Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: A form of highly malignant lung cancer that is composed of small ovoid cells (SMALL CELL CARCINOMA).Carcinoma, Large Cell: A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.QuinazolinesPrognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Gastrin-Releasing Peptide: Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Phosphopyruvate Hydratase: A hydro-lyase that catalyzes the dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate to form PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE. Several different isoforms of this enzyme exist, each with its own tissue specificity.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Bombesin: A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Paraneoplastic Syndromes: In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Receptors, Bombesin: Cell surface proteins that bind bombesin or closely related peptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Gastrin- releasing peptide (GRP); GRP 18-27 (neuromedin C), and neuromedin B are endogenous ligands of bombesin receptors in mammals.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Topotecan: An antineoplastic agent used to treat ovarian cancer. It works by inhibiting DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Carboplatin: An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Dopa Decarboxylase: One of the AROMATIC-L-AMINO-ACID DECARBOXYLASES, this enzyme is responsible for the conversion of DOPA to DOPAMINE. It is of clinical importance in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome: An autoimmune disease characterized by weakness and fatigability of proximal muscles, particularly of the pelvic girdle, lower extremities, trunk, and shoulder girdle. There is relative sparing of extraocular and bulbar muscles. CARCINOMA, SMALL CELL of the lung is a frequently associated condition, although other malignancies and autoimmune diseases may be associated. Muscular weakness results from impaired impulse transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Presynaptic calcium channel dysfunction leads to a reduced amount of acetylcholine being released in response to stimulation of the nerve. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 1471)Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Carcinoma, Adenosquamous: A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Cranial Irradiation: The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Carcinoma, Merkel Cell: A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)Keratin-19: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-7 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Carcinoma, Medullary: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Sarcoma, Small Cell: A sarcoma characterized by the presence of small cells, cells measuring 9-14 micrometers with a faint or indistinct rim of cytoplasm and an oval-to-elongated nucleus with relatively dense chromatin. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Mice, Inbred BALB CGene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration: Cerebellar degeneration associated with a remote neoplasm. Clinical manifestations include progressive limb and GAIT ATAXIA; DYSARTHRIA; and NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC. The histologic type of the associated neoplasm is usually carcinoma or lymphoma. Pathologically the cerebellar cortex and subcortical nuclei demonstrate diffuse degenerative changes. Anti-Purkinje cell antibodies (anti-Yo) are found in the serum of approximately 50% of affected individuals. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p686)Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Camptothecin: An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Inappropriate ADH Syndrome: A condition of HYPONATREMIA and renal salt loss attributed to overexpansion of BODY FLUIDS resulting from sustained release of ANTIDIURETIC HORMONES which stimulates renal resorption of water. It is characterized by normal KIDNEY function, high urine OSMOLALITY, low serum osmolality, and neurological dysfunction. Etiologies include ADH-producing neoplasms, injuries or diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the LUNG. This syndrome can also be drug-induced.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Synaptophysin: A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.Neuroendocrine Cells: Specialized NEURONS that produce hormones, such as NEUROPEPTIDES or BIOGENIC AMINES. They generally are in the NERVOUS SYSTEM, such as HYPOTHALAMUS, but can be found in other organs or systems. These neurons contain dense neurosecretory granules and PROPROTEIN CONVERTASES allowing the rapidly release of NEUROHORMONES into the blood circulation upon stimulation.Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Genes, myc: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar: A carcinoma thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli. Involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular. The neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures. Mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells. Metastases in regional lymph nodes, and in even more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Ifosfamide: Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.DeoxycytidineChemoradiotherapy: Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System: Degenerative or inflammatory conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous system that develop in association with a systemic neoplasm without direct invasion by tumor. They may be associated with circulating antibodies that react with the affected neural tissue. (Intern Med 1996 Dec;35(12):925-9)Carcinoma, Endometrioid: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.Paraneoplastic Polyneuropathy: A diffuse or multifocal peripheral neuropathy related to the remote effects of a neoplasm, most often carcinoma or lymphoma. Pathologically, there are inflammatory changes in peripheral nerves. The most common clinical presentation is a symmetric distal mixed sensorimotor polyneuropathy. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1334)Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.APUD Cells: Cells with the capacity to take up and decarboxylate the amine precursors DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE or 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN. This is a property of endocrine cells of neural and non-neural origin. APUDOMA is a general term collectively applied to tumors associated with APUD cells.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Peptichemio: A mixture of six synthetic oligopeptides, each containing MELPHALAN. It is used as a broad-spectrum antineoplastic due to its alkylating and antimetabolic actions but, is toxic to bone marrow, gastrointestinal system and vasculature.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.LeukopeniaMouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Taxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Limbic Encephalitis: A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.

Correlation between the status of the p53 gene and survival in patients with stage I non-small cell lung carcinoma. (1/7523)

The association of p53 abnormalities with the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) has been extensively investigated to date, however, this association is still controversial. Therefore, we investigated the prognostic significance of p53 mutations through exons 2 to 11 and p53 protein expression in 103 cases of stage I NSCLC. p53 mutations were detected in 49 of 103 (48%) tumors. Two separate mutations were detected in four tumors giving a total of 53 unique mutations in 49 tumors. Ten (19%) of mutations occurred outside exons 5-8. Positive immunohistochemical staining of p53 protein was detected in 41 of 103 (40%) tumors. The concordance rate between mutations and protein overexpression was only 69%. p53 mutations, but not expression, were significantly associated with a shortened survival of patients (P<0.001). Furthermore, we investigated the correlation between the types of p53 mutations and prognosis. p53 missense mutations rather than null mutations were associated with poor prognosis (P < 0.001 in missense mutations and P=0.243 in null mutations). These results indicated that p53 mutations, in particular missense mutations, rather than p53 expression could be a useful molecular marker for the prognosis of patients with surgically resected stage I NSCLC.  (+info)

Comparative efficacy of positron emission tomography with FDG and computed tomographic scanning in preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer. (2/7523)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of positron emission tomography with 2-fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG) in the preoperative staging (N and M staging) of patients with lung cancer. The authors wanted to compare the efficacy of PET scanning with currently used computed tomography (CT) scanning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Results of whole-body PET-FDG imaging and CT scans were compared with histologic findings for the presence or absence of lymph node disease or metastatic sites. Sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes was performed using mediastinoscopy or thoracotomy. RESULTS: PET-FDG imaging was significantly more sensitive, specific, and accurate for detecting N disease than CT. PET changed N staging in 35% and M staging in 11% of patients. CT scans helped in accurate anatomic localization of 6/57 PET lymph node abnormalities. CONCLUSION: PET-FDG is a reliable method for preoperative staging of patients with lung cancer and would help to optimize management of these patients. Accurate lymph node staging of lung cancer may be ideally performed by simultaneous review of PET and CT scans.  (+info)

Expression of tissue factor in non-small-cell lung cancers and its relationship to metastasis. (3/7523)

Tissue factor (TF) is an initiator of the extrinsic cascade of blood coagulation. Although recent studies have revealed a relationship between metastatic properties and TF expression in some neoplastic cells, the significance of TF in lung cancer, especially in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is still unclear. In this study, TF was detected in NSCLC cell lines by functional study, Western blot analysis and immunocytochemical staining. TF levels in eight NSCLC cell lines were also quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and TF expression was evaluated in 55 specimens of surgically resected NSCLCs. NSCLC cell lines derived from metastatic lesions produced high levels of TF (48.3+/-23.5 ng 10(-6) cells, mean +/- s.e.m.), whereas those derived from primary lesions produced low levels of TF (0.2+/-0.1 ng 10(-6) cells). Immunohistochemical studies disclosed significantly stronger staining for TF in cells from NSCLC patients with metastasis than in those without metastasis. Among the 28 patients with metastasis, ten were strongly positive, 16 were moderately positive and two were negative for TF. In contrast, among the 27 patients without metastasis, only two were strongly positive, 18 were moderately positive and seven were negative for TF. Therefore, malignant cells from patients with lung cancer produce various levels of TF, and TF may play an important role in the metastatic process.  (+info)

Novel regions of allelic deletion on chromosome 18p in tumors of the lung, brain and breast. (4/7523)

Lung cancer is now the number one cause of cancer death for both men and women. An age-adjusted analysis over the past 25 years shows that in women specifically, lung cancer incidence is on the rise. It is estimated that 10-20 genetic events including the alteration of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes will have occurred by the time a lung tumor becomes clinically evident. In an effort to identify regions containing novel cancer genes, chromosome 18p11, a band not previously implicated in disease, was examined for loss of heterozygosity (LOH). In this study, 50 matched normal and NSCLC tumor samples were examined using six 18p11 and one 18q12.3 PCR-based polymorphic markers. In addition, LOH was examined in 29 glioblastoma pairs and 14 paired breast carcinomas. This analysis has revealed potentially two regions of LOH in 18p11 in up to 38% of the tumor samples examined. The regions of LOH identified included a 2 cm area between markers D18S59 and D18S476, and a more proximal, 25 cm region of intermediate frequency between D18S452 and D18S453. These results provide evidence for the presence of one or more potential tumor suppressor genes on the short arm of chromosome 18 which may be involved in NSCLC, brain tumors and possibly breast carcinomas as well.  (+info)

Molecular detection of tumor cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with early stage lung cancer. (5/7523)

BACKGROUND: Conventional cytologic analysis of sputum is an insensitive test for the diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We have recently demonstrated that polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular methods are more sensitive than cytologic analysis in diagnosing bladder cancer. In this study, we examined whether molecular assays could identify cancer cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. METHODS: Tumor-specific oncogene mutations, CpG-island methylation status, and microsatellite alterations in the DNA of cells in BAL fluid from 50 consecutive patients with resectable (stages I through IIIa) NSCLC were assessed by use of four PCR-based techniques. RESULTS: Of 50 tumors, 28 contained a p53 mutation, and the identical mutation was detected with a plaque hybridization assay in the BAL fluid of 39% (11 of 28) of the corresponding patients. Eight of 19 adenocarcinomas contained a K-ras mutation, and the identical mutation was detected with a mutation ligation assay in the BAL fluid of 50% (four of eight) of the corresponding patients. The p16 gene was methylated in 19 of 50 tumors, and methylated p16 alleles were detected in the BAL fluid of 63% (12 of 19) of the corresponding patients. Microsatellite instability in at least one marker was detected with a panel of 15 markers frequently altered in NSCLC in 23 of 50 tumors; the identical alteration was detected in the BAL fluid of 14% (three of 22) of the corresponding patients. When all four techniques were used, mutations or microsatellite instability was detected in the paired BAL fluid of 23 (53%) of the 43 patients with tumors carrying a genetic alteration. CONCLUSION: Although still limited by sensitivity, molecular diagnostic strategies can detect the presence of neoplastic cells in the proximal airway of patients with surgically resectable NSCLC.  (+info)

Trimodality therapy in stage III non-small cell lung cancer: prediction of recurrence by assessment of p185neu. (6/7523)

In a trimodality treatment approach for stage III non-small cell lung cancer the prognostic impact of pretherapeutic p185neu assessment was evaluated. Fifty-four patients were admitted to chemotherapy followed by twice-daily radiation with concomittant low-dose chemotherapy and subsequent surgery. Immunohistochemical assessment of p185neu expression was performed in paraffin-embedded mediastinal lymph node metastases, by mediastinoscopy biopsy prior to therapy. Paraffin-embedded biopsies of mediastinal lymph node metastases were available in 33 cases. Seven out of eight patients with positive p185neu staining developed distant metastases, in contrast to seven out of 25 negative cases. Expression of p185neu in mediastinal lymph node metastases was a significant predictor for progression-free survival (p=0.047) and resulted mainly from significant differences in metastases-free survival (p185neu-positive versus p185neu-negative: median, 11 versus 19 months; 2- and 3-yr rates, 13% and 0% versus 40% and 32%; p=0.04). On the basis of these preliminary results it was concluded that further evaluation of p185neu expression in trials on neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy is warranted. When the prognostic impact of p185neu in such trials with larger patient numbers is confirmed, this may contribute to the identification of stratification variables for future treatment approaches of non-small cell lung cancer.  (+info)

Combined modality therapy of lung cancer. (7/7523)

