Carcinoma, Renal Cell: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Adenoma, Oxyphilic: A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askanazy cells.Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein: A ubiquitin-protein ligase that mediates OXYGEN-dependent polyubiquitination of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. It is inactivated in VON HIPPEL-LINDAU SYNDROME.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Benzenesulfonates: Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Phenylurea Compounds: Compounds that include the amino-N-phenylamide structure.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Niacinamide: An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Carcinoma, Medullary: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)Carcinoma, Adenosquamous: A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Carcinoma, Endometrioid: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.von Hippel-Lindau Disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in a tumor suppressor gene. This syndrome is characterized by abnormal growth of small blood vessels leading to a host of neoplasms. They include HEMANGIOBLASTOMA in the RETINA; CEREBELLUM; and SPINAL CORD; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; pancreatic tumors; and renal cell carcinoma (see CARCINOMA, RENAL CELL). Common clinical signs include HYPERTENSION and neurological dysfunctions.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Carcinoma, Merkel Cell: A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Carcinoma, Verrucous: A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell: A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Leiomyomatosis: The state of having multiple leiomyomas throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed)Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Carcinoma, Large Cell: A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Fumarate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.2.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Kidney Diseases, Cystic: A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells: The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular: A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Keratin-7: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous: A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Mice, Inbred BALB CDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Urogenital Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Carbonic Anhydrases: A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Ureteral Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the URETER which may cause obstruction leading to hydroureter, HYDRONEPHROSIS, and PYELONEPHRITIS. HEMATURIA is a common symptom.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Urologic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.Chemoembolization, Therapeutic: Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Urothelium: The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Angiomyolipoma: A benign tumor containing vascular, adipose, and muscle elements. It occurs most often in the kidney with smooth muscle elements (angiolipoleiomyoma) in association with tuberous sclerosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Carcinoma, Basosquamous: A skin carcinoma that histologically exhibits both basal and squamous elements. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Hand-Foot Syndrome: Chemotherapy-induced dermal side effects that are associated with the use of various CYTOSTATIC AGENTS. Symptoms range from mild ERYTHEMA and/or PARESTHESIA to severe ulcerative dermatitis with debilitating pain involving typically palmoplantar and intertriginous areas. These cutaneous manifestations are sometimes accompanied by nail anomalies.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.

Decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 in renal cell carcinoma. (1/3818)

Par-4 is a widely expressed leucine zipper protein that confers sensitization to apoptosis induced by exogenous insults. Because the expression of genes that promote apoptosis may be down-regulated during tumorigenesis, we sought to examine the expression of Par-4 in human tumors. We present here evidence that Par-4 protein levels were severely decreased in human renal cell carcinoma specimens relative to normal tubular cells. Replenishment of Par-4 protein levels in renal cell carcinoma cell lines conferred sensitivity to apoptosis. Because apoptosis may serve as a defense mechanism against malignant transformation or progression, decreased expression of Par-4 may contribute to the pathophysiology of renal cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Profound variation in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity in human blood cells: major implications for the detection of partly deficient patients. (2/3818)

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is responsible for the breakdown of the widely used antineoplastic agent 5-fluorouracil (5FU), thereby limiting the efficacy of the therapy. To identify patients suffering from a complete or partial DPD deficiency, the activity of DPD is usually determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM cells). In this study, we demonstrated that the highest activity of DPD was found in monocytes followed by that of lymphocytes, granulocytes and platelets, whereas no significant activity of DPD could be detected in erythrocytes. The activity of DPD in PBM cells proved to be intermediate compared with the DPD activity observed in monocytes and lymphocytes. The mean percentage of monocytes in the PBM cells obtained from cancer patients proved to be significantly higher than that observed in PBM cells obtained from healthy volunteers. Moreover, a profound positive correlation was observed between the DPD activity of PBM cells and the percentage of monocytes, thus introducing a large inter- and intrapatient variability in the activity of DPD and hindering the detection of patients with a partial DPD deficiency.  (+info)

Presentation of renal tumor antigens by human dendritic cells activates tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes against autologous tumor: implications for live kidney cancer vaccines. (3/3818)

The clinical impact of dendritic cells (DCs) in the treatment of human cancer depends on their unique role as the most potent antigen-presenting cells that are capable of priming an antitumor T-cell response. Here, we demonstrate that functional DCs can be generated from peripheral blood of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by culture of monocytes/macrophages (CD14+) in autologous serum containing medium (RPMI) in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin (IL) 4. For testing the capability of RCC-antigen uptake and processing, we loaded these DCs with autologous tumor lysate (TuLy) using liposomes, after which cytometric analysis of the DCs revealed a markedly increased expression of HLA class I antigen and a persistent high expression of class II. The immunogenicity of DC-TuLy was further tested in cultures of renal tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) cultured in low-dose IL-2 (20 Biologic Response Modifier Program units/ml). A synergistic effect of DC-TuLy and IL-2 in stimulating a T cell-dependent immune response was demonstrated by: (a) the increase of growth expansion of TILs (9.4-14.3-fold; day 21); (b) the up-regulation of the CD3+ CD56- TcR+ (both CD4+ and CD8+) cell population; (c) the augmentation of T cell-restricted autologous tumor lysis; and (d) the enhancement of IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and IL-6 mRNA expression by TILs. Taken together, these data implicate that DC-TuLy can activate immunosuppressed TIL via an induction of enhanced antitumor CTL responses associated with production of Thl cells. This indicates a potential role of DC-TuLy vaccines for induction of active immunity in patients with advanced RCC.  (+info)

Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma: biologic behavior, prognosis, and response to combined surgical resection and immunotherapy. (4/3818)

PURPOSE: Sarcomatoid variants of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are aggressive tumors that respond poorly to immunotherapy. We report the outcomes of 31 patients with sarcomatoid RCC treated with a combination of surgical resection and immunotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were identified from the database of the University of California Los Angeles Kidney Cancer Program. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 31 consecutive patients in whom sarcomatoid RCC was diagnosed between 1990 and 1997. Clinical stage, sites of metastasis, pathologic stage, and type of immunotherapy were abstracted from the medical records. The primary end point analyzed was overall survival, and a multivariate analysis was performed to distinguish any factors conferring an improved survivorship. RESULTS: Twenty-six percent of patients were male and 74% were female, and the median age was 59 years (range, 34 to 73 years). Length of follow-up ranged from 2 to 77 months (mean, 21.4 months). Twenty-eight patients (84%) had known metastases at the time of radical nephrectomy (67% had lung metastases and 40% had bone, 21% had liver, 33% had lymphatic, and 15% had brain metastases). Twenty-five patients (81%) received immunotherapy, including low-dose interleukin (IL)-2-based therapy (five patients), tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte-based therapy plus IL-2 (nine patients), high-dose IL-2-based therapy (nine patients), dendritic cell vaccine-based therapy (one patient), and interferon alpha-based therapy alone (one patient). Two patients (6%) achieved complete responses (median duration, 46+ months) and five patients (15%) achieved partial responses (median duration, 36 months). One- and 2-year overall survival rates were 48% and 37%, respectively. Using a multivariate analysis, age, sex, and percentage of sarcomatoid tumor (< or >50%) did not significantly correlate with survival. Improved survival was found in patients receiving high-dose IL-2 therapy compared with patients treated with surgery alone or any other form of immunotherapy (P = .025). Adjusting for age, sex, and percentage of sarcomatoid tumor, the relative risk of death was 10.4 times higher in patients not receiving high-dose IL-2 therapy. Final pathologic T stage did not correlate significantly with outcome, but node-positive patients had a higher death rate per year of follow-up than did the rest of the population (1.26 v 0.76, Cox regression analysis). CONCLUSION: Surgical resection and high-dose IL-2-based immunotherapy may play a role in the treatment of sarcomatoid RCCs in select patients.  (+info)

Autoimmunity resulting from cytokine treatment predicts long-term survival in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer. (5/3818)

PURPOSE: In patients undergoing cytokine therapy, systemically applied interleukin-2 (IL-2) and/or interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) have been reported to induce thyroid dysfunction as well as thyroid autoantibodies. We analyzed the correlation of thyroid autoimmunity with HLA phenotype, various other autoimmune parameters, and patient survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For this purpose, antithyroglobulin autoantibodies, antimicrosomal thyroid autoantibodies, thyroglobulin receptor autoantibodies, thyroid dysfunction, and multiple clinical parameters were determined in 329 unselected patients with metastatic renal cell cancer before and after systemic IL-2 and IFN-alpha2 therapy. For statistical analysis, we used both univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models and the two-tailed Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Antithyroglobulin autoantibodies and antimicrosomal thyroid autoantibodies were detected in 60 patients (18%); positive autoantibody titers of various other autoimmune parameters were statistically unrelated. The presence of thyroid autoantibodies was correlated with prolonged survival (P<.0001). There was a statistically significant difference in frequencies of HLA-Cw7 expression between thyroid autoantibody-positive and -negative patients (P< or =.05), and the Cw7 expression was associated with prolonged overall survival (P = .009). CONCLUSION: The evaluation of thyroid autoantibodies during cytokine therapy could be a useful prognostic marker for patients with renal cell carcinoma who benefit from cytokine treatment. IL-2- and IFN-alpha2-induced tumor control and prolonged survival may require breaking of immunologic tolerance against self-antigens.  (+info)

Hypertension, antihypertensive medication use, and risk of renal cell carcinoma. (6/3818)

To investigate whether diuretic medication use increases risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the authors conducted a case-control study of health maintenance organization members in western Washington State. Cases (n = 238) diagnosed between January 1980 and June 1995 were compared with controls (n = 616) selected from health maintenance organization membership files. The computerized health maintenance organization pharmacy database provided information on medications prescribed after March 1977. Additional exposure information was collected from medical records. For women, use of diuretics was associated with increased risk of RCC (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-3.1), but the association was not independent of a diagnosis of hypertension (adjusted for hypertension, OR = 1.1, 95% CI 0.5-2.1). Similarly, nondiuretic antihypertensive use was associated with increased risk, but only when unadjusted for hypertension. For men, neither diuretic nor nondiuretic antihypertensive use was associated with risk of RCC. A diagnosis of hypertension was clearly associated with RCC risk for women (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.1), but not men (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 0.7-2.5). High systolic and diastolic blood pressures were associated with increased risk in both sexes. These results do not support the hypothesis that use of diuretic medication increases RCC risk; they are more consistent with an association between RCC and high blood pressure.  (+info)

Increased renal retention of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate after nephron-sparing surgery. (7/3818)

Nephron-sparing surgery has become established as an effective treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma when preservation of renal function is necessary. The surgery usually requires temporary renal artery occlusion and may induce ischemic renal damage. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated renal activity on bone scintigraphy after nephron-sparing surgery. METHODS: Eleven patients who underwent nephron-sparing surgery for renal cell carcinoma and had a normal contralateral kidney were studied. A total of 12 bone scintigraphy images with 99mTc-labeled methylene diphosphonate were obtained within 1 y after surgery in these patients to assess skeletal metastasis. Activity in the spared renal parenchyma was compared visually with that in the contralateral normal kidney. RESULTS: The tumor was successfully resected in every patient, and no clinically significant complications occurred. Activity in the spared renal parenchyma was elevated in six of seven examinations performed within 21 d after surgery. In three examinations, the increase in renal activity was heterogeneous, being relatively prominent near the surgical margin. Increased renal activity was not observed on five examinations performed 3 mo or more after surgery. CONCLUSION: Renal retention of bone-seeking agents is elevated in the early period after nephron-sparing surgery, probably as a result of ischemic insult during the surgical procedure. Bone scintigraphy may aid in evaluating the presence and degree of ischemic damage of the spared renal parenchyma.  (+info)

Renal carcinogenesis, hepatic hemangiomatosis, and embryonic lethality caused by a germ-line Tsc2 mutation in mice. (8/3818)

