A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
Excision of kidney.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askanazy cells.
A ubiquitin-protein ligase that mediates OXYGEN-dependent polyubiquitination of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. It is inactivated in VON HIPPEL-LINDAU SYNDROME.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)
A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Compounds that include the amino-N-phenylamide structure.
Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.
Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.
Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)
A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.
An autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in a tumor suppressor gene. This syndrome is characterized by abnormal growth of small blood vessels leading to a host of neoplasms. They include HEMANGIOBLASTOMA in the RETINA; CEREBELLUM; and SPINAL CORD; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; pancreatic tumors; and renal cell carcinoma (see CARCINOMA, RENAL CELL). Common clinical signs include HYPERTENSION and neurological dysfunctions.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
The state of having multiple leiomyomas throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed)
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.2.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.
An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.
A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)
A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
Cancer or tumors of the URETER which may cause obstruction leading to hydroureter, HYDRONEPHROSIS, and PYELONEPHRITIS. HEMATURIA is a common symptom.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A benign tumor containing vascular, adipose, and muscle elements. It occurs most often in the kidney with smooth muscle elements (angiolipoleiomyoma) in association with tuberous sclerosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A skin carcinoma that histologically exhibits both basal and squamous elements. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Chemotherapy-induced dermal side effects that are associated with the use of various CYTOSTATIC AGENTS. Symptoms range from mild ERYTHEMA and/or PARESTHESIA to severe ulcerative dermatitis with debilitating pain involving typically palmoplantar and intertriginous areas. These cutaneous manifestations are sometimes accompanied by nail anomalies.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.

Decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 in renal cell carcinoma. (1/3818)

Par-4 is a widely expressed leucine zipper protein that confers sensitization to apoptosis induced by exogenous insults. Because the expression of genes that promote apoptosis may be down-regulated during tumorigenesis, we sought to examine the expression of Par-4 in human tumors. We present here evidence that Par-4 protein levels were severely decreased in human renal cell carcinoma specimens relative to normal tubular cells. Replenishment of Par-4 protein levels in renal cell carcinoma cell lines conferred sensitivity to apoptosis. Because apoptosis may serve as a defense mechanism against malignant transformation or progression, decreased expression of Par-4 may contribute to the pathophysiology of renal cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Profound variation in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity in human blood cells: major implications for the detection of partly deficient patients. (2/3818)

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is responsible for the breakdown of the widely used antineoplastic agent 5-fluorouracil (5FU), thereby limiting the efficacy of the therapy. To identify patients suffering from a complete or partial DPD deficiency, the activity of DPD is usually determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM cells). In this study, we demonstrated that the highest activity of DPD was found in monocytes followed by that of lymphocytes, granulocytes and platelets, whereas no significant activity of DPD could be detected in erythrocytes. The activity of DPD in PBM cells proved to be intermediate compared with the DPD activity observed in monocytes and lymphocytes. The mean percentage of monocytes in the PBM cells obtained from cancer patients proved to be significantly higher than that observed in PBM cells obtained from healthy volunteers. Moreover, a profound positive correlation was observed between the DPD activity of PBM cells and the percentage of monocytes, thus introducing a large inter- and intrapatient variability in the activity of DPD and hindering the detection of patients with a partial DPD deficiency.  (+info)

Presentation of renal tumor antigens by human dendritic cells activates tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes against autologous tumor: implications for live kidney cancer vaccines. (3/3818)

The clinical impact of dendritic cells (DCs) in the treatment of human cancer depends on their unique role as the most potent antigen-presenting cells that are capable of priming an antitumor T-cell response. Here, we demonstrate that functional DCs can be generated from peripheral blood of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by culture of monocytes/macrophages (CD14+) in autologous serum containing medium (RPMI) in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin (IL) 4. For testing the capability of RCC-antigen uptake and processing, we loaded these DCs with autologous tumor lysate (TuLy) using liposomes, after which cytometric analysis of the DCs revealed a markedly increased expression of HLA class I antigen and a persistent high expression of class II. The immunogenicity of DC-TuLy was further tested in cultures of renal tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) cultured in low-dose IL-2 (20 Biologic Response Modifier Program units/ml). A synergistic effect of DC-TuLy and IL-2 in stimulating a T cell-dependent immune response was demonstrated by: (a) the increase of growth expansion of TILs (9.4-14.3-fold; day 21); (b) the up-regulation of the CD3+ CD56- TcR+ (both CD4+ and CD8+) cell population; (c) the augmentation of T cell-restricted autologous tumor lysis; and (d) the enhancement of IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and IL-6 mRNA expression by TILs. Taken together, these data implicate that DC-TuLy can activate immunosuppressed TIL via an induction of enhanced antitumor CTL responses associated with production of Thl cells. This indicates a potential role of DC-TuLy vaccines for induction of active immunity in patients with advanced RCC.  (+info)

Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma: biologic behavior, prognosis, and response to combined surgical resection and immunotherapy. (4/3818)

PURPOSE: Sarcomatoid variants of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are aggressive tumors that respond poorly to immunotherapy. We report the outcomes of 31 patients with sarcomatoid RCC treated with a combination of surgical resection and immunotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were identified from the database of the University of California Los Angeles Kidney Cancer Program. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 31 consecutive patients in whom sarcomatoid RCC was diagnosed between 1990 and 1997. Clinical stage, sites of metastasis, pathologic stage, and type of immunotherapy were abstracted from the medical records. The primary end point analyzed was overall survival, and a multivariate analysis was performed to distinguish any factors conferring an improved survivorship. RESULTS: Twenty-six percent of patients were male and 74% were female, and the median age was 59 years (range, 34 to 73 years). Length of follow-up ranged from 2 to 77 months (mean, 21.4 months). Twenty-eight patients (84%) had known metastases at the time of radical nephrectomy (67% had lung metastases and 40% had bone, 21% had liver, 33% had lymphatic, and 15% had brain metastases). Twenty-five patients (81%) received immunotherapy, including low-dose interleukin (IL)-2-based therapy (five patients), tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte-based therapy plus IL-2 (nine patients), high-dose IL-2-based therapy (nine patients), dendritic cell vaccine-based therapy (one patient), and interferon alpha-based therapy alone (one patient). Two patients (6%) achieved complete responses (median duration, 46+ months) and five patients (15%) achieved partial responses (median duration, 36 months). One- and 2-year overall survival rates were 48% and 37%, respectively. Using a multivariate analysis, age, sex, and percentage of sarcomatoid tumor (< or >50%) did not significantly correlate with survival. Improved survival was found in patients receiving high-dose IL-2 therapy compared with patients treated with surgery alone or any other form of immunotherapy (P = .025). Adjusting for age, sex, and percentage of sarcomatoid tumor, the relative risk of death was 10.4 times higher in patients not receiving high-dose IL-2 therapy. Final pathologic T stage did not correlate significantly with outcome, but node-positive patients had a higher death rate per year of follow-up than did the rest of the population (1.26 v 0.76, Cox regression analysis). CONCLUSION: Surgical resection and high-dose IL-2-based immunotherapy may play a role in the treatment of sarcomatoid RCCs in select patients.  (+info)

Autoimmunity resulting from cytokine treatment predicts long-term survival in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer. (5/3818)

PURPOSE: In patients undergoing cytokine therapy, systemically applied interleukin-2 (IL-2) and/or interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) have been reported to induce thyroid dysfunction as well as thyroid autoantibodies. We analyzed the correlation of thyroid autoimmunity with HLA phenotype, various other autoimmune parameters, and patient survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For this purpose, antithyroglobulin autoantibodies, antimicrosomal thyroid autoantibodies, thyroglobulin receptor autoantibodies, thyroid dysfunction, and multiple clinical parameters were determined in 329 unselected patients with metastatic renal cell cancer before and after systemic IL-2 and IFN-alpha2 therapy. For statistical analysis, we used both univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models and the two-tailed Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Antithyroglobulin autoantibodies and antimicrosomal thyroid autoantibodies were detected in 60 patients (18%); positive autoantibody titers of various other autoimmune parameters were statistically unrelated. The presence of thyroid autoantibodies was correlated with prolonged survival (P<.0001). There was a statistically significant difference in frequencies of HLA-Cw7 expression between thyroid autoantibody-positive and -negative patients (P< or =.05), and the Cw7 expression was associated with prolonged overall survival (P = .009). CONCLUSION: The evaluation of thyroid autoantibodies during cytokine therapy could be a useful prognostic marker for patients with renal cell carcinoma who benefit from cytokine treatment. IL-2- and IFN-alpha2-induced tumor control and prolonged survival may require breaking of immunologic tolerance against self-antigens.  (+info)

Hypertension, antihypertensive medication use, and risk of renal cell carcinoma. (6/3818)

To investigate whether diuretic medication use increases risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the authors conducted a case-control study of health maintenance organization members in western Washington State. Cases (n = 238) diagnosed between January 1980 and June 1995 were compared with controls (n = 616) selected from health maintenance organization membership files. The computerized health maintenance organization pharmacy database provided information on medications prescribed after March 1977. Additional exposure information was collected from medical records. For women, use of diuretics was associated with increased risk of RCC (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-3.1), but the association was not independent of a diagnosis of hypertension (adjusted for hypertension, OR = 1.1, 95% CI 0.5-2.1). Similarly, nondiuretic antihypertensive use was associated with increased risk, but only when unadjusted for hypertension. For men, neither diuretic nor nondiuretic antihypertensive use was associated with risk of RCC. A diagnosis of hypertension was clearly associated with RCC risk for women (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.1), but not men (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 0.7-2.5). High systolic and diastolic blood pressures were associated with increased risk in both sexes. These results do not support the hypothesis that use of diuretic medication increases RCC risk; they are more consistent with an association between RCC and high blood pressure.  (+info)

Increased renal retention of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate after nephron-sparing surgery. (7/3818)

Nephron-sparing surgery has become established as an effective treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma when preservation of renal function is necessary. The surgery usually requires temporary renal artery occlusion and may induce ischemic renal damage. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated renal activity on bone scintigraphy after nephron-sparing surgery. METHODS: Eleven patients who underwent nephron-sparing surgery for renal cell carcinoma and had a normal contralateral kidney were studied. A total of 12 bone scintigraphy images with 99mTc-labeled methylene diphosphonate were obtained within 1 y after surgery in these patients to assess skeletal metastasis. Activity in the spared renal parenchyma was compared visually with that in the contralateral normal kidney. RESULTS: The tumor was successfully resected in every patient, and no clinically significant complications occurred. Activity in the spared renal parenchyma was elevated in six of seven examinations performed within 21 d after surgery. In three examinations, the increase in renal activity was heterogeneous, being relatively prominent near the surgical margin. Increased renal activity was not observed on five examinations performed 3 mo or more after surgery. CONCLUSION: Renal retention of bone-seeking agents is elevated in the early period after nephron-sparing surgery, probably as a result of ischemic insult during the surgical procedure. Bone scintigraphy may aid in evaluating the presence and degree of ischemic damage of the spared renal parenchyma.  (+info)

Renal carcinogenesis, hepatic hemangiomatosis, and embryonic lethality caused by a germ-line Tsc2 mutation in mice. (8/3818)

Germ-line mutations of the human TSC2 tumor suppressor gene cause tuberous sclerosis (TSC), a disease characterized by the development of hamartomas in various organs. In the Eker rat, however, a germ-line Tsc2 mutation gives rise to renal cell carcinomas with a complete penetrance. The molecular mechanism for this phenotypic difference between man and rat is currently unknown, and the physiological function of the TSC2/Tsc2 product (tuberin) is not fully understood. To investigate these unsolved problems, we have generated a Tsc2 mutant mouse. Tsc2 heterozygous mutant (Tsc2+/-) mice developed renal carcinomas with a complete penetrance, as seen in the Eker rat, but not the angiomyolipomas characteristic of human TSC, confirming the existence of a species-specific mechanism of tumorigenesis caused by tuberin deficiency. Unexpectedly, approximately 80% of Tsc2+/- mice also developed hepatic hemangiomas that are not observed in either TSC or the Eker rat. Tsc2 homozygous (Tsc2-/-) mutants died around embryonic day 10.5, indicating an essential function for tuberin in mouse embryonic development. Some Tsc2-/- embryos exhibited an unclosed neural tube and/or thickened myocardium. The latter is associated with increased cell density that may be a reflection of loss of a growth-suppressive function of tuberin. The mouse strain described here should provide a valuable experimental model to analyze the function of tuberin and its association with tumorigenesis.  (+info)

There are several subtypes of RCC, including clear cell, papillary, chromophobe, and collecting duct carcinoma. The most common subtype is clear cell RCC, which accounts for approximately 70-80% of all RCC cases.

RCC can be difficult to diagnose as it may not cause any symptoms in its early stages. However, some common symptoms of RCC include blood in the urine (hematuria), pain in the flank or abdomen, weight loss, and fatigue. RCC is typically diagnosed through a combination of imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) scans, along with a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment for RCC depends on the stage and location of the cancer. Surgery is the primary treatment for localized RCC, and may involve a partial or complete nephrectomy (removal of the affected kidney). For more advanced cases, treatment may involve a combination of surgery and systemic therapies such as targeted therapy or immunotherapy. Targeted therapy drugs, such as sunitinib and pazopanib, work by blocking specific molecules that promote the growth and spread of cancer cells. Immunotherapy drugs, such as checkpoint inhibitors, work by stimulating the body's immune system to attack cancer cells.

The prognosis for RCC is generally good if the cancer is detected early and treated promptly. However, the cancer can be aggressive and may spread to other parts of the body (metastasize) if left untreated. The 5-year survival rate for RCC is about 73% for patients with localized disease, but it drops to about 12% for those with distant metastases.

There are several risk factors for developing RCC, including:

* Age: RCC is more common in people over the age of 50.
* Gender: Men are slightly more likely to develop RCC than women.
* Family history: People with a family history of RCC or other kidney diseases may be at increased risk.
* Chronic kidney disease: Patients with chronic kidney disease are at higher risk for developing RCC.
* Hypertension: High blood pressure is a common risk factor for RCC.
* Smoking: Smoking may increase the risk of developing RCC.
* Obesity: Being overweight or obese may increase the risk of developing RCC.

There are several complications associated with RCC, including:

* Metastasis: RCC can spread to other parts of the body, such as the lymph nodes, liver, and bones.
* Hematuria: Blood in the urine is a common complication of RCC.
* Pain: RCC can cause pain in the flank or abdomen.
* Fatigue: RCC can cause fatigue and weakness.
* Weight loss: RCC can cause weight loss and loss of appetite.

There are several treatment options for RCC, including:

* Surgery: Surgery is often the first line of treatment for RCC that is localized and has not spread to other parts of the body.
* Ablation: Ablation therapies, such as cryotherapy or radiofrequency ablation, can be used to destroy the tumor.
* Targeted therapy: Targeted therapies, such as sunitinib or pazopanib, can be used to slow the growth of the tumor.
* Immunotherapy: Immunotherapies, such as checkpoint inhibitors, can be used to stimulate the immune system to attack the tumor.
* Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used in combination with other treatments or as a last resort for patients with advanced RCC.

The prognosis for RCC varies depending on the stage and location of the cancer, but in general, the earlier the cancer is detected and treated, the better the outcome. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for RCC is about 73% for patients with localized disease (cancer that has not spread beyond the kidney) and about 12% for patients with distant disease (cancer that has spread to other parts of the body).

Symptoms of Kidney Neoplasms can include blood in the urine, pain in the flank or abdomen, weight loss, fever, and fatigue. Diagnosis is made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT scans or ultrasound, and tissue biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the type and stage of the neoplasm, but may include surgery, ablation therapy, targeted therapy, or chemotherapy.

It is important for individuals with a history of Kidney Neoplasms to follow up with their healthcare provider regularly for monitoring and check-ups to ensure early detection of any recurrences or new tumors.

There are several subtypes of carcinoma, including:

1. Adenocarcinoma: This type of carcinoma originates in glandular cells, which produce fluids or mucus. Examples include breast cancer, prostate cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of carcinoma originates in squamous cells, which are found on the surface layers of skin and mucous membranes. Examples include head and neck cancers, cervical cancer, and anal cancer.
3. Basal cell carcinoma: This type of carcinoma originates in the deepest layer of skin, called the basal layer. It is the most common type of skin cancer and tends to grow slowly.
4. Neuroendocrine carcinoma: This type of carcinoma originates in cells that produce hormones and neurotransmitters. Examples include lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and thyroid cancer.
5. Small cell carcinoma: This type of carcinoma is a highly aggressive form of lung cancer that spreads quickly to other parts of the body.

The signs and symptoms of carcinoma depend on the location and stage of the cancer. Some common symptoms include:

* A lump or mass
* Pain
* Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the color or texture of the skin
* Changes in bowel or bladder habits
* Abnormal bleeding

The diagnosis of carcinoma typically involves a combination of imaging tests, such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope. Treatment options for carcinoma depend on the location and stage of the cancer and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these.

In conclusion, carcinoma is a type of cancer that originates in epithelial cells and can occur in various parts of the body. Early detection and treatment are important for improving outcomes.

References:

1. American Cancer Society. (2022). Carcinoma. Retrieved from
2. Mayo Clinic. (2022). Carcinoma. Retrieved from
3. MedlinePlus. (2022). Carcinoma. Retrieved from

SCC typically appears as a firm, flat, or raised bump on the skin, and may be pink, red, or scaly. The cancer cells are usually well-differentiated, meaning they resemble normal squamous cells, but they can grow rapidly and invade surrounding tissues if left untreated.

SCC is more common in fair-skinned individuals and those who spend a lot of time in the sun, as UV radiation can damage the skin cells and increase the risk of cancer. The cancer can also spread to other parts of the body, such as lymph nodes or organs, and can be life-threatening if not treated promptly and effectively.

Treatment for SCC usually involves surgery to remove the cancerous tissue, and may also include radiation therapy or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. Early detection and treatment are important to improve outcomes for patients with SCC.

There are several risk factors for developing HCC, including:

* Cirrhosis, which can be caused by heavy alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis (such as hepatitis B and C), or fatty liver disease
* Family history of liver disease
* Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
* Diabetes
* Obesity

HCC can be challenging to diagnose, as the symptoms are non-specific and can be similar to those of other conditions. However, some common symptoms of HCC include:

* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Weight loss

If HCC is suspected, a doctor may perform several tests to confirm the diagnosis, including:

* Imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, to look for tumors in the liver
* Blood tests to check for liver function and detect certain substances that are produced by the liver
* Biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue from the liver to examine under a microscope

Once HCC is diagnosed, treatment options will depend on several factors, including the stage and location of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and their personal preferences. Treatment options may include:

* Surgery to remove the tumor or parts of the liver
* Ablation, which involves destroying the cancer cells using heat or cold
* Chemoembolization, which involves injecting chemotherapy drugs into the hepatic artery to reach the cancer cells
* Targeted therapy, which uses drugs or other substances to target specific molecules that are involved in the growth and spread of the cancer

Overall, the prognosis for HCC is poor, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 20%. However, early detection and treatment can improve outcomes. It is important for individuals at high risk for HCC to be monitored regularly by a healthcare provider, and to seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms.

Also known as CIS.

Liver neoplasms, also known as liver tumors or hepatic tumors, are abnormal growths of tissue in the liver. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant liver tumors can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or metastatic, meaning they spread to the liver from another part of the body.

There are several types of liver neoplasms, including:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and arises from the main cells of the liver (hepatocytes). HCC is often associated with cirrhosis and can be caused by viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer arises from the cells lining the bile ducts within the liver (cholangiocytes). Cholangiocarcinoma is rare and often diagnosed at an advanced stage.
3. Hemangiosarcoma: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the blood vessels of the liver. It is most commonly seen in dogs but can also occur in humans.
4. Fibromas: These are benign tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the liver (fibrocytes). Fibromas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
5. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells of the liver (hepatocytes). Adenomas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.

The symptoms of liver neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and whether they are benign or malignant. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment options for liver neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery may be an option for some patients with small, localized tumors, while others may require chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the tumor before surgery can be performed. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.

Prognosis for liver neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the cancer. In general, early detection and treatment improve the prognosis, while advanced-stage disease is associated with a poorer prognosis.

The exact cause of ductal carcinoma is unknown, but certain risk factors such as family history, genetics, hormone replacement therapy, obesity, and delayed childbearing have been linked to its development. Early detection through mammography and breast self-examination can improve survival rates, which are generally high for women diagnosed with this type of cancer if caught early. Treatment typically involves surgery to remove the tumor (lumpectomy or mastectomy), followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy.

BCC usually appears as a flesh-colored or pink bump, often with small blood vessels on the surface. It may also be flat and scaly, or have a waxy appearance. In rare cases, BCC can grow deep into the skin and cause damage to surrounding tissue.

Although BCC is not as aggressive as other types of skin cancer, such as melanoma, it can still cause significant damage if left untreated. Treatment options for BCC include topical creams, surgical excision, and Mohs microscopic surgery.

Preventative measures against BCC include protecting the skin from the sun, using sunscreen with a high SPF, and avoiding prolonged exposure to UV radiation. Early detection and treatment are key in managing this condition.

Examples and Observations:

Oxyphil adenomas are rare in the small bowel (less than 1% of all small intestinal tumors) but are more common in the duodenum and proximal jejunum. They usually manifest as multiple, submucosal nodules that can vary in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. [2]

The presence of oxyphil adenomas in the stomach is rare (less than 1% of all gastric tumors) and most often occurs as multiple, small, submucosal nodules. However, larger adenomas may also be present. [3]

Synonyms: oxyphil cell adenoma; oxyphil cell tumor; oxyphil polyp. [1]

Notes:

* Oxyphil adenomas are often associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Turcot syndrome. [2]

References:

[1] Dorland's Medical Dictionary for Health Care Professionals. © 2008 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

[2] Oxyphil Adenoma. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Professional Edition. © 2015 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

[3] Oxyphil Adenoma. Gastrointestinal Tumors: benign and malignant tumors of the digestive system, including colorectal cancer, stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, biliary tract cancer, and soft tissue sarcomas. © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

Clear cell adenocarcinomas can occur in various parts of the body, such as the ovary, pancreas, and lung. In general, clear cell adenocarcinomas tend to grow more slowly than other types of cancer and are less aggressive. However, they can still be malignant and may require treatment.

The prognosis for clear cell adenocarcinoma depends on various factors, such as the stage of the cancer (how far it has spread) and the specific location of the tumor. In general, the prognosis for clear cell adenocarcinoma is good if the cancer is caught early and treated appropriately. However, if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, the prognosis may be poorer.

There are several treatment options for clear cell adenocarcinoma, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapy. The specific treatment plan will depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as other individual factors such as age and overall health.

In summary, clear cell adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that begins in glandular cells and has clear cells. It can occur in various parts of the body and tends to grow slowly, but it can still be malignant and require treatment. The prognosis for clear cell adenocarcinoma depends on various factors, and there are several treatment options available.

Transitional cell carcinoma typically affects older adults, with the average age at diagnosis being around 70 years. Men are more likely to be affected than women, and the risk of developing TCC increases with age and exposure to certain environmental factors such as smoking and exposure to certain chemicals.

The symptoms of TCC can vary depending on the location and stage of the cancer, but may include:

* Blood in the urine (hematuria)
* Painful urination
* Frequent urination
* Pain in the lower abdomen or back

If left untreated, TCC can spread to other parts of the body, including the lymph nodes, liver, and bones. Treatment options for TCC may include surgery, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy, and the prognosis depends on the stage and location of the cancer at the time of diagnosis.

Preventive measures to reduce the risk of developing TCC include maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle, avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and regular screening for bladder cancer. Early detection and treatment can improve the prognosis for patients with TCC.

Neoplastic metastasis can occur in any type of cancer but are more common in solid tumors such as carcinomas (breast, lung, colon). It is important for cancer diagnosis and prognosis because metastasis indicates that the cancer has spread beyond its original site and may be more difficult to treat.

Metastases can appear at any distant location but commonly found sites include the liver, lungs, bones, brain, and lymph nodes. The presence of metastases indicates a higher stage of cancer which is associated with lower survival rates compared to localized cancer.

1. Tumor size and location: Larger tumors that have spread to nearby tissues or organs are generally considered more invasive than smaller tumors that are confined to the original site.
2. Cellular growth patterns: The way in which cancer cells grow and divide can also contribute to the overall invasiveness of a neoplasm. For example, cells that grow in a disorganized or chaotic manner may be more likely to invade surrounding tissues.
3. Mitotic index: The mitotic index is a measure of how quickly the cancer cells are dividing. A higher mitotic index is generally associated with more aggressive and invasive cancers.
4. Necrosis: Necrosis, or the death of cells, can be an indication of the level of invasiveness of a neoplasm. The presence of significant necrosis in a tumor is often a sign that the cancer has invaded surrounding tissues and organs.
5. Lymphovascular invasion: Cancer cells that have invaded lymphatic vessels or blood vessels are considered more invasive than those that have not.
6. Perineural invasion: Cancer cells that have invaded nerve fibers are also considered more invasive.
7. Histological grade: The histological grade of a neoplasm is a measure of how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Higher-grade cancers are generally considered more aggressive and invasive than lower-grade cancers.
8. Immunohistochemical markers: Certain immunohistochemical markers, such as Ki-67, can be used to evaluate the proliferative activity of cancer cells. Higher levels of these markers are generally associated with more aggressive and invasive cancers.

Overall, the degree of neoplasm invasiveness is an important factor in determining the likelihood of the cancer spreading to other parts of the body (metastasizing) and in determining the appropriate treatment strategy for the patient.

The risk factors for developing bronchogenic carcinoma include smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke, exposure to radon gas, asbestos, and certain industrial chemicals, as well as a family history of lung cancer. Symptoms of bronchogenic carcinoma can include coughing, chest pain, difficulty breathing, fatigue, weight loss, and coughing up blood.

Bronchogenic carcinoma is diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests such as chest x-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, and positron emission tomography (PET) scans, as well as biopsy. Treatment options for bronchogenic carcinoma can include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these. The prognosis for bronchogenic carcinoma is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of about 18%.

Prevention is the best approach to managing bronchogenic carcinoma, and this includes quitting smoking, avoiding exposure to secondhand smoke and other risk factors, and getting regular screenings if you are at high risk. Early detection and treatment can improve survival rates for patients with bronchogenic carcinoma, so it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Adenocarcinoma is a term used to describe a variety of different types of cancer that arise in glandular tissue, including:

1. Colorectal adenocarcinoma (cancer of the colon or rectum)
2. Breast adenocarcinoma (cancer of the breast)
3. Prostate adenocarcinoma (cancer of the prostate gland)
4. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (cancer of the pancreas)
5. Lung adenocarcinoma (cancer of the lung)
6. Thyroid adenocarcinoma (cancer of the thyroid gland)
7. Skin adenocarcinoma (cancer of the skin)

The symptoms of adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:

1. Blood in the stool or urine
2. Abdominal pain or discomfort
3. Changes in bowel habits
4. Unusual vaginal bleeding (in the case of endometrial adenocarcinoma)
5. A lump or thickening in the breast or elsewhere
6. Weight loss
7. Fatigue
8. Coughing up blood (in the case of lung adenocarcinoma)

The diagnosis of adenocarcinoma is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the affected area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

Treatment options for adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:

1. Surgery to remove the tumor
2. Chemotherapy, which involves using drugs to kill cancer cells
3. Radiation therapy, which involves using high-energy X-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells
4. Targeted therapy, which involves using drugs that target specific molecules on cancer cells to kill them
5. Immunotherapy, which involves using drugs that stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells.

The prognosis for adenocarcinoma is generally good if the cancer is detected and treated early, but it can be more challenging to treat if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Intraductal carcinoma may or may not cause symptoms, and is usually detected by a mammogram. Treatment often involves surgery to remove the cancerous cells from the milk ducts. If left untreated, intraductal carcinoma may progress to more advanced breast cancer in some cases.

