Modified epidermal cells located in the stratum basale. They are found mostly in areas where sensory perception is acute, such as the fingertips. Merkel cells are closely associated with an expanded terminal bulb of an afferent myelinated nerve fiber. Do not confuse with Merkel's corpuscle which is a combination of a neuron and an epidermal cell.
A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS suspected to be the cause of most cases of MERKEL CELL CARCINOMA, a rare but highly lethal form of skin cancer.
Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A type I keratin expressed predominately in gastrointestinal epithelia, MERKEL CELLS, and the TASTE BUDS of the oral mucosa.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)
Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.
A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Facial neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the facial region, which can be benign or malignant, originating from various cell types including epithelial, glandular, connective tissue, and neural crest cells.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
MUCOUS MEMBRANE extending from floor of mouth to the under-surface of the tongue.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
A non-template-directed DNA polymerase normally found in vertebrate thymus and bone marrow. It catalyzes the elongation of oligo- or polydeoxynucleotide chains and is widely used as a tool in the differential diagnosis of acute leukemias in man. EC 2.7.7.31.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A general term collectively applied to tumors associated with the APUD CELLS series, irrespective of their specific identification.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-18 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.
A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.
One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
A form of highly malignant lung cancer that is composed of small ovoid cells (SMALL CELL CARCINOMA).
Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.
A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.
Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
Tumors or cancer of the LIP.
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
An acidic protein found in the NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEM that functions as a molecular chaperone for PROPROTEIN CONVERTASE 2.
A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Tumors of cancer of the EYELIDS.
The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
The fraction of a blood sample, following CENTRIFUGATION, that is distinguished as a thin light-colored layer between the RED BLOOD CELLS, underneath it, and the PLASMA, above it. It is composed mostly of WHITE BLOOD CELLS and PLATELETS.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.
A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.

Merkel cell carcinoma and melanoma: etiological similarities and differences. (1/218)

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) of the skin and cutaneous malignant melanoma can now be compared epidemiologically through the use of population-based data not previously available for MCC. The results may provide new clues to etiology. In this study, United States data covered by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program were from nine areas of the United States (approximately 10% of the population). In 1986-1994, 425 cases of MCC were registered. The annual age-adjusted incidence per 100,000 of MCC was 0.23 for whites and 0.01 for blacks; among whites, the ratio of melanoma to MCC was approximately 65 to 1. Only 5% of MCC occurred before age 50, unlike the lifelong risk of nodular and superficial spreading melanoma. Regional incidence rates of both cancers increased similarly with increasing sun exposure as measured by the UVB solar index. The most sun-exposed anatomical site, the face, was the location of 36% of MCC but only 14% of melanoma. Both cancers increased in frequency and aggressiveness after immunosuppression and organ transplantation (36 cases from the Cincinnati Transplant Tumor registry and 12 from published case reports) and after B-cell neoplasia (5 cases in this study; 13 from case series in the literature). The SEER data contained reports of six patients with both types of cancer; 5 melanomas before the diagnosis of MCC and 1 after diagnosis. MCC and melanoma are similarly related to sun exposure and immunosuppression, but they differ markedly from one another in their distributions by age, race, and anatomical site, especially the face.  (+info)

Mutation analysis of P73 and TP53 in Merkel cell carcinoma. (2/218)

The p73 gene has been mapped to 1p36.33, a region which is frequently deleted in a wide variety of neoplasms including tumours of neuroectodermal origin. The p73 protein shows structural and functional homology to p53. For these reasons, p73 was considered as a positional and functional candidate tumour suppressor gene. Thus far, mutation analysis has provided no evidence for involvement of p73 in oligodendrogliomas, lung carcinoma, oesophageal carcinoma, prostatic carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. In neuroblastoma, two mutations have been observed in a series of 140 tumours. In view of the occurrence of 1p deletions in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) and the location of p73 we decided to search for mutations in the p73 gene in five MCC cell lines and ten MCC tumours to test potential tumour suppressor function for this gene in MCC. In view of the possible complementary functions of p73 and TP53 we also examined the status of the TP53 gene. Sequence analysis of the entire coding region of the p73 gene revealed previously reported polymorphisms in four MCCs. In one MCC tumour, a mis-sense mutation located in the NH2-terminal transactivation region of the p73 gene was found. These results show that p73, analogous to neuroblastoma, is infrequently mutated in MCC. This is also the first report in which the role of TP53 in MCC has been investigated by sequencing the entire coding region of TP53. TP53 mis-sense mutations and one non-sense mutation were detected in three of 15 examined MCCs, suggesting that TP53 mutations may play a role in the pathogenesis or progression of a subset of MCCs. Moreover, typical UVB induced C to T mutations were found in one MCC cell line thus providing further evidence for sun-exposure in the aetiology of this rare skin cancer.  (+info)

Bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides (G3139) inhibit Merkel cell carcinoma growth in SCID mice. (3/218)

Merkel cell carcinoma was first described in 1972 by Toker and is an aggressive neuroendocrine skin tumor with a high metastatic potential. Merkel cell carcinoma is thought to derive from the neuroendocrine (Merkel) cells of the skin, although in contrast to fetal and especially adult Merkel cells, Merkel cell carcinomas express high levels of the Bcl-2 oncoprotein. Bcl-2 is capable of blocking programmed cell death and has been shown to play an important role in normal cell turnover, tumor biology, and chemoresistance. High Bcl-2 expression leading to prolonged survival of cells may therefore be of importance in the biological and clinical characteristics of Merkel cell carcinoma. In a SCID mouse xenotransplantation model for human Merkel cell carcinoma, we investigated the influence of the bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotide G3139 (Genta) on tumor growth in comparison with control oligonucleotides or cisplatin. Bcl-2 antisense treatment, targeting the first six codons of the bcl-2 mRNA, resulted in either a dramatic reduction of tumor growth or complete remission, whereas reverse sequence and two-base mismatch control oligonucleotides or cisplatin had no significant antitumor effects compared with saline-treated controls. Apoptosis was enhanced 2.4-fold in the bcl-2 antisense treated tumors compared with the saline-treated group, and no other treatment showed a comparable increase in apoptosis. Our findings suggest that bcl-2 antisense treatment may be a novel approach to improve treatment outcome of human Merkel cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Chemotherapy in neuroendocrine/Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin: case series and review of 204 cases. (4/218)

PURPOSE: To study the use of chemotherapy for Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) of the skin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-five cases of MCC were treated at the London Regional Cancer Center between 1987 and 1997. Thirteen cases treated with chemotherapy were reviewed with 191 cases from the literature. RESULTS: At presentation, 24 patients had localized skin lesions (stage I) and one had locoregional involvement (stage II). Among the nine cases with recurrent nodal disease, six had chemotherapy as a component of salvage treatment. They were all free of disease at a median of 19 months (range, 12 to 37 months). In contrast, two patients who had salvage radiotherapy alone died of disease. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 59% and 43%, respectively, at two years. Median OS and DFS were 29 months (range, 1 to 133 months) and 9 months (range, 1 to 133 months), respectively. Nodal disease developed in 12 (50%) of 24 patients with stage I disease, and distant metastases developed in six (25%) of 24. Including those from the literature, there were 204 cases treated with chemotherapy. Cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin (or epirubicin)/vincristine combination +/- prednisone was the most commonly used chemotherapy regimen (47 cases), with an overall response rate of 75.7% (35.1% complete, 35. 1% partial, and 5.4% minor responses). Etoposide/cisplatin (or carboplatin) was the next most commonly used regimen (27 cases), with an overall response rate of 60% (36% complete and 24% partial responses). The difference in response rate was not statistically significant (P =.19). Among the 204 cases, there were seven (3.4%) toxic deaths. CONCLUSION: Chemoradiation for locally recurrent or advanced disease may be an option for patients with a good performance status.  (+info)

Microdialysis and response during regional chemotherapy by isolated limb infusion of melphalan for limb malignancies. (5/218)

