Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Neoplasms, Squamous Cell: Neoplasms of the SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Oropharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Carcinoma, Verrucous: A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Carcinoma, Adenosquamous: A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Vulvar Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VULVA.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Mouth Mucosa: Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Carcinoma, Medullary: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the HYPOPHARYNX.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Pharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Tonsillar Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PALATINE TONSIL.Keratoacanthoma: A benign, non-neoplastic, usually self-limiting epithelial lesion closely resembling squamous cell carcinoma clinically and histopathologically. It occurs in solitary, multiple, and eruptive forms. The solitary and multiple forms occur on sunlight exposed areas and are identical histologically; they affect primarily white males. The eruptive form usually involves both sexes and appears as a generalized papular eruption.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Carcinoma, Large Cell: A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Keratosis, Actinic: White or pink lesions on the arms, hands, face, or scalp that arise from sun-induced DNA DAMAGE to KERATINOCYTES in exposed areas. They are considered precursor lesions to superficial SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Carcinoma, Basosquamous: A skin carcinoma that histologically exhibits both basal and squamous elements. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Neck Dissection: Dissection in the neck to remove all disease tissues including cervical LYMPH NODES and to leave an adequate margin of normal tissue. This type of surgery is usually used in tumors or cervical metastases in the head and neck. The prototype of neck dissection is the radical neck dissection described by Crile in 1906.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Carcinoma, Merkel Cell: A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Anus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ANAL CANAL.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Carcinoma, Endometrioid: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.Lip Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIP.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Gingival NeoplasmsCell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Leukoplakia, Oral: A white patch seen on the oral mucosa. It is considered a premalignant condition and is often tobacco-induced. When evidence of Epstein-Barr virus is present, the condition is called hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Keratosis: Any horny growth such as a wart or callus.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16: A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.Human papillomavirus 16: A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Esophagectomy: Excision of part (partial) or all (total) of the esophagus. (Dorland, 28th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell: A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Penile Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the PENIS or of its component tissues.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Bowen's Disease: A persistent progressive non-elevated red scaly or crusted plaque which is due to an intradermal carcinoma and is potentially malignant. Atypical squamous cells proliferate through the whole thickness of the epidermis. The lesions may occur anywhere on the skin surface or on mucosal surfaces. The cause most frequently found is trivalent arsenic compounds. Freezing, cauterization or diathermy coagulation is often effective. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, pp2428-9)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Chemoradiotherapy: Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.Serpins: A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Leukoplakia: A white patch lesion found on a MUCOUS MEMBRANE that cannot be scraped off. Leukoplakia is generally considered a precancerous condition, however its appearance may also result from a variety of HEREDITARY DISEASES.Eyelid Neoplasms: Tumors of cancer of the EYELIDS.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Palatal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms: A general concept for tumors or cancer of any part of the EAR; the NOSE; the THROAT; and the PHARYNX. It is used when there is no specific heading.Tracheal NeoplasmsSignal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Laryngectomy: Total or partial excision of the larynx.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Conjunctival Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the CONJUNCTIVA.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. This compound and its metabolite 4-HYDROXYAMINOQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE bind to nucleic acids. It inactivates bacteria but not bacteriophage.Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells: The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MAXILLARY SINUS. They represent the majority of paranasal neoplasms.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Carcinosarcoma: A malignant neoplasm that contains elements of carcinoma and sarcoma so extensively intermixed as to indicate neoplasia of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular: A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational: Variation in a population's DNA sequence that is detected by determining alterations in the conformation of denatured DNA fragments. Denatured DNA fragments are allowed to renature under conditions that prevent the formation of double-stranded DNA and allow secondary structure to form in single stranded fragments. These fragments are then run through polyacrylamide gels to detect variations in the secondary structure that is manifested as an alteration in migration through the gels.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Alphapapillomavirus: A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE. They preferentially infect the anogenital and ORAL MUCOSA in humans and primates, causing both malignant and benign neoplasms. Cutaneous lesions are also seen.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Keratin-19: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-7 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Keratin-5: A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-14 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-5 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.

Immunohistochemical expression of mdm2 and p21WAF1 in invasive cervical cancer: correlation with p53 protein and high risk HPV infection. (1/13224)

AIM: To investigate the immunocytochemical staining pattern of mdm2 and p21WAF1 proteins in invasive cervical cancer and to determine its relation with the expression of p53 and with the high risk HPV infection. METHODS: Immunocytochemistry for p53, mdm2, and p21WAF1 was performed in 31 paraffin embedded sections of invasive cervical cancer. The results were assessed by image analysis, evaluating for each protein the optical density of the immunostained area, scored as percentage of the total nuclear area. The presence of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was detected by using the polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Immunostaining for both mdm2 and p21WAF1 was correlated with p53 expression; however, the correlation between p53 and mdm2 (R = 0.49; p < 0.01) was more significant than between p53 and p21WAF1 (R = 0.31; p < 0.05); the less stringent correlation between p53 and p21WAF1 might reflect the p53 independent mechanisms of p21WAF1 induction. Similar average levels of p53, mdm2, and p21WAF1 immunostaining were found in the presence or absence of high risk HPV-DNA, without significant differences between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that mdm2 and p21WAF1 proteins are expressed in invasive cervical cancer and that their immunocytochemical staining pattern is not abrogated by the presence of high risk HPV genomic sequences.  (+info)

Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in human oral squamous cell carcinoma: its association with tumour progression and p53 gene status. (2/13224)

AIMS: To correlate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma with the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis; and to assess whether p53 gene status is associated with VEGF expression in human cancers. METHODS: Tumour specimens from 45 patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas were examined. Expression of VEGF was determined using an immunohistochemical method, and a tumour was considered positive when more than 5% of the neoplastic cells showed VEGF immunoreactivity. The p53 gene status was screened using a polymerase chain reaction--single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. RESULTS: VEGF positive staining was detected in 19 (42.2%) of the 45 cases. VEGF immunoreactivity did not correlate with the histological degree of tumour differentiation, clinical stages, or lymph node metastasis. The patients with VEGF positive tumours had a significantly worse prognosis than those with VEGF negative tumours. The five year overall survival rate of the VEGF negative patients was 76.5%, as compared with 48.8% for the VEGF positive patients. No significant association between VEGF expression and the p53 gene status of the tumours was found. CONCLUSIONS: VEGF is a good prognostic indicator of the survival of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The p53 gene status does not seem to be associated with VEGF expression in these cancers.  (+info)

Expression of extracellular matrix proteins in cervical squamous cell carcinoma--a clinicopathological study. (3/13224)

AIM: To evaluate the intracellular and peritumoral expression of matrix proteins in squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix using immunohistochemistry. METHODS: 71 squamous cell carcinomas and 10 controls were stained for laminin, fibronectin, and collagen IV. Cytoplasmic staining in tumour cells and peritumoral deposition of matrix proteins were evaluated. The association between staining results and patient age, tumour stage, histological grade, and survival was studied. RESULTS: Positive cytoplasmic staining for laminin, fibronectin, and collagen IV was observed in 17 (23.9%), 27 (38%), and 10 (14.1%) cases, respectively. Staining for laminin was most pronounced in the invasive front of tumour islands, while for fibronectin and collagen IV it appeared to be diffuse. Peritumoral staining for laminin and collagen IV was detected in 12 cases (16.9%). Early stage (Ia1-Ia2) tumours were uniformly negative for all three proteins. Cytoplasmic staining for laminin correlated with positive staining for fibronectin and collagen IV, and with the presence of a peritumoral deposition of collagen IV and laminin. There was no correlation with any of the three markers between staining results and patient age, stage, grade, or survival. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of extracellular matrix proteins in some cervical squamous cell carcinomas might reflect the enhanced ability of these tumours to modify the peritumoral stroma. This ability seems to be absent in early stage tumours. The correlation between intracytoplasmic and peritumoral expression of matrix proteins supports the evidence of their synthesis by tumour cells. However, this property did not correlate with disease outcome in this study.  (+info)

Regulation and function of family 1 and family 2 UDP-glucuronosyltransferase genes (UGT1A, UGT2B) in human oesophagus. (4/13224)

Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are expressed in a tissue-specific fashion in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues [Strassburg, Manns and Tukey (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 8719-8726]. Previous work suggests that these enzymes play a protective role in chemical carcinogenesis [Strassburg, Manns and Tukey (1997) Cancer Res. 57, 2979-2985]. In this study, UGT1 and UGT2 gene expression was investigated in human oesophageal epithelium and squamous-cell carcinoma in addition to the characterization of individual UGT isoforms using recombinant protein. UGT mRNA expression was characterized by duplex reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis and revealed the expression of UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 mRNAs. UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A5 and UGT1A6 transcripts were not detected. UGT2 expression included UGT2B7, UGT2B10 and UGT2B15, but UGT2B4 mRNA was absent. UGT2 mRNA was present at significantly lower levels than UGT1 transcripts. This observation was in agreement with the analysis of catalytic activities in oesophageal microsomal protein, which was characterized by high glucuronidation rates for phenolic xenobiotics, all of which are classical UGT1 substrates. Whereas UGT1A9 was not regulated, differential regulation of UGT1A7 and UGT1A10 mRNA was observed between normal oesophageal epithelium and squamous-cell carcinoma. Expression and analysis in vitro of recombinant UGT1A7, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 demonstrated that UGT1A7, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 catalysed the glucuronidation of 7-hydroxybenzo(alpha)pyrene, as well as other environmental carcinogens, such as 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-(4, 5-beta)-pyridine. Although UGT1A9 was not regulated in the carcinoma tissue, the five-fold reduction in 7-hydroxybenzo(alpha)pyrene glucuronidation could be attributed to regulation of UGT1A7 and UGT1A10. These data elucidate an individual regulation of human UGT1A and UGT2B genes in human oesophagus and provide evidence for specific catalytic activities of individual human UGT isoforms towards environmental carcinogens that have been implicated in cellular carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Syndecan-1 expression has prognostic significance in head and neck carcinoma. (5/13224)

The syndecans are a family of cell-surface heparan sulphate proteoglycans that regulate cell behaviour by binding extracellular matrix molecules such as growth factors. The syndecan family has four members, of which syndecan-1 is the most studied and best characterized. We have studied the prognostic significance of syndecan-1 expression in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck treated with surgery and post-operative radiotherapy. Paraffin-embedded tissue samples taken from 175 patients with primary SCC, followed up from 2 to 15 years after surgery, were studied for expression of syndecan-1 by immunohistochemistry. A low number (< or =50%, the median value) of syndecan-1-positive tumour cells was associated with low histological grade of differentiation (P<0.0001), a large primary tumour size (T1-2 vs. T3-4, P = 0.02), positive nodal status (NO vs. N1-3, P = 0.0006), and high clinical stage (stage I or II vs. III or IV, P<0.0001). Low syndecan-1 expression was also associated with unfavourable overall survival in a univariate analysis (P = 0.001). In a multivariate survival analysis, the clinical stage and syndecan-1 expression were the only independent prognostic factors. We conclude that syndecan-1 is a novel prognostic factor in SCC of the head and neck treated with surgery and post-operative radiotherapy.  (+info)