Intraductal carcinoma accounts for 20% of all breast cancers diagnosed each year in the United States, according to estimates from the American Cancer Society. The condition affects women of all ages, but is most common in postmenopausal women.

This cancer is known for its aggressive behavior and early metastasis to regional lymph nodes, bones, and distant organs such as the liver and lungs. The prognosis is generally poor, with a 5-year survival rate of about 50%. The treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, and the choice of treatment depends on the stage and location of the tumor.

Adenoid cystic carcinoma is also known as adenoid cystic cancer, cylindromatosis, or basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. It is a rare malignancy that requires specialized knowledge and management by head and neck surgeons and oncologists.

Epidemiology:

* Incidence: Small cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for approximately 10%-15% of all skin cancers, but it is more common in certain populations such as fair-skinned individuals and those with a history of sun exposure.
* Prevalence: The prevalence of SCC is difficult to determine due to its rarity, but it is believed to be more common in certain geographic regions such as Australia and New Zealand.

Clinical features:

* Appearance: Small cell carcinoma usually appears as a firm, shiny nodule or plaque on sun-exposed areas of the skin, such as the face, ears, lips, and hands. It can also occur in other parts of the body, including the mucous membranes.
* Color: The color of SCC can range from pink to red to purple, and it may be covered with a crust or scab.
* Dimensions: SCC usually measures between 1-5 cm in diameter, but it can be larger in some cases.
* Surface: The surface of SCC may be smooth or rough, and it may have a "pearly" appearance due to the presence of small, white, and shiny nodules called "heidlebergs."

Differential diagnosis:

* Other types of skin cancer, such as basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
* Other diseases that can cause similar symptoms and appearance, such as psoriasis, eczema, and actinic keratosis.

Treatment:

* Surgical excision: Small cell carcinoma is usually treated with surgical excision, which involves removing the tumor and some surrounding tissue.
* Radiation therapy: In some cases, radiation therapy may be used after surgical excision to ensure that all cancer cells are eliminated.
* Topical treatments: For more superficial SCC, topical treatments such as imiquimod cream or podofilox solution may be effective.

Prognosis:

* The prognosis for small cell carcinoma is generally good if it is detected and treated early.
* However, if left untreated, SCC can invade surrounding tissues and organs, leading to serious complications and potentially fatal outcomes.

Complications:

* Invasion of surrounding tissues and organs.
* Spread of cancer cells to other parts of the body (metastasis).
* Scarring and disfigurement.
* Infection and inflammation.

Characteristics of Medullary Carcinoma:

1. Location: Medullary carcinoma typically arises in the inner substance of the breast, near the milk ducts and blood vessels.
2. Growth pattern: The cancer cells grow in a nodular or sheet-like pattern, with a clear boundary between the tumor and the surrounding normal tissue.
3. Cellular features: The cancer cells are typically large and polygonal, with prominent nucleoli and a pale, pinkish cytoplasm.
4. Lymphocytic infiltration: There is often a significant amount of lymphocytic infiltration surrounding the tumor, which can give it a "spiculated" or "heterogeneous" appearance.
5. Grade: Medullary carcinoma is generally a low-grade cancer, meaning that the cells are slow-growing and less aggressive than those of other types of breast cancer.
6. Hormone receptors: Medullary carcinoma is often hormone receptor-positive, meaning that the cancer cells have estrogen or progesterone receptors on their surface.
7. Her2 status: The cancer cells are typically Her2-negative, meaning that they do not overexpress the Her2 protein.

Prognosis and Treatment of Medullary Carcinoma:

The prognosis for medullary carcinoma is generally good, as it tends to be a slow-growing and less aggressive type of breast cancer. The 5-year survival rate for medullary carcinoma is around 80-90%.

Treatment for medullary carcinoma typically involves surgery, such as a lumpectomy or mastectomy, followed by radiation therapy and/or hormone therapy. Chemotherapy is sometimes used in addition to these treatments, especially if the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

It's important for women with medullary carcinoma to work closely with their healthcare team to develop a personalized treatment plan that takes into account their unique needs and circumstances. With appropriate treatment, many women with medullary carcinoma can achieve long-term survival and a good quality of life.

Carcinoma, lobular (also known as lobular carcinoma in situ or LCIS) is a type of cancer that originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) of the breast. It is a precancerous condition that can progress to invasive breast cancer if left untreated.

Precancerous changes occur within the lobules, leading to an abnormal growth of cells that can eventually break through the basement membrane and invade surrounding tissues. The risk of developing invasive breast cancer is increased in individuals with LCIS, especially if there are multiple areas of involvement.

Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of clinical breast examination, mammography, and histopathological analysis of a biopsy sample. Treatment options for LCIS include close surveillance, surgery, or radiation therapy, depending on the extent of the condition and the individual patient's risk factors.

Medical Specialty:

The medical specialty that deals with carcinoma, lobular is breast surgical oncology. Breast surgical oncologists are trained to diagnose and treat all types of breast cancer, including ductal and lobular carcinomas. They work in collaboration with other healthcare professionals, such as radiation oncologists and medical oncologists, to develop a comprehensive treatment plan for each patient.

Other relevant information:

* Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is a precancerous condition that affects the milk-producing glands (lobules) of the breast.
* It is estimated that 10-15% of all breast cancers are derived from LCIS.
* Women with a history of LCIS have a higher risk of developing invasive breast cancer in the future.
* The exact cause of LCIS is not fully understood, but it is thought to be linked to hormonal and genetic factors.

There are several types of lung neoplasms, including:

1. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 40% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the glands of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of lung cancer accounts for approximately 25% of all lung cancers and is more common in men than women. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the squamous cells lining the airways of the lungs.
3. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC): This is a highly aggressive form of lung cancer that accounts for approximately 15% of all lung cancers. It is often found in the central parts of the lungs and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
4. Large cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of lung cancer that accounts for only about 5% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the large cells of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
5. Bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC): This is a rare type of lung cancer that originates in the cells lining the airways and alveoli of the lungs. It is more common in women than men and tends to affect older individuals.
6. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): This is a rare, progressive, and often fatal lung disease that primarily affects women of childbearing age. It is characterized by the growth of smooth muscle-like cells in the lungs and can lead to cysts, lung collapse, and respiratory failure.
7. Hamartoma: This is a benign tumor that originates in the tissue of the lungs and is usually found in children. It is characterized by an overgrowth of normal lung tissue and can be treated with surgery.
8. Secondary lung cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
9. Metastatic cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
10. Mesothelioma: This is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that originates in the lining of the lungs or abdomen. It is caused by asbestos exposure and can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

Lung diseases can also be classified based on their cause, such as:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms and can include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and bronchitis.
2. Autoimmune diseases: These are caused by an overactive immune system and can include conditions such as sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
3. Genetic diseases: These are caused by inherited mutations in genes that affect the lungs and can include cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia.
4. Environmental diseases: These are caused by exposure to harmful substances such as tobacco smoke, air pollution, and asbestos.
5. Radiological diseases: These are caused by exposure to ionizing radiation and can include conditions such as radiographic breast cancer and lung cancer.
6. Vascular diseases: These are caused by problems with the blood vessels in the lungs and can include conditions such as pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension.
7. Tumors: These can be benign or malignant and can include conditions such as lung metastases and lung cancer.
8. Trauma: This can include injuries to the chest or lungs caused by accidents or other forms of trauma.
9. Congenital diseases: These are present at birth and can include conditions such as bronchopulmonary foregut malformations and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation.

Each type of lung disease has its own set of symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe respiratory symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.

There are several types of thyroid neoplasms, including:

1. Thyroid nodules: These are abnormal growths or lumps that can develop in the thyroid gland. Most thyroid nodules are benign (non-cancerous), but some can be malignant (cancerous).
2. Thyroid cancer: This is a type of cancer that develops in the thyroid gland. There are several types of thyroid cancer, including papillary, follicular, and medullary thyroid cancer.
3. Thyroid adenomas: These are benign tumors that develop in the thyroid gland. They are usually non-cancerous and do not spread to other parts of the body.
4. Thyroid cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in the thyroid gland. They are usually benign and do not cause any symptoms.

Thyroid neoplasms can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to radiation, and certain medical conditions, such as thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid gland).

Symptoms of thyroid neoplasms can include:

* A lump or swelling in the neck
* Pain in the neck or throat
* Difficulty swallowing or breathing
* Hoarseness or voice changes
* Weight loss or fatigue

Diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as ultrasound or CT scans), and biopsies. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the neoplasm, and can include surgery, radiation therapy, and medications.

Definition:
A type of cancer that arises from cells of the neuroendocrine system, which are cells that produce hormones and neurotransmitters. These tumors can occur in various parts of the body, such as the lungs, digestive tract, and pancreas. They tend to grow slowly and can produce excess hormones or neurotransmitters, leading to a variety of symptoms. Carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors are relatively rare but are becoming more commonly diagnosed.

Synonyms:

* Neuroendocrine carcinoma
* Neuroendocrine tumor
* Carcinoid tumor

Note: The term "carcinoma" refers to a type of cancer that arises from epithelial cells, while the term "neuroendocrine" refers to the fact that these tumors originate in cells of the neuroendocrine system.

Translation:

English: Neuroendocrine carcinoma
German: Neuroendokrines Karzinom
French: Tumeur carcinoïde neuroendocrine
Spanish: Carcinoma neuendocrino
Italian: Carcinoma neuroendocrino

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

Most nasopharyngeal neoplasms are rare and tend to affect children and young adults more frequently than older adults. The most common types of nasopharyngeal neoplasms include:

1. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC): This is the most common type of malignant nasopharyngeal neoplasm and tends to affect young adults in Southeast Asia more frequently than other populations.
2. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: This is a rare, slow-growing tumor that usually affects the nasopharynx and salivary glands.
3. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma: This is a type of cancer that originates in another part of the body (usually the head and neck) and spreads to the nasopharynx.
4. Lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that affects the immune system and can occur in the nasopharynx.
5. Benign tumors: These include benign growths such as papillomas, fibromas, and meningiomas.

Symptoms of nasopharyngeal neoplasms can vary depending on the size and location of the tumor but may include:

* Difficulty swallowing
* Nosebleeds
* Headaches
* Facial pain or numbness
* Trouble breathing through the nose
* Hoarseness or voice changes
* Enlarged lymph nodes in the neck

Diagnosis of nasopharyngeal neoplasms usually involves a combination of imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, endoscopy (insertion of a flexible tube with a camera into the nose and throat), and biopsy (removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope).

Treatment of nasopharyngeal neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor but may include:

* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Radiation therapy to kill cancer cells
* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Targeted therapy to attack specific molecules on cancer cells

Prognosis for nasopharyngeal neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the tumor but in general, early detection and treatment improve the chances of a successful outcome.

Multiple primary neoplasms can arise in different organs or tissues throughout the body, such as the breast, colon, prostate, lung, or skin. Each tumor is considered a separate entity, with its own unique characteristics, including size, location, and aggressiveness. Treatment for multiple primary neoplasms typically involves surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these modalities.

The diagnosis of multiple primary neoplasms can be challenging due to the overlapping symptoms and radiological findings between the different tumors. Therefore, it is essential to have a thorough clinical evaluation and diagnostic workup to rule out other possible causes of the symptoms and confirm the presence of multiple primary neoplasms.

Multiple primary neoplasms are more common than previously thought, with an estimated prevalence of 2% to 5% in some populations. The prognosis for patients with multiple primary neoplasms varies depending on the location, size, and aggressiveness of each tumor, as well as the patient's overall health status.

It is important to note that multiple primary neoplasms are not the same as metastatic cancer, in which a single primary tumor spreads to other parts of the body. Multiple primary neoplasms are distinct tumors that arise independently from different primary sites within the body.

The cancer cells of this type are thought to arise from abnormalities in the cells that line the ducts of the salivary glands. These abnormal cells grow and divide uncontrollably, forming a mass that can obstruct the flow of saliva and cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and difficulty eating or speaking.

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is typically diagnosed with a combination of imaging studies, such as CT scans, MRI, and PET scans, and a biopsy, where a sample of tissue is removed from the tumor and examined under a microscope for cancer cells. Treatment typically involves surgery to remove the tumor, followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells.

Prognosis for this type of cancer is generally good if it is diagnosed early and treated promptly, but it can be challenging to treat if it has spread to other parts of the body.

Example Sentences:

The patient was diagnosed with adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung and underwent surgical resection.

The pathology report revealed that the tumor was an adenosquamous carcinoma, which is a rare type of lung cancer.

Note: Adenosquamous carcinoma is a rare subtype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), accounting for approximately 1-3% of all lung cancers. It has a more aggressive clinical course and poorer prognosis compared to other types of NSCLC.

Lymphatic metastasis occurs when cancer cells enter the lymphatic vessels and are carried through the lymphatic system to other parts of the body. This can happen through several mechanisms, including:

1. Direct invasion: Cancer cells can invade the nearby lymphatic vessels and spread through them.
2. Lymphatic vessel embolization: Cancer cells can block the flow of lymphatic fluid and cause the formation of a clot-like structure, which can trap cancer cells and allow them to grow.
3. Lymphatic vessel invasion: Cancer cells can infiltrate the walls of lymphatic vessels and spread through them.

Lymphatic metastasis is a common mechanism for the spread of cancer, particularly in the breast, melanoma, and other cancers that have a high risk of lymphatic invasion. The presence of lymphatic metastasis in a patient's body can indicate a more aggressive cancer and a poorer prognosis.

Treatment for lymphatic metastasis typically involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Surgery may be used to remove any affected lymph nodes or other tumors that have spread through the lymphatic system. Chemotherapy may be used to kill any remaining cancer cells, while radiation therapy may be used to shrink the tumors and relieve symptoms.

In summary, lymphatic metastasis is a common mechanism for the spread of cancer through the body, particularly in cancers that originate in organs with a high lymphatic drainage. Treatment typically involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy to remove or shrink the tumors and relieve symptoms.

Some common types of head and neck neoplasms include:

1. Oral cavity cancer: Cancer that develops in the mouth, tongue, lips, or floor of the mouth.
2. Oropharyngeal cancer: Cancer that develops in the throat, including the base of the tongue, soft palate, and tonsils.
3. Hypopharyngeal cancer: Cancer that develops in the lower part of the throat, near the esophagus.
4. Laryngeal cancer: Cancer that develops in the voice box (larynx).
5. Paranasal sinus cancer: Cancer that develops in the air-filled cavities around the eyes and nose.
6. Salivary gland cancer: Cancer that develops in the salivary glands, which produce saliva to moisten food and keep the mouth lubricated.
7. Thyroid gland cancer: Cancer that develops in the butterfly-shaped gland in the neck that regulates metabolism and growth.

The risk factors for developing head and neck neoplasms include tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, poor diet, and exposure to environmental carcinogens such as asbestos or radiation. Symptoms of head and neck neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include a lump or swelling, pain, difficulty swallowing, bleeding, and changes in voice or breathing.

Diagnosis of head and neck neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options can include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy, depending on the type, location, and stage of the cancer.

Overall, head and neck neoplasms can have a significant impact on quality of life, and early detection and treatment are important for improving outcomes. If you suspect any changes in your head or neck, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

The symptoms of VHL disease can vary widely depending on the location and size of the tumors that develop. They may include:

* Tumors in the retina, leading to vision loss or blindness
* Tumors in the brain, leading to seizures, headaches, and neurological problems
* Tumors in the spinal cord, leading to back pain, weakness, and paralysis
* Tumors in the kidneys, leading to high blood pressure, proteinuria, and hematuria (blood in the urine)
* Tumors in the pancreas, leading to diabetes and other endocrine problems
* Tumors in the adrenal glands, leading to hormonal imbalances and adrenal insufficiency

The diagnosis of VHL disease is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans may be used to visualize the tumors, and genetic testing can confirm the presence of a VHL gene mutation.

There is no cure for VHL disease, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications. These may include:

* Surgery to remove tumors in the retina, brain, spinal cord, kidneys, pancreas, or adrenal glands
* Chemotherapy to treat malignant tumors
* Radiation therapy to shrink tumors and relieve symptoms
* Medications to control seizures, high blood pressure, diabetes, and hormonal imbalances
* Regular monitoring and follow-up to detect and manage any new or recurring tumors.

The prognosis for VHL disease varies depending on the location and type of tumors, as well as the presence of other health problems. In general, the earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the prognosis. With current treatments, many people with VHL disease can lead active and productive lives, but they require ongoing medical care and monitoring to manage their condition.

This definition of 'Neoplasm Recurrence, Local' is from the Healthcare Professionals edition of the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary, copyright © 2007 by Merriam-Webster, Inc.

Embryonal carcinoma is thought to be caused by genetic mutations that occur during fetal development. These mutations can disrupt the normal growth and development of cells, leading to the formation of abnormal tissue and eventually cancer.

Symptoms of embryonal carcinoma vary depending on the location of the tumor. They may include skin lesions, seizures, developmental delays, and gastrointestinal problems. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scans, and MRI scans, as well as biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment for embryonal carcinoma usually involves surgery to remove the tumor, as well as chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to destroy any remaining cancer cells. In some cases, bone marrow or stem cell transplantation may be necessary. Prognosis for this disease is generally poor, as it is often diagnosed at a late stage and can be difficult to treat effectively.

Embryonal carcinoma is different from other types of cancer in that it arises from embryonic tissue rather than adult tissue. It is also characterized by the presence of immature cells, which are not found in more advanced cancers. Overall, embryonal carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that requires specialized treatment and management.

Types of Esophageal Neoplasms:

1. Barrett's Esophagus: This is a precancerous condition that occurs when the cells lining the esophagus undergo abnormal changes, increasing the risk of developing esophageal cancer.
2. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of esophageal cancer, accounting for approximately 70% of all cases. It originates in the glands that line the esophagus.
3. Squamous Cell Carcinoma: This type of cancer accounts for about 20% of all esophageal cancers and originates in the squamous cells that line the esophagus.
4. Other rare types: Other rare types of esophageal neoplasms include lymphomas, sarcomas, and carcinoid tumors.

Causes and Risk Factors:

1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): Long-standing GERD can lead to the development of Barrett's esophagus, which is a precancerous condition that increases the risk of developing esophageal cancer.
2. Obesity: Excess body weight is associated with an increased risk of developing esophageal cancer.
3. Diet: A diet high in processed meats and low in fruits and vegetables may increase the risk of developing esophageal cancer.
4. Alcohol consumption: Heavy alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for esophageal cancer.
5. Smoking: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for esophageal cancer.
6. Family history: Having a family history of esophageal cancer or other cancers may increase an individual's risk.
7. Age: The risk of developing esophageal cancer increases with age, with most cases occurring in people over the age of 50.
8. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as achalasia, may increase the risk of developing esophageal cancer.

Symptoms and Diagnosis:

1. Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing): This is the most common symptom of esophageal cancer, and can be caused by a narrowing or blockage of the esophagus due to the tumor.
2. Chest pain or discomfort: Pain in the chest or upper back can be a symptom of esophageal cancer.
3. Weight loss: Losing weight without trying can be a symptom of esophageal cancer.
4. Coughing or hoarseness: If the tumor is obstructing the airway, it can cause coughing or hoarseness.
5. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak can be a symptom of esophageal cancer.
6. Diagnosis: A diagnosis of esophageal cancer is typically made through a combination of endoscopy, imaging tests (such as CT scans), and biopsies.

Treatment Options:

1. Surgery: Surgery is the primary treatment for esophageal cancer, and can involve removing the tumor and some surrounding tissue, or removing the entire esophagus and replacing it with a section of stomach or intestine.
2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy involves using drugs to kill cancer cells, and is often used in combination with surgery to treat esophageal cancer.
3. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy X-rays to kill cancer cells, and can be used alone or in combination with surgery or chemotherapy.
4. Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy drugs are designed to target specific molecules that are involved in the growth and spread of cancer cells, and can be used in combination with other treatments.

Prognosis and Survival Rate:

1. The prognosis for esophageal cancer is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of around 20%.
2. Factors that can improve the prognosis include early detection, small tumor size, and absence of spread to lymph nodes or other organs.
3. The overall survival rate for esophageal cancer has not improved much over the past few decades, but advances in treatment have led to a slight increase in survival time for some patients.

Lifestyle Changes and Prevention:

1. Avoiding tobacco and alcohol: Tobacco and alcohol are major risk factors for esophageal cancer, so avoiding them can help reduce the risk of developing the disease.
2. Maintaining a healthy diet: Eating a balanced diet that is high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can help protect against esophageal cancer.
3. Managing obesity: Obesity is a risk factor for esophageal cancer, so maintaining a healthy weight through diet and exercise can help reduce the risk of developing the disease.
4. Reducing exposure to pollutants: Exposure to certain chemicals and pollutants, such as pesticides and asbestos, has been linked to an increased risk of esophageal cancer. Avoiding these substances can help reduce the risk of developing the disease.
5. Getting regular screening: Regular screening for Barrett's esophagus, a precancerous condition that can develop in people with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), can help detect and treat esophageal cancer early, when it is most treatable.

Current Research and Future Directions:

1. Targeted therapies: Researchers are working on developing targeted therapies that can specifically target the genetic mutations that drive the growth of esophageal cancer cells. These therapies may be more effective and have fewer side effects than traditional chemotherapy.
2. Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy, which uses the body's immune system to fight cancer, is being studied as a potential treatment for esophageal cancer. Researchers are working on developing vaccines and other immunotherapies that can help the body recognize and attack cancer cells.
3. Precision medicine: With the help of advanced genomics and precision medicine, researchers are working to identify specific genetic mutations that drive the growth of esophageal cancer in each patient. This information can be used to develop personalized treatment plans that are tailored to the individual patient's needs.
4. Early detection: Researchers are working on developing new methods for early detection of esophageal cancer, such as using machine learning algorithms to analyze medical images and detect signs of cancer at an early stage.
5. Lifestyle modifications: Studies have shown that lifestyle modifications, such as quitting smoking and maintaining a healthy diet, can help reduce the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Researchers are working on understanding the specific mechanisms by which these modifications can help prevent the disease.

In conclusion, esophageal cancer is a complex and aggressive disease that is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. However, with advances in technology, research, and treatment options, there is hope for improving outcomes for patients with this disease. By understanding the risk factors, early detection methods, and current treatments, as well as ongoing research and future directions, we can work towards a future where esophageal cancer is more manageable and less deadly.

Types of mouth neoplasms include:

1. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC): This is the most common type of mouth cancer, accounting for about 90% of all cases. It usually occurs on the tongue, lips, or floor of the mouth.
2. Verrucous carcinoma: This type of cancer is slow-growing and typically affects the gums or the outer surface of the tongue.
3. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: This type of cancer is rare and usually affects the salivary glands. It can infiltrate surrounding tissues and cause significant destruction of nearby structures.
4. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma: This type of cancer is relatively rare and occurs most commonly on the tongue or the floor of the mouth. It can be benign or malignant, and its behavior varies depending on the type.
5. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor: This is a rare type of cancer that affects the melanocytes (pigment-producing cells) in the mouth. It typically occurs in the tongue or the lips.

Symptoms of mouth neoplasms can include:

* A sore or ulcer that does not heal
* A lump or mass in the mouth
* Bleeding or pain in the mouth
* Difficulty swallowing or speaking
* Numbness or tingling in the mouth

Diagnosis of mouth neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies (such as X-rays or CT scans), and biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the type and severity of the cancer, but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are important for improving outcomes in patients with mouth neoplasms.

There are several types of skin neoplasms, including:

1. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC): This is the most common type of skin cancer, and it usually appears as a small, fleshy bump or a flat, scaly patch. BCC is highly treatable, but if left untreated, it can grow and invade surrounding tissue.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): This type of skin cancer is less common than BCC but more aggressive. It typically appears as a firm, flat, or raised bump on sun-exposed areas. SCC can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
3. Melanoma: This is the most serious type of skin cancer, accounting for only 1% of all skin neoplasms but responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. Melanoma can appear as a new or changing mole, and it's essential to recognize the ABCDE signs (Asymmetry, Border irregularity, Color variation, Diameter >6mm, Evolving size, shape, or color) to detect it early.
4. Sebaceous gland carcinoma: This rare type of skin cancer originates in the oil-producing glands of the skin and can appear as a firm, painless nodule on the forehead, nose, or other oily areas.
5. Merkel cell carcinoma: This is a rare and aggressive skin cancer that typically appears as a firm, shiny bump on the skin. It's more common in older adults and those with a history of sun exposure.
6. Cutaneous lymphoma: This type of cancer affects the immune system and can appear as a rash, nodules, or tumors on the skin.
7. Kaposi sarcoma: This is a rare type of skin cancer that affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS. It typically appears as a flat, red or purple lesion on the skin.

While skin cancers are generally curable when detected early, it's important to be aware of your skin and notice any changes or unusual spots, especially if you have a history of sun exposure or other risk factors. If you suspect anything suspicious, see a dermatologist for an evaluation and potential biopsy. Remember, prevention is key to avoiding the harmful effects of UV radiation and reducing your risk of developing skin cancer.

MCC typically affects older adults, with most cases occurring in people over the age of 60. The disease is more common in fair-skinned individuals, especially those who have had prolonged exposure to the sun. MCC can occur anywhere on the body, but it is most commonly found on the face, neck, and arms.

The symptoms of MCC can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but they may include:

* A firm, shiny nodule or lump on the skin
* Painless lumps or swelling in the affected area
* Redness, scaliness, or oozing of the skin around the nodule
* Itching or burning sensations in the affected area

If MCC is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment for MCC typically involves surgery to remove the tumor and any affected tissue. In some cases, radiation therapy or chemotherapy may also be recommended to kill any remaining cancer cells.

The prognosis for MCC is generally poor, as it tends to be an aggressive disease that can spread quickly to other parts of the body. However, early detection and treatment can improve the chances of a successful outcome.

Benign ovarian neoplasms include:

1. Serous cystadenoma: A fluid-filled sac that develops on the surface of the ovary.
2. Mucinous cystadenoma: A tumor that is filled with mucin, a type of protein.
3. Endometrioid tumors: Tumors that are similar to endometrial tissue (the lining of the uterus).
4. Theca cell tumors: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary called theca cells.

Malignant ovarian neoplasms include:

1. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC): The most common type of ovarian cancer, which arises from the surface epithelium of the ovary.
2. Germ cell tumors: Tumors that develop from germ cells, which are the cells that give rise to eggs.
3. Stromal sarcomas: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary.

Ovarian neoplasms can cause symptoms such as pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, and abdominal swelling. They can also be detected through pelvic examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound and CT scan, and biopsy. Treatment options for ovarian neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

These tumors can be benign or malignant, and their growth and behavior vary depending on the type of cancer. Malignant tumors can invade the surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system, causing serious complications and potentially life-threatening consequences.

The risk factors for developing urinary bladder neoplasms include smoking, exposure to certain chemicals, recurrent bladder infections, and a family history of bladder cancer. The symptoms of these tumors can include blood in the urine, pain during urination, frequent urination, and abdominal pain.

Diagnosis of urinary bladder neoplasms is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cystoscopy, which involves inserting a flexible tube with a camera into the bladder to visualize the tumor.

Treatment options for urinary bladder neoplasms depend on the type of cancer, stage, and location of the tumor. Treatment may include surgery to remove the tumor, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these modalities. Early detection and treatment can improve the prognosis for patients with urinary bladder neoplasms.

There are several types of colonic neoplasms, including:

1. Adenomas: These are benign growths that are usually precursors to colorectal cancer.
2. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from the epithelial lining of the colon.
3. Sarcomas: These are rare malignant tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the colon.
4. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can affect the colon.

Colonic neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including bleeding, abdominal pain, and changes in bowel habits. They are often diagnosed through a combination of medical imaging tests (such as colonoscopy or CT scan) and biopsy. Treatment for colonic neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.

