1-mediated neuronal cell death, TNF-alpha, hypoxia-, UV-, and staurosporine-mediated cell death but not ER stress-mediated cell death. Acts by preventing activation of caspases CASP1 and CASP4, possibly by preventing the interaction between CASP1 and RIPK2 ...
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) also known as caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 15 (CARD15) or inflammatory bowel disease protein 1 (IBD1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NOD2 gene located on chromosome 16. NOD2 plays an important role in the immune system. It recognizes bacterial molecules (peptidoglycans) and stimulates an immune reaction. NOD2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor, which is similar in structure to resistant proteins of plants and recognizes molecules containing the specific structure called muramyl dipeptide (MDP) that is found in certain bacteria. The C-terminal portion of the protein contains a leucine-rich repeat domain that is known to play a role in protein-protein interactions. The middle part of the protein is characterized by a NOD domain involved in protein self-oligomerization. The N-terminal portion contains two CARD domains known to play a role in apoptosis and NF-κB activation pathways. ...
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is polygenic with contributions from the immunologically relevant genes HLA-B*27, ERAP1 and IL23R. A recent genome-wide association screen (GWAS) identified associations (P approximately 0.005) with the non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs), rs4077515 and rs3812571, in caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) and small nuclear RNA-activating complex polypeptide 4 (SNAPC4) on chromosome 9q that had previously been linked to AS. We replicated these associations in a study of 730 AS patients compared with 2879 historic disease controls (rs4077515 P=0.0004, odds ratio (OR)=1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.1-1.4; rs3812571 P=0.0003, OR=1.2, 95% CI=1.1-1.4). Meta-analysis revealed strong associations of both SNPs with AS, rs4077515 P=0.000005, OR=1.2, 95% CI=1.1-1.3 and rs3812571 P=0.000006, OR=1.2, 95% CI=1.1-1.3. We then typed 1604 AS cases and 1020 controls for 13 tagging SNPs; 6 showed at least nominal association, 5 of which were in CARD9.
PYCARD, often referred to as ASC (Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PYCARD gene. It is localized mainly in the nucleus of monocytes and macrophages. In case of pathogen infection, however, it relocalizes rapidly to the cytoplasm, perinuclear space, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria and it is a key adaptor protein in activation of the inflammasome . NMR structure of full-length ASC: PDB ID 2KN6 [1] This gene encodes an adaptor protein that is composed of two protein-protein interaction domains: a N-terminal PYRIN-PAAD-DAPIN domain (PYD) and a C-terminal caspase-recruitment domain (CARD). The PYD and CARD domains are members of the six-helix bundle death domain-fold superfamily that mediates assembly of large signaling complexes in the inflammatory and apoptotic signaling pathways via the activation of caspase. In normal cells, this protein is localized to the cytoplasm; however, in cells undergoing apoptosis, it forms ...
Like the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) protein CARMA1, which acts downstream of antigen receptors in a complex with Bcl10, the structurally related CARD9 binds Bcl10--suggesting that CARD9 might modulate CARMA1-Bcl10-dependent activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling and thereby regulate antigen-dependent lymphocyte activation and differentiation. However, Gross et al. found that mice lacking CARD9 (Card9-/- mice) exhibited normal T cell and B cell development and normal antigen-dependent lymphocyte activation. Moreover, mice lacking CARD9 (which is also expressed in myeloid cells) responded normally to various Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. However, the immune response of Card9-/- mice to infection with the fungal pathogen Candida albicans was markedly impaired, as was cytokine production by bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) in response to stimulation with C. albicans or with the yeast cell wall component zymosan. Zymosan is recognized by both TLR2 and the non-TLR ...
... , Authors: Frank A. Kruyt. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Index: mtg_helper_card.php =================================================================== --- mtg_helper_card.php (revision 785690) +++ mtg_helper_card.php (working copy) @@ -4,24 +4,32 @@ function mtgh_card($content){ //preload all image-files - preg_match_all(/(\[CARD\])(.*)(\[\/CARD\])/iU,$content,$result); + preg_match_all(/(\[CARD([^\]]*)\])(.*)(\[\/CARD\])/iU,$content,$result); + + $result[2] = trim($result[2][0]); + if (strlen($result[2]) == 0) + $result[2] = $result[3]; $preload = cache_cards($result[2]); //replace the [card]-tags with the referer for the card images $content = preg_replace_callback( - /(\[CARD\])(.*)(\[\/CARD\])/iU, + /(\[CARD([^\]]*)\])(.*)(\[\/CARD\])/iU, parse_card_url, $content); return $content.$preload; - + } function parse_card_url ($card_names){ - return ,a href= . get_bloginfo(wpurl) . MTGH_DIR - ./mtg_helper_cardfinder.php?find= . urlencode($card_names[2]) . &width=223&height=310 class=jTip name=, - . $card_names[2] . ,/a,; + ...
1:N protection allows a single card to protect up to five working cards of the same DS-N level. A DS1N-14 card protects DS1-14 cards, a DS3N-12 card protects DS3-12 cards, and DS3N-12E cards protect DS3-12E cards. The standard DS1-14, DS3-12, and DS3-12E cards provide 1:1 protection only. Currently, 1:N protection operates only at the DS-1 and DS-3 levels. 1:N cards have added circuitry to act as the protection card in a 1:N protection group. Otherwise, the card is identical to the standard card and can serve as a normal working card. The physical DS-1 or DS-3 interfaces on the ONS 15454 backplane use the working card until the working card fails. When the node detects this failure, the protection card takes over the physical DS-1 or DS-3 electrical interfaces through the relays and signal bridging on the backplane. Figure 6-2 shows the ONS 15454 in a 1:N protection configuration. Each side of the shelf assembly has only one card protecting all of the cards on that side. Figure 6-2 ONS 15454 ...
A card reader/writer which interfaces between a host application program and a data storage card. The card reader/writer reads from and writes to the application program with high level language of the commands. The card reader/writer translates the high level language commands of the host program to corresponding sequences of low level commands for reading and writing to the data storage card. The card reader/writer stores a plurality of sets of such low level commands, and is able to establish the card type for any card interfaced with the card reader/writer, and to use the appropriate command set for the established card type. The card reader/writer also translates low level commands from the card to high level commands for the host application program. The card reader/writer can be loaded with low level command sets for additional card types as required.
A card reader/writer which interfaces between a host application program and a data storage card. The card reader/writer reads from and writes to the application program with high level language of the commands. The card reader/writer translates the high level language commands of the host program to corresponding sequences of low level commands for reading and writing to the data storage card. The card reader/writer stores a plurality of sets of such low level commands, and is able to establish the card type for any card interfaced with the card reader/writer, and to use the appropriate command set for the established card type. The card reader/writer also translates low level commands from the card to high level commands for the host application program. The card reader/writer can be loaded with low level command sets for additional card types as required.
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A method of issuing cards by using a card issuing machine including a memory having stored therein an initial secret code, a card reader and a keyboard. Checking whether a secret code keyed in matches the initial secret code stored in the memory; storing in a memory a code keyed in for associating a first card with the card issuing machine and recording the associating keyed-in code in the first card by the card reader to issue the first card when the two secret codes are found to match; issuing a new card upon confirming a keyed-in first secret code of the first card; and issuing another new card upon confirming a secret code on the new card issued.