Combined modality therapy for lung cancer was first demonstrated to be successful in limited-stage small cell lung cancer. Concurrent administration of chemotherapy with chest and elective brain irradiation appears to produce the best results, with cisplatin/etoposide as the core chemotherapy. Using such programs, 2-year survival in the 40% range and 5-year survivals in excess of 20% may be expected, based on the results of multiple studies. Attempts to improve on these results through the use of altered schemes of chest irradiation or the delivery of high-dose consolidation chemotherapy are ongoing but to date have not been shown to affect survival significantly. We remain at a plateau in the effectiveness of combined modality therapy for small cell lung cancer, with little evidence that it impacts survival at all in extensive-stage disease. The incorporation of new agents in combination chemotherapy regimens, more "specific" immunotherapy directed at tumor-associated antigens, and the potential adjunctive use of broad-spectrum neuropeptide antagonists offer promise for the future. In non-small cell lung cancer, the sequential use of platinum-based chemotherapy and chest irradiation appears superior in survival to standard, daily fractionated radiation therapy used alone, with long-term survival increased from 5-10% to 15-20%. Concurrent administration of chemotherapy with cisplatin/etoposide and chest irradiation produces 2-year survival in the range of 30%, about twice that would be expected for radiation therapy alone, but has not been compared to it in the setting of a randomized trial. Low-dose cisplatin on a daily basis has been combined as a "sensitizer" with chest irradiation, producing initial results that appeared encouraging. However, these have not been reproduced in subsequent, randomized trials. Another approach to combined modalities has been to give chemotherapy or chemotherapy/radiation therapy as induction, followed by surgical resection, with or without subsequent additional treatment. Most patients (80-85%) can be resected, with encouraging survival at 2 and 3 years in the Southwest Oncology Group experience (37 and 26%, respectively). However, toxicity is greater, and such an approach is associated with an overall mortality risk in the range of 10%. A current intergroup study attempts to define the role of surgery in this setting. The major recent development that is likely to influence the future of combined modality therapy for this disease is the advent of multiple new chemotherapeutic agents, such as the taxanes, gemcitabine, vinorelbine, and the topoisomerase-I inhibitors, which have activity in stage IV disease. The immediate challenge is how to combine these agents with platinum analogues, radiation, and surgery. Aiding this process may be the use of molecular biological "markers" that may predict the chance of success or failure with a given systemic agent. The next decade is likely to see substantial improvements in the outcome of treatment for patients with stages I-III non-small cell lung cancer, based on the systemic exploration of combined modalities.  (+info)

The expression of beta-catenin in non-small-cell lung cancer: a clinicopathological study. (8/7523)

AIMS: To investigate the expression of beta-catenin in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its clinical significance. METHODS: 101 patients were surgically treated for NSCLC by lobectomy or pneumectomy with systematic lymph node dissection. Follow up was available in all patients, ranging from 24 to 110 months. Immunostaining of tissue sections from primary tumours and (when present) their lymph node metastases was performed and evaluated using a monoclonal antibody against beta-catenin. Correlations were investigated between beta-catenin immunostaining in primary tumours and E-cadherin immunostaining (data available from a previous study), lymph node stage, and survival. RESULTS: There were significant correlations between scores for beta-catenin immunostaining and E-cadherin immunostaining in primary tumours (p = 0.007), and between the beta-catenin immunostaining score in primary tumours and in their lymph node metastases (p = 0.006). An inverse correlation was found between the beta-catenin immunostaining score in primary tumours and lymph node stage N0, N1, or N2 (p = 0.03). According to the Kaplan-Meier survival estimate, the level of beta-catenin expression in primary tumours was a statistically significant prognostic factor (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Reduced beta-catenin expression in surgically treated NSCLC is clearly associated with lymph node metastasis and an infavourable prognosis. The existence of a functional relation between E-cadherin and beta-catenin is supported by the results of this clinicopathological study.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Phase II study of taxol, merbarone, and piroxantrone in stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer. T2 - The eastern cooperative oncology group results. AU - Chang, A. Y.. AU - Kim, K.. AU - Glick, J.. AU - Anderson, T.. AU - Karp, D.. AU - Johnson, D.. PY - 1993/3/3. Y1 - 1993/3/3. N2 - Background: Patients with metastatic (stage IV) non-small-cell lung cancer usually have a poor prognosis and disease refractory to chemotherapy. Three new agents-taxol, merbarone, and piroxantrone-have shown promising antitumor treatment in vitro and in animals. Taxol is an antimicrotubular agent that interferes with mitosis during cell division. Merbarone, a conjugate of thiobarbituric acid and aniline, is a topoisomerase II inhibitor, which thus inhibits DNA synthesis and tumor growth. Piroxantrone, an anthracenedione derivative, is a DNA intercalating agent that has shown potent antitumor activity in animal studies. Purpose: Our randomized phase II study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and ...
Ionic channel activity is involved in fundamental cellular behaviour and participates in cancerous features such as proliferation, migration and invasion which in turn contribute to the metastatic process. In this study, we investigated the expression and role of voltage-gated sodium channels in non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. Functional voltage-gated sodium channels expression was investigated in normal and non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. The measurement, in patch-clamp conditions, of tetrodotoxin-inhibitable sodium currents indicated that the strongly metastatic cancerous cell lines H23, H460 and Calu-1 possess functional sodium channels while normal and weakly metastatic cell lines do not. While all the cell lines expressed mRNA for numerous sodium channel isoforms, only H23, H460 and Calu-1 cells had a 250 kDa protein corresponding to the functional channel. The other cell lines also had another protein of 230 kDa which is not addressed to the membrane and might act as a dominant
Management of local recurrences and regional failure in early stage non-small cell lung cancer after stereotactic body radiation therapy
The purpose of this trial is to examine the safety and immunogenicity of a therapeutic vaccine regimen with recombinant DNA and adenovirus expressing L523S protein in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer. The vaccine regimen will consist of two fixed doses of recombinant DNA (pVAX/L523S) followed by two doses of recombinant adenovirus (Ad/L523S). The trial will evaluate the dose escalation of Ad/L523S through three cohorts of patients ...
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Therapies against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are particularly needed, as this type of cancer is relatively insensitive to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. We recently identified GGTI compounds that are designed to block geranylgeranylation and membrane association of signaling proteins including the Rho family G-proteins. One of the GGTIs is P61A6 which inhibits proliferation of human cancer cells, causes cell cycle effects with G1 accumulation and exhibits tumor-suppressing effects with human pancreatic cancer xenografts. In this paper, we investigated effects of P61A6 on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Three non-small cell lung cancer cell lines were used to test the ability of P61A6 to inhibit cell proliferation. Further characterization involved analyses of geranylgeranylation, membrane association and activation of RhoA, and anchorage-dependent and -independent growth, as well as cell cycle
OBJECTIVES:. I. To assess the safety and efficacy of a combination of vinorelbine and paclitaxel administered weekly to elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.. II. To assess the response rate of a combination of vinorelbine and paclitaxel administered weekly to elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.. III. To assess the quality of life of elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer during administration of weekly paclitaxel and vinorelbine.. OUTLINE:. Patients receive vinorelbine tartrate intravenously (IV) over 6-10 minutes and paclitaxel IV over 1 hour once weekly for 6 weeks. Treatment repeats every 8 weeks for up to 2 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.. After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up every 3 months for 2 years and then every 6 months for 5 years. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Paclitaxel by either 1-hour or 24-hour infusion in combination with carboplatin in advanced non-small cell lung cancer. T2 - Preliminary results comparing sequential phase II trials. AU - DeVore, R. F.. AU - Jagasia, M.. AU - Johnson, D. H.. PY - 1997/10/22. Y1 - 1997/10/22. N2 - Our group previously described the activity of carboplatin plus paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) (given as a 24-hour infusion) in 51 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. To facilitate outpatient administration, the regimen was modified to infuse paclitaxel over 1 hour. Between February 1995 and August 1996, 63 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer were accrued by the Vanderbilt Cancer Center and its affiliate network. The first four patients received paclitaxel 175 mg/ml2; all subsequent patients received paclitaxel 200 mg/m2. The carboplatin dose was determined using the Calvert formula, with a target area under the concentration-time curve of 6. ...
RATIONALE: Sorafenib and erlotinib may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Sorafenib may also stop the growth of non-small cell lung cancer by blocking blood flow to the tumor. Giving sorafenib together with erlotinib may kill more tumor cells.