Overall, colonic neoplasms are a common condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important for individuals to be aware of their risk factors and to undergo regular screening for colon cancer to help detect and treat any abnormal growths or tumors in the colon.

Adrenocortical carcinoma can be subdivided into three main types based on their histological features:

1. Typical adrenocortical carcinoma: This is the most common type and accounts for about 70% of all cases. It is characterized by a large, irregular tumor that grows in the cortex of the adrenal gland.
2. Adenomatous adrenocortical carcinoma: This type is less aggressive than typical adrenocortical carcinoma and accounts for about 20% of cases. It is characterized by a small, well-circumscribed tumor that grows in the cortex of the adrenal gland.
3. Adrenocortical sarcoma: This is the least common type and accounts for about 10% of cases. It is characterized by a rare, malignant tumor that grows in the cortex of the adrenal gland.

Adrenocortical carcinoma can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, weight loss, fatigue, and skin changes. The diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging studies, such as CT scans and MRI, and tissue biopsy. Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, and the prognosis depends on the stage and aggressiveness of the tumor.

Overall, adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare and aggressive cancer that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to improve patient outcomes.

Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:

1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.

Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:

1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.

Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.

Carcinoma verrucous is a type of squamous cell carcinoma that appears as a rough, bumpy, cauliflower-like lesion on the skin or mucous membranes. It is typically found in the oral cavity, lips, tongue, and penis. The tumor grows slowly, and the surface may be covered with a crust or scab that bleeds easily. Carcinoma verrucous tends to occur in older men, particularly those who smoke or drink excessively.

The exact cause of carcinoma verrucous is not known, but it is believed to be linked to exposure to certain viruses, such as human papillomavirus (HPV), and environmental factors, such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. The risk of developing carcinoma verrucous may also be increased by chronic inflammation, immunosuppression, and a diet low in fruits and vegetables.

The symptoms of carcinoma verrucous can vary depending on the location of the tumor. In the oral cavity, it may cause painless ulcers or bleeding gums, while in the penis, it may cause difficulty urinating or painful sexual activity. The diagnosis is made by a biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue from the affected area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

Carcinoma verrucous tends to grow slowly, and the prognosis is generally good if the tumor is completely removed before it spreads to other parts of the body. However, local recurrence is common, and the cancer can be difficult to treat once it has spread. The five-year survival rate for carcinoma verrucous is approximately 80%.

Carcinoma verrucous is often treated with surgery, and in some cases, radiation therapy or chemotherapy may also be recommended. Early detection and treatment are important to improve the chances of successful treatment and long-term survival.

A rare type of carcinoma that develops in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) such as stomach, small intestine, or large intestine is known as signet ring cell carcinoma. This cancerous tumor is characterized by its appearance under a microscope, which displays cells arranged in a signet ring pattern.

These cells have a distinctive round nucleus and prominent nucleoli that give them a characteristic signet ring appearance. Signet ring cell carcinomas tend to grow slowly, and they do not typically cause any symptoms until they reach an advanced stage.

Signet ring cell carcinoma can be difficult to diagnose because it often looks like other types of noncancerous conditions, such as inflammation or infection. To diagnose this condition, a healthcare provider will need to perform tests such as endoscopy, imaging studies (such as CT scan or MRI), and biopsy.

Treatment options for signet ring cell carcinoma include surgery to remove the tumor, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Treatment decisions depend on the stage of the cancer, location, and other factors such as patient's overall health status and personal preferences.

In summary, signet ring cell carcinoma is a rare type of gastrointestinal tract cancer characterized by its distinctive signet ring appearance under a microscope. It tends to grow slowly and can be difficult to diagnose until it reaches an advanced stage. Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or combination of these depending on the stage of the cancer and other factors.

Sources:
American Cancer Society. (2022). Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma of the Stomach. Retrieved from
National Cancer Institute. (2022). Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Retrieved from

Leiomyomatosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, hormonal imbalances, and exposure to certain chemicals or toxins. The symptoms of leiomyomatosis can vary depending on the location and size of the growth, but may include abdominal pain, swelling, and difficulty with bowel movements or urination.

Treatment for leiomyomatosis typically involves surgery to remove the affected tissue, as well as any underlying causes of the condition. In some cases, medications such as hormones or chemotherapy may also be used to shrink the growth and alleviate symptoms.

Leiomyomatosis is a rare condition, but it can occur in people of all ages and backgrounds. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe abdominal symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.

There are several types of stomach neoplasms, including:

1. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of stomach cancer, accounting for approximately 90% of all cases. It begins in the glandular cells that line the stomach and can spread to other parts of the body.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of cancer begins in the squamous cells that cover the outer layer of the stomach. It is less common than adenocarcinoma but more likely to be found in the upper part of the stomach.
3. Gastric mixed adenocarcinomasquamous cell carcinoma: This type of cancer is a combination of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
4. Lymphoma: This is a cancer of the immune system that can occur in the stomach. It is less common than other types of stomach cancer but can be more aggressive.
5. Carcinomas of the stomach: These are malignant tumors that arise from the epithelial cells lining the stomach. They can be subdivided into adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and others.
6. Gastric brunner's gland adenoma: This is a rare type of benign tumor that arises from the Brunner's glands in the stomach.
7. Gastric polyps: These are growths that occur on the lining of the stomach and can be either benign or malignant.

The symptoms of stomach neoplasms vary depending on the location, size, and type of tumor. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and difficulty swallowing. Diagnosis is usually made through a combination of endoscopy, imaging studies (such as CT or PET scans), and biopsy. Treatment depends on the type and stage of the tumor and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. The prognosis for stomach neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the tumor, but early detection and treatment can improve outcomes.

Also known as: Large cell carcinoma (LCC), malignant large cell carcinoma, and giant cell carcinoma.

Pathologic neovascularization can be seen in a variety of conditions, including cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. In cancer, for example, the formation of new blood vessels can help the tumor grow and spread to other parts of the body. In diabetic retinopathy, the growth of new blood vessels in the retina can cause vision loss and other complications.

There are several different types of pathologic neovascularization, including:

* Angiosarcoma: a type of cancer that arises from the cells lining blood vessels
* Hemangiomas: benign tumors that are composed of blood vessels
* Cavernous malformations: abnormal collections of blood vessels in the brain or other parts of the body
* Pyogenic granulomas: inflammatory lesions that can form in response to trauma or infection.

The diagnosis of pathologic neovascularization is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT scans, or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include medications, surgery, or radiation therapy.

In summary, pathologic neovascularization is a process that occurs in response to injury or disease, and it can lead to serious complications. It is important for healthcare professionals to be aware of this condition and its various forms in order to provide appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

The most common types of laryngeal neoplasms include:

1. Vocal cord nodules and polyps: These are benign growths that develop on the vocal cords due to overuse, misuse, or trauma.
2. Laryngeal papillomatosis: This is a condition where warts grow on the vocal cords, often caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).
3. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: This is a rare type of cancer that develops in the salivary glands near the larynx.
4. Squamous cell carcinoma: This is the most common type of cancer that develops in the larynx, often due to smoking or heavy alcohol consumption.
5. Verrucous carcinoma: This is a rare type of cancer that develops on the vocal cords and is often associated with chronic inflammation.
6. Lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that affects the immune system, and can develop in the larynx.
7. Melanoma: This is a rare type of cancer that develops from pigment-producing cells called melanocytes.

Symptoms of laryngeal neoplasms can include hoarseness or difficulty speaking, breathing difficulties, and ear pain. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI, and biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the type and severity of the neoplasm, but may include surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.

Precancerous changes in the uterine cervix are called dysplasias, and they can be detected by a Pap smear, which is a routine screening test for women. If dysplasia is found, it can be treated with cryotherapy (freezing), laser therapy, or cone biopsy, which removes the affected cells.

Cervical cancer is rare in developed countries where Pap screening is widely available, but it remains a common cancer in developing countries where access to healthcare and screening is limited. The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been shown to be effective in preventing cervical precancerous changes and cancer.

Cervical cancer can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, depending on the stage and location of the cancer. The prognosis for early-stage cervical cancer is good, but advanced-stage cancer can be difficult to treat and may have a poor prognosis.

The following are some types of uterine cervical neoplasms:

1. Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS): This is a precancerous condition that occurs when glandular cells on the surface of the cervix become abnormal and grow out of control.
2. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN): This is a precancerous condition that occurs when abnormal cells are found on the surface of the cervix. There are several types of CIN, ranging from mild to severe.
3. Squamous cell carcinoma: This is the most common type of cervical cancer and arises from the squamous cells that line the cervix.
4. Adnexal carcinoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that arises from the glands or ducts near the cervix.
5. Small cell carcinoma: This is a rare and aggressive type of cervical cancer that grows rapidly and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
6. Micropapillary uterine carcinoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that grows in a finger-like shape and can be difficult to diagnose.
7. Clear cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that arises from clear cells and can be more aggressive than other types of cervical cancer.
8. Adenocarcinoma: This is a type of cervical cancer that arises from glandular cells and can be less aggressive than squamous cell carcinoma.
9. Sarcoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that arises from the connective tissue of the cervix.

The treatment options for uterine cervical neoplasms depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. The following are some common treatments for uterine cervical neoplasms:

1. Hysterectomy: This is a surgical procedure to remove the uterus and may be recommended for early-stage cancers or precancerous changes.
2. Cryotherapy: This is a minimally invasive procedure that uses liquid nitrogen to freeze and destroy abnormal cells in the cervix.
3. Laser therapy: This is a minimally invasive procedure that uses a laser to remove or destroy abnormal cells in the cervix.
4. Cone biopsy: This is a surgical procedure to remove a small cone-shaped sample of tissue from the cervix to diagnose and treat early-stage cancers or precancerous changes.
5. Radiation therapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
6. Chemotherapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
7. Immunotherapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses drugs to stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when other treatments have failed.
8. Targeted therapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses drugs to target specific genes or proteins that contribute to cancer growth and development and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when other treatments have failed.

It is important to note that the choice of treatment will depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Patients should discuss their treatment options with their doctor and develop a personalized plan that is right for them.

Examples of 'Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous' in medical literature:

* The patient was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, mucinous type, in their colon after undergoing a colonoscopy and biopsy. (From the Journal of Clinical Oncology)

* The patient had a history of adenocarcinoma, mucinous type, in their breast and was being monitored for potential recurrence. (From the Journal of Surgical Oncology)

* The tumor was found to be an adenocarcinoma, mucinous type, with a high grade and was treated with surgery and chemotherapy. (From the Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology)

Synonyms for 'Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous' include:

* Mucinous adenocarcinoma
* Colon adenocarcinoma, mucinous type
* Rectal adenocarcinoma, mucinous type
* Adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum, mucinous type.

Examples of precancerous conditions include:

1. Dysplasia: This is a condition where abnormal cells are present in the tissue, but have not yet invaded surrounding tissues. Dysplasia can be found in organs such as the cervix, colon, and breast.
2. Carcinoma in situ (CIS): This is a condition where cancer cells are present in the tissue, but have not yet invaded surrounding tissues. CIS is often found in organs such as the breast, prostate, and cervix.
3. Atypical hyperplasia: This is a condition where abnormal cells are present in the tissue, but they are not yet cancerous. Atypical hyperplasia can be found in organs such as the breast and uterus.
4. Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS): This is a condition where cancer cells are present in the milk-producing glands of the breasts, but have not yet invaded surrounding tissues. LCIS is often found in both breasts and can increase the risk of developing breast cancer.
5. Adenomas: These are small growths on the surface of the colon that can become malignant over time if left untreated.
6. Leukoplakia: This is a condition where thick, white patches develop on the tongue or inside the mouth. Leukoplakia can be a precancerous condition and may increase the risk of developing oral cancer.
7. Oral subsquamous carcinoma: This is a type of precancerous lesion that develops in the mouth and can progress to squamous cell carcinoma if left untreated.
8. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN): This is a condition where abnormal cells are present on the surface of the cervix, but have not yet invaded surrounding tissues. CIN can progress to cancer over time if left untreated.
9. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN): This is a condition where abnormal cells are present on the vulva, but have not yet invaded surrounding tissues. VIN can progress to cancer over time if left untreated.
10. Penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN): This is a condition where abnormal cells are present on the penis, but have not yet invaded surrounding tissues. PIN can progress to cancer over time if left untreated.

It is important to note that not all precancerous conditions will develop into cancer, and some may resolve on their own without treatment. However, it is important to follow up with a healthcare provider to monitor any changes and determine the best course of treatment.

Types of Gallbladder Neoplasms:

1. Adenoma: A benign tumor that grows in the gallbladder wall and can become malignant over time if left untreated.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: A rare and aggressive malignant tumor that arises in the gallbladder or bile ducts.
3. Gallbladder cancer: A general term used to describe any type of cancer that develops in the gallbladder, including adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and other rare types.

Causes and Risk Factors:

1. Genetics: A family history of gallbladder disease or certain genetic conditions can increase the risk of developing gallbladder neoplasms.
2. Chronic inflammation: Long-standing inflammation in the gallbladder, such as that caused by gallstones or chronic bile duct obstruction, can increase the risk of developing cancer.
3. Obesity: Being overweight or obese may increase the risk of developing gallbladder neoplasms.
4. Age: The risk of developing gallbladder neoplasms increases with age, with most cases occurring in people over the age of 50.

Symptoms and Diagnosis:

1. Abdominal pain: Pain in the upper right abdomen is a common symptom of gallbladder neoplasms.
2. Jaundice: Yellowing of the skin and eyes can occur if the cancer blocks the bile ducts.
3. Weight loss: Unexplained weight loss can be a symptom of some types of gallbladder neoplasms.
4. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak can be a symptom of some types of gallbladder neoplasms.

Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment:

1. Surgery: Surgery is the primary treatment for gallbladder neoplasms. The type of surgery depends on the stage and location of the cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used in combination with surgery to treat advanced or aggressive cancers.
3. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used in combination with surgery to treat advanced or aggressive cancers.
4. Watchful waiting: For early-stage cancers, a wait-and-watch approach may be taken, where the patient is monitored regularly with imaging tests to see if the cancer progresses.

Prognosis:
The prognosis for gallbladder neoplasms depends on the stage and location of the cancer at the time of diagnosis. In general, the earlier the cancer is detected and treated, the better the prognosis. For early-stage cancers, the 5-year survival rate is high, while for advanced cancers, the prognosis is poor.

Complications:

1. Bile duct injury: During surgery, there is a risk of damaging the bile ducts, which can lead to complications such as bile leakage or bleeding.
2. Infection: There is a risk of infection after surgery, which can be serious and may require hospitalization.
3. Pancreatitis: Gallbladder cancer can cause inflammation of the pancreas, leading to pancreatitis.
4. Jaundice: Cancer of the gallbladder can block the bile ducts, leading to jaundice and other complications.
5. Spread of cancer: Gallbladder cancer can spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver or lymph nodes, which can reduce the chances of a cure.

Adenocarcinoma, follicular accounts for approximately 15% of all thyroid cancers and is more common in women than men. This type of cancer tends to be less aggressive than other types of thyroid cancer, such as papillary carcinoma, but it can still recur (come back) after treatment and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize).

Treatment options for adenocarcinoma, follicular include surgery to remove the tumor, radioactive iodine therapy, and hormone therapy. The prognosis is generally good for patients with this type of cancer, especially if it is detected early and treated appropriately.

In summary, adenocarcinoma, follicular is a type of thyroid cancer that originates in the glands (follicles) of the thyroid gland. It tends to be less aggressive than other types of thyroid cancer but can still recur and spread to other parts of the body. Treatment options include surgery, radioactive iodine therapy, and hormone therapy.

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the most common type of malignant pancreatic neoplasm and accounts for approximately 85% of all pancreatic cancers. It originates in the glandular tissue of the pancreas and has a poor prognosis, with a five-year survival rate of less than 10%.

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are less common but more treatable than pancreatic adenocarcinoma. These tumors originate in the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas and can produce excess hormones that cause a variety of symptoms, such as diabetes or high blood sugar. PNETs are classified into two main types: functional and non-functional. Functional PNETs produce excess hormones and are more aggressive than non-functional tumors.

Other rare types of pancreatic neoplasms include acinar cell carcinoma, ampullary cancer, and oncocytic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. These tumors are less common than pancreatic adenocarcinoma and PNETs but can be equally aggressive and difficult to treat.

The symptoms of pancreatic neoplasms vary depending on the type and location of the tumor, but they often include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice, and fatigue. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, endoscopic ultrasound, and biopsy. Treatment options for pancreatic neoplasms depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.

Prognosis for patients with pancreatic neoplasms is generally poor, especially for those with advanced stages of disease. However, early detection and treatment can improve survival rates. Research into the causes and mechanisms of pancreatic neoplasms is ongoing, with a focus on developing new and more effective treatments for these devastating diseases.




There are several types of kidney diseases that are classified as cystic, including:

1. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD): This is the most common form of cystic kidney disease and is caused by a genetic mutation. It is characterized by the growth of numerous cysts in both kidneys, which can lead to kidney damage and failure.
2. Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD): This is a rare form of cystic kidney disease that is also caused by a genetic mutation. It is characterized by the growth of numerous cysts in both kidneys, as well as other organs such as the liver and pancreas.
3. Cystinosis: This is a rare genetic disorder that causes the accumulation of cystine crystals in the kidneys and other organs. It can lead to the formation of cysts and damage to the kidneys.
4. Medullary cystic kidney disease (MCKD): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the medulla, the innermost layer of the kidney. It is characterized by the growth of cysts in the medulla, which can lead to kidney damage and failure.
5. Other rare forms of cystic kidney disease: There are several other rare forms of cystic kidney disease that can be caused by genetic mutations or other factors. These include hereditary cystic papillary necrosis, familial juvenile nephropathy, and others.

The symptoms of kidney diseases, cystic can vary depending on the specific type of disease and the severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:

* High blood pressure
* Proteinuria (excess protein in the urine)
* Hematuria (blood in the urine)
* Decreased kidney function
* Abdominal pain
* Weight loss
* Fatigue
* Swelling in the legs and ankles

If you suspect that you or your child may have a cystic kidney disease, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare provider can perform a physical examination, take a medical history, and order diagnostic tests such as urinalysis, blood tests, and imaging studies (such as ultrasound or CT scans) to determine the cause of the symptoms.

Treatment for cystic kidney disease will depend on the specific type of disease and the severity of the condition. Treatment options may include:

* Medications to control high blood pressure and proteinuria
* Medications to slow the progression of kidney damage
* Dialysis or kidney transplantation in advanced cases
* Cyst aspiration or surgical removal of cysts in some cases

It is important to note that there is no cure for cystic kidney disease, and the best treatment approach is to slow the progression of the disease and manage its symptoms. Early detection and aggressive management can help improve quality of life and delay the need for dialysis or transplantation.

In addition to medical treatment, there are some lifestyle modifications that may be helpful in managing cystic kidney disease. These include:

* Maintaining a healthy diet with low salt and protein intake
* Staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water
* Engaging in regular physical activity
* Avoiding harmful substances such as tobacco and alcohol
* Monitoring blood pressure and weight regularly

It is important to note that cystic kidney disease can be a serious condition, and it is important to work closely with a healthcare provider to manage the disease and slow its progression. With appropriate treatment and lifestyle modifications, many people with cystic kidney disease are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

The causes of colorectal neoplasms are not fully understood, but factors such as age, genetics, diet, and lifestyle have been implicated. Symptoms of colorectal cancer can include changes in bowel habits, blood in the stool, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Screening for colorectal cancer is recommended for adults over the age of 50, as it can help detect early-stage tumors and improve survival rates.

There are several subtypes of colorectal neoplasms, including adenomas (which are precancerous polyps), carcinomas (which are malignant tumors), and lymphomas (which are cancers of the immune system). Treatment options for colorectal cancer depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.

Research into the causes and treatment of colorectal neoplasms is ongoing, and there has been significant progress in recent years. Advances in screening and treatment have improved survival rates for patients with colorectal cancer, and there is hope that continued research will lead to even more effective treatments in the future.

The term "papillary" refers to the fact that the cancer cells grow in a finger-like shape, resembling a papilla. The term "follicular" refers to the fact that the cancer cells grow near or within glands (follicles). Both types of cancer are considered relatively low-grade, meaning they tend to grow slowly and do not aggressively invade surrounding tissue.

It's important to note that while these types of carcinomas are generally less aggressive than other types of breast or thyroid cancer, they can still be serious and require prompt medical attention. If you suspect you may have symptoms of papillary or follicular carcinoma, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Adenocarcinoma is the most common subtype of NSCLC and is characterized by malignant cells that have glandular or secretory properties. Squamous cell carcinoma is less common and is characterized by malignant cells that resemble squamous epithelium. Large cell carcinoma is a rare subtype and is characterized by large, poorly differentiated cells.

The main risk factor for developing NSCLC is tobacco smoking, which is responsible for approximately 80-90% of all cases. Other risk factors include exposure to secondhand smoke, radon gas, asbestos, and certain chemicals in the workplace or environment.

Symptoms of NSCLC can include coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. The diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging studies such as CT scans, PET scans, and biopsy. Treatment options for NSCLC can include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. The prognosis for NSCLC depends on several factors, including the stage of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and the effectiveness of treatment.

Overall, NSCLC is a common and aggressive form of lung cancer that can be treated with a variety of therapies. Early detection and treatment are critical for improving outcomes in patients with this diagnosis.

Endometrial neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the lining of the uterus, known as the endometrium. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The most common type of endometrial neoplasm is endometrial hyperplasia, which is a condition where the endometrium grows too thick and can become cancerous if left untreated. Other types of endometrial neoplasms include endometrial adenocarcinoma, which is the most common type of uterine cancer, and endometrial sarcoma, which is a rare type of uterine cancer that develops in the muscle or connective tissue of the uterus.

Endometrial neoplasms can be caused by a variety of factors, including hormonal imbalances, genetic mutations, and exposure to certain chemicals or radiation. Risk factors for developing endometrial neoplasms include obesity, early onset of menstruation, late onset of menopause, never being pregnant or having few or no full-term pregnancies, and taking hormone replacement therapy or other medications that can increase estrogen levels.

Symptoms of endometrial neoplasms can include abnormal vaginal bleeding, painful urination, and pelvic pain or discomfort. Treatment for endometrial neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the condition, and may involve surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy. In some cases, a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) may be necessary.

In summary, endometrial neoplasms are abnormal growths that can develop in the lining of the uterus and can be either benign or malignant. They can be caused by a variety of factors and can cause symptoms such as abnormal bleeding and pelvic pain. Treatment depends on the type and stage of the condition, and may involve surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy.

Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.

Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.

In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.

It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.

See also: Cancer, Tumor

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1. Squamous cell carcinoma: This is the most common type of tongue cancer, accounting for about 90% of all cases. It usually starts on the front two-thirds of the tongue and can spread to other parts of the mouth and throat.
2. Verrucous carcinoma: This type of cancer is less aggressive than squamous cell carcinoma but can still invade surrounding tissues. It typically occurs on the lateral or back part of the tongue.
3. Papillary carcinoma: This type of cancer is rare and usually affects young people. It starts in the mucous glands on the surface of the tongue and tends to grow slowly.
4. Lymphoma: This type of cancer affects the immune system and can occur in various parts of the body, including the tongue. There are different subtypes of lymphoma that can affect the tongue, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
5. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma: This is a rare type of cancer that usually affects children and young adults. It tends to grow slowly and can occur anywhere on the tongue, but it is most common on the front part of the tongue.

The symptoms of tongue neoplasms can vary depending on the type and location of the tumor. Common symptoms include:

* A lump or mass on the tongue that may be painful or tender to the touch
* Bleeding or discharge from the tongue
* Difficulty speaking, swallowing, or moving the tongue
* Pain in the tongue or mouth that does not go away
* A sore throat or ear pain

If you suspect you may have a tongue neoplasm, it is important to see a doctor for an evaluation. A biopsy can be performed to determine the type of tumor and develop a treatment plan. Treatment options can vary depending on the type and location of the tumor, but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these.

The term "serous" refers to the fact that the tumor produces a fluid-filled cyst, which typically contains a clear, serous (watery) liquid. The cancer cells are typically found in the outer layer of the ovary, near the surface of the organ.

Cystadenocarcinoma, serous is the most common type of ovarian cancer, accounting for about 50-60% of all cases. It is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, as it can be difficult to detect in its early stages. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel or bladder habits.

Treatment for cystadenocarcinoma, serous usually involves a combination of surgery and chemotherapy. Surgery may involve removing the uterus, ovaries, and other affected tissues, followed by chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. In some cases, radiation therapy may also be used.

Prognosis for cystadenocarcinoma, serous varies depending on the stage of the cancer at diagnosis. Women with early-stage disease have a good prognosis, while those with advanced-stage disease have a poorer outlook. However, overall survival rates have improved in recent years due to advances in treatment and screening.

In summary, cystadenocarcinoma, serous is a type of ovarian cancer that originates in the lining of the ovary and grows slowly over time. It can be difficult to detect in its early stages, but treatment typically involves surgery and chemotherapy. Prognosis varies depending on the stage of the cancer at diagnosis.

The tumor cells are typically small, uniform, and well-differentiated, with a distinct cell border and a central nucleus. The tumor cells are often arranged in a glandular or tubular pattern, which is characteristic of this type of cancer.

Carcinoma, Lewis lung usually affects older adults, with the median age at diagnosis being around 60 years. Men are slightly more likely to be affected than women. The main risk factor for developing this type of cancer is smoking, although it can also occur in people who have never smoked.

The symptoms of Carcinoma, Lewis lung can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but they may include:

* Chest pain or discomfort
* Coughing up blood
* Shortness of breath
* Fatigue
* Weight loss

If you suspect you may have Carcinoma, Lewis lung or are experiencing any of these symptoms, it is important to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

The post Definition of 'Carcinoma, Lewis Lung' in the medical field appeared first on Healthy Life Tips.

Types of Bronchial Neoplasms:

1. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of lung cancer and accounts for approximately 40% of all lung cancers. It originates in the glandular cells that line the bronchi.
2. Squamous Cell Carcinoma: This type of lung cancer originates in the squamous cells that line the bronchi. It is the second most common type of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 25% of all lung cancers.
3. Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC): This type of lung cancer is highly aggressive and accounts for approximately 10% of all lung cancers. It originates in the small cells that line the bronchi.
4. Large Cell Carcinoma: This type of lung cancer is rare and accounts for approximately 5% of all lung cancers. It originates in the large cells that line the bronchi.
5. Bronchioloalveolar Carcinoma (BAC): This type of lung cancer originates in the small air sacs (alveoli) and is rare, accounting for approximately 2% of all lung cancers.
6. Lymphoma: This type of cancer originates in the immune system cells that line the bronchi. It is rare, accounting for approximately 1% of all lung cancers.
7. Carcinoid Tumors: These are rare types of lung cancer that originate in the neuroendocrine cells that line the bronchi. They are typically slow-growing and less aggressive than other types of lung cancer.
8. Secondary Cancers: These are cancers that have spread to the lungs from other parts of the body, such as breast cancer or colon cancer.

Diagnosis of Bronchial Neoplasms:

1. Medical History and Physical Examination: A thorough medical history and physical examination are essential for diagnosing bronchial neoplasms. The doctor will ask questions about the patient's symptoms, risk factors, and medical history.
2. Chest X-Ray: A chest X-ray is often the first diagnostic test performed to evaluate the lungs for any abnormalities.
3. Computed Tomography (CT) Scan: A CT scan is a more detailed imaging test that uses X-rays and computer technology to produce cross-sectional images of the lungs. It can help identify the size, location, and extent of the tumor.
4. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan: A PET scan is a diagnostic test that uses small amounts of radioactive material to visualize the metabolic activity of the cells in the lungs. It can help identify the presence of cancerous cells and determine the effectiveness of treatment.
5. Biopsy: A biopsy involves taking a sample of tissue from the lung and examining it under a microscope for cancerous cells. It is a definitive diagnostic test for bronchial neoplasms.
6. Bronchoscopy: Bronchoscopy is a procedure in which a thin, flexible tube with a camera on the end is inserted through the nose or mouth and guided to the lungs. It can help identify any abnormalities in the airways and obtain a biopsy sample.
7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): An MRI uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of the lungs and surrounding tissues. It is not as commonly used for diagnosing bronchial neoplasms as other imaging tests, but it may be recommended in certain cases.
8. Ultrasound: An ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of the lungs and surrounding tissues. It is not typically used as a diagnostic test for bronchial neoplasms, but it may be used to evaluate the spread of cancer to other parts of the body.