A possible involvement of aberrant expression of the FHIT gene in the carcinogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. (6/13224)

To investigate involvement of an aberrant expression of the FHIT (fragile histidine triad) gene in the process of carcinogenesis and progression in cervical carcinoma, we examined its expression by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cDNA sequence method in 32 cervical invasive carcinomas (25 squamous cell carcinomas and seven adeno- or adenosquamous carcinomas) and 18 of its precursor lesions [four low-grade and 14 high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs)]. We also examined a link between the occurrence of the aberrant expression and human papillomavirus (HPV). We detected the aberrant FHIT transcripts in 11 of 25 (44%) cervical invasive squamous cell carcinomas and in 5 of 14 (36%) high-grade CINs (CIN 2 or 3), whereas they were not found in seven non-squamous type and four low-grade CINs (CIN 1). The alteration patterns of the FHIT gene expression in high-grade CINs were virtually similar to those found in invasive carcinomas, such that the exons 5-7 were consistently deleted associated or unassociated with loss of the exon 4 and/or 8. The incidence of the aberrant expression was not related to the presence of HPV and its type. These data indicate that the aberrant expression of the FHIT gene is observed in precursor lesions of cervical carcinoma as well as invasive carcinomas, with its incidence not increasing with advance of clinical stage. Given the squamous cell type dominant expression, the aberrant expression may play a critical role in the generation of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, but not the consequence of the progression of the cancer.  (+info)

Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) is expressed by tumor cells in invasive vulvar squamous cell carcinomas. (7/13224)

Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) is a human matrix metalloproteinase specifically expressed by invading tumor cells in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the head and neck. Here, we have further elucidated the role of MMP-13 in tumor invasion by examining its expression in invasive malignant tumors of the female genital tract. Using in situ hybridization, expression of MMP-13 mRNA was detected in 9 of 12 vulvar SCCs, primarily in tumor cells, but not in intact vulvar epithelium, in cervical SCCs (n = 12), or in endometrial (n = 11) or ovarian adenocarcinomas (n = 8). MMP-13 expression was especially abundant in vulvar carcinomas showing metastasis to lymph nodes and was associated with expression of membrane type 1 MMP by tumor cells and gelatinase-A (MMP-2) by stromal cells, as detected by immunohistochemistry. MMP-13 mRNAs were detected in 9 of 11 cell lines established from vulvar carcinomas and in 4 of 6 cell lines from cervical carcinomas, whereas endometrial (n = 10) and ovarian (n = 9) carcinoma cell lines were negative for MMP-13 mRNA. No correlation was detected between MMP-13 expression and p53 gene mutations in vulvar SCC cell lines. However, MMP-13 expression was detected in 5 of 6 vulvar and cervical SCC cell lines harboring HPV 16 or 68 DNA. These results show that MMP-13 is specifically expressed by malignantly transformed squamous epithelial cells, including vulvar SCC cells, and appears to serve as a marker for their invasive capacity.  (+info)

[3H]gemcitabine uptake by nucleoside transporters in a human head and neck squamous carcinoma cell line. (8/13224)

Cellular uptake of many chemotherapeutic nucleoside analogs is dependent on the activity of a family of nucleoside transport proteins located in the cell plasma membrane. In the present study, we examined the role of these transporters in the accumulation of gemcitabine by a human head and neck squamous carcinoma cell line. The uptake of [3H]gemcitibine was compared with that of [3H]uridine and [3H]formycin B in the parent cell line (HN-5a) and in a gemcitabine-resistant variant (GEM-8e). The HN-5a and GEM-8e cells were similar in their transport characteristics and expressed predominantly the es (equilibrative, inhibitor-sensitive) transporter subtype; less than 10% of the influx of [3H]formycin B or [3H]uridine was mediated by the ei (equilibrative inhibitor-resistant) system, and there was no evidence for Na+-dependent nucleoside transporters. [3H]Gemcitabine (10 microM) entered these cells via both the es and ei transporters with an initial rate of uptake similar to that seen with the use of [3H]formycin B or [3H]uridine. In addition, ATP-replete cells accumulated significantly less [3H]gemcitabine than did ATP-depleted cells, which is indicative of an active efflux mechanism for gemcitabine. These results show that gemcitabine is a substrate for both the es and ei nucleoside transporters of HN-5a and GEM-8e cells and that gemcitabine resistance of the GEM-8e cells cannot be attributed to changes in transporter activity. Further studies to define the characteristics of the putative efflux mechanism are clearly warranted because this system has the potential to significantly affect the clinical efficacy of gemcitabine.  (+info)

Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal ...
Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal ...
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Head and neck cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma, is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Although cancer cell invasion and metastasis are crucial for tumor progression, detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the invasion and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma are unclear. Comparison of transcriptional profiles using a cDNA microarray demonstrated that N4BP2L1, a novel oncogene expressed by neural precursor cells, is involved in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Expression of N4BP2L1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma is regulated by activation of miR-448 and is higher than in normal oral mucosa. Knockdown of N4BP2L1 and upregulation of miR-448 significantly reduced the invasive potential of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. We studied N4BP2L1 expression in 187 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma and found its overexpression to be significantly associated with nodal metastasis (P = 0.0155) and poor prognosis (P = 0.0136). Expression of miR-448 was found to be inversely associated
Cutaneous Squamous cell Carcinoma (CsCC) - Epidemiology Forecast To 2025" provides an overview of the epidemiology trends of Cutaneous Squamous cell Carcinoma (CsCC) in seven major markets (US, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK and Japan). It includes 10 years epidemiology historical and forecasted data of Cutaneous Squamous cell Carcinoma (CsCC) prevalent or incident cases segmented by age, sex and subpopulations. The Report also discusses the prevailing risk factors, disease burden with special emphasis on the unmet medical need associated with the Cutaneous Squamous cell Carcinoma (CsCC). The report is built using data and information sourced from proprietary databases, primary and secondary research and in-house Forecast model analysis by team of industry experts.. The report will help in developing business strategies by understanding the trends shaping and driving the global Cutaneous Squamous cell Carcinoma (CsCC) market. It helps in identifying prevalent patient populations as well as ...
Abstract: ABSTRACT Although many mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma exist, there is no mouse lung squamous cell carcinoma model that has been validated for use in preclinical lung cancer chemoprevention studies. Since most clinical chemoprevention trials of lung cancer are performed in subjects with bronchial dysplasia, development of a lung squamous cell carcinoma mouse model becomes one of the highest priorities. We have shown that lung squamous cell carcinomas can be induced chemically in several strains of mice (Wang et al. 2004) and that green tea polyphenols exhibit a significant efficacy against the development of lung squamous cell carcinomas (preliminary data section). In this proposal, we will use a standardized green tea preparation called Polyphenon E (PE) and its major component, EGCG. The overall objective of this proposal is to determine the efficacy of green tea polyphenols in a mouse lung squamous cell carcinoma model and to determine the molecular mechanism that underlies the ...
Treatment of In November 2006, first lady Laura Bush had a small squamous cell carcinoma removed from her shin. Though hers was a high-profile case, it was by no means unique. An estimated 250,000 new cases of squamous cell carcinoma are diagnosed in the United States every year. And though squamous cell carcinoma was once found mainly in older adults, its occurring with increasing frequency in people younger than 40, Mrs. Bushs cancer was caught and treated early. In such cases, squamous cell carcinoma is highly curable and rarely causes further problems. But untreated squamous cell carcinoma can destroy healthy tissue around the tumor, spread to the lymph nodes or other organs, and occasionally prove fatal, Most squamous cell carcinomas result from prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation, either from sunlight or from tanning beds or lamps. Avoiding UV light as much as possible is the best protection. Sunscreen is an important part of a sun-safety program, but by itself doesnt completely prevent
TY - JOUR. T1 - FGFR gene alterations in lung squamous cell carcinoma are potential targets for the multikinase inhibitor nintedanib. AU - Hibi, Masaaki. AU - Kaneda, Hiroyasu. AU - Tanizaki, Junko. AU - Sakai, Kazuko. AU - Togashi, Yosuke. AU - Terashima, Masato. AU - De Velasco, Marco Antonio. AU - Fujita, Yoshihiko. AU - Banno, Eri. AU - Nakamura, Yu. AU - Takeda, Masayuki. AU - Ito, Akihiko. AU - Mitsudomi, Tetsuya. AU - Nakagawa, Kazuhiko. AU - Okamoto, Isamu. AU - Nishio, Kazuto. PY - 2016/11/1. Y1 - 2016/11/1. N2 - Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) gene alterations are relatively frequent in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and are a potential targets for therapy with FGFR inhibitors. However, little is known regarding the clinicopathologic features associated with FGFR alterations. The angiokinase inhibitor nintedanib has shown promising activity in clinical trials for non-small cell lung cancer. We have now applied next-generation sequencing (NGS) to characterize FGFR ...
Squamous cell carcinomas, also known as epidermoid carcinoma are a number of different types of cancer that result from squamous cells. These cells form the surface of the skin lining of hollow organs in the body and line the respiratory and digestive tracts. Common types include: Squamous cell skin cancer: A type of skin cancer Squamous-cell carcinoma of the lung: A type of lung cancer Squamous cell thyroid carcinoma: A type of thyroid cancer Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A type of esophageal cancer Despite sharing the name squamous cell carcinoma, the SCCs of different body sites can show differences in their presented symptoms, natural history, prognosis, and response to treatment. Human papillomavirus infection (HPV) has been associated with SCC of the oropharynx, lung, fingers and anogenital region. Ninety percent of cases of head and neck cancer (cancer of the mouth, nasal cavity, nasopharynx, throat and associated structures) are due to squamous cell carcinoma. Primary squamous cell ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Unraveling the interplay between senescent dermal fibroblasts and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cell lines at different stages of tumorigenesis. AU - Toutfaire, Marie. AU - Dumortier, Elise. AU - Fattaccioli, Antoine. AU - Van Steenbrugge, Martine. AU - Proby, Charlotte M.. AU - Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence. PY - 2018/5/1. Y1 - 2018/5/1. N2 - Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common type of non-melanoma skin cancer in white-skinned populations. cSCC is associated with sun exposure and aging, which is concomitant with an accumulation of senescent cells in the skin. The involvement of senescent cells in carcinogenesis has been highlighted in several cancer types and an interaction between cSCC cells and senescent cells is proposed, but still little explored. Tumor-associated effects are mostly attributed to the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Here, we compared two in vitro models of senescence, namely replicative senescence and ...
Recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the skin treated successfully with single agent cetuximab therapy Selcuk Seber,1 Aylin Gonultas,2 Ozlem Ozturk,2 Tarkan Yetisyigit1 1Department of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Namik Kemal University, 2Pathology Department, Tekirdag State Hospital, Tekirdag, Turkey Abstract: Recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is a rare but difficult to treat condition. Frequently, the disease presents itself in elderly patients with poor performance status and bearing many comorbidities, thus the decision to administer systemic chemotherapy becomes difficult to make. In addition, current chemotherapeutic protocols response rates are far from satisfactory. Recently cetuximab, a chimeric antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor, is increasingly being reported as an alternative treatment. We therefore report this case of a recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in an elderly woman with poor performance status and who had an excellent clinical
Purpose To discuss the expression of S100A4 and E-cad in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and their significance.Methods Expression of S100A4 and E-cad was detected by using immunohistochemical SP method in oral squamous cell carcinoma.Correlation between the expression and clinicopathological features was analyzed.Results Expression of S100A4 had positive correlation with lymph node metastasis (P0.05), and no correlation with histological grade(P0.05). Expression of E-cad had positive correlation with histological grade and negative correlation with lymph node metastasis(P0.05). Inverse relationship between S100A4 and E-cad expression was observed in oral squamous cell carcinoma(P0.05).Conclusions E-cad plays an important role in differentiation of OSCC. E-cad and S100A4 is closely related to invasion and metastasis of OSCC. Expression of S100A4 and E-cadherin is significantly associated with tumor progression in oral squamous cell carcinoma,which are valuable markers in predicting biological
Background: Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 1% of primary thyroid malignancies and is characterized by a rapidly unfavorable outcome. Case presentation: A 64-year-old woman presented with a painless mass in the left neck, coexisting with thyroid goiter. Total thyroidectomy with lymphadenectomy was performed and a primary thyroid squamous cell cancer was confirmed histologically after excluding any other possible primary malignancies. The tumors immunohistochemical profile was explored using a large panel of antibodies. The tumor featured a positive immunoreaction to cytokeratins 7-19 and to squamous cell carcinoma antigen. Low-molecular-weight cytokeratins 5- 6 and epithelial membrane antigen were also expressed. The neoplasms proliferative index (Mib1) was 60%. No immunostaining was detected for cytokeratins 10-20, thyroglobulin, TTF-1, CD5, galectin-3 or p53. Conclusions: This case of primary thyroid squamous cell carcinoma immunohistochemically profiled using a large panel of ...
Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common skin cancer and is increasing at an alarming rate, particularly in the elderly. Squamous cell carcinoma without question is related directly to sun exposure and also to age. The more sun and sunburns you have had and the longer you live the higher your risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma. They often come from precancerous lesions called actinic or solar keratoses which fair-haired, fair-eyed patients suffer from who have had sunburns as a child and have had chronic sun exposure. These red, raw, itchy, sometimes tender scaly spots on the scalp, face, ears, back of the hands and arms can convert to squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma can also develop on its own and grow rapidly often fooling patients thinking they are bug bites, boils or infected hairs. These types of squamous cell carcinomas can be dangerous; they present as a nodule that hurts, grow rapidly and have between a 5%-25% risk of spreading or becoming metastatic ...
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AIM: To investigate the putative role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the carcinogenesis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in China.. METHODS: Twenty-three esophageal squamous cell carcinoma samples and the distal normal epithelium from Shanxi Province, and 25 more esophageal squamous cell carcinoma samples from Anyang city, two areas with a high incidence of esophageal cancer in China, were detected for the existence of HPV-16 DNA by PCR, mRNA in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) targeting HPV-16 E6 gene.. RESULTS: There were approximately 64% (31/48) patients having HPV-16 DNA in tumor samples, among them nearly two-thirds (19/31) samples were detected with mRNA expression of HPV-16 E6. However, in the normal esophageal epithelium from cancer patients, the DNA and mRNA of HPV-16 were found with much less rate: 34.7% (8/23) and 26.1% (6/23) respectively. In addition, at protein level detected by IHC assay, 27.1% (13/48) tumor samples had virus oncoprotein E6 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of characteristics of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma associated with head and neck cancer and those with gastric cancer. AU - Kuwano, Hiroyuki. AU - Morita, Masaru. AU - Tsutsui, Shin‐Ichi ‐I. AU - Kido, Yuichiro. AU - Mori, Masaki. AU - Sugimachi, Keizo. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - In ongoing reviews of 339 patients with surgically treated primary squamous cell carcinoma, there were 19 (5.6%) with concurrent gastric cancer and 11 (3.2%) with head and neck cancer. The incidences of intra‐esophageal multiple occurrence of esophageal cancer are 27.3% and 26.3% in those with associated head and neck cancer and gastric cancer, respectively, and higher than 7.1% in those without such a concurrent cancer. There was no difference in the clinicopathological characteristics of those with concurrent head and neck and gastric cancers, except for the higher incidence of metachronous occurrence in the former. These findings suggest that, in cases of esophageal ...
Pathogenetically squamous cell skin cancer presented infiltrative growth thorny layer of skin cells.Due to the malignant (uncontrolled) cell proliferation characteristic of atypia and disarray in the tissue.There are two types of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: the stratum and neorogovevayuschy.The first is characterized by the persistence of abnormal cells have the ability to keratinization that appears horny "pearls" in the skin.The second type of cancer more malignant atypical cells completely lose the ability to keratinization.. characteristic localization of squamous cell carcinoma - a red border of lips (usually the lower), the vulva, the perianal region.. Squamous cell carcinoma, unlike papilloma characterized by rapid growth, but is also accompanied by inflammation of the surrounding tissue.. Squamous cell carcinoma can be represented by several morphological forms: ulcer, nodular and blyashkoobraznoy.. for ulcerative forms are characteristic saped region, the presence of bloody ...
The squamous cells make up the outer layer of the skin, nose, and mouth. The squamous cell carcinoma arises when the body?s squamous cells become tumorous. Some general presentations include: sun-induced skin cancer, nasal squamous cell carcinoma, oral squamous cell carcinoma, nasal squamous cell carcinoma.
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How is Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma abbreviated? H-NSCC stands for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. H-NSCC is defined as Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma rarely.