PURPOSE: This phase II trial is studying how well giving sorafenib together with erlotinib works in treating patients with stage IIIB or stage IV non-small cell lung cancer that has not responded to chemotherapy.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Use of MicroRNA expression levels to predict outcomes in resected stage i non-small cell lung cancer. AU - Duncavage, Eric. AU - Goodgame, Boone. AU - Sezhiyan, Ananth. AU - Govindan, Ramaswamy. AU - Pfeifer, John. PY - 2010/11. Y1 - 2010/11. N2 - Background: Despite undergoing curative resection, nearly a third of patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) die of recurrent disease. There are no reliable clinical or molecular predictors of relapse in patients with resected stage I NSCLC. Identifying patients at risk for relapse after surgical resection is one of the important challenges today. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate hundreds of genes central to maintaining a cancer phenotype. Methods: In an exploratory study, we determined whether expression of six miRNAs (let-7a, miR-7, miR-21, miR-155, miR-210, and miR-221) previously reported to correlate with invasiveness or outcome in various human malignancies were associated with tumor recurrence in patients with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 cancer/testis antigen expression in early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma. AU - Gjerstorff, Morten F. AU - Pøhl, Mette. AU - Olsen, Karen E. AU - Ditzel, Henrik J. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - The unique expression pattern and immunogenic properties of cancer/testis antigens make them ideal targets for immunotherapy of cancer. The MAGE-A3 cancer/testis antigen is frequently expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and vaccination with MAGE-A3 in patients with MAGE-A3-positive NSCLC has shown promising results. However, little is known about the expression of other cancer/testis antigens in NSCLC. In the present study the expression of cancer/testis antigens GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 was investigated in patients with completely resected, early stage, primary NSCLC.. AB - The unique expression pattern and immunogenic properties of cancer/testis antigens make them ideal targets for immunotherapy of cancer. The MAGE-A3 cancer/testis antigen ...
Excerpt:. "Patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer survive four months longer with fewer side effects on an immunotherapy drug called atezolizumab compared to chemotherapy, according to a phase 3 clinical trial published in The Lancet.. "The trial enrolled 1225 advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients who have no more treatment options, but this study used an early analysis of the first 850 patients from the trial. Half of the group were given atezolizumab and the other half were given docetaxel chemotherapy, which is the standard treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.. "Patients given atezolizumab - a drug that blocks the programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) protein - survived for an average of 13.8 months, compared with 9.6 months for those on chemotherapy.". Go to full article.. ...
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The first-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), gefitinib and erlotinib, are effective as first-line treatment of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring activating EGFR mutations (deletions in exon 19 and exon 21 L858R mutation). EGFR T790 M resistance mutation (EGFR T790 M) ultimately emerged in most of these patients. The second and third-generation EGFR-TKIs were designed to have more potent inhibition of EGFR and to overcome EGFR T790 M. This review describes the recent developments of these novel EGFR-TKIs.. RECENT FINDINGS: The second-generation EGFR-TKIs, afatinib and dacomitinib, irreversibly bind to the tyrosine kinase of EGFR and other ErbB-family members. Afatinib has been approved as first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC harboring activating EGFR mutations. Dacomitinib is under development. Third-generation EGFR-TKIs, AZD9291, CO-1686, and HM61713, inhibit both EGFR activating and resistance mutations, ...
This phase II trial is studying how well saracatinib works in treating patients with recurrent, stage IIIB or stage IV non-small cell lung cancer previo
SOTIO presented new statistically and clinically significant results from its Phase I/II clinical trial evaluating DCVAC/LuCa, an active cellular immunotherapy product, in patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer. The final analysis of the data confirmed the promising clinical efficacy of DCVAC/LuCa.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prognostic and predictive gene signature for adjuvant chemotherapy in resected non-small-cell lung cancer. AU - Zhu, Chang Qi. AU - Ding, Keyue. AU - Strumpf, Dan. AU - Weir, Barbara A.. AU - Meyerson, Matthew. AU - Pennell, Nathan. AU - Thomas, Roman K.. AU - Naoki, Katsuhiko. AU - Ladd-Acosta, Christine. AU - Liu, Ni. AU - Pintilie, Melania. AU - Der, Sandy. AU - Seymour, Lesley. AU - Jurisica, Igor. AU - Shepherd, Frances A.. AU - Tsao, Ming Sound. PY - 2010/10/10. Y1 - 2010/10/10. N2 - Purpose: The JBR.10 trial demonstrated benefit from adjuvant cisplatin/vinorelbine (ACT) in early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We hypothesized that expression profiling may identify stage-independent subgroups who might benefit from ACT. Patients and Methods: Gene expression profiling was conducted on mRNA from 133 frozen JBR.10 tumor samples (62 observation [OBS], 71 ACT). The minimum gene set that was selected for the greatest separation of good and poor prognosis patient ...
A phase I-II dose ranging study of BMS-275183 (oral taxane) in combination with pemetrexed (Alimta) in patients with recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cance
This study will examine the effectiveness of a drug called Tarceva (erlotinib) giving prior to surgery in lung cancer patients. To be eligible for the study patients must have stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with EGFR mutation. Eligible patients will take Tarceva® (erlotinib) at a dose of 150 mg daily for approximately two months. After 2 months of erlotinib treatment, patients will have a PET/CT scan to determine whether they are responding to the treatment (i.e. whether or not the tumor shrunk or remains stable) or not. After the treatment patients will then be evaluated by a surgeon for surgical removal of the remaining tumor. Treatment after the surgery will be determined by the treating physician and it will be influenced by the response to treatment with Tarceva (erlotinib). A total of 55 patients with will take part in this multi-institution study.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phase II trial of gefitinib in combination with bevacizumab as first-line therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer with activating EGFR gene mutations. T2 - The okayama lung cancer study group trial 1001. AU - Ichihara, Eiki. AU - Hotta, Katsuyuki. AU - Nogami, Naoyuki. AU - Kuyama, Shoichi. AU - Kishino, Daizo. AU - Fujii, Masanori. AU - Kozuki, Toshiyuki. AU - Tabata, Masahiro. AU - Harada, Daijiro. AU - Chikamori, Kenichi. AU - Aoe, Keisuke. AU - Ueoka, Hiroshi. AU - Hosokawa, Shinobu. AU - Bessho, Akihiro. AU - Hisamoto-Sato, Akiko. AU - Kubo, Toshio. AU - Oze, Isao. AU - Takigawa, Nagio. AU - Tanimoto, Mitsune. AU - Kiura, Katsuyuki. PY - 2015/3/30. Y1 - 2015/3/30. N2 - Purpose: Whether bevacizumab enhances the effect of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor gefitinib on EGFR mutant non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) remains unknown. We conducted a phase II trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of gefitinib when combined with bevacizumab as ...
Sox2 and Oct4 are transcription factors with the characteristics of regulating self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic stem cell. The aim of this study was to detect the expression of Sox2 and Oct4 and analyze their clinical significance in human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Expression of Sox2 and Oct4 were assayed in cancer tissues and their corresponding paracancerous tissues from 44 patients with NSCLC and 21 patients with benign tumors using immunohistochemistry, Western blot, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The correlation between the expression of Sox2 and Oct4 and tumor type, grade and prognosis and the utility of the two genes in discriminating between benign and malignant tumors were analyzed as well. The results showed that Sox2 and Oct4 positive staining was only seen in the nuclei of cancer cells but not in either the precancerous tissues or benign tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry (p | 0.01). Furthermore, in the lung cancer tissue, the positive
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gefitinib enhances cytotoxicities of antimicrotubule agents in non-small-cell lung cancer cells exhibiting no sensitizing epidermal growth factor receptor mutation. AU - Tsai, Chun Ming. AU - Chiu, Chao Hua. AU - Chang, Kao Ting. AU - Chen, Jen-Ting (Tina). AU - Lai, Chun Liang. AU - Chen, Yuh Min. AU - Hsiao, Shih Yin. PY - 2012/8. Y1 - 2012/8. N2 - INTRODUCTIONS:: Although randomized clinical trials showed no benefit from combining epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) with standard chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), better results might be obtained by combining EGFR-TKI with individual agents that are substrates for the adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporters (ABCTs) because EGFR-TKIs can inhibit their efflux. The combination effects deserved to be further examined in vitro. METHODS:: The combination effects of gefitinib with three antimicrotubule agents (AMTAs), paclitaxel, docetaxel or vinorelbine, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Paclitaxel plus carboplatin. T2 - An effective combination chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer or just another elvis sighting?. AU - Johnson, D. H.. AU - Einhorn, L. H.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0029130242&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0029130242&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1200/JCO.1995.13.8.1840. DO - 10.1200/JCO.1995.13.8.1840. M3 - Editorial. C2 - 7636526. AN - SCOPUS:0029130242. VL - 13. SP - 1840. EP - 1842. JO - Journal of Clinical Oncology. JF - Journal of Clinical Oncology. SN - 0732-183X. IS - 8. ER - ...
article{9577a866-5c0d-4f12-ae86-a94268963442, abstract = {,p,Numerous protein biomarkers have been analyzed to improve prognostication in non-small cell lung cancer, but have not yet demonstrated sufficient value to be introduced into clinical practice. Here, we aimed to develop and validate a prognostic model for surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer. A biomarker panel was selected based on (1) prognostic association in published literature, (2) prognostic association in gene expression data sets, (3) availability of reliable antibodies, and (4) representation of diverse biological processes. The five selected proteins (MKI67, EZH2, SLC2A1, CADM1, and NKX2-1 alias TTF1) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays including tissue from 326 non-small cell lung cancer patients. One score was obtained for each tumor and each protein. The scores were combined, with or without the inclusion of clinical parameters, and the best prognostic model was defined according to the ...
Context The diversity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) failure in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been reported sporadically, but there is no published overview of EGFR-TKI failure modes, which could hinder the appropriate management for patients with distinct failure modes.. Objectives This study mainly aimed to classify the diversity of TKI failure, and to investigate the usefulness of clinical modes in subsequent management and prognosis.. Patients and methods The retrospective study accrued 227 Chinese advanced NSCLC patients with EGFR-TKI failure. One-hundred and twenty consecutive clinical trial patients were enrolled as the training set to establish a clinical model based on clinical factors. Another 107 routine patients were enrolled as the validating set according to a Bayes discriminant analysis. EGFR mutations and c-MET amplification were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to test the differences of prognosis and ...
At the 6th European Lung Cancer Conference (ELCC), held in Geneva, Switzerland, from 13-16 April 2016, Martin Reck, MD, PhD, from LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Grosshansdorf, Germany, discusses ASSESS, a trial of the utility of circulating-free tumor DNA in the plasma for the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
For advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases, a platinum-based regimen is the first-line chemotherapy treatment. The excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) plays an important role in DNA repair and has been related to resistance to platinum chemotherapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the ERCC1 (C118T) polymorphism on treatment response in 26 Thai advanced NSCLC patients receiving first line platinum-based chemotherapy during January to July 2015 at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital (KCMH). DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes and the single nucleotide polymorphism of ERCC1 was genotyped using a real-time PCR method with the TaqMan assay. The distribution of C/C, C/T and T/T genotypes was 57.7 %, 34.6 % and 7.7 %, respectively. The response rate to platinum-based chemotherapy in the wild type (C/C) of ERCC1 (C118T) was better than with the variant types (C/T and T/T) but the difference was not statistically significant (29.7% vs 9.1%, P=0.274).
By taking part in a clinical trial, you have access to potentially effective treatments not available elsewhere. Additionally, you will contribute to cancer research, which can help other cancer patients in the future. Read the full details of this specific clinical trial by clicking on the link below.. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02201992. View Complete Trial Details & Eligibility at ClinicalTrials.gov. ...
A study of survival data for Stage III, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients at the University of Marylands Greenebaum Cancer Center in Baltimore indicates that marital status and race can significantly impact patient ...
Somatostatin, Retinoids, Melatonin, Vitamin D, Bromocriptine, and Cyclophosphamide in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients with Low Performance Status.
Lung cancer is the most frequent malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide; it is the second most common cancer, comprising 1.69 million deaths worldwide per year. Among these, 85% of lung cancers are non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Metastasis is common in NSCLC patients and are responsible for most deaths. Kang-Ai 1 (KAI1), a tumor metastasis suppressor gene also known as Cluster of Differentiation 82 (CD82), is a member of the membrane tetraspanin protein family, which are capable of inhibiting the metastatic process in NSCLC. KAI1/CD82 suppresses metastasis via multiple mechanisms regulating inhibition of cell motility, adhesion, fusion, and proliferation. KAI1 may attenuate signaling to shut down metastatic colonization through attenuation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathways. In this review, we focus on the differential expression of KAI1/CD82, a tumor metastasis suppressor gene that can inhibit cancer
Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibody versus conventional chemotherapy for previously-treated, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Introduction: Cytotoxic chemotherapy is widely used to palliate advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but can induce severe toxic events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemotherapy toxicity in adavanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its impact on overall survival (OS ...
Chu, K. K. [朱嘉運]. (2007). High-throughput molecular characterization of human non-small cell lung carcinoma. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_ ...
