Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Neuroendocrine Cells: Specialized NEURONS that produce hormones, such as NEUROPEPTIDES or BIOGENIC AMINES. They generally are in the NERVOUS SYSTEM, such as HYPOTHALAMUS, but can be found in other organs or systems. These neurons contain dense neurosecretory granules and PROPROTEIN CONVERTASES allowing the rapidly release of NEUROHORMONES into the blood circulation upon stimulation.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Neuroendocrine Secretory Protein 7B2: An acidic protein found in the NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEM that functions as a molecular chaperone for PROPROTEIN CONVERTASE 2.Carcinoma, Large Cell: A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Carcinoma, Medullary: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Carcinoma, Merkel Cell: A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Synaptophysin: A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Octreotide: A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of GROWTH HORMONE and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Receptors, Somatostatin: Cell surface proteins that bind somatostatin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Activated somatostatin receptors on pituitary cells inhibit the release of growth hormone; those on endocrine and gastrointestinal cells regulate the absorption and utilization of nutrients; and those on neurons mediate somatostatin's role as a neurotransmitter.Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.Digestive System Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Carcinoma, Adenosquamous: A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Carcinoma, Endometrioid: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Chromogranin B: A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in a rat PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELL LINE. It is found in many species including human, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 626 to 657 amino acid residues. In some species, it inhibits secretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE or INSULIN and exerts bacteriolytic effects in others.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Phosphopyruvate Hydratase: A hydro-lyase that catalyzes the dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate to form PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE. Several different isoforms of this enzyme exist, each with its own tissue specificity.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Carcinoma, Verrucous: A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell: A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Ileal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the ILEUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed: Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Vipoma: A tumor that secretes VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE, a neuropeptide that causes VASODILATION; relaxation of smooth muscles; watery DIARRHEA; HYPOKALEMIA; and HYPOCHLORHYDRIA. Vipomas, derived from the pancreatic ISLET CELLS, generally are malignant and can secrete other hormones. In most cases, Vipomas are located in the PANCREAS but can be found in extrapancreatic sites.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Common Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Proprotein Convertase 2: A serine endopeptidase that has specificity for cleavage at ARGININE. It cleaves a variety of prohormones including PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, proluteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone, proenkephalins, prodynorphin, and PROINSULIN.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Ampulla of Vater: A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.Carcinoma, Islet Cell: A primary malignant neoplasm of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the non-INSULIN-producing cell types, the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and the pancreatic delta cells (SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS) in GLUCAGONOMA and SOMATOSTATINOMA, respectively.Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells: The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular: A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Chemoembolization, Therapeutic: Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.Gastrinoma: A GASTRIN-secreting neuroendocrine tumor of the non-beta ISLET CELLS, the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS. This type of tumor is primarily located in the PANCREAS or the DUODENUM. Majority of gastrinomas are malignant. They metastasize to the LIVER; LYMPH NODES; and BONE but rarely elsewhere. The presence of gastrinoma is one of three requirements to be met for identification of ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME, which sometimes occurs in families with MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 1; (MEN 1).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: A form of highly malignant lung cancer that is composed of small ovoid cells (SMALL CELL CARCINOMA).Endocrine System Diseases: Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous: A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Thymus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Neuroimmunomodulation: The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Duodenal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Apudoma: A general term collectively applied to tumors associated with the APUD CELLS series, irrespective of their specific identification.Insulinoma: A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Neoplasms, Unknown Primary: Metastases in which the tissue of origin is unknown.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue: Neoplasms composed of nerve tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the nervous system or its component nerves.Glucagonoma: An almost always malignant GLUCAGON-secreting tumor derived from the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS. It is characterized by a distinctive migratory ERYTHEMA; WEIGHT LOSS; STOMATITIS; GLOSSITIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; hypoaminoacidemia; and normochromic normocytic ANEMIA.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Paraganglioma: A neural crest tumor usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue of a paraganglion, such as the carotid body, or medulla of the adrenal gland (usually called a chromaffinoma or pheochromocytoma). It is more common in women than in men. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Neurosecretion: The production and release of substances such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS or HORMONES from nerve cells.Yttrium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of yttrium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Y atoms with atomic weights 82-88 and 90-96 are radioactive yttrium isotopes.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.

Comparison of survival between malignant neuroendocrine tumours of midgut and pancreatic origin. (1/327)

The survival of 64 consecutive patients with disseminated midgut carcinoid tumours was compared in a retrospective study with that of 25 consecutive patients with sporadic malignant endocrine pancreatic tumours treated according to similar surgical principles. The presence of hepatic metastases implied a worse prognosis in neuroendocrine tumours of pancreatic rather than midgut origin. This infers that these tumour types must be separated when treatments are evaluated.  (+info)

Brain metastases from adenoendocrine carcinoma of the common bile duct: a case report. (2/327)

A 68-year-old man with metastatic brain tumors from adenoendocrine carcinoma of the common bile duct is reported. A common bile duct tumor and a metastatic liver tumor had been resected 6 years and 3 years prior to admission, respectively. Microscopically they showed two components; moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma. He presented with headache and vomiting and MRI revealed two metastatic brain tumors. They were successfully resected and radiotherapy was carried out. Histological diagnosis of the metastatic brain tumors was neuroendocrine carcinoma, but carbohydrate antigen (CA)-19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-immunoreactive cells were observed without glandular pattern. Immunohistochemically serotonin and pancreatic polypeptide were detected, but somatostatin was not. As the endocrine cells demonstrated in the normal extrahepatic bile ducts are only somatostatin-containing D cells, these cells are considered to originate as part of a metaplastic process. To our knowledge, this represents the second case of adenoendocrine carcinoma of the common bile duct.  (+info)

Thymic carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation in a calf. (3/327)

A neuroendocrine carcinoma originating in the thymus was found in a 7-month-old, castrated male, Japanese Black calf. The neoplasm consisted largely of very primitive cells, characterized by the paucity of cytoplasmic organelles, but a few cells were immunoreactive for somatostatin or neurofilaments. The expression of both cytokeratin and neurofilament protein was a feature of neuroendocrine differentiation. This neoplasm considered to be a tumor of a thymic stem cell, with little but indubitable evidence of differentiation into somatostatin-producing cells.  (+info)

Relationship of ECL cells and gastric neoplasia. (4/327)

The enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell in the oxyntic mucosa has a key role in the regulation of gastric secretion since it synthesizes and releases the histamine regulating the acid secretion from the parietal cell. Gastrin is the main regulator of the ECL cell function and growth. Long-term hypergastrinemia induces ECL cell hyperplasia, and if continued, neoplasia. ECL cell carcinoids occur in man after long-term hypergastrinemia in conditions like pernicious anemia and gastrinoma. There is also accumulating evidence that a proportion of gastric carcinomas of the diffuse type is derived from the ECL cell. Furthermore, the ECL cell may, by producing substances with angiogenic effects (histamine and basic fibroblast growth factor), be particularly prone to develop malignant tumors. Although the general opinion is that gastrin itself has a direct effect on the oxyntic mucosal stem cell, it cannot be excluded that the general trophic effect of gastrin on the oxyntic mucosa is mediated by histamine or other substances from the ECL cell, and that the ECL cell, therefore, could play a role also in the tumorigenesis/carcinogenesis of gastric carcinomas of intestinal type.  (+info)

Expression of plasminogen activator inhibitors 1 and 2 in lung cancer and their role in tumor progression. (5/327)

The plasminogen activator cascade initiated by urokinase type plasminogen activator (u-PA) is involved in extracellular matrix degradation during the tumor invasion process. The plasminogen activator inhibitors 1 (PAI-1) and 2 (PAI-2) are two specific inhibitors of u-PA. We hypothesized that the balance between u-PA and its two inhibitors could be disrupted to favor plasminogen activation during lung cancer progression. Using immunohistochemistry, we analyzed the pattern of expression of u-PA, PAI-1, and PAI-2 in non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) and neuroendocrine (NE) lung tumors. u-PA and PAI-1 were both detected in stromal fibroblasts and in tumor cells. In 84 NSCLCs, their epithelial expression was strongly correlated and linked to the presence of node metastasis (P = 0.008), whereas their coexpression in fibroblasts was associated with larger tumor size (P = 0.04) and advanced stages (P = 0.009). In 72 NE tumors, u-PA and PAI-1 were more frequently expressed in fibroblasts in high-grade NE tumors (SCLC and large cell NE tumors) than in low- and intermediate-grade tumors (typical and atypical carcinoids). Comparison of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in 14 cases showed that PAI-1 was consistently expressed by stromal fibroblasts, although the protein was also localized in tumor cells. In contrast, the expression of PAI-2 was restricted to fibroblasts and correlated with the absence of nodal involvement (P = 0.005). Considering NE tumors, the frequency of PAI-2 expression decreased along the NE spectrum from typical carcinoids to SCLCs. These data suggest that PAI-lacts in synergy with u-PA to favor tumor invasion process and connotes aggressivity, in contrast with PAI-2, which may block u-PA-mediated proteolysis and is inversely correlated with tumor progression.  (+info)

Accelerated apoptosis and low bcl-2 expression associated with neuroendocrine differentiation predict shortened survival in operated large cell carcinoma of the lung. (6/327)

In order to test the hypothesis that increased apoptotic activity is connected with neuroendocrine differentiation and low differentiation degree in large cell carcinoma (LCLC) and is regulated by bcl-2 family proteins, we analysed the extent of apoptosis and tumor necrosis and their relation to the expression of bcl-2, bax, bak and mcl-1 in 35 LCLCs, of which 20 were classified as large cell neuroendocrine lung carcinomas (LCNEC) and 15 as large cell non-neuroendocrine lung carcinomas (LCNNEC). The extent of apoptosis was determined by detecting and counting the relative and absolute numbers of apoptotic cells and bodies using in situ 3 -end labelling of the apoptotic DNA. The extent and intensity of expression of the bcl-2, bax, bak and mcl-1 proteins were studied by immunohistochemistry. Also the relative volume density of necrosis was evaluated and correlated with the other parameters. Finally, all the parameters were evaluated as prognostic markers and correlated with data on the survival of the patients. Relatively high apoptotic indices were seen in both tumor types (average for both 2.53%, range 0.09 27.01%). Significantly higher bcl-2 and bak indices were detected more often in LCNECs than in LCNNECs. Immunohistochemically detected bax, bcl-2 and bak expression was independent of apoptotic index in both tumor types, while there was a statistically significant positive association between mcl-1 expression and apoptotic index in LCNNEC but not in LCNEC. There was a statistically significant association between high apoptotic index and shortened survival in LCLC. However, no association was found between tumor stage and apoptosis. The patients with LCNEC and low bcl-2 protein expression had a significantly shorter survival time than those with high bcl-2 indices. There was also a clear association between shortened survival and necrotic LCNNEC. LCLCs show relatively high apoptotic activity, which is associated with shortened survival. The expression of bcl-2, bak and mcl- 1 is associated with neuroendocrine differentiation in LCLC. Finally, our results support some previous reports suggesting that bcl-2 expression in combination with some other markers involved in apoptosis and/or proliferation may be of prognostic value in cases of lung carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.  (+info)

Semaphorin SEMA3F localization in malignant human lung and cell lines: A suggested role in cell adhesion and cell migration. (7/327)

