Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: A form of highly malignant lung cancer that is composed of small ovoid cells (SMALL CELL CARCINOMA).Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Carcinoma, Large Cell: A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Merkel Cell: A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Carcinoma, Medullary: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Sarcoma, Small Cell: A sarcoma characterized by the presence of small cells, cells measuring 9-14 micrometers with a faint or indistinct rim of cytoplasm and an oval-to-elongated nucleus with relatively dense chromatin. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Gastrin-Releasing Peptide: Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Phosphopyruvate Hydratase: A hydro-lyase that catalyzes the dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate to form PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE. Several different isoforms of this enzyme exist, each with its own tissue specificity.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Carcinoma, Adenosquamous: A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Carcinoma, Endometrioid: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.Paraneoplastic Syndromes: In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Bombesin: A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.Carcinoma, Verrucous: A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell: A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Receptors, Bombesin: Cell surface proteins that bind bombesin or closely related peptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Gastrin- releasing peptide (GRP); GRP 18-27 (neuromedin C), and neuromedin B are endogenous ligands of bombesin receptors in mammals.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells: The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Synaptophysin: A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular: A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Topotecan: An antineoplastic agent used to treat ovarian cancer. It works by inhibiting DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I.Chondrosarcoma, Mesenchymal: A rare aggressive variant of chondrosarcoma, characterized by a biphasic histologic pattern of small compact cells intermixed with islands of cartilaginous matrix. Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas have a predilection for flat bones; long tubular bones are rarely affected. They tend to occur in the younger age group and are highly metastatic. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1456)Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed: Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous: A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Ureteral Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the URETER which may cause obstruction leading to hydroureter, HYDRONEPHROSIS, and PYELONEPHRITIS. HEMATURIA is a common symptom.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome: An autoimmune disease characterized by weakness and fatigability of proximal muscles, particularly of the pelvic girdle, lower extremities, trunk, and shoulder girdle. There is relative sparing of extraocular and bulbar muscles. CARCINOMA, SMALL CELL of the lung is a frequently associated condition, although other malignancies and autoimmune diseases may be associated. Muscular weakness results from impaired impulse transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Presynaptic calcium channel dysfunction leads to a reduced amount of acetylcholine being released in response to stimulation of the nerve. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 1471)Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Mice, Inbred BALB CNeoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Keratin-7: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Urothelium: The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Dopa Decarboxylase: One of the AROMATIC-L-AMINO-ACID DECARBOXYLASES, this enzyme is responsible for the conversion of DOPA to DOPAMINE. It is of clinical importance in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.Cytodiagnosis: Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Keratin-19: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-7 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.Neoplasms, Squamous Cell: Neoplasms of the SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Carboplatin: An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Keratin-6: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-16 or KERATIN-17 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in gene for keratin-6A and keratin-6B have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 1 and PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2 respectively.Chemoembolization, Therapeutic: Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Mucin-1: Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Carcinoma, Basosquamous: A skin carcinoma that histologically exhibits both basal and squamous elements. (From Dorland, 27th ed)APUD Cells: Cells with the capacity to take up and decarboxylate the amine precursors DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE or 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN. This is a property of endocrine cells of neural and non-neural origin. APUDOMA is a general term collectively applied to tumors associated with APUD cells.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Neoplasms, Unknown Primary: Metastases in which the tissue of origin is unknown.Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational: Variation in a population's DNA sequence that is detected by determining alterations in the conformation of denatured DNA fragments. Denatured DNA fragments are allowed to renature under conditions that prevent the formation of double-stranded DNA and allow secondary structure to form in single stranded fragments. These fragments are then run through polyacrylamide gels to detect variations in the secondary structure that is manifested as an alteration in migration through the gels.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.

Early death during chemotherapy in patients with small-cell lung cancer: derivation of a prognostic index for toxic death and progression. (1/2496)

Based on an increased frequency of early death (death within the first treatment cycle) in our two latest randomized trials of combination chemotherapy in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), we wanted to identify patients at risk of early non-toxic death (ENTD) and early toxic death (ETD). Data were stored in a database and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for early death. During the first cycle, 118 out of 937 patients (12.6%) died. In 38 patients (4%), the cause of death was sepsis. Significant risk factors were age, performance status (PS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and treatment with epipodophyllotoxins and platinum in the first cycle (EP). Risk factors for ENTD were age, PS and LDH. Extensive stage had a hazard ratio of 1.9 (P = 0.07). Risk factors for ETD were EP, PS and LDH, whereas age and stage were not. For EP, the hazard ratio was as high as 6.7 (P = 0.0001). We introduced a simple prognostic algorithm including performance status, LDH and age. Using a prognostic algorithm to exclude poor-risk patients from trials, we could minimize early death, improve long-term survival and increase the survival differences between different regimens. We suggest that other groups evaluate our algorithm and exclude poor prognosis patients from trials of dose intensification.  (+info)

Defining and analysing symptom palliation in cancer clinical trials: a deceptively difficult exercise. (2/2496)

The assessment of symptom palliation is an essential component of many treatment comparisons in clinical trials, yet an extensive literature search revealed no consensus as to its precise definition, which could embrace relief of symptoms, time to their onset, duration, degree, as well as symptom control and prevention. In an attempt to assess the importance of these aspects and to compare different methods of analysis, we used one symptom (cough) from a patient self-assessment questionnaire (the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist) in a large (>300 patient) multicentre randomized clinical trial (conducted by the Medical Research Council Lung Cancer Working Party) of palliative chemotherapy in small-cell lung cancer. The regimens compared were a two-drug regimen (2D) and a four-drug regimen (4D). No differences were seen between the regimens in time of onset of palliation or its duration. The degree of palliation was strongly related to the initial severity: 90% of the patients with moderate or severe cough at baseline reported improvement, compared with only 53% of those with mild cough. Analyses using different landmark time points gave conflicting results: the 4D regimen was superior at 1 month and at 3 months, whereas at 2 months the 2D regimen appeared superior. When improvement at any time up to 3 months was considered, the 4D regimen showed a significant benefit (4D 79%, 2D 60%, P = 0.02). These findings emphasize the need for caution in interpreting results, and the importance of working towards a standard definition of symptom palliation. The current lack of specified criteria makes analysis and interpretation of trial results difficult, and comparison across trials impossible. A standard definition of palliation for use in the analysis of clinical trials data is proposed, which takes into account aspects of onset, duration and degree of palliation, and symptom improvement, control and prevention.  (+info)

Coexpression of transcripts encoding EPHB receptor protein tyrosine kinases and their ephrin-B ligands in human small cell lung carcinoma. (3/2496)

The EPH family is the largest subfamily of receptor protein tyrosine kinases, consisting of the EPHA and EPHB subgroups. Ephrin-B1, ephrin-B2, and ephrin-B3 are ligands of the EPHB subgroup and are encoded by the EFNB1, EFNB2, and EFNB3 genes, respectively. We have shown previously that EPHB2 transcripts are expressed in six small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cell lines. In this study, we examined the expression of EPHB1, EPHB2, EPHB3, EPHB4, and EPHB6 in 4 SCLC tumor specimens and 14 cell lines including 3 cell lines derived from these tumor specimens. To investigate whether potential autocrine loops of EPHB receptors and ephrin-B ligands exist in SCLC, the expression of EFNB1, EFNB2, and EFNB3 was also examined. Our data show that transcripts encoding multiple members of the EPHB subgroup and the ephrin-B subgroup are coexpressed in SCLC cell lines and tumors. These results suggest that the EPHB subgroup receptor kinases may modulate the biological behavior of SCLC through autocrine and/or juxtacrine activation by ephrin-B ligands that are expressed in the same or neighboring cells.  (+info)

Combined modality therapy of lung cancer. (4/2496)

Combined modality therapy for lung cancer was first demonstrated to be successful in limited-stage small cell lung cancer. Concurrent administration of chemotherapy with chest and elective brain irradiation appears to produce the best results, with cisplatin/etoposide as the core chemotherapy. Using such programs, 2-year survival in the 40% range and 5-year survivals in excess of 20% may be expected, based on the results of multiple studies. Attempts to improve on these results through the use of altered schemes of chest irradiation or the delivery of high-dose consolidation chemotherapy are ongoing but to date have not been shown to affect survival significantly. We remain at a plateau in the effectiveness of combined modality therapy for small cell lung cancer, with little evidence that it impacts survival at all in extensive-stage disease. The incorporation of new agents in combination chemotherapy regimens, more "specific" immunotherapy directed at tumor-associated antigens, and the potential adjunctive use of broad-spectrum neuropeptide antagonists offer promise for the future. In non-small cell lung cancer, the sequential use of platinum-based chemotherapy and chest irradiation appears superior in survival to standard, daily fractionated radiation therapy used alone, with long-term survival increased from 5-10% to 15-20%. Concurrent administration of chemotherapy with cisplatin/etoposide and chest irradiation produces 2-year survival in the range of 30%, about twice that would be expected for radiation therapy alone, but has not been compared to it in the setting of a randomized trial. Low-dose cisplatin on a daily basis has been combined as a "sensitizer" with chest irradiation, producing initial results that appeared encouraging. However, these have not been reproduced in subsequent, randomized trials. Another approach to combined modalities has been to give chemotherapy or chemotherapy/radiation therapy as induction, followed by surgical resection, with or without subsequent additional treatment. Most patients (80-85%) can be resected, with encouraging survival at 2 and 3 years in the Southwest Oncology Group experience (37 and 26%, respectively). However, toxicity is greater, and such an approach is associated with an overall mortality risk in the range of 10%. A current intergroup study attempts to define the role of surgery in this setting. The major recent development that is likely to influence the future of combined modality therapy for this disease is the advent of multiple new chemotherapeutic agents, such as the taxanes, gemcitabine, vinorelbine, and the topoisomerase-I inhibitors, which have activity in stage IV disease. The immediate challenge is how to combine these agents with platinum analogues, radiation, and surgery. Aiding this process may be the use of molecular biological "markers" that may predict the chance of success or failure with a given systemic agent. The next decade is likely to see substantial improvements in the outcome of treatment for patients with stages I-III non-small cell lung cancer, based on the systemic exploration of combined modalities.  (+info)

Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor fostriecin. (5/2496)

We conducted a phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor fostriecin. Fostriecin was administered intravenously over 60 min on days 1-5 at 4-week intervals. Dose was escalated from 2 mg m(-2) day(-1) to 20 mg m(-2) day(-1) in 20 patients. Drug pharmacokinetics was analysed with high performance liquid chromatography with UV-detection. Plasma collected during drug administration was tested in vitro for growth inhibition of a teniposide-resistant small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line. The predominant toxicities were elevated liver transaminases (maximum common toxicity criteria (CTC) grade 4) and serum creatinine (maximum CTC grade 2). These showed only a limited increase with increasing doses, often recovered during drug administration and were fully reversible. Duration of elevated alanine-amino transferase (ALT) was dose-limiting in one patient at 20 mg m(-2). Other frequent toxicities were grade 1-2 nausea/vomiting, fever and mild fatigue. Mean fostriecin plasma half-life was 0.36 h (initial; 95% CI, 0-0.76 h) and 1.51 h (terminal; 95% CI, 0.41-2.61 h). A metabolite, most probably dephosphorylated fostriecin, was detected in plasma and urine. No tumour responses were observed, but the plasma concentrations reached in the patients were insufficient to induce significant growth inhibition in vitro. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) has not been reached, because drug supply was stopped at the 20 mg m(-2) dose level. However, further escalation seems possible and is warranted to achieve potentially effective drug levels. Fostriecin has a short plasma half-life and longer duration of infusion should be considered.  (+info)

Fractionated administration of irinotecan and cisplatin for treatment of lung cancer: a phase I study. (6/2496)