It's important to note that the specific diagnostic tests and procedures used will depend on the individual case and the suspicion of malignancy. Your doctor will discuss the best course of action with you based on your symptoms, medical history, and test results.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

1. Parotid gland tumors: These are the most common type of salivary gland tumor and can be benign or malignant.
2. Submandibular gland tumors: These are less common than parotid gland tumors but can also be benign or malignant.
3. Sublingual gland tumors: These are rare and usually benign.
4. Warthin's tumor: This is a type of benign tumor that affects the parotid gland.
5. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma: This is a type of malignant tumor that can occur in any of the major salivary glands.
6. Acinic cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of malignant tumor that usually occurs in the parotid gland.
7. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: This is a slow-growing malignant tumor that can occur in any of the major salivary glands.
8. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that have spread to the salivary glands from another part of the body.

Salivary gland neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including painless lumps or swelling in the neck or face, difficulty swallowing, and numbness or weakness in the face. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor and may include surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy.

In conclusion, salivary gland neoplasms are a diverse group of cancers that affect the salivary glands, and it's important to be aware of the different types, symptoms, and treatment options in order to provide effective care for patients with these tumors.

* Bladder cancer
* Kidney cancer
* Prostate cancer
* Testicular cancer
* Ureteral cancer
* Uterine cancer
* Vaginal cancer
* Penile cancer

These types of cancers are typically diagnosed and treated by urologists, who specialize in the urinary tract and male reproductive system. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.

Note: This definition is intended for use in medical and scientific contexts, and may not be suitable for general or non-expert audiences.

The most common types of ureteral neoplasms include:

1. Ureteral calculi (stones): Small, hard mineral deposits that form in the ureters and can cause pain and blockage.
2. Ureteral tumors: Both benign and malignant tumors can occur in the ureters, including transitional cell carcinoma, papillary tumors, and ureteral leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumors).
3. Metanephric stromal tumors: Rare tumors that originate in the supporting tissue of the kidney and can occur in the ureters.
4. Wilms' tumor: A rare type of kidney cancer that can spread to the ureters.

Symptoms of ureteral neoplasms may include blood in the urine, pain in the flank or abdomen, frequent urination, and abdominal mass. Diagnosis is typically made with imaging studies such as CT scans and/or ultrasound, followed by a biopsy to confirm the type of tumor. Treatment depends on the type and location of the tumor, and may involve surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy.

Some common types of urologic neoplasms include:

1. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC): a type of kidney cancer that originates in the cells of the kidney's tubules.
2. Bladder cancer: a type of cancer that affects the cells lining the bladder, and can be classified as superficial or invasive.
3. Ureteral cancer: a rare type of cancer that develops in the muscular tissue of the ureters.
4. Prostate cancer: a common type of cancer in men that affects the prostate gland.
5. Penile cancer: a rare type of cancer that develops on the penis, usually in the skin or mucous membranes.
6. Testicular cancer: a rare type of cancer that develops in the testicles, and is most common in young men between the ages of 15 and 35.

The symptoms of urologic neoplasms can vary depending on their location and size, but may include blood in the urine, painful urination, frequent urination, or abdominal pain. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging studies (such as CT scans or ultrasound) and tissue biopsy.

Treatment options for urologic neoplasms vary depending on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. In some cases, watchful waiting or active surveillance may be recommended for small, slow-growing tumors that are not causing symptoms or threatening the patient's life.

The prognosis for urologic neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis. In general, early detection and treatment improve the chances of a successful outcome. However, some types of urologic neoplasms are more aggressive and difficult to treat than others.

Prevention is often challenging for urologic neoplasms, as many risk factors (such as family history or genetic predisposition) cannot be controlled. However, some measures may help reduce the risk of developing certain types of urologic neoplasms, such as:

* Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
* Avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption
* Protecting the skin from sun exposure to reduce the risk of skin cancer
* Avoiding exposure to certain chemicals or toxins that may increase the risk of certain types of cancer
* Practicing safe sex to reduce the risk of HPV-related cancers.

Types of experimental neoplasms include:

* Xenografts: tumors that are transplanted into animals from another species, often humans.
* Transgenic tumors: tumors that are created by introducing cancer-causing genes into an animal's genome.
* Chemically-induced tumors: tumors that are caused by exposure to certain chemicals or drugs.

The use of experimental neoplasms in research has led to significant advances in our understanding of cancer biology and the development of new treatments for the disease. However, the use of animals in cancer research is a controversial topic and alternatives to animal models are being developed and implemented.

Types of Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms:

1. Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC): A rare and aggressive malignant tumor that originates in the adrenal cortex. It is often associated with virilization (excessive masculinization) in women.
2. Adrenocortical adenoma (ACA): A benign tumor that originates in the adrenal cortex. It is less common than ACC and may not cause any symptoms.
3. Pheochromocytoma: A rare tumor that originates in the adrenal medulla, which is the inner part of the adrenal gland. It can secrete excessive amounts of hormones that regulate blood pressure and heart rate.
4. Paraganglioma: A rare tumor that originates in the paraganglia, which are clusters of cells located near the adrenal glands. These tumors can produce excessive amounts of hormones and cause similar symptoms as pheochromocytoma.

Symptoms of Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms:

1. Virilization (excessive masculinization) in women, such as deepening of the voice, excessive body hair growth, and clitoral enlargement.
2. Headache, fatigue, and weight gain due to excessive production of steroid hormones.
3. High blood pressure and heart rate due to excessive production of catecholamines (hormones that regulate blood pressure and heart rate).
4. Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting due to the tumor's size and location.

Diagnosis of Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms:

1. Imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI to visualize the tumor and determine its size and location.
2. Laboratory tests to measure hormone levels in the blood, including cortisol, aldosterone, and catecholamines.
3. Biopsy to obtain a tissue sample for further examination under a microscope.

Treatment of Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms:

1. Surgery to remove the tumor, which is usually curative.
2. Medications to control symptoms such as high blood pressure and hormone levels.
3. Radiation therapy may be used in cases where surgery is not feasible or if there is a risk of recurrence.

Prognosis of Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms:

The prognosis for adrenal cortex neoplasms depends on the type and size of the tumor, as well as the extent of hormone production. In general, the prognosis is good for patients with benign tumors that are removed surgically. However, malignant tumors can have a poorer prognosis and may require additional treatments such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy.

Prevention of Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms:

There is no known prevention for adrenal cortex neoplasms, but early detection and treatment can improve outcomes. Regular monitoring of hormone levels and imaging tests can help detect tumors at an early stage.

Lifestyle Changes:

1. Reduce stress: High levels of cortisol can be caused by stress, so finding ways to manage stress can help prevent adrenal cortex neoplasms.
2. Maintain a healthy diet: Eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can help support overall health and well-being.
3. Exercise regularly: Regular physical activity can help reduce stress and improve overall health.
4. Get enough sleep: Aim for 7-8 hours of sleep per night to help regulate hormone levels.
5. Limit caffeine and alcohol: Both substances can disrupt hormone levels and contribute to the development of adrenal cortex neoplasms.

Some common types of bone neoplasms include:

* Osteochondromas: These are benign tumors that grow on the surface of a bone.
* Giant cell tumors: These are benign tumors that can occur in any bone of the body.
* Chondromyxoid fibromas: These are rare, benign tumors that develop in the cartilage of a bone.
* Ewing's sarcoma: This is a malignant tumor that usually occurs in the long bones of the arms and legs.
* Multiple myeloma: This is a type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow.

Symptoms of bone neoplasms can include pain, swelling, or deformity of the affected bone, as well as weakness or fatigue. Treatment options depend on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the severity of the symptoms. Treatment may involve surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these.

The term "papillary" refers to the fact that the cancer cells grow in a finger-like shape, with each cell forming a small papilla (bump) on the surface of the tumor. APC is often slow-growing and may not cause any symptoms in its early stages.

APC is generally considered to be less aggressive than other types of cancer, such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive breast cancer. However, it can still spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. Treatment options for APC may include surgery, radiation therapy, and/or hormone therapy, depending on the location and stage of the cancer.

It's worth noting that APC is sometimes referred to as "papillary adenocarcinoma" or simply "papillary cancer." However, these terms are often used interchangeably with "adenocarcinoma, papillary" in medical literature and clinical practice.

Examples of 'Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental' in a sentence:

1. The researchers studied the effects of hormone therapy on mammary neoplasms in experimental animals to better understand its potential role in human breast cancer.
2. The lab used mice with genetic mutations that predispose them to developing mammary neoplasms to test the efficacy of new cancer drugs.
3. In order to investigate the link between obesity and breast cancer, the researchers conducted experiments on mammary neoplasms in rats with diet-induced obesity.

Angiomyolipoma is a type of benign mesenchymal tumor, which means that it arises from the connective tissue of the body. It can occur in people of all ages, but it is most commonly found in young adults and children.

The symptoms of angiomyolipoma vary depending on the size and location of the tumor, but they may include:

* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Palpable mass in the abdomen

Angiomyolipoma is usually diagnosed by a combination of imaging tests such as CT scan, MRI and Ultrasound. A biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment for angiomyolipoma usually involves surgical removal of the tumor. In some cases, the tumor may be left untreated if it is small and not causing any symptoms.

Prognosis for angiomyolipoma is generally good, as it is a benign tumor and does not spread to other parts of the body. However, in rare cases, angiomyolipoma can undergo malignant transformation (become cancerous) and may require more aggressive treatment.

There are no specific risk factors for developing angiomyolipoma, but it is more common in people with certain genetic conditions such as tuberous sclerosis complex and neurofibromatosis type 1.

CBASQ is characterized by the presence of both squamous and basal cell features, with a mixed pattern of keratinization and a high proliferation rate. The tumor cells are positive for cytokeratins (such as cytokeratin 5/6) and negative for melanoma-specific markers (such as HMB-45 and S100).

The diagnosis of CBASQ requires a thorough clinical evaluation, including a history of prolonged sun exposure, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of both squamous and basal cell features. Treatment typically involves surgical excision with a wide margin, and may also involve adjuvant therapies such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy for more advanced cases.

The prognosis for CBASQ is generally poorer than for other types of skin cancer, due to its aggressive nature and tendency to recur. However, early detection and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of metastasis.

There are several types of chromosome aberrations, including:

1. Chromosomal deletions: Loss of a portion of a chromosome.
2. Chromosomal duplications: Extra copies of a chromosome or a portion of a chromosome.
3. Chromosomal translocations: A change in the position of a chromosome or a portion of a chromosome.
4. Chromosomal inversions: A reversal of a segment of a chromosome.
5. Chromosomal amplifications: An increase in the number of copies of a particular chromosome or gene.

Chromosome aberrations can be detected through various techniques, such as karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), or array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). These tests can help identify changes in the chromosomal makeup of cells and provide information about the underlying genetic causes of disease.

Chromosome aberrations are associated with a wide range of diseases, including:

1. Cancer: Chromosome abnormalities are common in cancer cells and can contribute to the development and progression of cancer.
2. Birth defects: Many birth defects are caused by chromosome abnormalities, such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21), which is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.
3. Neurological disorders: Chromosome aberrations have been linked to various neurological disorders, including autism and intellectual disability.
4. Immunodeficiency diseases: Some immunodeficiency diseases, such as X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), are caused by chromosome abnormalities.
5. Infectious diseases: Chromosome aberrations can increase the risk of infection with certain viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
6. Ageing: Chromosome aberrations have been linked to the ageing process and may contribute to the development of age-related diseases.
7. Radiation exposure: Exposure to radiation can cause chromosome abnormalities, which can increase the risk of cancer and other diseases.
8. Genetic disorders: Many genetic disorders are caused by chromosome aberrations, such as Turner syndrome (45,X), which is caused by a missing X chromosome.
9. Rare diseases: Chromosome aberrations can cause rare diseases, such as Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), which is caused by an extra copy of the X chromosome.
10. Infertility: Chromosome abnormalities can contribute to infertility in both men and women.

Understanding the causes and consequences of chromosome aberrations is important for developing effective treatments and improving human health.

Hand-foot syndrome, also known as palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia, is a condition that causes redness, inflammation, and pain in the hands and feet. It is a common side effect of certain chemotherapy drugs used to treat cancer. The exact cause of hand-foot syndrome is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to the way these drugs affect the cells in the body that divide quickly, such as those in the skin.

Symptoms of Hand-Foot Syndrome:

The symptoms of hand-foot syndrome can vary in severity and may include:

* Redness and inflammation on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet
* Pain or tenderness in the affected areas
* Burning, itching, or tingling sensations
* Skin peeling or cracking
* Blisters or sores

Treatment for Hand-Foot Syndrome:

There is no specific treatment for hand-foot syndrome, but there are several strategies that can help manage the symptoms and prevent further damage. These may include:

* Reducing the dose of chemotherapy drugs or taking breaks from treatment to allow the skin to heal
* Applying cool compresses or ice packs to the affected areas to reduce inflammation and pain
* Taking over-the-counter pain medications, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen
* Using topical creams or ointments to soothe the skin and prevent dryness
* Wearing gloves or socks to protect the hands and feet from irritation and injury

Prevention of Hand-Foot Syndrome:

While it is not possible to completely prevent hand-foot syndrome, there are several steps that can be taken to reduce the risk of developing the condition. These may include:

* Avoiding excessive heat or cold exposure
* Keeping the hands and feet moisturized with a gentle soap and water
* Wearing gloves or socks when engaging in activities that may cause irritation or injury
* Taking regular breaks to rest and elevate the hands and feet
* Avoiding harsh chemicals or abrasive materials that can irritate the skin.

It is important for individuals with cancer to discuss any concerns or symptoms they experience with their healthcare provider, as early intervention can help manage the condition and prevent further complications.

1. Endometrial carcinoma (cancer that starts in the lining of the uterus)
2. Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (cancer that starts in the muscle layer of the uterus)
3. Leiomyosarcoma (cancer that starts in the smooth muscle of the uterus)
4. Adenocarcinoma (cancer that starts in the glands of the endometrium)
5. Clear cell carcinoma (cancer that starts in the cells that resemble the lining of the uterus)
6. Sarcoma (cancer that starts in the connective tissue of the uterus)
7. Mixed tumors (cancers that have features of more than one type of uterine cancer)

These types of cancers can affect women of all ages and are more common in postmenopausal women. Risk factors for developing uterine neoplasms include obesity, tamoxifen use, and a history of endometrial hyperplasia (thickening of the lining of the uterus).

Symptoms of uterine neoplasms can include:

1. Abnormal vaginal bleeding (heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding, spotting, or postmenopausal bleeding)
2. Postmenopausal bleeding
3. Pelvic pain or discomfort
4. Vaginal discharge
5. Weakness and fatigue
6. Weight loss
7. Pain during sex
8. Increased urination or frequency of urination
9. Abnormal Pap test results (abnormal cells found on the cervix)

If you have any of these symptoms, it is essential to consult your healthcare provider for proper evaluation and treatment. A diagnosis of uterine neoplasms can be made through several methods, including:

1. Endometrial biopsy (a small sample of tissue is removed from the lining of the uterus)
2. Dilation and curettage (D&C; a surgical procedure to remove tissue from the inside of the uterus)
3. Hysteroscopy (a thin, lighted tube with a camera is inserted through the cervix to view the inside of the uterus)
4. Imaging tests (such as ultrasound or MRI)

Treatment for uterine neoplasms depends on the type and stage of cancer. Common treatments include:

1. Hysterectomy (removal of the uterus)
2. Radiation therapy (uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells)
3. Chemotherapy (uses drugs to kill cancer cells)
4. Targeted therapy (uses drugs to target specific cancer cells)
5. Clinical trials (research studies to test new treatments)

It is essential for women to be aware of their bodies and any changes that occur, particularly after menopause. Regular pelvic exams and screenings can help detect uterine neoplasms at an early stage, when they are more treatable. If you experience any symptoms or have concerns about your health, talk to your healthcare provider. They can help determine the cause of your symptoms and recommend appropriate treatment.

Some common types of adrenal gland neoplasms include:

1. Adrenocortical carcinoma: A rare and aggressive malignancy that arises in the outer layer of the adrenal cortex.
2. Adrenocortical adenoma: A benign tumor that arises in the outer layer of the adrenal cortex.
3. Pheochromocytoma: A rare tumor that arises in the inner part of the adrenal medulla and produces excessive amounts of hormones such as epinephrine and norepinephrine.
4. Paraganglioma: A rare tumor that arises in the sympathetic nervous system, often near the adrenal glands.

Symptoms of adrenal gland neoplasms can include:

* Weight gain or weight loss
* High blood pressure
* Fatigue
* Abdominal pain
* Headache
* Nausea and vomiting
* Palpitations

Diagnosis of adrenal gland neoplasms typically involves imaging tests such as computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) scans, as well as hormone level assessments. Treatment options vary depending on the type and size of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy.

Rectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the rectum, which is the lower part of the digestive system. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Types of Rectal Neoplasms:

There are several types of rectal neoplasms, including:

1. Adenoma: A benign growth that is usually found in the colon and rectum. It is a common precursor to colorectal cancer.
2. Carcinoma: A malignant tumor that arises from the epithelial cells lining the rectum. It is the most common type of rectal cancer.
3. Rectal adenocarcinoma: A type of carcinoma that originates in the glandular cells lining the rectum.
4. Rectal squamous cell carcinoma: A type of carcinoma that originates in the squamous cells lining the rectum.
5. Rectal melanoma: A rare type of carcinoma that originates in the pigment-producing cells (melanocytes) of the rectum.

Causes and Risk Factors:

The exact causes of rectal neoplasms are not known, but several factors can increase the risk of developing these growths. These include:

1. Age: The risk of developing rectal neoplasms increases with age, with most cases occurring in people over the age of 50.
2. Family history: Having a family history of colorectal cancer or polyps can increase the risk of developing rectal neoplasms.
3. Inflammatory bowel disease: People with inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are at higher risk of developing rectal neoplasms.
4. Diet: A diet high in fat and low in fiber may increase the risk of developing rectal neoplasms.
5. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, obesity, and lack of physical activity may also increase the risk of developing rectal neoplasms.

Symptoms:

The symptoms of rectal neoplasms can vary depending on the type and location of the growth. Some common symptoms include:

1. Blood in the stool
2. Changes in bowel movements (such as diarrhea or constipation)
3. Abdominal pain or discomfort
4. Weakness and fatigue
5. Loss of appetite

Diagnosis:

To diagnose rectal neoplasms, a doctor may perform several tests, including:

1. Digital rectal exam (DRE): A doctor will insert a gloved finger into the rectum to feel for any abnormalities.
2. Colonoscopy: A flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted through the anus and into the rectum to examine the inside of the rectum and colon for polyps or other abnormalities.
3. Imaging tests: Such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans to visualize the growth and determine its location and size.
4. Biopsy: A sample of tissue is removed from the rectum and examined under a microscope for cancer cells.

Treatment:

The treatment of rectal neoplasms depends on the type, location, and stage of the growth. Some common treatments include:

1. Polypectomy: Removal of polyps through a colonoscopy or surgery.
2. Local excision: Surgical removal of the tumor and a small amount of surrounding tissue.
3. Radiation therapy: High-energy beams are used to kill cancer cells.
4. Chemotherapy: Drugs are used to kill cancer cells.
5. Immunotherapy: A treatment that uses the body's immune system to fight cancer.

Prognosis:

The prognosis for rectal neoplasms depends on the type, location, and stage of the growth. In general, the earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the prognosis. However, some types of rectal neoplasms can be more aggressive and difficult to treat, and may have a poorer prognosis.

Prevention:

There is no sure way to prevent rectal neoplasms, but there are several screening tests that can help detect them early, including:

1. Colonoscopy: A test in which a flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted into the rectum and colon to examine for polyps or cancer.
2. Fecal occult blood test (FOBT): A test that checks for blood in the stool.
3. Flexible sigmoidoscopy: A test similar to a colonoscopy, but only examines the lower part of the colon and rectum.
4. Digital rectal exam (DRE): An examination of the rectum using a gloved finger to feel for any abnormalities.

It is important to talk to your doctor about your risk for rectal neoplasms and any screening tests that may be appropriate for you. Early detection and treatment can improve the prognosis for these types of growths.

There are several types of melanoma, including:

1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.

The risk factors for developing melanoma include:

1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma

The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:

1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole

If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.

In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.

Examples of experimental liver neoplasms include:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and can be induced experimentally by injecting carcinogens such as diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) into the liver tissue of animals.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer originates in the bile ducts within the liver and can be induced experimentally by injecting chemical carcinogens such as DEN or DMBA into the bile ducts of animals.
3. Hepatoblastoma: This is a rare type of liver cancer that primarily affects children and can be induced experimentally by administering chemotherapy drugs to newborn mice or rats.
4. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that originate in other parts of the body and spread to the liver through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Experimental models of metastatic tumors can be studied by injecting cancer cells into the liver tissue of animals.

The study of experimental liver neoplasms is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms of liver cancer development and progression, as well as identifying potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease. Animal models can be used to test the efficacy of new drugs or therapies before they are tested in humans, which can help to accelerate the development of new treatments for liver cancer.

The carcinogenesis process of PDAC usually starts with the accumulation of genetic mutations in the pancreatic duct cells, which progressively leads to the formation of a premalignant lesion called PanIN (pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia). Over time, these lesions can develop into invasive adenocarcinoma, which is PDAC.

The main risk factor for developing PDAC is smoking, but other factors such as obesity, diabetes, and family history of pancreatic cancer also contribute to the development of the disease. Symptoms of PDAC are often non-specific and late-stage, which makes early diagnosis challenging.

The treatment options for PDAC are limited, and the prognosis is generally poor. Surgery is the only potentially curative treatment, but only a small percentage of patients are eligible for surgical resection due to the locally advanced nature of the disease at the time of diagnosis. Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapies are used to palliate symptoms and improve survival in non-surgical cases.

PDAC is an aggressive and lethal cancer, and there is a need for better diagnostic tools and more effective treatment strategies to improve patient outcomes.

The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including excessive alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and certain medications. It can also be a complication of other diseases such as hemochromatosis and Wilson's disease.

The symptoms of liver cirrhosis can vary depending on the severity of the disease, but may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal swelling, and pain in the upper right side of the abdomen. As the disease progresses, it can lead to complications such as esophageal varices, ascites, and liver failure, which can be life-threatening.

There is no cure for liver cirrhosis, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include medications to control swelling and pain, dietary changes, and in severe cases, liver transplantation. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary if the disease has caused significant damage and there is no other option to save the patient's life.

In conclusion, liver cirrhosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that can cause significant damage to the liver and lead to complications such as liver failure. It is important for individuals to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of the disease in order to seek medical attention if they suspect they may have liver cirrhosis. With proper treatment and management, it is possible to slow the progression of the disease and improve the patient's quality of life.

There are several types of vulvar neoplasms, including:

1. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN): This is a precancerous condition that affects the squamous cells on the surface of the vulva. VIN can progress to vulvar cancer if left untreated.
2. Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma: This is the most common type of vulvar cancer and arises from the squamous cells that line the vulva.
3. Vulvar adenocarcinoma: This type of vulvar cancer originates in the glandular cells that are found near the opening of the vagina.
4. Vulvar melanoma: This is a rare type of vulvar cancer that arises from the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes.
5. Lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that affects the immune system and can occur in the vulva.

The symptoms of vulvar neoplasms can vary depending on the type and location of the growth, but may include:

* A visible lump or lesion on the vulva
* Itching, burning, or pain in the affected area
* Discharge or bleeding from the vulva
* Changes in the color or texture of the skin on the vulva

If you suspect you have a vulvar neoplasm, it is important to see a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and treatment. A physical examination and biopsy may be performed to determine the type and extent of the growth. Treatment options will depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm, but may include surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.

Some common effects of chromosomal deletions include:

1. Genetic disorders: Chromosomal deletions can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, which is caused by a deletion of a portion of chromosome 21. Other examples include Prader-Willi syndrome (deletion of chromosome 15), and Williams syndrome (deletion of chromosome 7).
2. Birth defects: Chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of birth defects, such as heart defects, cleft palate, and limb abnormalities.
3. Developmental delays: Children with chromosomal deletions may experience developmental delays, learning disabilities, and intellectual disability.
4. Increased cancer risk: Some chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and breast cancer.
5. Reproductive problems: Chromosomal deletions can lead to reproductive problems, such as infertility or recurrent miscarriage.

Chromosomal deletions can be diagnosed through a variety of techniques, including karyotyping (examination of the chromosomes), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and microarray analysis. Treatment options for chromosomal deletions depend on the specific effects of the deletion and may include medication, surgery, or other forms of therapy.

Oropharyngeal neoplasms can be caused by a variety of factors, including tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and exposure to environmental carcinogens such as asbestos or coal tar. They can also be associated with other medical conditions, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), weakened immune systems, and a history of head and neck radiation therapy.

Symptoms of oropharyngeal neoplasms can include a persistent sore throat, difficulty swallowing, ear pain, weight loss, and lumps in the neck. Treatment options for these neoplasms depend on the location, size, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health status. Treatment may involve surgery to remove the tumor, radiation therapy to kill cancer cells, or a combination of both. In some cases, chemotherapy may also be used to shrink the tumor before surgery or to kill any remaining cancer cells after treatment.

Early detection and diagnosis of oropharyngeal neoplasms are important for successful treatment and improved patient outcomes. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Overall, oropharyngeal neoplasms are a serious medical condition that can have significant implications for patient quality of life and survival. Early detection and appropriate treatment are essential for improving outcomes and preventing complications associated with these tumors.

There are several types of teratomas, including:

1. Mature teratoma: This type of teratoma is made up of well-differentiated tissues that resemble normal tissues. It can contain structures such as hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands.
2. Immature teratoma: This type of teratoma is made up of poorly differentiated cells that do not resemble normal tissues. It can contain structures such as cartilage, bone, and nervous tissue.
3. Teratoid mesodermal tumor: This type of teratoma arises from the mesoderm, which is one of the three primary layers of cells in the embryo. It can contain structures such as muscle, bone, and connective tissue.
4. Teratoid endodermal tumor: This type of teratoma arises from the endoderm, which is another primary layer of cells in the embryo. It can contain structures such as glandular tissue and epithelial tissue.

Teratomas are usually benign, but they can sometimes be malignant. Malignant teratomas can spread to other parts of the body and cause serious complications. The treatment of teratomas depends on their type, size, and location, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options can include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

In summary, a teratoma is a type of tumor that contains abnormal cells that grow and multiply in an uncontrolled manner, often forming masses or lumps. There are several types of teratomas, and they can occur in various parts of the body. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and patient's overall health.

There are different types of hyperplasia, depending on the location and cause of the condition. Some examples include:

1. Benign hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is non-cancerous and does not spread to other parts of the body. It can occur in various tissues and organs, such as the uterus (fibroids), breast tissue (fibrocystic changes), or prostate gland (benign prostatic hyperplasia).
2. Malignant hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is cancerous and can invade nearby tissues and organs, leading to serious health problems. Examples include skin cancer, breast cancer, and colon cancer.
3. Hyperplastic polyps: These are abnormal growths that occur in the gastrointestinal tract and can be precancerous.
4. Adenomatous hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is characterized by an increase in the number of glandular cells in a specific organ, such as the colon or breast. It can be a precursor to cancer.