Germ-line mutations of the human TSC2 tumor suppressor gene cause tuberous sclerosis (TSC), a disease characterized by the development of hamartomas in various organs. In the Eker rat, however, a germ-line Tsc2 mutation gives rise to renal cell carcinomas with a complete penetrance. The molecular mechanism for this phenotypic difference between man and rat is currently unknown, and the physiological function of the TSC2/Tsc2 product (tuberin) is not fully understood. To investigate these unsolved problems, we have generated a Tsc2 mutant mouse. Tsc2 heterozygous mutant (Tsc2+/-) mice developed renal carcinomas with a complete penetrance, as seen in the Eker rat, but not the angiomyolipomas characteristic of human TSC, confirming the existence of a species-specific mechanism of tumorigenesis caused by tuberin deficiency. Unexpectedly, approximately 80% of Tsc2+/- mice also developed hepatic hemangiomas that are not observed in either TSC or the Eker rat. Tsc2 homozygous (Tsc2-/-) mutants died around embryonic day 10.5, indicating an essential function for tuberin in mouse embryonic development. Some Tsc2-/- embryos exhibited an unclosed neural tube and/or thickened myocardium. The latter is associated with increased cell density that may be a reflection of loss of a growth-suppressive function of tuberin. The mouse strain described here should provide a valuable experimental model to analyze the function of tuberin and its association with tumorigenesis.  (+info)