A combination chemotherapy of irinotecan (CPT-11) and cisplatin (CDDP) has been reported to be active for lung cancer. In the previous trial, however, diarrhoea and leucopenia became the major obstacle for sufficient dose escalation of CPT-11 to improve the treatment outcome. We conducted a phase I study to investigate whether the fractionated administration of CDDP and CPT-11 at escalated dose was feasible and could improve the treatment outcome. Twenty-four previously untreated patients with unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or extensive disease of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) were eligible. Both CDDP and CPT-11 were given on days 1 and 8, and repeated every 4 weeks. The dose of CDDP was fixed at 60 mg m(-2) and given by 1-h infusion before CPT-11 administration. The starting dose of CPT-11 was 40 mg m(-2), and the dose was escalated by an increase of 10 mg m(-2). The maximally tolerated dose of CPT-11 was determined as 60 mg m(-2) because grade 4 haematological or grade 3 or 4 non-haematological toxicities developed in six patients out of 11 patients evaluated. Diarrhoea became a dose-limiting toxicity. The objective response rates were 76% for NSCLC and 100% for SCLC. The recommended dose of CPT-11 and CDDP in a phase II study will be 50 mg m(-2) and 60 mg m(-2) respectively.  (+info)

Anti-amphiphysin I antibodies in patients with paraneoplastic neurological disorders associated with small cell lung carcinoma. (7/2496)

Patients with stiff man syndrome and breast cancer develop anti-amphiphysin I antibodies that primarily recognise the C terminus of the protein. Anti-amphiphysin I antibodies have also been identified in a few patients with paraneoplastic neurological disorders (PND) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The frequency of anti-amphiphysin I antibodies in patients with SCLC and PND was analysed and the epitope specificity of these antibodies was characterised. Anti-amphiphysin I antibodies were evaluated by immunohistochemistry on human and rat cerebellum and immunoblots of rat brain homogenates. Serum samples included 134 patients with PND and anti-Hu antibodies (83% had SCLC), 44 with SCLC and PND without anti-Hu-antibodies, 63 with PND and either Yo, Ri, or Tr antibodies, 146 with SCLC without PND, and 104 with non-PND. Positive serum samples were confirmed with immunoblots of recombinant human amphiphysin I and immunoreacted with five overlapping peptide fragments covering the full length of the molecule. Serum samples positive for anti-amphiphysin I antibodies included those from seven (2.9%) patients with PND and two (1.4%) with SCLC without PND. Six of the seven anti-amphiphysin I antibody positive patients with PND had SCLC (three with Hu-antibodies), and one had anti-Hu-antibodies but no detectable tumour. The PND included encephalomyelitis/sensory neuropathy (five patients), cerebellar degeneration (one), and opsoclonus (one). All anti-amphiphysin I antibodies reacted with the C terminus of amphiphysin I, but seven also recognised other fragments of the molecule. In conclusion, anti-amphiphysin I antibodies are present at low frequency in patients with SCLC irrespective of the presence of an associated PND. All anti-amphiphysin I antibody positive serum samples have in common reactivity with the C terminus of the protein.  (+info)

Paclitaxel and carboplatin in the treatment of small-cell lung cancer patients resistant to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide: a non-cross-resistant schedule. (8/2496)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of paclitaxel and carboplatin (PC) in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients resistant to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide (CDE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a phase II study with PC in SCLC patients who relapsed within 3 months after first-line treatment with CDE. Paclitaxel administration (175 mg/m2 by a 3-hour intravenous infusion) was followed by a 30-minute infusion of carboplatin (area under the curve 7; Chatelut formula) once every 3 weeks for five cycles. Dexamethasone, clemastine, and ranitidine were standard premedication before every cycle. RESULTS: Included were 35 patients (median age, 59 years; 16 with limited disease and 19 with extensive disease; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of < or = 1; median time off treatment 6 weeks) who were previously treated with CDE (n = 33), oral etoposide (n = 2), and reinduction CDE (n = 15); only one patient had received three CDE treatments of five cycles. The CDE regimen was followed by local thoracic radiotherapy in seven patients. Hematologic toxicity of grade 3 or 4, for leukopenia was 27% and 6%, for thrombocytopenia 21% and 13%, and for anemia 17% and 0%, respectively, for a total of 132 cycles. Two patients had neutropenic fever; no toxic death occurred. Nonhematologic toxicity was paresthesia CTC grade 3, diarrhea grade 4, and myalgia grade 3 in one patient each. Reversible paresthesia (CTC grade 1 and 2) in toes and fingers was reported in 69% of patients. Thirty-four patients were assessable for response: complete response in two patients, partial response in 23 patients, stable disease in eight patients, and progressive disease in one patient (response rate, 73.5%; 95% confidence interval, 59% to 88%). One patient was found to have atypical carcinoid at pathologic review and was excluded. Median time to progression was 21 weeks (range, 3 to 40 weeks). Median survival was 31 weeks (range, 6 to 112 weeks). One-year survival was 9%. CONCLUSION: Second-line PC in CDE-resistant SCLC patients yields a high response rate and seems non-cross-resistant to CDE. Toxicity was mild in these poor-prognosis patients.  (+info)

*Lung cancer

Non-small-cell lung carcinoma[edit]. Micrograph of squamous-cell carcinoma, a type of non-small-cell carcinoma, FNA specimen, ... are carcinomas.[12] The two main types are small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).[3] The ... For therapeutic purposes, two broad classes are distinguished: non-small-cell lung carcinoma and small-cell lung carcinoma.[66] ... Small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC)[3]. ...

*List of vaginal tumors

Micrograph of a small-cell carcinoma showing cells with nuclear moulding, minimal amount of cytoplasm and stippled chromatin. ... Micrograph showing the yolk sac component of a mixed germ cell tumour. H&E stain. ... these include leukemia and most forms of carcinoma in situ. Tumor is also not synonymous with cancer. While cancer is by ... a solid or fluid-filled cystic lesion that may or may not be formed by an abnormal growth of neoplastic cells) that appears ...

*Adrenocorticotropic hormone

Small cell carcinoma, a common cause of ACTH secreted ectopically. *Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, diseases in the production ... ACTH acts by binding to cell surface ACTH receptors, which are located primarily on adrenocortical cells of the adrenal cortex ... ACTH also stimulates lipoprotein uptake into cortical cells. This increases the bioavailability of cholesterol in the cells of ... ACTH stimulates secretion of glucocorticoid steroid hormones from adrenal cortex cells, especially in the zona fasciculata of ...

*سرطان پروستات - ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد

Small cell carcinoma is a very rare (1%[77]) type of prostate cancer that cannot be diagnosed using the PSA.[77][78] As of 2009 ... Initially, small clumps of cancer cells remain confined to otherwise normal prostate glands, a condition known as carcinoma in ... "Small-cell carcinoma of the prostate". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 90 (6): 340-1. PMC 1296316 . PMID 9227387.. ... LNCaP cells express androgen receptor (AR), but PC-3 and DU-145 cells express very little or no AR. AR, an androgen-activated ...

*Chemotherapy regimen

non-seminomatous germ cell tumors PEI cisplatin, etoposide, ifosfamide small-cell lung carcinoma ... B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma FCM-R or R-FCM or R-FMC or FMC-R fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, mitoxantrone plus rituximab B cell ... B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma R-ICE or ICE-R or RICE rituximab + ICE; that is, rituximab, ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide high ... "A prospective randomized phase III study in non-small-cell lung cancer comparing cisplatin, ifosfamide, vinblastine (VIP) ...

*Pleural disease

Pleural desmoplastic small round cell tumor (pleural DSRCT). *Pleural synovial sarcoma. *Pleural solitary fibrous tumor ( ... Pleural carcinomas *Pleural mucoepidermoid carcinoma. *Pleural pseudomesotheliomatous adenocarcinoma. See also[edit]. *Pleural ...

*Rak pluća - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија

Većina tipova plućnih kancera su plućni karcinomi malih-ćelija (engl. small-cell lung carcinoma, SCLC). Najčešći simptomi su ... 1977). „Intensive chemotherapy of small cell bronchogenic carcinoma". Cancer Treatment Reports. 61 (3): 349-354. PMID 194691.. ... 2006). „K-ras mutations in non-small-cell lung carcinoma: a review". Clinical Lung Cancer. Cancer Information Group. 8 (1): 30- ... 2006). „Small cell lung cancer". Annals of Oncology. 17 (Suppl. 2): 5-10. PMID 16608983. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdj910.. ...

*Prostate cancer

Small cell carcinoma is a very rare (1%[74]) type of prostate cancer that cannot be diagnosed using the PSA.[74][75] As of 2009 ... "Small-cell carcinoma of the prostate". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 90 (6): 340-1. PMC 1296316 . PMID 9227387.. ... Initially, small clumps of cancer cells remain confined to otherwise normal prostate glands, a condition known as carcinoma in ... LNCaP cells express androgen receptor (AR), but PC-3 and DU-145 cells express very little or no AR. AR, an androgen-activated ...

*Targeted therapy of lung cancer

See also: Combined small-cell lung carcinoma. The term "combined small-cell lung carcinoma" (c-SCLC) refers to a multiphasic ... In contrast, non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC's) are more likely to remain localized to the thorax during development, and ... oncologists have long tended to favor a dichotomous division into small cell and non-small cell forms, based on differences in ... While there have been no randomized clinical trials of targeted agents in combined small-cell lung carcinoma (c-SCLC),[citation ...

*Rak pluća

1977). "Intensive chemotherapy of small cell bronchogenic carcinoma". Cancer Treatment Reports 61 (3): 349-354. PMID 194691. ... Detailed guide: Lung cancer - small cell American Cancer Society ((. en. )). *Detailed guide: Lung cancer - non-small cell ... Većina tipova plućnih kancera su plućni karcinomi malih-ćelija (engl. small-cell lung carcinoma, SCLC). Najčešći simptomi su ... Aviel-Ronen, S; Blackhall FH, Shepherd FA, Tsao MS (July 2006). "K-ras mutations in non-small-cell lung carcinoma: a review". ...

*Enolase 2

NSE is produced by small-cell carcinomas, which are neuroendocrine in origin. NSE is therefore a useful tumor marker for ... "Molecular characterization of prostatic small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma". Prostate. 55 (1): 55-64. doi:10.1002/pros.10217. ... Detection of NSE with antibodies can be used to identify neuronal cells and cells with neuroendocrine differentiation. ... neuronal cell body. • perikaryon. • intracellular. • myelin. Biological process. • gluconeogenesis. • canonical glycolysis. • ...

*Mir-9/mir-79 microRNA precursor family

show that two genes encoding for has-miR-9 are significantly hypermethylated in clear cell renal carcinoma tumours. Ambros V ( ... 2001). "microRNAs: tiny regulators with great potential". Cell. 107 (7): 823-6. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00616-X. PMID ... Uchida N (2010). "MicroRNA-9 controls a migratory mechanism in human neural progenitor cells". Cell Stem Cell. 6 (4): 294-6. ... "MicroRNA-9 coordinates proliferation and migration of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors". Cell Stem Cell. 6 ...

*Health effects of tobacco

Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (SCLC) is the most closely associated with almost 100% of cases occurring in smokers.[56] This form ... If the mutation inhibits programmed cell death, the cell can survive to become a cancer, a cell that does not function like a ... If the mutation inhibits programmed cell death, the cell can survive to become a cancer cell. Similarly, acrolein, which is ... Lipworth L, Tarone RE, McLaughlin JK (December 2006). "The epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma". The Journal of Urology. 176 ( ...

*Honokiol

A promising small molecular weight natural agent for the growth inhibition of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells". ... oral squamous cell carcinoma,[11] in glioblastome multiforme cells [12] and colon cancer cell lines.[13][14][15][16] Honokiol ... As a polyphenol it is relatively small and can interact with cell membrane proteins through intermolecular interactions like ... Honokiol also acts on the PI3K/mTOR pathway in tumor cells while maintaining pathway activity in T cells.[17] ...