The symptoms of hyperplasia depend on the location and severity of the condition. In general, they may include:

* Enlargement or swelling of the affected tissue or organ
* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Abnormal bleeding or discharge
* Changes in bowel or bladder habits
* Unexplained weight loss or gain

Hyperplasia is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include medication, surgery, or other interventions.

Cystic neoplasms are fluid-filled sacs that grow in the body. They can be benign or malignant and can arise from a variety of tissues, including the ovaries, pancreas, and lungs. Mucinous neoplasms are tumors that produce mucin, a type of protein found in mucus. These tumors can occur in the breast, ovary, or colon, and are often benign.

Serous neoplasms are tumors that arise from the serous membranes, which are the thin layers of tissue that line the cavities of the body. Examples of serous neoplasms include ovarian cancer and mesothelioma. These tumors can be benign or malignant.

In summary, neoplasms, cystic, mucinous, and serous are different types of tumors that can occur in various organs and tissues throughout the body. While they can be benign, many of these tumors are malignant and can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.

Bile duct neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the bile ducts, which are the tubes that carry bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine. Bile duct neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Types of Bile Duct Neoplasms:

There are several types of bile duct neoplasms, including:

1. Bile duct adenoma: A benign tumor that grows in the bile ducts.
2. Bile duct carcinoma: A malignant tumor that grows in the bile ducts and can spread to other parts of the body.
3. Cholangiocarcinoma: A rare type of bile duct cancer that originates in the cells lining the bile ducts.
4. Gallbladder cancer: A type of cancer that occurs in the gallbladder, which is a small organ located under the liver that stores bile.

Causes and Risk Factors:

The exact cause of bile duct neoplasms is not known, but there are several risk factors that may increase the likelihood of developing these tumors, including:

1. Age: Bile duct neoplasms are more common in people over the age of 50.
2. Gender: Women are more likely to develop bile duct neoplasms than men.
3. Family history: People with a family history of bile duct cancer or other liver diseases may be at increased risk.
4. Previous exposure to certain chemicals: Exposure to certain chemicals, such as thorium, has been linked to an increased risk of developing bile duct neoplasms.

Symptoms:

The symptoms of bile duct neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. Some common symptoms include:

1. Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
2. Fatigue
3. Loss of appetite
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Abdominal pain or discomfort
6. Weight loss
7. Itching all over the body
8. Dark urine
9. Pale stools

Diagnosis:

Diagnosis of bile duct neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging tests and biopsy. The following tests may be used to diagnose bile duct neoplasms:

1. Ultrasound: This non-invasive test uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the liver and bile ducts.
2. Computed tomography (CT) scan: This imaging test uses X-rays and computer technology to create detailed images of the liver and bile ducts.
3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): This test uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the liver and bile ducts.
4. Endoscopic ultrasound: This test involves inserting an endoscope (a thin, flexible tube with a small ultrasound probe) into the bile ducts through the mouth or stomach to obtain images and samples of the bile ducts.
5. Biopsy: A biopsy may be performed during an endoscopic ultrasound or during surgery to remove the tumor. The sample is then examined under a microscope for cancer cells.

Treatment:

The treatment of bile duct neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type and stage of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and the patient's preferences. The following are some common treatment options for bile duct neoplasms:

1. Surgery: Surgery may be performed to remove the tumor or a portion of the bile duct. This may involve a Whipple procedure (a surgical procedure to remove the head of the pancreas, the gallbladder, and a portion of the bile duct), a bile duct resection, or a liver transplant.
2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used before or after surgery to shrink the tumor and kill any remaining cancer cells.
3. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used to destroy cancer cells that cannot be removed by surgery or to relieve symptoms such as pain or blockage of the bile duct.
4. Stent placement: A stent may be placed in the bile duct to help keep it open and improve blood flow to the liver.
5. Ablation therapy: Ablation therapy may be used to destroy cancer cells by freezing or heating them with a probe inserted through an endoscope.
6. Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy may be used to treat certain types of bile duct cancer, such as cholangiocarcinoma, by targeting specific molecules that promote the growth and spread of the cancer cells.
7. Clinical trials: Clinical trials are research studies that evaluate new treatments for bile duct neoplasms. These may be an option for patients who have not responded to other treatments or who have advanced cancer.

The hallmark of HNS is the presence of multiple types of cancer, often at an early age and in multiple organs. The most common types of cancer associated with HNS are breast, ovarian, colon, stomach, pancreatic, brain, and skin cancers.

There are several different types of HNS, each caused by a mutation in a specific gene. These include:

1. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP): This is the most common type of HNS and is caused by a mutation in the APC gene. It is characterized by hundreds or thousands of adenomatous polyps (small growths) in the colon, which can become malignant over time.
2. Turcot Syndrome: This rare disorder is caused by a mutation in the APC gene and is characterized by the development of numerous polyps in the colon, as well as other physical features such as short stature, intellectual disability, and facial dysmorphism.
3. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer (HDGC): This syndrome is caused by a mutation in the CDH1 gene and is characterized by the development of diffuse gastric cancer, which is a type of stomach cancer that spreads throughout the stomach.
4. Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS): This rare disorder is caused by a mutation in the STK11 gene and is characterized by the development of polyps in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as other physical features such as pigmented macules on the skin and mucous membranes.
5. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS): This rare disorder is caused by a mutation in the TP53 gene and is characterized by an increased risk of developing several types of cancer, including breast, ovarian, and soft tissue sarcomas.

There are several other rare genetic disorders that can increase the risk of developing gastric cancer, including:

1. Hereditary Gastric Precancerous Condition (HGPC): This rare disorder is caused by a mutation in the E-cadherin gene and is characterized by the development of precancerous lesions in the stomach.
2. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP): This rare disorder is caused by a mutation in the APC gene and is characterized by the development of hundreds or thousands of colon polyps, as well as an increased risk of developing gastric cancer.
3. Turcot Syndrome: This rare disorder is caused by a mutation in the APC gene and is characterized by the development of colon polyps, as well as other physical features such as intellectual disability and facial dysmorphism.
4. MEN1 Syndrome: This rare disorder is caused by a mutation in the MEN1 gene and is characterized by an increased risk of developing multiple endocrine neoplasia, which can include gastric cancer.
5. Cowden Syndrome: This rare disorder is caused by a mutation in the PTEN gene and is characterized by an increased risk of developing various types of cancer, including gastric cancer.
6. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome: This rare disorder is caused by a mutation in the TP53 gene and is characterized by an increased risk of developing various types of cancer, including gastric cancer.

It's important to note that not all individuals with these genetic disorders will develop gastric cancer, and many other factors can contribute to the development of this disease. If you have a family history of gastric cancer or one of these rare genetic disorders, it's important to discuss your risk with a qualified healthcare professional and follow any recommended screening or prevention strategies.

Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.

Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.

Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:

1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.
3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.
5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.

Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."


Papillomas can occur anywhere on the body, but they are most commonly found on the face, neck, and scalp. They may appear as small bumps or growths that look like a wart. In some cases, papillomas may be associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.

Papillomas are typically diagnosed through a physical examination of the affected area. In some cases, a biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other potential causes. Treatment for papillomas usually involves removal of the growth through a minor surgical procedure or cryotherapy (freezing).

Papillomas are not cancerous and do not typically pose any long-term health risks. However, they may be unsightly and can cause psychological distress for some people. In these cases, treatment may be sought for cosmetic reasons. It is important to note that papillomas should not be confused with squamous cell carcinoma, a type of skin cancer that can resemble a papilloma in appearance but has the potential to be more aggressive and harmful.

The term "paraneoplastic" refers to the fact that these conditions are parallel to, or associated with, neoplasms (abnormal growths) in the body. The exact cause of paraneoplastic syndromes is not fully understood, but they are believed to be related to the immune system's response to cancer cells.

Some common features of paraneoplastic syndromes include:

1. Autoantibodies: The immune system produces antibodies that attack the body's own tissues and organs.
2. Inflammation: The immune system causes inflammation in various parts of the body.
3. Nerve damage: Paraneoplastic syndromes can affect the nerves, leading to symptoms such as numbness, weakness, and pain.
4. Muscle weakness: Some paraneoplastic syndromes can cause muscle weakness and wasting.
5. Skin rashes: Some patients with paraneoplastic syndromes may develop skin rashes or lesions.
6. Eye problems: Paraneoplastic syndromes can affect the eyes, leading to symptoms such as double vision, blindness, and eye pain.
7. Endocrine dysfunction: Some paraneoplastic syndromes can disrupt the normal functioning of the endocrine system, leading to hormonal imbalances.

Examples of paraneoplastic syndromes include:

1. Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS): This is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the nerves and muscles, leading to muscle weakness and fatigue. It is often associated with small cell lung cancer.
2. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: This is a severe autoimmune disorder that affects the brain and can cause symptoms such as seizures, confusion, and memory loss. It is often associated with ovarian teratoma.
3. Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD): This is a rare condition that affects the cerebellum and can cause symptoms such as coordination problems, balance difficulties, and difficulty with movement. It is often associated with lung cancer or other types of cancer.
4. Stiff-person syndrome: This is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the central nervous system and can cause symptoms such as muscle stiffness, spasms, and autonomy dysfunction. It is often associated with ovarian teratoma.
5. Polymyositis: This is a rare inflammatory condition that affects the muscles and can cause muscle weakness and wasting. It is often associated with cancer, particularly lung cancer.
6. Dercum's disease: This is a rare condition that affects the adipose tissue and can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and limited mobility. It is often associated with cancer, particularly breast cancer.
7. Multiple myeloma: This is a type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow and can cause symptoms such as bone pain, fatigue, and weakness. It is often associated with ovarian teratoma.
8. Painless thyroiditis: This is a rare condition that affects the thyroid gland and can cause symptoms such as thyroid gland inflammation, fatigue, and weight gain. It is often associated with cancer, particularly breast cancer.
9. Ovarian cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that form on the ovaries and can cause symptoms such as pelvic pain, bloating, and irregular menstrual periods. They are often associated with ovarian teratoma.
10. Endometriosis: This is a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus and can cause symptoms such as pelvic pain, heavy menstrual bleeding, and infertility. It is often associated with ovarian teratoma.

It's important to note that these conditions are rare and not all cases of ovarian teratoma are associated with them. If you suspect you may have ovarian teratoma, it's important to talk to your healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Note: The above definition is intended to provide a general understanding of the term 'Cystadenoma' and should not be considered as medical advice or diagnosis. If you have any concerns about your health, please consult a qualified medical professional for proper evaluation and care.

Carcinosarcomas are typically slow-growing and can occur in various parts of the body, including the abdomen, pelvis, and extremities. They can be difficult to diagnose because they often have a mix of cancerous and noncancerous cells, making it challenging to determine the exact type of tumor.

The treatment of carcinosarcoma depends on the location, size, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery is often the first line of treatment, followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. In some cases, a combination of all three may be necessary.

Overall, carcinosarcoma is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that requires careful management and coordinated care from a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals. With proper treatment, many patients with carcinosarcoma can achieve long-term survival and a good quality of life.

Example sentences:

1. The patient was diagnosed with a rare form of cancer called carcinosarcoma, which is a combination of both carcinoma and sarcoma.
2. The carcinosarcoma had spread to the patient's lymph nodes and required aggressive treatment, including surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
3. Due to the rarity of carcinosarcoma, the oncologist consulted with a team of specialists to develop a personalized treatment plan for the patient.

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The hallmark features of ADSC include:

1. Glandular differentiation: The tumor cells are derived from glandular epithelium and exhibit distinctive glandular structures, such as papillae or acini.
2. Scirrhous growth pattern: The tumor cells grow in a finger-like or papillary pattern, with each finger or papilla containing a central lumen.
3. Slow growth rate: ADSC tends to grow slowly compared to other types of cancer, which can help to explain the relatively late presentation and diagnosis of this condition.
4. Locally invasive: ADSC can invade nearby tissues and organs, leading to serious complications if left untreated.
5. Poor prognosis: ADSC has a poorer prognosis compared to other types of cancer, particularly if it is diagnosed at an advanced stage.

The exact cause of ADSC is not fully understood, but genetic mutations, environmental factors, and chronic inflammation are thought to play a role in its development. The symptoms of ADSC can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but they may include abdominal pain, swelling, and difficulty with bowel movements or urination.

Treatment options for ADSC typically involve a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Surgery is often the first line of treatment, followed by chemotherapy to reduce the risk of recurrence. Radiation therapy may also be used in select cases. Overall, early detection and prompt treatment are essential for improving outcomes in patients with ADSC.

There are several types of eyelid neoplasms, including:

1. Basal cell carcinoma: This is the most common type of skin cancer, and it usually occurs on the skin around the nose and forehead. It can also occur on the eyelids.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of cancer usually occurs on sun-exposed areas, such as the face, ears, and hands. It can also occur on the eyelids.
3. Melanoma: This is a rare but aggressive type of cancer that can occur on any skin surface, including the eyelids.
4. Lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that affects the immune system, and it can occur in the eyelid tissue.
5. Sebaceous gland carcinoma: This is a rare type of cancer that affects the oil-producing glands in the eyelids.
6. Hemangiopericytic sarcoma: This is a rare type of cancer that affects the blood vessels in the eyelids.
7. Xanthelasma: This is a benign growth that occurs on the eyelids and is usually associated with high cholesterol levels.
8. Pyogenic granuloma: This is a benign growth that can occur on the eyelids and is usually caused by an infection.

Symptoms of eyelid neoplasms can include:

* A lump or bump on the eyelid
* Redness, swelling, or discharge from the eyelid
* Pain or tenderness in the eyelid
* Difficulty moving the eye or vision problems

If you suspect that you have an eyelid neoplasm, it is important to see an eye doctor as soon as possible for a proper diagnosis and treatment. Your doctor will perform a comprehensive examination of your eyes, including a visual examination of the eyelids, and may also use diagnostic tests such as imaging studies or biopsies to determine the cause of your symptoms. Treatment for eyelid neoplasms depends on the specific type of cancer or other condition that is present, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other treatments.

Papillomavirus infections can be classified into two main categories: low-risk and high-risk. Low-risk papillomavirus infections typically cause benign growths such as common warts, which are usually harmless and resolve on their own over time. High-risk papillomavirus infections, on the other hand, can lead to serious health problems such as cancer, particularly cervical cancer in women and anal cancer in both men and women.

The most common form of papillomavirus infection is genital warts, which are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is the most common sexually transmitted virus and affects both men and women. It is estimated that up to 80% of people will be infected with HPV at some point in their lifetime, but most will not develop any symptoms or complications.

Other forms of papillomavirus infections include plantar warts, which are common on the soles of the feet and palms of the hands, and flat warts, which are small, rough growths that can appear anywhere on the body.

Papillomavirus infections can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including visual inspection, biopsy, and molecular tests such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Treatment options vary depending on the type and location of the infection, but may include cryotherapy (freezing), surgical removal, or topical medications. Vaccines are also available to protect against certain types of papillomaviruses, particularly HPV.

Overall, papillomavirus infections are a common and diverse group of conditions that can have significant health implications if left untreated or if they progress to more severe forms. Proper diagnosis and treatment are important for managing these infections and preventing long-term complications.



Hemangioblastomas are typically slow-growing and benign, but they can sometimes become malignant and invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). They can cause a variety of symptoms depending on their location, such as headaches, seizures, weakness or numbness, and vision changes.

The exact cause of hemangioblastoma is not known, but it is believed to be related to genetic mutations that occur during fetal development. It is usually diagnosed by a combination of imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and tissue sampling through biopsy. Treatment options for hemangioblastoma depend on the location and severity of the tumor, and may include observation, surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.

The signs and symptoms of CE can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but they may include:

* Lumps or swelling in the neck, underarm, or groin area
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Pain in the affected area

CE is caused by a genetic mutation that leads to uncontrolled cell growth and division. The exact cause of the mutation is not fully understood, but it is believed to be linked to exposure to certain viruses or chemicals.

Diagnosis of CE typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT scans or PET scans, and biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for CE depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include:

* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Radiation therapy to shrink the tumor
* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Immunotherapy to boost the immune system's ability to fight the cancer

Overall, CE is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to improve outcomes.

These cells are typically small and irregular in shape and may have different surface markers than normal cells. They can travel through the bloodstream and potentially establish new tumors in other parts of the body. The presence of NCCs in the blood can be an early sign of cancer metastasis and can provide important diagnostic and prognostic information.

NCCs can be detected using various techniques, such as the CellSearch system, which uses a combination of magnetic and fluorescent markers to capture and identify CTCs in the blood. The detection and characterization of NCCs are becoming increasingly important in the management of cancer patients, particularly those with solid tumors like breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer.

Neoplastic cells circulating can be used for various purposes, including:

1. Diagnosis: The presence of NCCs in the blood can help confirm a cancer diagnosis and identify specific types of cancer.
2. Prognosis: The number and characteristics of NCCs can provide information about the aggressiveness of the cancer and the likelihood of metastasis.
3. Monitoring treatment response: The presence or absence of NCCs in the blood during treatment can indicate whether the therapy is effective or not.
4. Detection of minimal residual disease (MRD): NCCs can be used to detect small numbers of cancer cells that may remain after treatment, which can be an indicator of potential relapse.
5. Liquid biopsy: NCCs can be analyzed for genetic mutations and other molecular markers, providing valuable information for personalized medicine.

Also known as:

* Cystadenocarcinoma, papilliferum
* Papillary adenocarcinoma
* Glandular neoplasm, papillary

Synonyms:

* Adenocarcinoma, papillary
* Carcinoma, papillary
* Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma
* Cystic papillary carcinoma

Epithelial tumors of the breast with a glandular or mixed (glandular and ductal) pattern account for approximately 15% of all breast cancers. The most common histologic type is papillary adenocarcinoma, which accounts for about 70% of all glandular tumors.

Papillary carcinoma (PC) was first described by Miles in 1932 as a distinct clinical and pathological entity. It typically affects women between the ages of 40 to 60 years, with rare cases occurring in men. The incidence is 1/1,800,000 for invasive PC and 1/3,500,000 for DCIS.

The majority of papillary carcinomas are confined to the breast and regional lymph nodes; however, there have been case reports of distant metastases.

PC is a slow-growing tumor with an average diameter of 15-20 mm, and most patients present with a palpable mass or nipple discharge. The microscopic features include a glandular or acinar pattern, with papillary structures lined by bland-appearing cells.

The malignant potential of PC is less than that of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). The 5-year survival rate for PC is approximately 90%, and the risk of recurrence is low.

Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy. Surgical excision is the primary treatment, with a wide local excision being preferred over lumpectomy or simple mastectomy. Radiation therapy may be recommended for patients with positive axillary nodes or large tumors. Hormone therapy may be considered for postmenopausal women with ER-positive tumors.

Despite its relatively low malignant potential, PC should be treated aggressively to prevent local recurrence and possible distant metastases. The prognosis is generally excellent, but long-term follow-up is essential to monitor for any signs of recurrence or new primary cancers.

A type of cancer that arises from squamous cells, which are thin, flat cells that are found in the outer layers of the skin and mucous membranes. Squamous cell neoplasms can occur in various parts of the body, including the head and neck, lung, esophagus, and cervix. They are often slow-growing and may not cause symptoms until they have reached an advanced stage.

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common type of squamous cell neoplasm. It can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, depending on the location and stage of the cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (SCCS) is the second most common type of skin cancer, after basal cell carcinoma.

Other types of squamous cell neoplasms include:

* Squamous cell papilloma: a benign tumor that grows on the surface of the skin or mucous membranes.
* Squamous cell hyperplasia: an abnormal growth of squamous cells that can be precancerous.
* Squamous cell carcinoma in situ (SCCIS): a precancerous condition in which abnormal squamous cells are found in the skin or mucous membranes.

Overall, squamous cell neoplasms can be treated successfully if they are detected early and appropriate treatment is provided.

SCC tends to be more aggressive than other types of skin cancer (such as basal cell carcinoma) and can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. Treatment for SCC usually involves surgical removal of the affected tissue, and in some cases, may require additional therapies such as radiation or chemotherapy.

It's important to note that early detection and treatment of SCC can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications. Regular self-exams and screening by a dermatologist can help identify skin cancers in their early stages.

Examples of mammary neoplasms in animals include:

* Mammary adenocarcinoma: A type of tumor that develops in the mammary gland of animals and is characterized by the growth of abnormal cells that produce milk.
* Mammary fibroadenoma: A benign tumor that develops in the mammary gland of animals and is characterized by the growth of fibrous and glandular tissue.
* Inflammatory mammary carcinoma: A type of tumor that develops in the mammary gland of animals and is characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells and abnormal cells.

These tumors can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, hormonal imbalances, and exposure to certain environmental agents. They can also be induced experimentally using chemical carcinogens or viruses.

The study of mammary neoplasms in animals is important for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying breast cancer development and progression, as well as for identifying potential therapeutic targets and developing new treatments.

The most common type of pharyngeal neoplasm is squamous cell carcinoma, which accounts for approximately 90% of all cases. Other types of pharyngeal neoplasms include adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and lymphoma.

The symptoms of pharyngeal neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but they may include:

* Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)
* Pain with swallowing (odynophagia)
* Hoarseness or a raspy voice
* Sore throat
* Ear pain
* Weight loss
* Fatigue
* Coughing up blood (hemoptysis)

If you have any of these symptoms, it is important to see a doctor for proper evaluation and diagnosis. A biopsy or other diagnostic tests will be needed to confirm the presence of a pharyngeal neoplasm and determine its type and extent. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these, depending on the specific type of tumor and its stage (extent) of growth.

In summary, pharyngeal neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that can develop in the pharynx, and they can be benign or malignant. Symptoms may include difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, ear pain, and other symptoms, and diagnosis typically requires a biopsy or other diagnostic tests. Treatment options depend on the specific type of tumor and its stage of growth.

There are several types of hypopharyngeal neoplasms, including:

1. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): This is the most common type of hypopharyngeal cancer, accounting for about 90% of cases. It arises from the squamous cells that line the hypopharynx.
2. Adenocarcinoma: This type of cancer arises from the glandular cells that line the hypopharynx.
3. Other rare types: Other types of hypopharyngeal neoplasms include sarcomas, lymphomas, and melanomas.

The symptoms of hypopharyngeal neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. Common symptoms include:

1. Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)
2. Pain when swallowing (odynophagia)
3. Hoarseness or voice changes
4. Lumps in the neck
5. Weight loss
6. Fatigue
7. Coughing up blood (hemoptysis)
8. Difficulty breathing (dyspnea)

Hypopharyngeal neoplasms are diagnosed through a combination of endoscopy, imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI, and biopsies. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapies. The prognosis for hypopharyngeal neoplasms depends on the stage and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health.

In summary, hypopharyngeal neoplasms are a type of cancer that affects the lower part of the throat, and can be diagnosed through a combination of endoscopy, imaging tests, and biopsies. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapies, and the prognosis depends on the stage and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health.

Neoplasms, unknown primary can occur in any organ or tissue in the body and can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender. The symptoms and treatment options for these types of neoplasms depend on the location and size of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history.

Some common types of neoplasms, unknown primary include:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that originate in the skin or organs.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that originate in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, such as Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow.

The diagnosis of a neoplasm, unknown primary is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue from the tumor for examination under a microscope. Treatment options for these types of neoplasms can include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these methods.

It is important to note that not all neoplasms, unknown primary are cancerous, and some may be benign but still require treatment to remove the tumor. In some cases, the tumor may be monitored with regular check-ups and imaging tests to ensure that it does not grow or spread.

Overall, the prognosis for neoplasms, unknown primary depends on several factors, including the type of tumor, its size and location, and the effectiveness of treatment. In general, early detection and prompt treatment can improve outcomes for these types of conditions.

Examples and Observations:

1. Gastric metaplasia: This is a condition where the stomach lining is replaced by cells that are similar to those found in the esophagus. This can occur as a result of chronic acid reflux, leading to an increased risk of developing esophageal cancer.
2. Bronchial metaplasia: This is a condition where the airways in the lungs are replaced by cells that are similar to those found in the trachea. This can occur as a result of chronic inflammation, leading to an increased risk of developing lung cancer.
3. Pancreatic metaplasia: This is a condition where the pancreas is replaced by cells that are similar to those found in the ducts of the pancreas. This can occur as a result of chronic inflammation, leading to an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer.
4. Breast metaplasia: This is a condition where the breast tissue is replaced by cells that are similar to those found in the salivary glands. This can occur as a result of chronic inflammation, leading to an increased risk of developing salivary gland cancer.

Etiology and Pathophysiology:

Metaplasia is thought to be caused by chronic inflammation, which can lead to the replacement of one type of cell or tissue with another. This can occur as a result of a variety of factors, including infection, injury, or exposure to carcinogens. Once the metaplastic changes have occurred, there is an increased risk of developing cancer if the underlying cause is not addressed.

Clinical Presentation:

Patients with metaplasia may present with a variety of symptoms, depending on the location and extent of the condition. These can include pain, difficulty swallowing or breathing, coughing up blood, and weight loss. In some cases, patients may be asymptomatic and the condition may be detected incidentally during diagnostic testing for another condition.

Diagnosis:

The diagnosis of metaplasia is typically made based on a combination of clinical findings, radiologic imaging (such as CT scans or endoscopies), and histopathological examination of biopsy specimens. Imaging studies can help to identify the location and extent of the metaplastic changes, while histopathology can confirm the presence of the metaplastic cells and rule out other potential diagnoses.

Treatment:

Treatment for metaplasia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, treatment may involve addressing the underlying cause, such as removing a tumor or treating an infection. In other cases, treatment may be directed at managing symptoms and preventing complications. This can include medications to reduce inflammation and pain, as well as surgery to remove affected tissue.

Prognosis:

The prognosis for metaplasia varies depending on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In general, the prognosis is good for patients with benign metaplastic changes, while those with malignant changes may have a poorer prognosis if the cancer is not treated promptly and effectively.

Complications:

Metaplasia can lead to a number of complications, including:

1. Cancer: Metaplastic changes can sometimes progress to cancer, which can be life-threatening.
2. Obstruction: The growth of metaplastic cells can block the normal functioning of the organ or gland, leading to obstruction and potentially life-threatening complications.
3. Inflammation: Metaplasia can lead to chronic inflammation, which can cause scarring and further damage to the affected tissue.
4. Bleeding: Metaplastic changes can increase the risk of bleeding, particularly if they occur in the digestive tract or other organs.

Necrosis is a type of cell death that occurs when cells are exposed to excessive stress, injury, or inflammation, leading to damage to the cell membrane and the release of cellular contents into the surrounding tissue. This can lead to the formation of gangrene, which is the death of body tissue due to lack of blood supply.

There are several types of necrosis, including:

1. Coagulative necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is a lack of blood supply to the tissues, leading to the formation of a firm, white plaque on the surface of the affected area.
2. Liquefactive necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is an infection or inflammation that causes the death of cells and the formation of pus.
3. Caseous necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is a chronic infection, such as tuberculosis, and the affected tissue becomes soft and cheese-like.
4. Fat necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is trauma to fatty tissue, leading to the formation of firm, yellowish nodules.
5. Necrotizing fasciitis: This is a severe and life-threatening form of necrosis that affects the skin and underlying tissues, often as a result of bacterial infection.

The diagnosis of necrosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests such as biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the necrosis and may include antibiotics, surgical debridement, or amputation in severe cases.

https://www.medicinenet.com › Medical Dictionary › G

A genetic translocation is a change in the number or arrangement of the chromosomes in a cell. It occurs when a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This can result in a gain or loss of genetic material, which can have significant effects on the individual.

Genetic Translocation | Definition & Facts | Britannica
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Genetic translocation, also called chromosomal translocation, a type of chromosomal aberration in which a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This can result in a gain or loss of genetic material. Genetic translocations are often found in cancer cells and may play a role in the development and progression of cancer.

Translocation, Genetic | health Encyclopedia - UPMC
https://www.upmc.com › health-library › gene...