In Vietnam, lung cancer has one of the highest death rates, with non-small-cell lung carcinoma accounting for 85% of patients being treated.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sequential treatment with afatinib and osimertinib in patients with EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. T2 - An observational study. AU - Hochmair, Maximilian J.. AU - Morabito, Alessandro. AU - Hao, Desiree. AU - Yang, Cheng Ta. AU - Soo, Ross A.. AU - Yang, James C.H.. AU - Gucalp, Rasim. AU - Halmos, Balazs. AU - Wang, Lara. AU - Golembesky, Amanda. AU - Märten, Angela. AU - Cufer, Tanja. PY - 2018/11. Y1 - 2018/11. N2 - Aim: To assess outcomes in patients with EGFR mutation-positive (Del19, L858R) non-small-cell lung cancer receiving sequential afatinib and osimertinib in a real-world clinical setting. Materials & methods: In this retrospective, observational, multicenter study, patients (n = 204) had T790M-positive disease following first-line afatinib and started osimertinib treatment ≥10 months prior to data entry. Primary outcome was time on treatment. Results: Overall median time on treatment was 27.6 months (90% CI: 25.9-31.3), 30.3 months (90% CI: ...
Based on my knowledge, it is first time to report the relationship between OPN polymorphisms and bone metastasis among NSCLC patients. Lots of evidence suggests that OPN plays a role in the regulation of tumor metastasis and that OPN expression is particularly high in metastatic tumors [20-22]. OPN is overexpressed in cancers that have a high propensity for forming bone metastases. In bone metastases, OPN is generally associated with the interface between the carcinoma and the bone surface, and this appears to be related to increased bone resorptive activity by osteoclasts [23]. Moreover, high OPN expression in the primary tumor is associated with early metastasis and poor clinical outcome in human gastric cancer and other cancers [19, 20, 24-27].. A recent study suggested that the OPN promoter was associated with NSCLC [28]. In the present study, we focused on the association of these SNPs with TNM stages of lung cancer, especially for bone metastasis. Although the distribution of genotypes in ...
Platinum-based combination and single-agent chemotherapy have become accepted as treatments for locally advanced and metastatic nonsmall cell lung cancer as a consequence of improved survival, quality of life, and symptom control compared with best supportive care. However, it is clear that a therapeutic plateau has been reached with current combinations requiring a re-evaluation of strategies to improve clinical outcomes. Dose intensification may offer one way in which to achieve better results, as may extension of the duration of treatment. The evidence suggests that dose intensification is a useful tool, and that its use in combination with markers of treatment duration and cumulative dose may help to maximize results from current active drug combinations ...
DATA SYNTHESIS. Using cisplatin-based chemotherapy achieves significant relief of disease-related symptoms of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and a slight improvement in the median survival time (by approximately 1.5 months). New cytotoxic drugs that are effective and have good safety profiles include paclitaxel and gemcitabine. When used as single agents, these two drugs give response rates of approximately 25%. When used with cisplatin/carboplatin, response rates increase to 45% to 62% and 1-year survival rates increase to 40% to 60 ...
Background Median survival is 10 months and 2-year survival is 20% in metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. A small fraction of non-squamous cell lung cancers harbor EGFR mutations, with improved outcome to gefitinib and erlotinib. Experimental evidence suggests that BRCA1 overexpression enhances sensitivity to docetaxel and resistance to cisplatin. RAP80 and Abraxas are interacting proteins that form complexes with BRCA1 and could modulate the effect of BRCA1. In order to further examine the effect of EGFR mutations and BRCA1 mRNA levels on outcome in advanced NSCLC, we performed a prospective non-randomized phase II clinical trial, testing the hypothesis that customized therapy would confer improved outcome over non-customized therapy. In an exploratory analysis, we also examined the effect of RAP80 and Abraxas mRNA levels. Methodology/Principal Findings We treated 123 metastatic non-squamous cell lung carcinoma patients using a customized approach.
Ramucirumab (Cyramza) added to docetaxel improved overall survival compared to chemotherapy alone in patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that has progressed on one prior therapy, according to results of a phase III trial presented at the 50th ASCO Annual Meeting.1 The improvement in survival was consistent across multiple prognostic factors, including squamous cell and non-squamous cell histology, suggesting that the combination may turn out to be valuable in all subtypes of NSCLC. Overall survival was modestly improved by a median of 1.4 months in patients treated with the combination.. New Second-Line Option. "This is the first treatment to have shown a significant survival advantage over chemotherapy alone in second-line therapy of NSCLC, and the first treatment in approximately a decade to improve outcomes in the second-line setting," stated lead author Maurice Pérol, MD, Head of Thoracic Oncology at Cancer Research Centre of Lyon in France. "Ramucirumab represents a ...
Patients treated with definitive concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CCRT) for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have longer overall survival when treated by highly experienced facilities, whether or not they are academic or community cancer centers.
Study information from Be Involved at CepEsperu Baptist Medical Center for: Immune Response in Patients with Recurrent or Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the US, and about 85 percent of lung cancers are the nonsmall-cell type. Surgery is curre
Change in non-small-cell lung cancer tumor size in patients treated with nintedanib plus docetaxel: analyses from the Phase III LUME-Lung 1 study Martin Reck,1 Anders Mellemgaard,2 Silvia Novello,3 Pieter E Postmus,4 Birgit Gaschler-Markefski,5 Rolf Kaiser,5,6 Hannes Buchner7 1Department of Thoracic Oncology, Lung Clinic Grosshansdorf, Airway Research Center North (ARCN), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Grosshansdorf, Germany; 2Department of Internal Medicine and Oncology, Bornholms Hospital, Ronne, Denmark; 3Department of Oncology, University of Turin, S. Luigi Hospital, Torino, Italy; 4Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; 5Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Biberach an der Riss, Germany; 6Institute of Pharmacology, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany; 7Staburo GmbH, Munich, Germany Background: Nintedanib in combination with docetaxel is approved in the European Union and other countries for the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preclinical strategies targeted at non-small-cell lung cancer signalling pathways with striking translational fallout. AU - Favoni, Roberto E.. AU - Alama, Angela. PY - 2013/1. Y1 - 2013/1. N2 - Over the past decades, a plethora of cytotoxic agents, administered alone or in combinations, have been prescribed for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but improvements regarding patient outcome remain disappointing. Therefore, additional therapeutic strategies are urgently required to increase response rate and survival. By the time researchers had begun to understand the processes involved in NSCLC development, the genetic aetiology of lung cancer had been progressively defined. The constitutive activation of receptor tyrosine kinases and their downstream signalling pathways has opened encouraging avenues of investigation for NSCLC treatment. Several new targeted compounds have evolved from preclinical to clinical settings to affect growth factor pathways of NSCLC, ...
NICE recommends that studies directly comparing different epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) mutation test methods are performed. These studies should include the re-testing of stored non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumour samples using different EGFR-TK mutation test methods and should link to patient outcomes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A universal method for the mutational analysis of K-ras and p53 gene in non-small-cell lung cancer using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. AU - Sarkar, F. H.. AU - Valdivieso, M.. AU - Borders, J.. AU - Yao, K. L.. AU - Raval, M. M T. AU - Madan, S. K.. AU - Sreepathi, P.. AU - Shimoyama, R.. AU - Steiger, Z.. AU - Visscher, Daniel W. AU - Crissman, J. D.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - The p53 tumor suppressor gene has been found to be altered in almost all human solid tumors, whereas K-ras gene mutations have been observed in a limited number of human cancers (adenocarcinoma of colon, pancreas, and lung). Studies of mutational inactivation for both genes in the same patients sample on non-small-cell lung cancer have been limited. In an effort to perform such an analysis, we developed and compared methods (for the mutational detection of p53 and K-ras gene) that represent a modified and universal protocol, in terms of DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ...
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents 85% of lung cancer and remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide.1 More than 40 second-line treatments have been evaluated over the past decade and their number is continually increasing. As an example, in 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration approved two new treatments: nivolumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, and ramucirumab, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor, in combination with docetaxel.2 ,3 Clinicians and patients who must take medical decisions need to know which treatments work best among all available treatments. They increasingly turn to meta-analyses (MAs) but MAs do not provide an exhaustive up-to-date synthesis of all available treatments and thus prevent from answering easily their questions of interest.. In fact, MAs assess direct comparisons between two treatments and thus focus on specific parts of the existing evidence.4 We have previously shown that, when considered collectively, 29 ...
OBJECTIVES: When advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progresses during first-line treatment, re-biopsy may be indicated to detect a possible new biological profile (comparison to initial status, emergence of resistance biomarkers, or assessment of new biomarkers). The aim of this pragmatic prospective multicenter study was to assess the feasibility and clinical utility of re-biopsy in advanced NSCLC in a real-world setting.. METHODS: The main inclusion criteria were advanced NSCLC with an indication for repeat biopsy identified by the patients clinician. The primary outcome was the percentage of successful procedures. Secondary outcomes were the type of procedure, new biological status, tolerability of the procedure, and clinical utility (treatment modification).. RESULTS: From May 2012 to May 2013, 18 centers enrolled 100 patients (males: 44%; median age: 64.8 years; PS 0/1: 88%; adenocarcinoma: 89%; EGFR mutated: 50%; no initial biological profile: 16.4%). Re-biopsy was not possible ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lymph-node ratio predicts survival among the different stages of non-small-cell lung cancer: a multicentre analysis. AU - Chiappetta, M.. AU - Leuzzi, G.. AU - Sperduti, I.. AU - Bria, E.. AU - Mucilli, F.. AU - Lococo, F.. AU - Spaggiari, L.. AU - Ratto, G. B.. AU - Filosso, P. L.. AU - Facciolo, F.. N1 - LR: 20180911; JID: 8804069; 2018/05/21 00:00 [received]; 2018/08/07 00:00 [accepted]; 2018/09/12 06:00 [entrez]; 2018/09/12 06:00 [pubmed]; 2018/09/12 06:00 [medline]; aheadofprint. PY - 2018/9/6. Y1 - 2018/9/6. N2 - OBJECTIVES: The prognostic role of the number of resected and metastatic lymph nodes in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still being debated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of lymphadenectomy in addition to the already validated variables in NSCLC survival. METHODS: From January 2002 to December 2012, data on 4858 patients with NSCLC undergoing anatomical lung resection and hilomediastinal lymphadenectomy in 6 institutions were analysed ...
Gaissert HA, Fernandez FG, Crabtree T, Burfeind WR, Allen MS, Block MI, Schipper PH, Jacobs JP, Habib RH, Shahian DM; Additional Authors. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons General Thoracic Surgery Database: 2017 Update on Research. Ann Thorac Surg. 2017 Nov;104(5):1450-1455.. David EA, Andersen SW, Beckett LA, Melnikow J, Kelly K, Cooke DT, Brown LM, Canter RJ. A Model to Predict the Use of Surgery for Advanced Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 2017 Sep 27. pii: S0003-4975(17)30817-2.. Ali JT, Rice RD, David EA, Spicer JD, Dubose JJ, Bonavina L, Siboni S, OCallaghan TA, Luo-Owen X, Harrison S, Ball CG, Bini J, Vercruysse GA, Skarupa D, Miller Iii CC, Estrera AL, Khalil KG.Perforated esophageal intervention focus (PERF) study: a multicenter examination of contemporary treatment. Dis Esophagus. 2017 Nov 1;30(11):1-8.. David EA, Clark JM, Cooke DT, Melnikow J, Kelly K, Canter RJ. The Role of Thoracic Surgery in the Therapeutic Management of Metastatic Non-small Cell Lung ...
In the early era of radiotherapy, radiation planning was based on external anatomic landmarks and simple measurements of patient thickness.1 These plans were obviously crude, but the large field size presumably made up for inaccuracies in treatment planning. By the 1960s, fluoroscopic simulators, which emulated treatment machine geometry, were developed commercially, allowing radiation oncologists to design fields based on bony anatomy. Radiation planning was performed in two dimensions following the fluoroscopic simulation, in which plain radiographs were taken in the treatment position. The external contour of the patient was modeled at the isocenter of the field, and relevant internal structures were drawn on the contour by the physician, including the target and critical normal organs. The appropriate location of these structures was determined by their anatomic relationship with bony anatomy. Although the visualization of bony anatomy allowed radiation fields to become more complex, they ...
The aim of this study was to identify critical genes involved in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) pathogenesis that may lead to a more complete understanding of this disease and identify novel molecular targets for use in the development of more effective therapies. Both transcriptional and genomic profiling were performed on 69 resected NSCLC specimens and results correlated with mutational analyses and clinical data to identify genetic alterations associated with groups of interest. Combined analyses identified specific patterns of genetic alteration associated with adenocarcinoma vs. squamous differentiation; KRAS mutation; TP53 mutation, metastatic potential and disease recurrence and survival. Amplification of 3q was associated with mutations in TP53 in adenocarcinoma. A prognostic signature for disease recurrence, reflecting KRAS pathway activation, was validated in an independent test set. These results may provide the first steps in identifying new predictive biomarkers and targets for novel
Lancet. 2014 Aug 23;384(9944):665-73. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60845-X. Epub 2014 Jun 2. Clinical Trial, Phase III; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
Background: Pemetrexed monotherapy has come to be recognized as one of the standard secondline therapies for advanced nonsquamous nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, there have been no reports of studies that have evaluated the efficacy of pemetrexed according to type of active EGFR mutation, i.e., an exon 19 deletion or an L858R point mutation. Materials and Methods: The records of nonsquamous NSCLC patients harboring an EGFR mutation who received pemetrexed monotherapy as a second or later line of chemotherapy at Kitasato University Hospital between March 2010 and October 2015 were retrospectively reviewed, and the treatment outcomes were evaluated. Results: The overall response rate and progressionfree survival time (PFS) of the 53 patients with nonsquamous NSCLC were 15.1% and 2.3 months, respectively. There were significant differences between the disease control rate (37.5% vs. 76.2%) and PFS time (1.8 months vs. 3.3 months) of the exon 19 deletion group and the L858R point mutation group,