Semaphorins/collapsins are a family of secreted and membrane-associated proteins involved in nerve growth cone migration. However, some are expressed widely in adult tissues suggesting additional functions. SEMA3F/H.SemaIV was previously isolated from a 3p21.3 homozygous deletion region in human lung cancer. We studied SEMA3F cellular localization using our previously characterized anti-SEMA3F antibody. In normal lung, SEMA3F was found in all epithelial cells at the cytoplasmic membrane and, to a lesser extent, in the cytoplasm. In lung tumors, the localization was predominantly cytoplasmic, and the levels were comparatively reduced. In non-small-cell lung carcinomas, low levels correlated with higher stage. In all tumors, an exclusive cytoplasmic localization of SEMA3F correlated with high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and was related to the grade and aggressiveness. This suggests that vascular endothelial growth factor might compete with SEMA3F for binding to their common receptors, neuropilin-1 and -2 and might contribute to SEMA3F delocalization and deregulation in lung tumor. In parallel studies, SEMA3F distribution was examined in cell cultures by confocal microscopy. Marked staining was observed in pseudopods and in the leading edge or ruffling membranes of lamellipods or cellular protrusions in motile cells. SEMA3F was also observed at the interface of adjacent interacting cells suggesting a role in cell motility and cell adhesion.  (+info)

Thymic neuroendocrine carcinomas with combined features ranging from well-differentiated (carcinoid) to small cell carcinoma. A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases. (8/327)

We reviewed 11 cases of primary thymic neuroendocrine carcinomas with combined features ranging from well-differentiated to poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. For 3 asymptomatic patients, tumors were discovered during routine examination. Presentation in the other patients was as follows: Cushing syndrome, 2 patients; chest pain, 3 patients; superior vena cava syndrome, 1 patient; and hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia, 1 patient. No clinical data were available for the 11th patient. All tumors were located in the anterior mediastinum and treated by surgical excision. The lesions were large and well-circumscribed with areas of hemorrhage and necrosis. They were characterized by areas showing a proliferation of monotonous, round tumor cells adopting a prominent organoid pattern admixed with areas showing sheets of atypical cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, frequent mitoses, and extensive areas of hemorrhage and necrosis. Immunohistochemical studies performed in 6 cases showed strong CAM 5.2 low-molecular-weight cytokeratin positivity in all cases, chromogranin and synaptophysin positivity in 4, Leu-7 in 3, and focal positivity for p53 in 2. Follow-up information for 9 cases showed that all patients died of their tumors between 1 and 4 years after diagnosis. The present cases highlight the heterogeneity of neuroendocrine neoplasms and reinforce the notion that these tumors form part of a continuous spectrum of differentiation.  (+info)

*Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix

... www.wrongdiagnosis.com/n/neuroendocrine_carcinoma_of_the_cervix/intro.htm Neuroendocrine system "MRI of Small Cell Carcinoma of ... Small-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix is an exceptional member of the neuroendocrine group of cervical carcinomas that is ... Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix is best defined separately: Neuroendocrine: Of, relating to, or involving the ... Neuroendocrine carcinoma affects many different parts of the body. In the cervix, it is a rare, but very aggressive form of ...

*Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung

... (LCNEC) is a highly malignant neoplasm arising from transformed epithelial ... "combined large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma" (c-LCNEC). Travis, William D; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Muller-Hermelink, H Konrad; ... It is currently considered to be a subtype of large cell lung carcinoma. LCNEC is often generically grouped among the non-small ... cell lung carcinomas. The World Health Organization classification of lung tumors recognizes a variant of LCNEC, namely " ...

*Enolase 2

NSE is produced by small cell carcinomas which are neuroendocrine in origin. NSE is therefore a useful tumor marker for lung ... "Molecular characterization of prostatic small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma". Prostate. 55 (1): 55-64. doi:10.1002/pros.10217. ... 1985). "Immunohistochemical localization of gamma-enolase in normal human tissues other than nervous and neuroendocrine tissues ... Detection of NSE with antibodies can be used to identify neuronal cells and cells with neuroendocrine differentiation. ...

*Neuroendocrine tumor

... neuroendocrine carcinomas, which are the large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinomas. Additionally, the WHO scheme ... well differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (with low malignant potential); mixed exocrine-neuroendocrine carcinoma (goblet ... The Neuroendocrine Cancer Awareness Network (NCAN) Neuroendocrine tumor at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Neuroendocrine Tumor Research ... tract carcinoid tumor and neuroendocrine carcinoma ovary neuroendocrine tumor of the cervix testes Merkel cell carcinoma of ...

*Combined small-cell lung carcinoma

Moran CA, Suster S, Coppola D, Wick MR (February 2009). "Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the lung: a critical analysis". Am. J. ... Squamous cell carcinoma Small cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Large cell carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Sarcomatoid carcinoma ... Combined small cell lung carcinoma (or c-SCLC, and rarely rendered as "small-cell lung carcinoma") is a form of multiphasic ... and giant cell carcinoma. Giant cell carcinoma components are seen much more commonly in patients who have undergone radiation ...

*GPR112

... gene expression has been identified as a marker for neuroendocrine carcinoma cells. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Novel markers for enterochromaffin cells and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine carcinomas". Modern Pathology. 22 (2): 261-72. doi ...

*Gangliocytic paraganglioma

The microscopic differential diagnosis includes poorly differentiated carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumour and paraganglioma. GPs ... neuroendocrine-like), and (3) spindle cells (schwannoma-like). ...

*Owen Witte

"N-Myc drives small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma initiated from human prostate epithelial cells". Cancer Cell. 29 (4): 1-23. ... leads to the development of aggressive neuroendocrine prostate cancer tumors. Witte earned his B.S. degree in microbiology from ...

*Urachal cancer

Other rare types include urothelial carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma and sarcoma. Diagnostic ... "Urachal Carcinoma Shares Genomic Alterations with Colorectal Carcinoma and May Respond to Epidermal Growth Factor Inhibition". ... Herr, Harry W.; Bochner, Bernard H.; Sharp, David; Dalbagni, Guido; Reuter, Victor E. (2007-07-01). "Urachal carcinoma: ... "Urachal carcinoma: a clinicopathologic analysis of 24 cases with outcome correlation". The American Journal of Surgical ...

*Large-cell lung carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype

"Clinical characterization of pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and large cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine ... Eight major groups of lung carcinomas are recognized in WHO-2004: Squamous cell lung carcinoma Small cell lung carcinoma ... the lung Large cell lung carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Sarcomatoid carcinoma Carcinoid tumor Salivary gland-like carcinoma ... squamous cell carcinoma, combined large cell neuroencrine carcinoma, and mucinous bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and combined ...

*Large-cell lung carcinoma

... carcinoma of the lung Large-cell lung carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung One ... "large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma" (LCNEC), which is believed to derive from neuroendocrine cells. In addition, a "subvariant ... Giant-cell carcinoma of the lung Basaloid large cell carcinoma of the lung Clear cell carcinoma of the lung Lymphoepithelioma- ... Fernandez FG, Battafarano RJ (October 2006). "Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung" (PDF). Cancer Control. 13 (4): ...

*Atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumour

... "moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma". It is a more aggressive than typical carcinoid tumors: nodal metastases in ...

*Immunocontraception

"Selective expression of trophoblastic hormones by lung carcinoma: neuroendocrine tumors exclusively produce human chorionic ... cervical carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx, lung carcinoma, and ... progressive vulvar carcinoma, carcinoma of the bladder, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, ... Zhang, W; H Yang; S Han (1998). "The effect of ectopic HCG on microvessel density in gastric carcinoma". Chin J Oncol. 20: 351- ...

*Salt-and-pepper chromatin

... is typically seen in endocrine tumours such as medullary thyroid carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumours ...

*Polyomaviridae

... polyomavirus expression in merkel cell carcinomas and its absence in combined tumors and pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas". ... Feng H, Shuda M, Chang Y, Moore PS (February 2008). "Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma". ... Feng H, Shuda M, Chang Y, Moore PS (February 2008). "Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma". ... Gross L (June 1953). "A filterable agent, recovered from Ak leukemic extracts, causing salivary gland carcinomas in C3H mice". ...

*Merkel cell polyomavirus

Polyomavirus Expression in Merkel Cell Carcinomas and Its Absence in Combined Tumors and Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Carcinomas". ... cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, basal cell skin carcinoma, extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma, and EGFR ... Merkel cell carcinoma is a highly aggressive type of skin cancer that was first described by Cyril Toker in 1972 as "trabecular ... Merkel cell carcinoma is mainly seen in older individuals. It is known to occur at increased frequency in people with ...

*Paraganglioma

... neuroendocrine carcinoma, and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. With immunohistochemistry, the chief cells located in the ... A paraganglioma is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm that may develop at various body sites (including the head, neck, thorax and ... By light microscopy, the differential diagnosis includes related neuroendocrine tumors, such as carcinoid tumor, ... "Neuroendocrine neoplasia. Current concepts". Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 113 (3): 331-5. doi:10.1309/ETJ3-QBUK-13QD-J8FP. PMID ...

*Basaloid squamous cell lung carcinoma

... such as small cell carcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. The issue of differential diagnosis is particularly acute ... Basaloid carcinoma primary in the lung may also occur in a multicentric form. Both basaloid and squamous cell carcinomas have ... A useful marker panel for distinguishing small cell carcinoma of lung from poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of ... Bhagavathi S, Chang CH (February 2009). "Multicentric basaloid carcinoma of lung clinically mimicking metastatic carcinoma: a ...

*DLK1

... a Putative Mammalian Homeotic Gene Differentially Expressed in Small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Neuroendocrine Tumor Cell Line". ... Helman, L. J. (1987). "Molecular Markers of Neuroendocrine Development and Evidence of Environmental Regulation". Proceedings ... A Novel Circulating Human Epidermal-Growth-Factor-Like Protein Expressed in Neuroendocrine Tumors and its Relation to the Gene ...

*Erythema ab igne

... there is a possibility that a squamous cell carcinoma or a neuroendocrine carcinoma such as a Merkel cell carcinoma may form. ...

*ASCL1

... a marker for small cell lung carcinomas with neuroendocrine features". Clinical Cancer Research. 8 (4): 1082-6. PMID 11948117. ... "Identification of a human achaete-scute homolog highly expressed in neuroendocrine tumors". Proceedings of the National Academy ... "An achaete-scute homologue essential for neuroendocrine differentiation in the lung". Nature. 386 (6627): 852-5. doi:10.1038/ ... "Tissue-specific expression of human achaete-scute homologue-1 in neuroendocrine tumors: transcriptional regulation by dual ...

*Merkel-cell carcinoma

... primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin, primary small cell carcinoma of the skin, and trabecular carcinoma of the skin. ... MCC is sometimes mistaken for other histological types of cancer, including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, ... Immunosuppression can profoundly increase the odds of developing Merkel-cell carcinoma. Merkel-cell carcinoma occurs 30 times ... basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma). Intriguingly, most MCV viruses obtained so far from tumors have ...

*Endometrioid tumor

ISBN 0-7216-0187-1. Mulvany NJ, Allen DG (January 2008). "Combined large cell neuroendocrine and endometrioid carcinoma of the ... Endometrioid carcinoma can also arise in the endometrium. Grades 1 and 2 are considered "type 1" endometrial cancer, while ... Carcinoma, Endometrioid at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "ACS :: What Is Endometrial ... Endometrioid tumors are a class of tumor characterized by a resemblance to endometrium/ endometrial carcinoma, and over a third ...

*Esthesioneuroblastoma

... mucosal malignant melanoma and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) that occur in the intranasal tract. Compared to other tumors in ... Successful treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma with combined chemotherapy and proton radiation. ... sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type, rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing/PNET, ... Grades for Esthesioneuroblastoma Esthesioneuroblastoma can resemble small blue cell tumors like squamous cell carcinoma, ...