NOTOC__ For patient information click [[{{PAGENAME}} (patient information),here]] {{Renal cell carcinoma}} {{CMG}}; {{AE}} {{YD}}, {{SSK}}, {{SC}} {{SK}} RCC; Renal cell CA; Kidney cancer; Kidney carcinoma; Kidney CA; Grawitz tumor; Hypernephroma ==[[Renal cell carcinoma overview,Overview]]== ==[[Renal cell carcinoma historical perspective,Historical Perspective]]== ==[[Renal cell carcinoma classification,Classification]]== ==[[Renal cell carcinoma pathophysiology,Pathophysiology]]== ==[[Renal cell carcioma causes,Causes]]== ==[[Renal cell carcinoma differential diagnosis,Differentiating Renal cell carcinoma from other Diseases]]== ==[[Renal cell carcinoma epidemiology and demographics,Epidemiology and Demographics]]== ==[[Renal cell carcinoma risk factors,Risk Factors]]== ==[[Renal cell carcinoma screening,Screening]]== ==[[Renal cell carcinoma natural history, complications, and prognosis,Natural History, Complications and Prognosis]]== ==Diagnosis== [[Renal cell carcinoma ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma market report covers research informatics related to Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma clinical trials, such as a listing of industry and sponsored clinical trials as well as new drug therapies.. Designed to be a resource both for patients interested in participating in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma clinical trials and for research professionals.. The report, "Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2016″ provides an overview of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma clinical trials scenario. This report provides top line data relating to the clinical trials on Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma. Report includes an overview of trial numbers and their average enrolment in top countries conducted across the globe. The report also offers coverage of disease clinical trials by region, country (G7 & E7), phase, trial status, end points status and sponsor type.. Browse ...
List of Tables. Table 1: Clinical subtypes of Indication. Table 2: Risk Factors. Table 3: Prevalence cases (%) Region wise. Table 4: Sources used for forecasting the data. Table 5: Renal cell carcinoma Global Epidemiology, (2013-2023). Table 6: Prevalent Cases of Renal cell carcinoma (Ages =XX Years), US (2013-2023). Table 7: Prevalent Cases of Renal cell carcinoma By Sex (Males & Females), US (2013-2023). Table 8: Prevalent Cases By Renal cell carcinoma Sub-population, US (2013-2023). Table 9: Prevalent Cases of Renal cell carcinoma (Ages =XX Years), United Kingdom (2013-2023). Table 10: Prevalent Cases of Renal cell carcinoma By Sex (Males & Females), United Kingdom (2013-2023). Table 11: Prevalent Cases By Renal cell carcinoma Sub-population, United Kingdom (2013-2023). Table 12: Prevalent Cases of Renal cell carcinoma (Ages =XX Years), Germany (2013-2023). Table 13: Prevalent Cases of Renal cell carcinoma By Sex (Males & Females), Germany (2013-2023). Table 14: Prevalent Cases By Renal cell ...
Title:Mechanisms of Acquired Resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Clear - Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC). VOLUME: 8 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Zofia F. Bielecka, Anna M. Czarnecka, Wojciech Solarek, Anna Kornakiewicz and Cezary Szczylik. Affiliation:Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Department of Oncology, Military Institute of Medicine in Warsaw, Szaserów 128, 04-141 Warsaw, Poland.. Keywords:Acquired drug resistance, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib, axitinib, tivozanib, epithelialmesenchymal transition, angiogenic switch, anti-angiogenic therapy, clear-cell renal cell carcinoma, non-genetic resistance mechanisms.. Abstract:Clear - cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a histological subtype of renal cell carcinoma - the most prevalent adult kidney cancer. Causes of ccRCC are not completely understood and therefore number of available therapies is limited. As a consequence of tumor chemo- and radioresistance as well as restrictions in offered targeted therapies, ...
Sumanta Pal, MD of City of Hope, Duarte, CA, discusses the introduction of new data of the new single-agent cabozantinib for advanced renal cell carcinoma. The agent is a dual MET and VEGFR2 inhibitor, and has been assessed in metastatic renal cell carcinoma and other diseases. Dr Pal highlights his involvement in the Phase I trials of cabozantinibs development in renal cell carcinoma, where impressive responses were observed. He proceeds to highlight that most recently, cabozantinib was used in a Phase III METEOR trial comparing it to the agent everolimus (NCT01865747). This study identified an improvement in response rate, overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. According to Dr Pal, these findings make the agent the optimal second-line choice in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. He further adds that data from the CABOSUN study (NCT01835158), a clinical trial that compared sunitinib and cabozantinib in the front-line
Metachronous renal cell carcinoma after radical nephrectomy is extremely rare. Renal cell carcinoma commonly metastasizes to distant organs. However, metastasis to the urinary bladder is very uncommon. Herein, we report a case of metachronous renal cell carcinoma with metastasis to the urinary bladder, left acetabulum, left rib, lungs, thyroid, right renal vein and inferior vena cava. The patient had undergone a left-sided radical nephrectomy 28 years ago. The pathological diagnosis of a fragment of the bladder tumor was consistent with Fuhrman grade 2 clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Although metachronous renal cell carcinoma after radical nephrectomy is rare, active surveillance should be still considered. Renal cell carcinoma has shown to unusually metastasize to the urinary bladder, a rarely reported organ of metastasis. Treatment options, such as immunotherapy, are available to patients with such metastasis and long-term survivorship can be achieved.
This paper presents the conclusions of a workshop entitled Impact of Molecular Genetics on the Classification of Renal Cell Tumours, which was held in Heidelberg in October 1996. The focus on renal cell tumours excludes any discussion of Wilms tumour and its variants, or of tumours metastatic to the kidneys. The proposed classification subdivides renal cell tumours into benign and malignant parenchymal neoplasms and, where possible, limits each subcategory to the most commonly documented genetic abnormalities. Benign tumours are subclassified into metanephric adenoma and adenofibroma, papillary renal cell adenoma, and renal oncocytoma. Malignant tumours are subclassified into common or conventional renal cell carcinoma; papillary renal cell carcinoma; chromophobe renal cell carcinoma; collecting duct carcinoma, with medullary carcinoma of the kidney; and renal cell carcinoma, unclassified. This classification is based on current genetic knowledge, correlates with recognizable histological ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alterations in chromatin accessibility and DNA methylation in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. AU - Buck, M. J.. AU - Raaijmakers, L. M.. AU - Ramakrishnan, S.. AU - Wang, D.. AU - Valiyaparambil, S.. AU - Liu, S.. AU - Nowak, N. J.. AU - Pili, Roberto. PY - 2014/10/9. Y1 - 2014/10/9. N2 - Recent studies have demonstrated that in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) several chromatin remodeling enzymes are genetically inactivated. Although, growing evidence in cancer models has demonstrated the importance of epigenetic changes, currently only changes in DNA methylation can be accurately determined from clinical samples. To address this limitation, we have applied formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIREs) combined with next-generation sequencing (FAIRE-seq) to identify specific changes in chromatin accessibility in clinical samples of ccRCC. We modified the FAIRE procedure to allow us to examine chromatin accessibility for small samples of solid tumors. ...
Human Kidney Slide (Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma) (5 slides/pk) Slide for IHC HTS-10405 Human Kidney Slide (Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma) (5 slides/pk) Slide for IHC HTS-10405
Background:It has been suggested that the apparent protective effect of alcohol intake on renal cell carcinoma may be due to the diluting effect of carcinogens by a high total fluid intake. We assessed the association between intakes of total fluids and of specific beverages on the risk of renal cell carcinoma in a large prospective cohort of UK women.Methods:Information on beverage consumption was obtained from a questionnaire sent 3 years after recruitment into the Million Women Study. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for renal cell carcinoma associated with beverage consumption adjusted for age, region of residence, socioeconomic status, smoking, and body mass index.Results:After an average of 5.2 years of follow-up, 588 cases of renal cell carcinoma were identified among 779 369 women. While alcohol intake was associated with a reduced risk of renal cell carcinoma (RR for 2 vs 1 drink per day: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.61-0.96; P for
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acquired cystic disease associated renal cell carcinoma. AU - Bakkannavar, Shankar M.. AU - Velayudhan, Dewaraj. AU - Prabhu, Ravindra. AU - Ramnarayan, K.. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Acquired cystic disease predisposes to renal cell carcinoma. We describe a patient who had received kidney transplant 7 years back with normal allograft function who suffered sudden cardiac death at home and was discovered to have acquired cystic disease and renal cell carcinoma in her native kidneys. This case highlights the need to assess native kidneys periodically after kidney transplant.. AB - Acquired cystic disease predisposes to renal cell carcinoma. We describe a patient who had received kidney transplant 7 years back with normal allograft function who suffered sudden cardiac death at home and was discovered to have acquired cystic disease and renal cell carcinoma in her native kidneys. This case highlights the need to assess native kidneys periodically after kidney ...
Through combined deletion of Vhl, Trp53 and Rb1 in renal epithelial cells, the authors develop a new mouse model of renal cell carcinoma that recapitulates the cellular and molecular features of a large proportion of human tumors. This model uncovers a role for primary-cilium-related genes in the development of the disease and provides a reliable platform for preclinical therapeutic studies. Clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) frequently exhibit inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor-suppressor gene, VHL, and often harbor multiple copy-number alterations in genes that regulate cell cycle progression. We show here that modeling these genetic alterations by combined deletion of Vhl, Trp53 and Rb1 specifically in renal epithelial cells in mice caused ccRCC. These tumors arose from proximal tubule epithelial cells and shared molecular markers and mRNA expression profiles with human ccRCC. Exome sequencing revealed that mouse and human ccRCCs exhibit recurrent mutations in genes associated with
Bristol-Myers Squibb has announced the early closure of its phase 3 CheckMate-025 trial evaluating nivolumab (Opdivo) compared with everolimus for the treatment of previously-treated patients with advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma.. The study was stopped early because an independent Data Monitoring Committee assessment found that nivolumab is superior to everolimus in this patient population.. "The results of CheckMate-025 mark the first time an Immuno-Oncology agent has demonstrated a survival advantage in advanced renal cell carcinoma, a patient group that currently has limited treatment options," said Michael Giordano, senior vice president, Head of Development, Oncology, Bristol-Myers Squibb. "Through our Opdivo clinical development program, we aim to redefine treatment expectations for patients with advanced RCC by providing improved survival.". For the open-label trial, 821 previously-treated patients with advanced or metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma were randomly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Axial Abdominal Imaging after Partial Nephrectomy for T1 Renal Cell Carcinoma Surveillance. AU - Sorokin, Igor. AU - Canvasser, Noah E.. AU - Margulis, Vitaly. AU - Lotan, Yair. AU - Raj, Ganesh. AU - Sagalowsky, Arthur I. AU - Gahan, Jeffrey. AU - Cadeddu, Jeffrey A. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Purpose: The overall recurrence rate of T1 renal cell carcinoma is low. We evaluated abdominal imaging after partial nephrectomy based on current guidelines for T1 renal cell carcinoma surveillance. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with T1 renal cell carcinoma who underwent partial nephrectomy between 2006 and 2012 followed by abdominal imaging at our institution. Primary and secondary outcomes were the incidence and timing, respectively, of imaging diagnosed abdominal recurrences. A literature review was performed to summarize prior reports of recurrence incidence and timing after partial nephrectomy for T1 disease. Results: A total of 160 ...
Background and objective: Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (CCRCC) is the most common adult renal neoplasm. Staging and grading of RCC are important predictors of survival. Fuhrman nuclear grading is widely used for CCRCC, the subjective nature of which has prompted more objective methods to evaluate nuclear features. Furthermore, Ki-67, a reliable marker of cellular proliferation may provide another variable for assessment of the biological behavior of RCC. The aim of this research was to study nuclear morphometry and Fuhrman nuclear grading of clear cell RCC, and to assess their relationship with the Ki-67 index. Methods: Hematoxylin and eosin slides of forty cases of CCRCC were retrieved and studied for pathologic variables, including Fuhrman nuclear grade, pathological tumor and node stage. Nuclear morphometric analysis was performed using computer-assisted image analysis. The relationship between Fuhrman nuclear grading, pathologic stage, tumor size, nuclear morphometry and proliferative index were
ABSTRACT. Cell cycle regulation in human renal cell carcinoma. Ylva Hedberg, Departments of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, and Surgical and. Perioperative Sciences, Urology Andrology, Umeå University, Sweden. Deregulated growth control is a hallmark of neoplasia potentially caused by aberrant expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins. The importance of such aberrations in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has not been fully clarified. Therefore, the protein expressions of several G1/S regulatory proteins in human RCC were evaluated and their relation to clinico-pathological data was examined.. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the proteinexpression of cyclin D1, D3, and E in 80 RCCs. Most tumors expressed higher levels of cyclin D1 (75%) and cyclin E (65%) compared to corresponding normal kidney cortex. In contrast, only 16 % of the tumors had high levels of cyclin D3. In conventional RCCs, low levels of cyclin D1 were associated with large tumor size, aneuploidy ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A case of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with lower GI bleeding. AU - Salwa, Siti M.S.. AU - Firdaus, Mohd C.A.. AU - Goh, Eng Hong. AU - Tan, Guan Hee. AU - Singam, Praveen. AU - Fam, Xeng Inn. PY - 2017/7/1. Y1 - 2017/7/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85032032940&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85032032940&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Letter. AN - SCOPUS:85032032940. VL - 22. SP - 152. EP - 153. JO - Surgical Chronicles. JF - Surgical Chronicles. SN - 1108-5002. IS - 3. ER - ...