Toda la información sobre las últimas publicaciones científicas de la Clínica Universidad de Navarra. Exosomes isolation and characterization in serum is feasible in non-small cell lung cancer patients
This study examined the safety and effectiveness of durvalumab (Imfinzi) in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer. This study concluded that durvalumab delayed time to disease progression. Relevant for : Current disease status-Recurrent cancer, Current disease status-First occurrence of the cancer , Type of lung cancer-Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), Treatment(s) already received-Chemotherapy, Treatment(s) already received-Radiation , lung cancer, Research, Treatment
Background: Durvalumab is a category 1 recommendation per National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines for patients with unresectable Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) following concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CRT). Evidence-based guidelines provide guidance to providers and can improve patient survival across several cancer types. Concordance rates with guidelines have been variable across health institutions. We aim to study the adherence and identify barriers to concordance with Durvalumab usage at our center (Plan). Methods: This is a retrospective analysis using a QI framework to develop potential process changes for guidelines concordance. All veterans with newly diagnosed stage III unresectable NSCLC seen at the Birmingham VA from October 2017 to the present were reviewed. (Do) Data including demographics, dates of diagnosis and CRT completion, Durvalumab usage and reasons for not prescribing durvalumab were collected. Results: Forty-two ...
Combination chemotherapy with intermittent erlotinib and pemetrexed for pretreated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a phase I dose-finding study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Principal Investigator:HAYAKAWA Kazushige, Project Period (FY):1998 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Radiation science
FDA approves first treatment approved for stage 3 unresectable non-small cell lung cancer to reduce the risk of the cancer progressing, when the cancer has not worsened after chemoradiation.
Stage III non-small cell lung cancer is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIB, the tumor is 5 centimeters or smaller and cancer has spread to lymph nodes above the collarbone on the same side of the chest as the primary tumor or to any lymph nodes on the opposite side of the chest as the primary tumor.
This thesis investigated the predictive and the prognostic powers of angiogenesis related markers in both operable and inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.. In the first and second study, we investigated the serological fractions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in 2 cohorts of patients with either operable or inoperable NSCLC. Regarding operable NSCLC, we demonstrated significant correlations between VEGF and tumour volume and overall survival. Regarding bFGF, significant correlations with recurrent disease and survival were demonstrated. VEGF and bFGF correlated to each other and with platelet counts. In multivariate analysis, bFGF proved to be a significantly independent prognostic factor.. Regarding inoperable NSCLC, we demonstrated that patients with elevated bFGF levels before any treatment and during chemotherapy had a significantly poorer survival. During chemotherapy, each rise of one unit of bFGF (ng/L) ...
Several volumetric studies have been conducted to evaluate initial GTV as a prognostic factor in patients with NSCLC who underwent definitive RT [6]-[12]. However, the prognostic role of residual tumor volume or tumor response after treatment was assessed only in trials of induction therapy for NSCLC [8],[17],[18], not definitive CCRT. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to evaluate the prognostic role of volumetric parameters and include GTVpre, GTVpost, and VRR in patients with NSCLC who underwent definitive CCRT.. In our study, GTVpre was an independent prognostic factor of survival in patients with CCRT for locally advanced NSCLC, which is consistent with previous reports. In a secondary analysis of the RTOG 93-11 phase I-II radiation dose-escalation study by Werner-Wasik et al. [7], patients with larger GTV, defined as the sum of the volumes of the primary tumor and involved lymph nodes, had a shorter median survival time and PFS than patients with smaller GTV. Basaki et al. ...
Despite newer treatment modalities, few patients with non-small cell lung cancer in stages IIIB and IV survive the median of one year. We present four patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with an adjuvant therapy with cascade primed immune cells. The in vitro stimulated expression of cancer information on the patients monocytes matures and activates T lymphocytes to destroy cancer cells. The cascade primed immune cell therapy significantly improved the quality of life and the lifespan of all four patients; thus far, three patients survived 40, 55 and 120 months, respectively; and one patient died 39 months after diagnosis. Patient 1, stage IV (T4N2M1): The adenocarcinoma of the 67-year-old German Caucasian man infiltrated into the mediastinal lymph nodes and iliosacral bones. Chemotherapy modalities were started immediately after diagnosis of cancer, and cascade primed immune cell therapy one year later. The patient survived 39 months. Patient 2, stage IV (T3N3M1a): The 62-year-old German
Evidence-based recommendations on gefitinib (Iressa) for the first-line treatment of advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
The CDKN2 locus expresses two different mRNA transcripts, designated alpha and beta. The protein product of the alpha transcript is the cell cycle inhibitor and tumour suppressor p16INK4a. The beta transcript is translated in an alternate reading frame (ARF) and in humans encodes a 15 kDa protein (p19ARF). Immunohistochemical and Western analysis of p16INK4a has shown that the protein is downregulated in a significant number of tumours, but less is known on the expression of the p19ARF. We have examined the expression of p16INK4a and p19ARF in resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by immunostaining (n=49) and multiplex RT-PCR (n=28). In order to investigate the mechanism responsible for p16INK4a downregulation, exon 1alpha methylation was analysed in a PCR-based assay. Of 49 tumours examined by immunostaining, 24 and 20 tumours expressed p16INK4a and p19ARF at nil to low levels, respectively. p19ARF was localized primarily to the nuclei of tumour cells, but was also seen to varying ...
1. Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012;62:10-29 2. Mehlen P, Puisieux A. Metastasis: a question of life or death. Nature reviews Cancer. 2006;6:449-458 3. Ramalingam SS, Owonikoko TK, Khuri FR. Lung cancer: new biological insights and recent therapeutic advances. CA Cancer J Clin. 2011;61:91-112 4. Iorio MV, Croce CM. MicroRNA dysregulation in cancer: diagnostics, monitoring and therapeutics. A comprehensive review. EMBO Mol Med. 2012;4:143-159 5. Engels BM, Hutvagner G. Principles and effects of microRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation. Oncogene. 2006;25:6163-6169 6. Van Rooij E, Purcell AL, Levin AA. Developing microRNA therapeutics. Circ Res. 2012;110:496-507 7. Kosaka N, Takeshita F, Yoshioka Y. et al. Therapeutic Application of MicroRNAs in Cancer. RNA Interference from Biology to Therapeutics. Advances in Delivery Science and Technology. 2013:299-314 8. Valencia-Sanchez MA, Liu J, Hannon GJ. et al. Control of translation and mRNA ...
FDA D.I.S.C.O.: Osimertinib for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer FDA medical oncologists discuss the approval of osimertinib for EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer.
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Treatments for non-small cell lung cancer include surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Learn about treatment options for non-small cell lung cancer.
To the Editors: In the August 15, 2007 issue of Clinical Cancer Research, Saintigny et al. reported the expression of erythropoietin (Epo) and Epo receptor (EpoR) in stage I non-small cell lung cancer (1). They showed that Epo/EpoR coexpression is associated with poor survival in stage I non-small cell lung cancer and suggested a potential paracrine and/or autocrine role of endogenous Epo in non-small cell lung cancer aggressiveness. If these conclusions were supported by convincing evidence, it could have a significant effect on patient care as ∼300,000 patients take Epo each year. Saintigny et al.s conclusions, however, are not convincing due to the lack of rigorous scientific evidence.. First, the EpoR antibody used in this report was not specific enough to use in immunohistochemistry techniques. Elliot et al. found that the C-20 antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology) not only detects EpoR, but also cross-reacts with heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) at a different molecular weight (2). In ...
Chemotherapy Research and Practice is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of chemotherapy.
... Summary Global Markets Directs latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease - Market research report and industry analysis - 11336847
NEW YORK- A combination of vinorelbine (Navelbine) and gemcitabine (Gemzar) showed similar efficacy to the standard platinum-based regimen for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and a different toxicity profile in a phase II study presented at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine Chemotherapy Foundation Symposium XX. 1
BACKGROUND: The phase 3 LUME-Lung 1 study assessed the efficacy and safety of docetaxel plus nintedanib as second-line therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Patients from 211 centres in 27 countries with stage IIIB/IV recurrent NSCLC progressing after first-line chemotherapy, stratified by ECOG performance status, previous bevacizumab treatment, histology, and presence of brain metastases, were allocated (by computer-generated sequence through an interactive third-party system, in 1:1 ratio), to receive docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) by intravenous infusion on day 1 plus either nintedanib 200 mg orally twice daily or matching placebo on days 2-21, every 3 weeks until unacceptable adverse events or disease progression. Investigators and patients were masked to assignment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) by independent central review, analysed by intention to treat after 714 events in all patients. The key secondary endpoint was overall survival, analysed by ...
In the past decade, the approach to patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer has relied on chemotherapy and on targeted agents for molecularly selected subgroups of patients. Recent work has introduced immunotherapy as another area of progress, and likely as a new treatment paradigm in the near future. While the large Phase III studies with cancer vaccination with the current technologies remain at present disappointing, the immunomodulation strategies with immune checkpoint inhibitors have delivered remarkable results in expanded Phase I studies and are now intensively studied in large Phase III studies ...
10 . Booth CM, Shepherd FA, Peng Y, Darling GE, Li G, Kong W, et al. Adoption of adjuvant chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer: a population-based outcomes study. J Clin Oncol 2010; 28(21): 3472-8. - 1111 . Kawagushi T, Matsumura A, Fukai S, Tamura A, Saito R, Zell JA, et al. Japanese ethnicity compared with caucasian ethnicity and never-smoking status are independent favorable prognostic factors for overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer: a collaborative epidemiologic study of the National Hospital Organization Study Group for Lung Cancer (NHSGLC) in Japan and a Southern California Regional Cancer Registry databases. J Thorac Oncol 2010; 5(7): 1001-10. and are essential today for a critical and responsible analysis of the incorporation of new strategies and technologies in these countries. In Brazil, these tools gain additional importance with the need to demonstrate the true impact of these incorporations, as well as requiring cost-effectiveness and budget impact locally. In ...
In 2011, the drug crizotinib earned accelerated approval by the US FDA to target the subset of advanced non-small cell lung cancers caused by rearrangements of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, and subsequently was granted regular approval in 2013. The drug also has shown dramatic responses in patients whose lung cancers harbored a different molecular abnormality, namely ROS1 gene rearrangements. Previously unreported phase 1 clinical trial results now show that crizotinib may have a third important molecular target. In advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients with intermediate and high amplifications of the MET gene, crizotinib produced either disease stabilization or tumor response. Sixty-seven percent of patients with high MET amplification showed prolonged response to the drug, which lasted from approximately 6 months to nearly 2.5 years.". Editors note: Crizotinib (aka Xalkori) is a targeted therapy drug that kills cancer cells by targeting certain molecules found in the ...
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Obesity and overweight have become increasingly prevalent, but no consensus has been reached regarding the effect of body mass index (BMI) on surgical outcomes. In this study, we sought to examine the influence of BMI on perioperative outcomes in a large cohort of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who underwent lobectomy. A retrospective study was conducted in 1198 patients who underwent lobectomy for primary NSCLC at Shandong Provincial Hospital between November 2006 and January 2017. BMI was calculated using measured height and weight on admission and categorized as obese (≥ 30 kg/m2), overweight (25 to 29.9 kg/m2), normal (18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2), or underweight (| 18.5 kg/m2). Patients baseline characteristics and outcomes were abstracted from medical records following institutional review board approval. Endpoints included operative mortality, perioperative complications, and length of stay (LOS). Complications were divided into four groups as respiratory, cardiovascular, other, and
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common malignant tumor in the world, of which prognosis is generally poor due to insufficient mechanistic understanding. To explore the molecular...
The authors examined whether the lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) could predict outcome in patients with late stage EGFR positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). They concluded LMR could be beneficial in predicting outcome for patients with EGFR positive NSCLC patients receiving first-line EGFR-TKIs. Relevant for : Current disease status-Recurrent cancer, Type of lung cancer-Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), Current disease status-First occurrence of the cancer , lung cancer, Research
Results of two late-breaking phase III trials presented at 2012 ASCO Annual Meeting add to the evolving understanding of how best to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The TAILOR trial suggested the benefit of chemotherapy over EGFR-targeted therapy as second-line treatment of patients with wild-type EGFR NSCLC.1 The PARAMOUNT trial found that maintenance pemetrexed (Alimta) plus best supportive care improved overall survival compared with placebo plus best supportive care following induction therapy with pemetrexed/cisplatin in patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC.2. TAILOR Results. Docetaxel was superior to erlotinib (Tarceva) in prolonging progression-free survival as second-line treatment of NSCLC patients with wild-type EGFR, according to results of the phase III TAILOR trial. The primary endpoint of this trial is overall survival, but survival data are not yet mature. At the ASCO Annual Meeting, Marina Chiara Garassino, MD, U.O. Oncologia Medica, A.O. Fatebenefratelli e ...