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
CARD18 - CARD18 (untagged)-Human caspase recruitment domain family, member 18 (CARD18) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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Theres good news for anyone who buys supplies online at the Digital Check store: We now have a single type of cleaning card that works for both Digital Check and SmartSource-branded check scanners.. Actually, theres no change to the cards themselves - we simply confirmed, through extensive testing, that existing Digital Check-branded cleaning cards also work in SmartSource scanners. Going forward, well be consolidating both brands of scanner onto the same card.. What does this mean for our customers? First of all, you dont need to do anything right away. Any cleaning cards you already own will continue to work just the same as always, so go ahead and keep using them until theyre gone. Well also continue selling SmartSource-branded cleaning cards until inventory is depleted.. After that, just order Digital Check cleaning cards and use them the same way you normally do. The cards may have slightly different shapes, but the cleaning process is identical. In the long run, we hope that ...
Always enjoyed collecting these all-star cards when I was a kid... especially in 1982 and 1983. Id get all excited to find guys like Jackson who had three different cards in the set. For some reason, it just looks so cool to see his base card, all-star card, and in-action card lined up in a 9-pocket page. The same thing goes for 1983... where my all-star Pete Rose is joined with his base card and super veteran subset card in my 80s binder.. ReplyDelete ...
... are more common due to recent restrictions on issuing credit cards to college students with no income and for persons without bank accounts. Learn more from Consumer Action: "A low-fee, reloadable prepaid card can be a useful financial tool for many consumers, but it wont be the best option for everyone or every situation. The Prepaid Cards series, which includes a 12-page booklet, a backgrounder written in question-and-answer format and two short videos, will help you decide if a reloadable prepaid card is right for you and teach you how to choose, use and manage a prepaid card wisely." Info available in English, Spanish, Korean, Chinese and Vietnamese. http://www.consumer-action.org/modules/module_prepaid_cards ...
With its embedded RF chip the electronic ID card can be used in the future as an ID card on the internet in the future. This is served by the so-called eID application. E.g. the one or another trip to a local authority can be dispensed with, because one can authenticate himself through the internet using the electronic ID card (eGovernment).. The ID card can also be used in the field of eBusiness. I.e. private service providers (e.g. companies using online shopping) can apply for access to certain data stored on the electronic ID card. Before such an authorization is granted, a verification is carried out concerning what data the service provider really needs for his purposes from the ID card and if he is trustworthy. The authorization is always only valid for a limited time period and can also be withdrawn. The authorization is technically realized with digital certificates, which are retrieved during "Terminal Authentication".. Before a service provider is allowed to access the data stored on ...
I have a request having to do with the card exchange. Rosco and Harville are on the card list and their mom just wrote and asked if they could receive only E-mail cards this year? There is a chance that they will be moving and they dont want the cards to get lost or not get them. If you have already mailed their cards, I suggested that they put in a change of address in so that they will get there. If you havent mailed theirs yet, please send theirs by E-mail. Thanks!! We want every doggie/cat to be able to get their cards ...
CARD9 antibody [N1N3] (caspase recruitment domain family, member 9) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-CARD9 pAb (GTX110789) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Members - Over the next couple of weeks, I will start to add cards that are available for SASE Requests. I have a boatload of cards that I would like to get into your hands as set fillers, TTM card fodder, etc. Some points: 1) Cards will be tagged to the either the SCF Storefront or the SASE Request account. This will be determined by November 27th 2) Each card will be listed for 1 RP (this will trigger the transaction to be created automatically) 3) You will need to either send a
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Hi, my wife just showed me the video... watching your shuffling at the beginning you can figure out that the random part does not at all change the positions of the aces in the resulting pile. The random set of x cards is on the right pile, the remaining 15-x cards on the middle pile under the next ace. In the end the middle pile goes on the right pile making it exactly the same 15 cards between the two aces that were on the middle pile before - just randomly restacked (only those 15 cards) - the same thing happens with the other random part and the right pile. To puzzle the audience more you do the 4 cards-thing at the end ...
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fast 4-32GB microSD card from a well-known manufacturer. Capacities of up to 64GB are supported. Some cards are currently incompatible with the Lumia phone. Smaller capacities than 4GB are not supported. formatted with FAT32 (4-32GB cards, 32 KB allocation unit size) or exFAT (64GB cards, 128KB allocation unit size). ...
Dear Parents, Today you will notice an ID card attached to your childs bag. This is their ID card that will allow them to enter the school. Starting Tuesday, September 20th, we will open the turnstiles and all children and adults will need to go through with their card or fingerprint. PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE THE…
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b,Q,/b, (,b,+,/b,,,b,-,/b,),i,artifact-hash,/i, ?,i,artifact-hash,/i,?,br, ,b,R,/b, ,i,repository-checksum,/i,,br, ,b,T,/b, (,b,+,/b,,,b,-,/b,,,b,*,/b,),i,tag-name,/i, ,b,*,/b, ?,i,value,/i,?,br, ,b,U,/b, ,i,user-login,/i,,br, ,b,Z,/b, ,i,manifest-checksum,/i, ,/blockquote, A manifest may optionally have a single ,b,B,/b, card. The ,b,B,/b, card specifies another manifest that serves as the baseline for this manifest. A manifest that has a ,b,B,/b, card is called a delta-manifest and a manifest that omits the ,b,B,/b, card is a baseline-manifest. The other manifest identified by the argument of the ,b,B,/b, card must be a baseline-manifest. A baseline-manifest records the complete contents of a check-in. A delta-manifest records only changes from its baseline. A manifest must have exactly one ,b,C,/b, card. The sole argument to the ,b,C,/b, card is a check-in comment that describes the check-in that the manifest defines. The check-in comment is text. The following escape sequences are applied ...
The main function of a network interface card is to encapsulate data and translate it into electronic signals to be sent on the Ethernet cable to its destination. In order to complete this task, the data originates from the motherboard, which transfers information to the device through its expansion slot. As discussed, the current standard is PCIe, and most NICs drop into x1 or x4 slots. It is still possible to purchase PCI-based NICs for backwards compatibility. Standard PCI slots can still be found on modern motherboards, allowing legacy cards to work in newly upgraded computers.
It sounds like your SD Card is damaged, but it may not be a hardware problem but only a problem with the file system. Try try to recover your files with a one of the data recovery packages listed at http://www.makeuseof.com/pages/best-windows-software#toc5 . I particularly recommend Recuva which, although not the most advanced, is very easy to use. If you cant recover the data with a data recovery package, you could try a data recovery bureau (google "data recovery services" for a list). However, they are not cheap so youll need to consider how much your files are worth to you. If you do manage to recover the files, you could format the SD card and start again, but given the price of memory, and the value of the data, it may be safer to chuck it in the bin and get a new one.. ...
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div class=m-dropdown-wrapper,,button class=dropdown-toggle dropdown-btn type=button data-toggle=modal data-target=#f-acc-account-modal data-drop-key=rwa-act-signature-credit-card data-drop-source=cardIndex data-drop-value=VISA SIGNATURE CARD ...7300,,span class=sr-only,Card Number,/span,,span class=sr-only aria-hidden=true,Select Card,/span,,span data-el=card aria-hidden=false data-i18n=[html]app:VISA SIGNATURE CARD ...7300,VISA SIGNATURE CARD ...7300,/span,,em class=sr-only aria-hidden=false,Selected,/em,,/button,,input name=card type=hidden data-el=card aria-hidden=true data-la-initdispnone=true value=VISA SIGNATURE CARD ...7300,,input name=cardIndex type=hidden data-el=cardIndex aria-hidden=true data-la-initdispnone=true value=rwa-act-signature-credit-card,,input name=cardName type=hidden data-el=cardName aria-hidden=true data-la-initdispnone=true value=Visa Signature Card,,input name=cardNumber type=hidden ...