*Discoidin domain-containing receptor 2

"Expression and mutation analysis of the discoidin domain receptors 1 and 2 in non-small cell lung carcinoma". Br. J. Cancer. 96 ... cell adhesion. • positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation. • chondrocyte proliferation. • positive regulation of cell ... Cell Genet. 61 (4): 274-5. doi:10.1159/000133421. PMID 1486804.. *. Abedinia M, Layfield R, Jones SM, Nixon PF, Mattick JS ( ... extracellular domain in pichia pastoris and functional analysis in synovial fibroblasts and NIT3T3 cells". Mol. Cell. Biochem. ...

*Topotecan

Ovarian cancer (FDA May 1996). Cervical cancer (FDA June 2006). Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) (FDA Oct 2007). As of 2016 ... Topotecan is often given in combination with Paclitaxel as first line treatment for extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer. ... "FDA Rubber-Stamps APP Pharma's Generic Topotecan for Small Cell Lung and Cervical Cancers". 30 Nov 2010. DNA Topoisomerases and ... In addition, topotecan is experimentally treating Non-small cell lung cancer, Colorectal Cancer, Breast cancer, Non-Hodgkin ...

*Timeline of lung cancer

1977). "Intensive chemotherapy of small cell bronchogenic carcinoma". Cancer Treat Rep. 61: 349-54. PMID 194691. CS1 maint: ...

*Enolase 2

NSE is produced by small cell carcinomas which are neuroendocrine in origin. NSE is therefore a useful tumor marker for lung ... "Molecular characterization of prostatic small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma". Prostate. 55 (1): 55-64. doi:10.1002/pros.10217. ... Detection of NSE with antibodies can be used to identify neuronal cells and cells with neuroendocrine differentiation. ... Cell Genet. 54 (1-2): 71-3. doi:10.1159/000132960. PMID 2249478. Oliva D, Barba G, Barbieri G, et al. (1989). "Cloning, ...

*Neuroendocrine differentiation

... small cell carcinoma of the prostate, in turn, exhibit a universal type in that virtually all the constituent tumor cells ... June 2006). "Small cell carcinoma of the prostate: an immunohistochemical study". The American Journal of Surgical Pathology. ... Immunohistochemically, prostatic small cell carcinoma are positive for thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), CD56, ... These types of prostate cancer comprise true neuroendocrine cancers, such as small cell carcinoma, carcinoid and carcinoid-like ...

*Ectopia (medicine)

Ectopic ACTH syndrome, also known as small-cell carcinoma. Ectopic calcification, a pathologic deposition of calcium salts in ... such as small-cell carcinoma, can cause Cushing's syndrome Ectopia lentis, the displacement of the crystalline lens of the eye ...

*Laboratory Syrian hamster

Syrian hamsters are a model for researching Non-small-cell lung carcinoma, which is one of the types of human lung cancer. In ... "Current role of surgery in small cell lung carcinoma". Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery. 4 (1): 30. doi:10.1186/1749-8090-4-30 ... Oral squamous-cell carcinoma is a common cancer in humans and difficult to treat. Scientists studying this disease broadly ... The scientist can take cell samples from the mouth of the hamster to measure the development of the cancer. This process has ...

*Prostate cancer

Small cell carcinoma is a very rare (1%) type of prostate cancer that cannot be diagnosed using the PSA. As of 2009[update] ... Initially, small clumps of cancer cells remain confined to otherwise normal prostate glands, a condition known as carcinoma in ... Nutting C, Horwich A, Fisher C, Parsons C, Dearnaley DP (June 1997). "Small-cell carcinoma of the prostate". Journal of the ... LNCaP cells express androgen receptor (AR), but PC-3 and DU-145 cells express very little or no AR. AR, an androgen-activated ...

*Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy

It is especially associated with non-small cell lung carcinoma. These patients often get clubbing and increased bone deposition ... is a medical condition combining clubbing and periostitis of the small hand joints, especially the distal interphalangeal ...

*Leptomycin

Hietanen S, Lain S, Krausz E, Blattner C, Lane DP (2000). "Activation of p53 in cervical carcinoma cells by small molecules". ... However, recent data shows that leptomycin causes G1 cell cycle arrest in mammalian cells and is a potent anti-tumor agent ... Cell Res. 242 (2): 540-7. doi:10.1006/excr.1998.4136. PMID 9683540. Nishi K, Yoshida M, Fujiwara D, Nishikawa M, Horinouchi S, ... Leptomycin B was found to cause cell elongation of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Since then this elongation ...

*Afatinib

... , sold under the brand name Gilotrif among others, is a medication used to treat non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). ... It has received regulatory approval for use as a treatment for non-small cell lung cancer,[6][4][7][8] although there is ... May 2012). "Afatinib versus placebo for patients with advanced, metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer after failure of ... "Role of afatinib in the treatment of advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma". Clinical Pharmacology. 9: 147-157. doi:10.2147/ ...