*Cervical cancer

... adenosquamous carcinoma small cell carcinoma neuroendocrine tumour glassy cell carcinoma villoglandular adenocarcinoma ... Histologic subtypes of invasive cervical carcinoma include the following: Though squamous cell carcinoma is the cervical cancer ... Dürst M, Gissmann L, Ikenberg H, zur Hausen H (1983). "A papillomavirus DNA from a cervical carcinoma and its prevalence in ... Jones WB, Mercer GO, Lewis JL, Rubin SC, Hoskins WJ (1993). "Early invasive carcinoma of the cervix". Gynecol. Oncol. 51 (1): ...

*Endocrine oncology

... to as Rectal carcinoid Pulmonary Typical bronchial carcinoid Atypical bronchial carcinoid Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma ... One exception is the Uppsala Centre of Excellence in Neuroendocrine Tumors at Uppsala University Hospital in Sweden, where ... tumors Non-functioning endocrine pancreatic tumors Insulinoma Gastrinoma Glucagonoma VIPoma Adrenals Adrenocortical carcinoma ...
Two mutually exclusive genomic LCNEC subtypes have been identified by molecular studies: one shows co-mutated TP53 and RB1, which is similar to SCLC, and the STK11/KEAP1 subtype with predominantly RB1 wild-type that is similar to NSCLC.. Reviewing clinical data and tumour specimens of 232 patients in the Netherlands Cancer Registry and Pathology Registry from 2003 to 2012, this retrospective analysis identified 148 patients who had been diagnosed with LCNEC. Of these, samples from all patients receiving first-line chemotherapy for panel-consensus diagnosed LCNEC were included for next-generation sequencing (NGS) for the TP53, RB1, STK11, and KEAP1 genes. RB1 (pRB1, 13A10) was analysed by immunohistochemistry, with samples having an H-score of ≥50 considered positive.. The results of the NGS and pRB1 were correlated with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) by Kaplan Meier plots and Log-rank test.. Quality control of the samples determined that 79 samples were sufficient ...
Patients who underwent chemotherapy had longer overall survival. Research presented in the July 2012 issue of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancers (IASLC) Journal of Thoracic Oncology, concluded that patients with limited large cell neuroendocrine tumors or with limited stage small-cell lung cancer who were treated with perioperative chemotherapy and surgery had better overall survival outcomes than patients treated with surgery alone.. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) represents about 15 percent of lung cancers annually. Of those, about 30 percent of patients have limited disease SCLC. Whereas large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a subgroup of large-cell carcinoma, that has characteristics similar to SCLC. Surgery in these groups of patients are rare and researchers wanted to know if perioperative chemotherapy would benefit the patients.. The retrospective study looked at 74 patients who underwent lung cancer surgery at the Surgical Centre Marie Lannelongue in Le ...
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Clinical trial for Gastric Neuroendocrine Carcinoma | Islet cell carcinoma | Intestinal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma , Cisplatin Carboplatin and Etoposide or Temozolomide and Capecitabine in Treating Patients With Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Gastrointestinal Tract or Pancreas That Is Metastatic or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery
Clinical trial for Gastric Neuroendocrine Carcinoma | Islet cell carcinoma | Intestinal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma , Cisplatin Carboplatin and Etoposide or Temozolomide and Capecitabine in Treating Patients With Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Gastrointestinal Tract or Pancreas That Is Metastatic or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery
Disease Ontology : 12 A cervix carcinoma that has material basis in neuroendocrine tissue and is characerized by a diffuse, organoid, trabecular, or cord-like pattern of neoplastic cells with abundant cytoplasm, large nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and a high mitotic rate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ASCL1 is a lineage oncogene providing therapeutic targets for high-grade neuroendocrine lung cancers. AU - Augustyn, Alexander. AU - Borromeo, Mark. AU - Wang, Tao. AU - Fujimoto, Junya. AU - Shao, Chunli. AU - Dospoy, Patrick D.. AU - Lee, Victoria. AU - Tan, Christopher. AU - Sullivan, James P.. AU - Larsen, Jill E.. AU - Girard, Luc. AU - Behrens, Carmen. AU - Wistuba, Ignacio I.. AU - Xie, Yang. AU - Cobb, Melanie H.. AU - Gazdar, Adi F.. AU - Johnson, Jane E.. AU - Minna, John D.. AU - Vogt, Peter K.. PY - 2014/10/14. Y1 - 2014/10/14. N2 - Aggressive neuroendocrine lung cancers, including small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), represent an understudied tumor subset that accounts for approximately 40,000 new lung cancer cases per year in the United States. No targeted therapy exists for these tumors. We determined that achaetescute homolog 1 (ASCL1), a transcription factor required for proper development of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells, is ...
4F2hc (CD98) has been associated with tumor growth, and is highly expressed in various tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of 4F2hc expression in pulmonary neuroendocrine (NE) tumors. Surgically-resected patient tumors including 16 large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), 12 small cell lung cancer (SCLC), 1 atypical carcinoid (AC) and 5 typical carcinoid (TC) samples were included in this study. Tumor sections were immunohistochemically stained for 4F2hc (CD98), glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) and 3 (Glut3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), hexokinase I, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), microvessel density (CD34), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway (p-Akt, p-mTOR and p-S6K) and for a cell cycle regulator (p53). 4F2hc was overexpressed in 0% of the pulmonary carcinoids (TCs and ACs), 62.5% of the LCNECs and 50.0% of the SCLCs. A positive 4F2hc expression was ...
...NEW YORK May 15 2012 /- Reportlinker.com announces that...http://www.reportlinker.com/p0606218/Neuroendocrine-Carcinoma-Therapeu...Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Therapeutics - Pipeline Assessment and Market...GlobalData has estimated that the global neuroendocrine carcinoma ther...,Neuroendocrine,Carcinoma,Therapeutics,-,Pipeline,Assessment,and,Market,Forecast,to,2019,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Large cell carcinoma now includes five variants in addition to large cell carcinoma defined as undifferentiated malignant epithelial cells. Two variants are recognized, both with dismal prognosis, LCNEC and basaloid carcinoma.. The concept of neuroendocrine tumours has been examined as a spectrum extending from low grade typical carcinoid to intermediate grade atypical carcinoid to high grade neuroendocrine tumours including large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Because of differences in clinical behaviour, therapeutic implications, and epidemiological context, these tumours have been presented separately in the WHO revised classification.. Typical and atypical carcinoid have been more precisely defined and clearly differentiated from each other with more objective criteria. Typical carcinoids have ,2 mitotic figures per 2 mm2, and have no necrosis. The presence of necrosis, or a mitotic count between 2-10·2 mm−2, allows separation of atypical carcinoid ...
The synchronous primary lung tumors is a rare condition and presented patient is the first reported case of simultaneous two distinct neuroendocrine lung cancer lesions in the same lobe. We present the case of a 55-year-old woman with synchronous two distinct neuroendocrine lung cancer lesions in the right upper lobe. Initially she showed no signs or symptoms related to lung lesions and was admitted to Thoracic Surgery Ward for the investigation of two oval, solitary pulmonary nodules (11 and 19 mm in diameter) detected on a chest X-ray performed three months earlier. The radiological imaging showed a variability of growth of both lesions (smaller tumor has enlarged while the larger one remained unchanged). After the CT-guided lung biopsy, patient underwent right upper lobectomy. Histological examination revealed a small cell carcinoma in one of the tumors and a large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in the other one. The patient was discharged in good condition and lung inflation in chest X-ray ...
Background: Clarifying the prognostic impact of histological type is an essential issue that may influence the treatment and follow-up planning of newly diagnosed cervical cancer cases. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of histological type on survival and mortality in patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma (ADC) and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC). Materials and Methods: All patients with cervical cancer diagnosed and treated at Chiang Mai University Hospital between January 1995 and October 2011 were eligible. We included all patients with SNEC and a random weighted sample of patients with SCC and ADC. We used competing-risks regression analysis to evaluate the association between histological type and cancer-specific survival and mortality. Results: Of all 2,108 patients, 1,632 (77.4%) had SCC, 346 (16.4%) had ADC and 130 (6.2%) had SNEC. Overall, five-year cancer-specific survival was 60.0%, 54.7%, and 48.4% in patients with SCC, ADC ...
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that insulinoma-associated protein 1 (INSM1) is a sensitive and specific marker of neuroendocrine neoplasms. The aims of this study were to determine whether INSM1 can be reliably used in cytology (Cellient) cell blocks, to ascertain whether staining correlates with paired surgical pathology specimens, and to compare its sensitivity and specificity with those of synaptophysin (SYN), chromogranin (CHR), and CD56 for neuroendocrine lung tumors. METHODS: Seventy-four primary lung neoplasms diagnosed on cytology were stained with INSM1, SYN, CHR, and CD56: 41 small cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs), 1 large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), 10 carcinoid tumors, 11 adenocarcinomas, 9 squamous cell carcinomas, 1 mesothelioma and 1 poorly differentiated non-small cell lung carcinoma, not otherwise specified ...
Small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCLC) together with the large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), typical carcinoid (TC), and atypical carcinoid (AC) make a group of morphologically identifiable neuroendocrine tumors. The...
Introduction: Lung neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are rare and heterogeneous, with wide range of aggressiveness. Aim: Describe clinical and epidemiologic characteristics, stage, treatment and survival of patients with lung NET according to histological group -[typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (AT), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). Methods: Retrospective longitudinal, multicenter study analyzing files of patients diagnosed with NET from 2005 to 2010. Small cell carcinoma was excluded. Comparisons among groups were done with X2. Survival curves were generated using Kaplan-Meier method. Results: 137 patients were included, mean age (SD) 59 (± 14) years; 71 (52%) male; 82 (60%) non-smokers. Histological classification: 54 TC, 49 NEC and 34 AC. Table below describes patients characteristics. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 78 months. Twenty seven patients (20%) died, 1 in TC, 2 in AC, 23 in NEC. The median overall survival (OS) calculated for NEC was 42 months, for other patients median ...
The characteristics of 112 patients with COPD were as follows; mild COPD/moderate COPD: number of patients (male) 42 (21)/70 (57), age 71.0/70.5 years-old, pathological stage of NSCLC IA 30/25 IB 5/8 IIA 3/8 IIB 3/4 IIIA 5/19 IIIB 0/1, histology adenocarcinoma (Ad) 29/40 squamous cell carcinoma (Sq) 9/27 large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) 2/2 pleomorphic carcinoma 0/2 Ad + Sq 1/0 Sq + LCNEC 1/0. Each of OS and DFS was 2287 days (1984 - 2589) and 2015 (1679 - 2351) days in mild COPD patients and 2004 (1873 - 2135) days and 1768 (1656 -1890) days in moderate COPD patients. Compared with patients with mild COPD, patients with moderate COPD had increased risk of worse OS (p = 0.035) but had no differences in CSS (p = 0.867) and DFS (p = 0.125) by log-rank analysis. ...
M-800:M-800) Neoplasms, NOS M-8000/0 Neoplasm, benign M-8000/1 Neoplasm, uncertain whether benign or malignant M-8000/3 Neoplasm, malignant M-8000/6 Neoplasm, metastatic M-8000/9 Neoplasm, malignant, uncertain whether primary or metastatic M-8001/0 Tumour cells, benign M-8001/1 Tumour cells, uncertain whether benign or malignant M-8001/3 Tumour cells, malignant M-8002/3 Malignant tumour, small cell type M-8003/3 Malignant tumour, giant cell type M-8004/3 Malignant tumour, spindle cell type M-8005/0 Clear cell tumour, NOS M-8005/3 Malignant tumour, clear cell type (M-801:M-804) Epithelial neoplasms, NOS M-8010/0 Epithelial tumour, benign M-8010/2 Carcinoma in situ, NOS M-8010/3 Carcinoma, NOS M-8010/6 Carcinoma, metastatic, NOS M-8010/9 Carcinomatosis M-8011/0 Epithelioma, benign M-8011/3 Epithelioma, malignant M-8012/3 Large cell carcinoma, NOS M-8013/3 Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma M-8014/3 Large cell carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype M-8015/3 Glassy cell carcinoma M-8020/3 Carcinoma, ...
Using enrichment analysis for Gene Ontology Biological Function we see that the genes/proteins with up-regulated PTMs and expression levels are associated with RNA processing, RNA splicing and, gene expression. Re-running the analysis for the sub-cluster of very highly regulated PTMS/genes (the large cluster in the middle) reveals enrichment for neuronal functions including: neuron projection, axon guidance, and neuron morphology. Enrichment for genes that are up-regulated in disease (using the Disease Perturbations from GEO Up library) shows enrichment for neuronal related cancers including: oligodendroglioma, multiple sclerosis, astrocytoma, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Finally, enrichment using the MGI Mammalian Phenotype library shows enrichment for genes that cause neuronal abnormalities in mice after knockdown including: abnormal neuron morphology, abnormal brain morphology, abnormal spinal cord morphology, and abnormal nervous system. Collectively, these results indicate that ...
New video from NET Kanker, the Dutch NET support group, with English subtitles. Poorly differentiated, high grade, neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC, stage 3) are an aggressive form of cancer. NEC originating outside the lungs are very rare. In this film expert physicians in NET and NEC explain about diagnosis and treatment options for NEC. The specialists from the centers of expertise are:. - Dr. Margot Tesselaar, internist-oncologist, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, ...
Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics, diagnostic features and prognosis of primary renal neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). Methods: The clinicopathologic data of eight cases of renal NEC was collected from January 2008 to December 2017 from Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University.
My brother has very aggressive, widely metastasized neuroendocrine carcinoma. From what I understand, its treated very differently than carcinoids and NETs, which are slow-growing. Im having a horrible time finding a specialist with experience with theaggressiveform. Does anybody know how I find a good specialist? We need help SOON!. ...