2 Pockets #1 2 Pockets #2 2 Pockets #3 2 Hooks (B/W). -5″ x 10″ display -5″ x 10″ display -5″ x 10″ display -10″ x 14″. -2 Carrier Pockets -2 Card Pockets -1 Card/1 Carrier -8.5″ x 5.5″ Sign. ...
Eight teams will compete in the Wild Card round this weekend with only four progressing to the Divisional Round. Who will make it through? Read this article to find out.
Making unique, hand made cards are always a great way to make someone feel special. This year we made several holiday cards using special LED Stickers from...
APPLICATIONS for smart ID cards officially opened at Home Affairs in the Durban office yesterday. Premier Senzo Mchunu and eThekwini Mayor James Nxumalo were the first paying applicants to officially apply for the cards...
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Think of your business card as a small but powerful ad for your agency. Here are different ways to improve your business card design so you can stand out.
Rapture 3 Communion Thank You Cards: This classic, foldover notecard features luxurious card stock with available metallic and shimmer paper options a
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My HP 48GX with COGO Card is running slow. I use my HP48GX with a COGO Card for Land Surveying. Recently the unit - HP 48gx Calculator question
Use the Chase Liquid prepaid card anywhere VISA is accepted and get cash at any Chase ATM or branch. Fill the Chase Liquid prepaid card by direct deposit, or deposit cash and checks at Chase ATMs.
Except that this card will be off to Dave of Tribe Cards as soon as I can get around to it. He will enjoy it quite a bit more than I will ...
Search and Planning under Incomplete Information. A Study using Bridge Card Play. Ian Frank. T. H. E. U. NIVER. S. I. T. Y. O. F. E. DI N...
Cycling ( , Discard this card: Draw a card.) When you cycle Krosan Tusker, you may search your library for a basic land card, reveal that card, put it into your hand, then shuffle your lib
Have you acquired your holiday cards yet? If you still havent found ones you like, hows this fora perfect solution: Dog notecards that are blank...
Nursing Pocket Cards are handy, quick references that offer definitions, care essentials, analyses, and interventions for safe, accurate care.
Make your business card stand out with an ultra thick stock. Choose one of our many designs or upload your own. Add your text, company logo, or image.
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Correct the index if it does not accurately represent the card, or if the card contains an error. Please do not substitute the current name of the taxon ...
Correct the index if it does not accurately represent the card, or if the card contains an error. Please do not substitute the current name of the taxon ...
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Hi I have a question regarding to iterators I have a class which looks like this Code: class CardItem{ public: CardItem(){ Card newcard(1, JOCKER); su
Find the training resources you need for all your activities. Studyres contains millions of educational documents, questions and answers, notes about the course, tutoring questions, cards and course recommendations that will help you learn and learn.
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLCBL) is the most frequent form of lymphoid cancer, accounting for 30% to 35% of all nodal lymphomas.1 Based on gene expression profiling (GEP), 3 distinct subtypes of DLBCL have been identified, namely the germinal center (GC) B-cell (GCB), activated B-cell (ABC), and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma subtypes.2 The ABC subtype of DLBCL is characterized by adverse prognosis and constitutive activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB).3 This is thought to be the consequence of somatic mutations in the genes encoding the B-cell receptor (BCR)-associated CD79A and CD79B chains,4 or the BCR signal transducer caspase recruitment domain-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase-1 (CARMA1) (also known as CARD11),5 and polymorphisms in RNF31 (also known as HOIP),6 which result in constitutive BCR signaling. These can be present alone or in combination with activating mutations in genes encoding the Toll-like receptor (TLR) downstream ...
An information card and card system that eliminates forgery and illegal use of a card. The information card includes a memory that stores information data, which includes one of image data and acoustic data and contains inherent data that is embedded in the information data according to steganographic information hiding. The inherent data is data that authenticates a legitimacy of a card owner of the information card. The information card system include the information card and a data processing terminal for authenticating the owner of the card and/or the authenticity of the card itself.
https://www.psmarketresearch.com/enquiry-form.php?enqid=160&title=Report%20sample. Credit cards transaction value reported at POS terminals was greater than at ATMs. The credit card transaction value at POS terminals was TRY424 billion in 2014, representing 91% of the total credit cards transaction value, compared to TRY39 billion at ATMs. Widespread acceptance of credit cards by merchants, growing consumer demand, and increase in number of POS terminals contributed to the growth of the credit card segment in Turkey. By scheme, Visa dominates in credit card segment with a market share of 55% of the total credit cards in circulation in 2014.. Consumer preference for cashless payments enables growth of card payments. Banks and card issuers have implemented different pricing and marketing strategies to encourage consumers to increase card payments rather than paying in cash. Common strategies used by banks and card issuers are product discounts and reward points. The increase in number of internet ...
FIX 3A: If file corruptions are occurring occassionally or intermittently (such as for every few files or movies taken, the camera states "file unrecognized" or something similar), take a close look at your card to determine its "Class", or in other words its write speed. Written on the face of the card should be the word Class with a number, or a number circled with a capital "C". See the above photo for an example of a Class 6 card (on the left), with an older/slower unmarked card on the right. If neither "Class" or "C" is written, the card is likely Class 2 or lower. Todays newer cameras take very high-resolution pictures, AND high-definition videos. File sizes can be very large. Some of the older SD cards just cannot keep up with the write speed required to save these files before youre ready to take another picture. As a result, some of your files can become corrupted if youre using older cards with newer cameras. The fix in this case is to purchase a higher speed card for your newer ...
FIX 3A: If file corruptions are occurring occassionally or intermittently (such as for every few files or movies taken, the camera states "file unrecognized" or something similar), take a close look at your card to determine its "Class", or in other words its write speed. Written on the face of the card should be the word Class with a number, or a number circled with a capital "C". See the above photo for an example of a Class 6 card (on the left), with an older/slower unmarked card on the right. If neither "Class" or "C" is written, the card is likely Class 2 or lower. Todays newer cameras take very high-resolution pictures, AND high-definition videos. File sizes can be very large. Some of the older SD cards just cannot keep up with the write speed required to save these files before youre ready to take another picture. As a result, some of your files can become corrupted if youre using older cards with newer cameras. The fix in this case is to purchase a higher speed card for your newer ...