Learn how Avastin® (bevacizumab) is designed to work for the treatment of advanced nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) Metastatic Colorectal Cancer (mCRC) Avastin is approved to treat metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) for: First- or second-line treatment in combination with intravenous 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy Second-line treatment when used with fluoropyrimidine-based (combined with irinotecan or oxaliplatin) chemotherapy after cancer progresses following a first-line treatment that includes Avastin. Avastin is not approved for use after the primary treatment of colon cancer that has not spread to other parts of the body. Glioblastoma (GBM) Avastin is approved to treat glioblastoma (GBM) when taken alone in adult patients whose cancer has progressed after prior treatment (recurrent or rGBM). The effectiveness of Avastin in rGBM is based on tumor response. Currently, no data have shown whether or not Avastin improves disease-related symptoms or survival in people with rGBM. Non
The present study aims to investigate the mechanism of miR-384 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell apoptosis and autophagy by regulating Collagen α-1(X) chain (COL10A1). Bioinformatics methods were applied to evaluate potential miRNAs and genes that might correlate with NSCLC. Tumor tissues and adjacent tissues from 104 NSCLC patients were collected and human NSCLC A549 cell line was selected for subsequent experiments. A549 cells were treated with miR-384 mimic, miR-384 inhibitor, or knockdown of COL10A1. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were utilized to detect the levels of miR-384, COL10A, Survivin, Bcl-2, Bax, Bcl-xl, Beclin 1, and LC3 in tissues and cells. A series of biological assays including MTT assay, Annexin V-FITC/PI (propidium iodide) staining, immunofluorescence, monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining were conducted to investigate the effects of miR-384 and COL10A1 on NSCLC cells. Tumorigenicity assay for nude rats was applied. Results obtained from ...
The Young Oncologists Journal Club, an initiative from the European Society from Medical Oncology. Read the latest article on lung cancer
The deleted in liver cancer (DLC-1) gene is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene for human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). It can inhibit the growth and induce morphological changes of NSCLC cells in gene transfection studies. To explore the association between morphological change and DLC-1s tumor suppression function, we performed a further investigation utilizing gene transfectio
Metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, stages IIIB/IV) is one of the most common and rapidly lethal causes of cancer related mortality worldwide. Efficacy of chemotherapy, the mainstay of treatment, is limited due to resistance in the vast majority of patients. NSCLC cells exhibit intrinsic apoptosis resistance. Understanding the molecular basis of this phenotype is critical, if therapy is to move beyond the therapeutic plateau that has been reached with conventional chemotherapy. Caspases occupy a pivotal position in the final common pathway of apoptosis. Increasing evidence suggests that these proteases are constitutively inhibited in NSCLC. This review discusses current knowledge relating to caspase regulation in NSCLC and highlights novel strategies for reversing the apoptosis resistant phenotype, with potential to accelerate development of effective therapy ...
Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer worldwide. Gene expression in surgically resected and microdissected samples of non-small-cell lung cancers (18 squamous cell carcinomas and nine adenocarcinomas), matched normal bronchial epithelium, and peripheral lung tissue from both smokers (n = 22) and non-smokers (n = 5) was studied using the Affymetrix U133A array. A subset of 15 differentially regulated genes was validated by real-time PCR or immunohistochemistry. Hierarchical cluster analysis clearly distinguished between benign and malignant tissue and between squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. The bronchial epithelium and adenocarcinomas could be divided into the two subgroups of smokers and non-smokers. By comparison of the gene expression profiles in the bronchial epithelium of non-smokers, smokers, and matched cancer tissues, it was possible to identify a signature of 23 differentially expressed genes, which might reflect early cigarette smoke-induced and ...
ResultsA total of 1867 patients underwent randomization; 36.5 percent had pathological stageI disease, 24.2 percent stage II, and 39.3 percent stage III. The drug allocated with cisplatinwas etoposide in 56.5 percent of patients, vinorelbine in 26.8 percent, vinblastine in11.0 percent, and vindesine in 5.8 percent. Of the 932 patients assigned to chemotherapy,73.8 percent received at least 240 mg of cisplatin per square meter of body-surfacearea. The median duration of follow-up was 56 months. Patients assigned to chemotherapyhad a significantly higher survival rate than those assigned to observation (44.5 percentvs. 40.4 percent at five years [469 deaths vs. 504]; hazard ratio for death, 0.86; 95percent confidence interval, 0.76 to 0.98; P,0.03). Patients assigned to chemotherapyalso had a significantly higher disease-free survival rate than those assigned to observation(39.4 percent vs. 34.3 percent at five years [518 events vs. 577]; hazard ratio, 0.83;95 percent confidence interval, 0.74 to ...
Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) expression ratio (ER) signatures were evaluated as prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. In a population study with 171 stage I and II NSCLC patients, the miR-150 and associated ER signature miR27A/miR-150 (ER ≥0.86, HR = 3.92, p = 1.46E-4) were significantly associated with 5-year survival. The upregulated expression of miR-150 was detected in primary tissue samples (n = 245) by miRNA microarray profiling analysis and significantly associated with cancer recurrence (p = 0.027) and overall survival (HR = 0.88, p = 0.04). Ectopic expression of miR-150 in NSCLC H1299, A549, and H2023 cells transfected by miR-150 expression plasmids promoted tumor cell proliferation, tumor cell-induced colony formation and migration/invasion, while blocking the action of miR-150 with a synthetic miR-150 inhibitor or transduction with a miRZip-150 inhibitor expressed by a lentiviral vector significantly inhibited ...
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Matching of patients according to propensity score resulted in a cohort that consisted of 73 patients in the surgery group and of 73 patients in the SABR group. Median follow-up in the surgery and SABR group was 49 months and 28 months, respectively. In SABR patients no treatment-related deaths were observed and late side effect grade-3 was observed in one patient. In the surgical group one patient died due to renal failure and pseudomonas infection and 5 patients needed additional intervention. Overall survival of patients who underwent surgery was 95% and 80% at 12 and 60 months, respectively. For the SABR group this was 94% at 12 months and 53% at 60 months. After 3 years there seems to be a trend toward improved survival in patients who were treated surgically. No statistical significant difference (p = 0.089) in survival was found between these groups. ...
Although we dont believe in timing the market or panicking over market movements, we do like to keep an eye on big changes -- just in case theyre material to our investing thesis.. What: Shares of Endocyte (NASDAQ:ECYT), a biopharmaceutical company focused on the developing of therapies to treat cancer and other inflammatory therapies, briefly spiked higher by as much as 10% after announcing the interim results from its phase 2b TARGET study of vintafolide as a treatment non-small cell lung cancer. Shares have since given up all of their gains and some, and are now down by about 3% on the day as of this writing.. So what: According to the companys press release, which actually came out this past Saturday during a presentation at the European Society for Medical Oncology in Madrid, vintafolide in combination with docetaxel "extended overall survival (OS) for patients with folate receptor (FR) positive recurrent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared to patients receiving monotherapy ...
Previously published studies have demonstrated expression of FGF2 and FGFRs in human lung cancers and in NSCLC cell lines (Berger et al., 1999; Chandler et al., 1999; Kuhn et al., 2004). In addition, rare somatic mutations in FGFR1 that may confer gain of function have been identified (Zhao et al., 2005) and amplification of the FGFR1 gene has been detected in human NSCLC, albeit at a very low frequency (Davies et al., 2005). Our results support these previous studies and also provide molecular evidence for an active FGF autocrine signaling pathway in a subset of NSCLC cell lines. Our demonstration of an active FGF-FGFR autocrine loop in NSCLC cell lines also provides a mechanism for the observed insensitivity of some NSCLC tumors and cell lines to EGFR-specific TKIs. Our data suggest that gefitinib-insensitive NSCLC cell lines employ alternative receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the FGFR, to establish self-sufficiency in growth. Previous studies have shown that gefitinib-sensitive NSCLC tumors ...
Sun, J.-M., Lee, K. H., Kim, S.-w., Lee, D. H., Min, Y. J., Yun, H. J., Kim, H. K., Song, H. S., Kim, Y. H., Kim, B.-S., Hwang, I. G., Lee, K., Jo, S. J., Lee, J. W., Ahn, J. S., Park, K., Ahn, M.-J. and for the Korean Cancer Study Group (KCSG) (2012), Gefitinib versus pemetrexed as second-line treatment in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy (KCSG-LU08-01). Cancer, 118: 6234-6242. doi: 10.1002/cncr.27630 ...
Identification of a specific genetic mutation in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) helps clinicians select the best treatment option. Potential NSCLC patients usually undergo invasive tissue biopsy, which may often be unnecessary and delays treatment. A report in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics describes a new blood test that can accurately and quickly identify genetic mutations associated with NSCLC, allowing clinicians to make earlier, individualized treatment choices -- a step forward in personalized cancer treatment.
See the OAK and POPLAR clinical trial designs for TECENTRIQ® (atezolizumab), a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. TECENTRIQ INDICATION Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). TECENTRIQ is indicated for the treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have disease progression during or following platinum-containing chemotherapy. Patients with EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations should have disease progression on FDA-approved therapy for these aberrations prior to receiving TECENTRIQ. IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION. Serious Adverse Reactions. Please refer to the full Prescribing Information for important dose management information specific to adverse reactions. Immune-related pneumonitis. Immune-mediated pneumonitis or interstitial lung disease, including fatal cases, occurred. Permanently discontinue TECENTRIQ for Grade 3 or 4 pneumonitis. Immune-related hepatitis. Immune-mediated hepatitis, including a fatal case in urothelial carcinoma (UC), and liver
Download resources for TECENTRIQ® (atezolizumab) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment.. TECENTRIQ INDICATION Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). TECENTRIQ is indicated for the treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have disease progression during or following platinum-containing chemotherapy. Patients with EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations should have disease progression on FDA-approved therapy for these aberrations prior to receiving TECENTRIQ. IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION. Serious Adverse Reactions. Please refer to the full Prescribing Information for important dose management information specific to adverse reactions. Immune-related pneumonitis. Immune-mediated pneumonitis or interstitial lung disease, including fatal cases, occurred. Permanently discontinue TECENTRIQ for Grade 3 or 4 pneumonitis. Immune-related hepatitis. Immune-mediated hepatitis, including a fatal case in urothelial carcinoma (UC), and liver test abnormalities occurred.
De Pas, T. and Pastorino, U. and Spaggiari, L. and Curigliano, G. and de Braud, F. and Robertson, C. (2002) Preoperative chemotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer: nothing new in n2 disease. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 20 (10). pp. 2603-2604. ISSN 0732-183X Full text not available in this repository.Request a copy from the Strathclyde author ...
Ovarian cancer (FDA May 1996). Cervical cancer (FDA June 2006). Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) (FDA Oct 2007). As of 2016 ... Topotecan is often given in combination with Paclitaxel as first line treatment for extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer. ... "FDA Rubber-Stamps APP Pharma's Generic Topotecan for Small Cell Lung and Cervical Cancers". 30 Nov 2010. DNA Topoisomerases and ... In addition, topotecan is experimentally treating Non-small cell lung cancer, Colorectal Cancer, Breast cancer, Non-Hodgkin ...
non-seminomatous germ cell tumors PEI cisplatin, etoposide, ifosfamide small-cell lung carcinoma ... "A prospective randomized phase III study in non-small-cell lung cancer comparing cisplatin, ifosfamide, vinblastine (VIP) ... B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma FCM-R or R-FCM or R-FMC or FMC-R fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, mitoxantrone plus rituximab B cell ... B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma R-ICE or ICE-R or RICE rituximab + ICE; that is, rituximab, ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide high ...
Syrian hamsters are a model for researching Non-small-cell lung carcinoma, which is one of the types of human lung cancer. In ... "Current role of surgery in small cell lung carcinoma". Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery. 4 (1): 30. doi:10.1186/1749-8090-4-30 ... Oral squamous-cell carcinoma is a common cancer in humans and difficult to treat. Scientists studying this disease broadly ... The scientist can take cell samples from the mouth of the hamster to measure the development of the cancer. This process has ...
2006). „K-ras mutations in non-small-cell lung carcinoma: a review". Clinical Lung Cancer. Cancer Information Group. 8 (1): 30- ... Većina tipova plućnih kancera su plućni karcinomi malih-ćelija (engl. small-cell lung carcinoma, SCLC). Najčešći simptomi su ... 2006). „Small cell lung cancer". Annals of Oncology. 17 (Suppl. 2): 5-10. PMID 16608983. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdj910.. ... Adjuvant therapy in non-small cell lung cancer: future treatment prospects and paradigms". Clinical Lung Cancer. 12 (5): 261- ...
It is especially associated with non-small cell lung carcinoma. These patients often get clubbing and increased bone deposition ... Treatment of lung cancer or other causes of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy results in regression of symptoms for some patients. ... Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is one of many distant effect disorders due to cancer, with lung cancer being the most common ... The condition may occur alone (primary), or it may be secondary to diseases like lung cancer. ...
It was counterproductive in non-squamous non-small-cell lung carcinoma. International Nonproprietary Names for Pharmaceutical ... name Portrazza for use with gemcitabine and cisplatin in previously untreated metastatic squamous non-small-cell lung carcinoma ...
... usually lung metastases or inoperable primary lung cancer. Kidney Cancer: usually small kidney tumours known as renal cell ... primary liver tumours known as hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. Lung cancer: ... carcinoma. Bone Cancer: for bone metastases located in the spine, pelvis and long bones. Breast Cancer: for small tumours. ... Cryoablation: instant cell death by tissue freezing to temperatures as low as -20 Celsius. Microwave ablation: electromagnetic ...