The results of a phase III trial comparing two commonly used drugs in the second-line treatment of renal cell carcinoma suggest that temsirolimus does not improve survival over sorafenib in the second line setting.. The two drugs inhibit different targets: temsirolimus targets mTOR, which regulates cell growth and proliferation, while sorafenib inhibits several tyrosine kinases, including VEGF receptors.. This is the first head-to-head phase III trial comparing a VEGF inhibitor to an mTOR inhibitor in renal cell carcinoma, reporting final results. Hence, this trial will have important treatment implications for patients and physicians, noted Dr Thomas Hutson from Texas Oncology-Baylor Charles A Sammons Cancer Center in Texas, USA.. Temsirolimus had demonstrated an overall survival benefit compared to interferon alfa in previously untreated patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma and poor prognostic features, but the drugs efficacy after treatment with a VEGF inhibitor was not known, Dr ...
Preliminary data from an interim analysis of an ongoing phase III clinical trial of investigational temsirolimus (CCI-779) for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma showed that single-agent therapy with temsirolimus significantly increased overall survival as a first-line treatment of patients with advanced disease and poor-risk features compared to interferon-alpha, a treatment for advanced renal cell carcinoma. In the trial, patients who were treated with temsirolimus alone experienced a 3.6-month, or 49%, increase in median overall survival time compared with patients treated with interferon-alpha alone (10.9 vs 7.3 months, P = .0069). 1
The bevacizumab experience in advanced renal cell carcinoma Lauren C Harshman, Sandy SrinivasDivision of Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USAAbstract: Bevacizumab in combination with interferon alfa is now approved for treatment-naïve advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in both the US and Europe. Its objective response rates of 30% and progression-free survival rates of 9–10 months are ­comparable to the other approved first-line multityrosine kinase inhibitors, sunitinib and pazopanib. Its advantages include a different toxicity profile and assurance of ­administration compliance given its intravenous formulation. Enthusiasm for its use is blunted by the increased costs, the potential infusion-related reactions, the associated interferon-related toxicities, and the inconvenience of its nonoral formulation. Further study is warranted to assess its efficacy both as a single agent and in combination with the targeted agents and other
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cabozantinib versus everolimus in advanced renal cell carcinoma (METEOR). T2 - final results from a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial. AU - Choueiri, Toni K.. AU - Escudier, Bernard. AU - Powles, Thomas. AU - Tannir, Nizar M.. AU - Mainwaring, Paul N.. AU - Rini, Brian I.. AU - Hammers, Hans J.. AU - Donskov, Frede. AU - Roth, Bruce J.. AU - Peltola, Katriina. AU - Lee, Jae Lyun. AU - Heng, Daniel Y C. AU - Schmidinger, Manuela. AU - Agarwal, Neeraj. AU - Sternberg, Cora N.. AU - McDermott, David F.. AU - Aftab, Dana T.. AU - Hessel, Colin. AU - Scheffold, Christian. AU - Schwab, Gisela. AU - Hutson, Thomas E.. AU - Pal, Sumanta. AU - Motzer, Robert J.. AU - METEOR investigators. PY - 2016/7/1. Y1 - 2016/7/1. N2 - Background Cabozantinib is an oral inhibitor of tyrosine kinases including MET, VEGFR, and AXL. The randomised phase 3 METEOR trial compared the efficacy and safety of cabozantinib versus the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma ...
BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains unclear. The purposes of this study are to elucidate the clinical significance of COX-2 in clear cell RCC (CCRCC) and to assess the treatment effect of COX-2 inhibition on CCRCC cell lines. METHODS: Using tumor samples obtained from 137 patients who had undergone nephrectomy at Seoul National University Hospital, we evaluated COX-2 expression on immunohistochemistry. Moreover, we performed the cell proliferation assay using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and cell invasion assay. Thus, we evaluated the effect of meloxicam, an inhibitor of COX-2, in two human CCRCC cell lines. RESULTS: Cancer-specific survival (p=0.038) and progression-free survival (p=0.031) were shorter in the COX-2 high expression group. A multivariate logistic regression model showed that COX-2 expression was an independent risk factor for pTNM stage and Fuhrman nuclear grade. The MTT ...
Adding "chemical shift" techniques to MRI can help differentiate clear cell renal cell carcinoma from other types of renal cell cancer, a new study shows. That differentiation can help physicians better determine treatment for these patients.. The study, conducted at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, included 156 patients with proven renal cell cancer. Clear cell renal carcinoma contains microscopic areas of fat, which is not seen on conventional imaging, said Dr. Azadeh Elmi, lead author of the study. "Chemical shift MRI enables us to quantify even small amounts of fat," she said. The study found that chemical shift MRI was about 83% accurate in differentiating clear cell renal cell carcinoma from other types of kidney cancer.. Clear cell type is the most common type of kidney cancer, and it has the greatest potential to metastasize, said Dr. Elmi. Chemical shift MRI is a protocol that can be readily performed in kidney MRI at no additional cost, she said. "As we are moving toward less ...
Patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are classified according to Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) criteria in three risk-groups: favourable, intermediate and poor. To our knowledge there is only one study which examined the poor risk group (Hudes et al.), which led to the approval of temsirolimus in this population. However temsirolimus demonstrated a low response rate of 8.6% according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumor (RECIST) criteria and a Progression free Survival (PFS) of 5.5 months and not all patients are suitable for temsirolimus treatment.. Thus, in clinical routine high-risk patients are also treated with multi Tyrosinkinase Inhibitors (mTKI). To date, a prospective data acquisition and control of effectiveness of a mTKI-treatment in high-risk patients has not been conducted.. Pazopanib was recently approved for the first-line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma in Europe and the USA. In the pivotal Phase III trial only nine patients in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rising incidence of renal cell carcinoma in Ireland. AU - Falebita, Opeyemi A.. AU - Mancini, Silvia. AU - Kiely, Eamonn. AU - Comber, Harry. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - Objective: To determine the trend in the incidence of renal cell carcinoma in Ireland, and evaluate changes in the modes of presentation and outcomes. Methods: Data on all histologically diagnosed renal cancers in Ireland over a 12-year period (1994-2005) were retrieved from the database of the National Cancer Registry of Ireland. Data on all renal cancer deaths in Ireland in the period 1994-2004 were obtained from the Central Statistics Office. Results: There were 2,485 cases of renal cell carcinoma from 1994 to 2005, of which 64% were in males and 36% in females. The average age of females at diagnosis fell from 63 years in 1994 to 58 years in 2005, with little change in the average age in males. The age-adjusted incidence of renal cell carcinoma per 100,000 person-year increased from 5.2 in 1994 to 6.8 in ...
Thomas E. Hutson, Long H. Dang, Richard C. Lauer, Alexander Starodub, Ralph J. Hauke, Matt D. Galsky, Kathryn A. Bylow, Theodore Logan, Charles Lance Cowey, David C. Bibby, Gabriel Kremmidiotis, Elizabeth E. Doolin, Tina C. Lavranos, Guru Sonpavde, Noah M. Hahn, Christopher Sweeney, John Sarantopoulos. Phase I results of a phase I/II trial of BNC105P with everolimus in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients previously treated with VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. J Clin Oncol 30, 2012 (suppl; abstr 4603) http://www.asco.org/ASCOv2/Meetings/Abstracts&vmview=abst_detail_view&confID=114&abstractID=91911 ...
Cytoreductive nephrectomy has been an integral part of management in metastatic renal cell carcinoma for patients with good performance status, based on the benefit shown by prospective trials in the interferon era and retrospective trials in the targeted therapies era.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of microvascular and capillary-lymphatic invasion with outcome in patients with renal cell carcinoma. AU - Eisenberg, Manuel S.. AU - Cheville, John C.. AU - Thompson, R. Houston. AU - Kaushik, Dharam. AU - Lohse, Christine M.. AU - Boorjian, Stephen A.. AU - Costello, Brian. AU - Leibovich, Bradley C.. PY - 2013/7. Y1 - 2013/7. N2 - Purpose: We evaluated the association of microvascular and capillary-lymphatic invasion with patient outcome after nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: We identified 1,433 patients surgically treated for sporadic, unilateral renal cell carcinoma between 2001 and 2008. All specimens were reviewed by a single uropathologist for microvascular and capillary-lymphatic invasion. Associations with time to metastasis and death from renal cell carcinoma were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for established clinicopathological prognostic variables. Results: Microvascular invasion and ...
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is important in tumor invasiveness and metastasis. We aimed to determine prognostic value of six key EMT markers (CDH1, CDH2, SNAI1, SNAI2, VIM, TWIST1) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). A total of 533 ccRCC patients with RNASeq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort were included for analysis. Gene expression of these EMT markers was compared between tumor and normal tissues based on Oncomine database and TCGA cohort. Their correlations with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were also examined in both TCGA cohort and FUSCC (Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center) cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression model and Kaplan-Meier plot were used to assess the relative factors. Functional enrichment analyses were utilized to describe biologic function annotations and significantly involved hallmarks pathways of each gene. We found that Epithelial marker, CDH1 expression
List of Tables. Number of Products under Development for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma, H1 2015 12. Number of Products under Development for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma-Comparative Analysis, H1 2015 13. Number of Products under Development by Companies, H1 2015 15. Number of Products under Development by Companies, H1 2015 (Contd..1) 16. Number of Products under Development by Companies, H1 2015 (Contd..2) 17. Number of Products under Investigation by Universities/Institutes, H1 2015 18. Comparative Analysis by Late Stage Development, H1 2015 19. Comparative Analysis by Clinical Stage Development, H1 2015 20. Comparative Analysis by Early Stage Development, H1 2015 21. Comparative Analysis by Unknown Stage Development, H1 2015 22. Products under Development by Companies, H1 2015 23. Products under Development by Companies, H1 2015 (Contd..1) 24. Products under Development by Companies, H1 2015 (Contd..2) 25. Products under Investigation by Universities/Institutes, H1 2015 26. Metastatic ...
Purpose: Temsirolimus is an effective treatment for renal cell carcinoma. It is associated with increases in serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose. We investigated whether changes of these biomarkers could predict its efficacy. Experimental Design: We examined serial measurements of cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose from patients randomized to IFN or temsirolimus in the Global Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Trial. Using time-dependent proportional hazards models, we quantified the association between changes in these biomarkers from baseline with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). We also assess the extent to which changes of these biomarkers predict the effects of temsirolimus on survival. Results: Temsirolimus was associated with larger mean increases in cholesterol (1.02 mmol/L; P | 0.0001), triglycerides (0.32 mmol/L; P = 0.0008), and glucose (1.28 mmol/L; P | 0.0001) compared with IFN and improved survival rate (OS: HR = 0.76, P = 0.02; PFS: HR = 0.70, P = 0
Clinical trial for Gastrointestinal Stroma Tumors | Carcinoma | Renal Cell | Mantle cell lymphoma | Advanced , Registry For Temsirolimus Sunitinib And Axitinib Treated Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (mRCC) Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) And Gastro-Intestinal Stroma Tumor (GIST) [STAR-TOR]
New life-saving treatments for Mantle-cell | gastrointestinal stroma tumors | carcinoma | renal cell | lymphoma | advanced in clinical trial on Registry For Temsirolimus Sunitinib And Axitinib Treated Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (mRCC) Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) And Gastro-Intestinal Stroma Tumor (GIST) [STAR-TOR]
Background Sunitinib has become mainstay first line treatment for patients with metastatic renal clear cell carcinoma (mRCC). Still, useful predictive markers of response are lacking and urgently needed for clinical decision making. Methods In the present study we investigated the predictive value of standard serum markers as well as clinical markers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), Neutrophil to Lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and early hypertension (eHTN) in an unselected prospective patient population treated with sunitinib for mRCC. Forty-six patients were enrolled in a prospective single-arm study of predictive markers for sunitinib response. Response rates according to RECIST 1.1 were used as primary end-point. Secondary objectives were to evaluate prognostic value of the candidate markers with regard to progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In addition, toxicity rates and quality of life was recorded. Results Median PFS and OS was 9.1 months and 15.0 months, respectively. ...
The median age was 57 years (range 30-80). Most patients underwent a nephrectomy (n = 41; 70.7%), were male (n = 42; 72.4%) and had clear-cell (CC) RCC (n = 51; 87.9%). Patients were treated with first-line sunitinib (n = 45; 77.6%) or pazopanib (n = 13; 22.4%). The median time from the initial RCC diagnosis to the diagnosis of BMs was 9 months. The median time from the first occurrence of metastasis to the development of BMs was 7 months. The median overall survival (OS) of mRCC patients with BMs was 13 months. Time from the initial diagnosis of systemic metastasis to the development of BMs (,12 months; p = 0.001), histological subtype (non-CC; p,0.05) and number of BMs (≥2; p,0.05) were significantly associated with OS in multivariate analysis. There were no cases of toxic death. One mRCC patient with BMs (1.7%) experienced treatment-related cerebral necrosis. All other toxicities included those commonly observed with VEGF-TKI therapy.. ...
The FDA granted approval to nivolumab (Opdivo) for patients with renal cell carcinoma. Opdivo, a PD-1 inhibitor, was previously approved for the treatment of melanoma whose tumors express the BRAF V600 mutation as well as advanced non-small cell lung cancer.. About Renal Cell Carcinoma. Each year in the United States, more than 61,000 people are diagnosed with kidney cancer. The most common type of kidney cancer is renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which starts in the lining of very small tubes (tubules) in the kidney. For people with advanced RCC (cancer that has spread to other parts of the body), targeted therapies can play an important role in treatment. Approximately 20-30% of patients with RCC will have metastases at diagnosis and as many as 40% will demonstrate metastasis after primary surgical treatment for localized RCC. With a 5-year survival rate ranging from 5-10%, the prognosis for these patients is poor. About Opdivo. Opdivo is a precision cancer medicine that belongs to a new class of ...
Basing on the symptoms of kidney cancer, the patients condition and the results of preliminary tests, the doctor chooses one or another method for diagnosing renal cell carcinoma to form the most objective image.. Treatment:. The treatment of renal cell carcinoma is based on several common methods used alone or in a complex manner. The attending physician, based on the type of tumor, the clinical stage of the age and the patients well-being, the available contraindications and other factors, may choose various methods of treatment.. The most effective way to treat renal cell carcinoma is surgical removal of the tumor. Radical nephrectomy is the complete removal of the affected kidney, usually along with the surrounding paranephric fiber, lymph nodes and sometimes the adrenal gland. If the tumor size does not exceed 7 cm, partial resection of the kidney is performed. There is also a laparoscopic method. In this case, the tumor is removed or resected with special instruments inserted into the ...