[...] the major financial institutions continue to deluge college students with offers for credit cards carrying interest rates that can approach 30 percent. [...] even people with good-paying jobs can get caught in a vicious cycle of debt with credit card spending. [...] wasnt curtailment of the marketing of plastic to college students an element of the Card Act passed by Congress in 2009? [...] the Card Act required credit card issuers to disclose their once-secret marketing agreements with colleges, universities and alumni groups on affinity cards. Considering the political clout of the financial industry - and the competition to hook customers on high-interest credit cards before their first paychecks - Congress is not likely to revisit this portion of the Card Act anytime soon. Perhaps the federal Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, established in 2011 to police an industry whose reckless and exploitative practices were hurting consumers and the economy, can close the Card Acts obvious
Its difficult to imagine making it through in the current consumer world with no charge card. The credit card in the bank is required to book low-cost plane tickets in order to secure rooms in hotels online, and a number of other activities. But using cards on the internet is only one for reds from the gold coin finding a low interest rate cards can be achieved on the internet too. So, using for any Chase charge card online makes perfect financial sense.. Obtaining a charge card on the internet has a number of benefits. From low rates of interest to fast card approval, companies offer bargains because they know they need to attract business in exactly what is a greatly competitive sector. Little surprise then that incentives and rewards schemes happen to be devised too.. And despite such great competition, Chase a credit card has consistently been rated among the very best found, either on the internet or from the financial institution branches themselves.. Do you know the Real Benefits?. When ...
Black Jack is a fairly basic card game played with one to eight standard 52-card decks. Cards 2-10 are worth their face value. Kings, queens, and jacks are worth 10, and aces can be worth 1 or 11 depending on how the holder judges the situation. The object of the game is to come closer to 21 than the dealer, without going over. The perfect total is achieving 21 with two cards, a jack and an ace for example. If your total is too low you may choose to "hit", where you will receive another card from the deck. You may hit as many times as you like, until you "bust" (go over 21). If you do not want to hit you may "stand" and receive no cards. There are also some additional strategies that can help once youve got the basics down. You may also "double down", where you receive one more card and also double your bet. This is usually only done when your hand amounts to 11. Another strategy, "splitting", is done when you are dealt two cards of the same value. By splitting you essentially create two hands, ...
Family Math. Over the summer, I set a few kids of varying ages up with a deck of cards each and put them to the task of "testing" what they know about probability in relation to a deck of cards to see how well the "chance" of drawing a certain kind of card holds up. Because the goal was a short family math activity, we used the "Pick a Card, Any Card" project as a guide and foundation. The Science Buddies Project Idea is one with a low level of difficulty, a project geared toward younger students. There is also a family-friendly adaptation of the project at Scientific American in the Bring Science Home area.. Because of the age range of the kids I had on hand, and their differing levels of interest in, and comfort with, math, we talked first about what we already "knew" about the odds of drawing different types of cards (or specific card numbers), and they each marked their data charts with the odds of drawing each different number or type of card based on the pure math at hand. With a younger ...
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Is that even true? Well, B&H Photo has a nice guide on the speediest memory cards, and it seems that the write speed of Sony’s latest cards do in fact beat the previous champions, which top out at 260MB/s. This is great stuff for photographers who are shooting at demanding burst modes and recording video at 4K resolution. And to complement most rigs that are usually weather sealed nowadays, these cards will be waterproof, temperature resistant, shockproof and X-Ray proof. SD cards still can’t approach the kind of speeds CFast 2.0 and XQD cards boast, but that’s not stopping Sony from upping their SD game in a big way. Earlier today, Sony officially announced the world’s fastest SD cards, their new SF-G series. Announced ahead of CP+, the SF-G cards come in 32GB, 64GB, and 128GB sizes and boast some blistering fast read/speeds. Specifically, these little cards can read and write photos at 300MB/s and 299MB/s respectively. As long as your camera supports UHS-II, you&rsquo
Complete information for CARD10 gene (Protein Coding), Caspase Recruitment Domain Family Member 10, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
and nowhere was it compulsory to send a card. So if you dont send a card to the person you do not like nothing will happen to you, honest. In fact, if you do not send them a card you may well benefit them also as they will be freed next year from the need to keep in touch with you! Hallelujah! One year I put this to the test. I worked out all those I WANTED to send cards to, and all those I thought I ought to keep in touch with. I considered whether it was worth while sending to some, and whether they rally wanted or needed to contact me. After considering how many cards either party might send needlessly I made a list of those I would bless with my cheap cards. I felt no guilt! The next year, those I had omitted from my must/want to send list, omitted me from theirs. We were all glad. Money and effort was no longer wasted. Friendships, occasional and worthwhile, remained. I tell you not to be oppressed by the need to send cards to folk you wish to drop. They may feel the same towards you! ...
Based on the amount of money I was given, I set up two goals. I wanted to finish my 77-78 Topps and my 79-80 Topps sets. I needed 18 cards for the 77 set and 9 for the complete 79 set. Thankfully there were plenty of options for nearly ALL the cards I needed and I could look at scan after scan and get the quality of card I wanted. In my case the both sets I wanted them to be as close to mint as I could find. I do say nearly all because there was one card I needed and there was only one available and man oh man did they price it that way too. All the cards I needed I got for very great prices except one 79-80 Topps Stan Mikita. The card was clearly an ungraded NrMt-Mt for sure and would probably book in the 2-3 dollar range given the quality. The ask, 15 dollars!!!!! I couldnt believe it. I wanted to finish these sets and when you factor in all the cards I needed, this was a huge barrier. I went on eBay and there were none too. What to do ...
Based on the amount of money I was given, I set up two goals. I wanted to finish my 77-78 Topps and my 79-80 Topps sets. I needed 18 cards for the 77 set and 9 for the complete 79 set. Thankfully there were plenty of options for nearly ALL the cards I needed and I could look at scan after scan and get the quality of card I wanted. In my case the both sets I wanted them to be as close to mint as I could find. I do say nearly all because there was one card I needed and there was only one available and man oh man did they price it that way too. All the cards I needed I got for very great prices except one 79-80 Topps Stan Mikita. The card was clearly an ungraded NrMt-Mt for sure and would probably book in the 2-3 dollar range given the quality. The ask, 15 dollars!!!!! I couldnt believe it. I wanted to finish these sets and when you factor in all the cards I needed, this was a huge barrier. I went on eBay and there were none too. What to do ...
The increasing adoption of virtual card payments by accounts payable departments has created an unex-pected complication for suppliers: more friction in the processing, posting and reconciliation of payments and receivables. The root of the problem is that most suppliers rely on a manual approach to processing e-mailed virtual card payments. Suppliers are forced to balance their organizations need for operational efficiency and control with rising customer demand to pay with a virtual card. But a new breed of tech-nology enables suppliers to process virtual card payments straight-through, addressing the needs of buyers and suppliers. This paper details the growth of electronic business-to-business (B2B) payments, shows how manual approaches to processing virtual card payments cause friction in accounts receivables, describes a way to process virtual card payments straight-through, and highlights the benefits of friction-less payments ...
I started writing this post thinking Id find some other Environmental/Green-related APIs to mash up with CARMAs data. At the moment, though, I couldnt find many data sources that make available a comparable data set as openly as the CARMA API does. Its disappointing, as this represents a barrier to creating really interesting applications. The bar [...]. ...
... is invaluable for issuers of fleet cards, fuel retailers, fleet leasing companies and other suppliers to the sector. Based on research with issuers and fuel retailers it provides commercial (B2B) fuel card volume (split by fleet and CRT), value and market share forecasts to 2022, key data on independent and oil company card issuers and an analysis of fuel card competition in the US. Total fleet card volumes increased by 1.5% in 2017 to total 82.8 billion liters after rising 4.8% in 2016.. ...