This neoplasm is seen infiltrating the prostatic tissue in a solid/nested architectural pattern and the cells have a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, with a distinctive basaloid appearance and areas of peripheral palisading. A prominent feature of this neoplasm is the presence of comedo-type necrosis in the central aspect of the nests, with discernible "ghost-cells". No cribriform growth pattern is identified. Based on these morphologic features, differential diagnostic considerations include a basal cell carcinoma of the prostate, poorly differentiated prostatic adenocarcinoma (Gleason pattern 5), poorly differentiated urothelial or squamous cell carcinoma as well as a high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. The morphology and CK7+/CK20- immunophenotype is compatible with a basal cell carcinoma and these tumors have been described to lack prostatic markers such as PSA/PSAP ...
The LNCaP cell line is a versatile and useful model that is suitable for the study of human prostate cancer in vitro. The elevation of LNCaP intracellular cAMP levels through the addition of membrane permeable cAMP analogues, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, adenylate cyclase activators, or components of the cAMP signal transduction pathway can induce reversible neuroendocrine differentiation. Elucidation of those genes that are differentially expressed between undifferentiated prostate cancer cells and prostate cancer cells that have been induced to differentiate may present new insights for the molecular mechanisms governing neuroendocrine differentiation, early detection of prostate cancer, and/or potential targets for gene therapy. In this study, differential display PCR was used to identify 226 differentially expressed PCR products. Twelve of the differential display PCR products were confirmed by Northern blot analysis and cloned. DNA sequencing and database comparisons were performed. Among ...
The spectrum of HPV-associated clinical findings in women ranges from genital warts to squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinoma (39) . HPV-16 and -18 are associated with intraepithelial and invasive lesions. HPV-16 is the most common type found in squamous carcinoma (40) , and HPV-18 is most common in adenocarcinomas and small cell neuroendocrine cervical carcinomas (41 , 42) . The association of virus infection with risk of development of cervical neoplasia has provided strong justification for devising immunization strategies against high-risk HPV types for therapy and prevention of progression and recurrence of invasive cervical cancer. We have performed one of the first multinational, multicenter studies of a genetically modified vaccinia-based vaccine. The study confirms that outpatient vaccination with TA-HPV is feasible, safe, and associated with little toxicity. Our results show that vaccination with TA-HPV is able to induce a measurable immune response in patients with ...
NEC of the breast is a rare disease. Only 6 case series have been reported in the literature, the largest comprising 74 cases [6-11]. With the 142 SEER cases reported here, this is the largest series reported to date and the first population study of mammary NEC.. The incidence of NEC of the breast has not been reported. Although NEC was estimated in 2003 to represent 2-5% of breast carcinomas [13], we found from our analysis of SEER data released in April 2012 that the incidence of mammary NEC is much lower. The age-adjusted incidence is 0.41 per 1 million-years in the female population of the U.S., and NEC comprises ,0.1% of all mammary carcinomas. Despite the low incidence of male breast carcinomas overall, the SEER data showed that NEC was proportionally more common in men than IMC-NOS (2.1% of all NEC; 0.8% of all IMC-NOS).. Because mammary NEC has not been well studied, its clinicopathologic features and outcome are poorly characterized. Among the 6 reported series studies, 2 studies with ...
Materials and methods: Patients with PDEC (small cell lung carcinomas excluded). WHO performance status 0-2. Adequate organ function tests. At least one previous platin-containing chemotherapy regimen. Informed consent. TMZ schedule: 200 mg/sqm orally days 1-5 every 28 days. Response evaluation at least every three courses ...
I had a tumor removed from my liver and it was diagnosed as NEC. They arent sure if its the primary but I had tumor markers done recently and all my levels were normal. Have any of you had markers done and levels were normal but more tumors were found? Im asking because less than 1% of NEC tumors originate in the liver and that is where mine was, so Im worried there might be something somewhere else that isnt excreting any horomones. ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
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The aim of this study was to analyse the significance of sustentacular cells in generic cialis tadalafil pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs). Rewarming was associated with a rapid increase in requirement to 0.64 (SD 0.17) micrograms/kg/min, which decreased to 0.33 (SD 0.23 ...
Cancer clinical trial. Clinical trial for Avelumab Treatment in Patients With Neuroendocrine Carcinomas (NEC G3) Progressive After Chemotherapy.
BY Gauri R. Varadhachary, MD. Professor, GI Medical Oncology University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Background and Definition Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is a diverse group of cancers and ranks within the top 10 cancer presentations. Broadly, CUP is defined as a biopsy-proven malignancy for which the anatomic origin remains unidentified (or undetermined) after adequate history and physical examination, laboratory studies, imaging, and pathologic evaluation. To further define the patient population, presentations that have histology and stage-specific therapy even in the absence of primary (melanoma, sarcoma, or lymphoma) are excluded as CUP cancers. The CUP clinical and research efforts concentrate on the vast majority of patients with common epithelial histologies such as adenocarcinoma, carcinoma, squamous carcinoma, and neuroendocrine carcinoma. The inability to identify a primary carcinoma tends to generate anxiety for the patient, who may feel that the evaluation is ...
Platinum, Carcinoma, Cell, Cervix, Chemotherapy, Combination Chemotherapy, Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Patients, Population, Survival
MACROSCOPIC DESCRIPTION:. The specimen is a 300mm length of small bowel 20mm in diameter. Attached is mesentery along its entire length up to 50mm in thickness and 30mm in width. A polypoid brown tan nodule 35x25x15mm arises within the small bowel lumen. The nodule appears to push into but not through muscularis propria. The small bowel serosa is not affected and the lesion is 122mm from the closest resection margin. Multiple nodes are present in the small bowel mesentry.. MICROSCOPIC DESCRIPTION:. Sections show a neuroendocrine carcinoma extending into and focally through the muscularis propria. The tumour is composed of variably sized nests of mono-morphic polygonal cells with round nuclei and vesicular chromatin. There are up to 28 mitoses per 10 high power fields. There is no necrosis. Small nests are seen infiltrating through the muscularis propria and into adventitia with focal involvement of the serosal surface. Extensive lymphovascular invasion is identified. There is no perineural ...
use Hash::Util qw( hash_seed all_keys lock_keys unlock_keys lock_value unlock_value lock_hash unlock_hash lock_keys_plus hash_locked hidden_keys legal_keys ); %hash = (foo =, 42, bar =, 23); # Ways to restrict a hash lock_keys(%hash); lock_keys(%hash, @keyset); lock_keys_plus(%hash, @additional_keys); # Ways to inspect the properties of a restricted hash my @legal = legal_keys(%hash); my @hidden = hidden_keys(%hash); my $ref = all_keys(%hash,@keys,@hidden); my $is_locked = hash_locked(%hash); # Remove restrictions on the hash unlock_keys(%hash); # Lock individual values in a hash lock_value (%hash, foo); unlock_value(%hash, foo); # Ways to change the restrictions on both keys and values lock_hash (%hash); unlock_hash(%hash); my $hashes_are_randomised = hash_seed() != 0 ...
Intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the production of lethal proteins in central neurons arent fully characterized. substrate GSK-3α/β (at Ser21/Ser9)(i.e. activation) and improved GSK-3α and GSK-3β kinase actions which occurred ahead of NP1 induction. Appearance of the dominant-negative inhibitor of Akt (Akt-kd) obstructed phosphorylation of GSK-3α/β and eventually improved NP1 induction. Whereas overexpression of constitutively turned on Akt (Akt-myr) or wild-type Akt (wtAkt) elevated GSK-α/β phosphorylation and attenuated NP1 induction. Transfection of neurons with GSK-3α siRNA blocked NP1 induction and cell loss of life completely. Similarly overexpression from the GSK-3β inhibitor Frat1 or the kinase mutant GSK-3βKilometres however not the wild-type GSK-3βWT obstructed NP1 induction and rescued neurons from loss of life. Our findings obviously implicate both GSK-3α and GSK-3β reliant system of NP1 induction and indicate a novel system in the legislation of ...
To examine the response to chronic high-dose angiotensin II (Ang II) and a proposed milder response in feminine hearts with respect to gene manifestation and ischemic injury. was recognized. Ang II improved manifestation of genes related to heart function (ANF β-MCH Verlukast Ankrd-1 PKC-α PKC-δ TNF-α); fibrosis (Col I-α1 Col III-α1 Fn-1 Timp1) and apoptosis (P53 Casp-3) without changing heart excess weight but with 68% increase in collagen content material. High (sub-toxic) dose of Ang II resulted in marked heart redesigning and diastolic dysfunction after ischemia without significant myocyte hypertrophy or ventricular chamber dilatation. Although there were some gender-dependent variations in gene manifestation female gender didnt protect against the entire response. (from the Western Convention for the safety of vertebrate pets) and everything procedures had been authorized by the Norwegian Committee on Ethics in Pet Experimentation. Experimental Process The rats had been Fischer ...
use strict; use warnings; use Data::Dumper; my $ams_hosts = [ { domainId =, 1, deviceIp =, 172.16.133.56, deviceType =, 3, deviceName =, AMS }, { domainId =, 1, deviceIp =, 172.16.133.57, deviceType =, 3, deviceName =, ams_57 } ]; my %ams_ips_hash = map { $_-,{deviceIp} =, 1 } @{$ams_hosts}; print Dumper( \%ams_ips_hash ...
but this approach isnt quite what Im looking for, since it is possible - I should even say probable - that the data structure has different key names from time to time. Therefore the real need is for a routine, that finds every key-value pair from an anonymous hash and after parsing the values return an exact copy of the original structure ...
This method returns a shallow clone of the hash reference. The return value is a reference to a new hash with the same keys and values. It is shallow because any values that were references in the original will be the same references in the clone.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Challenges in the diagnosis and management of well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the lung (typical and atypical carcinoid). T2 - Current status and future considerations. AU - Wolin, Edward M.. PY - 2015/8/25. Y1 - 2015/8/25. N2 - Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the lung represent approximately 25% of all primary lung tumors and can be classified as low grade (typical carcinoids), intermediate grade (atypical carcinoids), or high grade (large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma or small cell lung carcinoma). Low- and intermediate-grade lung NET are increasingly recognized as biologically distinct from high-grade lung NET based on clinical behavior and underlying molecular abnormalities. This review summarizes current knowledge and challenges in the diagnosis and management of low- and intermediate-grade lung NET. Accurate histopathologic classification of lung NET is critical to determining appropriate treatment options but can be challenging even for experts. For low- and ...
Introduction: Small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise well-differentiated NET (benign carcinoid), well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (malignant carcinoid) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). The majority of NET patients have developed liver metastases at the time of diagnosis and surgery is then seldom curative. Novel predictive, diagnostic and prognostic markers are thus needed to improve our capabilities to diagnose and cure these tumors. We have previously identified six novel marker genes for neuroendocrine tumor cells by using Affymetrix microarrays and advanced bioinformatics. One of this markers, the paraneoplastic antigen Ma2 (PNMA2), which is normally expressed only in nervous tissue, can in the process of carcinogenesis be detected in tumors located outside the nervous system. The finding that Ma2 is expressed in small intestine neuroendocrine primary tumors and their metastases made it interesting to screen whether antibodies against Ma2 ...
Primary neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung represent a clinical spectrum of tumors ranging from the relatively benign and slow-growing typical carcinoid to the highly aggressive small-cell lung carcinoma. The rarity of carcinoids has made the role of radiation therapy in their management controversial. This review considers the results of published studies to generate treatment recommendations and identify areas for future research. Surgery remains the standard of care for medically operable disease. Histology plays the most important role in determining the role of adjuvant radiation. Resected typical carcinoids likely do not require adjuvant therapy irrespective of nodal status. Resected atypical carcinoids and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas have a significant risk of local failure, for which adjuvant radiation likely improves local control. Definitive radiation is warranted in unresectable disease. Palliative radiation for symptomatic lesions has demonstrated efficacy for all histologies.
2 MANECs are rare entities known to be associated with biological aggressiveness and poor patient survival, but otherwise remain incompletely characterized.3 In a recent study that compared CRC-NE to conventional colorectal carcinoma, CRC-NE was more frequently located in the right colon (76% vs. 46%), more often presented with metastasis (59% vs. 18%) and often had perineural (68%), lymphatic (97%), and venous (62%) invasion and high tumor budding (71%). BRAF V600E mutation was more common in CRC-NE compared with conventional CRC (53% vs. 12%). Neuroendocrine differentiation, high stage, BRAF mutation without microsatellite instability, and signet ring histology were all associated with poor overall survival.4 In the same study, CRC-NE was further divided into large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), MANEC composed of LCNEC and conventional adenocarcinoma (MANEC-conventional type), and MANEC composed of LCNEC and signet ring cell carcinoma (MANEC-signet ring type). MANEC-signet ring type ...
Merkel-cell carcinoma is a rare and highly aggressive skin cancer, which, in most cases, is caused by the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) discovered by scientists at the University of Pittsburgh in 2008. It is also known as cutaneous APUDoma, primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin, primary small cell carcinoma of the skin, and trabecular carcinoma of the skin. ...
Merkel-cell carcinoma is a rare and highly aggressive skin cancer, which, in most cases, is caused by the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) discovered by scientists at the University of Pittsburgh in 2008. It is also known as cutaneous APUDoma, primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin, primary small cell carcinoma of the skin, and trabecular carcinoma of the skin. ...