View Poster. INTRODUCTION. Since the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is highly expressed in the cell surface of the solid tumor microvasculature including renal cell carcinoma (RCC), PSMA PET/CT imaging has been a promising method for RCC diagnosis, especially for clear cell RCC (ccRCC) patients. 18F-FDG PET/CT of whole body imaging is widely used as a valuable method for evaluating metastatic or recurrent lesions in patients with RCC. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of ccRCC between 68Ga-labelled PSMA PET/CT and traditional 18F-FDG PET/CT.. METHODS. Twelve patients with ccRCC were involved in the study in which 8 patients suffered from metastasis. All patients underwent both 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT and 18F-FDG PET/CT. SUVmax was calculated for both primary RCCs and PET-positive metastatic lesions. We compared the SUVmax of same lesions between 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT and 18F-FDG PET/CT images. Metastatic bone, lymph node and lung lesions as well as the primary tumor were ...
In metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), many factors influence clinical decisions, including histology, tumour burden, prognostic factors, comorbidities, and the ability of the patient to tolerate treatment. Progression-free survival (PFS) durations reported from randomized trials of targeted therapies vary considerably, in part because of differences in patient characteristics. For first-line therapy, an estimate of PFS with sunitinib, bevacizumab plus interferon, or sorafenib in a general population is 8-9 months, but each regimen is suitable for different patient categories. For example, sunitinib is suitable for all-prognosis groups, particularly younger, fitter patients; pazopanib for patients with a good or intermediate prognosis; bevacizumab plus interferon for good-prognosis patients or those with indolent disease; and sorafenib for patients at all prognostic risk levels, particularly the elderly and those with comorbidities. Sequential therapy with targeted agents provides ...
Background: The prognostic significance of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for progression free survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma is unclear. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 45 patients diagnosed with metastatic RCC previously treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors from two centers, Akdeniz University Hospital and Afyon Kocatepe University. The prognostic value of the pretreatment neutrophil-tolymphocyte ratio, and other clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Median progression free survival (PFS) was 13.9 months [95% CI for HR (6.88-20.91)] and overall survival figure of 16.6 months [95% CI for HR (7.23-26.03)] Univariate analysis revealed that PFS was significantly affected by hemoglobin level [p=0.013 (95% CI for HR (0.71-0.96))], eosinophil count [p=0.031 (95% CI for HR (0.20-0.92))], ratio of neutrophil lymphocytes (NLR) [p=0.007 (95% CI for HR (1.47-11.74))] and calcium level [p=0.006 (95
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2019) Chronic tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) use in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) : can this lead to the adverse effect of hypogonadism? Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy, 19 (6). pp. 529-532 ...
Findings from clinical trial patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a common kidney cancer, show they did not have accelerated tumor growth after treatment with sunitinib, in contrast to some study results in animals. Sunitinib is one of several drugs, either on the market or undergoing testing, that target blood vessel growth.
Renal cell carcinoma is the most deadly of common urologic malignancies. The classical prognostic factors, including tumor type, grade and stage, as well as performance status of the patient, offer important information, but there is a need for new biomarkers which could improve the quality of...
We performed retrospective analysis of 22 cases who received pulmonary resection of metastases originated from renal cell carcinoma between 1997 and 2011. Patients comprised 18 men and 4 women with a mean age of 63 years (range, 39~79). The total pulmonary resection was 30 times, lobectomy was performed 5 times and wedge resection was 25 times. The 5-year overall survival was 35% and 10-year overall survival was 26%. Prognostic factors were histology of renal cell carcinoma (G1, 2 group vs. G3 group; 2-year survival rate was 69% and 20% respectively, p=0.023) and disease-free interval (less than 24 months vs. more than 24 months; 5-year disease-free survival rate was 22% and 75% respectively, p=0.019) in univariate analysis. Only disease-free interval showed significant difference (p=0.037) in multivariate analysis. This study demonstrated that aggressive surgical resection of pulmonary metastasis from renal cell carcinoma leads to the good prognosis, especially in cases with a long disease-free
TY - JOUR. T1 - The epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma. A second look. AU - Muscat, Joshua E.. AU - Hoffmann, Dietrich. AU - Wynder, Ernst L.. PY - 1995/5/15. Y1 - 1995/5/15. N2 - Background. From 1973 to 1991, the incidence of kidney cancer in the United States increased by 35.4%. Methods. A multicenter, hospital‐based case-control study was conducted from 1977 to 1993 through an interview of 788 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 779 control subjects. Results. Compared with those who never smoked, the odds ratio (OR) for renal cell carcinoma among current cigarette smokers was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02‐2.0) for men and 1.1 (95% CI 0.7‐1.6) for women. Among men, there was a rising trend in the odds ratios with increasing pack‐years of smoking (P , 0.01) but not with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. The OR among those currently smoking nonfilter cigarettes exclusively was 2.4 (95% CI 1.2‐4.9) for men and 2.0 (95% CI 0.4‐11.1) for women. No increased risk ...
EUSA Pharma (EUSA), a specialty pharmaceutical company with a focus on oncology and oncology supportive care, today announced that the European Medicines Agencys (EMA) Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) has adopted a positive opinion recommending marketing authorisation of FOTIVDA (tivozanib) for the management of adult patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the European Union plus Norway and Iceland. If approved, it will be indicated for the first-line treatment of adult patients with advanced RCC and for adult patients who are VEGFR and mTOR pathway inhibitor-naïve following disease progression after one prior treatment with cytokine therapy for advanced RCC.1 RCC is the most common form of kidney cancer,2 which accounts for an estimated 49,000 deaths in Europe each year.3 It is expected to be one of the fastest increasing cancers over the next ten years.4 Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR-TKIs) are current
Laurence Albiges, MD, PhD, from the Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif, France discusses data on the efficacy of targeted therapies after PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in metastatic renal cell carcinoma, which she presented at the European Cancer Congress of the European Cancer Organisation (ECCO) 2017 in Amsterdam, Netherlands. She describes that currently, patients typically receive first-line treatment with sunitinib or pazopanib, followed by second-line treatment with nivolumab or the VEGFR inhibitor cabozantinib. However, little is known about the efficacy of cabozantinib and other VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) after nivolumab treatment. Dr Albiges speaks about two retrospective data sets, which indicate that VEGFR inhibitors are still active after treatment with the PD-1/PD-L1 blocker nivolumab, with a median of 6 months of progression-free survival (PFS). While cabozantinib can have some side effects, the Phase III METEOR study showed no safety concerns (NCT01865747). Dr Albiges argues that while
The term RCC encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of malignancies, from both a morphological and a molecular point of view, but emerging evidence indicates that common molecular paths to renal carcinogenesis do exist and may justify, to some extent, shared approaches to the clinical treatment of different RCC subtypes (2). Although most of RCC cases occur in a sporadic form, both clear cell and non-clear cell RCC can occur in the context of inherited cancer syndromes, whose molecular genetics has shed light on potentially common molecular pathogenetic themes (3-4). This is probably best exemplified by von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) and tuberous sclerosis (TS), two autosomal dominant inherited syndromes with variable penetrance that carry a high lifetime risk of developing clear cell RCC (5-6). The VHL gene, which targets hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α for degradation by the proteasome, is mutated or silenced in up to 75% of sporadic clear cell RCC, suggesting that genetic abnormalities ...
Nivolumab versus Cabozantinib: Comparing Overall Survival in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the gallbladder. T2 - color Doppler sonography and CT findings.. AU - Furukawa, H.. AU - Mizuguchi, Y.. AU - Kanai, Yae. AU - Mukai, K.. PY - 1997/11. Y1 - 1997/11. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0031279093&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0031279093&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Letter. C2 - 9353490. AN - SCOPUS:0031279093. VL - 169. SP - 1466. EP - 1467. JO - American Journal of Roentgenology. JF - American Journal of Roentgenology. SN - 0361-803X. IS - 5. ER - ...
Comparing the Relative Importance of Attributes of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Treatments to Patients and Physicians in the United States: A Discrete-Choice Experiment.
Alternative pathways to the VEGF, such as hepatocyte growth factor or HGF/c-met, are emerging as key players in tumor angiogenesis and resistance to anti-VEGF therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a combination strategy targeting the VEGF and c-met pathways in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) models. Male SCID mice (8/group) were implanted with 786-O tumor pieces and treated with either a selective VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, axitinib (36 mg/kg, 2×/day); a c-met inhibitor, crizotinib (25 mg/kg, 1×/day); or combination. We further tested this drug combination in a human ccRCC patient-derived xenograft, RP-R-01, in both VEGF-targeted therapy-sensitive and -resistant models. To evaluate the resistant phenotype, we established an RP-R-01 sunitinib-resistant model by continuous sunitinib treatment (60 mg/kg, 1×/day) of RP-R-01-bearing mice. Treatment with single-agent crizotinib reduced tumor vascularization but failed to inhibit tumor growth in either ...
Tensin3 is a cytoskeletal regulatory protein that inhibits cell motility. Downregulation of the gene encoding Tensin3 (TNS3) in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) may contribute to cancer cell metastatic behavior. We speculated that epigenetic mechanisms, e.g., gene promoter hypermethylation, might account for TNS3 downregulation. In this study, we identified and validated a TNS3 gene promoter containing a CpG island, and quantified the methylation level within this region in RCC. Using a luciferase reporter assay we demonstrated a functional minimal promoter activity for a 500-bp sequence within the TNS3 CpG island. Pyrosequencing enabled quantitative determination of DNA methylation of each CpG dinucleotide (a total of 43) in the TNS3 gene promoter. Across the entire analyzed CpG stretch, RCC DNA showed a higher methylation level than both non-tumor kidney DNA and normal control DNA. Out of all the CpGs analyzed, two CpG dinucleotides, specifically position 2 and 8, showed the most pronounced ...
The FDA today approved the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab for the treatment of intermediate- or poor-risk patients with previously untreated advanced renal cell carcinoma.The FDA based this decision on data from 847 intermediate- or poor-risk patients with previously untreated advanced renal cell carcinoma from the randomized open-label CheckMate-214 trial, which compared the combination
Question - Is there any other treatment option other than radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Renal cell carcinoma, Ask a Urologist
TY - JOUR. T1 - Renal cell carcinoma in kidney transplant recipients and dialysis patients. AU - Lee, Hyung Ho. AU - Choi, Kyung Hwa. AU - Yang, Seung Choul. AU - Han, Woong Kyu. PY - 2012/4/1. Y1 - 2012/4/1. N2 - Purpose: In a group of surgery patients diagnosed with renal cell cancer, those who underwent dialysis were compared with those who received a kidney transplant. Materials and Methods: The 43 subjects included in this study were patients who had been undergoing dialysis because of end-stage renal disease or had undergone kidney transplantation. The patients were diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) during follow-up and underwent radical nephrectomy from May 1996 to December 2010. Their medical records were retrospectively analyzed as part of the study. Results: In the transplantation group, the renal replacement therapy period averaged 54 months, and the period from transplantation to RCC averaged 119 months (range, 0 to 264 months). In the dialysis group, RCC was observed after ...
In a study of "Antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activities of genistein in human renal cell carcinoma" by Hiroto Sasamura, Atsushi Takahashi, Jinyang Yuan, Hiroshi Kitamura, Naoya Masumori, Noriomi Miyao, Naoki Itoh,Taiji Tsukamoto posted in The Official Journal of Societe Internationale D Urology, researchers found that Treatment with genistein for 48 hours inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and 100 μg/mL genistein inhibited it in a time-dependent manner. A dose of 50 μg/mL genistein clearly induced cell apoptosis. The vascular volume after implantation of the Millipore filter chamber containing RCC cells increased to threefold that without RCC cells. Genistein in the Millipore filter chamber significantly decreased the neovascularization induced by human RCC cells in vivo. and concluded that the results of this study demonstrated that genistein inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and suppressed in vivo angiogenesis in human RCC cells. Genistein may be a ...
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Evidence-based recommendations on pazopanib (Votrient) for the first-line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC/kidney cancer)
On April 19, the FDA approved pembrolizumab (Keytruda, Merck & Co. Inc.) plus axitinib (Inlyta, Pfizer Inc.) for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC ...
Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer. It is also known as RCC, renal cell carcinoma, or renal cell adenocarcinoma. It accounts for more than 9 out of 10 cases of kidney cancer. Like all cancers, kidney cancer begins small and grows larger over time. It usually grows as a single mass or tumor within the kidney. But a kidney can have more than one tumor. Sometimes tumors are found in both kidneys at the same time. Kidney tumors are often found on CT scans or ultrasounds being done for concerns other than kidney cancer. The cancer might be found only after it has become very large. Most of the time it is found before it has spread to other organs. This is good because like most cancers, kidney cancer can be hard to treat after it has spread.. ...