Ok, so the worst of the worst has happened and youve lost your bank card or had it stolen. Im going to assume here that youve done the obvious, retraced your steps and thoroughly searched everywhere for it. Youve asked house cleaning checked all last locations, banks and police stations. Now your card is gone and you have no other cards with you. Panicking will not help, take deep breaths and get logical. Follow the steps below and you should be able to survive.. Step 1 - Once you have called your bank and cancelled your card, there really is no going back even if you do find it again. So, providing you still have the details, get onto PayPal and stock it up with credit from your account ASAP swell as some Skype credit (youre going to need to make some phone call). This will save you a lot of hassle. Now cancel your card. This is hugely important, if you know its gone. Cancel it asap.. Step 2 - You now need money to survive on. If you have a credit card, good stuff, you were smart. If ...
Fields such as Title and Assigned to are generally wanted on every card, but its often nice to bring a bit more information to cards so you can take action on them without having to open them for more details. We turned on the ability to add additional fields to cards on the Kanban board. For example, you could add Severity and Priority fields to Bug cards. This new setting is per team and work item type, and it allows for up to 10 additional fields to be added. You can also filter the Kanban board. Type any text you like in the filter box, and the board automatically hides all cards that do not match the text entered. Filtering works on all data displayed on the cards-including the Title, ID, and Assigned to tags, and any added fields. For more information, see Add fields to cards, board filtering - Apr 27 ...
Create your next amazing card design with our A2 burgundy folded blank cards. These cards are ready to become birthday cards, thank you cards, and more.
Includes approximately 50 high quality images related to real life situations. ♦ Activity cards designed by Tahel for use by parents, therapists and educators. ♦ Cards are suitable for professional, theraputic and personal use.. ♦ "Tahel Cards" offer an interactive and creative method to discuss a sensitive topic.. ♦ Cards have Rabbinical Approval. Produced in partnership with Tchelet Cards. Cost: 150 shekels per set. ...
I havent gotten any business leads from cards yet, but Ive had a lot of good conversations. I think theyre worth carrying. I try to not rely on them, though. Whenever possible, I get the other persons contact information, because Im often good at following up.. Mostly, I want my cards to make people to think, "Oh, Im also interested in that! Let me go check out her site and get in touch.". I designed the current set of cards in November, a month before I came up with the "Experivis" name and logo. For fun, I drew the front of the card. I took advantage of Moos ability to print individual designs on the backs of the cards, using scaled-down images of my sketchnotes.. Lessons learned. ...
Our Subtle Snowflakes Elite Holiday Card has an amazingly subtle elegance to it that will dazzle your clients, associates, and employees. The stunning 7 7/8 x 5 5/8 (folded) white stock card features a laser-cut snowflake left edge that folds over the silver right edge. An amazing array of embossed silver and blue foil accents the front of the card and also spells out Holiday Greetings. Includes 25 cards and silver foil-lined white envelopes per box.
Sam tells Dillon some sob story about how her father has lost a reason to live because he needs those old playing cards and that she knows the cards are in the Quartermaine mansion. She basically tells Dillon what Jax told her about his father owning the cards. Dillon tells her that he doesnt know where the cards are but will let her know if he finds them. Sam leaves his room. Meanwhile, Skye lets Luke inside the living room at the Quartermaines. She tells him to go and look around for some money and get out of her life for good. He tells her he needs the other playing cards. She asks him to give her the one he has. He shows it to her but refuses to give it to her and puts it in his shirt pocket. She brings out a bunch of decks of old playing cards that Lila has collected and looks through them for any signs of the dead mans hands cards. She hands him back the card he let her look at. He puts the card away and leaves. Skye takes the real old card out of her sleeve. She calls Jax over. Jax had ...
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Isoform 4 is not able to act as an adaptor protein in NLR signalling and its role remains elusive. PYCARD has been shown to ... Srinivasula SM, Poyet JL, Razmara M, Datta P, Zhang Z, Alnemri ES (2002). "The PYRIN-CARD protein ASC is an activating adaptor ... This gene encodes an adaptor protein that is composed of two protein-protein interaction domains: a N-terminal PYRIN-PAAD-DAPIN ... PYCARD, often referred to as ASC (Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD), is a protein that in humans is ...
... where the signaling proteins contain their own CARDs, like in NLRP1 and NLRC4, the CARD -CARD interaction is direct, meaning ... there is no adaptor protein in the complex. There are a variety of sensor and adaptor proteins, the various combinations of ... CARD) . It interacts with other CARD containing proteins such as Apoptosis-Associated Speck-like Protein Containing a CARD (ASC ... CARD only proteins (COPs) as their name implies, are proteins that only contain the non-catalytic CARDs. Owing to the ...
This molecule binds an adaptor protein (APAF-1), which recruits initiator Caspase-9 (via CARD-CARD interactions). This leads to ... Some pathogenic signals that lead to Pyroptosis by Caspase-1 are listed below:. *DNA in the host cytosol binds to AIM2-Like ... which is facilitated by binding to adaptor proteins via protein-protein interaction motifs that are collectively referred to as ... The adaptor protein FADD will recruit (by a Death domain-Death domain interaction). The other end of the adaptor contains a DED ...
This protein interacts with pyrin domain (PYD) of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC). Proteins ... These signals release HSP90 and SGT1 from and recruit ASC protein and caspase-1 to the inflammasome complex. Caspase-1 within ... subfamily of PRRs and NALP3 together with the adaptor ASC protein PYCARD forms a caspase-1 activating complex known as the ... NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NALP3) also known by cryopyrin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...
This molecule binds an adaptor protein (APAF-1), which recruits initiator Caspase-9 (via CARD-CARD interactions). This leads to ... Some pathogenic signals that lead to Pyroptosis by Caspase-1 are listed below: *DNA in the host cytosol binds to AIM2-Like ... which is facilitated by binding to adaptor proteins via protein-protein interaction motifs that are collectively referred to as ... The adaptor protein FADD will recruit (by a Death domain-Death domain interaction) pro-Caspase 8 via the DED domain. This FasR ...
... has received signal one and signal two) it alters its cell surface expression of a variety of proteins. Markers of T cell ... The cytosolic domains bind an adapter BCL10 via CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domains) domains; that then binds ... The other proteins in the complex are the CD3 proteins: CD3εγ and CD3εδ heterodimers and, most important, a CD3ζ homodimer, ... which allows the aggregation of signalling complexes around these proteins. Phosphorylated LAT recruits SLP-76 to the membrane ...
O'Neill LA, Dunne A, Edjeback M, Gray P, Jefferies C, Wietek C (2003). "Mal and MyD88: adapter proteins involved in signal ... Within these proteins, the DD domains can be found in combination with other domains, including: CARDs, DEDs, ankyrin repeats, ... Other DD-containing proteins, such as ankyrin, MyD88 and pelle, are probably not directly involved in cell death signalling. DD ... In addition to cancer, deregulation of death receptor protein signaling and death domain recruitment is seen to influence many ...
Through its CARD domain, this protein interacts with, and thus recruits, caspase 2/ICH1 to the cell death signal transduction ... a novel human apoptotic adaptor molecule for caspase-2, and FasL/tumor necrosis factor receptor-interacting protein RIP". ... The protein encoded by this gene is a death domain (CARD/DD)-containing protein and has been shown to induce cell apoptosis. ... Chou JJ, Matsuo H, Duan H, Wagner G (1998). "Solution structure of the RAIDD CARD and model for CARD/CARD interaction in ...