TY - JOUR. T1 - AIS is an oncogene amplified in squamous cell carcinoma. AU - Hibi, Kenji. AU - Trink, Barry. AU - Patturajan, Meera. AU - Westra, William H.. AU - Caballero, Otávia L.. AU - Hill, David E.. AU - Ratovitski, Edward A.. AU - Jen, Jin. AU - Sidransky, David. PY - 2000/5/9. Y1 - 2000/5/9. N2 - We and others recently isolated a human p53 homologue (p40/p51/p63/p73L) and localized the gene to the distal long arm of chromosome 3. Here we sought to examine the role of p40/p73L, two variants lacking the N-terminal transactivation domain, in cancer. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed frequent amplification of this gene locus in primary squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and head and neck cancer cell lines. (We named this locus AIS for amplified in squamous cell carcinoma.) Furthermore, amplification of the AIS locus was accompanied by RNA and protein overexpression of a variant p68(AIS) lacking the terminal transactivation domain. Protein overexpression in ...
Abstract: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) occurs commonly and can metastasize. Identification of specific molecular aberrations and mechanisms underlying the development and progression of cutaneous SCC may lead to better prognostic and therapeutic approaches and more effective chemoprevention strategies. To identify genetic changes associated with early stages of cutaneous SCC development, we analyzed a series of 40 archived skin tissues ranging from normal skin to invasive SCC. Using high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization, we identified deletions of a region on chromosome 10q harboring the INPP5A gene in 24% of examined SCC tumors. Subsequent validation by immunohistochemistry on an independent sample set of 71 SCC tissues showed reduced INPP5A protein levels in 72% of primary SCC tumors. Decrease in INPP5A protein levels seems to be an early event in SCC development, as it also is observed in 9 of 26 (35%) examined actinic keratoses, the earliest stage in SCC ...
Squamous cell carcinomas account for about 80% of cancers of the uterine cervix, and the majority of the remainder are adenocarcinomas. There is limited evidence on the extent to which these histological types share a common etiology. The International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer has brought together and combined individual data on 8,097 women with invasive squamous cell carcinoma, 1,374 women with invasive adenocarcinoma and 26,445 women without cervical cancer (controls) from 12 epidemiological studies. Compared to controls, the relative risk of each histological type of invasive cervical cancer was increased with increasing number of sexual partners, younger age at first intercourse, increasing parity, younger age at first full-term pregnancy and increasing duration of oral contraceptive use. Current smoking was associated with a significantly increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma (RR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.35-1.66) but not of adenocarcinoma (RR = 0.86 (0.70-1.05)), and
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines as a model system for the study of oncogene expression during tumor progression and metastasis. by Gary Edward Gallick et al.
An investigation was conducted to assess the incidence and. identify the predisposing factors of bovine squamous cell carcinoma in Kenya. The incidence, breed susceptibility, sites of origin and age distribution of squamous cell carcinoma found in the four breeds of grade cattle in Kenya are reported along with the observed correlation between lack of pigmentation of the bovine vulvae and occurrence of bovine vulva carcinoma. Typical examples of the histology of bovine squamous cell carcinoma which were observed during histological diagnosis are also shown. The data of 18 cattle with vulva carcinoma and 48 cattle with ocular carcinoma on which immunotherapy trials were conducted are reported. The details of the preparation of the saline phenol extract of bovine squamous cell carcinoma used in the study are outlined. The methods by which immunotherapy trials were conducted are described. rIt was found that bovine vulva carcinoma and bovine ocular carcinoma on the eyelid skins did not respond to ...
Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of oral cancer, and makes up about 90% of all oral cancer diagnoses. Squamous cells are the flat cells that line the tissues inside your mouth; when these cells become abnormal, squamous cell carcinoma is the result. Heres what you need to know about this condition.. Why does this cancer develop?. Squamous cell carcinoma develops when your cells become abnormal, but why does this happen? There are many reasons. Smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, and having HPV infection are considered the main causes, but other things also increase the risk of your cells becoming abnormal. Excessive sun exposure and exposure to x-rays can also cause this type of cancer. You can also develop this cancer without having any of these risk factors since doctors still havent discovered every single cause of cancer. Where can it develop?. Squamous cell carcinoma can affect any of the tissues inside of your mouth. It can form on the inside of your cheeks, on your ...
Head And Neck Cancer Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Pipeline Review, H2 2014SummaryGlobal Markets Directs, Head And Neck Cancer Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Pipeline Review, H2 2014, provides an overview of the Head And Neck Cancer Squamous Cell Carcinomas therapeutic pipeline.This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for Head And Neck Cancer Squamous Cell Carcinoma, co
Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 and proto-oncogene PIK3CA and alterations of p53 and PIK3CA AKT mTOR pathways are common events in several human cancers. We focused on the analysis of TP53 and PIK3CA gene variations in adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma as well as in intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 of the cervix. DNA samples from 28 cervical adenocarcinoma, 55 squamous cell carcinoma and 31 intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3), previously characterized in terms of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and genotype distribution, were analyzed for TP53 and PIK3CA mutations in the exons 4-9 and exon 9, respectively. Single nucleotide substitutions in TP53 and PIK3CA genes were detected in 36% and 11% of adenocarcinoma, in 16% and in 5% of squamous cell carcinoma, and in 13% and none of CIN 3, respectively. Nucleotide changes in TP53 were significantly more frequent in adenocarcinoma cases than in squamous cell carcinoma and CIN3 (P = 0.035) and were independent from HPV infection
Oesophageal cancer has a high metastatic potential and poor prognosis, with a significant risk of recurrence after radical resection. However, resected pancreatic metastasis from oesophageal cancer is rare. Eleven years prior, a seventy-year-old woman had been treated with transthoracic radical oesophagectomy for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Four years prior, she had undergone chemotherapy for lymph node recurrence at the splenic hilum and achieved a partial response. She had also received chemoradiotherapy for lymph node recurrence at the splenic hilum 3 years prior; a complete response was achieved. However, routine follow-up with abdominal computed tomography recently revealed a tumour at the pancreatic tail and swollen lymph nodes. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy on the basis of a pre-operative diagnosis of primary pancreatic cancer, although a histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma that was compatible with metachronous
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Esophagus squamous cell carcinoma tissue array, including TNM and pathology grade, 48 cases 96 cores related publications, related pathways and related gentaur products
Two phase III clinical trials (CheckMate 141 and KEYNOTE 040) have independently demonstrated that overall survival (OS) in recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (R/M HNSCC) patients, who have failed platinum-based therapy, can be improved with anti-PD1 monotherapy. Treatment with nivolumab or pembrolizumab in R/M HNSCC patients led to an improved OS with a hazards ratio (HR) of 0.70 (95%CI 0.51-0.96; p = 0.01) and HR of 0.80 (95%CI 0.65-0.98, p = 0.0161), respectively, as compared to standard of care (SOC) chemo monotherapy regimens (specifically, cetuximab, docetaxel, or methotrexate). The gain in OS was similar in both studies, underscoring the role of anti-PD1 drugs in R/M HNSCC patients. One of the striking discrepancies between CheckMate 141 and KEYNOTE 040 was the OS observed in the control SOC arms (6.9 months median in KEYNOTE 040 versus 5.1 months in CheckMate 141), which inadvertently set a higher threshold in the bio-statistical analysis of KEYNOTE 040 so that the
Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 90% of all oral cancers. It may affect any anatomical site in the mouth, but most commonly the tongue and the floor of the mouth. It usually arises from a pre-existing potentially malignant lesion, and occasionally de novo; but in either case from within a field of precancerized epithelium. The use of tobacco and betel quid, heavy drinking of alcoholic beverages and a diet low in fresh fruits and vegetables are well known risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma. Important risk factors related to the carcinoma itself that are associated with a poor prognosis include large size of the tumour at the time of diagnosis, the presence of metastases in regional lymphnodes, and a deep invasive front of the tumour. Squamous cell carcinoma is managed by surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy singularly or in combination; but regardless of the treatment modality, the five-year survival rate is poor at about 50%. This can be attributed to the fact that about two-thirds of
This paper describes the clinical and histopathological features of an outbreak of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in a flock of Berrichon du Cher sheep in south-western Spain. The outbreak was unusual because of the high prevalence recorded (15 to 18 per cent over the last two years) and because the majority of the lesions involved the eyelids. Adult and old sheep were the most commonly affected, and the largest numbers of cases were recorded in summer and autumn. The initial lesions were non-specific and consisted of erythema, hyperkeratosis, actinic keratosis, periocular dermatitis and conjunctivitis. The tumours grew slowly but progressively over a period of one to two years, with frequent complications by bacterial infections or secondary myiasis. Histopathological examination of the tumours revealed well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas, surrounded by a moderate to abundant infiltrate of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. The overlying epidermis was frequently ulcerated ...
Press Release issued Jan 29, 2013: Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Pipeline Review, H2 2012, provides an overview of the indications therapeutic pipeline. This report provides information on the therapeutic development for Squamous Cell Carcinoma, complete with latest updates, and special features on late-stage and discontinued projects. It also reviews key players involved in the therapeutic development for Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Pipeline Review, Half Year is built using data and information sourced from Global Markets Directs proprietary databases, Company/University websites, SEC filings, investor presentations and featured press releases from company/university sites and industry-specific third party sources, put together by Global Markets Directs team.
Purpose: To assess the toxicity profile of erlotinib therapy combined with postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy in patients with advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: This was a single-arm, prospective, phase 1 open-label study of erlotinib with radiation therapy to treat 15 patients with advanced cutaneous head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma. Toxicity data were summarized, and survival was analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The majority of patients were male (87%) and presented with T4 disease (93%). The most common toxicity attributed to erlotinib was a grade 2-3 dermatologic reaction occurring in 100% of the patients, followed by mucositis (87%). Diarrhea occurred in 20% of the patients. The 2-year recurrence rate was 26.7%, and mean time to cancer recurrence was 10.5 months. Two-year overall survival was 65%, and disease-free survival was 60%. Conclusions: Erlotinib and radiation therapy had an acceptable toxicity profile in patients with ...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced as a part of cellular metabolism can interact with biological macromolecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids and interfere with their normal functions, leading to the loss of cellular viability. ROS have been implicated in many pathophysiological conditions including cancer. In the present study, the damage caused by ROS and the effect of radiation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients were assessed in the erythrocytes by analyzing the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and levels of total thiols (T-SH) and malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker for lipid peroxidation). Blood samples were collected before the start of treatment and after the completion of radiotherapy. Both SOD and CAT activities were decreased in untreated patients, but elevated in patients after treatment. The T-SH levels were also depleted in untreated HNSCC patients, but elevated non-significantly after radiation therapy (p>0.05). The levels of MDA ...
Subject:Biomedical Cancer study Question:The search for genomic-wide, micro-RNA and epigenetics interactions in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Thesis statement (Main idea of literature review): The cause of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma is mainly relates to Genomic-wide (3 Joint) .. Although Micro-RNA may have influences on it, the surveys on it are lack of reasonable control (quantities, same living environment and habitat), and there is no enough evidence shows Micro RNA can cause it directly.. The environment can raise the risk of ESCC ( Epi-genetics) , especially diet.. For a custom paper on the above, place your Order Now!!. What We Offer: ...