Areas covered: This review discusses the molecular targets in renal cell carcinoma relevant to the development of new treatments and describes the progress of novel therapies. The evidence is compiled from the PubMed database and proceedings of scientific meetings, searched up to December 2010. Expert opinion: A multitude of experimental agents are in clinical development and offer theoretical advantages over those currently in use. It is hoped that these treatments will result in better long-term control of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, with improved side effect profiles, but curative treatment in this disease remains elusive until the mechanisms underlying response and resistance to therapy are elucidated. Progress in the field has been limited by inadequate tissue collection within clinical trials; current and future clinical trial design will incorporate a larger translational component in an attempt to establish predictive biomarkers.. ...
On December 13, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) accepted a supplemental Biologics License Application (sBLA) for priority review of nivolumab (Opdivo) plus ipilimumab (Yervoy) to treat intermediate- and poor-risk patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. The FDA also previously granted Breakthrough Therapy designation for this application-the second indication for which the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab has received this designation. The application is based on data from the phase III CheckMate-214 study, which was stopped early based on the recommendation of an independent data monitoring committee following a planned interim analysis of overall survival. The results of the study were recently presented by Escudier et al at the European Society for Medical Oncology 2017 Congress (Abstract LBA5).. The application has an action date of April 16, 2018.. About CheckMate-214. CheckMate-214 is a phase III, randomized, open-label study evaluating the combination of nivolumab ...
Medical oncologist Robert Motzer discusses significant treatment advances and improved prognosis for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.
AM0010, alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors, shows high and durable clinical responses in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and CTL reaction of novel peptide vaccination for advanced renal cell carcinoma
Nivolumab (Opdivo®) is licensed for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma after prior therapy in adults.. Rapid Review. ...
Press Release issued Oct 12, 2012: Inlyta (Renal Cell Carcinoma) - Analysis and Forecasts to 2022 provides Inlyta sales forecasts for US, EU5 and Japan. In addition, it covers detailed clinical assessment of the drug, factors impacting drug sales, competitive landscape, and analysis of sales performance during the forecast period (2012-2022). The report also includes information on Renal Cell Carcinoma market. This report is built using data and information sourced from GlobalDatas proprietary databases, primary and secondary research using Companys corporate website, SEC filings, investor presentations and featured press releases, both from company and industry-specific third party sources, put together with in-house analysis, by GlobalDatas team of industry experts.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), a common malignancy worldwide, affects 1200 new patients yearly in Sweden. Metastatic RCC (mRCC) develops in one in three and is commonly incurable. Clear cell histology dominates followed by papillary histology. The mainstay of mRCC treatment is targeted agents (TA) against aberrantly signalling pro-angiogenic tyrosine kinase receptors, and recently also immune checkpoint inhibitors. Local metastatic therapy with stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) or surgical metastasectomy may be considered for oligometastatic disease.. The aims of this thesis were (1) to identify clinically relevant factors useful for prognostication in real-world patients with mRCC treated in the TA era, (2) to deepen the understanding of papillary mRCC, and (3) to evaluate local metastatic therapy in mRCC. The papers of this thesis were based on retrospective data from regional databases or patient records from 2005 and onwards to reflect the contemporary therapeutic landscape.. Paper I was a ...
BACKGROUND: Previous studies combining PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors with tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the VEGF pathway have been characterised by excess toxicity, precluding further development. We hypothesised that axitinib, a more selective VEGF inhibitor than others previously tested, could be combined safely with pembrolizumab (anti-PD-1) and yield antitumour activity in patients with treatment-naive advanced renal cell carcinoma. METHODS: In this ongoing, open-label, phase 1b study, which was done at ten centres in the USA, we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older who had advanced renal cell carcinoma (predominantly clear cell subtype) with their primary tumour resected, and at least one measureable lesion, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1, controlled hypertension, and no previous systemic therapy for renal cell carcinoma ...
The incidence of renal tumors, both malignant renal cell carcinomas (RCC) and benign renal tumors, has increased significantly in the last 20 years (1). In the case of renal tumors, biopsies are not routinely done, due to the risk of hemorrhage and high likelihood of indeterminate histology (2, 3). Treatment selection is thus heavily reliant on noninvasive imaging assessment of tumor masses. However, there are significant limitations to the current imaging methods for renal tumor characterization. It is increasingly recognized that RCCs are a heterogeneous group of tumors with a wide range of biologic aggressiveness (4, 5). Emerging active surveillance data have shown that a significant percentage of small RCCs (,4 cm) are indolent with low metastatic risk, and patients may be overtreated if all such RCCs are surgically removed (5, 6). On the other hand, 20% to 40% of patients undergoing nephrectomies for clinically localized RCCs develop metastases with poor outcome (7). Unfortunately, current ...
Axitinib for preoperative downstaging of renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation and direct invasion of the duodenum and inferior vena cava: a case report Hideo Yuki,1,* Takao Kamai,1,* Keiichi Kubota,2 Hideyuki Abe,1 Daisaku Nishihara,1 Tomoya Mizuno,1 Akinori Masuda,1 Hironori Betsunoh,1 Masahiro Yashi,1 Yoshitatsu Fukabori,1 Ken-Ichiro Yoshida1 1Department of Urology, 2Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Dokkyo Medical University, Mibu, Tochigi, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this manuscript Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with sarcomatoid differentiation is invasive, refractory to treatment, and has a higher mortality. Therefore, systemic therapy is still challenging, and the curative resection of localized or locally advanced RCC with sarcomatoid differentiation is very important. Axitinib is a potent and selective second-generation vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with improved safety and tolerability. Axitinib is
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sunitinib-induced myeloid lineage redistribution in renal cell cancer patients: CD1c+ dendritic cell frequency predicts progression-free survival. AU - van Cruijsen, H.. AU - van der Veldt, A.A.M.. AU - Vroling, L.. AU - Oosterhoff, D.. AU - Broxterman, H.J.. AU - Scheper, R.J.. AU - Giaccone, G.. AU - Haanen, J.B.. AU - van den Eertwegh, A.J.M.. AU - Boven, E.. AU - Hoekman, K.. AU - de Gruijl, T.D.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. U2 - 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-0656. DO - 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-0656. M3 - Article. C2 - 18794101. VL - 14. SP - 5884. EP - 5892. JO - Clinical Cancer Research. JF - Clinical Cancer Research. SN - 1078-0432. IS - 18. ER - ...
We previously identified the important role of RIN1 expression in the prognosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). The role of RIN1 in ccRCC malignancy and underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that ccRCC cells and tissues expressed more RIN1 than normal controls. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies demonstrated that RIN1 enhanced ccRCC cell growth, migration and invasion abilities in vitro and promoted tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Mechanistic studies revealed that RIN1 has an activating effect on EGFR signaling in ccRCC. In addition, we unveil Rab25, a critical GTPase in ccRCC malignancy, as a functional RIN1 interacting partner. Knockdown of Rab25 eliminated the augmentation of carcinoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by ectopic RIN1. We also confirmed that RIN1 and Rab25 expression correlates with the overall-survival of ccRCC patients from TCGA. These findings suggest that RIN1 plays an important oncogenic role in ccRCC malignancy by
https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.15162 Zhen Chen, Yingjie Shao, Hongwei Yao, Qianfeng Zhuang, Kun Wang, Zhaoyu Xing, Xianlin Xu, Xiaozhou He, Renfang Xu
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vascular disruption in combination with mTOR inhibition in renal cell carcinoma. AU - Ellis, Leigh. AU - Shah, Preeti. AU - Hammers, Hans. AU - Lehet, Kristin. AU - Sotomayor, Paula. AU - Azabdaftari, Gissou. AU - Seshadri, Mukund. AU - Pili, Roberto. PY - 2012/2. Y1 - 2012/2. N2 - Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an angiogenesis-dependent and hypoxia-driven malignancy. As a result, there has been an increased interest in the use of antiangiogenic agents for the management of RCC in patients. However, the activity of tumor-vascular disrupting agents (tumor-VDA) has not been extensively examined against RCC. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of the tumor-VDA ASA404 (DMXAA, 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid, or vadimezan) in combination with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (RAD001) against RCC. In vitro studies were carried out using human umbilical vein endothelial cells and in vivo studies using orthotopic RENCA tumors and immunohistochemical patient ...
Adoptive γδ T cell immunotherapy has moved briskly into clinical trials prompted by several small studies suggesting abundant accumulation of γδ T cells within renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this study, we re-examined levels of γδ T cells within RCC tumors and correlated levels of these cells with pathologic features and outcome associated with this form of cancer. Tissues from 248 consecutive clear cell RCC tumors obtained from 2000 to 2003 were stained and quantified for total CD3+ and γδ T cells per mm2. Wilcoxon rank sum and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to evaluate associations between T cell amounts and prognostic factors (age, gender, tumor size, stage, grade, tumor necrosis). Cox models were used to assess associations with RCC-specific death. Median numbers of total CD3+ and γδ T cells were 281/mm2 (interquartile range (IQR): 149-536) and 2.6/mm2 (IQR: 1.3-4.6), respectively. The median percentage of CD3+ T cells that were γδ T cells was 1.0% (IQR: 0.4-1.9). This low percentage of
Brian I. Rini, MD, presents a case study focused on the treatment of a 64 year-old male who presented with recurrent lung nodules 9 years after a left radical nephrectomy for a clear-cell renal ...
RATIONALE: Interleukin-2 may stimulate a persons white blood cells to kill renal cell carcinoma (kidney cancer) cells.PURPOSE: This phase II tr
The incidence of renal cell carcinoma in the United States appears to be increasing, and in 1994 will cause an estimated 11,300 deaths (1). Patients with resectable disease have a five year survival...
It has emerged that of the 38,000 Americans diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) each year, approximately 20 percent have non-clear cell forms of the disease.
Renal cell carcinoma is infrequent in children; consequently it is important to communicate its diagnosis and follow up. The behaviour of this type of tumor is better characterized in adults and in this setting the treatment of choice is surgical resection. However, the place of chemo- and radiotherapy has not been well defined. Here, we present a 9-year-old boy with renal cell carcinoma demonstrating only hematuria without any pathological physical examination findings. The mass was described by abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography in the left kidney. After the left nephroureterectomy, the patient was given no adjuvant therapy.
Renal cell carcinoma has the ability to metastasize to any organ; about 16 % of affected patients present initially with metastasis. However, it is
Approximately 20-30% of patients affected by renal cell carcinoma (RCC) present with metastatic disease, and 20% to 40% undergoing nephrectomy for clinically localized di..
A 58-year-old man with a history of renal cell carcinoma and hypertension presented to the emergency department with shortness of breath and abdominal pain. On examination, his heart rate was 99/min, respiration rate was 24/min, and oxygen saturation while breathing room air was 90%. He had abdominal distension and bilateral pitting edema of the leg. An abdominal ultrasonogram showed heterogeneous shrunken liver, ascites, and mildly distended gallbladder containing sludge, with echogenic foci showing comet-tail artifacts from a sagittal view (image A, arrow) and a transverse view (image B, arrow). These features are consistent with adenomyomatosis. The patient was treated for acute respiratory distress, ascites, and other comorbidities associated with stage IV renal cell carcinoma. A week after admission, the patients acute symptoms resolved and he was discharged to subacute rehabilitation with outpatient follow-up. ...
Williamson SR, Eble JN, Amin MB, Gupta NS, Smith SC, Sholl LM, Montironi R, Hirsch MS, Hornick JL.Succinate dehydrogenase-deficient renal cell carcinoma: detailed characterization of 11 tumors defining a unique subtype of renal cell carcinoma. Mod Pathol. 2015 Jan;28(1):80-94 ...
The impact of obesity and adiponectin signaling in patients with renal cell carcinoma : A potential mechanism for the "obesity paradox"The impact of obesity and adiponectin signaling in patients with renal cell carcinoma : A potential mechanism for the "obesity paradox" ...
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therapies.. The first iteration in the development of cancer immunotherapy treatment regimens-the use of nonspecific cytokine treatments that included IL-2 and interferon-created an important treatment option for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma that remained the mainstay of treatment for nearly 15 years. Until the approvals of the first antiangiogenic VEGF tyrosine kinase inhibitors in 2005 and 2006, high-dose, bolus intravenous IL-2 was the only treatment approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, an approval granted in 1992 for its ability to produce durable complete responses in a small subset of patients.. Data from seven phase II clinical trials of IL-2 involving a total of 255 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma demonstrated an overall response rate of 15%, which included complete response in 7% of patients and partial response in 8% of patients.2,3 Subsequent modern trials with high-dose, bolus IL-2 ...
Brian I. Rini, MD, presents a case study focused on the treatment of a 64 year-old male who presented with recurrent lung nodules 9 years after a left radical nephrectomy for a clear-cell renal ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has changed dramatically over the past few years. An improved understanding of the biology of RCC has resulted in the development of novel targeted therapeutic agents that have altered the natural history of this disease. In particular, the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal transduction pathway have been exploited. Sunitinib malate (Sutent), sorafenib tosylate (Nexavar), bevacizumab (Avastin)/interferon alfa, and temsirolimus (Torisel) have improved clinical outcomes in randomized trials by inhibiting these tumorigenic pathways. Combinations and sequences of these agents are being evaluated. Other novel multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (pazopanib and axitinib) and mTOR inhibitors (everolimus) are in clinical development. Recently reported and ongoing clinical trials will help further define the role of these agents as therapy for metastatic RCC