This protein interacts with pyrin domain (PYD) of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC). Proteins ... These signals release HSP90 and SGT1 from and recruit ASC protein and caspase-1 to the inflammasome complex. Caspase-1 within ... subfamily of PRRs and NALP3 together with the adaptor ASC protein PYCARD forms a caspase-1 activating complex known as the ... protein binding. • peptidoglycan binding. • ATP binding. • identical protein binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • ...
... of adaptor proteins linking integrin and tyrosine kinase receptors to the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein ... Gene Cards. Retrieved 18 September 2017. Near RI, Zhang Y, Makkinje A, Vanden Borre P, Lerner A (Sep 2007). "AND-34/BCAR3 ... a gene family involved in integrin and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling". Gene. 391 (1-2): 161-70. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2006.12 ... SH2 domain-containing protein 3A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SH2D3A gene. The protein may be useful in ...
Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein also known as CARD adapter inducing interferon-beta (Cardif/IPS-1) [13] CRADD: ... nucleolar protein 3 (apoptosis repressor with CARD domain) [33] PYCARD: PYD and CARD domain containing protein (also called ASC ... Ipaf-1 recruits a CARD-containing adapter termed ASC and caspase-1 in unknown stoichiometry via CARD-CARD association. This ... The adaptor protein VISA further activates the IKK-protein-kinase family members. Although the canonical IKK family members ...
NOD's recognise molecular pattern danger signals and build up the inflammasome. The formation of the multi-protein complex ... Biochemical and mass spectroscopic analysis revealed that this pyroptosome is largely composed of dimers of the adaptor protein ... apoptosis-associated speck protein containing a CARD or Caspase activation and recruitment domain). Unlike apoptosis, cell ... The interaction between NLRP3 and caspase-1 is via the adaptor protein ASC. ASC contains a caspase activation and recruitment ...
The apoptosome is a multimolecular holoenzyme complex assembled around the adaptor protein Apaf1 (apoptotic protease activating ... The CARD domain will only be released from this lock when Apaf-1 is bound to (d) ATP/ATP; when ATP binds, the CARD domain will ... Firstly, the permeability transition pore (PTP) when the mitochondria receives a death inducing signal, and releases ... WD-40 repeats are sequences around 40 amino acids long which end in Trp-Asp and are typically involved in protein-protein ...
CARD) or via the CARD of the adaptor protein ASC which it binds to during inflammasome formation. In its full form, the ... Cai X, Chen J, Xu H, Liu S, Jiang QX, Halfmann R, Chen ZJ (2014). "Prion-like Polymerization Underlies Signal Transduction in ... while its N-terminal PYD homotypically interacts with the PYD of adaptor protein ASC, whose CARD can then recruit another pro- ... Upon activation, the C-terminal CARD homotypically interacts with the CARD of procaspase-1 or procaspase-5, ...
FLICE-like inhibitory proteins (FLIPs) are cell inhibitors capable of stopping the death receptors' signal, which cause cell ... by a homotypic interaction between the procaspase DED and a second DED that is death effector domain in an adaptor protein that ... Structure: Death Effector Domain (DED) and a Caspase Recruitment Domain (CARD) that are englobed in a structure called pro- ... Huntingtin interacting protein-1 (HIP-1) is a protein that interacts with huntingtin (Htt), another protein that when is ...
CARD). CARD is a protein interaction domain known to participate in activation or suppression of CARD containing members of the ... Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 is an adaptor protein that in humans is encoded by the CARD9 gene. CARD9 is a ... Card9 mediates signals from so called pattern recognition receptors (Dectin-1) to downstream signalling pathways such as NF-κB ... Hsu YM, Zhang Y, You Y, Wang D, Li H, Duramad O, Qin XF, Dong C, Lin X (2007). "The adaptor protein CARD9 is required for ...
In parallel, when toll-like receptors in the endocytic compartments recognize a virus the activation of the adaptor protein ... Some of these travel through the plant and signal other cells to produce defensive compounds to protect uninfected parts, e.g ... When the cytoplasmic receptors MDA5 and RIG-I recognize a virus the conformation between the caspase-recruitment domain (CARD) ... This leads to antiviral protein production, such as protein kinase R, which inhibits viral protein synthesis, or the 2′,5′- ...
... has received signal one and signal two) it alters its cell surface expression of a variety of proteins. Markers of T cell ... The cytosolic domains bind an adapter BCL10 via CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domains) domains; that then binds ... The other proteins in the complex are the CD3 proteins: CD3εγ and CD3εδ heterodimers and, most important, a CD3ζ homodimer, ... T cell membrane protein-3 (TIM3), and lymphocyte activation gene 3 protein (LAG3).[59][60] Soluble molecules such as cytokines ...
Interaction with other proteins (e.g. the adaptor molecule ASC) is mediated via N-terminal pyrin (PYD) domain. There are 14 ... NODs signal via N-terminal CARD domains to activate downstream gene induction events, and interact with microbial molecules by ... BDCA2 signaling via ITAM and signaling through ITIM belong among the TLR-dependent signaling. TLR-independent signaling such as ... Among other proteins the most important are: the MHC Class II transactivator (CIITA), IPAF, BIRC1 etc. Some of these proteins ...
... has received signal one and signal two) it alters its cell surface expression of a variety of proteins. Markers of T cell ... The cytosolic domains bind an adapter BCL10 via CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domains) domains; that then binds ... CD8+ T cells are also able to utilize small signalling proteins, known as cytokines, to recruit other cells when mounting an ... The other proteins in the complex are the CD3 proteins: CD3εγ and CD3εδ heterodimers and, most important, a CD3ζ homodimer, ...
Adapter proteins involved in signal transduction by toll-like receptors", Journal of Endotoxin Research, 9 (1): 55-59, doi: ... DD-containing proteins are associated with apoptosis and inflammation, similar to the CARD domain. It has also been linked with ... Protein modules containing the CARD domain are associated with apoptosis, through the regulation of caspases that they are ... Hofmann, K; Bucher, P; Tschopp, J (1997). "The CARD domain: A new apoptotic signalling motif". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. ...
This protein is reported to interact with other CARD domain containing proteins including CARD9, 10, 11 and 14, which are ... "c-E10 is a caspase-recruiting domain-containing protein that interacts with components of death receptors signaling pathway and ... Lin Q, Liu Y, Moore DJ, Elizer SK, Veach RA, Hawiger J, Ruley HE (2012). "Cutting edge: the "death" adaptor CRADD/RAIDD targets ... The protein encoded by this gene contains a caspase recruitment domain (CARD), and has been shown to induce apoptosis and to ...
The encoded protein contains a distinct N-terminal pyrin-like motif, which is possibly involved in protein-protein interactions ... Ced-family members contain a caspase recruitment domain (CARD) and are known to be key mediators of programmed cell death. ... Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library ... Signal. 16 (9): 1013-21. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2004.02.006. PMID 15212762. ...
The signaling cascades in MDA5 is initiated via CARD domain. DEAD box proteins, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu- ... Meylan E, Curran J, Hofmann K, Moradpour D, Binder M, Bartenschlager R, Tschopp J (October 2005). "Cardif is an adaptor protein ... This gene encodes a DEAD box protein that is upregulated in response to treatment with beta-interferon (IFNB) and a protein ... Kawai T, Takahashi K, Sato S, Coban C, Kumar H, Kato H, Ishii KJ, Takeuchi O, Akira S (October 2005). "IPS-1, an adaptor ...