BACKGROUND: Systemic immunosuppression is a significant risk factor for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). p53 is mutated and overexpressed in up to 90% of cutaneous SCC lesions. Despite considerable evidence that the immune response is important in the control of cutaneous SCC, there are no studies documenting potential tumour-associated antigens. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that individuals with cutaneous SCC have functional circulating CD8+ T cells specific for p53. METHODS: Interferon-gamma immunosorbent assays were used to screen peripheral blood mononuclear cells for reactivity to six p53-derived HLA-A*0201-restricted epitopes from HLA-A*0201-positive patients and controls. RESULTS: We observed significantly elevated frequencies of p53-specific CD8+ T cells in seven of 26 individuals with cutaneous SCC and in one of 10 controls. The degree of lymphocytic infiltrate significantly correlated with the frequency of CD8+ T cells specific for p53 epitopes, but not with control epitopes.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression and mutation analysis of epidermal growth factor receptor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. AU - Sheikh Ali, Mahmoud A L. AU - Gunduz, Mehmet. AU - Nagatsuka, Hitoshi. AU - Gunduz, Esra. AU - Cengiz, Beyhan. AU - Fukushima, Kunihiro. AU - Beder, Levent Bekir. AU - Demircan, Kadir. AU - Fujii, Masae. AU - Yamanaka, Noboru. AU - Shimizu, Kenji. AU - Grenman, Reidar. AU - Nagai, Noriyuki. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-RAS-RAF-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade is an important pathway in cancer development and recent reports show that EGFR and its downstream signaling molecules are mutated in a number of cancers. We have analyzed 91 Japanese head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) and 12 HNSCC cell lines for mutations in EGFR, ErbB2, and K-ras. Exons encoding the hot-spot regions in the tyrosine kinase domain of both EGFR (exons 18, 19, and 21) and ErbB2 (exons 18-23), as well as exons 1 and 2 of K-ras ...
SCOTTSDALE, AZ--(Marketwired - February 20, 2014) - Evaluating next-generation sequencing (NGS) data and associated clinical records of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients from several institutions, made available through The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), showed that combining Mutant-Allele Tumor Heterogeneity (MATH) as a biomarker with the patients HPV...
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) as a disease biomarker in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) that can be used for treatment response evaluation and early detection of tumour recurrence. Matched tumour tissue, pre- and post-surgery plasma and WBCs obtained from 17 ESCC patients were sequenced using a panel of 483 cancer-related genes. Somatic mutations were detected in 14 of 17 tumour tissues. Putative harmful mutations were observed in genes involved in well-known cancer-related pathways, including PI3K-Akt/mTOR signalling, Proteoglycans in cancer, FoxO signalling, Jak-STAT signalling, Chemokine signalling and Focal adhesion. Forty-six somatic mutations were found in pre-surgery cfDNA in 8 of 12 patients, with mutant allele frequencies (MAF) ranging from 0.24 to 4.91%. Three of the 8 patients with detectable circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) had stage IIA disease, whereas the others had stage IIB-IIIB disease. Post-surgery cfDNA somatic mutations were
TY - JOUR. T1 - Radioresistance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. T2 - Biological bases and therapeutic implications. AU - Perri, Francesco. AU - Pacelli, Roberto. AU - Della Vittoria Scarpati, Giuseppina. AU - Cella, Laura. AU - Giuliano, Mario. AU - Caponigro, Francesco. AU - Pepe, Stefano. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is strongly associated with alcohol and tobacco consumption. Lately, the incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related tumors has shown a significant increase, and HPV-related tumors show distinctive features if compared with the HPV-negative counterpart. Locally advanced HNSCC can be treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy, but early recurrences sometimes occur. Relapses are often related to an intrinsic radioresistance of the tumors. Alterations in intracellular pathways, primarily involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA repair, can lead to radioresistance. Preclinical and clinical evidence highlighted ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rare amplicons implicate frequent deregulation of cell fate specification pathways in oral squamous cell carcinoma. AU - Snijders, Antoine M.. AU - Schmidt, Brian. AU - Fridlyand, Jane. AU - Dekker, Nusi. AU - Pinkel, Daniel. AU - Jordan, Richard C K. AU - Albertson, Donna. PY - 2005/6/16. Y1 - 2005/6/16. N2 - Genomes of solid tumors are characterized by gains and losses of regions, which may contribute to tumorigenesis by altering gene expression. Often the aberrations are extensive, encompassing whole chromosome arms, which makes identification of candidate genes in these regions difficult. Here, we focused on narrow regions of gene amplification to facilitate identification of genetic pathways important in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development. We used array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) to define minimum common amplified regions and then used expression analysis to identify candidate driver genes in amplicons that spanned ,3Mb. We found genes involved ...
Cemiplimab an investigational human antibody targeting PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1), is yet another "checkpoint inhibitor" that was evaluated in 82 patients with advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Early trial results suggest that cemiplimab may represent a viable treatment option for individuals diagnosed with CSCC.. About Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma (CSCC). CSCC is the second most common type of skin cancer in the United States. Although CSCC has a good prognosis when caught early, it can prove especially difficult to treat when it progresses to advanced stages. CSCC is the second deadliest skin cancer after melanoma and is responsible for the most deaths among non-melanoma skin cancer patients. For patients with CSCC that cannot be cured by surgery or radiation, there are currently no FDA-approved treatment options, and advanced CSCC is responsible for 3,900 to 8,800 deaths per year in the U.S.. The EMPOWER-CSCC 1 clinical study was initiated in 2016 and remains ...
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is normally a malignancy of epidermal keratinocytes thats in charge of ~20% of annual skin cancer-associated mortalities. A-431 cells. These total outcomes indicated that suppression of RhoBTB1 could be involved with cSCC tumorigenesis, which was suffering from miR-31 directly. In conclusion, todays study provides proof that miR-31 functions as an oncogene through immediate repression of RhoTBT1 manifestation in cSCC tumor, recommending a potential software of miR-31 in prognosis prediction and its own therapeutic software in cSCC. (11) proven that miR-365 was overexpressed in both cells and medical specimens of cSCC (11). The decreased expression from the miR-193b/365a cluster noticed during tumor development suggests a tumor suppressor part in cSCC (12). MiR-199a inhibits cSCC cell proliferation and migration by regulating Compact disc44-Ezrin signaling (13). Accumulating research show that miR-31 manifestation can be correlated with metastasis; ...
Lung Cancer Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma Definitions Squamous cell lung carcinoma: A type of cancerous, or malignant, tumor originating in the area of a lung airway. Lobe: A spongy compartment of the lung. The right lung has three lobes, and the left has two. Pathologist: A physician who examines tissues and fluids to diagnose disease in order to assist in making treatment decisions. Sputum: Mucus coughed up from the lungs. What is squamous cell lung carcinoma? Squamous cell lung carcinoma is a type of non-small cell lung cancer formed from reserve cells-round cells that replaced injured or damaged cells in the lining of the bronchi, the lungs major airways. Squamous cell tumors usually occur in the lungs central portions or in one of the main airway branches. These tumors can form cavities in the lung if they grow to a large size. Making up between 25 and 30 percent of all lung cancers, squamous cell carcinoma can spread to bones, adrenal glands, the liver, small intestine, or brain. The ...
... is the second most common type of skin cancer. The cancer begins in the outer layer of the skin (the epidermis). Squamous cell carcinoma usually appears as a crusted, or scaly area of skin with a red, inflamed base. It resembles a growing tumor, a non-healing ulcer, or a crusted over patch of skin. SCC can also occur on the lips, inside the mouth, the genitalia, or anywhere on the body surface. Although exposure to the sun greatly increases the chance of developing SCC, other factors such as chronic skin ulcers, arsenic ingestion, toxic exposure to tars and oils, a previous scar or burn, or a pre-cancerous lesion such as actinic keratoses may also pre-dispose individuals to the development of SCC.. Moles and Melanoma. Basal Cell Carcinoma. Kaposis Sarcoma. Lymphoma. Skin Cancer Treatments ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Distribution of Human Papillomavirus Types 16 and 18 Variants in Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Adenocarcinomas of the Cervix. AU - Burk, Robert D.. AU - Terai, Masanori. AU - Gravitt, Patti E.. AU - Brinton, Louise A.. AU - Kurman, Robert J.. AU - Barnes, Willard A.. AU - Greenberg, Mitchell D.. AU - Hadjimichael, Olympia C.. AU - Fu, Leiping. AU - McGowan, Larry. AU - Mortel, Rodrigue. AU - Schwartz, Peter E.. AU - Hildesheim, Allan. PY - 2003/11/1. Y1 - 2003/11/1. N2 - The distributions of human papillomavirus (HPV) types detected in cervical adenocarcinomas and squamous cell tumors differ. However, whether the distributions of intratypic HPV variants seen in these two histological forms of cervical disease differ is unknown. Our objective was to compare the distribution of HPV intratypic variants observed in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and cervical tumors of glandular origin (e.g., adenocarcinomas; AC) for two HPV types commonly observed in cervical tumors, HPV16 and HPV18. ...
Free Online Library: Solitary recurrent metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix in the spleen: case report.(Case Report) by Southern Medical Journal; Health, general Squamous cell carcinoma Case studies Research
We know how apprehensive squamous cell carcinoma can make you. As your community skin cancer experts, we realize it can even be traumatic emotionally and physically, which is why were here with comprehensive advice and solutions to overcome this condition. Our skin cancer experts have the knowledge and experience to address squamous cell carcinoma. We urge you to undergo regular skin cancer screenings, especially if the above risk factors apply to you. If it is determined that you have squamous cell carcinoma, we offer an assortment of treatment options, including topical medications, superficial radiation therapy (SRT), excision surgery, electrodesiccation with curettage, photodynamic Therapy (PDT), and cryotherapy ...
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common skin cancer after basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The incidence of cSCC in the United States
Are squamous cell carcinomas hereditary?. No, they are not, but some of the risk factors, such as a tendency to burn in the sun, are inherited.. What does a squamous cell carcinoma look like?. SCC can vary in their appearance, but most usually appear as a scaly or crusty raised area of skin with a red, inflamed base. SCCs can be sore or tender and they can bleed but this is not always the case. They can appear as an ulcer.. SCC can occur on any part of the body, but they are more common on sun exposed sites such as the head, ears, neck and back of the hands.. How will my squamous cell carcinoma be diagnosed?. If your doctor thinks that the lesion on your skin needs further investigation, you will be referred to a Dermatologist. To confirm the diagnosis, a small piece of the abnormal skin (a biopsy), or the whole area (an excision biopsy), will be removed using a local anaesthetic and sent to a pathologist to be examined under the microscope. The results will usually be available within a week to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Necitumumab in metastatic squamous cell lung cancer. AU - Goldstein, Daniel A.. AU - Chen, Qiushi. AU - Ayer, Turgay. AU - Howard, David H.. AU - Lipscomb, Joseph. AU - Ramalingam, Suresh S.. AU - Khuri, Fadlo R.. AU - Flowers, Christopher R.. PY - 2015/12. Y1 - 2015/12. N2 - IMPORTANCE The SQUIRE trial demonstrated that adding necitumumab to chemotherapy for patients with metastatic squamous cell lung cancer (mSqCLC) increased median overall survival by 1.6 months (hazard ratio, 0.84). However, the costs and value associated with this intervention remains unclear. Value-based pricing links the price of a drug to the benefit that it provides and is a novelmethod to establish prices for new treatments. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the range of drug costs for which adding necitumumab to chemotherapy could be considered cost-effective. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We developed a Markov model using data from multiple sources, including the SQUIRE trial, which compared standard ...
Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity is one of the most important and common types of head and neck malignancy, with an estimated rate of 4% among all human malignancies. The aim of this study was to determine the association between expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 and the clinicopathological features of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Materials and Methods: One hundred existing samples of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded specimens of OSCC were evaluated by immunohistochemistry staining for matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 antibodies. Samples were divided into four groups: negative, |10%, 10-50%, and |50%. Patient records were assessed for demographic characteristics such as age and gender, smoking and family history of OSCC as well as tumor features including location, differentiation, stage and lymph node involvement. Results: In this study, 58 patients (58%) were male and 42 (42%) female. The mean age of patients was 60.38±14.07 years. The average number
Background The aetiological role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been widely researched for more than three decades, with conflicting findings. In the absence of a large, adequately powered single case-control study, a meta-analysis of all available case-control studies is the most rigorous way of identifying any potential association between HPV and OSCC. We present the first global meta-analysis of case-control studies investigating the role of HPV in OSCC. Methods Case-control studies investigating OSCC tissue for presence of HPV DNA were identified. 21 case-control studies analyzing a total of 1223 cases and 1415 controls, met our inclusion criteria. HPV detection rates were tabulated for each study and all studies were assessed for quality. The random effects method was used to pool the odds ratios (OR). Results From all OSCC specimens included in this meta-analysis, 35% (426/1223) were positive for HPV DNA. The pooled OR for an HPV-OSCC association
... Introduction:- Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of cancer of the skin. If detected early, this type of cancer does not cause much threat. Serious complications can result if squamous cell carcinoma is not diagnosed or treated early. It may then grow large in size and
Despite the fact that the squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is non-life threatening, it can be intrusive in some instances. Serious complications can be caused by squamous cell carcinoma of the skin if it is not treated in an early stage. Know the causes, symptoms, treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.