"K-ras mutations in non-small-cell lung carcinoma: a review". Clinical Lung Cancer (Cancer Information Group) 8 (1): 30-38. PMID ... Detailed guide: Lung cancer - small cell American Cancer Society ((. en. )). *Detailed guide: Lung cancer - non-small cell ... Većina tipova plućnih kancera su plućni karcinomi malih-ćelija (engl. small-cell lung carcinoma, SCLC). Najčešći simptomi su ... "Adjuvant therapy in non-small cell lung cancer: future treatment prospects and paradigms". Clinical Lung Cancer 12 (5): 261-271 ...
... small-cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer). It has been granted Orphan drug status for Merkel cell carcinoma. It has reported ... "ImmunoGen Announces Encouraging New Clinical Data With The Company's IMGN901 Compound In The Treatment Of Small-Cell Lung ... encouraging Phase II results for small-cell lung cancer. Dimond (9 Mar 2010). "Antibody-Drug Conjugates Stage a Comeback". ... It comprises the CD56-binding antibody, lorvotuzumab (huN901), with a maytansinoid cell-killing agent, DM1, attached using a ...
... -containing drugs Gefitinib for treatment of non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Lapatinib for treatment of advanced- ... "Activating Mutations in the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Underlying Responsiveness of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer to ... Lapatinib eliminates the growth of breast cancer stem cells that cause tumor growth. The binding of lapatinib to the ATP- ... the cancer stem cell. Nelson MH, Dolder CR (February 2006). "Lapatinib: a novel dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity in ...
Possible applications include non-small-cell lung carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and oesophageal cancer. In 2017, it was ... Tivantinib (ARQ197; by Arqule, Inc.) is an experimental small molecule anti-cancer drug. It is a bisindolylmaleimide that binds ... "ArQule Announces Commencement of Phase 3 Clinical Trial with Tivantinib in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Partner Kyowa Hakko ... announced that a phase III clinical trial for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma had failed to meet the primary endpoint. " ...
Intraoperative 125I brachytherapy for high-risk stage I non-small cell lung carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1999;44: ... Lung Because of the essential function of the lungs themselves, and the proximity of other crucial organs, it is necessary to ... high doses of radiation can be applied to a very small target region while sparing surrounding tissues from damage. The unique ... Brachytherapy seeds can be implanted directly within a tumor site delivering intense radiation to a small target area as a ' ...
Smoking can be linked to all subtypes of lung cancer. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (SCLC) is the most closely associated with ... Kalemkerian, G. P., Akerley, W., Bogner, P., Borghaei, H., Chow, L. Q., Downey, R. J., … Hughes, M. (2013). Small Cell Lung ... Maneckjee R, Minna JD (October 1994). "Opioids induce while nicotine suppresses apoptosis in human lung cancer cells". Cell ... If the mutation inhibits programmed cell death, the cell can survive to become a cancer, a cell that does not function like a ...
"Expression and mutation analysis of the discoidin domain receptors 1 and 2 in non-small cell lung carcinoma". Br. J. Cancer. 96 ... cell adhesion. • positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation. • chondrocyte proliferation. • positive regulation of cell ... Cell Genet. 61 (4): 274-5. doi:10.1159/000133421. PMID 1486804.. *. Abedinia M, Layfield R, Jones SM, Nixon PF, Mattick JS ( ... extracellular domain in pichia pastoris and functional analysis in synovial fibroblasts and NIT3T3 cells". Mol. Cell. Biochem. ...
In adults, most cases are associated with breast carcinoma or small-cell lung carcinoma. It is one of the few paraneoplastic ( ... and T-cell markers in opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome: immunophenotyping of CSF lymphocytes". Neurology. 62 (9): 1526-32. doi: ... possibly by expanding the memory B cell population. Studies have generally asserted that 70-80% of children with OMS will have ...
Shtivelman E (Jun 1997). "A link between metastasis and resistance to apoptosis of variant small cell lung carcinoma". Oncogene ... Cell. Biol. 20 (2): 583-93. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.2.583-593.2000. PMC 85138 . PMID 10611237. Xiao H, Palhan V, Yang Y, Roeder RG ( ... Cell. Biol. 24 (16): 7091-101. doi:10.1128/MCB.24.16.7091-7101.2004. PMC 479715 . PMID 15282309. Suzuki Y, Yamashita R, Shirota ... NicAmhlaoibh R, Shtivelman E (2001). "Metastasis suppressor CC3 inhibits angiogenic properties of tumor cells in vitro". ...
About 4-7% of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) have EML4-ALK translocations. crizotinib (Xalkori) (also a ROS1 inhibitor ... Nelsen (2010). "ALK Inhibitors: Possible New Treatment for Lung Cancer". Farmer (2010). "Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Standards ... Discontinued ASP-3026 (Astellas) NPM-ALK is a different variation/fusion of ALK that drives anaplastic large-cell lymphomas ( ... "". "FDA Approves Ceritinib for ALK-Positive Lung Cancer". Medscape. April 29, 2014. "Dalantercept". AdisInsight. Retrieved 15 ...
Lemmo, W; Tan, G (2016). "Prolonged Survival After Dichloroacetate Treatment of Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma-Related ... cell death) of the malignant cells. However, in vitro work with DCA on neuroblastomas (which have fewer recognised ... It can kill normal cells as well. A randomized controlled trial in children with congenital lactic acidosis found that while ... Observations in vitro and of tumours extracted from those five patients suggest that DCA might act against cancer cells by ...
... not have non-superficial squamous-cell carcinoma or a mixture of both small-cell carcinoma and non-small-cell lung carcinoma or ... The PARAMOUNT trial is a clinical trial studying non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The trial was sponsored by Eli Lilly ... For patients with advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), maintenance therapy is sometimes used when the initial ... participants must in the trial must have stage IIIB or IV nonsquamous non-small-cell lung carcinoma and have at least one ...
1994). "A hippocampal protein associated with paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome and small cell lung carcinoma". Biochem. ... Cell. Biol. 20 (13): 4765-72. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.13.4765-4772.2000. PMC 85909 . PMID 10848602. Sakai K, Kitagawa Y, Hirose G ( ...
Lung cancer, including both non-small cell lung carcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma. Sarcoidosis Aspergilloma Tuberculosis ... removal of a lung lobe or removal of the entire lung. Non-small-cell lung cancer can also be treated with erlotinib or ... Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or blood-stained mucus from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs. This can occur with ... Selective bronchial intubation can be used to collapse the lung that is bleeding. Also, endobronchial tamponade can be used. ...
... of non-small-cell lung cancers; promoter hypermethylation of MLH1 occurs in 48% of squamous cell carcinomas; and promoter ... of non-small-cell lung cancers; promoter hypermetylation of ATM occurs in 47% ... In head and neck squamous cell carcinomas at least 15 DNA repair genes have frequently hypermethylated promoters; these genes ... Gagnon KT, Li L, Chu Y, Janowski BA, Corey DR (2014). "RNAi factors are present and active in human cell nuclei". Cell Rep. 6 ( ...
1992). "Neuronal-type nicotinic receptors in human neuroblastoma and small-cell lung carcinoma cell lines". FEBS Lett. 312 (1 ... Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand). 43 (3): 433-42. PMID 9193799. Gerzanich V, Kuryatov A, Anand R, Lindstrom J (1997). ""Orphan ... subunits beta3 and beta4 and expression of seven nAChR subunits in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y and/or IMR-32". ... Nicotine Activity on Chromaffin Cells edit]] The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: " ...
... melanoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Clinically BRMS1 expression correlates with survival in breast cancer and non-small ... High expression of CTGF is correlated with improved survival in colorectal cancer, non-small cell lung carcinoma and ... hepatocellular and non-small cell carcinoma. It affects the MAPK and cytoskeleton-organizing cellular pathways, which ... cell lung carcinoma. KISS1 is found in melanoma and breast cancers. It acts by synthesizing a protein receptor. RHoGD12 is ...
NSE is produced by small cell carcinomas which are neuroendocrine in origin. NSE is therefore a useful tumor marker for lung ... "Molecular characterization of prostatic small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma". Prostate. 55 (1): 55-64. doi:10.1002/pros.10217. ... Detection of NSE with antibodies can be used to identify neuronal cells and cells with neuroendocrine differentiation. ... Cell Genet. 54 (1-2): 71-3. doi:10.1159/000132960. PMID 2249478. Oliva D, Barba G, Barbieri G, et al. (1989). "Cloning, ...
Oral carcinoma[edit]. Patients after HSCT are at a higher risk for oral carcinoma. Post-HSCT oral cancer may have more ... Researchers have conducted small studies using non-myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as a possible ... who have lost their stem cells after birth. Other conditions[13] treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease ... Peripheral blood stem cells[26] are now the most common source of stem cells for HSCT. They are collected from the blood ...
Carcinoma. Lung Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Laryngeal Diseases. Neoplasms, Glandular ... Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Stage IIIB ... Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx ... Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, or Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head ...
Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is any type of epithelial lung cancer other than small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). NSCLC ... Large-cell lung carcinoma[edit]. Main article: Large-cell lung carcinoma. Large cell lung carcinoma (LCLC) is a heterogeneous ... using a uniform scheme for non-small cell lung carcinoma, small-cell lung carcinoma and broncho-pulmonary carcinoid tumors.[30] ... Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer at eMedicine *^ "What Is Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer?". www.cancer.org.. .mw-parser-output cite. ...
... Daniel J. Oh,1 Ellen Dinerman,1 Andrew H. Matthews,1 Abraham W. ... She was later diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the lung. Conclusions. In this case report, we describe a critically ill ... However, its presence in solid tumors such as small cell carcinoma of the lung has been reported rarely [1-5]. Even fewer cases ... "Small cell lung cancer accompanied by lactic acidosis and syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone," Lung ...
Pfizer is currently recruiting for the NCT03052608 Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma Cancer trial. Review trial description, ...
Non-Small-Cell Lung CarcinomaA Study In Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Testing If Erlotinib Plus SU011248 (Sunitinib ... Non-Small-Cell Lung CarcinomaStudy Of SU011248 In Patients With Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer NCT00092001 ... Non-Small-Cell Lung CarcinomaMEK Inhibitor PD-325901 To Treat Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer NCT00174369 ... Non-Small-Cell Lung CarcinomaAn Investigational Drug, PF-02341066, Is Being Studied In Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell ...
Diseases : Carcinoma: Non-Small-Cell Lung, Carcinoma: Small Cell Lung, Lung Cancer, Lung Cancer: Metastatic ... Diseases : Carcinoma: Small Cell Lung, Colon Cancer, Lung Cancer, Nasopharyngeal Cancer. Pharmacological Actions : Anti- ... Ganoderma is cytotoxic to both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant small-cell lung carcinoma cells and can reverse resistance to ... Diseases : Carcinoma: Small Cell Lung, Nicotine/Tobacco Toxicity Pharmacological Actions : Angiogenesis Inhibitors, Anti- ...
Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma Cancer trial. Review trial description, criteria and location information here. ... Pfizer is currently recruiting for the NCT00094094 Lung Neoplasms, ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
Adjuvant BEmiparin in Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (ABEL STUDY). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Adjuvant therapy with bemiparin in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer: results from the ABEL study. Thromb Res ...
... invention is concerned with novel monoclonal antibodies which define a glycolipid antigen associated with human non-small cell ... lung carcinomas (NSCLC) and certain other human carcinomas. ... cultured cells from a non-small cell lung carcinoma, and (3) ... human lung carcinoma cells from pleural effusions or cultured cells from human non-small cell lung carcinoma, or cells from a ... Lung Carcinoma. Adeno 18/19. Squamous 8/10. Small Cell 2/6. Large Cell 2/2. Breast Carcinoma 13/16. Colon Carcinoma 9/9. ...
... little is known about how to prevent it. Recently this type of lung cance ... Because little is known about the actual cause of bronchoalveolar carcinoma, ... Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. The most common type of lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) affects tens of thousands ... Continue Learning about Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Treating Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with Immunotherapy ...
... lung carcinomas are divided into 8 major taxa: Squamous cell carcinoma Small cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Large cell carcinoma ... Combined small cell lung carcinoma (or c-SCLC, and rarely rendered as "small-cell lung carcinoma") is a form of multiphasic ... December 2007). "Sequential occurrence of non-small cell and small cell lung cancer with the same EGFR mutation". Lung Cancer. ... December 1982). "The clinical behavior of "mixed" small cell/large cell bronchogenic carcinoma compared to "pure" small cell ...
It can inhibit the growth and induce morphological changes of NSCLC cells in gene transfection studies. To explore the ... gene is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene for human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). ... DLC-1 tumor supressor gene induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells following a unique process of cell ... Carcinomas; Cell-growth; Microscopy; Genes; Tumorigens; Tumorigenesis; Gene-mutation; Liver-cells; Lung-cells ...
... to the process of tumor development was used in this study by examining the gene expression profile in human lung cancer cells ... Cell-function; Cell-growth; Cell-metabolism; Cell-transformation; Cellular-uptake; Lung-cancer; Lung-cells; Lung-disease; ... Aberrant gene expression in human non small cell lung carcinoma cells exposed to demethylating agent 5-aza-2 -deoxycytidine.. ... A cDNA array analysis was carried out on 5-aza-dC-treated and untreated non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line NCI-H522. ...
... together with the large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), typical carcinoid (TC), and atypical carcinoid (AC) make a group ... cell morphology; small cell lung carcinoma; neuroendocrine carcinoma; non-small cell lung carcinoma; bronchoscopy; Kaplan Meier ... Small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCLC) together with the large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), typical carcinoid (TC), ... Miličić V, Prvulović I, Mišić M, Perić M, Samardžić S, Tomić K. Value of Cytology in Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Diagnostic - ...
Lung Neoplasms. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Carcinoma. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplasms ... SC-002 in Small Cell Lung Cancer and Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ... Part 1A is a dose escalation study in patients with small cell lung cancer or large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with ... Genetics Home Reference related topics: Lung cancer Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Small Cell Lung ...