*Catenin

F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... In F9 cells lacking both β-catenin and plakoglobin, very little E-cadherin and α-catenin accumulated at the cell surface. Mice ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ... Catenin and EMT interactions may also play a role in hepatocellular carcinoma. VEGF-B treatment of hepatoma carcinoma cells can ...
Primary small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the breast, an exceedingly rare and aggressive tumor, is often characterized by rapid progression and poor prognosis. We report a case of primary SCC of the breast that was diagnosed through pathologic and immuno
Small cell carcinomas (SCC) commonly arise in the respiratory tract; however, it is not uncommon for these cells to arise in nonpulmonary sites, as extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC). Small cell carcinoma is a distinct clinical and pathologic entity that arises from cells of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) system.
Small cell carcinomas (SCC) commonly arise in the respiratory tract; however, it is not uncommon for these cells to arise in nonpulmonary sites, as extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC). Small cell carcinoma is a distinct clinical and pathologic entity that arises from cells of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) system.
A specific, acquired chromosomal abnormality (deletion 3p) has been found in at least one chromosome 3 in 100 percent of the metaphases in 12 of 12 cell lines cultured from human small-cell lung cancer tissue and in 2-day tumor culture specimens from three patients. Analysis of the shortest region of overlap shows the deletion to be 3p(14-23). This specific change was not seen in five of five lung cancer cell lines other than small-cell lung cancer or in two lymphoblastoid lines cultured from cells of small-cell lung cancer patients whose tumors had the 3p deletion. ...
Purpose and methods: To develop a clinically useful approach to circumvent P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) in MDR human small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), we examined the ability of a novel quinoline compound, MS-209, to reverse MDR by inhibition of P-gp function in combination with other MDR-reversing drugs using a cytotoxicity assay. Results: We established MDR human SCLC cells by culture in medium with gradually increasing concentrations of adriamycin (ADM). Compared with the parental human SCLC cells, SBC-3, the MDR variant SBC-3 cells obtained (SBC-3/ADM) were highly resistant to various chemotherapeutic agents due to P-gp expression. MS-209 reversed the resistance to ADM and vincristine (VCR) of SBC-3/ADM and H69/VP cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, MS-209 in combination with cyclosporin A (CsA) or verapamil (VER) synergistically enhanced the antitumor effects of ADM and VCR on SBC-3/ADM cells. MS-209 restored ADM incorporation and this effect was enhanced by CsA
Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCB) is an extremely rare but aggressive tumour constituting less than 0.7% of all urinary bladder tumours.
TY - JOUR. T1 - F-18-FDG-PET/CT imaging of small cell carcinoma of the colon. AU - Jones, Katie. AU - Subramaniam, Rathan M.. AU - Durnick, David K.. AU - Peller, Patrick J.. PY - 2008/9/1. Y1 - 2008/9/1. N2 - Small cell carcinoma of the colon is a rare entity, comprising only 1.5% of all colon cancers. It is an aggressive neoplasm with rapid local progression and early metastasis. We present a case report of F-18 FDG PET/CT features of small cell carcinoma arising in the ascending colon of an 86-year-old woman who presented with anemia and melena. FDG PET/CT demonstrated a small, intense focus of FDG hypermetabolism in the cecum. Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma, described in the salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, rectum, gallbladder, uterus, kidney, and skin, has a poor prognosis when involving the gastrointestinal tract.. AB - Small cell carcinoma of the colon is a rare entity, comprising only 1.5% of all colon cancers. It is an aggressive neoplasm with rapid ...
RATIONALE: The general results of combining irinotecan and platin-based chemotherapies have been very encouraging. As the toxicity profile associated with carboplatin is preferable over cisplatin it is our expectation that patients and physicians would prefer to use this combination if it is equally or more efficacious. To date there has been no agreement regarding the optimal combination of these agents. Based on the trials described in the protocol and our experience with carboplatin/irinotecan in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer the present trial will utilize a 21-day cycle of irinotecan 50 mg/m2 given on days 1 and 8 and carboplatin AUC 5 (based on the Calvert formula) on day 1.. PURPOSE: This phase II trial is studying how well giving irinotecan together with carboplatin works as first-line therapy in treating patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer. ...
RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cisplatin, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide, work in different ways to stop tumor cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. Combining more than one chemotherapy drug may kill more tumor cells.. PURPOSE: This phase II trial is studying how well giving cisplatin, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide together works in treating patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer. ...
BioAssay record AID 81529 submitted by ChEMBL: Cytotoxicity against NCI tumor panel, HOP-92 non small-cell lung cancer cell line.
For the second time this month, the FDA has given an approval to Genentechs PD-L1 inhibitor, Tecentriq.. On March 18, 2019, the FDA awarded the immunotherapy agent, Tecentriq (atezolizumab; Genentech), in combination with chemotherapy (carboplatin and etoposide), approval for the first-line treatment of adults with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC).. As evidence of the rapidity with which the immunotherapy field is gaining ground in cancer treatment, this new approval comes only 10 days after the drug received an accelerated approval (in combination with nab-paclitaxel) for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer. Not only is this the second approval for atezolizumab in close succession to the first, but it is the first novel treatment in 2 decades for ES-SCLC, an aggressive and deadly malignancy.. This latest approval was based on data from the phase 3 IMpower133 trial, which was the first study to show that initial treatment with the immunotherapy-based combination ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Bombesin stimulates growth of human small cell lung carcinoma in vivo. AU - Alexander, R. W.. AU - Upp, J. R.. AU - Poston, G. J.. AU - Gupta, V.. AU - Townsend, Courtney. AU - Thompson, J. C.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0023610349&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0023610349&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Chapter. AN - SCOPUS:0023610349. VL - 38. SP - 450. EP - 452. BT - Surgical Forum. ER - ...
Radiotherapy improves the survival of patients with extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer: a propensity score matched analysis of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database Rui Zhang,* Ping Li,* Qin Li, Yunfeng Qiao, Tangpeng Xu, Peng Ruan, Qibin Song, Zhenming Fu Cancer Center, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The survival advantage of radiotherapy for patients with extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer (ED-SCLC) has not been adequately evaluated.Methods: We analyzed stage IV SCLC patients enrolled from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry through January 2010 and December 2012. Propensity score analysis with 1:1 matching was performed to ensure well-balanced characteristics of all comparison groups. Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazardous model were used to evaluate the overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and corresponding 95% CI.Results: Overall,
Cell lines derived from human small cell carcinoma of the lung express high levels of a surface polypeptide termed the cluster-w4 antigen, which was previously identified as a potential target for toxin-based immunotherapy of lung cancer. We have cloned a complementary DNA encoding the cluster-w4 antigen from COS-1 fibroblasts transfected with a SW2 small cell carcinoma library, by panning with a mixture of the cluster-w4-specific monoclonal antibodies SWA11, SWA21, and SWA22. The sequence of the cluster-w4 complementary DNA encodes an unusually short (80-amino acid) protein identical to that recently reported for the leukocyte activation molecule CD24 except for a single valine-alanine substitution due to a single-base polymorphism within the region of the gene coding for the extracellular domain. Biochemical analyses of the cloned cluster-w4 antigen confirmed both the presence of the phosphatidylinositol tail and the extensive glycosylation reported for the CD24 molecule. Furthermore, the cloned
BACKGROUND: Small cell anaplastic carcinoma most commonly presents as a lesion in the central portion of the lung but occasionally is found in peripheral locations. Only seven cases originating in the breast have been described. To our knowledge, the preoperative diagnosis of this entity by fine needle aspiration has not been previously reported in the cytologic literature. CASE: A 67-year-old female presented with a 4 x 3-cm, rapidly growing mass in the left breast. On fine needle aspiration (FNA) the tumor was soft to the needle and yielded a highly cellular aspirate. CONCLUSION: In this case the morphologic interpretation of FNA, combined with the immunocytochemical demonstration of neuron-specific enolase in tumor cells, was extremely helpful in establishing the nature of the breast tumor.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction of hydrogen peroxide production and bax expression by caspase- 3(-like) proteases in tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced apoptosis in human small cell lung carcinoma cells. AU - Simizu, Siro. AU - Umezawa, Kazuo. AU - Takada, Minoru. AU - Arber, Nadir. AU - Imoto, Masaya. PY - 1998/1/10. Y1 - 1998/1/10. N2 - In our previous studies (S. Simizu, et al., 1996, Cancer Res. 56, 4978- 4982), we reported that apoptosis of human small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cells induced by protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as erbstatin and herbimycin A, was mediated by H2O2 via a newly synthesized protein(s). In the present study, we demonstrated that induction of apoptosis by erbstatin resulted in activation of caspase-3(like) proteases, which are interleukin- 1β-converting enzyme family proteases (caspases) and that inhibition of these protease activities reduced the extent of cell death and H2O2 generation. We also demonstrated that expression of apoptotic protein Bax was induced ...
Lung cancer is the most common cancer and also the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide among both men and women. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for 15% of all cases. It is the most aggressive one in its clinical behavior with a 5-year overall survival as low as 5%. Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase which regulates integrin and growth factor signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion. FAK is overexpressed and/or activated in many cancers including SCLC. We hypothesized that FAK may represent a good target for therapeutic interventions in SCLC and tested the changes of cell phenotype induced by a FAK inhibitor (PF-228). ...
Currently, small-cell lung cancer accounts for about 15 percent of lung cancer diagnoses in the United States. Patients with the disease will initially respond to chemotherapy, but almost all will have disease recurrence within a couple of months, according to Lauren A. Byers, M.D., assistant professor of thoracic/head and neck medical oncology at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston.. "Unlike non-small cell lung cancer [NSCLC], where there have been new targeted drugs developed in the last ten years, the only currently approved treatments for small-cell lung cancer are cytotoxic chemotherapies," Byers said. "Because most targeted therapies directly act on proteins, identifying if certain proteins are overexpressed in small-cell lung cancer could have therapeutic applications.". In order to identify molecular differences between NSCLC and the more aggressive small-cell lung cancer, Byers and colleagues used tools called reverse phase protein arrays. These allow the ...
Chemicals. ABT-737 ((R)-4-(3-dimethylamino-1-phenylsulfanylmethyl-propylamino)-N-{4-[4-(4′-chloro-biphenyl-2-ylmethyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-benzoyl}-3-nitro-benzenesulfonamide) was synthesized at Abbott Laboratories (Abbott Park, IL). Carboplatin and etoposide were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO).. Cell culture. The SCLC cell lines NCI-H889, NCI-H1963, NCI-H1417, NCI-H146, NCI-187, DMS79, NCI-1048, NCI-H82, NCI-H196, H69AR, and DMS114 were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA). Cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 (Invitrogen Corp., Grand Island, NY) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (Invitrogen), 1% sodium pyruvate, 25 mmol/L HEPES, 4.5 g/L glucose, and 1% penicillin/streptomycin (Sigma). All cell lines were maintained in a humidified chamber at 37°C containing 5% CO2.. The ABT-737-resistant H146 cells were derived from H146 cells by initially adding 40 nmol/L ABT-737 to their culture medium and thereafter doubling the concentration over a period of several ...
Lung cancer is a common malignant tumor including Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) with 10 - 15 % and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) with 70 - 80%. Currently, there are several approaches to be used to treat lung cancer including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and molecular therapy/immunotherapy, Metastatic SCLC, metastatic mixed type of lung cancer and unclassified lung cancer are still difficult to be cured because this kind of lung cancer is easy to be widely disseminated. For example, if a patient has several metastatic SCLC, the patient will reveal poor outcome. In order to resolve the poor prognosis with recurrent and metastatic SCLC, here we reported a pathway-based approaches for analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) to screen drugs, hence we used the drugs to treat a patient suffering from SCLC with multiple metastases. In the beginning, we harvested a pair of SCLC cells and normal cells from FFPE samples under laser capture microscopy to achieve the tumor cell DNA for
RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy work in different ways to stop tumor cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. Imatinib mesylate may stop t
RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy use different ways to stop tumor cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. Combining more than one drug may
Description: Neuroendocrine xenograft model of human prostatic small cell carcinoma cancer. Provides a source to study the involvement of neuroendocrine cells in the progression of prostatic adenocarcinoma and can serve as a novel model for the testing of new therapeutic strategies for prostatic small cell carcinoma.. WISH-PC2: Taken from a patient diagnosed with T3N1M1 prostatic adenocarcinoma with a Gleason score of 8 (3 + 5). Obtained during a palliative transuretheral resection of the prostate. Independent of Androgen and does not secretes prostate-specific antigen.. WISH-PC14: Taken from a channel transurethral resection of the prostate of a late recurrent primary tumor, Gleason score 9 (4 + 5), after definitive radiation therapy. Androgen dependent and secretes prostate-specific antigen. WISH-PC23: Taken from prostatic adenocarcinoma harvested during palliative trans urethral resection of the prostate performed in a patient with local progression of adenocarcinoma of the prostate, Gleason ...
Small cell lung cancer information with its causes along with various signs and symptoms. The fluid in the lungs may be an indication of this cancer but this may not be a sure sign of the disease. Detailed description of small cell lung cancer different treatment methods also given.
Each year, 13 percent of all newly diagnosed lung cancer patients are diagnosed with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Approximately 39 percent of patients with SCLC are diagnosed with limited-stage disease, meaning the cancer ...
Management of limited small cell lung cancer(SCLC). small cell lung cancer is very responsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Most of the times it is disseminated. Surgery should only be done when chemotherapy has failed. Platinum compounds and etoposide combined with thoracic radiation is used. Prognosis and survival in small cell lung cancer; mosts of the times the patients present with a disseminated disease. If not treated, patients can survive for up to four months. when treated early, patients can live up to two years without the disease. About 5-10% of patients treated live up to five years.. Management of advanced small cell lung cancer(SCLC). The first line drugs in treatment of advanced small cell lung cancer is a combination of carboplastin or cisplatin combined with etoposide. Patients with small cell lung cancer have poor survival rates of ten months to two years in about 10% of the patients. ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about Small cell lung cancer at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Small cell lung cancer easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
The identification of genes undergoing genetic or epigenetic alterations and contributing to the development of cancer is critical to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis. A new approach in identifying alterations of genes that might be relevant to the process of tumor development was used in this study by examining the gene expression profile in human lung cancer cells
The immunotherapy agent Keytruda (pembrolizumab) had an overall response rate (ORR) of 33 percent in a recent trial including patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Findings of the phase 1b KEYNOTE-028 trial were published in the |em|Journal of Clinical Oncology.|/em|
Purpose: Neurocognitive impairment (NI) in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) after whole brain radiation treatment (WBRT) is a significant cause of morbidity. Hippocampal avoidance (HA) during WBRT may mitigate or prevent NI in such patients. However, this has not been tested in SCLC patients. The estimated risk of metastases in the HA region (HM) in patients with SCLC at diagnosis or after WBRT is unknown. Our study aimed to determine the risk of HM in patients with SCLC and to assess correlated clinical factors. Methods and Materials: Patients with SCLC who experienced brain metastases (BM) at presentation (de novo) or after WBRT treated at the Saskatoon Cancer Centre between 2005 and 2012 were studied. Relevant neuroimaging was independently reviewed by a neuroradiologist. HM was defined as metastases within 5 mm of the hippocampus. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess correlation between various clinical variables and HM. Results: Seventy eligible patients were ...
The combination of chemo- and radiotherapy has resulted in prolonged survival and potential cures in patients with some neoplastic diseases. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of those neoplasms in...
TY - JOUR. T1 - VP16-213 in combined modality treatment of small cell carcinoma of the lung. AU - Newman, Steven B.. AU - Bitran, Jacob D.. AU - Golomb, Harvey M.. AU - Hoffman, Philip C.. AU - DeMeester, Tom R.. AU - Raghavan, Vathsala. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. N2 - Thirty-four previously untreated patients with histologically proven small cell carcinoma of the lung were treated with a combined modality therapy program that incorporated VP16-213, an epipodophyllotoxin derivative, into the chemotherapy regimen. Initial therapy for two cycles was with V-CAM, VP16-213, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and methotrexate. Following two cycles of V-CAM each patient received radiation therapy consisting of 4000 rads to the primary site, both hila and the mediastinum, as well as 2000 rads as prophylaxis to the whole brain. After a one-week rest period the patients received monthly cycles of V-CAM until death. Of 10 patients with stage IIIM0 disease, 7 had a complete response (CR), 1 a partial response ...
... is also called oat cell cancer. About 10%-15% of lung cancers are small cell lung cancers. This type of lung cancer tends to spread quickly.