A genetic translocation is a change in the number or arrangement of the chromosomes in a cell. It occurs when a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This can result in a gain or loss of genetic material, which can have significant effects on the individual.

Genetic Translocation | Genetics Home Reference - NIH
https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov › condition › ge...

A genetic translocation is a change in the number or arrangement of the chromosomes in a cell. It occurs when a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This can result in a gain or loss of genetic material, which can have significant effects on the individual.

In conclusion, Genetic Translocation is an abnormality in the number or arrangement of chromosomes in a cell. It occurs when a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome, resulting in a gain or loss of genetic material that can have significant effects on the individual.

Benign tonsillar neoplasms include:

1. Tonsilloliths: Small, round or oval-shaped growths that form on the surface of the tonsils.
2. Tonsillitis: Inflammation of the tonsils, often caused by a bacterial infection.
3. Tonsillectomy: A surgical procedure to remove the tonsils, usually performed for recurrent tonsillitis or sleep disorders.
4. Tonsillar abscess: A collection of pus on the tonsils, usually caused by a bacterial infection.
5. Tonsillar crypts: Small, hidden pockets on the surface of the tonsils that can collect debris and become infected.

Malignant tonsillar neoplasms include:

1. Squamous cell carcinoma: A type of cancer that originates in the squamous cells that cover the surface of the tonsils.
2. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: A rare type of cancer that originates in the glandular cells of the tonsils.
3. Lymphoma: Cancer of the immune system that can affect the tonsils.
4. Metastatic carcinoma: Cancer that has spread to the tonsils from another part of the body.

The diagnosis of tonsillar neoplasms is based on a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the type and severity of the neoplasm, but may include surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy.

Carcinogenesis is the process by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells. This complex process involves a series of genetic and molecular changes that can take place over a long period of time. The term "carcinogenesis" is derived from the Greek words "carcinoma," meaning cancer, and "genesis," meaning origin or creation.

Carcinogenesis is a multistep process that involves several stages, including:

1. initiation: This stage involves the activation of oncogenes or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, leading to the formation of precancerous cells.
2. promotion: In this stage, the precancerous cells undergo further changes that allow them to grow and divide uncontrollably.
3. progression: This stage is characterized by the spread of cancer cells to other parts of the body (metastasis).

The process of carcinogenesis is influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. Some of the known risk factors for carcinogenesis include:

1. tobacco use
2. excessive alcohol consumption
3. exposure to certain chemicals and radiation
4. obesity and poor diet
5. lack of physical activity
6. certain viral infections

Understanding the process of carcinogenesis is important for developing effective cancer prevention and treatment strategies. By identifying the early stages of carcinogenesis, researchers may be able to develop interventions that can prevent or reverse the process before cancer develops.

Benign parotid neoplasms include:

* Pleomorphic adenoma: This is the most common type of benign parotid tumor, accounting for about 70% of all benign parotid neoplasms. It is a slow-growing tumor that usually affects people between the ages of 20 and 50.
* Warthin's tumor: This is a rare type of benign parotid tumor that usually occurs in older adults. It is a slow-growing tumor that often causes few symptoms.
* Other benign tumors: These include papillary cystadenoma, oncocytoma, and adenomyoepithelioma.

Malignant parotid neoplasms include:

* Parotid duct carcinoma: This is a rare type of cancer that arises in the main duct of the parotid gland. It usually affects older adults and can be aggressive, meaning it grows quickly and spreads to other parts of the body.
* Adenoid cystic carcinoma: This is a malignant tumor that typically affects the salivary glands, including the parotid gland. It is a slow-growing tumor that can infiltrate surrounding tissues and bone, making it difficult to treat.
* Other malignant tumors: These include acinic cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.

The symptoms of parotid neoplasms can vary depending on the size and location of the tumor. Common symptoms include:

* A lump or swelling in the neck or face
* Painless mass or lump in the affected gland
* Difficulty swallowing or eating
* Numbness or weakness in the face
* Pain in the ear, jaw, or neck
* Fatigue
* Weight loss

If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to see a doctor for proper evaluation and diagnosis. A doctor may perform a physical examination, take a medical history, and order imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, or ultrasound to determine the presence of a parotid neoplasm.

Treatment options for parotid neoplasms depend on the type and stage of the tumor. Surgery is usually the first line of treatment, and may involve removing the affected gland or a portion of the gland. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy may also be used to treat more aggressive tumors or those that have spread to other parts of the body.

Overall, while parotid neoplasms can be serious and potentially life-threatening, early detection and treatment can improve outcomes and help preserve facial function and appearance. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms that may indicate a parotid neoplasm.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Symptoms of duodenal neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal distension. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of endoscopy, imaging studies such as CT scans or MRI, and biopsy. Treatment options for duodenal neoplasms depend on the type and stage of the tumor, but may include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.

Duodenal Neoplasms are relatively rare, accounting for only about 1-2% of all gastrointestinal cancers. However, they can be aggressive and difficult to treat if not detected early. The prognosis for duodenal neoplasms is generally poor, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 20-30%.

Peritoneal neoplasms are relatively rare, but they can be aggressive and difficult to treat. The most common types of peritoneal neoplasms include:

1. Peritoneal mesothelioma: This is the most common type of peritoneal neoplasm and arises from the mesothelial cells that line the abdominal cavity. It is often associated with asbestos exposure.
2. Ovarian cancer: This type of cancer originates in the ovaries and can spread to the peritoneum.
3. Appendiceal cancer: This type of cancer arises in the appendix and can spread to the peritoneum.
4. Pseudomyxoma peritonei: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the abdominal cavity and resembles a mucin-secreting tumor.
5. Primary peritoneal cancer: This type of cancer originates in the peritoneum itself and can be of various types, including adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and sarcoma.

The symptoms of peritoneal neoplasms vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include abdominal pain, distension, and difficulty eating or passing stool. Treatment options for peritoneal neoplasms depend on the type and stage of the cancer, but may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Prognosis for peritoneal neoplasms is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of around 20-30%.

Examples of mixed tumors, malignant include:

1. Melanoma-squamous cell carcinoma: This type of skin cancer is a mix of melanocytes (the cells that produce pigment) and squamous cells (thin, flat cells that make up the outer layer of skin).
2. Adenoid cystic carcinoma with squamous differentiation: This type of head and neck cancer has features of both adenoid cystic carcinoma (a type of salivary gland cancer) and squamous cell carcinoma.
3. Uterine leiomyosarcoma with endometrial adenocarcinoma: This type of uterine cancer is a mix of leiomyosarcoma (a type of smooth muscle cancer) and endometrial adenocarcinoma (a type of glandular cancer).
4. Metanephric stromal tumor with oncocytic changes: This type of kidney cancer is a mix of metanephric stromal tumor (a type of connective tissue cancer) and oncocytic changes (abnormal cells that resemble normal cells but have lost their ability to regulate growth).
5. Synovial sarcoma with osteoclast-like giant cells: This type of soft tissue cancer is a mix of synovial sarcoma (a type of connective tissue cancer) and osteoclast-like giant cells (large cells that resemble bone-forming cells).

Treatment for mixed tumors, malignant can vary depending on the specific types of cancer present and the extent of the disease. Surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy may be used alone or in combination to treat the tumor. In some cases, a clinical trial may be an option.

Mixed tumors, malignant are often more aggressive and difficult to treat than single-type tumors because they contain multiple types of cancer cells that can grow and spread differently. However, advances in cancer diagnosis and treatment have improved the outlook for some patients with mixed tumors. The prognosis and treatment options for mixed tumors depend on the specific types of cancer present, the stage of the disease, and other individual factors.

A patient's age, overall health, and the presence of any other medical conditions can also affect their prognosis and treatment options. If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with a mixed tumor, it is essential to discuss your treatment options with a qualified healthcare professional who specializes in cancer care. They can help you understand the specific types of cancer present, the stage of the disease, and the most appropriate treatment plan for your individual situation.

In some cases, a clinical trial may be an option. Clinical trials are research studies that evaluate new treatments or combinations of treatments to see if they are safe and effective. Participating in a clinical trial may give you access to innovative therapies that are not yet widely available. However, it is essential to discuss the potential risks and benefits of clinical trials with your healthcare professional before making a decision.

In summary, mixed tumors are complex cancer diagnoses that can be challenging to treat. However, advances in cancer diagnosis and treatment have improved the outlook for some patients. If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with a mixed tumor, it is essential to discuss your treatment options with a qualified healthcare professional who specializes in cancer care. They can help you understand the specific types of cancer present, the stage of the disease, and the most appropriate treatment plan for your individual situation.

In some cases, a clinical trial may be an option. Clinical trials are research studies that evaluate new treatments or combinations of treatments to see if they are safe and effective. Participating in a clinical trial may give you access to innovative therapies that are not yet widely available. However, it is essential to discuss the potential risks and benefits of clinical trials with your healthcare professional before making a decision.

There are several types of sebaceous gland neoplasms, including:

1. Sebaceous adenoma: A benign tumor that is usually small and slow-growing. It can be found on the face, neck, or torso.
2. Sebaceous carcinoma: A malignant tumor that is rare but aggressive. It can be found on the eyelids, nose, or forehead.
3. Basal cell carcinoma: A type of skin cancer that can occur in the sebaceous glands. It usually appears as a small bump or nodule and can be treated with surgery or radiation therapy.
4. Squamous cell carcinoma: Another type of skin cancer that can occur in the sebaceous glands. It is more aggressive than basal cell carcinoma and can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.

The symptoms of sebaceous gland neoplasms can vary depending on the type of tumor and its location. Some common symptoms include:

* A small, painless lump or nodule on the skin
* Redness or inflammation around the tumor
* Discharge of pus or oil from the tumor
* Swelling or bruising in the affected area
* Pain or discomfort in the affected area

Sebaceous gland neoplasms are usually diagnosed with a biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue from the affected area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells. Treatment options can vary depending on the type and stage of the tumor, but may include surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.

Preventative measures to reduce the risk of developing sebaceous gland neoplasms include:

* Protecting the skin from the sun by using sunscreen, wearing protective clothing, and seeking shade when the sun is strongest
* Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption
* Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
* Avoiding exposure to chemicals and other substances that can damage the skin

Early detection and treatment of sebaceous gland neoplasms are important for successful outcomes. If you notice any changes or abnormalities in your skin, it is important to see a dermatologist as soon as possible.

There are several different types of tumor viruses, including:

1. Human papillomavirus (HPV): This virus is responsible for causing cervical cancer and other types of cancer, such as anal, vulvar, vaginal, and penile cancer.
2. Hepatitis B virus (HBV): This virus can cause liver cancer, known as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
3. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): This virus can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma.
4. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV): This virus has been linked to the development of Burkitt lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma.
5. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV): This virus is responsible for causing Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare type of skin cancer.
6. Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1): This virus has been linked to the development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL).

Tumor virus infections can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including blood tests, imaging studies, and biopsies. Treatment for these infections often involves antiviral medications, chemotherapy, and surgery. In some cases, tumors may also be removed through radiation therapy.

It's important to note that not all tumors or cancers are caused by viruses, and that many other factors, such as genetics and environmental exposures, can also play a role in the development of cancer. However, for those tumor virus infections that are caused by a specific virus, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.

Overall, tumor virus infections are a complex and diverse group of conditions, and further research is needed to better understand their causes and develop effective treatments.

The most common symptoms of anus neoplasms are bleeding from the anus, pain or discomfort in the anal area, itching or burning sensation in the anus, and a lump or swelling near the anus. These symptoms can be caused by various conditions, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, and infections. However, if these symptoms persist or worsen over time, they may indicate the presence of an anus neoplasm.

The diagnosis of anus neoplasms is typically made through a combination of physical examination, endoscopy, and imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI scans. A biopsy may also be performed to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment for anus neoplasms depends on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery is often the primary treatment option, and may involve removing the tumor, a portion of the anus, or the entire anus. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy may also be used to shrink the tumor before surgery or to kill any remaining cancer cells after surgery.

Prevention of anus neoplasms is not always possible, but certain measures can reduce the risk of developing these types of cancers. These include maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle, avoiding exposure to carcinogens such as tobacco smoke, and practicing safe sex to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, which can increase the risk of anus neoplasms. Early detection and treatment of precancerous changes in the anus, such as anal intraepithelial neoplasia, can also help prevent the development of invasive anus neoplasms.

Some common types of gastrointestinal neoplasms include:

1. Gastric adenocarcinoma: A type of stomach cancer that starts in the glandular cells of the stomach lining.
2. Colorectal adenocarcinoma: A type of cancer that starts in the glandular cells of the colon or rectum.
3. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A type of cancer that starts in the squamous cells of the esophagus.
4. Small intestine neuroendocrine tumors: Tumors that start in the hormone-producing cells of the small intestine.
5. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): Tumors that start in the connective tissue of the GI tract.

The symptoms of gastrointestinal neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but they may include:

* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Changes in bowel habits (such as diarrhea or constipation)
* Weight loss
* Fatigue
* Nausea and vomiting

If you have any of these symptoms, it is important to see a doctor for further evaluation and diagnosis. A gastrointestinal neoplasm can be diagnosed through a combination of endoscopy (insertion of a flexible tube into the GI tract to visualize the inside), imaging tests (such as CT or MRI scans), and biopsy (removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope).

Treatment options for gastrointestinal neoplasms depend on the type, location, and stage of the tumor, but they may include:

* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Chemotherapy (use of drugs to kill cancer cells)
* Radiation therapy (use of high-energy X-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells)
* Targeted therapy (use of drugs that target specific molecules involved in cancer growth and development)
* Supportive care (such as pain management and nutritional support)

The prognosis for gastrointestinal neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the tumor, but in general, early detection and treatment improve outcomes. If you have been diagnosed with a gastrointestinal neoplasm, it is important to work closely with your healthcare team to develop a personalized treatment plan and follow up regularly for monitoring and adjustments as needed.

Cecal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the cecum, which is a part of the large intestine. The cecum is a pouch-like structure located at the junction of the small and large intestines. Cecal neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Types of Cecal Neoplasms

There are several types of cecal neoplasms, including:

1. Adenoma: A benign tumor that arises from the glandular cells lining the cecum.
2. Villous adenoma: A type of adenoma that is characterized by the growth of villi, which are finger-like projections of epithelial tissue.
3. Tubulovillous adenoma: A type of adenoma that is characterized by the growth of tubular and villous structures.
4. Mucinous cystic neoplasm: A benign tumor that arises from the mucin-secreting cells lining the cecum.
5. Intraepithelial neoplasms: Precancerous changes that occur in the epithelial cells lining the cecum.
6. Carcinoma: A malignant tumor that arises from the epithelial cells lining the cecum.
7. Squamous cell carcinoma: A type of carcinoma that is characterized by the growth of squamous cells.
8. Adenocarcinoma: A type of carcinoma that is characterized by the growth of glandular cells.

Causes and Risk Factors

The exact causes of cecal neoplasms are not known, but several risk factors have been identified, including:

1. Age: The risk of developing cecal neoplasms increases with age.
2. Family history: Having a family history of colon cancer or other gastrointestinal cancers increases the risk of developing cecal neoplasms.
3. Inflammatory bowel disease: People with inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are at higher risk of developing cecal neoplasms.
4. Genetic mutations: Some genetic mutations, such as those associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Lynch syndrome, increase the risk of developing cecal neoplasms.
5. Diet and lifestyle factors: A diet high in processed meat and low in fiber may increase the risk of developing cecal neoplasms.

Symptoms

Cecal neoplasms may not cause any symptoms in the early stages, but as they grow, they can cause a variety of symptoms, including:

1. Abdominal pain or discomfort
2. Changes in bowel movements (such as diarrhea or constipation)
3. Blood in the stool
4. Weakness and fatigue
5. Loss of appetite
6. Unexplained weight loss

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of cecal neoplasms is based on a combination of clinical findings, imaging studies, and pathological examination of tissue samples. The following tests may be used to diagnose cecal neoplasms:

1. Endoscopy: A flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted through the mouth or rectum to visualize the inside of the cecum and collect tissue samples.
2. Imaging studies: Computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or positron emission tomography (PET) scans may be used to identify any abnormalities in the cecum and surrounding tissues.
3. Biopsy: A sample of tissue is taken from the cecum during endoscopy or surgery and examined under a microscope for cancer cells.
4. Blood tests: Blood tests may be used to check for certain substances in the blood that are associated with cancer, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).

Treatment

The treatment of cecal neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the cancer. The following options may be considered:

1. Surgery: Surgical removal of the cancerous tissue may be recommended for early-stage cancers.
2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used in combination with surgery or as a standalone treatment for more advanced cancers.
3. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used in combination with chemotherapy or surgery to treat cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.
4. Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy may be used to treat specific genetic mutations that are driving the growth of the cancer.

Prognosis

The prognosis for cecal neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis. In general, early-stage cancers have a better prognosis than more advanced cancers. Factors that may affect prognosis include:

1. Type of cancer: The type of cancer present in the cecum can impact prognosis. For example, adenocarcinoma has a better prognosis than squamous cell carcinoma.
2. Stage of cancer: Cancers that have spread to other parts of the body (metastasized) have a poorer prognosis than those that are localized to the cecum.
3. Age and overall health: Older patients or those with underlying health conditions may have a poorer prognosis than younger, healthier individuals.
4. Treatment options: The effectiveness of treatment can also impact prognosis. Patients who receive early and appropriate treatment may have a better prognosis than those who do not receive timely treatment.

Survival rate

The survival rate for cecal neoplasms is generally lower than for other types of gastrointestinal cancers. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for cecal cancer is approximately 20%. This means that of patients diagnosed with cecal cancer, about 20% are still alive 5 years after their initial diagnosis. However, it's important to note that this is a general estimate and individual prognosis can vary based on a variety of factors.

Lifestyle changes

There are several lifestyle changes that may help reduce the risk of developing cecal neoplasms or improve outcomes for those who have been diagnosed:

1. Maintain a healthy diet and weight: Eating a balanced diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can help reduce the risk of developing cecal cancer. Additionally, maintaining a healthy weight can help reduce the risk of developing many types of cancer.
2. Exercise regularly: Regular physical activity has been shown to reduce the risk of developing many types of cancer, including cecal cancer.
3. Avoid tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption: Tobacco use and excessive alcohol consumption have both been linked to an increased risk of developing cecal cancer. Quitting smoking and limiting alcohol intake can help reduce the risk of developing this disease.
4. Manage chronic conditions: Chronic conditions such as diabetes, obesity, and inflammatory bowel disease can increase the risk of developing cecal cancer. Managing these conditions through lifestyle changes and medication can help reduce the risk of developing this disease.
5. Get regular screenings: Regular screenings for colon cancer, such as colonoscopies, can help detect cecal cancer at an early stage when it is more treatable.
6. Consider aspirin therapy: Some studies have suggested that taking a low-dose aspirin every day may help reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer, including cecal cancer. However, aspirin therapy is not right for everyone, and individuals should talk to their doctor before starting any new medication.
7. Don't delay symptoms: If you experience any symptoms that may be related to cecal cancer, such as abdominal pain or changes in bowel movements, don't delay seeking medical attention. These symptoms can also be caused by other conditions, but it is important to get them checked out by a healthcare professional.

It is important to note that these recommendations are not a guarantee against developing cecal cancer, and individuals should talk to their doctor about their specific risk factors and any additional steps they can take to reduce their risk of developing this disease.

SCLC typically starts in the bronchi of the lungs and can spread quickly to other parts of the body, such as the brain, liver, and bones. It is often found in later stages and is associated with a poorer prognosis than non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

There are two main types of SCLC:

1. Limited-stage SCLC: This type of SCLC is limited to one lung and has not spread to other parts of the body.
2. Extensive-stage SCLC: This type of SCLC has spread beyond one lung and may have spread to other parts of the body.

Symptoms of SCLC include:

* Coughing
* Chest pain
* Shortness of breath
* Weight loss
* Fatigue

Diagnosis of SCLC is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as chest X-rays, CT scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for SCLC include:

1. Chemotherapy: This is the primary treatment for SCLC and may be used alone or in combination with radiation therapy.
2. Radiation therapy: This may be used alone or in combination with chemotherapy to treat SCLC.
3. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be possible to remove the tumor and affected tissue.
4. Clinical trials: These may be available for patients with SCLC to access new and innovative treatments.

Overall, SCLC is a highly aggressive form of lung cancer that requires prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment to improve outcomes.

Symptoms of Endometrial Hyperplasia:

The symptoms of endometrial hyperplasia may include:

* Abnormal vaginal bleeding or spotting
* Heavy menstrual periods
* Prolonged menstrual periods
* Painful periods
* Abdominal pain or discomfort

Diagnosis of Endometrial Hyperplasia:

To diagnose endometrial hyperplasia, a doctor may perform the following tests:

* Pelvic examination to check for any abnormalities in the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.
* Endometrial biopsy to collect a sample of tissue from the endometrium for further examination under a microscope.
* Ultrasound to create images of the uterus and check for any abnormal growths or tumors.
* Hysteroscopy, which is a procedure where a small camera is inserted into the uterus through the cervix to examine the inside of the uterus.

Treatment of Endometrial Hyperplasia:

The treatment of endometrial hyperplasia depends on the severity of the condition and may include:

* Hormonal medications to regulate hormone levels and reduce the growth of the endometrium.
* Endometrial ablation, which is a procedure that destroys the endometrium using heat or cold.
* Hysterectomy, which is the surgical removal of the uterus.

Prevention of Endometrial Hyperplasia:

To prevent endometrial hyperplasia, women can take the following steps:

* Maintain a healthy weight to reduce the risk of hormonal imbalances.
* Exercise regularly to improve overall health and reduce the risk of hormonal imbalances.
* Avoid exposure to endocrine disruptors, such as pesticides and herbicides, which can mimic or interfere with hormones in the body.
* Limit alcohol consumption, as excessive alcohol consumption can increase the risk of hormonal imbalances.
* Eat a balanced diet that is rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, which can help regulate hormone levels.
* Consider taking supplements such as vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects and may help regulate hormone levels.

It is important for women to talk to their healthcare provider about their individual risk factors for endometrial hyperplasia and any steps they can take to prevent the condition.

Sarcomas can arise in any part of the body, but they are most common in the arms and legs. They can also occur in the abdomen, chest, or head and neck. There are many different types of sarcoma, each with its own unique characteristics and treatment options.

The causes of sarcoma are not fully understood, but genetic mutations, exposure to radiation, and certain chemicals have been linked to an increased risk of developing the disease. Sarcomas can be challenging to diagnose and treat, as they often grow slowly and may not cause symptoms until they are advanced.

Treatment for sarcoma typically involves a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. The specific treatment plan will depend on the type of sarcoma, its location, and the stage of the disease. In some cases, amputation may be necessary to remove the tumor.

Prognosis for sarcoma varies depending on the type of cancer, the size and location of the tumor, and the stage of the disease. In general, the prognosis is best for patients with early-stage sarcoma that is confined to a small area and has not spread to other parts of the body.

Overall, sarcoma is a rare and complex form of cancer that requires specialized treatment and care. While the prognosis can vary depending on the specific type of cancer and the stage of the disease, advances in medical technology and treatment options have improved outcomes for many patients with sarcoma.

Testicular neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the testicles, which are located inside the scrotum. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Testicular neoplasms can affect men of all ages, but they are more common in younger men between the ages of 20 and 35.

Types of Testicular Neoplasms:

There are several types of testicular neoplasms, including:

1. Seminoma: This is a type of malignant tumor that develops from immature cells in the testicles. It is the most common type of testicular cancer and tends to grow slowly.
2. Non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT): These are malignant tumors that develop from immature cells in the testicles, but they do not have the characteristic features of seminoma. They can be either heterologous (containing different types of cells) or homologous (containing only one type of cell).
3. Leydig cell tumors: These are rare malignant tumors that develop in the Leydig cells, which produce testosterone in the testicles.
4. Sertoli cell tumors: These are rare malignant tumors that develop in the Sertoli cells, which support the development of sperm in the testicles.
5. Testicular metastasectomy: This is a procedure to remove cancer that has spread to the testicles from another part of the body, such as the lungs or liver.

Causes and Risk Factors:

The exact cause of testicular neoplasms is not known, but there are several risk factors that have been linked to an increased risk of developing these tumors. These include:

1. Undescended testicles (cryptorchidism): This condition occurs when the testicles do not descend into the scrotum during fetal development.
2. Family history: Men with a family history of testicular cancer are at an increased risk of developing these tumors.
3. Previous radiation exposure: Men who have had radiation therapy to the pelvic area, especially during childhood or adolescence, have an increased risk of developing testicular neoplasms.
4. Genetic mutations: Certain genetic mutations, such as those associated with familial testicular cancer syndrome, can increase the risk of developing testicular neoplasms.
5. Infertility: Men who are infertile may have an increased risk of developing testicular cancer.

Symptoms:

The symptoms of testicular neoplasms can vary depending on the type and location of the tumor. Some common symptoms include:

1. A lump or swelling in the testicle
2. Pain or discomfort in the testicle or scrotum
3. Enlargement of the testicle
4. Abnormality in the size or shape of the testicle
5. Pain during ejaculation
6. Difficulty urinating or painful urination
7. Breast tenderness or enlargement
8. Lower back pain
9. Fatigue
10. Weight loss

Diagnosis:

The diagnosis of testicular neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy.

1. Physical examination: A doctor will perform a thorough physical examination of the testicles, including checking for any abnormalities in size, shape, or tenderness.
2. Imaging studies: Imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT scans, or MRI may be used to help identify the location and extent of the tumor.
3. Biopsy: A biopsy is a procedure in which a small sample of tissue is removed from the testicle and examined under a microscope for cancer cells.
4. Blood tests: Blood tests may be performed to check for elevated levels of certain substances that can indicate the presence of cancer.

Treatment:

The treatment of testicular neoplasms depends on the type, location, and stage of the tumor. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Surgery is often the first line of treatment for testicular neoplasms. The goal of surgery is to remove the tumor and any affected tissue.
2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used in combination with surgery or radiation therapy to treat more advanced cancers.
3. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells. It may be used in combination with surgery or chemotherapy.
4. Surveillance: Surveillance is a close monitoring of the patient's condition, including regular check-ups and imaging studies, to detect any recurrences of the tumor.

Prognosis:

The prognosis for testicular neoplasms depends on the type, location, and stage of the tumor. In general, the earlier the cancer is detected and treated, the better the prognosis. Some common types of testicular neoplasms have a good prognosis, while others are more aggressive and may have a poorer prognosis if not treated promptly.

Complications:

Some complications of testicular neoplasms include:

1. Recurrence: The cancer can recur in the testicle or spread to other parts of the body.
2. Spread to other parts of the body: Testicular cancer can spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs, liver, or brain.
3. Infertility: Some treatments for testicular cancer, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy, can cause infertility.
4. Hormone imbalance: Some types of testicular cancer can disrupt hormone levels, leading to symptoms such as breast enlargement or low sex drive.
5. Chronic pain: Some men may experience chronic pain in the testicle or scrotum after treatment for testicular cancer.

Lifestyle changes:

There are no specific lifestyle changes that can prevent testicular neoplasms, but some general healthy habits can help reduce the risk of developing these types of tumors. These include:

1. Maintaining a healthy weight and diet
2. Getting regular exercise
3. Limiting alcohol consumption
4. Avoiding smoking and recreational drugs
5. Protecting the testicles from injury or trauma

Screening:

There is no standard screening test for testicular neoplasms, but men can perform a self-exam to check for any abnormalities in their testicles. This involves gently feeling the testicles for any lumps or unusual texture. Men with a family history of testicular cancer should talk to their doctor about whether they should start screening earlier and more frequently.

Treatment:

The treatment of testicular neoplasms depends on the type, stage, and location of the tumor. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: This involves removing the affected testicle or tumor.
2. Chemotherapy: This involves using drugs to kill cancer cells.
3. Radiation therapy: This involves using high-energy rays to kill cancer cells.
4. Hormone therapy: This involves taking medications to alter hormone levels and slow the growth of cancer cells.
5. Clinical trials: These involve testing new treatments or combination of treatments for testicular neoplasms.