Non-small Cell Carcinoma ) on www.antikoerper-online.... , Jetzt Produkt ABIN2456034 bestellen. ... Find and order tissues and products like this Lung Tissue Slide ( ... Non-small Cell Carcinoma ) Lung Tissue Slide (Non-small Cell ... Lung Produktmerkmale Preparation: The single tissue slides contain 4 μm sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human ... Tissue or Cell type Lung Bestandteile Lung Tissue Slide (Non-small Cell Carcinoma ) ...
HomeIndustry SolutionsOncologyPreclinicalCell LinesNCI-H23: Human Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma ... Biologics SolutionsBiomarkersSmall Molecule SolutionsBiosimilars Development SolutionsCell & Gene Therapy Solutions ... Please note that cell lines are not for sale and unavailable for purchase from Covance.*** ... Cell LinesTumor ModelsCAR TIn VitroTumor SpotlightsPosters Choose Subcategory. Cell Lines. Tumor Models. CAR T. In Vitro. Tumor ...
... but these mutations have rarely been reported in small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Combined SCLC is rare, and the EGFR mutation ... receptor mutation status and clinicopathological features of combined small cell carcinoma with adenocarcinoma of the lung.. ... In lung cancer, somatic mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are concentrated in exons 18-21, especially in ... In addition to the clinicopathological characteristics of this rare histological type of lung cancer, these findings provide ...
... lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, skin cancer, head and neck cancer, paediatric oncology, neurooncology as well as ... A Patient with Four-Year Survival after Nonsmall Cell Lung Carcinoma with a Solitary Metachronous Small Bowel Metastasis. Klaas ... Solitary small bowel metastasis secondary to lung cancer is very uncommon. In this report, we present a patient with NSCLC and ... this is the first case report describing a prolonged survival in a patient with a symptomatic solitary small bowel metastasis ...
... in non-small cell lung carcinomas. Lung Cancer. 61:163-169. 2008. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI ... The ALK fusion gene is a key oncogenic driver in a subset of patients with non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) (1-5). EML4- ... Detection of CD74-ROS1 fusion transcripts in a non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). (A) cDNA derived from cancerous tissue of ... The recent discovery of fusion oncokinases in a subset of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) is of considerable clinical ...
Carcinoma. Lung Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. ... Observing Patients With Palliative Asymptomatic Centrally Located Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC). The safety ... advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Patients with Asymptomatic Centrally Located Advance NSCLC who are palliative. ... Histological diagnosis of small cell lung cancer, or malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy from another malignancy (not NSCLC) ...
... and alternating resting potentials were measured in cells from a continuously cultured small cell carcinoma of the lung. Spike ... Calcium spike electrogenesis and other electrical activity in continuously cultured small cell carcinoma of the lung ... Calcium spike electrogenesis and other electrical activity in continuously cultured small cell carcinoma of the lung ... Calcium spike electrogenesis and other electrical activity in continuously cultured small cell carcinoma of the lung ...
Survival of non small cell lung carcinoma patients with malignant pleural effusions. Umut Sabri Kasapoglu, Sibel Arinc, Armagan ... Survival of non small cell lung carcinoma patients with malignant pleural effusions ... Survival of non small cell lung carcinoma patients with malignant pleural effusions ... Survival of non small cell lung carcinoma patients with malignant pleural effusions ...
  • An abdominal CT showed a well-defined lesion in the superior right hepatic lobe consistent with a hepatic cyst and a mildly enlarged and heterogeneous left hepatic lobe concerning for possible hepatocellular carcinoma. (hindawi.com)
  • In 2017, it was announced that a phase III clinical trial for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma had failed to meet the primary endpoint. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recent discovery of fusion oncokinases in a subset of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) is of considerable clinical interest, since NSCLCs that express such fusion oncokinases are reportedly sensitive to kinase inhibitors. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Additional cell free DNA species, such as cell-free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are also under evaluation for clinical relevance [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • These variants are increasingly appreciated as having different genetic, biological, and clinical properties, including prognoses and responses to treatment regimens, and therefore, that correct and consistent histological classification of lung cancers are necessary to validate and implement optimum management strategies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical classification systems divide lung cancers into groups based on medical criteria, particularly their response to different treatment regimens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the large number of histological variants of lung carcinoma, oncologists have long tended to favor a dichotomous division into small cell and non-small cell forms, based on differences in clinical behavior and response to treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • His discovery of erbB2 as a v-erbB-related gene amplified in a human breast carcinoma and the demonstration of its transforming properties paved the way for targeted therapies directed against its product, and his successful isolation of KGF (FGF7), a growth factor present in the epithelialization-phase of wound healing, led to Amgen's successful phase III clinical trial and FDA approval of KGF for treatment of mucositis. (wikipedia.org)
  • While occasional scattered rhabdoid cell formation occurs with considerable frequency in lung carcinomas, this is not considered to be of clinical significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • It originates in the pilo-sebaceous glands, and is similar in clinical presentation and microscopic analysis to squamous cell carcinoma, except that it contains a central keratin plug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumour is on the left, obstructing the bronchus (lung). (wikipedia.org)
  • In line with the isoform-specific requirement of ERK2 for HGF-mediated migration in lung tumour cell models, ERK2 but not ERK1 is shown to be responsible for paxillin serine 126 phosphorylation and its increased turnover at focal adhesions. (biologists.org)
  • Liquid biopsies ( i.e. analysis of cell-free tumour DNA from blood plasma) have become another important option in such a situation, but are not within the scope of this review. (ersjournals.com)
  • We used a range of techniques to establish which neuronal antigens were expressed in her tumour cell line. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Large tumour cells were mainly located in the submucosa and invaded the vessel (arrow) (haematoxylin and eosin stain. (ersjournals.com)
  • Pathological findings of the specimen showed several large tumour cells similar to those in the intestinal lesion shown in (a). (ersjournals.com)
  • c) Enlarged view of boxed section in (b) showing several large tumour cells (arrow). (ersjournals.com)
  • However, the lung tumour quickly enlarged and pleural effusion developed within 3 weeks. (ersjournals.com)
  • Chemical Ablation: one of the earliest ablative techniques involving the injection of substances such as ethanol or acetic acid into a tumour to cause protein denaturation and cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitumomab attacks tumour cells, while the vaccine is thought to activate the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vessels, identified by the expression of CD31, were scored as mature when expressing the epitope LH39 in the basal membrane and as newly formed when expressing alphaVbeta3 on the endothelial cells and/or lacking LH39 expression. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Immunostaining of endothelial cells has highlighted four distinct patterns of vascularization. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Mir-126 is a human microRNA that is expressed only in endothelial cells, throughout capillaries as well as larger blood vessels, and acts upon various transcripts to control angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, mir-126* has recently been implicated in the silencing of prostien in non-endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In endothelial cells, mir-126 is also released with in these bodies are upon absorption in a neighbouring cell induce the CXCL12 dependant vascular protection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast with stage II, complete resection of pathologic N1 higher-stage non-small cell lung carcinoma is not influenced by type of lymph node involvement. (ovid.com)
  • Computed tomography (CT) scans demonstrated a mass in the right lung ( fig. 1b and c), intussusception of the small intestine ( fig. 1d ) and lymph node enlargement in the abdomen. (ersjournals.com)
  • No somatic mutations were detected in the mutation cluster regions of the KRAS, EGFR, BRAF and PIK3CA genes and the entire coding region of p53 in the carcinoma, and the expression of ALK fusion was negative. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It is thought that the cell death observed with this class of agents may be mediated, in part, through the selective acetylation of histone proteins resulting in increased expression of specific genes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Cells were stimulated with nicotine and genes that were differentially expressed upon nicotine stimulation and ID1 depletion were analyzed to identify potential downstream targets of ID1. (springer.com)
  • NEIL1 is one of the DNA repair genes most frequently hypermethylated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Later studies used other sequencing technologies, such as a study in C. elegans which identified 18 novel miRNA genes as well as a new class of nematode small RNAs termed 21U-RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This proto-oncogene, highly expressed in a variety of tumor cell lines, belongs to the sevenless subfamily of tyrosine kinase insulin receptor genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes to Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, MET inhibition in cells with high basal MET activity or MET amplification reduces basal phosphorylation of EGFR and ERBB family members, ERBB2 and ERBB3 ( 1, 2 , 9, 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, receptor cross-talk in some cells may not be bidirectional, but rather unilateral from EGFR to MET ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The binding of erlotinib to the ATP-binding sites of the EGFR receptors prevents EGFR from producing phosphotyrosine residues (due to competitive inhibition), thus rendering the receptor incapable of generating signal cascades to promote cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • withdrawn from the U.S. market) is one such drug, which targets the tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), expressed in many cases of non-small cell lung carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to gefitinib, it also appeared to work best in females, Asians, nonsmokers, and those with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, particularly those with specific mutations in EGFR. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hint/PKCI-1, which is the only other characterized human histidine triad (HIT) nucleotide-binding protein in addition to tumor-suppressor gene FHIT, might be involved in lung carcinogenesis. (cdc.gov)
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 3 (MAP4K3), also termed germinal center-like kinase, is a regulator of cell growth that is required for maximal mTORC1-dependent S6K/4E-BP1 phosphorylation in cell cultures ( 13 , 14 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Because drug-responses distinguished two classes of SCLCs, as sensitive or refractory, MDR1, glutathione S -transferase π, lung-related multidrug resistance protein, multidrug resistance protein, and topoisomerase IIα mRNA expression was studied by semiquantitative reverse transcription. (aacrjournals.org)
  • topoisomerase IIα and multidrug resistance protein was expressed in all cases, lung-related multidrug resistance protein and glutathione S -transferase π in seven of eight, and MDR1 gene in four of eight. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, PFIO decreased the phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) as well as the expression level of COX-2, and inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in A549 cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • One known substrate for ERK kinases in cell migration, the focal adhesion protein paxillin, was also one of the hits identified in the screen. (biologists.org)
  • P16/Rb pathway collaborates with the mitogenic signaling cascade for the induction of reactive oxygen species, which activates the protein kinase C delta, leading to an irreversible cell cycle arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antiquitin may also play a protective role for DNA in cell growth, as the protein is found to be up-regulated during the G1-S phase transition, which undergoes the highest degree of oxidative stress in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein was found to be a component of the protein complex that specifically complements the NER defect of xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XP-c) cell extracts in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein contains an N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain, which was reported to interact with 26S proteasome, and thus this protein may be involved in the ubiquitin mediated proteolytic pathway in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2013) Signal regulatory protein α negatively regulates mast-cell activation following FcεRI aggregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small ribonucleic acids, 21-25 nucleotides in length, that modulate protein expression through transcript degradation, inhibition of translation, or sequestering transcripts. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is secreted by various cells, primarily fibroblasts, as a soluble protein dimer and is then assembled into an insoluble matrix in a complex cell-mediated process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The B-Raf protein is involved in sending signals inside cells which are involved in directing cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • PD-1 is a protein on the surface of activated T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Delta can diffuse to neighboring cells and bind to the Notch receptor, a large transmembrane protein which upon activation undergoes proteolytic cleavage to release the intracellular domain (Notch-ICD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Induction by ionizing radiation of the gadd45 gene in cultured human cells: lack of mediation by protein kinase C". Mol Cell Biol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor necrosis and the apoptotic index (i.e. the proportion of apoptotic cells in tumor specimens) are two such features. (springeropen.com)
  • Aside from the great heterogeneity seen in lung cancers (especially those occurring among tobacco smokers), the considerable variability in diagnostic and sampling techniques used in medical practice, the high relative proportion of individuals with suspected GCCL who do not undergo complete surgical resection, and the near-universal lack of complete sectioning and pathological examination of resected tumor specimens prevent high levels of quantitative accuracy. (wikipedia.org)