article{ef10f59d-3cc7-4e16-a487-41c4d7d41751, abstract = {Introduction. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are used in cancer therapy to reverse anaemia. It has been suggested that ESAs might improve treatment outcome by reducing tumour hypoxia, but ESAs might also increase tumour growth. In this work, the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) beta was investigated on a human head and neck squamous carcinoma cell (HNSCC) line in vitro. The cell line was previously growth stimulated in combination with surgery in a xenograft model and the investigation was initiated to see if rHuEpo directly affects the tumour cell line, alone or in combination with cell stress, or if the in vivo effect should be attributed to secondary effects. Material and methods. The cell line LU-HNSCC-7 was grown in vitro and treated with rHuEpo alone or in combination with radiation, cisplatin, hypoxia or tumour extracts. The expression of the Epo receptor (EpoR) was investigated by western blotting ...
Oral retinoid use reduces cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma risk in psoriasis patients treated with PUVA: a nested cohort study ...
BACKGROUND Lung transplant recipients (LTR) are at increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (SCC), but risk factors (RF) are incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE To assess associations between exposure to certain medications and viral infections, and subsequent SCC development. METHODS Retrospective study examining incidence and potential RF for SCC in LTR transplanted from 1992 to 2010 followed up at one centre. Cumulative incidence and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate RF in the first year post-transplant for SCC formation during the follow-up. RESULTS In 205 analysed LTR, 46 patients were diagnosed with SCC during a median follow-up of 4.9 years. The cumulative incidences of first SCC were 16.7% and 34.1%, for 5 and 10 years post-transplantation respectively. Multivariable analysis identified CMV replication (HR 7.69, 95% CI 2.93-20.2, P , 0.001) and moxifloxacin exposure (HR 2.35, 95% CI 1.15-4.81, P = 0.020) during the first year ...
An overview of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC), including diagnosis, distinguishing CSCC from head and neck cancer, and risk factors for developing advanced disease.
Dysregulations of the mevalonate pathway (MVA) have been previously identified. Our previous study demonstrated that 3‑hydroxy‑3‑methylglutaryl‑coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), the rate‑limiting enzyme of the MVA pathway, was upregulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and statin‑inhibited ESCC tumorigenesis. However, the underlying mechanism of HMGCR regulation in ESCC remains unknown. In the present study, western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that sterol regulatory element‑binding protein 2 (SREBP2), the master regulator for HMGCR, was upregulated in ESCC clinical samples. Overexpression of SREBP2 expression in ESCC cell lines promoted the growth, migration and colony formation of cancer cells in the MTT, Boyden chamber and soft agar assays, respectively, which was inhibited by lovastatin. Downregulation of SREBP2 expression in ESCC cell lines inhibited the viability, and migration and colony formation abilities of cancer cells. Assessment of ...
Hyperactive retrovirus-associated DNA sequence (Ras) genes have been found in human cancers and are involved in cancer pathogenesis. Salirasib, one anti-Ras compound, was reported to exhibit antitumoral effects, but its role remains unclear in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). In our study, salirasib treatment led to deregulation of c-Raf, ERK and Akt signaling, blockage of MTOR signaling, interruption on Beclin 1-related autophagy regulation, activation of apoptosis and down-regulation of some cell cycle regulatory proteins in primary human epidermal keratinocyte (HEK)s, but did not exhibit similar effects in the human cSCC cell line COLO-16. MEK inhibitor U0126 can lead to dephosphorylation of MTOR and Rictor in COLO-16 cells; however, c-Raf was not yet down-regulated after salirasib treatment in the presence of U0126. Furthermore, we verified that the Ras activity could be suppressed by salirasib, and there was no loss-of-function mutation in c-Raf in HEKs and COLO-16 cells. In ...
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common skin cancer and one of the most common cancers overall in the United States. An estimated 3.
Due to the rarity of advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), staying current with the latest information on diagnosing, treating, and supporting patients with this diagnosis can be challenging for clinicians who do not often encounter advanced cSCC in practice.
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common form of skin cancer. Learn what cSCC can look like and how it can be treated.
Discussion: Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the ocular surface8. Spindle cell carcinoma is a poorly differentiated variant of squamous cell carcinoma that rarely occurs in the conjunctiva 3,4,5,6,7. Cervantes et al. reported a total 287 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of conjunctiva, in which only two cases were documented as spindle cell carcinoma11. Surgical excision with or without cryotherapy and radiotherapy remains widely accepted treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva9,10 ...
p16 expression in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is not associated with integration of high risk HPV DNA or ...
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common cancer arising from malignant proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. The likelihood of developing SCC is dependent upon exposure to risk factors (most importantly ultraviolet light) and patient-s
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) presents with a wide variety of clinical manifestations, including papules, plaques, or nodules, and smooth, hyperkeratotic, or ulcerative lesions. Skin biopsies are required to confirm the diagnosis. Biopsies
Potential Risk Factors for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma include Oral Contraceptives: Results of a Nested Case-Control Study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
MicroRNA Polymorphisms and Environmental Smoke Exposure as Risk Factors for Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Vincent-Mistiaen, Zoe, Elbediwy, Ahmed, Vanyai, Hannah, Cotton, Jennifer, Stamp, Gordon, Nye, Emma, Spencer-Dene, Bradley, Thomas, Gareth J, Mao, Junhao and Thompson, Barry (2018) YAP drives cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma formation and progression. eLife, 7, e33304. ISSN (online) 2050-084X ...
Need for early imaging in symptomatic suprapubic catheter tracts: Rare case of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of tract origin without bladder ...
Libtayo® (cemiplimab-rwlc) longer-term results in advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma presented at ASCO 2020 show durable responses that deepen over ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synergism between mTOR pathway and ultraviolet radiation in the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma and its implication for solid-organ transplant recipients. AU - Balagula, Yevgeniy. AU - Kang, Sewon. AU - Patel, Manisha J.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Summary: Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most common malignancies in the United States in immunocompetent patients. Among the solid-organ transplant recipients, NMSCs represent a significant disease burden, and they tend to be multiple and more aggressive. While the precise mechanisms responsible for the higher risk of developing cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) have not been completely elucidated, ultraviolet (UV) light has been established to be critical in initiation and promotion of tumor development. More recently, significant emphasis has been placed on the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in SCC pathogenesis. Furthermore, some studies have demonstrated the ability of mTOR ...
Cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and cetuximab (PFE) with or without cilengitide in recurrent/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck : results of the randomized phase I/II ADVANTAGE trial (phase II part) ...
Background. Recent studies have shown that the aberrant expression of IFITM3 is implicated in the lymph node metastasis of many malignancies. Our research aimed to investigate the expression of IFITM3 in pathological N0 (pN0) esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and its relationship with lymph node metastatic recurrence.Methods. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to examine the expression profile of IFITM3 in 104 pairs of samples. Each pair consisted of ESCC tissue and its adjacent normal mucosa (ANM). This aberrant expression was verified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with 20 tumor specimens with strong immunostaining and their mucosal tissues. In addition, 20 samples of low expression tissues and their ANMs were evaluated. Moreover, the correlations between the IFITM3 expression level and the clinicopathological variables, recurrence risk and overall survival (OS) of patients were analyzed.Results. Both IHC and RT-PCR demonstrated that the IFITM3 expression level
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) develops through a multistep carcinogenic process involving field cancerization. The DEK gene is a proto-oncogene with functions in genetic and epigenetic modifications, and has oncogenic functions, including cellular proliferation, differentiation, and senescence. DEK overexpression is associated with malignancies; however, the functional roles of DEK overexpression are unclear. We demonstrated that DEK-expressing cells were significantly increased in human dysplasia/carcinoma in situ and OSCC. Furthermore, we generated ubiquitous and squamous cell-specific doxycycline (DOX)-inducible Dek mice (iDek and iDek-e mice respectively). Both DOX+ iDek and iDek-e mice did not show differences in the oral mucosa compared with DOX- mice. In the environment exposed to carcinogen, DOX-treated (DOX+) iDek mice showed field cancerization and OSCC development. Microarray analysis revealed that DEK overexpression was mediated by the upregulation of DNA replication- and cell ...
Squamous cell carcinoma. Close-up of a squamous cell carcinoma on the leg of an 88 year old woman. A carcinoma is a cancer arising from epithelial tissue, such as the skin. This is one of the most common forms of skin cancer. Squamous cells, scale-like cells in the skin, may become cancerous after prolonged exposure to strong sunlight or carcinogens such as arsenic, coal and tar. They can be fatal if allowed to spread. If caught in the early stages, the cancerous area can be excised surgically, but radiotherapy or chemotherapy may be necessary if the extent is not known. After removal, follow-up examinations should be made to check for re-occurrence. - Stock Image M131/0310
SCC of the orbit arise most commonly from the edge of the third eyelid followed by the limbal conjunctiva. Lack of eyelid and conjunctival pigment and exposure to UV radiation are considered important predisposing factors. In 15 - 20 % of cases bilateral involvement may be seen. All breeds of horses may be affected but there is an apparent breed predisposition in heavy draft horses. The mean age of affected animals is approximately nine years. Therapy may influence the prognosis, but even untreated neoplasms are usually slow to metastasize (in such cases usually only to the local lymph nodes). In one retrospective study 10 - 15 % of squamous cell carcinomas exhibited regional or distant spread.. At this site, SCC develops through a series of pre-malignant stages (plague, papilloma) to squamous cell carcinoma in-situ and eventually invasive SCC over several months or years. Spontaneous regression of these pre-malignant stages is reported in ± 25-50% of cases.. ...
Statins comprise a class of prescription drugs used for reducing cholesterol. Evidence has also showed that statins could reduce cancer incidence. However, the anti-tumor mechanism of statins has not been fully defined. Here, we found that atorvastatin inhibited proliferation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells. The underlying mechanisms were explored by mass spectrometry. The proteome data revealed that atorvastatin inhibited the cAMP and Rap1 signal pathways, except for Ras signal pathway. Interestingly, phosphoproteome profiles suggested that ERKT185/Y187, CDK1T14, and BRAC1S1189 phosphorylation–mediated Th17 cell differentiation, Gap junction and the Platinum drug resistance pathway were down-regulated after atorvastatin treatment. The phosphorylation levels of ERKT185/Y187, CDK1T14 and BRAC1S1189 were confirmed by western blotting in KYSE150 cells. More importantly, atorvastatin suppresses ESCC tumor growth in
Background: Head and neck cancers represent the sixth most common cancer worldwide with an incidence of over 600,000 new cases per year. More than 90% of head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) that arise from the mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx. Objective: The aim of the current work was to investigate the predictors of complications after flap reconstruction of oral cavity defects following ablation of squamous cell carcinoma. Patients and methods: This prospective comparative study included a total of 41 patients who diagnosed to have oral SCCs, attending at the outpatient clinic of Head and Neck Surgery Unit, National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University and Aswan University Hospital. Written informed consent of all the subjects was obtained after explaining the benefits and hazards for each method step. This study was conducted between 2015 to 2018. Approval of the ethical committee was obtained. Results: Patients with positive history of neoadjuvant
VetVine is an accredited Continuing Education provider for veterinary professionals and resource of expert-driven pet health information for pet owners. This is the forum topic view page. In this review article from Dr. Wypij of the University of Illinois, similarities between spontaneous feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) and human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are discussed. Both cancers share similar tumor biology, clinical outcome, treatment, and a poor prognosis. They are locally invasive with low metastatic potential. They have similar causes (e.g., exposure to tobacco smoke, papillomavirus), aberrant molecular signalling pathways, and molecular aspects of cancer progression. Management strategies primarily involve surgery and radiation with adjuvant chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Little advances in treatment have been made in the past few years. Most cats diagnosed with FOSCC are older (over 12 yrs old), and are usually presented late in disease