This study sought to use a microdialysis technique to relate clinical and biochemical responses to the time course of melphalan concentrations in the subcutaneous interstitial space and in tumour tissue (melanoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, Merkel cell tumour and osteosarcoma) in patients undergoing regional chemotherapy by Isolated Limb Infusion (ILI). 19 patients undergoing ILI for treatment of various limb malignancies were monitored for intra-operative melphalan concentrations in plasma and, using microdialysis, in subcutaneous and tumour tissues. Peak and mean concentrations of melphalan were significantly higher in plasma than in subcutaneous or tumour microdialysate. There was no significant difference between drug peak and mean concentrations in interstitial and tumour tissue, indicating that there was no preferential uptake of melphalan into the tumours. The time course of melphalan in the microdialysate could be described by a pharmacokinetic model which assumed melphalan distributed from the plasma into the interstitial space. The model also accounted for the vascular dispersion of melphalan in the limb. Tumour response in the whole group to treatment was partial response: 53.8% (n = 7); complete response: 33.3% (n = 5); no response: 6.7% (n = 1). There was a significant association between tumour response and melphalan concentrations measured over time in subcutaneous microdialysate (P< 0.01). No significant relationship existed between the severity of toxic reactions in the limb or peak plasma creatine phosphokinase levels and peak melphalan microdialysate or plasma concentrations. It is concluded that microdialysis is a technique well suited for measuring concentrations of cytotoxic drug during ILI. The possibility of predicting actual concentrations of cytotoxic drug in the limb during ILI using our model opens an opportunity for improved drug dose calculation. The combination of predicting tissue concentrations and monitoring in microdialysate of subcutaneous tissue could help optimise ILI with regard to post-operative limb morbidity and tumour response.  (+info)

Indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy of Merkel cell carcinomas and their metastases. (6/218)

BACKGROUND: Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) may be of interest for staging Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC). This study was undertaken to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of SRS and to determine its role compared to conventional investigations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1993 to December 2000, 20 patients (10 females and 10 males, aged from 38 to 88, mean 66 years) were included prospectively. At the time of SRS: 12 patients had been diagnosed as having stage I disease, 6 stage II and 4 stage III. Two patients had two SRS studies during the course of their disease. SRS was performed with Indium-111 pentetreotide (Octreoscan), a radiolabelled somatostatin analogue. Patients were treated according to the clinical stage. A regular follow-up was scheduled every three months. RESULTS: SRS depicted stage I and II MCC tumour sites with an overall sensitivity of 78% (95% confidence interval (CI): 40%-97%) and a specificity of 96% (81%-100%). The histopathological diagnosis was used as the gold standard. Sites visualised by SRS were compared to those detected with conventional modalities and to follow-up data for all stages: SRS visualised four out of five primary tumour sites, six out of eight lymph node sites, no skin metastases (14 sites in 2 patients), two out of three thoracic metastases and zero out of two hepatic metastases. SRS did not influence treatment decision-making in any of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: Although SRS seems highly specific in MCC and could be of help in difficult cases, it cannot be recommended for routine evaluation.  (+info)

Merkel cell carcinoma: a rare cause of hypervascular nasal tumor. (7/218)

Cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, first described in 1972, is an aggressive disease usually occurring in sun-exposed skin. Other sites have been described, however; such tumors occasionally occur within the nasal fossa. A high rate of metastasis (>30%) explains the poor prognosis. Descriptions of the imaging features of these tumors, mainly located in cutaneous region, are rare. We therefore present the imaging features of two cases of Merkel cell carcinoma involving the sinonasal region, suggestive of a hypervascular tumor.  (+info)

Merkel cell carcinoma can be distinguished from metastatic small cell carcinoma using antibodies to cytokeratin 20 and thyroid transcription factor 1. (8/218)

AIM: To investigate whether immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) is useful in distinguishing Merkel cell carcinomas (MCCs) from metastatic small cell carcinomas (SCCs). METHODS: Eleven cases of MCC and 10 of lung SCC were stained for CK20 and TTF-1. RESULTS: Ten of 11 MCCs stained with the antibody to CK20. None was positive for TTF-1. No SCC stained with anti-CK20 and all stained strongly with anti-TTF-1. CONCLUSIONS: The use of both anti-CK20 and anti-TTF-1 can reliably distinguish between MCC and metastatic SCC, thus avoiding the need for a detailed clinical investigation of patients with MCC in whom metastatic SCC must be excluded.  (+info)

Merkel cells, also known as Merkel-Ranvier cells or tactile epithelial cells, are specialized sensory neuroendocrine cells found in the basal layer of the epidermis, hair follicles, and mucous membranes. They are mechanoreceptors that play a crucial role in touch sensation and the initiation of the sense of touch or tactile perception. Merkel cells have neurosecretory granules and are connected to afferent nerve fibers through synaptic junctions known as Merkel discs or tactile disks. They are most abundant in areas with high tactile sensitivity, such as the fingertips, lips, and oral mucosa.

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive type of skin cancer that originates from the uncontrolled growth of Merkel cells, which are specialized nerve cells found in the top layer of the skin (epidermis). These cells are responsible for touch sensation. MCC typically presents as a painless, firm, rapidly growing nodule or mass, often on sun-exposed areas such as the head, neck, and arms of older adults.

The primary risk factors for Merkel cell carcinoma include:

1. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight or tanning beds
2. Advanced age (most commonly occurs in people over 50)
3. A weakened immune system due to conditions like HIV/AIDS, organ transplantation, or long-term use of immunosuppressive medications
4. History of other types of skin cancer, such as melanoma or basal cell carcinoma
5. Fair skin and light eye color

MCC is considered an aggressive cancer because it can spread quickly to nearby lymph nodes and other parts of the body (metastasize). The major prognostic factor for MCC is the presence or absence of lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Early detection and treatment are crucial for improving outcomes.

Standard treatments for Merkel cell carcinoma include surgical excision, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Immunotherapy with drugs like avelumab has also shown promising results in treating advanced stages of MCC. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or metastasis.

Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is a type of virus from the Polyomaviridae family that is known to be associated with Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare and aggressive form of skin cancer. The virus was first identified in 2008 and is believed to play a role in the development of most cases of this cancer.

MCPyV is a small, double-stranded DNA virus that is typically acquired during childhood and remains dormant in the body. However, in some individuals, the virus can become reactivated and integrate into the host's cellular DNA, leading to the production of viral oncoproteins that can disrupt normal cell growth and division. This disruption can ultimately result in the formation of Merkel cell carcinoma.

It is important to note that while MCPyV infection is necessary for the development of Merkel cell carcinoma, it is not sufficient on its own. Other factors, such as UV radiation exposure, age, and a weakened immune system, are also believed to contribute to the development of this cancer.

Polyomavirus infections refer to the infectious diseases caused by polyomaviruses, a type of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses that are capable of infecting humans and animals. There are several different types of polyomaviruses that can cause infection, including JC virus (JCV), BK virus (BKV), KI virus (KIV), WU virus (WUV), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV).

Infection with these viruses typically occurs during childhood and is usually asymptomatic or associated with mild respiratory illness. However, in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients, polyomavirus infections can lead to more serious complications, including nephropathy (BKV), progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (JCV), and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCPyV).

Diagnosis of polyomavirus infections typically involves the detection of viral DNA or antigens in clinical samples, such as blood, urine, or tissue biopsies. Treatment is generally supportive and aimed at managing symptoms, although antiviral therapy may be used in some cases. Prevention strategies include good hygiene practices and avoiding close contact with individuals who are known to be infected.

Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body. These cells cover organs, glands, and other structures within the body. Carcinomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, lungs, breasts, prostate, colon, and pancreas. They are often characterized by the uncontrolled growth and division of abnormal cells that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis. Carcinomas can be further classified based on their appearance under a microscope, such as adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma.

Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the skin that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled multiplication of skin cells, which can form various types of lesions. These growths may appear as lumps, bumps, sores, patches, or discolored areas on the skin.

Benign skin neoplasms include conditions such as moles, warts, and seborrheic keratoses, while malignant skin neoplasms are primarily classified into melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. These three types of cancerous skin growths are collectively known as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer, while NMSCs tend to be less invasive but more common.

It's essential to monitor any changes in existing skin lesions or the appearance of new growths and consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment if needed.

Polyomavirus is a type of double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the family Polyomaviridae. These viruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with an icosahedral symmetry. They have a relatively simple structure and contain a circular genome.

Polyomaviruses are known to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and birds. In humans, polyomaviruses can cause asymptomatic infections or lead to the development of various diseases, depending on the age and immune status of the host.

There are several types of human polyomaviruses, including:

* JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV), which can cause severe disease in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients. JCV is associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a rare but often fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, while BKV can cause nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis.
* Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), which is associated with Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare but aggressive form of skin cancer.
* Trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSV), which is associated with trichodysplasia spinulosa, a rare skin disorder that affects immunocompromised individuals.