Average patient age was 65.5 (range, 28-89) years; there were 25 males and 14 females. Nineteen tumors were located in the right colon, 11 in the left, and 9 were in the rectum. Three histopathologic patterns were identified: pure neuroendocrine (n = 11), predominantly neuroendocrine (n = 17), and cancers with equal exocrine and neuroendocrine differentiation (n = 7). Three cellular subtypes were seen: small-cell (n = 15), intermediate-cell (n = 15), and well-differentiated neuroendocrine cancers (n = 5). There was one Dukes A cancer, 7 Dukes B, 16 Dukes C, and 15 patients had metastases to distant sites at the time of diagnosis. As a group, neuroendocrine tumors have a poor prognosis: six-month survival was 58 percent, three-year survival was 15 percent, and five-year survival was 6 percent. Survival statistically correlated with tumor stage (P = 0.01) but not with age, sex, tumor location, histopathologic pattern, or neuroendocrine subtypes. Median survival for pure neuroendocrine carcinomas ...
Page - 7 Find the best neuroendocrine cancer doctors in Gurgaon. Get guidance from medical experts to select neuroendocrine cancer specialist in Gurgaon from trusted hospitals - credihealth.com
The worldwide incidence of pulmonary carcinoids is increasing, but little is known about their molecular characteristics. Through machine learning and multi-omics factor analysis, we compare and contrast the genomic profiles of 116 pulmonary carcinoids (including 35 atypical), 75 large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNEC), and 66 small-cell lung cancers. Here we report that the integrative analyses on 257 lung neuroendocrine neoplasms stratify atypical carcinoids into two prognostic groups with a 10-year overall survival of 88% and 27%, respectively. We identify therapeutically relevant molecular groups of pulmonary carcinoids, suggesting DLL3 and the immune system as candidate therapeutic targets; we confirm the value of OTP expression levels for the prognosis and diagnosis of these diseases, and we unveil the group of supra-carcinoids. This group comprises samples with carcinoid-like morphology yet the molecular and clinical features of the deadly LCNEC, further supporting the previously ...
Results These 93 patients were referred from 12 hospitals and 20 had undergone previous undiagnostic procedures (6 EBUS, 14 bronchoscopy). The mean age was 67 years (range 27 - 87) and 50 were male. 82 were performed under local anaesthesia using lignocaine spray and intravenous midazolam (1 - 10 mg; mean 4 mgs) and the remaining 11 under general anaesthesia. 200 lymph nodes (2R, 4R, 4L, 7, 10R, 10L, 11R) and 13 lung lesions were biopsied. Results were as follows: Adequate samples were obtained in 99% (91/93) and the NSCLC - NOS rate was 2%. 31 adenocarcinoma, 10 squamous cell carcinoma, 10 small cell carcinoma, 1 NSCLC - NOS, 1 large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, 1 soft tissue lesion (repeat EBUS showed myxoid spindle cell mesenchymal lesion), 1 breast carcinoma, 19 nonspecific benign nodes, 15 sarcoid and 2 TB. There were no complications. ...
1. Hosp. Brigadeiro-UNIFESP-B12-6746:. CNS: Chordoid glioma of the 3rd venticle (IHC: Vim, AE1AE3,CD34 positive; KI67 focal; S100, Progesterone R, CD99 negative.. 2. Ribeirão Preto- Hypothalamic hamartoma.. 3.Salomão & Zoppi- IH12-1365. Burkitt lymphoma, primary from the CNS. (IHC: CD20, CD79a, CD10, Pax5 positive; KIi67 more than. 95%; EBV positive in 25-40 of the cells) (Brit.J. Surg. 1998; 46: 218).. 4. Suster case: SS12-5126:. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (IHC: CK7, CD56 positive; TTF1 negative). 5. UNIFESP- B12-7105:. Metaplastic carcinoma with a malignant stroma (matriz chondroid). (IHC: E-caderin, HER-2, estrogen receptor positive.. 6. Hospital Aliança: AP12-2630: Case 1: Hydropic abortion.. AP12/2358: Case 2: Complete hydatidiform mole.. 7. Botucatu-UNESP-Internet case: B-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma.. ...
Carcinoid tumors are characteristically low grade malignant neoplasms with neuroendocrine differentiation that arise in various body sites, most commonly the lung and gastrointestinal tract, but less frequently the kidneys, breasts, ovaries, testes, prostate and other locations. We report a case of a carcinoid of renal origin with synchronous single liver metastases on radiological studies. A 45 year-old patient who presented with abdominal pain was found on CT scan to have lesions in the right ovary, right kidney, and left hepatic lobe. CA-125, CEA, and CA 19-9 were within normal limits, as were preoperative liver function tests and renal function. Biopsy of the liver mass demonstrated metastatic neuroendocrine tumor. At laparotomy, the patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, radical right nephrectomy with lymphadenectomy, and left hepatectomy. Pathology evaluation reported a right ovarian borderline serous tumor, well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE:. I. To determine the objective response rate (ORR) (complete and partial response) of GW786034 (pazopanib hydrochloride) 800 mg administered orally once daily in patients with advanced low or intermediate grade carcinoid tumors (in carcinoid cohort).. II. To determine the objective response rate (ORR) (complete response and partial response) of GW786034 800mg administered orally once daily in patients with advanced low or intermediate grade pancreatic islet cell carcinoma (in islet cell cohort).. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine the progression free survival (PFS) duration of GW786034 800mg administered orally once daily in patients with low grade neuroendocrine carcinoma.. II. To determine the safety and tolerability of GW786034 800mg administered orally once daily in patients with low grade neuroendocrine carcinoma.. III. To explore the effect on tumor blood flow as determined by functional computed tomography (CT) of GW786034 800 mg orally once daily in patients with ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE:. I. To determine the objective response rate (ORR) (complete and partial response) of GW786034 (pazopanib hydrochloride) 800 mg administered orally once daily in patients with advanced low or intermediate grade carcinoid tumors (in carcinoid cohort).. II. To determine the objective response rate (ORR) (complete response and partial response) of GW786034 800mg administered orally once daily in patients with advanced low or intermediate grade pancreatic islet cell carcinoma (in islet cell cohort).. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine the progression free survival (PFS) duration of GW786034 800mg administered orally once daily in patients with low grade neuroendocrine carcinoma.. II. To determine the safety and tolerability of GW786034 800mg administered orally once daily in patients with low grade neuroendocrine carcinoma.. III. To explore the effect on tumor blood flow as determined by functional computed tomography (CT) of GW786034 800 mg orally once daily in patients with ...
BACKGROUND: Well-differentiated (WD) and poorly differentiated (PD) pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms are biologically distinct entities with different therapies and prognoses. WD neoplasms with elevated proliferation (Ki-67 , 20%) have been shown to have an overlapping histology with PD neuroendocrine carcinomas. This study compared expert cytomorphologic assessments of differentiation in pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms in a multi-institutional study. METHODS: Fine-needle aspiration specimens from pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (grade 2 [G2] and grade 3 [G3] according to the 2017 World Health Organization classification; n = 72) were diagnosed independently by 3 cytopathologists as WD or PD (poorly differentiated large cell type [PD-L] or poorly differentiated small cell type [PD-S]) purely on the basis of cytomorphology ...
Conform modelului descris mai sus rezultatele acestui experiment sunt pefect explicabile: mecanismul accelereaz, apoi moduleaz conform mecanismului antagonismului interstimulantprocesul de metastazare. Insufficient professional advice coupled with a desire for information may lead some cancer survivors to neuroendocrine cancer survivors out information about diet themselves. Considernd aceste observaii, ne-am ateptat la diminuri ale metastazarii dup tratamentul implicnd denervarea cu capsaicina.
Purpose & Methods Neuroendocrine neoplasms are a heterogenous group of tumours, for which nuclear medicine plays an important role in the diagnostic work-up as well as in the targeted therapeutic options. This guideline is aimed to assist nuclear medicine physicians in recommending, performing, reporting and interpreting the results of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) PET/CT imaging using Ga-68-DOTA-conjugated peptides, as well as F-18-DOPA imaging for various neuroendocrine neoplasms. Results & Conclusion The previous procedural guideline by EANM regarding the use PET/CT tumour imaging with Ga-68-conjugated peptides has been revised and updated with the relevant and recent literature in the field with contribution of distinguished experts.. ...
Some of these tumours showed a solid growth pattern of polygonal cells with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Histochemically, these cells were periodic acid-Schiff-negative. Immunohistochemically, vimentin and neuron-specific enolase were positive. Epithelial membrane antigen was focally and weakly positive and p53 was positive in 60% of tumoral cells.. Electron microscopy revealed intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies consisting of whorled intermediate filaments. Based on histological and immunohistochemical findings, the patient was diagnosed as having pulmonary large cell carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype. Because of its aggressive clinical course, early diagnosis and decision on therapy is very important for this disease.. ...
Neuroendocrine cancer behaves differently in each person, and a standard follow-up schedule would not work for everyone. People with neuroendocrine cancer should talk to their doctor about a follow-up plan that suits their individual situation. Follow-up care is often shared among the cancer special
SAN FRANCISCO-Two agents dramatically delayed the time to disease progression in metastatic neuroendocrine tumors, according to reports at the 2009 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium. 1
Qvigstad, G., Qvigstad, T., Westre, B., Sandvik, A. K., Brenna, E. and Waldum, H. L. (2002), Neuroendocrine differentiation in gastric adenocarcinomas associated with severe hypergastrinemia and/or pernicious anemia. APMIS, 110: 132-139. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0463.2002.100302.x ...
Six months ago I heard the word carcinoid for the first time. I had a mass in my appendix and had been waiting for 40 minutes beyond our appointment time in...
Example of cell death by apoptosis. This is a photomicrograph of tumor tissue of a liver biopsy of a 58 year old man who has a large metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma in the liver. This section shows only tumor cells and frequent apoptotic cells evident (dark nuclei) in all areas of the tumor tissue. Haematoxylin and eosin stain, x300 and disturbances of Ca 2+ signaling can also induce apoptosis (MCCONKEY et al. 1990) (Fig. 5). Removal of extracellular Ca 2+can prevent nuclear changes manifest in apoptosis such as apoptotic body formation and DNA degradation, demonstrating Ca2+ requirement in apoptosis (NICOTERA et al. Human soluble Fas ligand binds to Fasbearing cells such as cardiomyocytes and T cells, and produces apoptosis (TANAKA et al. 1995). It has been suggested that soluble Fas ligand may cause systemic tissue damage when released into circulation (NAGATA and GOLSTEIN 1995; TANAKA et al. 1995, 1996) and the ongoing loss of myocytes exerts an essential role in the pathogenesis of ...
Paulette Mhawech-Fauceglia, Tanja Pejovic, Daniel Dim, Xueping Fang, Jeffrey Conroy, Shashikant Lele, Richard Cheney, and Kunle Odunsi. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis is a useful tool for distinguishing primary pulmonary from metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma to the lung. Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology. 2008 May; 16(3): 291-5 ...
Yttrium-90 Microsphere Radioembolotherapy of Hepatic Metastatic Neuroendocrine Carcinomas after Hepatic Arterial Embolization. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. 2008 ...
Bijoor, Shilpa N and Banerjee, Sourjya and *, Subbalakshmi NK (2017) Influence of cancer severity and functional status of cancer on cardiac parasympathetic indicators. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 10 (6). pp. 312-316. ISSN 0973-709X Saha, Debarshi and *, Ankit Kumar and Banerjee, Sourjya and *, Nirupama M and *, Sridevi H.B. and Garg, Priya and Lobo, Flora Dorothy (2017) The pitfalls in cytology diagnosis of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of lung and their treatment response. Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, 13 (2). pp. 213-217. ISSN 0973-1482 Bijoor, Shilpa N and *, Subbalakshmi NK and Banerjee, Sourjya (2016) Influence of Cancer and Its Severity on Vagal Nerve Activity Assessed By Time Domain Measures of Heart Rate Variability. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 7 (3). pp. 1215-1219. ISSN 0975-8585 Putha, Suman Kumar and Saxena, Prakash P U and Banerjee, Sourjya and Challapalli, Srinivas and *, Vadhiraja B. M and ...
Aim: To determine the efficacy of 90Y [DOTA0, D-Phe1, Tyr3]-octreotate (DOTATATE) in 67 patients with pancreatic and small bowel neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Patients & methods: The primary efficacy end point was overall survival (OS) and secondary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) and tumor response ...
The objectives of this study were to compare the prognostic efficacy of all GE-NEN classifications, considered alone or combined, and to determine the best prognostic tool currently available. In our series, less differentiated neoplasms preferentially affected man and were localized in the hindgut or the foregut. In contrast, well differentiated neoplasms were likely to originate from midgut in women and were associated with a good prognosis and a low proliferation index. Older age at diagnosis was correlated with less differentiated tumors, which had higher TNM stage and grade. These data are similar to previously presented findings in the literature.16. Because both age and site of origin of the tumor significantly affect survival, we corrected prognostic models for these 2 variables (with the exception of TNM stage models, which were corrected only for age, because TNM stage already considers the area of origin). However, although the area of origin classification in the foregut, midgut, and ...
Build: Wed Jun 21 18:33:50 EDT 2017 (commit: 4a3b2dc). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are rare. In patients with functional PNETs, the excess hormones produced lead to a variety of hormone-related sympto..
Recently, the therapeutic possibilities for the locally invasive or metastatic neuroendocrine tumors developed signifi cantly, although we have no widely accepted predictive or prognostic factors, which could help to design the most effective sequential therapy. To make therapeutic strategy the internationally accepted clinical guidelines should be considered. The therapeutic activity has to be performed in oncological centers with the support of a multidisciplinary team.. ...