A new systemic medication option offers promising results for patients with high-risk squamous cell carcinoma for whom surgery has not worked, according to Chrysalyne Schmults, M.D., associate professor of dermatology at Harvard Medical School and vice chair of surgical oncology at Brigham and Womens Hospital dermatology department, Boston. An intravenous, programmed death receptor-1 inhibitor drug called cemiplimab (Libtayo, Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals) could offer a long-term halt of disease for a significant number of patients with this disease. "Weve gone for so many years, in fact, the entire history of squamous cell carcinoma without an FDA-approved treatment for people who fail surgery and radiation," she says. "Weve been in dire need of a good treatment option for when patients become unresectable. Now, we have a drug with a 50% response rate, and thats a big improvement for these patients." This therapeutic advancement is significant, she says, because squamous cell ...
Question - Diagnosed with superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma. What should be done next?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Cervical cancer, Ask an Oncologist
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an aggressive disease marked by frequent recurrence and metastasis and stagnant survival rates. To enhance molecular knowledge of HNSCC and define a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) landscape of the disease, researchers at UCSD profiled the transcriptome-wide dysregulation of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) using RNA sequencing data from 422 HNSCC patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). 307non-coding transcripts differentially expressed in HNSCC were significantly correlated with patient survival, and associated with mutations in TP53, CDKN2A, CASP8, PRDM9,and FBXW7 and copy number variations in chromosomes 3, 5, 7, and 18. The researchers also observed widespread ncRNA correlation to concurrent TP53 and chromosome 3p loss, a compelling predictor of poor prognosis in HNSCCs. Three selected ncRNAs were additionally associated with tumor stage, HPV status, and other clinical characteristics, and modulation ...
The modest response of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) to epithelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib indicates the need for the development of biomarkers to predict response. We determined gefitinib sensitivity in a panel of HNSCC cell lines by a 5-day 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and confirmed these responses with analysis of downstream signaling by immunoblotting and cell cycle arrest. Basal gene expression profiles were then determined by microarray analysis and correlated with gefitinib response. These data were combined with previously reported NSCLC microarray results to generate a broader predictive index. Common markers of resistance between the two tumor types included genes associated with the epithelial to mesenchymal transition. We confirmed that increased protein expression of vimentin combined with the loss of E-cadherin, ...
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a deadly disease, partly because it is often diagnosed late in disease stage. An accurate early diagnosis by endoscopy could detect advanced carcinoma as...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Use of hormone replacement therapy and adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix. AU - Lacey, James V.. AU - Brinton, Louise A.. AU - Barnes, Willard A.. AU - Gravitt, Patti E.. AU - Greenberg, Mitchell D.. AU - Hadjimichael, Olympia C.. AU - McGowan, Larry. AU - Mortel, Rodrigue. AU - Schwartz, Peter E.. AU - Kurman, Robert J. AU - Hildesheim, Allan. PY - 2000/4. Y1 - 2000/4. N2 - Introduction. Exogenous hormones may influence the development of cervical adenocarcinomas. Incidence rates of adenocarcinomas and use of noncontraceptive hormones have increased since the 1970s, but few studies have investigated this potential relationship. Methods. We conducted a multicenter case-control study of 124 women with adenocarcinomas, 139 women with squamous cell carcinomas matched on age, diagnosis date, clinic, and stage of disease (in situ or invasive) to adenocarcinoma cases, and 307 healthy community controls who were also matched on age, ethnicity, and ...
Measuring tumor cell proliferation with 18F-FLT PET during radiotherapy of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a pilot clinical study.
Abstract: There is a region with a high risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in the northeast of Iran. Previous studies suggest that hereditary factors play a role in the high incidence of cancer in the region. We selected 22 functional variants (and 130 related tagSNPs) from 15 genes that have been associated previously with the risk of ESCC. We genotyped a primary set of samples from 451 Turkmens (197 cases and 254 controls). Seven of 152 variants were associated with ESCC at the P = 0.05 level; these single nucleotide polymorphisms were then studied in a validation set of 549 cases and 1,119 controls, which included both Turkmens and non-Turkmens. The association observed for a functional variant in ADH1B was confirmed in the validation set, and that of a tagSNP in MGMT, the association was borderline significant in the validation set, after correcting for multiple testing. The other 5 variants that were associated in the primary set were not significantly associated in the ...
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is comprised of metabolically linked distinct compartments. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) and nonproliferative carcinoma cells display a glycolytic metabolism, while proliferative carcinoma cells rely on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism fueled by the catabolites provided by the adjacent CAFs. Metabolic coupling between these reprogrammed compartments contributes to HNSCC aggressiveness. In this study, we examined the effects of cigarette smoke-exposed CAFs on metabolic coupling and tumor aggressiveness of HNSCC. Cigarette smoke (CS) extract was generated by dissolving cigarette smoke in growth media. Fibroblasts were cultured in CS or control media. HNSCC cells were cocultured in vitro and coinjected in vivo with CS or control fibroblasts. We found that CS induced oxidative stress, glycolytic flux and MCT4 expression, and senescence in fibroblasts. MCT4 upregulation was critical for fibroblast viability under CS conditions. The effects of CS ...
Autoantibodies Response to MDM2 and p53 in the Immunodiagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma | Chai, Y.; Peng, B.; Dai, L.; Qian, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.-Y. | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm of oral mucosa, representing more than 90%. Tobacco and alcohol has been considered as the classical risk factors. Human papilloma Virus has been proposed as an etiological risk factor since 2007. Thirty five cases diagnosed with OC their ages and gender matched with controls were enrolled in this study. Fifty-five un-stimulated whole saliva samples (35 OC and 20 apparently health subjects) were collected. DNA was purified from exfoliate cells to amplify HPV-DNA using HPV-L1 gene sequence primers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, the genotyping was performed using direct sequencing method. Mean age was 52.23±13.73 years in cases (range: 17-70 years) while in controls was 50.55±12.5 years (range: 24-74 years).Forty-six percent (16/35) of OC patients was positive for detection of HPV DNA (P,0.001). The most frequent type in patient group was HPV-18 type accounting for (31%) of cases (P,0.05). The prevalence rate of HPV ...
Carcinoma cuniculatum is one of the variants of squamous cell carcinoma. It is significantly rare with an incidence rate < 1% compared to other histological variants of squamous cell carcinoma....
We are reporting two cases of perianal squamous cell carcinoma in-situ, negative for high-risk (HR) and low-risk (LR) human papilloma viruses. A brief review of anal and perianal squamous cell carcinoma and the role of HPV are presented.
Basal cell carcinoma Fleshy, growing mass Areas exposed to the sun Squamous cell carcinoma Unusual growth that is red, scaly or ...
Tissue biopsy is not usually required, unless to rule out other suspected conditions such as oral squamous cell carcinoma.[17] ... The relative increase in percentage of CD8+ T cells, caused by a reduction in numbers of CD4+ T cells may be implicated in RAS- ... Mast cells and macrophages are also involved, secreting TNF-α along with the T cells. When early aphthous ulcers are biopsied, ... and the ratio of CD4+ T cells to CD8+ T cells in the peripheral blood of individuals with aphthous stomatitis is decreased.[5] ...
Squamous cell carcinoma. *Adenocarcinoma. Stomach. *Gastric carcinoma. *Signet ring cell carcinoma. *Gastric lymphoma *MALT ... LHCGR (Luteinizing hormone insensitivity, Leydig cell hypoplasia, Male-limited precocious puberty). *FSHR (Follicle-stimulating ...
Non-small-cell lung carcinoma[edit]. Micrograph of squamous-cell carcinoma, a type of non-small-cell carcinoma, FNA specimen, ... The three main subtypes of NSCLC are adenocarcinoma, squamous-cell carcinoma and large-cell carcinoma.[1] ... are carcinomas.[12] The two main types are small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).[3] The ... typically leading to squamous-cell lung carcinoma. In the middle airways, implicated stem cells include club cells and ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ... An odontoblast cell showing odontoblast process (not in proportion - in reality this process is far longer than the body of the ...
Squamous cell carcinoma. *Adenocarcinoma. Stomach. *Gastric carcinoma. *Signet ring cell carcinoma. *Gastric lymphoma *MALT ...
... with squamous cell carcinoma being the most common type. The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma increases to 37% when the ... Solivan, GA; Smith, KJ; James, WD (1990). "squamous cell carcinoma". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 23 (5 Pt 2 ... Tenderness at the base of the lesion is often a clue to the presence of a possible underlying squamous cell carcinoma.[citation ... or squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). These can look essentially identical clinically. The only reliable way to ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ... shedding of surface epithelial cells).[5] Many people with BHT are heavy smokers.[5] Other possible associated factors are poor ...
The most common type of oral cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. The main causes are long-term smoking and alcohol consumption ( ... Cytotoxic drugs administered during chemotherapy target cells with fast turnovers such as malignant cells. However, the ... Only the superficial epithelial cells of the epidermis or of the mucosa are lost, and the lesion can reach the depth of the ... Malignancies in the mouth are usually carcinomas, but lymphomas, sarcomas and others may also be possible. Either the tumor ...
Other exocrine cancers include adenosquamous carcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, hepatoid carcinomas, colloid carcinomas, ... The next most common type, acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas, arises in the clusters of cells that produce these enzymes, ... undifferentiated carcinomas, and undifferentiated carcinomas with osteoclast-like giant cells. Solid pseudopapillary tumor is a ... Squamous cell carcinoma. *Adenocarcinoma. Stomach. *Gastric carcinoma. *Signet ring cell carcinoma. *Gastric lymphoma *MALT ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ... The involvement of a subset of T cells (Th17) seems to be important.[9] The primary cause is not well known. In fact, no one ... eye inflammation (iritis, uveitis, retinal vasculitis, cells in the vitreous). *genital ulcers (including anal ulcers and spots ... "Humoral and cell mediated immune response to cow's milk proteins in Behçet's disease". Ann. Rheum. Dis. 61 (5): 459-62. doi ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ... Histologically, the epithelial cells show signs of intracellular and extracellular edema.[citation needed] ...
Squamous cell carcinoma. *Adenocarcinoma. Stomach. *Gastric carcinoma. *Signet ring cell carcinoma. *Gastric lymphoma *MALT ...
Squamous cell carcinoma no Keratinizing, Nonkeratininzing, Basalaoid, Verrucous, Warty [16][17][18] ... Micrograph of a small-cell carcinoma showing cells with nuclear moulding, minimal amount of cytoplasm and stippled chromatin. ... Micrograph showing the yolk sac component of a mixed germ cell tumour. H&E stain. ... these include leukemia and most forms of carcinoma in situ. Tumor is also not synonymous with cancer. While cancer is by ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ... Inflammation (day 1): Virus begins reproducing and infecting cells at the end of the nerve. The healthy cells react to the ... Post-scab (12-14 days): A reddish area may linger at the site of viral infection as the destroyed cells are regenerated. Virus ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ... or plasma cell gingivitis, which may be accompanied by glossitis and cheilitis.[10] Apart from BMS itself, a full list of ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ...
Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous carcinoma. *Mucosal melanoma. *Spindle cell carcinoma. *Squamous cell ...
Squamous-cell carcinoma is the second-most prevalent skin cancer, followed by melanoma. Squamous-cell carcinoma and melanoma ... 694 Knottenbelt and McGarry, Squamous cell carcinoma, pg. 427 Knottenbelt and McGarry. Squamous cell carcinoma., pg. 433. ... epidermal skin cells that become keratinized. Squamous-cell carcinomas are often solitary, slow-growing tumors that cause ... Squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common cancer of the eye, periorbital area and penis, and it is the second most ...
Alam, Murad; Ratner, Désirée (2001). "Cutaneous Squamous-Cell Carcinoma". New England Journal of Medicine. 344 (13): 975-83. ... "Merkel cell carcinoma". Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. 7 (3): 322-32. PMID 19401064. Alam, Murad; ... His work has also extended to serving on expert panels such as those dedicated to merkel cell cancer and guidelines of care. He ...
While it is difficult to predict whether an AK will advance to become squamous cell carcinoma, it has been noted that squamous ... Kivisaari, Atte (2013). "Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: Emerging need for novel biomarkers". World Journal of Clinical ... Actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) can present similarly on physical exam, and many scientists argue that they ... Moy, RL (Jan 2000). "Clinical presentation of actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinoma". Journal of the American Academy ...
Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma - in medical. ...
Kobielak A, Fuchs E (February 2006). "Links between alpha-catenin, NF-kappaB, and squamous cell carcinoma in skin". Proc. Natl ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ... Catenin and EMT interactions may also play a role in hepatocellular carcinoma. VEGF-B treatment of hepatoma carcinoma cells can ...