... is a rare type of kidney cancer that develops in cells that are involved in the production of urine. Cancers form when a change (mutation) in DNA causes certain cells to grow out of control, sometimes forming a lump or a tumor. Some of these cancerous cells can break off and spread to other parts of the body where they will continue to grow (metastasis). Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma usually occurs in adults between the ages of 40 and 60, although it can appear in all age groups. This type of carcinoma is associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, an inherited disorder caused by a mutation in the FLCN gene. The FLCN gene is involved in regulating cell growth, and a mutation in this gene can cause cells to grow out of control. This situation places affected individuals at higher risk of developing chromophobe renal cell carcinoma as well as noncancerous growths in the kidneys, lungs, and hair follicles. Common symptoms include the presence of blood in the urine, ...
Induction of Cell Cycle Arrest at G2/M phase by Ethanol Extract of Scutellaria baicalensis in Human Renal Cell Carcinoma Caki-1 Cells - Scutellaria baicalensis L.;renal cell carcinoma Caki-1 cells;G2/M arrest;apoptosis;p21;
Extra-adrenal paragangliomas are rare tumors that have been reported in many locations, including the kidney, urethra, urinary bladder, prostate, spermatic cord, gallbladder, uterus and vagina. This report describes, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, a primary paraganglioma of the seminal vesicle occurring in a 61-year-old male. The patient presented persistent arterial hypertension and a previous diagnosis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. It was hypothesized that the seminal vesicle tumor could be a metastasis from the chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical characterization revealed expression of synaptophysin and chromogranin in tumor cell nests and peripheral S100 protein expression in sustentacular cells. Succinate dehydrogenase A and B-related (SDHA and SDHB) expression was present in both tumors. No genetic alterations to the VHL and SDHB genes were detected in either the tumor tissue or tissues adjacent to the tumor, which led us to rule out a hereditary ...
In this study, we aim at evaluation the role of the Asp148Glu (rs1130409) variant at apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE) gene in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk and the contribution of different genotypes to its transcriptional mRNA levels. In the case-control study, 92 RCC patients and 580 cancer-free patients matched by age and gender were recruited. The apurinic/APE genotyping work was con...
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a rare malignant counterpart to benign neurogenes tumors such as schwannomas and neurofibromas and account for approximately 5 10 % of all soft tissue sarcomas. This neoplasm is also referred to older designations as a malignant schwannoma, malignant neurilemmoma or neurogenic sarcoma. A patient was a woman of 59 years old with a diagnosed malignant neurilemmoma, treated since 1993. Operated several times and subjected to radiotherapy due to the local recurrence of the tumors located in the soft tissues of the back until 2002; Treated with chemotherapy (doxorubicin) and operated due to lung metastases. The therapy resulted in a total remission that lasted 12 months. In 2004 a new small tumor was diagnosed in the right lung, which had been followed up until 2006. The patient did not give permission to a second surgery, treated with ifosfamide. In 2006 she was operated for renal cell carcinoma of the left kidney. In 2009, due to a following ...
Surgical Procedures of Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy on orangecountysurgeons.org A minimally invasive procedure, hand-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy involves the removal of part of a diseased kidney. To perform the procedure, laparoscopic instruments and the surgeons hand are inserted through the abdominal cavity through two small incisions and one larger incision. This approach is optimized for kidney tumors that range from three to ten centimeters in diameter.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel mechanism of reduced proliferation in ovarian clear cell carcinoma cells. T2 - Cytoplasmic sequestration of CDK2 by p27. AU - Itamochi, Hiroaki. AU - Yoshida, Tomokazu. AU - Walker, Cheryl Lyn. AU - Bartholomeusz, Chandra. AU - Aoki, Daisuke. AU - Ishihara, Hideki. AU - Suzuki, Nao. AU - Kigawa, Junzo. AU - Terakawa, Naoki. AU - Ueno, Naoto T.. PY - 2011/9. Y1 - 2011/9. N2 - Objective: Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) carries a poor prognosis because of its insensitivity to chemotherapy. We previously found an association between reduced proliferation of CCC and chemoresistance; here we investigated the mechanism of the reduced proliferation. Methods: We assessed cell cycle function by measuring the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and the protein expression of cyclins, the CDK inhibitors, and p53 in 22 ovarian cancer cell lines and 60 human ovarian cancer specimens. We examined the cellular location of p27, p27 phosphorylated at threonine 157 (p27Thr157), and ...
Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL), also known as Familial cerebello retinal angiomatosis, is a rare genetic disorder with multisystem involvement. It is characterized by visceral cysts and benign tumors with potential for subsequent malignant transformation. It is a type of phakomatosis that results from a mutation in the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 3p25.3. VHL disease can be subdivided according to the clinical manifestations, although these groups often correlate with certain types of mutations present in the VHL gene. Signs and symptoms associated with VHL disease include headaches, problems with balance and walking, dizziness, weakness of the limbs, vision problems, and high blood pressure. Conditions associated with VHL disease include angiomatosis, hemangioblastomas, pheochromocytoma, renal cell carcinoma, pancreatic cysts (pancreatic serous cystadenoma), endolymphatic sac tumor, and bilateral papillary cystadenomas of the epididymis (men) or broad ligament of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma metastasis to the parotid region lymph nodes. AU - Myers, Larry L. AU - Ahn, Chul. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Objective: To determine the effect on survival of periauricular region cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCC) metastasizing to parotid region and cervical lymph nodes. Methods: From May 1995 to October 2013, consecutive patients with cSCC undergoing parotidectomy/neck dissection ≥ 18 years without distant metastasis were included. Demographic, clinical, and pathologic data were analyzed. Uni- and multivariate analyses of disease-specific survival and overall survival were performed. Statistical significance was set at P , 0.05. Results: We evaluated 137 patients. Most patients were Caucasian males with an average age of 71.6 years. The median follow-up time was 29.4 months. Thirty-six percent of patients had pathological evidence of cervical metastasis (N+). Seven percent had metastasis to level I, 21.9% to level II, 14.6% to ...
Esophageal squamous cell cancer. Over-expression. 47%. Immunohistochemistry. [24]. Renal cell carcinoma. Under-expression. 100% ... "Increased expression of SET domain containing proteins and decreased expression of Rad51 in different renal cell carcinomas". ... "Elevated expression of Rad51 is correlated with decreased survival in resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma". J Surg ... "Association of BRCA1 with Rad51 in mitotic and meiotic cells". Cell. 88 (2): 265-75. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81847-4. PMID ...
Lipworth L, Tarone RE, McLaughlin JK (December 2006). "The epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma". The Journal of Urology. 176 ( ... If the mutation inhibits programmed cell death, the cell can survive to become a cancer, a cell that does not function like a ... If the mutation inhibits programmed cell death, the cell can survive to become a cancer cell. Similarly, acrolein, which is ... Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (SCLC) is the most closely associated with almost 100% of cases occurring in smokers.[56] This form ...
... renal cell carcinoma of chromophobe, hybrid oncocytic, or oncocytoma histology; sebaceous carcinoma; and sex cord tumors with ... hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell cancer (LRCC), hereditary papillary renal cell cancer (HPRCC), hereditary paraganglioma- ... The most common tumors in VHL are central nervous system and retinal hemangioblastomas, clear cell renal carcinomas, ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome in which ...
"Expression of cadherin-8 in renal cell carcinoma and fetal kidney". International Journal of Cancer. 101 (4): 327-34. doi: ... cell-cell junction assembly. • calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules. • cell-cell ... cell-cell adherens junction. • cell surface. • catenin complex. Biological process. • response to cold. • cell adhesion. • ... integral membrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. Mature cadherin proteins are composed of a large ...
It is over-expressed in VHL mutated clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and hypoxic solid tumors, but is low-expressed in ... "Down-regulation of transmembrane carbonic anhydrases in renal cell carcinoma cell lines by wild-type von Hippel-Lindau ... Girentuximab, an antibody to carbonic anhydrase IX, is an investigational agent in clinical trials for renal cell carcinoma.[10 ... Bedke J, Stenzl A (2013). "Immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma: where are we now?". Expert ...
"Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". International Journal of Cancer. 83 (4): 456 ... epidermal cell fate specification. • positive regulation of cell proliferation. • Clara cell differentiation. • interleukin-4 ... auditory receptor cell fate commitment. • B cell differentiation. • regulation of gene expression. • Notch signaling pathway. • ... somatic stem cell population maintenance. • endocardium development. • cell fate commitment. • DNA recombination. • ...
Less frequently, renal cell carcinoma can be caused by this mutation. Paragangliomas related to SDHB mutations have a high rate ... "Cell-permeating alpha-ketoglutarate derivatives alleviate pseudohypoxia in succinate dehydrogenase-deficient cells". Mol. Cell ... Normal α-ketoglutarate does not permeate cell walls efficiently, and it is necessary to create a cell permeating derivative (e. ... Paraganglionic tissue is derived from the neural crest cells present in an embryo. Abdominal extra-adrenal paraganglionic cells ...
... tumor, Renal cell carcinoma. ...
Malignancy, e.g. renal cell carcinoma. Placement of topical tetracycline in a petrolatum base into a surgical site. The ... Oct 2000). "Myospherulosis in renal cell carcinoma". Arch Pathol Lab Med. 124 (10): 1476-9. doi:10.1043/0003-9985(2000)124. 2.0 ...
Targeted therapy for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma Immunotherapy Combinations for Renal Cell Carcinoma Offer ... implications for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma Pazopanib versus Sunitinib in Metastatic Renal-Cell Carcinoma ... Everolimus for renal cell carcinoma: predictive factors for response and future directions. Medical Oncology Supplement. 2008. ... In: Renal Cell Carcinoma: Molecular Targets and Clinical Applications. Humana Press. 2007. Contemporary Therapeutic Strategies ...
Renal[edit]. Cryoablation has similar outcomes to radiofrequency ablation when treating renal cell carcinoma.[2] ... "Cryoablation vs radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis of case series studies". BJU ... By cooling the tip of a cryoablation catheter (cardiology) or probe (heart surgery) to sub-zero temperatures, the cells in the ... induction of apoptosis, the so-called programmed cell death cascade.. The most common application of cryoablation is to ablate ...
... and renal cell carcinoma. TATI is metabolised by the kidneys and is, thus, elevated in patients with renal failure. It may be ... TATI sensitivity in the setting of renal cell carcinoma is approximately 70%. Elevated TATI is more likely to be seen in ... In urothelial carcinoma, TATI expression varies with stage, ranging from 20% in low-stage tumors to 80% of high-stage tumors. ... Fifty percent of stage I mucinous ovarian carcinomas are associated with elevated TATI, and nearly 100% of stage IV tumors show ...
Kidney cancer (Renal cell carcinoma) (RCC)Edit. Main article: Renal cell carcinoma ... Parker AS, Cerhan JR, Lynch CF, Ershow AG, Cantor KP (March 2002). "Gender, alcohol consumption, and renal cell carcinoma". ... Pelucchi C, La Vecchia C, Negri E, Talamini R, Franceschi S (December 2002). "Alcohol drinking and renal cell carcinoma in ... Rashidkhani B, Akesson A, Lindblad P, Wolk A (December 2005). "Alcohol consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma: a ...
... the renal tubule and the renal pelvis. Most cancers in the renal tubule are renal cell carcinoma and clear cell adenocarcinoma ... The two most common types of kidney cancer are renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) (also known as ... In addition to renal cell carcinoma and renal pelvis carcinoma, other, less common types of kidney cancer include: Squamous ... These include: Clear cell adenocarcinoma Transitional cell carcinoma Inverted papilloma Renal lymphoma Teratoma Carcinosarcoma ...
It is investigational agent in clinical trials for renal cell carcinoma. Its development was suspended as a "naked" or ... Bedke J, Stenzl A (2013). "Immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma: where are we now?". Expert ... CAIX is expressed on the surface of most renal cancer cells and is hypothesized to be on the surface of other tumor cells. ... It triggers antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). It does this by activating natural killer cells by binding to ...
"Human agmatinase is diminished in the clear cell type of renal cell carcinoma". Int J Cancer. 108 (3): 342-7. doi:10.1002/ijc. ... a cell proliferation inhibitor". Mol. Genet. Metab. 64 (4): 271-82. doi:10.1006/mgme.1998.2718. PMID 9758718. Strausberg RL, ...
ISBN 978-0-19-157556-3. Wah, T.M. (2017). "Image-guided ablation of renal cell carcinoma". Clinical radiology. Elsevier BV. 72 ... This technique is mostly used for the treatment of small renal cancers and for the palliation of painful bone lesions. ...
"Immunotherapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma" (PDF). "Landmarks in the diagnosis and treatment of renal cell carcinoma". ... The Many Faces of Renal Cell Carcinoma". Rev Urol. 4: 163-70. PMC 1475999 . PMID 16985675. "Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma: ... "Kidney Cancer (Adult) - Renal Cell Carcinoma + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF]» Early Detection, Diagnosis, and ... "Localized renal cell carcinoma management: an update". Retrieved 6 September 2016. "Kidney Cancer Resources". Retrieved 6 ...
In 2007, mTORC1 inhibitors began being approved for treatments against cancers such as renal cell carcinoma. In 2008 they were ... Voss MH, Molina AM, Motzer RJ (Aug 2011). "mTOR inhibitors in advanced renal cell carcinoma". Hematology/oncology Clinics of ... Codogno P, Meijer AJ (Nov 2005). "Autophagy and signaling: their role in cell survival and cell death". Cell Death and ... In order for cells to grow and proliferate by manufacturing more proteins, the cells must ensure that they have the resources ...
In some cases the renal cell carcinoma may be a manifestation of an undiagnosed hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer ... Altman D, Yin L, Johansson A, Lundholm C, Grönberg H (2010). "Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma After Hysterectomy". Archives of ... Gago-Dominguez M, Castelao JE, Yuan JM, Ross RK, Yu MC (1999). "Increased risk of renal cell carcinoma subsequent to ... Hysterectomy may cause an increased risk of the relatively rare renal cell carcinoma. The increased risk is particularly ...
Sato H, Hagiwara H, Ohde Y, Senba H, Virgona N, Yano T (March 2007). "Regulation of renal cell carcinoma cell proliferation, ... cell-cell signaling. • cell communication. • protein oligomerization. • transmembrane transport. • nervous system development. ... In normal circumstances this protein is located in the cell membrane of Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes, specialised cells ... cell junction. • plasma membrane. • connexin complex. • endoplasmic reticulum membrane. • endoplasmic reticulum. • membrane. • ...