Vorinostat enhances the cisplatin-mediated anticancer effects in small cell lung cancer cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
To analyze the feasibility of omitting clinical target volume (CTV) for limited small cell lung cancer treated with chemotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy. 89 patients were treated from January 1, 2008 to August 31, 2011, 54 cases were irradiated with target volume without CTV, and 35 cases were irradiated with CTV. Both arms were irradiated post chemotherapy tumor extent and omitted elective nodal irradiation; dose prescription was 95% PTV56-63 Gy/28-35 F/5.6-7 weeks. In the arm without CTV and arm with CTV, the local relapse rates were 16.7% and 17.1% (p = 0.586) respectively. In the arm without CTV, of the 9 patients with local relapse, 6 recurred in-field, 2 recurred in margin, 1 recurred out of field. In the arm with CTV, of the 6 patients with local relapse, 4 recurred in-field, 1 recurred in margin, 1 recurred out of field. The distant metastases rates were 42.6% and 51.4% (p = 0.274) respectively. Grade 3-4 hematological toxicity and radiation esophagitis had no statistically
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio is prognostic in early stage resected small-cell lung cancer. AU - Lohinai, Zoltan. AU - Bonanno, Laura. AU - Aksarin, Aleksei. AU - Pavan, Alberto. AU - Megyesfalvi, Zsolt. AU - Santa, Balazs. AU - Hollosi, Virag. AU - Hegedus, Balazs. AU - Moldvay, Judit. AU - Conte, PierFranco. AU - Ter-Ovanesov, Mikhail. AU - Bilan, Evgeniy. AU - Dome, Balazs. AU - Weiss, Glen J. PY - 2019/7/29. Y1 - 2019/7/29. N2 - Background: For selected early stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC), curative intent surgery is often performed. Previous studies, predominantly from East Asia, reported that high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) correlate with poor prognosis in several types of tumors including SCLC. Our aim was to investigate the prognostic value of NLR and PLR in Caucasian patients with resected SCLC, as potential tool to select patients for multimodal treatment including surgery.Methods: Consecutive patients evaluated at three ...
Researchers at Cancer Treatment Centers of America® (CTCA) at Western Regional Medical Center (Western), in collaboration with international colleagues, found that statins could be an effective therapeutic against metastatic small cell lung cancer. The study of 876 late-stage SCLC patients, published today in the scientific journal PLOS ONE, showed that statins, a class of drugs primarily used to lower cholesterol in patients at risk for heart disease, appeared to provide an increase in overall survival.
Small cell lung cancer treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, laser therapy, targeted therapy, and supportive care. Learn more about treatments for newly diagnosed and recurrent small cell lung cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.
Gastrin releasing peptide(GRP) is a 27 amino acid peptide isolated from the porcine gut. The last ten amino acids at the C-terminus of gastrin releasing peptide correspond with one amino acid alteration (3) to the last ten amino acids of bombesin, viz: H-Gly-Asn-His-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Leu-Met-NH2 .It has been reported (J. H. Walsh and J. R. Reeve, Peptides 6, (3), 63-68, (1985) that bombesin and bombesin-like peptides such as gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) are secreted by human small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells. It has been postulated (P. J. Woll and E. Rozengurt, PNAS 85, 1859-1863, (1988)) that gastrin releasing factor antagonists would bind competitively to bombesin receptors in animals and would therefore be of use in the treatment of SCLC and/or in the control of clinical symptoms associated with this disease and due to hypersecretion of this peptide hormone. Analogues of bombesin/ GRP have been shown to inhibit the binding of gastrin releasing peptide to a SCLC cell line and to inhibit ...
Small Cell Cancer (SCLC) is much more rare than Non-Small Cell, only about 15% of cases are Small Cell. Within SCLC, there are three different types: small cell carcinoma (oat cell cancer), mixed small cell/large cell carcinoma and combined small cell carcinoma. Most SCLC cases are oat cell. SCLC is the most aggressive form of lung cancer compared to the other type. It is mainly caused by smoking and starts in the bronchi (breathing tubes) in the center of the chest. This type of lung cancer grows quickly and produces large tumors. Because SCLC grows so quickly, it also metastasizes rapidly to other parts of the body including the brain, liver and bone. Metastasis is when a part of a cancerous tumor breaks off from the original tumor and spreads to another part of the body, spreading the cancer. When you have SCLC, there are many symptoms that come from it, including bloody sputum (spitting up blood), chest pain, coughing, loss of appetite, shortness of breath, weight loss, wheezing, facial ...
Small Cell Cancer (SCLC) is much more rare than Non-Small Cell, only about 15% of cases are Small Cell. Within SCLC, there are three different types: small cell carcinoma (oat cell cancer), mixed small cell/large cell carcinoma and combined small cell carcinoma. Most SCLC cases are oat cell. SCLC is the most aggressive form of lung cancer compared to the other type. It is mainly caused by smoking and starts in the bronchi (breathing tubes) in the center of the chest. This type of lung cancer grows quickly and produces large tumors. Because SCLC grows so quickly, it also metastasizes rapidly to other parts of the body including the brain, liver and bone. Metastasis is when a part of a cancerous tumor breaks off from the original tumor and spreads to another part of the body, spreading the cancer. When you have SCLC, there are many symptoms that come from it, including bloody sputum (spitting up blood), chest pain, coughing, loss of appetite, shortness of breath, weight loss, wheezing, facial ...
5. Kuo, T-H., Kubota, T., Watanabe, M., Furukawa, T., Kase, S., Tanino, H., Nishibori, H., Saikawa, Y., Ishibiki, K., Kitajima, M., and Hoffman, R.M. Site-specific chemosensitivity of human small-cell lung carcinoma growing orthotopically compared to subcutaneously in SCID mice: The importance of orthotopic models to obtain relevant drug evaluation data. Anticancer Res. 13, 627-630, 1993 ...
Context: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is constitutively activated in diverse human cancers and plays a critical role in tumor cell survival, proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and inhibition of apoptosis. The phosphorylated active form of STAT3 (pSTAT3) mediates its effects via nuclear transcriptional activity. However, it was recently observed that the nonphosphorylated, cytoplasmic, inactive form of STAT3 is involved in cell motility and consequently tumor invasion. It appears that, although STAT3 is not absolutely required for tumor formation, tumors that develop in the presence of STAT3 become dependent on its expression for their survival, making it a potential therapeutic target.. Objective: To investigate the possible utility of STAT3 as a future therapeutic target in nonâ€"small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and malignant mesothelioma (MM).. Design: Immunohistochemical expression of MIB-1, STAT3, and pSTAT3 was assessed in 303 NSCLC and 44 MM ...
This study will be investigating nintedanib [BIBF-1120; Boehringer Ingelheim] in small cell lung cancer patients who have previously benefited from first line
Summary GlobalDatas clinical trial report, Small-Cell Lung Cancer Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2015 provides an overview of Small-Cell Lung Cancer
Small round malignant cells that grow rapidly and spread throughout the body. Almost all cases of small cell lung cancer is caused by smoking. Also known as Oat Cell cancer. There are three types of lung cancer: Small Cell (Oat Cell), mixed small cell/large cell carcinoma, and combined small cell carcinoma.
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a fast-growing type of lung cancer. It spreads much more quickly than non-small cell lung cancer. There are two types of SCLC:Small cell carcinoma (oat cell cancer)Combined small cell carcinomaMost SCLCs are of the oat cell type.
Aims To test the incidence of the expression of the immunohistochemical markers that aid diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract small cell carcinoma (GI-SmCC) and to evaluate the incidence of mixed endocrine-exocrine carcinomas in GI-SmCC.. Methods Immunohistochemical studies of three antibodies against epithelial markers (CK8, AE1/AE3, EMA), four neuroendocrine differentiation markers (synaptophysin (Syn), neuron specific enolase (NSE), neuronal cell adhesion molecules (CD56), chromogranin A (CgA)), and a transcription factor (thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1)) were performed. The incidence of non-endocrine carcinoma component was evaluated in 42 GI-SmCCs (11 in the oesophagus, 15 in the stomach, 15 in the colon, and 1 in the small intestine).. Results The percentages of GI-SmCC with positive immunoreactivity were: CK8 92.9%, AE1/AE3 76.2%, EMA 71.4%, Syn 100%, NSE 100%, CD56 90.5%, CgA 61.9%, TTF-1 21.4%. The low molecular weight cytokeratin CK8 is more commonly expressed in GI-SmCC than is ...
Introduction Gastrointestinal tract small cell carcinoma is an infrequent and aggressive neoplasm that represents 0.1-1% of gastrointestinal malignancies. Very few cases of small cell esophageal...
It is well known that the prognosis for patients with brain metastases from small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is very poor, with median survivals in the range of 3 to 14 months.[1-3] As pointed out by Quan et al, brain metastasis is an important issue, given that approximately 60% of SCLC patients will develop brain metastases sometime in the course of their disease. Quan et al set out to write an article on the treatment of brain metastases from SCLC, but they often have to refer to the results of studies of brain metastases from other sites. Unfortunately, many studies specifically exclude SCLC-related brain metastases, and therefore, advances in their treatment have been few. 1
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive tumor with a dismal prognosis among primary lung cancers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can act as oncogenes or tumor-suppressor genes in human malignancy. The miR-34 family is comprised of tumor-suppressive miRNAs, and its reduced expression by methylation has been reported in various cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we investigated the alteration and tumor-suppressive impact of miR-34s in SCLC. The methylation of miR-34a and miR-34b/c was observed in 4 (36%) and 7 (64%) of 11 SCLC cell lines, respectively. Among the 27 SCLC clinical specimens, miR-34a and miR-34b/c were methylated in 4(15%) and 18 (67%), respectively. In contrast, 13 (28%) miR-34a methylated cases and 12 (26%) miR-34b/c methylated cases were found in 47 NSCLC primary tumors. The frequency of miR-34b/c methylation was significantly higher in SCLC than in NSCLC (p < 0.001). The expressions of miR-34s were reduced in methylated cell lines and tumors and ...
Background Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a common lung cancer which presents with extensive stage disease at time of diagnosis in two-thirds of patients. For treatment of advanced disease, traditional platinum doublet chemotherapy induces response rates up to 80% but with few durable responses. CPI-613 is a novel anti-cancer agent that selectively inhibits the altered form of mitochondrial energy metabolism in tumor cells. Methods We evaluated CPI-613 with a single-arm, open-label phase II study in patients with relapsed or refractory SCLC. CPI-613 was given at a dose of 3,000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 4 of weeks 1-3 of 4 week cycle. The primary outcome was response rate as assessed by CT imaging using RECIST v1.1 criteria. Secondary outcomes were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity. Twelve patients were accrued (median age 57yo) who had previously received between 1 and 4 lines of chemotherapy (median 1) for SCLC with a treatment-free interval of less than 60 days in 9
The small cell lung cancer is characterized as a rapidly proliferating systemic neoplasm, where the basic treatment modality is the chemotherapy . Even in the surgically treated cases the platina based chemotherapy combination is obligatory before and after the surgical resection, combined with preventiv cranial irradiation to minimize the risk of the cranial metastases. The platina based chemo-radiotherapy is the gold standard in the locally advanced cases. Palliativ local irradiation could be useful for pain relief or decompression in the metastatic cases. Prophylactic cranial irradiation strongly recommended in any cases. There are no newly developed drugs for the treatment of SCLC, however it is a chemosensitive carcinoma. Topotecan could be effective in second or third line therapy , especially in brain metastasis.. ...
New and updated pivotal data from the TECENTRIQ lung programme, including overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) results from Phase III IMpower133 study in extensive-stage small cell lung cancer New integrated pivotal results for entrectinib in ROS1 fusion-posit...
Doctors have reported that maintenance therapy using Sutent® (sunitinib) delays the time to cancer progression and improves survival in patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). These encouraging results were recently reported in the online March 3, 2015 Journal of Clinical Oncology. Small-cell lung cancer is a fast-growing type of lung cancer and accounts for […]. ...
Tumour recurrence following chemotherapy remains a major obstacle to the cure of many cancers. This is exemplified by small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Host-tumour interactions are central to tumour survival and proliferation. We hypothesized that a factor(s) within the local environment of SCLC cells could provide a survival signal or block a death signal, thereby accounting for the protection of SCLC cells from chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Here we review recent work undertaken in our laboratory addressing this issue. We have shown that, in vivo, SCLC cells are surrounded by an extensive stroma of extracellular matrix (ECM) at both primary and metastatic sites which contains, among other proteins, fibronectin, laminin and collagen IV. Furthermore, adhesion of SCLC cells to fibronectin, laminin and collagen IV through β1 integrins enhances tumorigenicity and confers resistance to apoptosis induced by standard chemotherapeutic agents, including etoposide, cis-platinum and adriamycin. Adhesion to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. T2 - A clinicopathologic analysis of 64 patients - Commentary. AU - Cheng, L.. AU - Pan, Chong-Xian. AU - Yang, X. J.. AU - Lopez-Beltran, A.. AU - MacLennan, G. T.. AU - Lin, H.. AU - Kuzel, T. M.. AU - Papavero, V.. AU - Tretiakova, M.. AU - Nigro, K.. AU - Koch, M. O.. AU - Eble, J. N.. AU - Grossman, H. Barton. PY - 2005/5. Y1 - 2005/5. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=21144454927&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=21144454927&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.urolonc.2005.03.011. DO - 10.1016/j.urolonc.2005.03.011. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:21144454927. VL - 23. SP - 222. EP - 223. JO - Urologic Oncology. JF - Urologic Oncology. SN - 1078-1439. IS - 3. ER - ...
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Small Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary, Hypercalcemic Type is a rare and aggressive cancer that typically strikes girls and young women. TGen discovered the genetic driver for this cancer and has identified potential drug targets. TGen is raising funds to start clinical trials to test these treatments.
Off the Beaten Path: buy Small Cell Carcinomas: states in Small Towns and Rural Municipalities. nnen Change and the sample of Knowledge and Policy in Rural USA Communities. CrossRefGoogle ScholarHomsy, G. Cities and Sustainability Polycentric Action and Multilevel Governance. using the Central State, but How? Powering in the buy Small: Economic Interdependence and International Conflict . International Organization. Blanchard, Jean-Marc; Ripsman, Norrin( 2003). multilevel Research on Economic Interdependence and Conflict: being Methodological Hurdles . The Efficiency Rationale for Supranational Governance . The Efficiency Rationale for Supranational Governance . conceiving Cooperation: Regional International Institutions in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Baker, Andrew, David Hudson, and Richard Woodward( 2005). retrieving Financial Globalization: sequential great climate and officials gepflegt. Definitive Union: government and Taxation in Multilevel ...
PubMed journal article Small cell carcinoma: arising in Lynch syndrome: a previously undocumented occurrenc were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Excerpt:. "A phase I/II study will explore the delta-like protein 3 (DLL3)-targeted antibody-drug conjugate rovalpituzumab tesirine (Rova-T) with the PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab (Opdivo) alone or in combination with the CTLA-4 inhibitor ipilimumab (Yervoy) for patients with relapsed extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC).. "AbbVie, the developer of rovalpituzumab tesirine, and Bristol-Myers Squibb, the company marketing nivolumab and ipilimumab announced the phase I/II study in a joint press release. As single-agents, rovalpituzumab tesirine and nivolumab have each demonstrated promising early findings for patients with SCLC. Additionally, nivolumab plus ipilimumab sparked promising response rates and overall survival (OS) findings. Data for the 3 agents were recently presented at the 2016 ASCO Annual Meeting.". Go to full article.. Do you have questions about this story? Let us know in a comment below. If youre wondering whether this story applies to your own cancer case or a loved ones, ...
PARP1 and EZH2 may be treatment targets in small cell lung cancer, based on newfound differences between this and non-small cell disease.
MicroRNA Expression and Clinical Outcome of Small Cell Lung Cancer. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) consists of small cells with a high nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio that proliferate rapidly. Similar to normal neuroendocrine cells, they contain neurosecretory granules that may produce peptide hormones and/or biogenic amines. About 90% of small cell lung cancers stain positive for neuroendocrine markers. Small cell lung cancers usually develop peribronchially and infiltrate the bronchial submucosa. This tumor type can be diagnosed in cytological material such as fine needle aspirations, brush specimens, or lavage. The diagnosis should, if possible, be confirmed in histological specimens before starting therapy.. ...
A drug-resistant human small cell lung cancer cell line, H209/V6, selected in the presence of increasing concentrations of 9-(4,6-O-ethylidene-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-4′-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (VP-16) from parental H209 cells, is 22-, 9-, and 4-fold resistant to VP-16, 4′-(9-acridinylamino)methanesulfon-m-anisidide, and doxorubicin, respectively, but not cross-resistant to 1,4-dihydroxy-5,8-bis({2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl}-amino)-9,10-anthracenedione. These cells do not overexpress P-glycoprotein or the multidrug resistance-associated protein. Immunoblotting demonstrates that H209 cells contain the Mr 170,000 isoform of topoisomerase II (topo II), while H209/V6 cells have a Mr 160,000 enzyme but none of the Mr 170,000 isoform. The cell lines have equal amounts of topo IIβ. The H209/V6 cells have a 5-fold decrease in total immunoreactive topo IIα. The catalytic and VP-16-induced DNA cleavage activities of the topo II present in 0.35 m NaCl nuclear extracts are decreased 2- to 3-fold in ...
mimoOn LTE Small Cell Software Available for Broadcoms Dual-Mode Small Cell SoC Family: mimoOn GmbH, a leading LTE software vendor for Small Cells and terminals, announced the availability of its LTE protocol stack (mi!SmallCellSTACK™) for Broadcoms dual-mode small cell family of SoCs. Small Cell product developers now can turn to a robust, high-performing product that is designed and supported by mimoOns team of engineers, who have experience in designing …
The Small-Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) Consortium | Six investigators conduct research to expand the understanding of the critical molecular changes in the lung that precede the development of frank SCLC and/or to identify populations at particularly high risk for SCLC.