Polyomaviruses are typically transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected bodily fluids. Once inside the host, they can establish latency in various tissues and organs, where they may remain dormant for long periods of time before reactivating under certain conditions, such as immunosuppression.

Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and avoiding close contact with infected individuals. There are currently no vaccines available to prevent polyomavirus infections, although research is ongoing to develop effective vaccines against some of the more pathogenic human polyomaviruses.

Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that begins in the squamous cells, which are flat, thin cells that form the outer layer of the skin (epidermis). It commonly occurs on sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, lips, and backs of the hands. Squamous cell carcinoma can also develop in other areas of the body including the mouth, lungs, and cervix.

This type of cancer usually develops slowly and may appear as a rough or scaly patch of skin, a red, firm nodule, or a sore or ulcer that doesn't heal. While squamous cell carcinoma is not as aggressive as some other types of cancer, it can metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body if left untreated, making early detection and treatment important.

Risk factors for developing squamous cell carcinoma include prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds, fair skin, a history of sunburns, a weakened immune system, and older age. Prevention measures include protecting your skin from the sun by wearing protective clothing, using a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, avoiding tanning beds, and getting regular skin examinations.

Keratin 20 is a type of keratin protein that is specifically expressed in the differentiated cells of the upper layer of the epidermis, particularly in the small intestine and colon. It is often used as a marker for the identification and study of these cell types. Mutations in the gene that encodes keratin 20 have been associated with certain diseases, such as benign and malignant tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults. It originates from the hepatocytes, which are the main functional cells of the liver. This type of cancer is often associated with chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B or C virus infection, alcohol abuse, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and aflatoxin exposure.

The symptoms of HCC can vary but may include unexplained weight loss, lack of appetite, abdominal pain or swelling, jaundice, and fatigue. The diagnosis of HCC typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, as well as blood tests to measure alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. Treatment options for Hepatocellular carcinoma depend on the stage and extent of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and liver function. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or liver transplantation.

A tumor virus infection is a condition in which a person's cells become cancerous or transformed due to the integration and disruption of normal cellular functions by a viral pathogen. These viruses are also known as oncoviruses, and they can cause tumors or cancer by altering the host cell's genetic material, promoting uncontrolled cell growth and division, evading immune surveillance, and inhibiting apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Examples of tumor viruses include:

1. DNA tumor viruses: These are double-stranded DNA viruses that can cause cancer in humans. Examples include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).
2. RNA tumor viruses: Also known as retroviruses, these single-stranded RNA viruses can cause cancer in humans. Examples include human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Tumor virus infections are responsible for approximately 15-20% of all cancer cases worldwide, making them a significant public health concern. Prevention strategies, such as vaccination against HPV and HBV, have been shown to reduce the incidence of associated cancers.

Antigens are substances that trigger an immune response in the body, leading to the production of antibodies. Antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, or other molecules found on the surface of cells or viruses.

Viral antigens are antigens that are present on the surface of viruses. When a virus infects a cell, it may display viral antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This can alert the immune system to the presence of the virus and trigger an immune response.

Tumor antigens are antigens that are present on the surface of cancer cells. These antigens may be unique to the cancer cells, or they may be similar to antigens found on normal cells. Tumor antigens can be recognized by the immune system as foreign, leading to an immune response against the cancer cells.

It is important to note that not all viral infections lead to cancer, and not all tumors are caused by viruses. However, some viruses have been linked to an increased risk of certain types of cancer. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with an increased risk of cervical, anal, and oral cancers. In these cases, the virus may introduce viral antigens into the cells it infects, leading to an altered presentation of tumor antigens on the surface of the infected cells. This can potentially trigger an immune response against both the viral antigens and the tumor antigens, which may help to prevent or slow the growth of the cancer.

Carcinoma in situ is a medical term used to describe the earliest stage of cancer, specifically a type of cancer that begins in the epithelial tissue, which is the tissue that lines the outer surfaces of organs and body structures. In this stage, the cancer cells are confined to the layer of cells where they first developed and have not spread beyond that layer into the surrounding tissues or organs.

Carcinoma in situ can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, cervix, breast, lung, prostate, bladder, and other areas. It is often detected through routine screening tests, such as Pap smears for cervical cancer or mammograms for breast cancer.

While carcinoma in situ is not invasive, it can still be a serious condition because it has the potential to develop into an invasive cancer if left untreated. Treatment options for carcinoma in situ may include surgery, radiation therapy, or other forms of treatment, depending on the location and type of cancer. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine the best course of action for each individual case.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Carcinoma, basal cell is a type of skin cancer that arises from the basal cells, which are located in the lower part of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin). It is also known as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and is the most common form of skin cancer.

BCC typically appears as a small, shiny, pearly bump or nodule on the skin, often in sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, neck, hands, and arms. It may also appear as a scar-like area that is white, yellow, or waxy. BCCs are usually slow growing and rarely spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. However, they can be locally invasive and destroy surrounding tissue if left untreated.

The exact cause of BCC is not known, but it is thought to be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds. People with fair skin, light hair, and blue or green eyes are at increased risk of developing BCC.

Treatment for BCC typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with a margin of healthy tissue. Other treatment options may include radiation therapy, topical chemotherapy, or photodynamic therapy. Prevention measures include protecting your skin from UV radiation by wearing protective clothing, using sunscreen, and avoiding tanning beds.

Vibrissae are stiff, tactile hairs that are highly sensitive to touch and movement. They are primarily found in various mammals, including humans (in the form of eyelashes and eyebrows), but they are especially prominent in certain animals such as cats, rats, and seals. These hairs are deeply embedded in skin and have a rich supply of nerve endings that provide the animal with detailed information about its environment. They are often used for detecting nearby objects, navigating in the dark, and maintaining balance.

Carcinoma, papillary is a type of cancer that begins in the cells that line the glandular structures or the lining of organs. In a papillary carcinoma, the cancerous cells grow and form small finger-like projections, called papillae, within the tumor. This type of cancer most commonly occurs in the thyroid gland, but can also be found in other organs such as the lung, breast, and kidney. Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland is usually slow-growing and has a good prognosis, especially when it is diagnosed at an early stage.

Mechanoreceptors are specialized sensory receptor cells that convert mechanical stimuli such as pressure, tension, or deformation into electrical signals that can be processed and interpreted by the nervous system. They are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the skin, muscles, tendons, joints, and internal organs. Mechanoreceptors can detect different types of mechanical stimuli depending on their specific structure and location. For example, Pacinian corpuscles in the skin respond to vibrations, while Ruffini endings in the joints detect changes in joint angle and pressure. Overall, mechanoreceptors play a crucial role in our ability to perceive and interact with our environment through touch, proprioception (the sense of the position and movement of body parts), and visceral sensation (awareness of internal organ activity).

Facial neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the tissues of the face. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Facial neoplasms can occur in any of the facial structures, including the skin, muscles, bones, nerves, and glands.

Benign facial neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. Examples include papillomas, hemangiomas, and neurofibromas. While these tumors are usually harmless, they can cause cosmetic concerns or interfere with normal facial function.

Malignant facial neoplasms, on the other hand, can be aggressive and invasive. They can spread to other parts of the face, as well as to distant sites in the body. Common types of malignant facial neoplasms include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma.

Treatment for facial neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you notice any unusual growths or changes in the skin or tissues of your face.

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

The lingual frenum is a small fold of mucous membrane that attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth. It contains muscle fibers and can vary in length, thickness, and attachment level. In some individuals, the lingual frenum may be too short or tight, restricting tongue movement, which is known as being "tongue-tied" or having ankyloglossia. This condition can potentially impact speech, feeding, and oral hygiene, although in many cases, it does not cause any significant problems.

Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body and their presence can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer or other conditions. Biological tumor markers refer to those substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These markers can be found in various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or tissue samples.

Examples of biological tumor markers include:

1. Proteins: Some tumor markers are proteins that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to the presence of cancer. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells and in higher amounts by prostate cancer cells.
2. Genetic material: Tumor markers can also include genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or microRNA that are shed by cancer cells into bodily fluids. For example, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is genetic material from cancer cells that can be found in the bloodstream.
3. Metabolites: Tumor markers can also include metabolic products produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that is released into the bloodstream when cancer cells break down glucose for energy.