Prognosis:

The prognosis for testicular neoplasms varies depending on the type, stage, and location of the tumor. In general, the earlier the cancer is detected and treated, the better the prognosis. For example, seminoma has a high cure rate with current treatments, while non-seminomatous germ cell tumors have a lower cure rate but can still be effectively treated. Lymphoma and metastatic testicular cancer have a poorer prognosis and require aggressive treatment.

Lifestyle Changes:

There are no specific lifestyle changes that can prevent testicular neoplasms, but some risk factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption can be reduced to lower the risk of developing these tumors. Maintaining a healthy diet, regular exercise, and avoiding exposure to harmful chemicals can also help improve overall health and well-being.

Complications:

Testicular neoplasms can have several complications, including:

1. Infertility: Some treatments for testicular cancer, such as surgery or chemotherapy, can cause infertility.
2. Pain: Testicular cancer can cause pain in the scrotum, groin, or abdomen.
3. Swelling: Testicular cancer can cause swelling in the scrotum or groin.
4. Hormonal imbalance: Some testicular tumors can produce hormones that can cause an imbalance in the body's hormone levels.
5. Recurrence: Testicular cancer can recur after treatment, and regular follow-up is necessary to detect any signs of recurrence early.
6. Late effects of treatment: Some treatments for testicular cancer, such as chemotherapy, can have long-term effects on the body, including infertility, heart problems, and bone marrow suppression.
7. Metastasis: Testicular cancer can spread to other parts of the body, including the lungs, liver, and bones, which can be life-threatening.

Prevention:

There is no specific prevention for testicular neoplasms, but some risk factors such as undescended testes, family history, and exposure to certain chemicals can be reduced to lower the risk of developing these tumors. Regular self-examination and early detection are crucial in improving outcomes for patients with testicular cancer.

Conclusion:

Testicular neoplasms are a rare but potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment. Early detection through regular self-examination and follow-up can improve outcomes, while awareness of risk factors and symptoms is essential in reducing the burden of this disease. A multidisciplinary approach involving urologists, radiologists, pathologists, and oncologists is necessary for optimal management of patients with testicular neoplasms.

The symptoms of choroid plexus neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and severity, but they may include:

* Headaches
* Nausea and vomiting
* Seizures
* Weakness or numbness in the arms or legs
* Vision problems
* Endocrine disturbances (such as diabetes insipidus)

The diagnosis of choroid plexus neoplasms is typically made through a combination of imaging studies, such as MRI or CT scans, and tissue sampling, such as biopsy or surgical resection. Treatment options for these tumors depend on their size, location, and severity, but they may include:

* Observation and monitoring
* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Radiation therapy to destroy the tumor cells
* Chemotherapy to kill the tumor cells
* Targeted therapy to attack specific molecules involved in the growth and progression of the tumor

Some common types of choroid plexus neoplasms include:

* Papilloma: A benign tumor that grows from the choroid plexus.
* Choroid plexus carcinoma: A malignant tumor that grows from the choroid plexus.
* Mixed glioma: A tumor that is made up of both benign and malignant cells.

The prognosis for patients with choroid plexus neoplasms depends on several factors, including the size and location of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and the effectiveness of treatment. In general, patients with small, benign tumors have a good prognosis, while those with larger, more aggressive tumors may have a poorer prognosis.

It is important to note that choroid plexus neoplasms are relatively rare, and there is ongoing research into their causes, diagnosis, and treatment. If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with a choroid plexus neoplasm, it is best to consult with a qualified healthcare professional for more information and personalized advice.

Examples of neoplasms, glandular and epithelial include:

* Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from glandular tissue. Examples include colon adenomas and prostate adenomas.
* Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from glandular or epithelial tissue. Examples include breast carcinoma, lung carcinoma, and ovarian carcinoma.
* Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from connective tissue. Examples include soft tissue sarcoma and bone sarcoma.

The diagnosis of neoplasms, glandular and epithelial is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, along with a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for these types of neoplasms depend on the location, size, and stage of the tumor, but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.

Overall, the term "neoplasms, glandular and epithelial" refers to a wide range of tumors that arise from glandular or epithelial tissue, and can be either benign or malignant. These types of neoplasms are common and can affect many different parts of the body.