A 77 year old male began treatment with us for recurrent metastatic small cell carcinoma of the lung. He had a complete remission with a single dose of chemotherapy followed by DCA for 3 months. The patient has no evidence of any recurrence of cancer 1 year after completion of treatment.. This case is being submitted for consideration of publication, therefore details cannot be provided at this time. If it is accepted, a link will be posted. If it is not accepted, we will post a detailed case report here.. This case represents one of our best responses to DCA in combination therapy. Cancer patients reading this report should keep in mind that the likelihood of such an excellent response is estimated to be 1-2% based on our own patient data from 2006 to 2008. Patients should also be aware that our experience indicates combination therapies including DCA are better than treatment with DCA alone.. ...
Cathy. I had stage 3A nonsmall cell and was treated with carboplatin and taxol followed by same drug regimen in combo with radiation. I had phenomenol results. I finished treatment in Feb and I am cancer free. My oncologist says the drug combo can be differentl. You just have to find what works for you. I had a CT scan after the first round of chemo just to make sure it was working for me and I already had major destruction of the tumor. Good Luck. Cheryl. ...
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine tumour which secretes ACTH and other related peptides. Contrary to normal production by the pituitary, ACTH production is not inhibited by glucocorticoids (Gcs) in SCLC. This insensitivity to Gc action can be attributed to impaired Gc receptor (GR) expression in these cells. Over-expression of the GR induces apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Evasion of GR signalling thus confers a significant survival advantage to SCLC cells. Re-expression of endogenous GR in SCLC cells may provoke the same effect. Many tumours silence the expression of tumour suppresser genes by epigenetic mechanisms. Recent evidence suggests that the GR in SCLC cells is epigenetically silenced by hypermethylation of its promoter. The overall aim of this study was to determine whether endogenous GR re-expression induces apoptosis of SCLC cells. The DMS 79 SCLC cell line, and the control HEK and non-SCLC A549 cell lines were treated with the DNA methyltransferase ...
Purpose: We evaluated a Trop-2-targeting antibody conjugated with SN-38 in metastatic small cell lung cancer (mSCLC) patients.. Experimental Design: Sacituzumab govitecan was studied in patients with pretreated (median, 2; range, 1-7) mSCLC who received either 8 or 10 mg/kg i.v. on days 1 and 8 of 21-day cycles. The primary endpoints were safety and objective response rate (ORR); duration of response, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were secondary endpoints.. Results: Sixty percent of patients showed tumor shrinkage from baseline CTs. On an intention-to-treat basis (N = 50), the ORR was 14% (17% for the 10-mg/kg group); the median response duration, 5.7 months; the clinical benefit rate (CBR ≥4 months), 34%; median PFS, 3.7 months; and median OS, 7.5 months. There was a suggested improvement in PR, CBR, and PFS with sacituzumab govitecan in second-line patients who were sensitive to first-line therapy, but no difference between first-line chemosensitive versus ...
I was 19 years old when my Mom was diagnosed with Metastatic Small Cell Lung Cancer, which had a low survival rate. I was in my second semester of college so the idea of caregiving was not exactly making sense to me. Who is a caregiver at the age of 20? Thats for older people ...
I am 15 and my boyfriend just told me he has this cancer and is at stage 4.... Im not really sure what any of this means and hes out of state so I cant be at the hospital with him to communicate with him at all. Hes also deaf so I can not call him and talk to him about it so Id really appreciate if someone can just give me a little information on this. Thanks for your time and answers.. ...
Titel: Phase III Randomized Clinical Trial of Lurbinectedin (PM01183)/ Doxorubicin (DOX) versus Cyclophosphamide (CTX), Doxorubicin (DOX) and Vincristine (VCR) (CAV) or Topotecan as Treatment in Patients with Small-Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) Who Failed One Prior Platinum-containing Line (ATLANTIS Trial). Indikation: SCLC, limited/extensive disease, Zweitlinientherapie. Patienteneinschluss: rekrutierend. EudraCT-Nummer: 2015-001641-89 CASPIAN (D419QC00001) Titel: A Phase III, Randomized, Multicenter, Open-Label, Comparative Study to Determine the Efficacy of Durvalumab or Durvalumab and Tremelimumab in Combination With Platinum-Based Chemotherapy for the First-Line Treatment in Patients with Extensive Disease (Stage IV) Small-Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC). Indikation: SCLC, Stadium IV, Erstlinientherapie. Patienteneinschluss: rekrutierend. EudraCT-Nummer: 2016-001203-23 Pembro SCLC (MK-3475-604) Titel: A Phase III Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-controlled Trial of Pembrolizumab (MK-3475/SCH900475) in ...
Titel: Phase III Randomized Clinical Trial of Lurbinectedin (PM01183)/ Doxorubicin (DOX) versus Cyclophosphamide (CTX), Doxorubicin (DOX) and Vincristine (VCR) (CAV) or Topotecan as Treatment in Patients with Small-Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) Who Failed One Prior Platinum-containing Line (ATLANTIS Trial). Indikation: SCLC, limited/extensive disease, Zweitlinientherapie. Patienteneinschluss: rekrutierend. EudraCT-Nummer: 2015-001641-89 CASPIAN (D419QC00001) Titel: A Phase III, Randomized, Multicenter, Open-Label, Comparative Study to Determine the Efficacy of Durvalumab or Durvalumab and Tremelimumab in Combination With Platinum-Based Chemotherapy for the First-Line Treatment in Patients with Extensive Disease (Stage IV) Small-Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC). Indikation: SCLC, Stadium IV, Erstlinientherapie. Patienteneinschluss: rekrutierend. EudraCT-Nummer: 2016-001203-23 Pembro SCLC (MK-3475-604) Titel: A Phase III Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-controlled Trial of Pembrolizumab (MK-3475/SCH900475) in ...
The Cancer Browser provides an easy method to explore the mutation spectrum of a cancer phenotype (eg Small Cell Lung Carcinoma). The inital page display loads with 4 panels, showing an alphabetically ordered list of primary tissues in the first panel and three empty panels for Sub Tissues, Histology and Sub Histology. Selecting a primary tissue will offer further options for selecting a sub tissue and its phenotype morphology (histology and sub histology), for eaxample: Lung » Include All » Carcinoma » Small cell carcinoma. Each tissue, sub tissue, histology and sub histology is listed with counts of mutated and analyzed samples adjacent to it in the brackets.. Click "Go" at any stage of the selection process to view a chart of the top mutated genes listed in order of mutation frequency, together with a range of tabs presenting other views on the data selected.. For more details on counts please follow this link.. Note: After making any changes in the selection process , press "Go" again ...
It may be early days for outdoor small cell development, but the demand has been there for quite some time. And, in the future, the demand will only continue to grow as beefier public and business devices become accustomed to the additional support that they bring. We can expect small cells to become a more ubiquitous part of the device ecosystem ...
We have shown that inhibition of IGF-I signaling with the small molecular mass IGF-IR kinase inhibitor NVP-ADW742 enhances the sensitivity of SCLC cell lines to etoposide and carboplatin in a synergistic fashion. The rationale for performing this series of experiments was based on our observation that partial inhibition of PI3K-Akt signaling by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 produced marked chemosensitization in SCLC cell lines (25). Because IGF-I is the predominant activator of PI3K-Akt signaling in SCLC cell lines, we reasoned that IGF-IR kinase inhibition could also sensitize these cell lines to chemotherapy by the same mechanism. This seems to be the case because the maximal response to the combination of the cytotoxic drugs with NVP-ADW742 occurred at compound concentrations that markedly reduced or eliminated basal Akt activity (Fig. 1). In the WBA cell line, in which significant Akt activity remained at the maximal selective concentration of NVP-ADW742, the addition of imatinib, which ...
Top 10 cancers for 11759987_x_at (Homo sapiens, Affymetrix Probeset): prostate, tumor cells, malignant, prostate, neoplasm, malignant, stroma, chronic myelogenous leukemia (BCR/ABL-positive), cardia, adenocarcinoma, NOS, metastatic, bronchus or lung, small cell carcinoma, NOS, PDX/CDX, bronchus or lung, unspecified, kidney, adenocarcinoma, NOS, metastatic, bronchus or lung, small cell carcinoma, NOS, metastatic, PDX/CDX, prostate, adenocarcinoma, NOS, metastatic, brain, oligodendroastrocytoma
Large-cell carcinoma is a heterogeneous group of undifferentiated malignant neoplasms that lack the cytologic and architectural features of small cell carcinoma and glandular or squamous differentiation. LCC is categorized as a type of NSCLC (Non-Small Cell Carcinoma) which originates from epithelia
Thyroid Cancer. You will also qualify with head and neck cancer that has spread, cannot be operated on or removed, or is a small cell carcinoma. If you have a head or neck cancer whose symptoms and treatment are expected to leave you completely disabled for at least a year, you will also be approved for benefits. Reviewing the Blue Book online will give you a better idea of how you may qualify for your particular condition.. The Compassionate Allowances Program. The SSA designed the Compassionate Allowances Program to deliver benefits more quickly to applicants with serious and clearly disabling conditions. Certain head and neck cancers qualify for a Compassionate Allowance, and if you have any type that is a small cell carcinoma, has spread, and/or cant be removed or operated on, your claim will also be reviewed and approved more rapidly. If you qualify for a Compassionate Allowance, your claim can be approved in as little as 10 days, instead of the months that a regular application ...
human probombesin C-terminal peptide: found in lung small cell carcinoma with rabbit antiserum to the first (N-terminal) 21 amino acids of the predicted C-terminal peptide; diagram of peptide given in first source; reliable tumor marker & possible prognostic indicator for small cell carcinoma
AbbVie has announced it will acquire Stemcentrx and its lead late-stage asset rovalpituzumab tesirine (Rova-T), currently in registrational trials for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Rova-T is a novel biomarker-specific therapy that is derived from cancer stem cells and targets delta-like protein 3 (DLL3) that is expressed in more than 80% of SCLC patient tumors and is not present in healthy tissue. Registrational trials for third-line small cell lung cancer are expected to complete enrollment by the end of 2016.. [Read More]. ...
This information is intended for physicians and related personnel, who understand that medical information is often imperfect, and must be interpreted in the context of a patients clinical data using reasonable medical judgment. This website should not be used as a substitute for the advice of a licensed physician ...
Karnezis AN, Wang Y, Ramos P, Hendricks WP, Oliva E, DAngelo E, Prat J, Nucci MR, Nielsen TO, Chow C, Leung S, Kommoss F, Kommoss S, Silva A, Ronnett BM, Rabban JT, Bowtell DD, Weissman BE, Trent JM, Gilks CB, Huntsman DG. Dual loss of the SWI/SNF complex ATPases SMARCA4/BRG1 and SMARCA2/BRM is highly sensitive and specific for small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcaemic type. J Pathol. 2016 Feb; 238(3):389-400 ...
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REDWOOD CITY, Calif., Aug. 30, 2016-- OncoMed Pharmaceuticals Inc., a clinical development-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on discovering and developing novel anti-cancer stem cell and immuno-oncology therapeutics, today announced the completion of patient enrollment in the Phase 2
Single-agent atezolizumab (formerly MPDL3280A) had excellent clinical activity in both chemotherapy-naïve and previously treated patients with metastatic nonâ€
PHSS January Regulatory Update 2016 On this months PHSS Regulatory Update reported issues have come from the EU and USA regulatory authorities.. The topics covered in this edition of the "Update" include:. Europe. ...
Examination of cytological samples from the respiratory tract or lung parenchyma forms a large proportion of the diagnostic cytology workload in many laboratories. The majority of requests are concerned with the diagnosis of lung cancer but a substantial minority involve identification of infective or inflammatory conditions and benign tumors.. As in many branches of cytology, the recognition of malignancy in cells obtained from the respiratory tract is more straightforward than identification of tumor cell type. Well-differentiated tumors may have characteristic cytoplasmic and nuclear abnormalities enabling firm categorization, as in squamous cell or adenocarcinoma, but some moderately and most poorly differentiated tumors show few distinctive features. Current management of carcinoma of the lung depends on distinguishing small cell carcinoma from other cell types. A cytological report of non-small cell carcinoma is, therefore, a clinically helpful diagnostic category, on the understanding ...
Steve Shipley, General Manager APAC, presented at Small Cells Asia 2012 in Taipei. Smart cells are a combination of small cell and compute platform pioneered b…
Do You Have Carcinoma, Oat Cell? Join friendly people sharing true stories in the I Have Carcinoma, Oat Cell group. Find support forums, advice and chat with groups who share this life experience. Carcinoma, Oat Cell anonymous support group with info...
We conducted a trial of adaptive radiotherapy (RT) for limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) to quantify the dosimetric advantages, toxicity, survival and failure patterns associated with this technique.
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) was originally described by Toker in 1972 as trabecular carcinoma of the skin.[1] Other names include Toker tumor, primary small cell carcinoma of the skin, primary cutaneous neuroendocrine tumor, and malignant trichodiscoma.[2] MCC is an aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma arising in the...
... is a cancer that starts in the lungs. When a person has lung cancer, they have abnormal cells that cluster together to form a tumor. Unlike normal cells, cancer cells grow without order or control and destroy the healthy lung tissue around them. These types of tumors are called malignant tumors.. According to the American Lung Association, there are two main types of lung cancer: small cell lung cancer and non-small lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancer is more common. It makes up about 80 percent of lung cancer cases. This type of cancer usually grows and spreads to other parts of the body more slowly than small cell lung cancer does. There are three different types of non-small cell lung cancer: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma. Each type is different, but they are grouped together because they are treated similarly. There are two different types of small cell lung cancer: small cell carcinoma (oat cell cancer) and mixed small cell/large cell ...
Traditional Chinese medicines have been considered to be effective in treatment for thousands of years, suggesting that Chinese herbal medicines may serve as suitable candidates in drug development. In the present study, the antitumor effects of commonly used Chinese herbal medicines on H1299 NSCLC cells were screened using an in vitro kinase assay based on the activity of MAP4K3. Two candidates, APS and HCPT, were identified. HCPT was initially used as a positive control in the present study. In previous experiments, HCPT exhibited significant antitumor activity against various tumors, including lung cancer cells, human SMS-KCNR neuroblastoma cells, DU145-TxR prostate cancer cells, and hepatoma, oral squamous cell carcinoma and breast cancer cells (24-29). It was found that HCPT inhibited MAP4K3 kinase activity in vitro and S6K phosphorylation at Thr389 in H1299 cells, however, whether HCPT was able to induce autophagy in H1299 cells remained to be elucidated. Therefore, the expression of ...
Merkel cell carcinoma (also known as a "Cutaneous apudoma," "Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin," Primary small cell carcinoma of the skin, and "Trabecular carcinoma of the skin is a rare and highly aggressive cancer in which malignant cancer cells develop on or just beneath the skin and in hair follicles.. • The majority of Merkel cell carcinomas appear to be caused in part by a newly discovered virus, Merkel cell polyomavirus or MCV. Direct evidence for this comes from studies showing that inhibition of MCV proteins causes MCV-infected Merkel carcinoma cells to die but has no effect on tumor cells from Merkel cell carcinomas that are not infected with the virus. • This cancer is a type of neuroendocrine tumor, like small cell lung cancer. Once it has metastasized to the lymph nodes, the 5-year survival rate for a patient is about 50 percent. A patient with a small tumor (less than 2 cm) that has not metastasized to the lymph nodes may have a 5-year survival rate of more than 80 ...
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that insulinoma-associated protein 1 (INSM1) is a sensitive and specific marker of neuroendocrine neoplasms. The aims of this study were to determine whether INSM1 can be reliably used in cytology (Cellient) cell blocks, to ascertain whether staining correlates with paired surgical pathology specimens, and to compare its sensitivity and specificity with those of synaptophysin (SYN), chromogranin (CHR), and CD56 for neuroendocrine lung tumors. METHODS: Seventy-four primary lung neoplasms diagnosed on cytology were stained with INSM1, SYN, CHR, and CD56: 41 small cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs), 1 large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), 10 carcinoid tumors, 11 adenocarcinomas, 9 squamous cell carcinomas, 1 mesothelioma and 1 poorly differentiated non-small cell lung carcinoma, not otherwise specified ...
We and others have shown that one of the mechanisms of growth regulation of small cell lung cancer cell lines and cultured pulmonary neuroendocrine cells is by the binding of agonists to the α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. In addition, we have shown that the nicotine-derived carcinogenic nitrosamine, 4(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), is a high affinity agonist for the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. In the present study, our goal was to determine the extent of α7 mRNA and protein expression in the human lung. Experiments were done using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a nuclease protection assay and western blotting using membrane proteins. We detected mRNA for the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 receptor in seven small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines, in two pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell lines, in cultured normal human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC), one carcinoid cell line, three squamous cell lines and tissue
Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare, biologically aggressive soft tissue neoplasm of uncertain differentiation, most often arising in the abdominal and pelvic cavities of adolescents and young adults with a striking male predominance. Histologically, it is characterized by islands of uniform small round cells in prominent desmoplastic stroma, and it has a polyimmunophenotypic profile, typically expressing WT1 and cytokeratin, desmin, and neural/neuroendocrine differentiation markers to varying degrees. Tumors at other sites and with variant morphology are more rarely described. DSRCT is associated with a recurrent t(11;22)(p13;q12) translocation, leading to the characteristic EWSR1-WT1 gene fusion. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), to detect EWSR1 rearrangement, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to assess for EWSR1-WT1 fusion transcripts are routine diagnostic ancillary tools. We present a large institutional comparative series of FISH and ...
I am not a medical or health professional. Information in this site has been gathered from numerous sources and is for research purposes only. I do not guarantee the accuracy of any information in this site. Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor www.DSRCT.com ...