It's important to note that tumor markers are not specific to cancer and can be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well. Therefore, they should not be used alone to diagnose cancer but rather as a tool in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the liver that can be benign or malignant. Benign liver neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant liver neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue and spread to other organs.

Liver neoplasms can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or secondary, meaning they have metastasized (spread) to the liver from another part of the body. Primary liver neoplasms can be further classified into different types based on their cell of origin and behavior, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic hemangioma.

The diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type and extent of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or liver transplantation.

DNA nucleotidylexotransferase is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It appears to be a combination of the terms "DNA," "nucleotide," and "lexotransferase," but the specific meaning or function of this enzyme is unclear.

"DNA" refers to deoxyribonucleic acid, which is the genetic material found in the cells of most living organisms.

"Nucleotide" refers to a molecule that consists of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA and RNA.

"Lexotransferase" is not a recognized enzyme class or function. It may be a typographical error or a term that has been misused or misunderstood.

Therefore, it is not possible to provide a medical definition for 'DNA nucleotidylexotransferase'. If you have more information about the context in which this term was used, I may be able to provide further clarification.

Polyomavirus transforming antigens refer to specific proteins expressed by polyomaviruses that can induce cellular transformation and lead to the development of cancer. These antigens are called large T antigen (T-Ag) and small t antigen (t-Ag). They manipulate key cellular processes, such as cell cycle regulation and DNA damage response, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and malignant transformation.

The large T antigen is a multifunctional protein that plays a crucial role in viral replication and transformation. It has several domains with different functions:

1. Origin binding domain (OBD): Binds to the viral origin of replication, initiating DNA synthesis.
2. Helicase domain: Unwinds double-stranded DNA during replication.
3. DNA binding domain: Binds to specific DNA sequences and acts as a transcriptional regulator.
4. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) binding domain: Recruits PP1 to promote viral DNA replication and inhibit host cell defense mechanisms.
5. p53-binding domain: Binds and inactivates the tumor suppressor protein p53, promoting cell cycle progression and preventing apoptosis.
6. Rb-binding domain: Binds to and inactivates the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), leading to deregulation of the cell cycle and uncontrolled cell growth.

The small t antigen shares a common N-terminal region with large T antigen but lacks some functional domains, such as the OBD and helicase domain. Small t antigen can also bind to and inactivate PP1 and pRb, contributing to transformation. However, its primary role is to stabilize large T antigen by preventing its proteasomal degradation.

Polyomavirus transforming antigens are associated with various human cancers, such as Merkel cell carcinoma (caused by Merkel cell polyomavirus) and some forms of brain tumors, sarcomas, and lymphomas (associated with simian virus 40).

Carcinoma, ductal, breast is a type of breast cancer that begins in the milk ducts (the tubes that carry milk from the lobules of the breast to the nipple). It is called "ductal" because it starts in the cells that line the milk ducts. Ductal carcinoma can be further classified as either non-invasive or invasive, based on whether the cancer cells are confined to the ducts or have spread beyond them into the surrounding breast tissue.

Non-invasive ductal carcinoma (also known as intraductal carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ) is a condition where abnormal cells have been found in the lining of the milk ducts, but they have not spread outside of the ducts. These cells have the potential to become invasive and spread to other parts of the breast or body if left untreated.

Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is a type of breast cancer that starts in a milk duct and then grows into the surrounding breast tissue. From there, it can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream and lymphatic system. IDC is the most common form of breast cancer, accounting for about 80% of all cases.

Symptoms of ductal carcinoma may include a lump or thickening in the breast, changes in the size or shape of the breast, dimpling or puckering of the skin on the breast, nipple discharge (especially if it is clear or bloody), and/or redness or scaling of the nipple or breast skin. However, many cases of ductal carcinoma are detected through mammography before any symptoms develop.

Treatment for ductal carcinoma depends on several factors, including the stage and grade of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and personal preferences. Treatment options may include surgery (such as a lumpectomy or mastectomy), radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and/or targeted therapies.

Quinacrine is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs called antimalarials. It is primarily used in the treatment and prevention of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax parasites. Quinacrine works by inhibiting the growth of the malarial parasites in the red blood cells.

In addition to its antimalarial properties, quinacrine has been used off-label for various other medical conditions, including the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE), a type of skin lupus. However, its use in these conditions is not approved by regulatory authorities such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) due to limited evidence and potential side effects.

Quinacrine has several known side effects, including gastrointestinal disturbances, skin rashes, headache, dizziness, and potential neuropsychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, or confusion. Long-term use of quinacrine may also lead to yellowing of the skin and eyes (known as quinacrine jaundice) and other eye-related issues. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional before starting quinacrine or any other medication for appropriate dosage, duration, and potential side effects.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

An "apudoma" is a term that refers to a type of neuroendocrine tumor that originates from cells known as "APUD (Amine Precursor Uptake and Decarboxylation) cells." These cells are capable of taking up and decarboxylating amine precursors, which are substances that can be converted into neurotransmitters or hormones.

Apudomas can occur in various organs throughout the body, including the pancreas, lung, thyroid, and gastrointestinal tract. Some examples of apudomas include:

* Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) or islet cell tumors
* Small cell lung cancer
* Medullary thyroid carcinoma
* Merkel cell carcinoma
* Carcinoid tumors

These tumors can produce and secrete a variety of hormones and neurotransmitters, leading to a range of clinical symptoms. Treatment options for apudomas may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or targeted therapies that are designed to specifically target the abnormal cells.

Neoplasm staging is a systematic process used in medicine to describe the extent of spread of a cancer, including the size and location of the original (primary) tumor and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the body. The most widely accepted system for this purpose is the TNM classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In this system, T stands for tumor, and it describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. N stands for nodes, and it indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M stands for metastasis, and it shows whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Each letter is followed by a number that provides more details about the extent of the disease. For example, a T1N0M0 cancer means that the primary tumor is small and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The higher the numbers, the more advanced the cancer.

Staging helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient and estimate the patient's prognosis. It is an essential tool for communication among members of the healthcare team and for comparing outcomes of treatments in clinical trials.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

Immunoenzyme techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry that combine the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions with the sensitivity and amplification capabilities of enzyme reactions. These techniques are primarily used for the detection, quantitation, or identification of various analytes (such as proteins, hormones, drugs, viruses, or bacteria) in biological samples.

In immunoenzyme techniques, an enzyme is linked to an antibody or antigen, creating a conjugate. This conjugate then interacts with the target analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The presence and amount of this immune complex can be visualized or measured by detecting the enzymatic activity associated with it.

There are several types of immunoenzyme techniques, including:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A widely used method for detecting and quantifying various analytes in a sample. In ELISA, an enzyme is attached to either the capture antibody or the detection antibody. After the immune complex formation, a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme, producing a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.
2. Immunoblotting (Western blot): A method used for detecting specific proteins in a complex mixture, such as a protein extract from cells or tissues. In this technique, proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, where they are probed with an enzyme-conjugated antibody directed against the target protein.
3. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): A method used for detecting specific antigens in tissue sections or cells. In IHC, an enzyme-conjugated primary or secondary antibody is applied to the sample, and the presence of the antigen is visualized using a chromogenic substrate that produces a colored product at the site of the antigen-antibody interaction.
4. Immunofluorescence (IF): A method used for detecting specific antigens in cells or tissues by employing fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. The presence of the antigen is visualized using a fluorescence microscope.
5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A method used for detecting and quantifying specific antigens or antibodies in liquid samples, such as serum or culture supernatants. In ELISA, an enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is added after the immune complex formation, and a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.

These techniques are widely used in research and diagnostic laboratories for various applications, including protein characterization, disease diagnosis, and monitoring treatment responses.

Keratin-8 is a type of keratin protein that is primarily found in the epithelial cells, including those that line the surfaces of organs and glands. It is one of the major components of intermediate filaments, which are the structural proteins that help to maintain the shape and integrity of cells.

Keratin-8 is known to form heteropolymers with keratin-18 and is abundant in simple epithelia such as those lining the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system, and reproductive organs. It has been implicated in various cellular processes, including protection against mechanical stress, regulation of cell signaling, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Mutations in the gene that encodes keratin-8 have been associated with several diseases, including a rare form of liver disease called cryptogenic cirrhosis. Additionally, abnormalities in keratin-8 expression and assembly have been linked to cancer progression and metastasis.