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and keratoacanthoma (KA) are skin neoplasms of epithelial origin. In contrast to clearly ... Differences between Keratoacanthoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using TGF-á. Leo Cabrijan orcid.org/0000-0002-5867-3406 ; ... Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and keratoacanthoma (KA) are skin neoplasms of epithelial origin. In contrast to clearly ... "Differences between Keratoacanthoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using TGF-á." Collegium antropologicum, vol. 37, br. 1, 2013, ...
Little is known about the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue (SCCOT). Here we have ... Altered mRNA Expression of Genes Involved in Endocannabinoid Signalling in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tongue. ... Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue, endocannabinoids, cyclooxygenase-2, N-acyl- osphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D ...
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma locally advanced induction TPF (DOCEtaxel ciSplatin fluorouracil) (part 1). ... Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma locally advanced induction TPF (DOCEtaxel ciSplatin fluorouracil) (part 1) ... Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma locally advanced cARBOplatin (weekly) chemoradiation (part 2 of TPF) ... Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma locally advanced induction TPF (DOCEtaxel ciSplatin fluorouracil) followed by ...
Carcinoma arising from squamous epithelial cells, morphologically characterized by proliferation of atypical, often pleomorphic ... Squamous cell carcinoma arising from the pleura after pneumonectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. American Journal ... Primary pleural squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a very rare pleural malignancy which has seldom been reported. Cases of ... Faiz S., Allen T.C. (2018) Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Pleural. In: Allen T.C., Suster S. (eds) Pathology of the Pleura ...
CD109 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cell-surface glycoprotein. Recently, CD109 emerges as... ... Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is well-known for its high rate of metastasis with poor prognosis. ... Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), also known as prickle cell carcinoma, is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in ... Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is one of the major subtypes of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and accounts for ...
... in squamous cells that line the moist, mucosal surfaces inside the head and neck.] ... A head and neck carcinoma that has_material_basis_ ... Synonyms: squamous cell carcinomas of head and neck, carcinoma ... A head and neck carcinoma that has_material_basis_in squamous cells that line the moist, mucosal surfaces inside the head and ... squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck ... cell_carcinoma url:http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet ...
The early diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is preferable as the tumor is easier to remove and treat when the affected ... Squamous Cell Carcinoma Diagnosis. News-Medical. 24 January 2020. ,https://www.news-medical.net/health/Squamous-Cell-Carcinoma ... Squamous Cell Carcinoma Diagnosis. News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/health/Squamous-Cell-Carcinoma-Diagnosis.aspx. ( ... Squamous Cell Carcinoma Diagnosis. News-Medical, viewed 24 January 2020, https://www.news-medical.net/health/Squamous-Cell- ...
The biopsy says squamous cells but the tumor marker CA9-19 is very elevated raising suspicions... ... squamous cell carcinoma sunanda To Dr.Fernando Roque, Sir, I have certain doubts regarding my mothers biopsy and clinical ... squamous cell carcinoma. To Dr.Fernando Roque, Sir, I have certain doubts regarding my mothers biopsy and clinical tests. The ... If the squamous carcinoma comes from the lung, gemcitabine is useful, but if it came from some other organ such as the cervix, ...
... is a health condition involving the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the skin outer squamous cells of the epidermis. It ... occurs as a result of keratinization of the epidermal cells and has the potential to metastasize to other regions of the body. ... Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common type of skin cancer, after basal cell carcinoma. ... What is Squamous Cell Carcinoma?. News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Squamous-Cell-Carcinoma.aspx. ( ...
There is some evidence that radiation therapy can be useful in slowing the progress of squamous cell carcinoma and if that is ... Cancer and Tumors - Squamous Cell Carcinoma * Feline Squamous Cell Carcinoma Prognosis * Carcinomas in Dogs ...
This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may ... This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may ... Squamous cell cancers can metastasize (spread) and should be removed surgically as soon as they are diagnosed. ... Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive. URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/imagepages/2522.htm Squamous cell carcinoma - ...
Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC). Overview. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a cancer that forms in squamous cells. Squamous cells ... Squamous cell carcinoma commonly occurs in areas of skin with high sun exposure such as the face, scalp, head, neck, ears, ... When squamous cell carcinoma is diagnosed, the physician determines the extent (stage) of the disease by evaluating the depth ... Anyone can develop squamous cell carcinoma; however, certain Individuals have an increased risk. ...
esophageal squamous cell carcinoma From the Archive. Timeless stories from our 170-year archive handpicked to speak to the news ...
Lung --Squamous cell carcinoma is hosted at free file sharing service 4shared. Online video hosting. Fast file transfer. ... Lung --Squamous cell carcinoma - download at 4shared. Lung --Squamous cell carcinoma is hosted at free file sharing service ...
Squamous cell carcinoma of the nail bed. BMJ 2015; 351 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h4640 (Published 02 September 2015) ...
S. E. Edge, D. R. Byrd, C. C. Compton et al., "Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and other cutaneous carcinomas," in AJCC ... S. K. Barksdale, N. OConnor, and R. Barnhill, "Prognostic factors for cutaneous squamous cell and basal cell carcinoma. ... Molecular Markers in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Anthony P. Tufaro,1,2 Jim C.-M. Chuang,2 Nijaguna Prasad,3 Alice Chuang ... M. Alam and D. Ratner, "Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma," New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 344, no. 13, pp. 975-983, ...
Squamous cell carcinomas can be found in many parts of the body including the lungs, skin, anus, esophagus, head ... Definition Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer containing squamous cells. ... The appearance of squamous cell carcinoma is more varied than basal cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma also tends to grow ... Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer containing squamous cells. ...
Squamous cell lung carcinoma is a type of non-small cell lung cancer. Well tell you all about treatments, staging, symptoms, ... about 30 percent are squamous cell carcinomas.. Squamous cell lung carcinoma begins in the top layer of cells, called squamous ... Squamous cell lung carcinoma diagnosis. To diagnose squamous cell lung carcinoma, your doctor will first ask you about your ... Squamous cell lung carcinoma treatment. Treatment for squamous cell lung carcinoma depends on how advanced the cancer is, your ...
NMSC includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), with SCCs constituting approximately 20% of all NMSCs. In ... Light blue cells, initiated cells containing ras and/or p53 mutations; dark blue cells, metastatic cells; thin arrow, inducer; ... Primary care: cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 344:975-983. View this article via: CrossRef PubMed Google ... A role for sunlight in skin cancer: UV-induced p53 mutations in squamous cell carcinoma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 88: ...
... Anthony P. Tufaro,1,2 Jim C.-M. Chuang,2 Nijaguna Prasad,3 Alice Chuang ... Whereas the molecular profiles of melanoma have been well characterized, those for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) ... Nonmelanoma skin carcinoma (NMSC) is the most frequent cancer in the USA with over 1.3 million new diagnoses a year; however ...
... squamous cell carcinoma, squamous epithelium, stabbing pain, staples, stomach, stool, stricture, strictureplasty, submucosa, ... Video Tag: Squamous Cell Carcinoma. SAGES Webinar: Preparing for the ABSITE (December 2016). Webinar Chair: Michael Awad, MD, ... colon carcinoma, colonic polyp, colonoscopic excision, colonoscopy, colorectal carcinoma, colorectal disease, columnar ... white blood cell. Video Authors. Alseidi A, Awad M, Blatnik J, Traugott A. Video Institutions. Ohio State University, Virginia ...
Prognosis for Feline Squamous Cell Carcinoma. The prognosis for feline squamous cell carcinoma will vary greatly depending upon ... Feline squamous cell carcinoma is a type of cancer that forms on a cats skin, usually near the facial area. This type of ... Properly caring for a cat with feline squamous cell carcinoma can help to improve quality of life and also help to speed ... There is no cure for feline squamous cell carcinoma, but with attention and proper treatment, its possible for a cat to ...
... a carcinoma that arises from squamous epithelium in the skin and sometimes in the mucous membranes. See more. ... scaly epithelial cell, found in organs such as the skin, cervix, oral cavity, larynx, and vulva. Squamous cell carcinoma of the ... A carcinoma that arises from squamous epithelium and is the most common form of skin cancer.cancroid epidermoid carcinoma ... a carcinoma that arises from squamous epithelium in the skin and sometimes in the mucous membranes. ...
Our results suggest that the low AChE activity observed in larynx squamous cell carcinoma may be useful for predicting the ... Unbalanced acetylcholinesterase activity in larynx squamous cell carcinoma.. Castillo-González AC1, Pelegrín-Hernández JP2, ... Fifty paired pieces of larynx squamous cell carcinoma and adjacent non-cancerous tissue were compared in terms of their ... In cancer, particularly those related with smoking, the mechanism through which tumour cells respond to aberrantly activated ...
Surgery is the main treatment for squamous cell carcinoma. Learn about treatments, including radiation, photodynamic therapy ... Treatments for squamous cell carcinoma. The following are treatment options for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. Your ... Cancer information / Cancer types / Skin - non-melanoma / Treatment / Squamous cell carcinoma Select the text below and copy ... It uses high-energy rays or particles to destroy cancer cells. It is used for SCC that cant be treated with surgery or if ...
  • Lo W, Ting L, Ko J, Lou P, Yang T. Malignancies of the ear in irradiated patients of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • Viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (majorly involved in causing nasopharyngeal carcinoma) and human papilloma virus are included in this category. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is caused by a combination of factors: viral, environmental influences, and heredity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization classifies nasopharyngeal carcinoma in three types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma-low power Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma-med. (wikipedia.org)
  • power Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma-high power Staging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is based on clinical and radiologic examination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fifty paired pieces of larynx squamous cell carcinoma and adjacent non-cancerous tissue were compared in terms of their acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE). (nih.gov)
  • To determine which type of squamous cell carcinoma a patient has, a pathologist will examine a tissue sample underneath a microscope. (moffitt.org)
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the number of mast cells in tissue sections of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in comparison with normal mucosa. (hindawi.com)
  • Mast cells are normally present in small numbers in the connective tissue of all organs and more particularly (around blood vessels and nerves) in the dermal layer of skin, ranging from 5 to 15 μ m in diameter, and in histologic sections often appear ovoid, tadpole, or spindle shaped cells with cytoplasmic granules of 0.2 to 0.5 cm in size. (hindawi.com)
  • These scale like tissue cells are called the squamous. (petmd.com)
  • Using 55 polymorphic DNA markers covering every autosomal arm except 13p, 21p, and 22p, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed on 36 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCs) and their adjacent normal tissue samples. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Histologically, sarcoids are composed of fibroblasts (collagen producing cells) that invade and proliferate within the dermis and sometimes the subcutaneous tissue but do not readily metastasize to other organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cell junction (or intercellular bridge) is a type of structure that exists within the tissue of some multicellular organisms, such as animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Periostin localizes to the extracellular compartment of cells during tissue remodeling associated with wound repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another uncommon characteristic of Bartholin gland malignancies is that the growth of a lesion originates from the three types of epithelial tissue present in the gland: mucinous, transitional, and squamous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autoimmunity is a process in which the body fails to recognize itself and therefore attacks its own cells and tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathology grading systems classify the microscopic cell appearance abnormality and deviations in their rate of growth with the goal of predicting developments at tissue level (see also the 4 major histological changes in dysplasia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) originate in stratified epithelia, with a small subset becoming metastatic. (jci.org)
  • We developed a mouse model of SCC by targeting two frequent genetic mutations in human SCCs, oncogene Kras G12D activation and Smad4 deletion, to mouse keratin 15-expressing (K15 + ) stem cells. (jci.org)
  • Increased miR-9 was detected in metastatic human primary SCCs and SCC metastases, and miR-9-transduced human SCC cells exhibited increased invasion. (jci.org)
  • In oral SCCs, the percentage of positive cells was assessed. (nih.gov)
  • We describe a case of MFH in a 71-year-old Italian man who 8 years before underwent a right cordectomy and radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • The risk of sarcoma after radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma in the larynx is very low when considering the frequent use of radiotherapy, but long follow-ups are required. (springer.com)