Non-small-cell lung carcinoma - WikipediaNon-small-cell lung carcinoma - Wikipedia

Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is any type of epithelial lung cancer other than small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). NSCLC ... Large-cell lung carcinoma[edit]. Main article: Large-cell lung carcinoma. Large cell lung carcinoma (LCLC) is a heterogeneous ... using a uniform scheme for non-small cell lung carcinoma, small-cell lung carcinoma and broncho-pulmonary carcinoid tumors.[30] ... Pie chart showing incidences of non-small cell lung cancers as compared to small cell carcinoma shown at right, with fractions ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-small-cell_lung_carcinoma

Extrapulmonary Small Cell Carcinoma: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology, EpidemiologyExtrapulmonary Small Cell Carcinoma: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology

... as extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC). Small cell carcinoma is a distinct clinical and pathologic entity that arises ... it is not uncommon for these cells to arise in nonpulmonary sites, ... from cells of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) system. ... Small cell carcinomas (SCC) commonly arise in the respiratory tract; however, ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/284288-overview

Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma.Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma.

This article reviews the recent literature on extrapulmonary small cell carcinomas. Until now, only four cases have been ... Small cell carcinoma of the skin is included. This form of small cell carcinoma is often excluded from the larger review series ... Carcinoma, Merkel Cell* / drug therapy, mortality, pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell* / mortality, pathology, therapy. Diagnosis ... This article reviews the recent literature on extrapulmonary small cell carcinomas. Until now, only four cases have been ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Extrapulmonary-small-cell-carcinoma/15813162.html

Extrapulmonary Small Cell Carcinoma Clinical Presentation: History, Physical ExaminationExtrapulmonary Small Cell Carcinoma Clinical Presentation: History, Physical Examination

... as extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC). Small cell carcinoma is a distinct clinical and pathologic entity that arises ... it is not uncommon for these cells to arise in nonpulmonary sites, ... from cells of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) system. ... Small cell carcinomas (SCC) commonly arise in the respiratory tract; however, ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/284288-clinical

Refractory Lactic Acidosis in Small Cell Carcinoma of the LungRefractory Lactic Acidosis in Small Cell Carcinoma of the Lung

... Daniel J. Oh,1 Ellen Dinerman,1 Andrew H. Matthews,1 Abraham W. ... She was later diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the lung. Conclusions. In this case report, we describe a critically ill ... However, its presence in solid tumors such as small cell carcinoma of the lung has been reported rarely [1-5]. Even fewer cases ... Bronchoscopy revealed purulent secretions and biopsy of the mass demonstrated small cell carcinoma. The CT abdomen revealed a ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/cricc/2017/6148350/

Primary Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of  Vagina: A Rare Case ReportPrimary Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Vagina: A Rare Case Report

Primary Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Vagina: A Rare Case Report. Jignasa N. Bhalodia,1 Dhiren V. Kapapura,2 and Malay ... Jignasa N. Bhalodia, Dhiren V. Kapapura, and Malay N. Parekh, "Primary Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Vagina: A Rare ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/pri/2011/306921/cta/