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is a type of cancer that develops in the transitional epithelium, which is the tissue that lines the inner surface of the urinary tract. This includes the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer and can also occur in other parts of the urinary system.

Transitional cells are specialized epithelial cells that can stretch and change shape as the organs they line expand or contract. These cells normally have a flat, squamous appearance when at rest but become more cuboidal and columnar when the organ is full. Transitional cell carcinomas typically start in the urothelium, which is the innermost lining of the urinary tract.

Transitional cell carcinoma can be classified as non-invasive (also called papillary or superficial), invasive, or both. Non-invasive TCCs are confined to the urothelium and have not grown into the underlying connective tissue. Invasive TCCs have grown through the urothelium and invaded the lamina propria (a layer of connective tissue beneath the urothelium) or the muscle wall of the bladder.

Transitional cell carcinoma can also be categorized as low-grade or high-grade, depending on how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope and how likely they are to grow and spread. Low-grade TCCs tend to have a better prognosis than high-grade TCCs.

Treatment for transitional cell carcinoma depends on the stage and grade of the cancer, as well as other factors such as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy.

Enkephalins are naturally occurring opioid peptides in the body that bind to opiate receptors and help reduce pain and produce a sense of well-being. There are two major types of enkephalins: Leu-enkephalin and Met-enkephalin, which differ by only one amino acid at the N-terminus.

Methionine-enkephalin (Met-enkephalin) is a type of enkephalin that contains methionine as its N-terminal amino acid. Its chemical formula is Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met, and it is derived from the precursor protein proenkephalin. Met-enkephalin has a shorter half-life than Leu-enkephalin due to its susceptibility to enzymatic degradation by aminopeptidases.

Met-enkephalin plays an essential role in pain modulation, reward processing, and addiction. It is also involved in various physiological functions, including respiration, cardiovascular regulation, and gastrointestinal motility. Dysregulation of enkephalins has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as chronic pain, drug addiction, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Neoplasm invasiveness is a term used in pathology and oncology to describe the aggressive behavior of cancer cells as they invade surrounding tissues and organs. This process involves the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion, increased motility and migration, and the ability of cancer cells to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) through the production of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).

Invasive neoplasms are cancers that have spread beyond the original site where they first developed and have infiltrated adjacent tissues or structures. This is in contrast to non-invasive or in situ neoplasms, which are confined to the epithelial layer where they originated and have not yet invaded the underlying basement membrane.

The invasiveness of a neoplasm is an important prognostic factor in cancer diagnosis and treatment, as it can indicate the likelihood of metastasis and the potential effectiveness of various therapies. In general, more invasive cancers are associated with worse outcomes and require more aggressive treatment approaches.

Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (SCLC) is a type of lung cancer that typically originates in the central part of the lungs. It is called "small cell" because the tumor cells appear small and round under a microscope. SCLC is an aggressive form of lung cancer that tends to spread rapidly to other parts of the body, such as the lymph nodes, liver, bones, and brain.

SCLC is strongly associated with smoking and is relatively uncommon in people who have never smoked. It accounts for about 10-15% of all lung cancer cases. SCLC is often diagnosed at a later stage because it can grow quickly and cause symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss.

Treatment for SCLC typically involves a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Surgery is not usually an option due to the advanced stage of the disease at diagnosis. The prognosis for SCLC is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of less than 7%. However, early detection and treatment can improve outcomes in some cases.

Carcinoma, bronchogenic is a medical term that refers to a type of lung cancer that originates in the bronchi, which are the branching tubes that carry air into the lungs. It is the most common form of lung cancer and can be further classified into different types based on the specific cell type involved, such as squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, or large cell carcinoma.

Bronchogenic carcinomas are often associated with smoking and exposure to environmental pollutants, although they can also occur in non-smokers. Symptoms may include coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, wheezing, hoarseness, or unexplained weight loss. Treatment options depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the lung tissue. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant lung neoplasms are further classified into two main types: small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung neoplasms can cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss. They are often caused by smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, but can also occur due to genetic factors, radiation exposure, and other environmental carcinogens. Early detection and treatment of lung neoplasms is crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and other molecules from genes in neoplastic cells, or cells that are part of a tumor or cancer. In a normal cell, gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that the right genes are turned on or off at the right time. However, in cancer cells, this regulation can be disrupted, leading to the overexpression or underexpression of certain genes.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation can be affected by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and signals from the tumor microenvironment. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes (genes that promote cancer growth and development) or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (genes that prevent cancer).

Understanding neoplastic gene expression regulation is important for developing new therapies for cancer, as targeting specific genes or pathways involved in this process can help to inhibit cancer growth and progression.

Intraductal carcinoma, noninfiltrating is a medical term used to describe a type of breast cancer that is confined to the milk ducts of the breast. It is also sometimes referred to as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Noninfiltrating means that the cancer cells have not spread beyond the ducts into the surrounding breast tissue or elsewhere in the body.

In this type of cancer, abnormal cells line the milk ducts and fill the inside of the ducts. These abnormal cells may look like cancer cells under a microscope, but they have not grown through the walls of the ducts into the surrounding breast tissue. However, if left untreated, noninfiltrating intraductal carcinoma can progress to an invasive form of breast cancer where the cancer cells spread beyond the milk ducts and invade the surrounding breast tissue.

It is important to note that while noninfiltrating intraductal carcinoma is considered a precancerous condition, it still requires medical treatment to prevent the development of invasive breast cancer. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, or hormone therapy, depending on the size and location of the tumor and other individual factors.

Synaptophysin is a protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of neurons, which are involved in the release of neurotransmitters during synaptic transmission. It is often used as a marker for neuronal differentiation and is widely expressed in neuroendocrine cells and tumors. Synaptophysin plays a role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and has been implicated in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and synaptic dysfunction-related conditions.

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is a rare type of cancer that can occur in various glands and tissues of the body, most commonly in the salivary glands. AdCC is characterized by its slow growth and tendency to spread along nerves. It typically forms solid, cystic, or mixed tumors with distinct histological features, including epithelial cells arranged in tubular, cribriform, or solid patterns.

The term "carcinoma" refers to a malignant tumor originating from the epithelial cells lining various organs and glands. In this case, adenoid cystic carcinoma is a specific type of carcinoma that arises in the salivary glands or other glandular tissues.

The primary treatment options for AdCC include surgical resection, radiation therapy, and sometimes chemotherapy. Despite its slow growth, adenoid cystic carcinoma has a propensity to recur locally and metastasize to distant sites such as the lungs, bones, and liver. Long-term follow-up is essential due to the risk of late recurrences.

Nerve endings, also known as terminal branches or sensory receptors, are the specialized structures present at the termination point of nerve fibers (axons) that transmit electrical signals to and from the central nervous system (CNS). They primarily function in detecting changes in the external environment or internal body conditions and converting them into electrical impulses.

There are several types of nerve endings, including:

1. Free Nerve Endings: These are unencapsulated nerve endings that respond to various stimuli like temperature, pain, and touch. They are widely distributed throughout the body, especially in the skin, mucous membranes, and visceral organs.

2. Encapsulated Nerve Endings: These are wrapped by specialized connective tissue sheaths, which can modify their sensitivity to specific stimuli. Examples include Pacinian corpuscles (responsible for detecting deep pressure and vibration), Meissner's corpuscles (for light touch), Ruffini endings (for stretch and pressure), and Merkel cells (for sustained touch).

3. Specialised Nerve Endings: These are nerve endings that respond to specific stimuli, such as auditory, visual, olfactory, gustatory, and vestibular information. They include hair cells in the inner ear, photoreceptors in the retina, taste buds in the tongue, and olfactory receptors in the nasal cavity.

Nerve endings play a crucial role in relaying sensory information to the CNS for processing and initiating appropriate responses, such as reflex actions or conscious perception of the environment.

Lip neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the lip tissue. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign lip neoplasms include conditions such as papillomas, fibromas, and mucocele, while malignant lip neoplasms are typically squamous cell carcinomas.

Squamous cell carcinoma of the lip is the most common type of lip cancer, accounting for about 90% of all lip cancers. It usually develops on the lower lip, and is often associated with prolonged sun exposure, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Symptoms may include a sore or lump on the lip that does not heal, bleeding, pain, numbness, or difficulty moving the lips.