Noria is a radiotherapy company developing targeted therapeutic and imaging radiopharmaceuticals (alpha-emitting) for use in oncology. The lead oncology therapeutic candidate is PSMA-PK-Rx. This product will be used for the treatment of metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancers (mCRPC). This therapeutic can be paired with their PSMA imaging agent PSMA-PK-Dx to create a unique theranostic alternative for men suffering with prostate cancer. The companys pipeline includes SOMA-PK-Rx and SOMA-PK-Dx another theranostic pairing for the treatment and imaging of neuroendocrine cancers, respectively ...
There are many things to consider when looking at survival rates for neuroendocrine tumors - or any cancer. Read on to learn more about what affects prognosis.
Neuroendocrine tumors are also referred to as neoplasms; these are abnormal growth of tissues that arise from endocrine (hormonal) cells and nervous system..
Poster: ECR 2019 / C-3217 / Unravelling the NET - imaging of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) and challenging cases by: A. Haughey1, C. O Brien1, B. S. Kelly2, J. McCann1; 1Dublin/IE, 2Dublin, Dublin/IE
Panelists Matthew H. Kulke, MD; Diane Reidy-Lagunes, MD; Jennifer Eads, MD; James C. Yao, MD; and Eric H. Liu, MD, FACS, highlight the potential for combination therapy in neuroendocrine tumors.
CD56 : Aids in the identification of tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation   Aids in the identification of natural killer cell lineage in a subset of lymphomas
Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. (Onkologisk endokrinologi, K Öberg) ...
The resignation of Steve Jobs as CEO of technology giant Apple has sparked widespread speculation that hes losing his battle with pancreatic neuroendocrine disease and related comorbidities.
The point is that hash functions are many to one and I think the point was about that verify wasnt really needed if the hash function is good enough. Casper _______________________________________________ zfs-discuss mailing list [email protected] http://mail.opensolaris.org/mailman/listinfo/zfs-discuss ...
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors constitute about 2% of all gastrointestinal neoplasms. Approximately half of the pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are nonfunctional. Due to lack of specific symptoms, most patients with nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors present with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Second primary malignancies are seen very rarely in these patients. Colon carcinoma ranks third in frequency among primary sites of cancer in both men and women in western countries. Presence of a metachronous colon adenocarcinoma in a patient with nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor has not been reported before. We present a patient who had an asymptomatic mass in the head of the pancreas, detected by ultrasonography in 1996. The patient did not consent to operation. In 2002, after the diagnosis of an unresectable, nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, interferon alpha-2b and octreotide were started. A year after biological treatment, he refused further ...
Klotho is known as an anti‑aging gene. We previously reported that the expression of Klotho is a postoperative prognostic factor for patients with lung large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and lung small cell carcinoma. Recently, Klotho was shown to suppress the epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT). In the present study, we examined the association between the expression of Klotho and the regulation of EMT in lung squamous cell carcinoma. We immunohistochemically examined the expression of Klotho in patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma who had undergone surgical resection or photodynamic therapy. The immunohistochemical analysis showed that Klotho expression was observed not only in normal bronchial epithelial cells, but also in centrally located early lung cancers, which were all carcinomas in situ and were treated using PDT. However, in lung cancer patients with invasive and or advanced squamous cell carcinoma who had undergone a complete surgical resection, Klotho expression was ...
The current Fascicle contains new information accumulated during the last ten years on tumors and tumor-like lesions of the gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts and Vaterian system. Because of the increasing number of laparoscopic cholecystectomies and Whipple procedures performed, surgical pathologists now have the opportunity to examine more cancer precursors, early cancers, and adenomas of the gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts and ampulla of Vater than previously. These lesions are discussed in detail and profusely illustrated. Likewise, lesions that closely simulate malignant neoplasms are also described and illustrated. Also included are the giant cell neoplasms and the gastrointestinal stromal tumors as well as the new subtypes of carcinomas such as large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and adenocarcinomas with pyloric gland or foveolar phenotype. The role of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of a wide variety of neoplasms is emphasized, as well ...
Looking for online definition of atypical carcinoid in the Medical Dictionary? atypical carcinoid explanation free. What is atypical carcinoid? Meaning of atypical carcinoid medical term. What does atypical carcinoid mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Appropriateness of systemic treatments in unresectable metastatic well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. AU - Strosberg, Jonathan R.. AU - Fisher, George A.. AU - Benson, Al B.. AU - Anthony, Lowell B.. AU - Arslan, Bulent. AU - Gibbs, John F.. AU - Greeno, Edward. AU - Iyer, Renuka V.. AU - Kim, Michelle K.. AU - Maples, William J.. AU - Philip, Philip A.. AU - Wolin, Edward M.. AU - Cherepanov, Dasha. AU - Broder, Michael S.. PY - 2015/2/28. Y1 - 2015/2/28. N2 - AIM: To evaluate systemic treatment choices in unresectable metastatic well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) and provide consensus treatment recommendations. METHODS: Systemic treatment options for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors have expanded in recent years to include somatostatin analogs, angiogenesis inhibitors, inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin and cytotoxic agents. At this time, there is little data to guide treatment selection and sequence. We therefore assembled a ...
View details of top pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor hospitals in Navi Mumbai. Get guidance from medical experts to select best pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor hospital in Navi Mumbai
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are unusual and relatively rare neoplasms. They characteristically synthetize, store and secrete a variety of peptides and neuroamines, which can lead to development of disctinct clinical syndromes. Clinical symptoms and presentations vary depending on the location and hormones produced by the tumor. The diagnosis of NETs is established by histological examination and the immunohistochemical detection of general neuroendocrine markers, such as chromogranin A (CgA) and synaptophysin. An update of the WHO classifi cation has resulted in a new classification dividing neuroendocrine neoplasms into neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) including G1 (Ki67 index ≤2%) and G2 (Ki67 index 3-20%) tumors and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) with Ki67 index ,20%, G3. The different available therapeutic approaches, including surgery, liver-directed ablative therapies, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, and systemic hormonal, cytotoxic or targeted therapy, ...
Neuroendocrine neoplasms may occur in the uterine cervix, although rarely; it accounts for 0.5-1% of all malignant tumors of the uterine cervix. A case report of an Ethiopian female presented at the Gynecology Out-Patient Clinic at Jimma University Hospital, complaining from irregular vaginal bleeding over the previous three months. Clinically there was a cauliflower cervical mass; histopathologically it was formed of sheets of small cell tumor; that further showed neuroendocrine differentiation, as demonstrated by chromogranin-A positivity. It is important to differentiate small cell carcinoma from other malignant tumors of the uterine cervix. Morphological features play an important role in making a diagnosis and the immunohistochemistry study can offer an additional useful assistance
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) [carcinoids, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs)] are becoming an increasing clinical problem because not only are they increasing in frequency, but they can frequent
Abstract:. In recent years, much progress has been made in improving our therapies for patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (panNETs). The recent approval of targeted drugs demonstrated that a better understanding of the genetic basis of panNETs may offer insights into precision medicine for our patients. In an effort to further our knowledge, our group has completed next-generation sequencing (NGS) in the tumor tissue of 81 patients with panNETs (95 tumor samples sequenced in total); 10 patients underwent NGS of their tumor tissue at multiple time-points. Our preliminary findings are novel and striking. We have built on prior findings and demonstrated that tumor grade and differentiation can be characterized through NGS, and in patients who had multiple tumor samples sequenced, we identified progression in tumor grade and the acquisition of new mutations (some, possible resistance mechanisms) in almost all patients. Working closely with our laboratory colleagues, we are ...
Less than 5% of pancreatic tumors are Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (also called PNETs or islet cell tumors). Learn about PNETs and our patient services.
-Phase III trial showed Afinitor reduced risk of cancer progression by 65% vs. placebo in patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NET)[1], , , , -Afinitor gives patients with limited...
Cazul prezentat sustine necesitatea abordarii multisectoriale a managementului de caz pentru bolile extrem de rare, asa cum este situatia tumorilor neuroendocrine digestive.
In the 16thth centuries, European political, military, diplomatic changes took place that reverberated in Venice and Transylvania. There he activated in the group of legionary students from Cluj, an organization considered subversive by the authorities, known as the Legionary Student Center LSC. Thus, the ethos of education represented for Romanians from Transylvania in the 19th century, a chance of gaining independence by establishing educational institution in Romanian language.
Here is some information from The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - (OSUCCC - James) I wanted to share with you.
Neuroendocrine pancreatic tumours grow slower and metastasise later than ductal and acinar carcinomas. The expression of the p53 tumour suppressor gene in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour cells is unknown. Pancreatic neuroendocrine cell lines (n = 5) and human tumour tissues (n = 19) were studied for changed p53 coding sequence, transcription, and translation. Proliferative activity of tumour cells was determined analysing Ki-67 expression. No mutation in the p53 nucleotide sequence of neuroendocrine tumour cell was found. However, an overexpression of p53 could be detected in neuroendocrine pancreatic tumour cell lines at a protein level. As no p53 mutations were seen, it is suggested that post-translational events can also lead to an overexpression of p53.. ...
Merkel cell carcinoma (also known as a "Cutaneous apudoma," "Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin," Primary small cell carcinoma of the skin, and "Trabecular carcinoma of the skin is a rare and highly aggressive cancer in which malignant cancer cells develop on or just beneath the skin and in hair follicles.. • The majority of Merkel cell carcinomas appear to be caused in part by a newly discovered virus, Merkel cell polyomavirus or MCV. Direct evidence for this comes from studies showing that inhibition of MCV proteins causes MCV-infected Merkel carcinoma cells to die but has no effect on tumor cells from Merkel cell carcinomas that are not infected with the virus. • This cancer is a type of neuroendocrine tumor, like small cell lung cancer. Once it has metastasized to the lymph nodes, the 5-year survival rate for a patient is about 50 percent. A patient with a small tumor (less than 2 cm) that has not metastasized to the lymph nodes may have a 5-year survival rate of more than 80 ...
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) was originally described by Toker in 1972 as trabecular carcinoma of the skin.[1] Other names include Toker tumor, primary small cell carcinoma of the skin, primary cutaneous neuroendocrine tumor, and malignant trichodiscoma.[2] MCC is an aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma arising in the...
Two cases of progressive hearing loss due to middle ear tumours are described. The histological characteristics numbered intraluminal mucin production and neuroendocrine features, as shown by argyrophilia and ultrastructural demonstration of dense core granules. These tumours have been known by many different names, reflecting the controversies relating to their presumed histogenesis and differentiation. The currently preferred designation is middle ear adenoma, and these two cases provide further evidence for dual lines of differentiation.. ...
Background: Therapy monitoring of cancer treatment by contrast-enhanced CT (CECT), applying response evaluation criteria in solid tumors criteria version 1. 1 (RECIST 1.1) is less suitable for neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) which, when responding, tend to show stabilization rather than shrinkage. New methods are needed to further classify patients in order to identify non-responders at an early stage and avoid unnecessary adverse effects and costs. Changes in arterial tumor attenuation and contrast-enhancement could be used to identify the effect of therapy, perhaps even in early stages of treatment.Methods: Patients with metastatic pancreatic NETs (PNETs) receiving peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with 177Lu-DOTATATE underwent CECT at baseline, mid-treatment (PRRT cycles 3-5) and at follow-up, 3 months after the last PRRT cycle. At baseline CECT, the liver metastasis with the highest arterial attenuation was identified in each patient. The fold changes in arterial tumor attenuation
Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is a rare disorder and information on this disease is limited, especially with regard to its management and prognosis. It has become generally accepted that DIPNECH is a precu...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia syndrome. AU - Rossi, Giulio. AU - Spagnolo, Paolo. AU - Sverzellati, Nicola. AU - Longo, Lucia. AU - Jukna, Agita. AU - Montanari, Gloria. AU - Vincenzi, Giada. AU - Bogina, Giuseppe. AU - Franco, Renato. AU - Tiseo, Marcello. AU - Cottin, Vincent. AU - Colby, Thomas V.. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. N2 - The term diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) may be used to describe a clinico-pathological syndrome, as well as an incidental finding on histological examination, although there are obvious differences between these two scenarios. According to the World Health Organization, the definition of DIPNECH is purely histological. However, DIPNECH encompasses symptomatic patients with airway disease, as well as asymptomatic patients with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia associated with multiple tumourlets/carcinoid tumours. DIPNECH is also considered a pre-neoplastic lesion in the spectrum ...