This interaction allows L1 protein connect with the cell's cytoskeleton. Also, L1 protein cytoplasmic tail can bind adaptor 2 ( ... This position allows the protein to activate chemical signals which spread through the neurone. There are a wide variety of ... "L1CAM Gene". Gene Cards. Reid RA, Hemperly JJ (1992). "Variants of human L1 cell adhesion molecule arise through alternate ... L1, also known as L1CAM, is a transmembrane protein member of the L1 protein family, encoded by the L1CAM gene. This protein, ...
This molecule binds an adaptor protein (APAF-1), which recruits initiator Caspase-9 (via CARD-CARD interactions). This leads to ... Some pathogenic signals that lead to Pyroptosis by Caspase-1 are listed below: *DNA in the host cytosol binds to AIM2-Like ... which is facilitated by binding to adaptor proteins via protein-protein interaction motifs that are collectively referred to as ... The adaptor protein FADD will recruit (by a Death domain-Death domain interaction) pro-Caspase 8 via the DED domain. This FasR ...
... in caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) and small nuclear RNA-activating complex polypeptide 4 (SNAPC4) on ... CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins, Genetic Association Studies ... in caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) and ... Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9, Humans, Spondylitis, Ankylosing, DNA-Binding Proteins, Transcription Factors, Case-Control Studies ...
CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins*CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins. *Caspase Activation and Recruitment Domain Signaling Proteins ... "CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins" was a major ... "CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain CASPASE ACTIVATION AND RECRUITMENT DOMAINS (CARD). They play ...
... signalling in lymphomagenesis has been inferred by studying immunoglobulin genes in human lymphomas and by engineering mouse ... CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins / genetics * CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins / metabolism * CD79 Antigens / chemistry ... The signalling adaptor CARD11 is required for constitutive NF-kappaB pathway activity and survival in ABC DLBCL. Roughly 10% of ... Chronic Active B-cell-receptor Signalling in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Nature. 2010 Jan 7;463(7277):88-92. doi: 10.1038/ ...
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing * CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins * Carrier Proteins * Cytoskeletal Proteins ... The NS1 protein derived from a highly pathogenic strain resulted in increased interaction with RIG-I and inhibited type I IFN ... RIG-I had the strongest effect through a MAVS/TRIM25/Riplet-dependent type I IFN signaling pathway upstream of TLR3 and NLRP3. ...
DED SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS; and CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Once activated, the initiator caspases can activate other ... The pro-domain regions contain protein-protein interaction motifs that can interact with specific signaling adaptor proteins ... DED SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS; and CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Once activated, the initiator caspases can activate other ... The pro-domain regions contain protein-protein interaction motifs that can interact with specific signaling adaptor proteins ...
A gradient of EGFR-ERK signaling has been classically implicated in various developmental processes. In this issue of ... It signals via an N-terminal caspase recruitment domain that interacts with other CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as RIP ... Nod1 Signaling Adaptor Protein. A NOD-signaling adaptor protein that contains a C-terminal leucine-rich domain which recognizes ... Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein. A NOD signaling adaptor protein that contains two C-terminal leucine-rich domains which ...
Inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein signaling complexes that activate Caspase-1, leading to the cleavage and secretion ... Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / genetics* * Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / immunology* * CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins ... Inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein signaling complexes that activate Caspase-1, leading to the cleavage and secretion ...
Srinivasula SM, Poyet JL, Razmara M, Datta P, Zhang Z, Alnemri ES.; The PYRIN-CARD protein ASC is an activating adaptor for ... Protein. P10415 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) BCL2L1 Protein. Q07817 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) BIRC2 Protein. Q13490 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) BIRC3 Protein. ... Protein. P52564 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) MAP3K7 Protein. O43318 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) MAPK11 Protein. Q15759 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) MAPK12 Protein ... Protein. Q9NPP4 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) NLRC4. Protein. Q9NPP4 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) NLRP1 Protein. Q9C000 (Uniprot-TrEMBL) NLRP1. Protein ...
CARD can bind to the adaptor protein mitochondrial antiviral signalling (MAVS), which interacts with TRAF3 and TRAF2/6, thereby ... Signalling via TRAF2/6 results in the activation of NF-κB [24,26] (Figure 1A). MDA5 is thought to trigger the same signalling ... Piret, J.; Carbonneau, J.; Rhéaume, C.; Baz, M.; Boivin, G. Predominant role of IPS-1 over TRIF adaptor proteins in early ... TLR3 is activated by double-strand RNA (dsRNA) and upon activation, it will signal through TRIF (TIR-domain-containing adapter- ...
Isoform 4 is not able to act as an adaptor protein in NLR signalling and its role remains elusive. PYCARD has been shown to ... Srinivasula SM, Poyet JL, Razmara M, Datta P, Zhang Z, Alnemri ES (2002). "The PYRIN-CARD protein ASC is an activating adaptor ... This gene encodes an adaptor protein that is composed of two protein-protein interaction domains: a N-terminal PYRIN-PAAD-DAPIN ... PYCARD, often referred to as ASC (Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD), is a protein that in humans is ...
... the key adaptor molecules TIR domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-β (TRIF), mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS ... The expression plasmids encoding full-length RIG-I, RIG-I (2 CARD), MDA5, MAVS, TBK1, IKKi, IRF3, IRF3-5D, IRF3 S386A, MyD88 ... 4A). Next, we examined which adaptor protein in IFN-I signaling physically interacts with FBXO17. Fig. 4B illustrated that ... we found that FBXO17 does not cause the degradation of the key adaptor proteins in signaling pathway, including TBK1, IKKi, ...
... signaling pathway inhibition, and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). ... as low concentrations of ROS generation are required for the fight against invading microorganisms and cell survival signaling ... Upon activation by PAMPs or DAMPs, NLRP3 interacts with the adapter protein apoptosis associated speck-like protein (ASC). Then ... like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD; ASC) and caspase-1 (CASP1) termed the inflammasome. ...
TRIF is a TLR adaptor protein; STAT1 is an interferon receptor signaling protein). Consistent with this, Tlr4-/- and Trif-/- ... the CARD domain-containing inflammasome NLRC4 can signal directly to caspase-1, which results in pyroptosis, as well as ... signal through the ASC adaptor protein to recruit caspase-1 (fig. S1). Many diverse agonists cause cytosolic perturbations that ... The protein SdhA maintains the integrity of the Legionella-containing vacuole. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109, 3481 (2012). ...
... from antigen donor cells activate inflammasomes by providing first and second signals required for IL-1β production by PMBC. ... and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2), but not TLR3, TLR5, or TLR9. DRibbles induced PBMCs ... DRibbles triggered innate receptor signaling via Toll-like Receptors (TLR)-2, TLR4, TLR7, TLR8, ... a group of multimeric protein complexes with the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck like CARD-domain-containing protein ...
Signalling through TLRs proceeds mainly via TRAF6 with a variety of adaptor proteins acting as intermediaries between receptor ... Signalling through CLRs utilises cytoplasmic ITAM domains to interact with the SYK adaptor molecule, activating the Card-9- ... L. A. J. ONeill and A. G. Bowie, "The family of five: TIR-domain-containing adaptors in Toll-like receptor signalling," Nature ... As these phosphatases are activated by the MAPK proteins as a result of MAPK signalling, they form part of a negative feedback ...