It's important to note that any abnormal growth or change in the lips should be evaluated by a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Carcinoma, small cell is a type of lung cancer that typically starts in the bronchi (the airways that lead to the lungs). It is called "small cell" because the cancer cells are small and appear round or oval in shape. This type of lung cancer is also sometimes referred to as "oat cell carcinoma" due to the distinctive appearance of the cells, which can resemble oats when viewed under a microscope.

Small cell carcinoma is a particularly aggressive form of lung cancer that tends to spread quickly to other parts of the body. It is strongly associated with smoking and is less common than non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which accounts for about 85% of all lung cancers.

Like other types of lung cancer, small cell carcinoma may not cause any symptoms in its early stages. However, as the tumor grows and spreads, it can cause a variety of symptoms, including coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, hoarseness, and weight loss. Treatment for small cell carcinoma typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and sometimes surgery.

Neuroendocrine Secretory Protein 7B2 (NESP7B2) is defined as a protein that is encoded by the 7B2 gene in humans. This protein is primarily produced in neuroendocrine cells, including those found in the brain and the endocrine system. NESP7B2 has a molecular weight of approximately 29 kDa and is composed of 256 amino acids.

One of the primary functions of NESP7B2 is to regulate the activity of another protein called prohormone convertase 2 (PC2). PC2 is involved in the processing and activation of various hormones and neurotransmitters, and NESP7B2 helps to control its activity by binding to it and inhibiting its action.

NESP7B2 has also been found to have a role in the regulation of calcium homeostasis and may be involved in the development and function of the nervous system. Mutations in the 7B2 gene have been associated with certain medical conditions, including some forms of cancer and neurological disorders.

Medullary carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops in the neuroendocrine cells of the thyroid gland. These cells produce hormones that help regulate various bodily functions. Medullary carcinoma is a relatively rare form of thyroid cancer, accounting for about 5-10% of all cases.

Medullary carcinoma is characterized by the presence of certain genetic mutations that cause the overproduction of calcitonin, a hormone produced by the neuroendocrine cells. This overproduction can lead to the formation of tumors in the thyroid gland.

Medullary carcinoma can be hereditary or sporadic. Hereditary forms of the disease are caused by mutations in the RET gene and are often associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2), a genetic disorder that affects the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, and parathyroid glands. Sporadic forms of medullary carcinoma, on the other hand, are not inherited and occur randomly in people with no family history of the disease.

Medullary carcinoma is typically more aggressive than other types of thyroid cancer and tends to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lungs, and liver. Symptoms may include a lump or nodule in the neck, difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, and coughing. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Regular monitoring of calcitonin levels is also recommended to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and detect any recurrence of the disease.

Eyelid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the tissues of the eyelids. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Common types of benign eyelid neoplasms include papillomas, hemangiomas, and nevi. Malignant eyelid neoplasms are typically classified as basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, or melanomas. These malignant tumors can be aggressive and may spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. Treatment options for eyelid neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the growth, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgical excision is often the preferred treatment approach, although radiation therapy and chemotherapy may also be used in some cases. Regular follow-up care is important to monitor for recurrence or new growths.

A "cheek" is the fleshy, muscular area of the face that forms the side of the face below the eye and above the jaw. It contains the buccinator muscle, which helps with chewing by moving food to the back teeth for grinding and also assists in speaking and forming facial expressions. The cheek also contains several sensory receptors that allow us to perceive touch, temperature, and pain in this area of the face. Additionally, there is a mucous membrane lining inside the mouth cavity called the buccal mucosa which covers the inner surface of the cheek.

Lymphatic metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to distant lymph nodes through the lymphatic system. It occurs when malignant cells break away from the original tumor, enter the lymphatic vessels, and travel to nearby or remote lymph nodes. Once there, these cancer cells can multiply and form new tumors, leading to further progression of the disease. Lymphatic metastasis is a common way for many types of cancer to spread and can have significant implications for prognosis and treatment strategies.

The term "blood buffy coat" is not a standard medical terminology, but it is used in the field of laboratory medicine and hematology. The "buffy coat" refers to the thin layer of white blood cells (leukocytes) and platelets (thrombocytes) that can be seen when a sample of anticoagulated whole blood is centrifuged, causing the red blood cells (erythrocytes) to settle at the bottom and the plasma to form a layer on top. The buffy coat is located in between these two layers.

The term "blood buffy coat" may refer to the process of collecting this thin layer of white blood cells and platelets for further analysis, such as during a complete blood count (CBC) or other diagnostic tests. It can also refer to a sample that has been prepared in this way, where the buffy coat is concentrated and visible for examination under a microscope.

Abnormalities in the appearance or composition of the buffy coat may indicate various medical conditions, such as leukemia, infection, inflammation, or other hematological disorders.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

Carcinoma, lobular is a type of breast cancer that begins in the milk-producing glands (lobules) of the breast. It can be either invasive or non-invasive (in situ). Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) occurs when the cancer cells break through the wall of the lobule and invade the surrounding breast tissue, and can potentially spread to other parts of the body. Non-invasive lobular carcinoma (LCIS), on the other hand, refers to the presence of abnormal cells within the lobule that have not invaded nearby breast tissue.

ILC is usually detected as a mass or thickening in the breast, and it may not cause any symptoms or show up on mammograms until it has grown quite large. It tends to grow more slowly than some other types of breast cancer, but it can still be serious and require extensive treatment. LCIS does not typically cause any symptoms and is usually found during a biopsy performed for another reason.

Treatment options for carcinoma, lobular depend on several factors, including the stage of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and their personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or the development of new cancers.

Local neoplasm recurrence is the return or regrowth of a tumor in the same location where it was originally removed or treated. This means that cancer cells have survived the initial treatment and started to grow again in the same area. It's essential to monitor and detect any local recurrence as early as possible, as it can affect the prognosis and may require additional treatment.

The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin, composed mainly of stratified squamous epithelium. It forms a protective barrier that prevents water loss and inhibits the entry of microorganisms. The epidermis contains no blood vessels, and its cells are nourished by diffusion from the underlying dermis. The bottom-most layer of the epidermis, called the stratum basale, is responsible for generating new skin cells that eventually move up to replace dead cells on the surface. This process of cell turnover takes about 28 days in adults.

The most superficial part of the epidermis consists of dead cells called squames, which are constantly shed and replaced. The exact rate at which this happens varies depending on location; for example, it's faster on the palms and soles than elsewhere. Melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells, are also located in the epidermis, specifically within the stratum basale layer.

In summary, the epidermis is a vital part of our integumentary system, providing not only physical protection but also playing a crucial role in immunity and sensory perception through touch receptors called Pacinian corpuscles.

Neoplasm metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from the primary site (where the original or primary tumor formed) to other places in the body. This happens when cancer cells break away from the original (primary) tumor and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system. The cancer cells can then travel to other parts of the body and form new tumors, called secondary tumors or metastases.

Metastasis is a key feature of malignant neoplasms (cancers), and it is one of the main ways that cancer can cause harm in the body. The metastatic tumors may continue to grow and may cause damage to the organs and tissues where they are located. They can also release additional cancer cells into the bloodstream or lymphatic system, leading to further spread of the cancer.

The metastatic tumors are named based on the location where they are found, as well as the type of primary cancer. For example, if a patient has a primary lung cancer that has metastasized to the liver, the metastatic tumor would be called a liver metastasis from lung cancer.

It is important to note that the presence of metastases can significantly affect a person's prognosis and treatment options. In general, metastatic cancer is more difficult to treat than cancer that has not spread beyond its original site. However, there are many factors that can influence a person's prognosis and response to treatment, so it is important for each individual to discuss their specific situation with their healthcare team.

A hair follicle is a part of the human skin from which hair grows. It is a complex organ that consists of several layers, including an outer root sheath, inner root sheath, and matrix. The hair follicle is located in the dermis, the second layer of the skin, and is surrounded by sebaceous glands and erector pili muscles.

The hair growth cycle includes three phases: anagen (growth phase), catagen (transitional phase), and telogen (resting phase). During the anagen phase, cells in the matrix divide rapidly to produce new hair fibers that grow out of the follicle. The hair fiber is made up of a protein called keratin, which also makes up the outer layers of the skin and nails.

Hair follicles are important for various biological functions, including thermoregulation, sensory perception, and social communication. They also play a role in wound healing and can serve as a source of stem cells that can differentiate into other cell types.