NCT03052608 | Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma Clinical Trial | PfizerNCT03052608 | Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma Clinical Trial | Pfizer

Pfizer is currently recruiting for the NCT03052608 Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma Cancer trial. Review trial description, ...
more infohttps://www.pfizer.com/science/find-a-trial/nct03052608

NCT03909971 | Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma Clinical Trial | PfizerNCT03909971 | Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma Clinical Trial | Pfizer

Pfizer is currently recruiting for the NCT03909971 Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma Cancer trial. Review trial description, ...
more infohttps://www.pfizer.com/science/find-a-trial/nct03909971

Carcinoma: Small Cell Lung | GreenMedInfo | Disease | NaturalCarcinoma: Small Cell Lung | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural

Diseases : Carcinoma: Non-Small-Cell Lung, Carcinoma: Small Cell Lung, Lung Cancer, Lung Cancer: Metastatic ... Ganoderma is cytotoxic to both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant small-cell lung carcinoma cells and can reverse resistance to ... Diseases : Carcinoma: Small Cell Lung, Colon Cancer, Lung Cancer, Nasopharyngeal Cancer. Pharmacological Actions : Anti- ... Diseases : Carcinoma: Small Cell Lung, Nicotine/Tobacco Toxicity Pharmacological Actions : Angiogenesis Inhibitors, Anti- ...
more infohttp://www.greenmedinfo.com/disease/carcinoma-small-cell-lung-0

Small cell carcinoma: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia ImageSmall cell carcinoma: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image

... also called oat cell carcinoma, can create its own hormones, which alter body chemistry. ... Small cell carcinoma, also called oat cell carcinoma, can create its own hormones, which alter body chemistry. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/imagepages/18016.htm

Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCB) is an extremely rare but aggressive tumour constituting less than 0.7% of ... Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. October 8, 2019 Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCB) is an ... Diagnosis of SCCB is based on the WHO criteria for small cell lung carcinoma. A 58-year-old man who had presented with ... It is often misdiagnosed as transitional cell carcinoma, owing to the similarities in presentation. ...
more infohttps://www.urotoday.com/recent-abstracts/urologic-oncology/bladder-cancer/115561-primary-small-cell-carcinoma-of-the-urinary-bladder.html

Survival in small cell lung carcinoma after surgery | ThoraxSurvival in small cell lung carcinoma after surgery | Thorax

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
more infohttps://thorax.bmj.com/content/41/11/896.1

Angioedema and small-cell carcinoma of the lung. | ThoraxAngioedema and small-cell carcinoma of the lung. | Thorax

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
more infohttp://thorax.bmj.com/content/37/12/950

Mediastinum - Small cell carcinomaMediastinum - Small cell carcinoma

Thymic carcinoma. Small cell carcinoma. Reviewer: Hanni Gulwani, M.D. (see Reviewers page). Revised: 9 March 2013, last major ... Lymphoma: keratin-, CD45+ End of Mediastinum > Thymic carcinoma > Small cell carcinoma. This information is intended for ... Also called oat cell carcinoma, undifferentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma Sites. ... Clusters of small blue cells with minimal cytoplasm, hyperchromatic nuclei, no / minimal nucleoli, nuclear molding, frequent ...
more infohttp://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/mediastinumsmallcell.html

Small-cell carcinoma - WikipediaSmall-cell carcinoma - Wikipedia

"A combined small cell carcinoma of the lung containing three components: small cell, spindle cell and squamous cell carcinoma ... Small-cell carcinoma (also known as "small-cell lung cancer", or "oat-cell carcinoma") is a type of highly malignant cancer ... Small-cell carcinoma is most often more rapidly and widely metastatic than non-small cell lung carcinoma (and hence staged ... Compared to non-small cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma has a shorter doubling time, higher growth fraction, and earlier ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small-cell_carcinoma

NSCLC (Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma) - DrugBankNSCLC (Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma) - DrugBank

This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/indications/DBCOND0103105

Small cell carcinoma - RightDiagnosis.comSmall cell carcinoma - RightDiagnosis.com

Small cell carcinoma information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health ... Small cell carcinoma. Description of Small cell carcinoma. Small cell carcinoma: highly malignant carcinoma composed of small ... Terms Similar to Small cell carcinoma:. *oat cell carcinoma Source - WordNet 2.1 Broader terms for Small cell carcinoma. * ... Small cell *Small *Small syndrome *Cell *Carcinoma *Anaplastic *Malignant *Bronchogenic *Ovoid *Cytoplasm Terms associated with ...
more infohttps://www.rightdiagnosis.com/medical/small_cell_carcinoma.htm

Adjuvant BEmiparin in Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (ABEL STUDY) - No Study Results Posted - ClinicalTrials.govAdjuvant BEmiparin in Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (ABEL STUDY) - No Study Results Posted - ClinicalTrials.gov

Adjuvant BEmiparin in Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (ABEL STUDY). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Adjuvant therapy with bemiparin in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer: results from the ABEL study. Thromb Res ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT00324558?cond=%22Carcinoma%2C+Small+Cell%22

Monocolonal antibodies and antigen for human non-small cell lung carcinomas - OncogenMonocolonal antibodies and antigen for human non-small cell lung carcinomas - Oncogen

... invention is concerned with novel monoclonal antibodies which define a glycolipid antigen associated with human non-small cell ... lung carcinomas (NSCLC) and certain other human carcinomas. ... cultured cells from a non-small cell lung carcinoma, and (3) ... human lung carcinoma cells from pleural effusions or cultured cells from human non-small cell lung carcinoma, or cells from a ... Lung Carcinoma. Adeno 18/19. Squamous 8/10. Small Cell 2/6. Large Cell 2/2. Breast Carcinoma 13/16. Colon Carcinoma 9/9. ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/4906562.html

PRIME PubMed | Small cell carcinoma: arising in Lynch syndrome: a previously undocumented occurrencPRIME PubMed | Small cell carcinoma: arising in Lynch syndrome: a previously undocumented occurrenc

PubMed journal article Small cell carcinoma: arising in Lynch syndrome: a previously undocumented occurrenc were found in PRIME ... Small cell carcinoma: arising in Lynch syndrome: a previously undocumented occurrence.. Int J Surg Pathol 2009; 17(1):46-50IJ ... Small Cell Carcinoma: Arising in Lynch Syndrome: a Previously Undocumented Occurrence. Int J Surg Pathol. 2009;17(1):46-50. ... Small cell carcinoma: arising in Lynch syndrome: a previously undocumented occurrence. Int J Surg Pathol. 2009;17(1):46-50. ...
more infohttps://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18480399/Small_cell_carcinoma:_arising_in_Lynch_syndrome:_a_previously_undocumented_occurrence_

Small Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary, Hypercalcemic Type - Clinical Trials FundSmall Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary, Hypercalcemic Type - Clinical Trials Fund

Small Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary, Hypercalcemic Type is a rare and aggressive cancer that typically strikes girls and young ... Small Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary, Hypercalcemic Type - Clinical Trials Fund. .BBFormSelectList{text-transform: capitalize;}. ... It is also the average age of diagnosis for small cell carcinoma of the ovaries hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) - a highly ... Today, we ask you to join our fight against ovarian cancer by supporting TGens Small Cell Ovarian Cancer Clinical Trial. ...
more infohttps://www.tgen.org/giving/celebration-of-life/special-funds/sccoht-clinical-trials-fund/

Can bronchoalveolar carcinoma be prevented? | Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer - SharecareCan bronchoalveolar carcinoma be prevented? | Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer - Sharecare

... little is known about how to prevent it. Recently this type of lung cance ... Because little is known about the actual cause of bronchoalveolar carcinoma, ... Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. The most common type of lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) affects tens of thousands ... Continue Learning about Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Treating Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with Immunotherapy ...
more infohttps://www.sharecare.com/health/non-small-cell-lung-cancer/can-bronchoalveolar-carcinoma-be-prevented

NIOSHTIC-2  Publications Search - 20029957 - DLC-1 tumor supressor gene induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung...NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20029957 - DLC-1 tumor supressor gene induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung...

It can inhibit the growth and induce morphological changes of NSCLC cells in gene transfection studies. To explore the ... gene is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene for human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). ... DLC-1 tumor supressor gene induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells following a unique process of cell ... Tumors; Cell-morphology; Carcinomas; Cell-growth; Microscopy; Genes; Tumorigens; Tumorigenesis; Gene-mutation; Liver-cells; ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20029957.html

NIOSHTIC-2  Publications Search - 20031563 - Aberrant gene expression in human non small cell lung carcinoma cells exposed to...NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20031563 - Aberrant gene expression in human non small cell lung carcinoma cells exposed to...

... to the process of tumor development was used in this study by examining the gene expression profile in human lung cancer cells ... Cancer; Cell-biology; Cell-function; Cell-growth; Cell-metabolism; Cell-transformation; Cellular-uptake; Lung-cancer; Lung- ... Aberrant gene expression in human non small cell lung carcinoma cells exposed to demethylating agent 5-aza-2 -deoxycytidine.. ... A cDNA array analysis was carried out on 5-aza-dC-treated and untreated non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line NCI-H522. ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20031563.html
  • To determine the accurate age-adjusted incidence of prostate small cell carcinoma (SCC), update the clinical and pathological characteristics, as well as survival data of prostate SCC from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) datasets. (urotoday.com)
  • In view of this evidence for calcium-spike electrogenesis and previous evidence of secretory activity in these cells, this cell line (DMS 53) can provide a model for the study of excitation-secretion behavior in human neoplastic cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Today, we ask you to join our fight against ovarian cancer by supporting TGen's Small Cell Ovarian Cancer Clinical Trial. (tgen.org)
  • A new approach in identifying alterations of genes that might be relevant to the process of tumor development was used in this study by examining the gene expression profile in human lung cancer cells exposed to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC). (cdc.gov)
  • No somatic mutations were detected in the mutation cluster regions of the KRAS, EGFR, BRAF and PIK3CA genes and the entire coding region of p53 in the carcinoma, and the expression of ALK fusion was negative. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This form of small cell carcinoma is often excluded from the larger review series, but can be an important alternative in the diagnostic process of patient evaluation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Large cell lung carcinoma (LCLC) is a heterogeneous group of undifferentiated malignant neoplasms originating from transformed epithelial cells in the lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • An abdominal CT showed a well-defined lesion in the superior right hepatic lobe consistent with a hepatic cyst and a mildly enlarged and heterogeneous left hepatic lobe concerning for possible hepatocellular carcinoma. (hindawi.com)
  • All types can occur in unusual histologic variants and as mixed cell-type combinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the prostate, small-cell carcinoma (SCCP) is a rare form of cancer (approx 1% of PC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the fact that there is little variation in prostate specific antigen levels, this form of cancer is normally diagnosed at an advanced stage, after metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Green Tea induces apoptosis in drug-resistant small-cell lung carcinoma. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • DLC-1 tumor supressor gene induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells following a unique process of cell morphological changes and protein nuclear translocation. (cdc.gov)
  • New studies revealed that DLC-1 transfection can initially induce multiple branched cytoplasmic extensions, which are followed by membrane blebbing along the cytoplasmic extensions and progressive cell shrinkage, and ended with cytoplasmic and nuclear decomposition, the morphological evidence of cell apoptosis. (cdc.gov)
  • The process of morphological change is associated with RhoGAP-domain-related reduction of stress fibers and filopodia early in gene transfection and with collapsing of the actin cytoskeleton at the time of cell apoptosis. (cdc.gov)
  • DLC-1's ability to induce tumor cell apoptosis is supported by the induction of caspase 3 activation in DLC-1-transfected cells following the morphological changes. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the induction of cell apoptosis is more dependent on DLC-1 protein nuclear translocation, which could be retarded by active RhoA signaling. (cdc.gov)
  • A 58-year-old man who had presented with haematuria and burning micturition for 3 months was initially diagnosed as high-grade muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma based on the TURBT specimen. (urotoday.com)