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The diagnosis of renal medullary carcinoma is typically made after individuals with sickle cell trait present with the typical ... Renal medullary carcinoma is extremely rare and it is not currently possible to predict those individuals with sickle cell ... Renal medullary carcinoma has been termed "the seventh sickle cell nephropathy" because it is found almost exclusively in ... Warren, K. E.; Gidvani-Diaz, V.; Duval-Arnould, B. (1999). "Renal Medullary Carcinoma in an Adolescent with Sickle Cell Trait ...
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a kidney cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule, a part of the ... Primary renal cell carcinomas as well as metastatic cancers can affect the kidney. Kidney failure is defined by functional ... "Renal Cell Carcinoma". Medscape Reference. WebMD. Archived from the original on 7 March 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2014. "Prostate ... Transitional cell carcinoma or bladder cancer is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder ...
Psammoma bodies are commonly seen in certain tumors such as: Papillary thyroid carcinoma Papillary renal cell carcinoma Ovarian ... "Renal Cell Carcinoma". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 1 October 2021. Ovarian papillary serous ... papillary serous cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma Endometrial adenocarcinomas (Papillary serous carcinoma ~3%-4%) Meningiomas ...
Malignancy, e.g. renal cell carcinoma. Placement of topical tetracycline in a petrolatum base into a surgical site. The ... Oct 2000). "Myospherulosis in renal cell carcinoma". Arch Pathol Lab Med. 124 (10): 1476-9. doi:10.1043/0003-9985(2000)124. 2.0 ...
Clear-cell renal carcinoma), uterus (Uterine clear-cell carcinoma), gastrointestinal tract (Clear-cell colorectal carcinoma) or ... Clear-cell carcinoma also known as clear cell adenocarcinoma and mesonephroma is an epithelial cell derived carcinoma ... "Clear cell renal cell carcinoma". Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program. Genetic and Rare ... Clear-cell ovarian carcinoma). Treatment options for clear cell carcinoma vary by the tissue type affected. It may include a ...
Lipworth, Loren; Tarone, Robert E.; McLaughlin, Joseph K. (2006). "The Epidemiology of Renal Cell Carcinoma". The Journal of ... Lipworth, Loren; Tarone, Robert E.; McLaughlin, Joseph K. (2006). "The Epidemiology of Renal Cell Carcinoma". The Journal of ...
Lipworth L, Tarone RE, McLaughlin JK (December 2006). "The epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma". The Journal of Urology. 176 ( ... If the mutation inhibits programmed cell death, the cell can survive to become a cancer, a cell that does not function like a ... If the mutation inhibits programmed cell death, the cell can survive to become a cancer cell. Similarly, acrolein, which is ... Small-cell carcinoma (SCLC) is the most closely associated with almost 100% of cases occurring in smokers. This form of cancer ...
Targeted therapy for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma Immunotherapy Combinations for Renal Cell Carcinoma Offer ... implications for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma Pazopanib versus Sunitinib in Metastatic Renal-Cell Carcinoma ... Everolimus for renal cell carcinoma: predictive factors for response and future directions. Medical Oncology Supplement. 2008. ... In: Renal Cell Carcinoma: Molecular Targets and Clinical Applications. Humana Press. 2007. Contemporary Therapeutic Strategies ...
Lim, H.Y.; Yip, Y.M. (2015). "Metabolic signatures of renal cell carcinoma". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 460 (4): 938-43. doi: ... She also studied metabolism within cancer cells and found aerobic respiration within mitochondria in cancer cells, which ...
ISBN 978-0-19-157556-3. Wah TM (August 2017). "Image-guided ablation of renal cell carcinoma". Clinical Radiology. Elsevier BV ... kidney tumors such as renal cell carcinoma can be treated with image guided ablation (RFA, MWA, cryotherapy) with similar ... "Cryoablation vs radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis of case series studies". BJU ... Renal arterial ischemia can contribute to hypertension, which can be severe and refractory to medical therapy. Coronary artery ...
Erel, Arzu; Ozsoy, Esra; University, Gazi (2001). "Livedo reticularis associated with renal cell carcinoma". International ... Livedo reticularis associated with renal cell carcinoma (rare) Buerger's disease (as an initial symptom) As a rare ... excessive red cells or platelets) Infections (infective endocarditis, syphilis, tuberculosis, Lyme disease) Associated with ... "Generalized livedo reticularis as the first sign of metastatic breast carcinoma". Clinical and Experimental Dermatology. 34 (2 ...
"Orellanine specifically targets renal clear cell carcinoma". Oncotarget. 8 (53): 91085-91098. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.19555. ... Their studies also suggested the usage of orellanine in terms of eliminating human renal cancer carcinomas with its highly ... Renal Physiology. 292 (6): F1802-9. doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00152.2006. PMID 17376766. Daehn, I.; Casalena, G.; Zhang, T.; Shi, S ... He regarded the endothelial cell surface layer (ESL) to be the key contributor in the context of the glomerular barrier. In a ...
... also refers to a type of renal cell carcinoma (distinct from "clear cell"). Chromophobe renal cancer is part of a rare, genetic ... While renal cell carcinoma is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers, chromophobe renal cancer only accounts for five ... "Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Review of an Uncommon Entity." International Journal of Urology 19.10 (2012): 894-900. Web ... "ACS :: What Is Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma)?". Archived from the original on 2006-12-02. Retrieved 2006-12-03. Vera- ...
In some cases the renal cell carcinoma may be a manifestation of an undiagnosed hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer ... Altman D, Yin L, Johansson A, Lundholm C, Grönberg H (2010). "Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma After Hysterectomy". Archives of ... Gago-Dominguez M, Castelao JE, Yuan JM, Ross RK, Yu MC (1999). "Increased risk of renal cell carcinoma subsequent to ... 1020-1348 Hysterectomy may cause an increased risk of the relatively rare renal cell carcinoma. The increased risk is ...
"Amoebic brain abscess associated with renal cell carcinoma". Neurology and Clinical Neuroscience. 5 (6): 195-197. doi:10.1111/ ... The damage to the epithelial cell layer attracts immune cells, which in turn can be lysed by the trophozoite. This results in ... Meanwhile, the trophozoites begin to ingest the dead cells which triggers a massive immune response in the epithelial cell ... E. histolytica has a lectin that binds to galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine sugars on the surface of the epithelial cells. ...
... a gene associated with papillary renal cell carcinoma". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 92 (3-4): 326-32. doi:10.1159/000056922. PMID ... 1995). "Hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma: clinical studies in 10 families". J. Urol. 153 (3 Pt 2): 907-12. doi:10.1016 ... In a subset of papillary renal cell carcinomas, a t(X;1)(p11;q21) chromosome translocation has been repeatedly reported and is ... Meloni AM, Dobbs RM, Pontes JE, Sandberg AA (1993). "Translocation (X;1) in papillary renal cell carcinoma. A new cytogenetic ...
In contrast, UQCRFS1 and complex III has been absent in renal cell carcinoma, though the mechanism is unknown. In addition to ... "Renal cell carcinoma and normal kidney protein expression". Electrophoresis. 18 (3-4): 599-604. doi:10.1002/elps.1150180343. ... "Renal cell carcinoma and normal kidney protein expression". Electrophoresis. 18 (3-4): 599-604. doi:10.1002/elps.1150180343. ... Molecular Cell. 67 (1): 96-105.e4. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2017.06.001. PMID 28673544. Ohashi Y, Kaneko SJ, Cupples TE, Young SR ( ...
It was approved to treat renal cell carcinoma by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration after showing a modest increase in ... It has received approval for use as a treatment for renal cell carcinoma from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (27 ... Escudier B, Gore M (2011). "Axitinib for the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma". Drugs in R&D. 11 (2): 113-26. doi: ... "FDA Approves Inlyta for Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma". Drugs.com. January 27, 2012. Fauber J, Chu E (October 27, 2014). "The ...
... is being researched for efficacy as a treatment for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), ... renal cell carcinoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is a small molecule inhibitor of the tyrosine kinases c-Met and VEGFR2, ... non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), adrenocortical carcinoma, various sarcomas, head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC ... November 2015). "Cabozantinib versus Everolimus in Advanced Renal-Cell Carcinoma". The New England Journal of Medicine. 373 (19 ...
"Germline SDHB mutations and familial renal cell carcinoma". Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 100 (17): 1260-2. doi: ... Cell. 121 (7): 1043-57. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.05.025. PMID 15989954. S2CID 16697879. Horsefield R, Yankovskaya V, Sexton G, ... Rapid and uncontrolled cell division, along with the formation of new blood vessels, can lead to the development of tumors in ... Excess HIF stimulates cells to divide and triggers the production of blood vessels when they are not needed. ...
... carcinoma Small cell carcinoma Neuroendocrine tumour Glassy cell carcinoma Villoglandular adenocarcinoma Though squamous cell ... Marek's disease and the Lucké renal adenocarcinoma. HSV was recovered from cervical tumour cells. A description of human ... Histologic subtypes of invasive cervical carcinoma include: Squamous cell carcinoma (about 80-85%) adenocarcinoma (about 15% of ... About 90% of cervical cancer cases are squamous cell carcinomas, 10% are adenocarcinoma, and a small number are other types. ...
... non-small-cell lung carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and breast cancer. The forced over expression of CMTM5-v1 in Huh7 human ... Cai B, Xiao Y, Li Y, Zheng S (August 2017). "CMTM5 inhibits renal cancer cell growth through inducing cell-cycle arrest and ... hepatic cells also inhibited the ability of these cells to grow in a mouse model of cancer. Finally, various cancer human cell ... "CMTM5 exhibits tumor suppressor activities and is frequently silenced by methylation in carcinoma cell lines". Clinical Cancer ...
... squamous cell Carcinoma, squamous cell of head and neck Carcinophobia Cardiac amyloidosis Cardiac and laterality defects ... syndrome Christianson-Fourie syndrome Christmas disease Chromhidrosis Chromom-Chromop Chromomycosis Chromophobe renal carcinoma ... syndrome Carbon baby syndrome Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency Carcinoid syndrome Carcinoma of the vocal tract Carcinoma, ... progressive familial intrahepatic 3 Cholestatic jaundice renal tubular insufficiency Cholesterol ester storage disease ...
"Tumor-specific lysis of human renal cell carcinomas by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. I. HLA-A2-restricted recognition of ... and protein/cell diagnostics (Abbott, BD, and Crescendo), predominantly focused on Oncology, Hematology, and Autoimmunity, ...
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the first-line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in adults in combination with axitinib. In June 2020, the U.S. ... in Participants With Progressive Locally Advanced or Metastatic Carcinoma, Melanoma, or Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma (P07990/ ... Results of a Phase II clinical trial in Merkel-cell carcinoma were reported in The New England Journal of Medicine in June 2016 ... the first-line treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) in adults whose tumors express PD-L1 with a ≥ 50% ...
... and renal cancer. Cancer cells are known for their limitless cellular replicative potential, and it has been hypothesized that ... An overall increase in TXA synthase expression has been observed in a variety of cancers, such as papillary thyroid carcinoma, ... This enzyme, anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum, is found in platelets, monocytes, and several other cell types. The NH2 ... Tanabe T, Ullrich V (1995). "Prostacyclin and Thromboxane Synthases". Journal of Lipid Mediators and Cell Signalling. 12 (2-3 ...
... sunitinib and temsirolimus for renal cell carcinoma. All these are drugs with a high cost per treatment and NICE has either ...
Several cell types or tissues, e.g. osteoblasts, chondrocytes, cardiac tissue, gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells, and ... LECT2 amyloidosis presents with renal disease that in general is slowly progressive and at the time of presentation is of ... of individuals with Hepatocellular carcinoma. In the latter form of liver cancer, LECT2 levels increase with increasingly poor ... However, its expression in these cells is extremely low or undetectable even though these cells express very high levels of ...
Cell. 138 (1): 63-77. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.06.030. PMC 2720686. PMID 19596235. Denner J, Eschricht M, Lauck M, Semaan M, ... Influence of renal function". European Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry. 35 (3): 191-8. CiteSeerX 10.1. ... "Expression of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein in human gastric carcinoma and its association with tumor aggressiveness, ... Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0010-8592-0. PMID 16169070. S2CID 8235923. ...
basolateral membrane of renal tubular cells GLUT2 has high capacity for glucose but low affinity (high KM, ca. 15-20 mM) and ... as a novel prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma". Oncotarget. 8 (40): 68381-68392. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.20266. ... GLUT2 is found in cellular membranes of: liver (Primary) pancreatic β cell (Primary in mice, tertiary in humans after GLUT1 and ... thus functions as part of the "glucose sensor" in the pancreatic β-cells of rodents, though in human β-cells the role of GLUT2 ...
It is in phase II clinical trials for adenocarcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and renal cell carcinoma. It has been given ...
Although 70-90 percent of people with appendicitis may have an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count, there are many other ... Arnbjörnsson E (May 1982). "Acute appendicitis as a sign of a colorectal carcinoma". Journal of Surgical Oncology. 20 (1): 17- ... renal colic, perforated peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, rectus sheath hematoma and epiploic appendagitis. Elderly: diverticulitis, ... which can be supported by an elevation of neutrophilic white blood cells and imaging studies if needed. Histories fall into two ...
2007). "Gene expression profiling separates chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma and identifies vesicular transport ... "Caveolin-1 and MAL are located on prostasomes secreted by the prostate cancer PC-3 cell line". J. Cell Sci. 117 (Pt 22): 5343- ... is an essential component of the machinery for transcytosis in hepatoma HepG2 cells". J. Cell Biol. 159 (1): 37-44. doi:10.1083 ... The protein is a component of lipid rafts and, in polarized cells, it primarily localizes to endosomal structures beneath the ...
Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0010-8592-0. PMID 16169070. S2CID 8235923. Imai Y ... In particular, overexpression of HSP72 has been linked to the development some cancers, such as hepatocellular carcinoma, ... "Heat shock protein 72 suppresses apoptosis by increasing the stability of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein in renal ... an apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, and ...
Dyalisate Flow Rate Intermittent treatments: Without renal impairment: 1800 a 3000 mL/hour With renal impairment: 3000 a 6000 ... immortalized human cell lines and stem cells. The purpose of BAL-type devices, currently, is not to permanently replace liver ... Liver Resection in hepatocellular carcinoma Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE) Partial resection in living donor ... Liver cells obtained from an animal were used instead of developing a piece of equipment for each function of the liver. The ...
"MicroRNA-100 acts as a tumor suppressor in human bladder carcinoma 5637 cells". Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 12 ... "MicroRNA-708 induces apoptosis and suppresses tumorigenicity in renal cancer cells". Cancer Research. 71 (19): 6208-19. doi: ... "Comprehensive expression profiling of microRNAs in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma". Head & Neck. 35 (5): 720-8. doi:10.1002/ ... Xing L, Todd NW, Yu L, Fang H, Jiang F (August 2010). "Early detection of squamous cell lung cancer in sputum by a panel of ...
Thus, in a population of cells comprising a tissue with replicating cells, mutant cells will tend to be lost. However, ... In kidney, changes with age include reduction in both renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate, and impairment in the ... Nishida N, Kudo M (2014). "Alteration of Epigenetic Profile in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Its Clinical Implications". ... Mutations are replicated when the cell replicates. In a population of cells, mutant cells will increase or decrease in ...
One study compared the enzymes of liver metastases of giant-cell lung carcinoma and nonmalignant placental cells. The two were ... April 16, 2010). "Alkaline Phosphatase May Be a Marker of Inflammation in CKD Patients". Renal and Urology News. Badve SV, ... embryonic stem cells or embryonal carcinoma cells). There is a positive correlation between serum bone alkaline phosphatase ... "Appendix E: Stem Cell Markers". Stem Cell Information. National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human ...
... including lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), renal cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is proposed that ALDOA ... aldolase a is a potential metastasis-associated marker of lung squamous cell carcinoma and promotes lung cell tumorigenesis and ... "Histological examination of the aldolase monomer composition of cells from human kidney and hypernephroid carcinoma". Beiträge ... "Nuclear localization of aldolase A correlates with cell proliferation". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell ...
2 in clear cell type renal cell carcinoma". International Journal of Urology. 15 (2): 166-70. doi:10.1111/j.1442-2042.2007. ... Locke JA, Wasan KM, Nelson CC, Guns ES, Leon CG (Jan 2008). "Androgen-mediated cholesterol metabolism in LNCaP and PC-3 cell ... Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids. 1682 (1-3): 56-62. doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2004.01.008. PMID 15158756. Ruaño G, Bernene J, ... "Cholesterol regulates ACAT2 gene expression and enzyme activity in human hepatoma cells". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ...
Mutations are especially prevalent in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000163939 - Ensembl, ... "Exome sequencing identifies frequent mutation of the SWI/SNF complex gene PBRM1 in renal carcinoma". Nature. 469 (7331): 539-42 ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. Chandrasekaran R, Thompson M (2007). "Polybromo-1-bromodomains ... cPB1 is also homologous to yeast Rsc1, Rsc2, and Rsc4, essential proteins that are required for cell cycle progression through ...
The Use of Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA) to Explore Protein Expression Variation within Individual Renal Cell Cancers. J ... Phase Protein Microarrays and Reference Standard Development for Molecular Network Analysis of Metastatic Ovarian Carcinoma". ... Pellets from cells collected through any of the above means are lysed with a cell lysis buffer to obtain high protein ... In addition, since RPMA can utilize whole-cell or undissected or microdissected cell lysates, it can provide direct ...
Clear cell renal carcinoma: del 9p and del 14q are poor prognostic indicators. Papillary renal cell carcinoma: duplication of ... van den Berg, E; Störkel, S (2003). "Kidney: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma". Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 7 (3): 424 ... Clear cell carcinoma: loss of 3p Papillary carcinoma: trisomy 7 and 17 Chromophobe carcinoma: hypodiploid with loss of ... "Loss of chromosome 9p is an independent prognostic factor in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma". Modern Pathology. ...
Renal cell carcinoma This page lists people with the surname Grawitz. If an internal link intending to refer to a specific ...
Glioblastomas are the most common primary malignancies to hemorrhage while thyroid, renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and lung ... transformation of an ischemic stroke Cerebral venous thrombosis Sympathomimetic drug abuse Moyamoya disease Sickle cell disease ...
The glycogen phosphorylase monomer is a large protein, composed of 842 amino acids with a mass of 97.434 kDa in muscle cells. ... Grünfeld JP, Ganeval D, Chanard J, Fardeau M, Dreyfus JC (June 1972). "Acute renal failure in McArdle's disease. Report of two ... Shimada S, Matsuzaki H, Marutsuka T, Shiomori K, Ogawa M (July 2001). "Gastric and intestinal phenotypes of gastric carcinoma ... Although the reaction is reversible in vitro, within the cell the enzyme only works in the forward direction as shown below ...
... and Blood Flow in a Murine Renal Cell Carcinoma Model. Joachim Drevs, Inga Hofmann, Harald Hugenschmidt, Christine Wittig, ...
... a predictor of cancer-specific survival in clear cell renal carcinoma". Clinical Cancer Research. 13 (1): 152-60. doi:10.1158/ ... Accumulation of lipid droplets induce the modification of macrophages to foam cells. Lysis of foam cells resulted in ... "Adipophilin is a specific marker of lipid accumulation in diverse cell types and diseases". Cell and Tissue Research. 294 (2): ... "Regulation of ADRP expression by long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in BeWo cells, a human placental choriocarcinoma cell ...
Some benign T cells can be CD10+ Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (Clear cell RCC) CD10+ distinguishes renal cell carcinoma, ... basal cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma with follicular differentiation". Int. J. Dermatol. 48 (7): 713-7. doi:10.1111/j ... basal cell carcinoma with follicular differentiation (CD10 stromal and epithelial staining) and squamous cell carcinoma (strong ... "Value of CD10 Expression in Differentiating Cutaneous Basal from Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Basal Cell Carcinoma from ...
Renal cell carcinoma is a type of kidney cancer that starts in the lining of very small tubes (tubules) in the kidney. ... Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. It occurs most often in men 60 to 70 years old. ... Renal cell carcinoma is a type of kidney cancer that starts in the lining of very small tubes (tubules) in the kidney. ... Renal cell cancer treatment (PDQ) -- health professional version. www.cancer.gov/types/kidney/hp/kidney-treatment-pdq. Updated ...
Drs Sumanta Pal and Laura Bukavina discuss the epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma, including risk factors, genetic screening ... Characteristics of Gut Microbiota in Patients With Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma ... The Epidemiology of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Risk Factors, Cystic Disease, the Microbiome, and the Mycobiome. Sumanta Pal, MD; ... The Epidemiology of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Risk Factors, Cystic Disease, the Microbiome, and the Mycobiome ...
The preferred method of imaging renal cell carcinomas is dedicated renal computed tomography (CT). In most cases, this single ... Left renal cell carcinoma in patient with prior right nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. T2-weighted axial MRI with renal ... Left renal cell carcinoma in patient with prior right nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. T2-weighted axial MRI with renal ... Radiogenomics of clear cell renal cell carcinoma: preliminary findings of The Cancer Genome Atlas-Renal Cell Carcinoma (TCGA- ...
Patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma and a po … ... of rapamycin and consequently blocks the translation of cell ... Forkhead box J1 expression is upregulated and correlated with prognosis in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Zhu P ... Efficacy and Toxicity of Mammalian Target Rapamycin Inhibitors in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma with Renal ... Temsirolimus: in advanced renal cell carcinoma Dene Simpson et al. Drugs. 2008. ...
A microscopic examination was performed and confirmed the mass to be renal cell carcinoma, clear cell pattern. It was grade 1, ... it is possible it may have spread to the renal vasculature and IVC which is very common for renal cell carcinoma (Ahuja, 2007). ... The classic triad for renal cell carcinoma is flank pain, gross hematuria, and a palpable flank mass; however less than 10% of ... Since the patient was not experiencing any of the signature signs for renal cell carcinoma, this was more of an incidental ...
... is the most common histologically defined renal cancer. However, it is not a uniform disease and includes several genetic ... BACKGROUNDClear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common histologically defined renal cancer. However, it is not a ... Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma with clear cells and eosinophilia: a case report and short review of the literature. Neşiu A, ... Metabolic reprogramming in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Wettersten HI, Aboud OA, Lara PN Jr, Weiss RH. Wettersten HI, et al ...
We present a case of right renal cell carcinoma which presented as intractable hiccups and was successfully managed by ... Renal cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor arising from the renal parenchyma and accounts for 2% - 3% of all adult malignancies ... Intractable Hiccups, an Unusual Presentation of Renal Cell Carcinoma () Isaac Obeng Asiedu*, James Edward Mensah, Bernard Toboh ... Chueh, K.S., Yeh, H.C. and Li, C.C. (2013) A Huge Renal Cell Carcinoma: Case Report and Literature Review. Urological Science, ...
Healthcare professionals reflect on recent evolutions in the renal cell carcinoma treatment landscape. ... Support Networks for Patients With Renal Cell Carcinoma Now Viewing. EP: 10. .The Evolving Landscape of Renal Cell Carcinoma ... An Expert Overview of Renal Cell Carcinoma EP: 2. .Receiving a Diagnosis of RCC: Patient and Caregiver Perspectives. EP: 3. . ... Renal Cell Carcinoma: Expert Perspectives on Treatment Selection. EP: 6. .Treatment for RCC: Educating Patients on Followup and ...
Translocation renal cell carcinoma is an aggressive form of renal cancer that is often misdiagnosed to other subtypes. Here the ... and 74 clear cell RCC cases (ccRCC, the most common RCC subtype) with matched gender and tumor grade. An automatic ... an accurate diagnose of this particular type of renal cancer can be achieved. ... TFE3 Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (TFE3-RCC) generally progresses more aggressively compared with other RCC ...
The European Association of Urology Renal Cell Cancer Guidelines Panel has compiled these clinical guidelines to provide ... Renal Cell Carcinoma Want to read the guideline in your own time? Download the PDF ... Ljundberg B et al Eur Urol 2022 in press European Association of Urology Guidelines on Renal Cell Carcinoma The 2022 Update ... Updated European Association of Urology Guidelines on the Use of Adjuvant Pembrolizumab for Renal Cell Carcinoma Eur Urol 2021 ...
Renal cell carcinoma is a cancer that originates in the kidneys. Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnostic process and ... The resulting excess cells then bind together and form tumors. The most common type of kidney cancer is renal cell carcinoma, ... Kidney cancer begins when healthy cells in the kidneys-two bean-shaped organs located below the ribcage on either side of the ... which develops in the lining of the tiny renal tubules that filter waste products from the blood and produce urine. ...
... in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, these treatments have different toxicity profiles.Objective: Our ... 2011). Patient benefit-risk preferences for targeted agents in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. PharmacoEconomics, 29(11 ... Patient benefit-risk preferences for targeted agents in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. ... Patient benefit-risk preferences for targeted agents in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma ...
ASCO GU 2022 the ability to match sequencing report with available therapeutic options in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) ... a number of potentially actionable gene alterations in non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma and hereditary renal cell carcinoma ... ASCO GU 2022: Matching Sequencing Reports With Available Therapies in Renal Cell Carcinoma (UroToday.com) On the third day of ... Merchan began by highlighting the therapeutic and genomic landscape of renal cell carcinoma over the past 30 years including ...
... Physician: Harsany Jan MD ... on follow-up CT with findings of recurrence renal cell carcinoma (32x30mm) with endophytic growth (picture 1). After ...
Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Renal Cell Carcinoma Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma ... Kidney Neoplasms Carcinoma, Renal Cell Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Procedure: FDG PET CT Procedure: DCE MRI Drug: F-18 Fluoro- ... Carcinoma. Carcinoma, Renal Cell. Kidney Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. ... Evaluating Sunitinib Therapy in Renal Cell Carcinoma Using F-18 FDG PET/CT and DCE MRI. The safety and scientific validity of ...
... *Authors: *Wenbin Song ... induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in several tumors, but not in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In the present study, we ... The prognostic significance of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma: a call for ... Kaempferol induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma through EGFR/p38 signaling. Oncol Rep 31: 1350-1356 ...
Pembrolizumab combined with axitinib in the treatment of skin metastasis of renal clear cell carcinoma to nasal ala: A case ... Pembrolizumab combined with axitinib in the treatment of skin metastasis of renal clear cell carcinoma to nasal ala: A case ... Pembrolizumab combined with axitinib in the treatment of skin metastasis of renal clear cell carcinoma to nasal ala: A case ... Core Tip: The skin metastasis of renal cell carcinoma can be diagnosed by pathological biopsy and immunohistochemical staining ...
Papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) is the most common type of non-clear cell RCC, accounting for 10 to 15% of RCC cases ... Phase II and biomarker study of the dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibitor foretinib in patients with papillary renal cell carcinoma. J Clin ... Foretinib Has Activity in Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma. Cancer Discov 1 January 2013; 3 (1): OF14. https://doi.org/10.1158/ ...
Quitting smoking after their diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma have potentially improved overall and progression-free survival. ... The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) varies considerably across the globe. Data suggests the highest incidence of this ... In fact, cigarette smoking is a recognised, independent risk factor for advanced renal cell carcinoma. In addition, it is also ... Individuals quitting smoking after their diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma potentially have improved overall and progression- ...
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not a single disease, but several histologically defined cancers with different genetic drivers, ... The current study evaluated 843 RCC from the three major histologic subtypes, including 488 clear cell RCC, 274 papillary RCC, ...
A 71-year-old female was diagnosed with localized renal cell carcinoma in July 2008 with subsequent metastasis in 2012 to the ... A 71-year-old female was diagnosed with localized renal cell carcinoma in July 2008 with subsequent metastasis in 2012 to the ... Panniculitis in a patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma on a tyrosine kinase inhibitor.. Dec 10, 2020 ...
Papillary renal cell carcinoma is the second most common form of kidney cancer, accounting for 15 to 20% of all cases, and ... Pre-clinical identification of therapeutic targets in Type 1 Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma. Wednesday, September 12, 2018. - ... Activating gene mutations of MET are identified in the germline of hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma patients and ... sporadic papillary renal carcinoma. While MET kinase inhibitors are active in some of these patients, primary and acquired ...
Fine-needle aspiration of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to a male breast: A rare initial presentation ... Fine-needle aspiration of metastatic renal-cell carcinoma masquerading as primary breast carcinoma.. Diagn Cytopathol. 1998;18: ... At 1 month later, a right nephrectomy demonstrated a clear cell renal cell carcinoma (10.1 cm) with tumor extending into the ... A diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, clear cell type was rendered. Subsequently, an abdomen computed tomography scan ...
Are primary renal cell carcinoma and metastases of renal cell carcinoma the same cancer? Urol Oncol 34: 215-220, 2016. PMID: ... clear cell RCC. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common kidney malignancy, affecting men more than women, and metastatic ... Expression of insulin-like growth factor I receptor and survival in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 170: ... The roles of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in the regulation of proximal tubule, and renal cell carcinoma cell proliferation. Kidney Int 65 ...
Sorafenib is a new treatment indicated for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma who have failed prior cytokine-based ... 10] Flaherty, K.T. (2007) Sorafenib in renal cell carcinoma. ... fenib in advanced clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma. The New ...
... ... and Antitumor Activity of MEDI5752 in Combination with Axitinib in Subjects with Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma ... in subjects with advanced renal cell carcinoma. ... in subjects with advanced renal cell carcinoma. ... in subjects with advanced renal cell carcinoma. ... or cytologically proven advanced RCC with clear cell component ...
Prolonged natural history of a cystic renal cell carcinoma: A case report ...
... is divided into three major histopathologic groups-clear cell (ccRCC), papillary (pRCC) and chromophobe RCC (chRCC). We ... Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is divided into three major histopathologic groups-clear cell (ccRCC), papillary (pRCC) ... Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is divided into three major histopathologic groups-clear cell (ccRCC), papillary (pRCC) and ... Subgroup-Independent Mapping of Renal Cell Carcinoma - Machine Learning Reveals Prognostic Mitochondrial Gene Signature Beyond ...
Tags: ccRCC, cell growth, chemotherapy, clear cell renal cell carcinoma, epigenome, genes, glycolysis, kidney cancer, mutations ... clear cell renal cell carcinoma. New Understanding of a Common Kidney Cancer Posted on July 9th, 2013. by Dr. Francis Collins ... A new study reveals how this escalation occurs in the most common form of kidney cancer: clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC ... Understanding how cancer cells shift into high gear-what makes them become more aggressive and unresponsive to treatment-is a ...
i>De Novo Renal Cell Carcinoma of Native Kidneys in Renal Transplant Recipients: A Single-center Experience. ... De Novo Renal Cell Carcinoma of Native Kidneys in Renal Transplant Recipients: A Single-center Experience. Journal Article ( ... The risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) development in renal transplant recipients is 15-100 times higher than in the general ... Most RCCs in renal transplant recipients are low-stage, low-grade tumors with a favorable prognosis. Their diagnosis is usually ...
  • Panniculitis in a patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma on a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • On literature search, all the reported cases of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the breast were in females, except one in which metastasis was noted in the skin of the male breast. (cytojournal.com)
  • The goal of this study was to demonstrate feasibility for performing radiomics analysis on integrated PET/MRI to characterize early treatment response in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) undergoing sunitinib therapy. (case.edu)
  • Stage 3 tumors extend into the renal vein or vena cava, involve the ipsilateral adrenal gland and/or perinephric fat, or have spread to local lymph nodes. (medscape.com)
  • Renal cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor arising from the renal parenchyma and accounts for 2% - 3% of all adult malignancies, and 80% of all primary renal tumors [1]. (scirp.org)
  • The resulting excess cells then bind together and form tumors. (tgh.org)
  • Kaempferol has been shown to inhibit cell growth, induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in several tumors, but not in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 1 2 ] Reported primary malignant tumors that spread to the breast include melanoma, ovarian, thyroid, pulmonary, hepatic and rarely renal cell carcinoma. (cytojournal.com)
  • The majority of RCCs found in renal transplant recipients develop in the recipient's native kidneys, only 9% of tumors develop in the allograft itself. (duke.edu)
  • Most RCCs in renal transplant recipients are low-stage, low-grade tumors with a favorable prognosis. (duke.edu)
  • SDH-deficient RCC is difficult to distinguish from other renal tumors in imaging, so immunohistochemical examination of SDHB is recommended for young and middle- aged patients , especially those under 45. (bvsalud.org)
  • Those genes that were upregulated in tumors that were resistant to anti-PD-1 therapy are also expressed in cultured kidney cancer cell lines, the researchers found. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
  • Dong S, Xu YC, Zhang YC, Xia JX, Mou Y. Pembrolizumab combined with axitinib in the treatment of skin metastasis of renal clear cell carcinoma to nasal ala: A case report. (wjgnet.com)
  • The skin metastasis of renal cell carcinoma can be diagnosed by pathological biopsy and immunohistochemical staining. (wjgnet.com)
  • A 71-year-old female was diagnosed with localized renal cell carcinoma in July 2008 with subsequent metastasis in 2012 to the right adrenal gland, lungs, and brain. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • We herewith report an interesting case of a de novo male breast mass that demonstrated atypical cytological features suspicious for malignancy on fine-needle aspiration (FNA), which initiated an excisional biopsy, revealing a metastasis from what was determined to be an occult renal cell carcinoma. (cytojournal.com)
  • 7 ] The present case describe the first report of clear cell renal cell metastasis in the male breast parenchyma with no skin involvement. (cytojournal.com)
  • The differential diagnosis included a primary breast carcinoma or metastasis from an unknown primary such as clear cell renal cell carcinoma, pulmonary adenocarcinoma and clear cell "sugar" tumor of the lung, epithelioid hemagioendothelioma, adrenal cortical carcinoma or melanoma. (cytojournal.com)
  • Papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) is the most common type of non-clear cell RCC, accounting for 10 to 15% of RCC cases overall. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Phase II and biomarker study of the dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibitor foretinib in patients with papillary renal cell carcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The current study evaluated 843 RCC from the three major histologic subtypes, including 488 clear cell RCC, 274 papillary RCC, and 81 chromophobe RCC. (nih.gov)
  • Papillary renal cell carcinoma is the second most common form of kidney cancer, accounting for 15 to 20% of all cases, and occurs in both sporadic and inherited forms. (nih.gov)
  • Activating gene mutations of MET are identified in the germline of hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma patients and somatic MET mutations are found in a subset of patients with non-inherited, sporadic papillary renal carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • In collaborations with NCATS, an unbiased quantitative high throughput screening(qHTS) of about 1900 clinically relevant small molecule inhibitors was performed using patient derived papillary RCC cell lines generated in our laboratory. (nih.gov)
  • FNA of the mass (two direct smears stained with the Papanicolaou stain) demonstrated moderately cellular smears of epithelioid to spindled cells arranged in three-dimensional clusters as well as two-dimensional sheets of cells with vague papillary configurations. (cytojournal.com)
  • It represents a genetically and histologically diverse group of cancers that includes chromophobe, papillary, unclassified RCC, and other rare subtypes such as renal medullary carcinoma ( 3 - 6 ). (iiarjournals.org)
  • Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is divided into three major histopathologic groups-clear cell (ccRCC), papillary (pRCC) and chromophobe RCC (chRCC). (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Materials and Methods: We used FPKM (fragments per kilobase per million) files derived from the ccRCC, pRCC and chRCC cohorts of the TCGA database, Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is divided into three major histopathologic groups-clear cell (ccRCC), papillary (pRCC) and chromophobe RCC (chRCC). (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • This is a single arm prospective trial in patients with newly-diagnosed advanced renal cell cancer (RCC) who were scheduled for sunitinib therapy and utilized an extensive panel of quantitative metrics on baseline and interim FDG PET/CT to evaluate the predictive utility of each of these measurements. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 4. The use of an immunohistochemical diagnostic panel to determine the primary site of cervical lymph node metastases of occult squamous cell carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Although a variety of examinations (ultrasound [US], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], angiography) can be used in the workup of patients with suspected RCC, the preferred method of imaging is dedicated renal computed tomography (CT). (medscape.com)
  • Patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma and a poor prognosis who received a once-weekly intravenous infusion of temsirolimus 25 mg experienced significant survival benefits compared with patients receiving standard interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) therapy (3-18 MU subcutaneously three times weekly) in a large phase III clinical study. (nih.gov)
  • It is a unique pill in fact that has few [adverse] effects and in fact, patients must think about what the [adverse] effects are and they can lead to lower red blood cell counts, but it's certainly a treatment that's coming for kidney cancer patients. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Materials and Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded renal tissue samples from 94 patients (58 males and 36 females) were assessed for IGF-IEc expression by immunohistochemistry. (iiarjournals.org)
  • Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common kidney malignancy, affecting men more than women, and metastatic disease at presentation occurs in up to one-third of patients. (iiarjournals.org)
  • The records of 2,173 patients who underwent renal transplantation in our Department between March 1983 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. (duke.edu)
  • Approximately 30,000 patients are diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) each year in the United States, and an estimated 12,000 patients die of this disease. (nih.gov)
  • The present invention discloses peptides and antigen epitopes specific for RCC for use in the diagnosis, vaccination, or adoptive infusion of antigen specific T cells to treat patients with metastatic RCC. (nih.gov)
  • A T-cell line, expanded from the patient's blood cells at the time of tumor regression, was isolated and subsequently shown to kill the patients RCC cells in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers at Johns Hopkins identified genes involved in tumor cell metabolism that may predict which patients with renal cell carcinoma are unlikely to respond to treatment with nivolumab. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
  • The intratumoral balance between metabolic and immunologic gene expression is associated with anti-PD-1 response in patients with renal cell carcinoma. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
  • Dermatologic manifestations of renal disease are not uncommon findings in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). (medscape.com)
  • Many cutaneous disorders experienced by patients undergoing dialysis have little to do with the uremic syndrome and are related to the same underlying pathologic process that caused the renal disease. (medscape.com)
  • Review of the 2019 report reveals that diabetes mellitus remains the most common cause of ESRD, responsible for approximately 42% of all patients on renal replacement therapy. (medscape.com)
  • 16. Diagnostic evaluation of patients with carcinoma of unknown primary tumor site. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, uremia and conditions associated with renal replacement therapy are fraught with numerous and, often, relatively unique cutaneous disorders. (medscape.com)
  • The purpose of this article is to integrate renal and cutaneous aspects of disease as well as highlight some important, although frequently underappreciated, clinical or laboratory findings that ally renal and skin diseases. (medscape.com)
  • These systemic disorders and the associated renal diseases and cutaneous manifestations are tabulated in Table 1, below. (medscape.com)
  • 10. Cutaneous metastases carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Individuals quitting smoking after their diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma potentially have improved overall and progression-free survival, according to new research. (hospitalhealthcare.com)
  • 9. [Diagnosis of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma]. (nih.gov)
  • The pathological stage (size of the tumor and the extent of invasion), grade, and histological cell type are widely used in clinical practice for the prognosis of RCC ( 1 ). (iiarjournals.org)
  • Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays an important role in various aspects of cancer biology, such as cell growth, apoptosis resistance, cell differentiation and migration ( 7 - 10 ) and, thus, it has been implicated in the pathophysiology and prognosis of several human cancer types ( 11 - 14 ), including RCC ( 2 , 15 , 16 ). (iiarjournals.org)
  • In this study, we collect hematoxylin and eosin- stained histopathology whole-slide images of 74 TFE3-RCC cases (the largest cohort to date) and 74 clear cell RCC cases (ccRCC, the most common RCC subtype) with matched gender and tumor grade. (nature.com)
  • A new study reveals how this escalation occurs in the most common form of kidney cancer: clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). (nih.gov)
  • About 70% of all kidney cancers are clear cell renal cell cancer (ccRCC). (nih.gov)
  • The NCCN guideline recommends abdominal MRI to assess suspected tumor involvement in the inferior vena cava, or as an alternative to CT for renal mass detection and staging in cases where the use of contrast is contraindicated because of allergy or renal insufficiency. (medscape.com)
  • The American Urological Association (AUA) guideline for the management of the clinical T1 renal mass recommends a high-quality cross-sectional CT or MRI, first without and then with intravenous contrast if kidney function is adequate. (medscape.com)
  • TFE3 Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (TFE3-RCC) generally progresses more aggressively compared with other RCC subtypes, but it is challenging to diagnose TFE3-RCC by traditional visual inspection of pathological images. (nature.com)
  • In addition to the histopathologically defined subtypes of RCC, the Xp11.2 translocation RCC, a rare subtype associated with TFE3 gene fusion, was first officially recognized in the 2004 WHO renal tumor classification. (nature.com)
  • Renal cell carcinomas with t(6;11) translocation, harboring a MALAT1-TFEB gene fusion, are far less common. (nature.com)
  • 19. [Unilateral renal tumor in a child: nephroblastoma concurrent with a rare form of (translocation? (nih.gov)
  • The preferred method of imaging renal cell carcinomas is dedicated renal computed tomography (CT). (medscape.com)
  • Abdomino-pelvic Computed Tomography (CT)-scan revealed a well-defined non enhancing mass measuring 9.0 × 7.5 × 6.7 cm originating from the superior pole of the right kidney and growing out into the peri-renal space with mixed densities, mainly solid with no cystic components ( Figure 1 ). (scirp.org)
  • The Cancer Genome Atlas Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Renal Cell Carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Radiomics Analysis on FLT-PET/MRI for Characterization of Early Treatment Response in Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Proof-of-Concept Study. (case.edu)
  • Renal cell carcinoma is a type of kidney cancer that starts in the lining of very small tubes (tubules) in the kidney. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The most common type of kidney cancer is renal cell carcinoma, which develops in the lining of the tiny renal tubules that filter waste products from the blood and produce urine. (tgh.org)
  • 8. Metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary: diagnostic approach using immunohistochemistry. (nih.gov)
  • 12. Practical Applications in Immunohistochemistry: Carcinomas of Unknown Primary Site. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Merchan began by highlighting the therapeutic and genomic landscape of renal cell carcinoma over the past 30 years including the introduction followed by obsolescing of cytokine therapies, the tyrosine kinase era, and now the immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy era. (urotoday.com)
  • In the context of clear cell RCC, gene alterations (particularly PBRM1) are associated with treatment benefit in numerous trials including different treatment approaches including tyrosine kinase inhibitors (COMPARZ), mTOR inhibitors (RECORD-3), combination immune checkpoint inhibitor and VEGF or tyrosine kinase inhibitors (IMmotion150, IMmotion151, and JAVELIN Renal 101), or second-line immune checkpoint inhibitor monotherapy (CheckMate-025). (urotoday.com)
  • RCC development in the native kidney of renal transplant recipients is an early event, frequently observed within 4 to 5 years after transplantation. (duke.edu)
  • Consequently, dermatologic manifestations of renal disease may be divided into 3 general categories including: (1) dermatologic manifestations of diseases associated with the development of ESRD, (2) dermatologic manifestations of uremia, and (3) dermatologic disorders associated with renal transplantation. (medscape.com)
  • We went through nuanced topics like managing non-clear cell RCC, but we really didn't go over some of the really simple stuff. (medscape.com)
  • Because of improvements in diagnostic tests such as CT and MRI, the incidence of RCC has increased, with the most common type of RCC being clear cell carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • A microscopic examination was performed and confirmed the mass to be renal cell carcinoma, clear cell pattern. (diagnosticimaging.com)
  • However, there are a number of potentially actionable gene alterations in non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma and hereditary renal cell carcinoma syndromes. (urotoday.com)
  • Additionally, in TSC, mTOR inhibitor based therapies are mechanistically most appropriate while the novel HIF-2alpha inhibitor belzutifan is being evaluated in VHL syndrome related clear cell RCC. (urotoday.com)
  • The cells demonstrated a low nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, clear/vacuolated cytoplasm and regular to convoluted nuclear membranes, inconspicuous nucleoli, and rare intra-nuclear pseudo-inclusion. (cytojournal.com)
  • In particular, clear cell is the most common histological type of RCC accounting for 60-70% of cases ( 2 ). (iiarjournals.org)
  • Variation in genomic landscape of clear cell renal cell carcinoma across Europe. (who.int)
  • People aged 18 and older who have been diagnosed with advanced clear cell renal cancer and for whom standard treatment is no longer effective in treating it. (nih.gov)
  • 3 4 5 6 ] Clinical symptoms at presentation are unreliable to distinguish between a primary breast carcinoma and a metastatic tumor to the breast. (cytojournal.com)
  • Renal cell cancer treatment (PDQ) -- health professional version. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Healthcare professionals reflect on recent evolutions in the renal cell carcinoma treatment landscape. (cancernetwork.com)
  • A significant inhibition on cell growth, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were observed in 786-O and 769-P cells after kaempferol treatment compared with the control group. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Understanding how cancer cells shift into high gear-what makes them become more aggressive and unresponsive to treatment-is a key concern of cancer researchers. (nih.gov)
  • We present our experience in renal transplant recipients with RCC of native kidneys providing valuable and clinically applicable treatment and follow-up data. (duke.edu)
  • Further, pre-clinical studies using quantitative real-time PCR found that this HERV was expressed in eight of 14 RCC tumor cell lines with no HERV expression in patient fibroblasts, hematopoietic cells or in c-DNAs analyzed from 48 different normal tissues. (nih.gov)
  • De Novo Renal Cell Carcinoma of Native Kidneys in Renal Transplant Recipients: A Single-center Experience. (duke.edu)
  • The risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) development in renal transplant recipients is 15-100 times higher than in the general population. (duke.edu)
  • The immunogenic peptide, which binds to the HLA-A11 epitope, was identified in a patient with metastatic RCC that under went an investigational allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. (nih.gov)
  • Because dialysis and transplant centers are required to report specific information regarding each patient diagnosed with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) to the United States Renal Data System (USRDS), data regarding the causes of ESRD are readily available in the Annual Data Report published by the USRDS. (medscape.com)
  • Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We have the immune check inhibitors such as nibulamab and pembrolizumab, and then the third leg for kidney cancer is going to be the HIF-2 inhibitors, these are very unique drugs that target a transcription factor called, hypoxia-indicible factor 2 (HIF-2), which is the protein that goes up and reprograms the cell, if the cancer lost the sensor for oxygen, or doesn't see any oxygen. (cancernetwork.com)
  • It's really at the heart of how kidney cancer thinks and prepares itself to be more aggressive and survive adverse circumstances and drives some of the thinking of what these cells are going through and why they're becoming aggressive. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Kidney cancer begins when healthy cells in the kidneys-two bean-shaped organs located below the ribcage on either side of the spine-undergo abnormal DNA changes that cause them to reproduce uncontrollably. (tgh.org)
  • UroToday.com) On the third day of the American Society for Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Genitourinary Cancer Symposium 2022 in a symposium focused on biomarkers and therapies in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), Dr. Merchan discussed the question of whether we are yet able to match sequencing report with available therapeutic options. (urotoday.com)
  • Temsirolimus, interferon alfa, or both for advanced renal-cell carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • In the present study, we investigated the effects of kaempferol and the underlying mechanism(s) on the cell growth of RCC cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • MTT assay and colony formation assay were used to study cell growth, and flow cytometry was used to study apoptosis and cell cycles in different RCC cells treated with various doses of kaempferol. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In this study, we found kaempferol could functions mainly through the EGFR/p38 pathway to inhibit RCC cell growth. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate MEDI5752 in combination with Lenvatinib (or Axitinib), in subjects with advanced renal cell carcinoma. (astrazenecaclinicaltrials.com)
  • National Cancer Institute (NCI) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are collaborating to measure serum levels of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) for a nested case-control study of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. (nih.gov)
  • A comparison study with anaplastic large cell lymphoma. (nih.gov)
  • 63 years old male patient who underwent partial nephrectomy due to RCC of right kidney, on follow-up CT with findings of recurrence renal cell carcinoma (32x30mm) with endophytic growth (picture 1). (terumo-europe.com)
  • We report a severe adherent RCC of inferior vena cava that underwent open radical nephrectomy after preoperative renal artery embolization. (bvsalud.org)
  • Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not a single disease, but several histologically defined cancers with different genetic drivers, clinical courses, and therapeutic responses. (nih.gov)
  • Temsirolimus, an ester of sirolimus (rapamycin), selectively inhibits the kinase mammalian target of rapamycin and consequently blocks the translation of cell cycle regulatory proteins and prevents the over expression of angiogenic growth factors. (nih.gov)
  • Follow-up imaging (2 months) - dual-phase CT imaging of the abdomen showed no evidence of abnormal contrast enhancement, ablation zone surrounded by fibrous tissue, confirming a complete ablation and no complications, with no significant renal function drop. (terumo-europe.com)
  • He is the second of eight children of his parents, has a strong family history of malignancies, two of his siblings are deceased, one due to a renal tumour and the other a liver disease, a third sibling is currently being treated for oesophageal cancer. (scirp.org)
  • See also Chronic Kidney Disease and Chronic Renal Failure . (medscape.com)
  • Mature IGF-I peptide represents the common bioactive product of all IGF-I isoforms ( 24 , 28 ) and numerous studies have shown that this peptide is involved in cell survival and protection from apoptosis, as well as in the process of uncontrolled cell division, which generally characterizes cancer development ( 10 , 29 , 30 ). (iiarjournals.org)
  • The American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria for RCC staging recommends contrast-enhanced multiphasic CT scanning of the abdomen as the diagnostic modality of choice for staging a primary renal tumor. (medscape.com)
  • 2. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma: features presenting diagnostic challenges. (nih.gov)
  • 7. Cytokeratin positivity in anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a potential diagnostic pitfall in misdiagnosis of metastatic carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma masquerading as classical Hodgkin lymphoma on fine needle aspiration: A potential diagnostic pitfall. (nih.gov)
  • Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a new subtype of RCC included in the 2016 edition of the WHO classification in RCC. (bvsalud.org)
  • There is a growing body of evidence regarding the potential distinct role of IGF-I isoforms, particularly of IGF-IEc, in the pathophysiology of various human cancer types, however, there are no studies which examined the expression of the different IGF-I isoforms in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). (iiarjournals.org)
  • Various types of human cancer cells, such as prostate, breast and osteosarcoma ( 8 , 31 - 35 ), have been found to be affected by these IGF-I functions, while IGF-I has also been shown to contribute to cancer cell migration ( 36 ), tumor aggressiveness ( 37 , 38 ) and neovascularization ( 39 ). (iiarjournals.org)
  • Better treatments are needed for people with advanced renal cancer. (nih.gov)
  • To test a new drug (NKT2152) in people with advanced renal cancer. (nih.gov)
  • 20. Expression of CD30 (Ber-H2) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, undifferentiated type and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • p38 is one of the MAPKs, and could regulate cell proliferation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 18 F] fluorothymidine (FLT) was used as the PET radiotracer, which can measure the degree of cell proliferation. (case.edu)
  • We present a case of right renal cell carcinoma which presented as intractable hiccups and was successfully managed by performing a radical right nephrectomy. (scirp.org)
  • We report on a case of intractable hiccups from a right renal tumour which was successfully managed at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH), in Accra, Ghana and review the literature. (scirp.org)
  • 1. Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma with aberrant expression of multiple cytokeratins masquerading as metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary. (nih.gov)
  • 6. Immunocytochemical identification of carcinomas of unknown primary in serous effusions. (nih.gov)
  • 11. Hypereosinophilia and metastatic anaplastic carcinoma of unknown primary. (nih.gov)