"Modelling TFE renal cell carcinoma in mice reveals a critical role of WNT signaling". eLife. 5. doi:10.7554/eLife.17047. PMC ... in a renal-cell carcinoma of an adult patient". Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer. 46 (5): 419-26. doi:10.1002/gcc.20422. PMID ... positive renal cell carcinomas due to promoter substitution". Human Molecular Genetics. 12 (14): 1661-9. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddg178 ... TFEB overexpression has been found in patients with renal cell carcinoma and pancreatic cancer and was shown to promote ...
... a gene associated with papillary renal cell carcinoma". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 92 (3-4): 326-32. doi:10.1159/000056922. PMID ... 1995). "Hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma: clinical studies in 10 families". J. Urol. 153 (3 Pt 2): 907-12. doi:10.1016 ... In a subset of papillary renal cell carcinomas, a t(X;1)(p11;q21) chromosome translocation has been repeatedly reported and is ... Meloni AM, Dobbs RM, Pontes JE, Sandberg AA (1993). "Translocation (X;1) in papillary renal cell carcinoma. A new cytogenetic ...
... is a medication used to treat medullary thyroid cancer and a second line treatment for renal cell carcinoma among others. It is ... "Cabozantinib versus Everolimus in Advanced Renal-Cell Carcinoma". The New England Journal of Medicine. 373 (19): 1814-23. doi: ... form is used to treat medullary thyroid cancer and a tablet form is used as a second line treatment for renal cell carcinoma. ... Exelixis' Phase III trial results of testing the drug in renal cancer published in the NEJM in 2015. In April 2016 the FDA ...
Pazopanib was approved for renal cell carcinoma in 2009. Regorafenib was approved for colorectal cancer in Sept 2012. Holmes K ... VEGF has been shown to stimulate endothelial cell mitogenesis and cell migration. VEGF also enhances microvascular permeability ... All members of the VEGF family stimulate cellular responses by binding to tyrosine kinase receptors (the VEGFRs) on the cell ... This receptor complex has increased VEGF signalling activity in endothelial cells (blood vessels). Neuropilins (NRP) are ...
1997). "Renal cell carcinoma and normal kidney protein expression". Electrophoresis. 18 (3-4): 599-604. doi:10.1002/elps. ... 2003). "CA125 and UQCRFS1 FISH studies of ovarian carcinoma". Gynecol. Oncol. 90 (1): 29-36. doi:10.1016/S0090-8258(03)00144-6 ...
... almost all subtypes of renal cell carcinoma, nephrogenic adenomas, ovarian cancer cells, bladder, prostate, and endometrial ... Some studies have suggested that the renal PAX genes act as pro-survival factors and allow tumor cells to resist apoptosis. ... They play a role in the specification of the first renal cells of the embryo and remain essential players throughout ... Expression of PAX8 is increased in neoplastic renal tissues, Wilms tumors, ovarian cancer and Müllerian carcinomas. For this ...
Renal oncocytoma, a kidney tumour composed of oncocytes. Hurthle cell carcinoma, a variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma). ... Also known as: Hürthle cell (thyroid gland only) Oxyphilic cell, Askanazy cell, Apocrine metaplasia (breast gland only). ... An oncocyte is an epithelial cell characterized by an excessive number of mitochondria, resulting in an abundant acidophilic, ...
Targeting HIF2α in Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma. [Cancer Cell. 2016] ... Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor gene (VHL ... Targeting renal cell carcinoma with a HIF-2 antagonist.. Chen W1,2,3, Hill H1,2, Christie A1, Kim MS1,4, Holloman E1,2, Pavia- ... Re: Targeting Renal Cell Carcinoma with a HIF-2 Antagonist. [Eur Urol. 2017] ...
... treatment and resreatch studies about kidney and renal cell carcinoma for the medical professionals while caring for their ... The safety and efficacy of nivolumab for treating metastatic renal cell carcinoma is comparable to that found in the CheckMate ... Study reveals a 38% decreased risk of death in patients with papillary metastatic renal cell carcinoma who undergo ... associated with decreased odds of death versus radical nephrectomy among patients with cT1b but not cT2 renal cell carcinoma. ...
Gain a better understanding of cystic renal cell carcinoma and the best approaches to diagnosing and managing this uncommon ... Table 2. The character of cystic renal cell carcinoma concurrent renal cell carcinomas Pt. No.. Age (yr). Sex. Mass location ( ... Cystic renal cell carcinoma (CRCC) is relatively rare; it represents a special subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated ... Cystic Renal Cell Carcinoma. A Report of 67 Cases Including 4 Cases With Concurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma. ...
Renal cell carcinoma is a type of kidney cancer that starts in the lining of very small tubes (tubules) in the kidney. ... Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. It occurs most often in men 50 to 70 years old. ... Renal cell carcinoma is a type of kidney cancer that starts in the lining of very small tubes (tubules) in the kidney. ... Renal cell cancer treatment (PDQ) - health professional version. www.cancer.gov/types/kidney/hp/kidney-treatment-pdq. Updated ...
Renal cell carcinoma is responsible for about 90 percent of kidney cancers in adults. Renal cell carcinoma appears to be caused ... a disease arising from malignant epithelial cells in the kidneys. ... Renal cell carcinoma, a disease arising from malignant epithelial cells in the kidneys. Renal cell carcinoma is responsible for ... science/renal-cell-carcinoma", "shareUrl": "https://www.britannica.com/science/renal-cell-carcinoma", "title": "Renal cell ...
Learn more about renal cell carcinoma, or kidney cancer, and treatment options, including targeted therapy, courtesy of ... About renal cell carcinoma. Renal cell carcinoma, or RCC, develops in the lining of the kidneys tubes and grows into a mass or ... Treating renal cell carcinoma. Treatment plans for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) vary, but can often ... Become an ally in the fight against renal cell carcinoma. Visit www.AlliesinRCC.com to learn more about RCC. ...
Renal cell carcinoma occurs when cancer cells form in the tubules of the kidneys. Find out about the risks, symptoms, ... More in Fight for the Future with Renal Cell Carcinoma. *. 7 Tips to Stay on Track with Your At-Home Renal Cell Carcinoma Care ... Renal cell carcinoma, or RCC, is also called hypernephroma, adenocarcinoma of renal cells, or renal or kidney cancer. Learn the ... Renal cell carcinoma is the most common form of kidney cancer. But not all renal cell cancers are the same. Learn about the ...
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a type of kidney cancer. Often, RCC has no initial symptoms. When symptoms and signs appear they ... Renal cell cancer (also termed renal cell carcinoma or RCC) is a disease that occurs when certain kidney cells become malignant ... The most common type is clear cell (70%), with cells that appear pale or clear. Papillary renal cell cancers (10%) form little ... Treatment of renal cell carcinoma. The treatment of kidney cancer is often decided by the patient and physician and is based on ...
Cite this: FDA Approves Cabozantinib for Renal Cell Carcinoma - Medscape - Apr 26, 2016. ... for the treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who have received previous antiangiogenic therapy. ... Treatment of Anemia in Patients With Renal Disease Reviewed * Risk of Kidney-cancer Recurrence Persists Beyond 5 Years After ... Pathology of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma * Pathology Grading of Renal Cell Carcinoma ...
Diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma at just 30, Lisa Velasquez is celebrating her 10th year of remission. Learn more about ... She was diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) when she was just 30. ... I kept thinking about a dear friends father who had been diagnosed with renal cancer and died six months later. ...
Renal cell carcinoma (see the image below) is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. It accounts for approximately 3 ... Go to Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma and Sarcomatoid and Rhabdoid Renal Cell Carcinoma for complete information on these ... H and E, high power of a clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The tumor cells have abundant pale "clear" cytoplasm. ... encoded search term (Renal%20Cell%20Carcinoma) and Renal Cell Carcinoma What to Read Next on Medscape. Medscape Consult. ...
Latest Renal Cell Carcinoma Meetings * No recent meetings in Renal Cell Carcinoma ... Clinical Focus In Renal Cell Carcinoma: Clues from Gene Studies Mutations in four genes appear to play a key role in the origin ... Clinical Focus in Renal Cell Carcinoma: Indolent Disease Tx Initial observation and intermittent therapy might be options for ... VIENNA -- Metastatic renal cell carcinoma responded about as well to the oral targeted agent pazopanib (Votrient) as to oral ...
Renal cell carcinoma is the 14th most common cancer worldwide, with the highest incidence rates in North America, Europe, and ... finds that ablative techniques have widened the range of treatment options available to patients with renal cell carcinoma.. ... the advent of ablative techniques has widened the range of treatment options available to patients with renal cell carcinoma ( ... better preserves renal parenchymal volume (which correlates with overall renal function), reduces recovery time, and can result ...
... Mohammad Kazem Moslemi,1 Shabir Al-Mousawi,2 and Mohammad Hasan Dehghani ... Mohammad Kazem Moslemi, and Mehdi Abedinzadeh, "Chronic headache as the first symptom of an undiagnosed renal cell carcinoma," ...
She had undergone a right radical nephrectomy for pT2N0M0, Fuhrmans grade 2, clear cell renal cell carcinoma 4 months ago. ... Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Change Vascularity. Takeshi Azuma, Yukihide Matayoshi, Yohsuke Sato, Yujiro Sato, and Yasushi ... I. N. Zama, T. E. Hutson, P. Elson et al., "Sunitinib rechallenge in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients," Cancer, vol. ... Several molecular targeted agents have been approved for clinical use for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). A case of a ...
Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) cannot be cured by surgery alone. Its resillience to irradiation and chemotherapy demands a ... Cell Proliferation and Cellular Heterogeneity in Renal Cell Carcinoma. * Front Matter Pages 35-35 ... T-Cell Activation by Bispecific Monoclonal Antibodies for Lysis of Renal Cell Carcinoma In Vitro ... 31P NMR Spectroscopy of Human Tumor Cells In Vitro and In Vivo: Prospects for Applications to Renal Cell Carcinoma ...
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC, also known as hypernephroma) is a kidney cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal ... Renal Cell Carcinoma Epidemiology. Read More Renal Cell Carcinoma Symptoms. Read More Renal Cell Carcinoma Diagnosis. Read More ... What is Renal Cell Carcinoma? Renal cell carcinoma, also called hypernephroma, is a cancer of the kidneys that forms in the ... Renal Cell Carcinoma. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC, also known as hypernephroma) is a kidney cancer that originates in the lining ...
Renal cell carcinoma, NOS, Renal Cell Cancer, Renal Cell Carcinoma, Renal Cell Carcinoma, Stage Unspecified, Renal Cell ... renal cell carcinoma renal carcinoma that has material basis in the lining of the proximal convoluted renal tubule of the ... Adenocarcinoma, CARCINOMA, RENAL CELL, MALIGNANT, carcinoma, renal cell (en); Cancer del rinón, Cáncer de riñón, Cancer de ... renal cell carcinoma (en); سرطانة الخلية الكلوية (ar); 肾细胞癌 (zh-hans); Rak bubrega (bs) renal carcinoma that has material basis ...
... , Kidney Cancer, Renal Cancer, Renal Cell Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of Kidney, Papillary ... renal cell, adenocarcinoma; renal cell, renal cell; adenocarcinoma, renal cell; carcinoma, Renal Cell Carcinoma, Renal Cell ... Renal cell carcinoma NOS, renal cell carcinoma (diagnosis), renal cell carcinoma, renal adenocarcinoma, Carcinoma, Renal Cell [ ... RENAL CELL ADENOCARCINOMA, Renal cell carcinoma, NOS, Renal cell carcinoma (disorder), Renal cell carcinoma, Renal cell ...
Sorafenib in advanced clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma.. Escudier B1, Eisen T, Stadler WM, Szczylik C, Oudard S, Siebels M, ... in patients with advanced clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma.. METHODS: From November 2003 to March 2005, we randomly assigned 903 ... treatment with sorafenib prolongs progression-free survival in patients with advanced clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma in whom ... What are the indications for sorafenib treatment in patients with renal cell carcinoma? [Nat Clin Pract Oncol. 2007] ...
Findings from clinical trial patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a common kidney cancer, show they did not have ... Cell, Clinical Trial, C-section, Drugs, Efficacy, Interferon-Alfa, Kidney, Kidney Cancer, Oncology, Renal Cell Carcinoma, ... Findings from clinical trial patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a common kidney cancer, show they did not have ... ACCC project develops resources to support treatment of patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma ...
More Renal Cell Carcinoma News. Mixed Results With SBRT-ICI for Advanced Renal Cancer ... Are Low-Density Incidental Renal Masses Being Misdiagnosed? New study raises concerns about criteria for benign cysts vs ...
Inc.) plus axitinib for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). ... Inc.) plus axitinib for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). ...
Learn about the staging criteria and get the facts on stage 4 renal cell carcinoma, the most advanced stage of the disease. ... Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer. The earlier its detected, the greater your chance for ... Understanding renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a type of cancer that affects the cells of the kidney. ... More in Fight for the Future with Renal Cell Carcinoma. *. 7 Tips to Stay on Track with Your At-Home Renal Cell Carcinoma Care ...
Male and female adults with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. *Patients will have tumors that bear a clear cell component that ... Brivanib Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... Brivanib Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Official Title ICMJE Brivanib (BMS-582664, Brivanib Alaninate) in Treatment of ... This study will evaluate the safety and effectiveness of brivanib in renal cell carcinoma, and explore the activity of this ...
  • Although no laboratory test exists for diagnosing renal cell carcinoma, urinalysis may reveal blood in the urine, and a blood test may reveal anemia, elevated liver enzymes, or elevated calcium levels. (britannica.com)
  • The vast majority of patients with renal cell carcinoma developing gastric metastases showed symptoms as microcytic anaemia or upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage, dyspepsia or abdominal pain, similar to those patients with primary gastric tumours. (isciii.es)
  • In a benign tumour the cells do not spread to other parts of the body and so are not cancerous. (naturalcures.com)
  • Although chemotherapy and radiation treatments are generally not effective in curing renal cell carcinoma, they may be used in conjunction with surgery or in cases where, because of generally poor health , surgery is not indicated. (britannica.com)
  • Chemotherapy drugs aren't targeted, however, so they kill healthy cells as well and produce a lot of side effects. (healthline.com)
  • The renal cell carcinoma market is segmented according to type of therapy into the following divisions: surgery, chemotherapy, biological therapy, hormone therapy, targeted agents, and radiation therapy. (sbwire.com)
  • Some authors have previously reported the use of chemotherapy, but the activity of new agents against renal carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation has. (ebscohost.com)
  • High-dose nonmyeloablative chemotherapy followed by allogeneic stem-cell transplantation remains experimental. (uspharmacist.com)