Three groups report a similar signaling adaptor complex in the transmission of signals from G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs ... a signaling adaptor complex consisting of CARMA1 [caspase recruitment domain (CARD) 11], Bcl10, and MALT1 connects the receptor ... show that the CARMA3 [caspase recruitment domain (CARD) 10], a scaffolding protein related to CARMA1, which is found in immune ... and Klemm et al.) or MALT1 (Klemm et al.) show that these two proteins were essential for the activation of NF-κB by LPA. From ...
1); this is supported by nuclear magnetic resonance structure analysis and mutagenesis studies (28). An adapter protein called ... RAIDD binds through a death domain to the death domain of RIP and through a CARD motif to a similar sequence in the death ... TRADD functions as a platform adapter that recruits several signaling molecules to the activated receptor: TNFR-associated ... A family of viral proteins called vFLIPs and a related cellular protein called cFLIP (also called Casper, I-FLICE, FLAME, or ...
These proteins are considered dsRNA sensors and are thought to transmit the signal to the mitochondrial adapter, IPS-1 (also ... Another helicase protein, LGP2, lacks the CARD region and does not activate IFN-beta gene expression. LGP2 mRNA is induced by ... A) In the steady state, the absence of virus infection or cytosolic dsRNA maintains the CARD-helicase RNA sensor protein in an ... LGP2 interaction displaces IKKi from the IPS-1 C terminus to disengage signal propagation. In this case, the CARD-helicase can ...
The TNF receptor R1 can signal to NSMase via the adaptor protein, factor associated with neutral sphingomyelinase (FAN) and ... CARD) and associated caspases. Both IL-1 and TNF receptors can induce ceramide-dependent cytotoxic signaling via activation of ... Ceramide generated at the plasma membrane is critical for the assembly of proteins involved in the death inducing signaling ... ceramide-activated protein kinases (CAPK) that promote death signaling by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEKK) ...
The adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) is essential in all inflammasome complexes ... triphosphate moiety of RNA viruses and then signals via CARD-CARD interactions with the mitochondrial localized adapter ... the adapter protein engaged by inflammasomes through their pyrin (PYD) domains. The CARD domain within ASC binds the CARD ... Both MAVS and caspase-1 signalling are blocked by influnenza NS1 protein. ...
... one of which does not express the adaptor protein ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD), which is ... Moreover, this strong reduction of pro-inflammatory IL-1β is associated with a decrease of NLRP3 and, in J774A, ASC protein ... priming to increase the synthesis of NLRP3 and pro-IL-1β proteins and activation, which activates NLRP3. Inflammasome formation ... NLRP3 inflammasome requires two signals, priming to increase the synthesis of NLRP3 and pro-IL-1β proteins and activation, ...
CARD) 6 (Figure 1A). Activation platforms generally include a receptor protein and an adaptor protein. The receptor is usually ... Similar protein interactions result in the assembly of the CD95 death inducing signaling complex (DISC) that leads to caspase-8 ... p53-induced protein with a death domain) and the adaptor RAIDD (RIP-associated ICH-1/CAD-3 homologous protein with a death ... For example, mutation of the residue D59 to E in the prodomain of caspase-1 disrupts binding to the adaptor protein ASC ( ...
low density lipoprotein receptor adaptor pr.... 26228. 26228. STAP1. signal transducing adaptor family member 1. ... Gene Set: GO_PROTEIN_PHOSPHORYLATED_AMINO_ACID_BINDING. Standard name. GO_PROTEIN_PHOSPHORYLATED_AMINO_ACID_BINDING. ... Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a phosphorylated amino acid residue within a protein.. ...
... pro-caspase-1 with or without an adapter molecule such as the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC). ... Ferritin functions as a proinflammatory cytokine via iron-independent protein kinase C ζ/nuclear factor κB-regulated signaling ... TLR4 activation can lead to ROS signaling, and ROS may modulate signaling downstream of TLR4 via NOX activation. Kupffer cells ... an oligomeric amyloid signaling complex. Necroptosis, as defined by RIP3-dependent mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein ...
  • A recent genome-wide association screen (GWAS) identified associations (P approximately 0.005) with the non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs), rs4077515 and rs3812571, in caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) and small nuclear RNA-activating complex polypeptide 4 (SNAPC4) on chromosome 9q that had previously been linked to AS. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Parasitic infection dose dependently diminished cleavage of caspase 8, the BH3-only protein Bid, and the downstream caspases 9 and 3. (curehunter.com)
  • They are named caspases due to their specific cysteine protease activity - a cysteine in its active site nucleophilically attacks and cleaves a target protein only after an aspartic acid residue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumour growth can occur by a combination of factors, including a mutation in a cell cycle gene which removes the restraints on cell growth, combined with mutations in apoptopic proteins such as Caspases that would respond by inducing cell death in abnormally growing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CARD motifs are present on a number of proteins that promote apoptosis, primarily caspases 1,4,5,9, and 15 in mammals. (wikidoc.org)
  • Caspases are important proteases that are capable of specific protein cleavages and by that way they participate in posttranscriptional regulation of protein function ( 10 , 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family is composed of membrane proteins with domains designed to sample the environment for pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • LGP2 mRNA is induced by interferon, dsRNA treatments, or Sendai virus infection and acts as a feedback inhibitor for antiviral signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Results indicate that LGP2 can inhibit antiviral signaling independently of dsRNA or virus infection intermediates by engaging in a protein complex with IPS-1. (nih.gov)
  • We propose that Lgp2 acts as a negative feedback regulator of antiviral signaling by sequestering dsRNA from RIG-I. (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, the accumulation of dsRNA might be a result of an imbalance in the N protein/genomic RNA ratio leading to incomplete encapsidation. (asm.org)
  • Thus, the HPIV1 C proteins normally limit the accumulation of dsRNA and thereby limit activation of IRF3, NF-κB, and PKR. (asm.org)
  • Upon dsRNA recognition and binding by its RNA helicase activity, RIG-I dimerizes and undergoes conformational alterations that enable the N-terminal CARD domain to interact with another downstream adapter protein(s). (asm.org)
  • Recently we confirmed that no IFN-β is synthesized during an HAV infection in cell culture, as HAV prevents IFN-β synthesis by interfering with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) signaling ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • The intention of our investigation was to find out at which site HAV interferes with the dsRNA-induced signaling cascade for induction of IFN-β expression. (asm.org)
  • Each gene encodes a single major protein, with the exception of the P/C gene, which encodes the P protein in one open reading frame (ORF) and a nested set of four carboxy-coterminal C proteins (C′, C, Y1, and Y2) expressed from individual start sites in a second open reading frame. (asm.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the Ced-4 family of apoptosis proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also demonstrate a role for autocrine type I IFN signaling in bacterial LPS-induced DC maturation, although, in the context of LPS stimulation, this mechanism is not so critical for CD8 T cell activation (promotes IFN-γ production but not proliferation or granzyme B production). (jimmunol.org)
  • Some studies have proved that L1 has a role in tumor growth, tumor cell invasion, metastasis of melanoma, ovarian and collon cancer due to an overexpression of the protein L1 that improves cell motion of the malignant cells. (wikipedia.org)