ESMO 2017: Improved Survival Demonstrated with NSCLC-chemotherapy in Pulmonary Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma with RB1...ESMO 2017: Improved Survival Demonstrated with NSCLC-chemotherapy in Pulmonary Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma with RB1...

Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Cancers. Neuroendocrine Bronchial and Thymic Tumours • Neuroendocrine Gastroenteropancreatic ... 431O - Derks J, et al. Genomic Subtypes of Pulmonary Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma (LCNEC) may Predict Chemotherapy ... Improved Survival Demonstrated with NSCLC-chemotherapy in Pulmonary Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma with RB1 wild-type. ... Improved Survival Demonstrated with NSCLC-chemotherapy in Pulmonary Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma with RB1 Wild-type ...
more infohttp://www.esmo.org/Conferences/Past-Conferences/ESMO-2017-Congress/News-Articles/Improved-Survival-Demonstrated-with-NSCLC-chemotherapy-in-Pulmonary-Large-Cell-Neuroendocrine-Carcinoma-with-RB1-Wild-type

A patient with nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor and incidental metachronous colon carcinoma detected by positron...A patient with nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor and incidental metachronous colon carcinoma detected by positron...

A patient with nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor and incidental metachronous colon carcinoma detected by positron ... Colon carcinoma ranks third in frequency among primary sites of cancer in both men and women in western countries. Presence of ... Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, colon cancer, positron emission tomography National Category Medical and Health Sciences ... Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors constitute about 2% of all gastrointestinal neoplasms. Approximately half of the pancreatic ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:374398

What Is Dermatology - Merkel Cell Carcinoma  - MedicalrealmWhat Is Dermatology - Merkel Cell Carcinoma - Medicalrealm

Merkel cell carcinoma is a form of subcutaneous to cutaneous papule or nodule. Merkel cell carcinoma is a red, violet,pink or ... Merkel cell carcinoma commonly present on the extremities and the head. ... Merkel cell carcinoma is a cutaneous neuroendocrine tumor. Merkel cell carcinoma is common in immunosuppressed patient and ... Merkel Cell Carcinoma Merkel cell carcinoma commonly present on the extremities and the head. Merkel cell carcinoma is a form ...
more infohttp://www.medicalrealm.net/what-is-dermatology---merkel-cell-carcinoma.html

Liver transplantation for metastatic neuroendocrine tumors: Outcomes and prognostic variables<...Liver transplantation for metastatic neuroendocrine tumors: Outcomes and prognostic variables<...

Identification of favorable prognostic factors should allow assignment of a MELD exception similar to hepatocellular carcinoma ... keywords = "liver transplantation, neuroendocrine tumor, prognostic indicators",. author = "Sher, {Linda S.} and Levi, {David M ... Liver transplantation for metastatic neuroendocrine tumors: Outcomes and prognostic variables. Journal of Surgical Oncology. ... Liver transplantation for metastatic neuroendocrine tumors: Outcomes and prognostic variables. Linda S. Sher, David M. Levi, ...
more infohttps://indiana.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/liver-transplantation-for-metastatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-outcom

Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix - WikipediaNeuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix - Wikipedia

... www.wrongdiagnosis.com/n/neuroendocrine_carcinoma_of_the_cervix/intro.htm Neuroendocrine system "MRI of Small Cell Carcinoma of ... Small-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix is an exceptional member of the neuroendocrine group of cervical carcinomas that is ... Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix is best defined separately: Neuroendocrine: Of, relating to, or involving the ... Neuroendocrine carcinoma affects many different parts of the body. In the cervix, it is a rare, but very aggressive form of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroendocrine_carcinoma_of_the_cervix

Neuroendocrine Carcinoma | Cancer Survivors NetworkNeuroendocrine Carcinoma | Cancer Survivors Network

I had a tumor removed from my liver and it was diagnosed as NEC. They arent sure if its the primary but I had tumor markers done recently and all my levels were normal. Have any of you had markers done and levels were normal but more tumors were found? Im asking because less than 1% of NEC tumors originate in the liver and that is where mine was, so Im worried there might be something somewhere else that isnt excreting any horomones. ...
more infohttps://csn.cancer.org/node/155727

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung - WikipediaLarge cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung - Wikipedia

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung (LCNEC) is a highly malignant neoplasm arising from transformed epithelial ... "combined large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma" (c-LCNEC). Travis, William D; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Muller-Hermelink, H Konrad; ... It is currently considered to be a subtype of large cell lung carcinoma. LCNEC is often generically grouped among the non-small ... cell lung carcinomas. The World Health Organization classification of lung tumors recognizes a variant of LCNEC, namely " ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Large_cell_neuroendocrine_carcinoma_of_the_lung

Clinicopathologic features of primary renal neuroendocrine carcinoma]Clinicopathologic features of primary renal neuroendocrine carcinoma]

... diagnostic features and prognosis of primary renal neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). Methods: The clinicopathologic data of eight ... Clinicopathologic features of primary renal neuroendocrine carcinoma] November 21, 2018 Objective: To investigate the ... The Ki-67 proliferation index was≤3% in the carcinoids; ≥50% in the small cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma; and 5% and 8 ... Three patients (two with small cell carcinoma and one with large cell carcinoma) died of extensive metastases at 3 months, 4 ...
more infohttps://www.urotoday.com/recent-abstracts/urologic-oncology/renal-cancer/108535-clinicopathologic-features-of-primary-renal-neuroendocrine-carcinoma.html

Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the jugular foramen. - Free Online LibraryNeuroendocrine carcinoma of the jugular foramen. - Free Online Library

Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the jugular foramen.(ORIGINAL ARTICLE, Clinical report) by Ear, Nose and Throat Journal; Health, ... general Cancer Care and treatment Chemotherapy Diagnosis Methods Research Cancer metastasis Cancer treatment Carcinoma Medical ... research Medicine, Experimental Metastasis Neuroendocrine tumors Risk factors Radiotherapy ... carcinoma+of+the+jugular+foramen.-a0176368943. *APA style: Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the jugular foramen.. (n.d.) >The Free ...
more infohttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Neuroendocrine+carcinoma+of+the+jugular+foramen-a0176368943

Mixed Acinar-Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Pancreas with Neuroendocrine PredominanceMixed Acinar-Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Pancreas with Neuroendocrine Predominance

This unique entity has been referred to as mixed acinar-neuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Only about 20 such cases have been ... i,Case Report,/i,. We report an interesting case of MANEC with neuroendocrine cell predominance in a woman presenting with ... In some instances, the occurrence of pancreatic tumors comprising both acinar cells and neuroendocrine cells, with ... neuroendocrine cells making up more than 30% of the tumor, has been identified. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2013/705092/

Laryngeal Neuroendocrine Carcinomas: A Retrospective Study of 14 CasesLaryngeal Neuroendocrine Carcinomas: A Retrospective Study of 14 Cases

... small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. The neural category is mainly referred to as ... and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Laryngeal large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was classified together with atypical ... and 7 as small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. One of the small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma cases was demonstrated to couple ... followed by the small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, typical carcinoid, and the large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma [5]. The ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/832194/

Prostate cancer: Neuroendocrine carcinoma | HealthEngine BlogProstate cancer: Neuroendocrine carcinoma | HealthEngine Blog

Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate is a rare form of cancer which affects the hormone-producing cells of the prostate. ... If cancer arises in the neuroendocrine cells of the prostate, it is known as neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate. This is ... Neuroendocrine cells of the prostate and neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic carcinoma: a review of morphologic aspects ... What is Prostate Cancer (Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Prostate)?. The prostate is a gland found only in men. It surrounds ...
more infohttps://healthengine.com.au/info/prostate-cancer-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-the-prostate

Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Patient Inspires Fellow Patients, Staff | MD
Anderson Cancer CenterNeuroendocrine Carcinoma Patient Inspires Fellow Patients, Staff | MD Anderson Cancer Center

Neuroendocrine carcinomas form in the hormone-producing cells of the bodys neuroendocrine system, which is composed of cells ... Diagnosed in 2006 with neuroendocrine carcinoma, Sittig travels to MD Anderson from Ville Platte, La., every 28 days for ...
more infohttps://www.mdanderson.org/publications/cancerwise/2011/10/neuroendocrine-carcinoma-patient-inspires-fellow-patients-staff.html

All Specialist in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma messagesAll Specialist in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma messages

Specialist in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma. by LelaLu on Sat Sep 09, 2017 07:28 PM ... My brother has very aggressive, widely metastasized neuroendocrine carcinoma. From what I understand, its treated very ... Specialist in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma. Specialist in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma. View all Other Cancers Discussions Post A New ...
more infohttps://www.cancercompass.com/message-board/message/all,130284,0.htm

Solid neuroendocrine carcinomas of the breast: metastases or primary tumors? | SpringerLinkSolid neuroendocrine carcinomas of the breast: metastases or primary tumors? | SpringerLink

Neuroendocrine breast carcinomas are rare but may represent either metastatic or primary lesions. So far, clinical and ... Neuroendocrine breast carcinomas are rare but may represent either metastatic or primary lesions. So far, clinical and ... Sapino A, Righi L, Cassoni P et al (2001) Expression of apocrine differentiation markers in neuroendocrine breast carcinomas of ... Lopez-Bonet E, Alonso-Ruano M, Barraza G et al (2008) Solid neuroendocrine breast carcinomas: incidence, clinico-pathological ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10549-010-1178-3

Temsirolimus in Treating Patients With Metastatic Neuroendocrine CarcinomaTemsirolimus in Treating Patients With Metastatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

This phase II trial is studying how well CCI-779 works in treating patients with progressive metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. ... A Phase II Study of CCI-779 in Metastatic Neuroendocrine Carcinomas. Trial Phase:. Phase 2. Minimum Age:. 18 Years. Maximum Age ... A Phase II Study of CCI-779 in Metastatic Neuroendocrine Carcinomas. OBJECTIVES:. I. To assess the objective tumor response ... time, 1-year survival rate and toxicity in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine. carcinomas given CCI-779. As of 19 July ...
more infohttp://www.knowcancer.com/cancer-trials/NCT00093782/

Chemotherapy Effective For Patients With Resected SCLC Or Large-Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma - RedorbitChemotherapy Effective For Patients With Resected SCLC Or Large-Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma - Redorbit

Whereas large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a subgroup of large-cell carcinoma, that has characteristics similar to ... Chemotherapy Effective For Patients With Resected SCLC Or Large-Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma. by editor ... concluded that patients with limited large cell neuroendocrine tumors or with limited stage small-cell lung cancer who were ...
more infohttp://www.redorbit.com/news/health/1112634399/chemotherapy-effective-for-patients-with-resected-sclc-or-large-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma/

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma primarily in the pericar... : Chinese Medical JournalLarge cell neuroendocrine carcinoma primarily in the pericar... : Chinese Medical Journal

... large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and carcinoid tumors. Based on the differentiation grade, neuroendocrine tumors are ... Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma primarily in the pericardium. a case report and literature review. Yin, Yue1; Zhang, Yun1; ... Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the endometrium: a case report and literature review. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2018; 57: ... Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma primarily in the pericardium: A case report and literature review. Chin Med J 2019;133:106- ...
more infohttps://journals.lww.com/cmj/Fulltext/2020/01050/Large_cell_neuroendocrine_carcinoma_primarily_in.19.aspx

Clinical outcomes of locally advanced esophageal neuroendocrine carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy.Clinical outcomes of locally advanced esophageal neuroendocrine carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy.

Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) arising from the esophagus (EsoNEC) is extreme rare, accounting for approximately 1% of ... cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet ... Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and ... "Clinical outcomes of locally advanced esophageal neuroendocrine carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy.". Neuroendocrine ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2551426/Clinical-outcomes-of-locally-advanced-esophageal-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-treated-with-chemoradiotherapy.html

Combined Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma of the Gallbladder | SpringerLinkCombined Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma of the Gallbladder | SpringerLink

Gall Bladder Neuroendocrine Tumor Carcinoid Tumor Obstructive Jaundice Small Cell Carcinoma These keywords were added by ... High-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas of the gallbladder and bile duct. Report of four cases with pathological correlation. J ... Akamatsu S, Kanamaru S, Ishihara M, Sano T, Soeda A, Hashimoto K. Primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary ... Noske A, Pahl S. Combined adenosquamous and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder. Virch Arch 2006;449:135-136 ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12022-012-9229-4

Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the brain | BMJ Case ReportsPrimary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the brain | BMJ Case Reports

You need to be signed in to access email alerts. If you have an account log in with your user name and password. If you dont have an account you can just enter your email address in the email box below ...
more infohttps://casereports.bmj.com/content/12/9/e230582.alerts

Prostatic Metastasis of Pulmonary Large Cell Neuroendocrine CarcinomaProstatic Metastasis of Pulmonary Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung with proposed criteria for large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. An ultrastructural, ... Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a histologic and immunohistochemical study of 22 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 1998 ... Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a retrospective analysis of 144 surgical cases. Lung Cancer. 2006;53:111-115 ... Prostate carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation: case report and literature review. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo. ...
more infohttp://www.jcancer.org/v03p0096.htm

Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Market Size & Share | Industry Report, 2025Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Market Size & Share | Industry Report, 2025

This type of cancer occurs in the neuroendocrine system of human body and produce hormones similar to neuroendocrine cells ... Neuroendocrine carcinoma market is expected to witness lucrative growth over the forecast period due to increase in incidence ... Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Market Size & Share, Industry Report, 2025 Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Market Size Report, Application ... Neuroendocrine carcinoma market is expected to witness lucrative growth over the forecast period due to increase in incidence ...
more infohttps://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/neuroendocrine-carcinoma-market

Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Therapeutics - Pipeline Assessment and Market Foreca... ( NEW YORK May 15 2012 /- Reportlinker....)Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Therapeutics - Pipeline Assessment and Market Foreca... ( NEW YORK May 15 2012 /- Reportlinker....)

GlobalData has estimated that the global neuroendocrine carcinoma ther...,Neuroendocrine,Carcinoma,Therapeutics,-,Pipeline, ... www.reportlinker.com/p0606218/Neuroendocrine-Carcinoma-Therapeu...Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Therapeutics - Pipeline Assessment ... the US 303.5 Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Therapeutics Market Size (2006-2011) -the UK 313.6 Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Therapeutics ... Global 273.3 Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Therapeutics Market Size (2006-2011) - the US 293.4 Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Therapeutics ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-technology-1/Neuroendocrine-Carcinoma-Therapeutics---Pipeline-Assessment-and-Market-Forecast-to-2019-22241-1/

Genomic Profiling of Large-Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Lung | Clinical Cancer ResearchGenomic Profiling of Large-Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Lung | Clinical Cancer Research

Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung, which has been histologically categorized as high-grade neuroendocrine ... Next-generation sequencing of pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma reveals small cell carcinoma-like and non-small ... Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: an aggressive form of non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2005;130:166-72 ... Genomic Profiling of Large-Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Lung. Tomohiro Miyoshi, Shigeki Umemura, Yuki Matsumura, ...
more infohttp://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/23/3/757
  • Three patients (two with small cell carcinoma and one with large cell carcinoma) died of extensive metastases at 3 months, 4 months and 9 months after operation, while five patients were well, without recurrence or distant metastasis for follow-up period of one to nine years. (urotoday.com)
  • A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In addition, increasing investments in R&D for the development of cost-effective next generation sequencing tools that are used to develop new therapies for cancer treatment and the ongoing clinical trials are expected to accelerate the neuroendocrine carcinoma market growth. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • In addition, according to U.S. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Register, the occurrence of GI neuroendocrine carcinoma has increased 300%-500%, compared to 35 years prior to 2016, thereby providing a lucrative growth platform in near future. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • It includes 10 years epidemiology historical and forecasted data of Neuroendocrine Carcinoma prevalent or incident cases segmented by age, sex and subpopulations. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Annualized data on the seven key neuroendocrine carcinoma markets (the US, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK and Japan) revenue data from 2006 to 2011, forecast for eight years to 2019. (bio-medicine.org)