Carcinoma, neuroendocrine is a type of cancer that arises from the neuroendocrine cells, which are specialized cells that have both nerve and hormone-producing functions. These cells are found throughout the body, but neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) most commonly occur in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and thyroid gland.

Neuroendocrine carcinomas can be classified as well-differentiated or poorly differentiated based on how closely they resemble normal neuroendocrine cells under a microscope. Well-differentiated tumors tend to grow more slowly and are less aggressive than poorly differentiated tumors.

Neuroendocrine carcinomas can produce and release hormones and other substances that can cause a variety of symptoms, such as flushing, diarrhea, wheezing, and heart palpitations. Treatment for neuroendocrine carcinoma depends on the location and extent of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Nasopharyngeal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the nasopharynx, which is the upper part of the pharynx (throat) behind the nose. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Malignant nasopharyngeal neoplasms are often referred to as nasopharyngeal carcinoma or cancer. There are different types of nasopharyngeal carcinomas, including keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, non-keratinizing carcinoma, and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.

The risk factors for developing nasopharyngeal neoplasms include exposure to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), consumption of certain foods, smoking, and genetic factors. Symptoms may include a lump in the neck, nosebleeds, hearing loss, ringing in the ears, and difficulty swallowing or speaking. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Thyroid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the thyroid gland, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can vary in size and may cause a noticeable lump or nodule in the neck. Thyroid neoplasms can also affect the function of the thyroid gland, leading to hormonal imbalances and related symptoms. The exact causes of thyroid neoplasms are not fully understood, but risk factors include radiation exposure, family history, and certain genetic conditions. It is important to note that most thyroid nodules are benign, but a proper medical evaluation is necessary to determine the nature of the growth and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "touch" is not a term that has a specific medical definition in the context you've provided. In a general sense, touch refers to the ability to perceive things through physically contacting them, which is a function of our nervous system. However, it's not a term used to describe a specific medical condition, diagnosis, treatment, or procedure. If you have any more specific context or question in mind, I'd be happy to try and help further!

Keratins are a type of fibrous structural proteins that constitute the main component of the integumentary system, which includes the hair, nails, and skin of vertebrates. They are also found in other tissues such as horns, hooves, feathers, and reptilian scales. Keratins are insoluble proteins that provide strength, rigidity, and protection to these structures.

Keratins are classified into two types: soft keratins (Type I) and hard keratins (Type II). Soft keratins are found in the skin and simple epithelial tissues, while hard keratins are present in structures like hair, nails, horns, and hooves.

Keratin proteins have a complex structure consisting of several domains, including an alpha-helical domain, beta-pleated sheet domain, and a non-repetitive domain. These domains provide keratin with its unique properties, such as resistance to heat, chemicals, and mechanical stress.

In summary, keratins are fibrous structural proteins that play a crucial role in providing strength, rigidity, and protection to various tissues in the body.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Viral tropism is the preference or susceptibility of certain cells, tissues, or organs for viral infection. It refers to the ability of a specific virus to infect and multiply in particular types of host cells, which is determined by the interaction between viral envelope proteins and specific receptors on the surface of the host cell. Understanding viral tropism is crucial in understanding the pathogenesis of viral infections and developing effective antiviral therapies and vaccines.

A neoplasm is a tumor or growth that is formed by an abnormal and excessive proliferation of cells, which can be benign or malignant. Neoplasm proteins are therefore any proteins that are expressed or produced in these neoplastic cells. These proteins can play various roles in the development, progression, and maintenance of neoplasms.

Some neoplasm proteins may contribute to the uncontrolled cell growth and division seen in cancer, such as oncogenic proteins that promote cell cycle progression or inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death). Others may help the neoplastic cells evade the immune system, allowing them to proliferate undetected. Still others may be involved in angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels that supply the tumor with nutrients and oxygen.

Neoplasm proteins can also serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment response. For example, the presence or level of certain neoplasm proteins in biological samples such as blood or tissue may indicate the presence of a specific type of cancer, help predict the likelihood of cancer recurrence, or suggest whether a particular therapy will be effective.

Overall, understanding the roles and behaviors of neoplasm proteins can provide valuable insights into the biology of cancer and inform the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

... squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, lymphoma, and small cell carcinoma, or as a benign cyst. Merkel-cell carcinomas ... Media related to Merkel cell carcinoma at Wikimedia Commons National Cancer Institute "Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment" (CS1 ... "Immunotherapy for Merkel Cell Carcinoma , Merkel Cell Carcinoma". Retrieved 2020-05-14. Clinical trial number NCT01913691 for " ... In 1878 the term Merkel cell was coined by the anatomist Robert Bonnet (1851-1921). Merkel-cell carcinoma was first described ...
"Merkel cell carcinoma". Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. 7 (3): 322-32. doi:10.6004/jnccn.2009.0024. PMID ... His work has also extended to serving on expert panels such as those dedicated to merkel cell cancer and guidelines of care. He ... Alam, Murad; Ratner, Désirée (2001). "Cutaneous Squamous-Cell Carcinoma". New England Journal of Medicine. 344 (13): 975-83. ...
Vazmitel M, Michal M, Kazakov DV (2007). "Merkel cell carcinoma and Azzopardi phenomenon". Am J Dermatopathol. 29 (3): 314-5. ... It can occur in small cell carcinomas and in some high-grade malignant neoplasms. The effect is well known in diagnostic ... Azzopardi JG (1959). "Oat-cell carcinoma of the bronchus". J Pathol Bacteriol. 78 (2): 513-9. doi:10.1002/path.1700780218. PMID ... Case Studies Azzopardi phenomenon in a metastatic small cell carcinoma of the lung (All articles with unsourced statements, ...
Beylergil V, Perez JA, Osborne JR (2016). "Molecular Imaging of Merkel Cell Carcinoma". In Hamblin MR, Avci P, Gupta GK (eds ... With iodine-131 it can also be used to treat tumor cells that take up and metabolize norepinephrine. MIBG is absorbed by and ... is a radiolabeled analogue of guanethidine that enters the cells via the norepinephrine transporter and is either stored in the ... is transported to and stored in the distal storage granules of chromaffin cells in the same way as norepinephrine. "Iobenguane ...
"Merkel cell carcinoma and HIV infection." The Lancet 359, no. 9305 (2002): 497-498. "Morten Frisch". SSI. Retrieved 21 August ...
... adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma. Merkel cell carcinoma Lung cancer "VM618 Glossary". Archived from the original on 2016- ... It is a feature of small cell carcinomas and particularly useful for differentiation of small cell and non-small cell ... "Cytopathologic differential diagnosis of small cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated non-small cell carcinoma in bronchial ... In histopathology, nuclear moulding, also nuclear molding, is conformity of adjacent cell nuclei to one another. ...
Merkel cell carcinomas. MCV can also be found in healthy tissues from people without Merkel cell carcinoma. A complete MCV ... "Merkel cell polyomavirus-infected Merkel cell carcinoma cells require expression of viral T antigens". Journal of Virology. 84 ... cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, basal cell skin carcinoma, extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma, and EGFR ... "Human Merkel cell polyomavirus infection I. MCV T antigen expression in Merkel cell carcinoma, lymphoid tissues and lymphoid ...
Orouji E, Peitsch WK, Orouji A, Houben R, Utikal J (January 2020). "6A RNA Modification: YTHDF1 in Merkel Cell Carcinoma". ... A recent study demonstrates the presence of m6A in the small T antigen of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in Merkel cell ... Mammalian viral transcripts must function in a mammalian cell, so they must acquire the same epigenetic marks as the host cell ... Nevertheless, m6A levels vary between different RNAs within a cell and between different cell types of the same organism. The ...
Extrapulmonary Small Cell Carcinoma at eMedicine "Merkel-cell carcinima". Dynamed. Retrieved 2021-08-01. Cicin I, Usta U, ... "A combined small cell carcinoma of the lung containing three components: small cell, spindle cell and squamous cell carcinoma ... Small-cell carcinoma is most often more rapidly and widely metastatic than non-small-cell lung carcinoma (and hence staged ... Although combined small-cell lung carcinoma is currently staged and treated similarly to "pure" small-cell carcinoma of the ...
Mitoses are uncommon when compared to basal cell carcinoma. Trichoepiteliomas often contain Merkel cells; an immunostain for ... Its appearance is similar to basal cell carcinoma. One form has been mapped to chromosome 9p21. Trichoepitheliomas may be ... They lack the myxoid stroma and artefactual clefting seen in basal cell carcinoma. ... "Histologic Mimics of Basal Cell Carcinoma". Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine. 141 (11): 1490-1502. doi:10.5858/arpa. ...
Merkel cell carcinoma. Alexander Kibrik, 73, Russian linguist (Moscow State University), after long illness. Fernando Ortíz, 89 ... Naoki Miyamoto, 77, Japanese professional Go player, hepatocellular carcinoma. Natina Reed, 32, American musician (Blaque) and ... Mohammed Mushaima, 24, Bahraini political activist, sickle cell anemia.[citation needed] Kalambadi Muhammad Musliyar, 78, ...
Results of a Phase II clinical trial in Merkel-cell carcinoma were reported in The New England Journal of Medicine in June 2016 ... June 2016). "PD-1 Blockade with Pembrolizumab in Advanced Merkel-Cell Carcinoma". The New England Journal of Medicine. 374 (26 ... in Participants With Progressive Locally Advanced or Metastatic Carcinoma, Melanoma, or Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma (P07990/ ... the first-line treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) in adults whose tumors express PD-L1 with a ≥ 50% ...
About 80% of Merkel cell carcinomas are caused by Merkel cell polyomavirus; the remaining tumors have an unknown etiology and ... Merkel cell polyomavirus is the most recently discovered human cancer virus, isolated from Merkel cell carcinoma tissues in ... Feng H, Shuda M, Chang Y, Moore PS (February 2008). "Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma". ... Inflammation triggered by the worm's eggs appears to be the mechanism by which squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder is caused ...
"Human Merkel cell polyomavirus infection I. MCV T antigen expression in Merkel cell carcinoma, lymphoid tissues and lymphoid ... "Merkel cell polyomavirus expression in merkel cell carcinomas and its absence in combined tumors and pulmonary neuroendocrine ... "Association of Merkel cell polyomavirus-specific antibodies with Merkel cell carcinoma". Journal of the National Cancer ... and Merkel cell virus (MCV) with Merkel cell cancer. SV40 replicates in the kidneys of monkeys without causing disease, but can ...
... naturally infects humans and is associated with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare form of skin cancer originating from Merkel ... of a 54K Dalton cellular SV40 tumor antigen present in SV40-transformed cells and uninfected embryonal carcinoma cells". Cell. ... "Clonal Integration of a Polyomavirus in Human Merkel Cell Carcinoma". Science. 319 (5866): 1096-1100. Bibcode:2008Sci... ... the cell must be in S phase (the part of the cell cycle in which the host cell's genome is normally replicated) in order to ...
... and was used to discover Merkel cell polymavirus in Merkel-cell carcinoma. Simultaneously to the MCV discovery, this approach ... Feng H, Shuda M, Chang Y, Moore PS (Jan 2008). "Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma". Science. ... the suspect causative agent in Merkel-cell carcinoma. Using computational subtraction to discover novel pathogens was first ... The method specifically examines the etiological agent of infectious diseases and is best known for discovering Merkel cell ...
This virus is the likely cause of Merkel-cell carcinoma and hence is named Merkel cell polyomavirus. Moore and Chang have ... Feng H, Shuda M, Chang Y, Moore PS (February 2008). "Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma". ... two different human viruses causing the AIDS-related cancer Kaposi's sarcoma and the skin cancer Merkel cell carcinoma. The ... they identified the most recently discovered human polyomavirus infecting Merkel cells. ...
... merkel cell carcinoma. Claes Egnell, 95, Swedish sport shooter and Olympic silver medal-winning (1952) pentathlete. Manuel ... Eiko Ishioka, 72, Japanese costume designer (Bram Stoker's Dracula, Immortals, The Cell), Oscar winner (1993), pancreatic ...
... small-cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer). It has been granted Orphan drug status for Merkel cell carcinoma. It has reported ... It comprises the CD56-binding antibody, lorvotuzumab (huN901), with a maytansinoid cell-killing agent, DM1, attached using a ... "ImmunoGen Announces Encouraging New Clinical Data With The Company's IMGN901 Compound In The Treatment Of Small-Cell Lung ... encouraging Phase II results for small-cell lung cancer. Dimond PF (9 March 2010). "Antibody-Drug Conjugates Stage a Comeback ...
David Brudnoy, 64, American radio talk show host (Boston), Merkel cell carcinoma. Paul Edwards, 81, Austrian-born American ...
... and Epstein-Barr virus causing B cell lymphomas and nasopharyngeal carcinomas. Kaposi sarcoma virus and Merkel cell polyoma ... T lymphocytes are cells of the immune system that attack and destroy virus-infected cells, tumor cells and cells from ... The carcinoma cells still harbour the viral genes and antigens. As expected T cell responses against antigens encoded by genes ... This enables the T cells to eliminate cells with "foreign" or "abnormal" antigens without harming the normal cells. It has long ...
Shortly after these performances, on 11 September 2007, Zawinul died of Merkel cell carcinoma. The Veszprém concert was ...
"Combining DNA Damage Induction with BCL-2 Inhibition to Enhance Merkel Cell Carcinoma Cytotoxicity". Biology. 9 (2): 35. doi: ... Being a cytotoxin, glaucarubin is capable of killing cells, which is why it has been tested as an anti-cancer drug. Although it ... helps in the process of killing the uncontrollable cancer cells, it has the tendency to spread and cause harm to unwanted parts ...
Samlowski WE, Becker J. The Potential for Targeted Therapy of Merkel Cell Carcinoma. In Merkel Cell Carcinoma: A ... A Phase II trial of imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) in neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin (Merkel Cell Carcinoma) (S0331). ... "A phase II trial of imatinib mesylate in Merkel cell carcinoma (neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin): A Southwest Oncology ... "A phase II trial of imatinib mesylate in merkel cell carcinoma (neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin): A Southwest Oncology ...
Merkel) cells and Merkel cell carcinoma". International Journal of Cancer. 101 (2): 103-10. doi:10.1002/ijc.10554. PMID ... Merkel cells of the skin, and intestinal secretory cells (goblet, enteroendocrine, and Paneth cells). ATOH1 is a mammalian ... Du X, Jensen P, Goldowitz D, Hamre KM (May 2007). "Wild-type cells rescue genotypically Math1-null hair cells in the inner ears ... Sekine A, Akiyama Y, Yanagihara K, Yuasa Y (June 2006). "Hath1 up-regulates gastric mucin gene expression in gastric cells". ...
Zawinul himself died on September 11, 2007, in Vienna from skin cancer (Merkel cell carcinoma). He was predeceased by mid- ...
Fitch died on October 31, 2012, of Merkel cell carcinoma at his home in Connecticut. (key) Allen Brown. "John Fitch". ... Deaths from Merkel-cell carcinoma, Hersham and Walton Motors Formula One drivers, Lehigh University alumni, Mille Miglia ...
Merkel cell polyomavirus - a polyoma virus - is associated with the development of Merkel cell carcinoma Not all oncoviruses ... DTS was used to isolate DNA fragments of Merkel cell polyomavirus from a Merkel cell carcinoma and it is now believed that this ... but a recently discovered analogue called Merkel cell polyomavirus has been associated with Merkel cell carcinoma, a form of ... Feng H, Shuda M, Chang Y, Moore PS (February 2008). "Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma". ...
For example, the protein is commonly found in colorectal cancer, transitional cell carcinomas and in Merkel cell carcinoma, but ... 2009). "Frequent expression of glypican-3 in Merkel cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical study of 55 cases". Appl. ... Ishida M, Kushima R, Okabe H (2009). "Aberrant expression of class III beta-tubulin in basal cell carcinoma of the skin". Oncol ... 2009). "Detection of epithelial cells by RT-PCR targeting CEA, CK20, and TEM-8 in colorectal carcinoma patients using OncoQuick ...
... cells and Merkel cell carcinoma". Int. J. Cancer. 101 (2): 103-10. doi:10.1002/ijc.10554. PMID 12209986. S2CID 20592545. Erkman ... and POU4F3 Converts Non-sensory Cells to Hair Cells in Adult Mice Nolan LS, Jagutpal SS, Cadge BA, et al. (2017). " ... Cell. Biol. 23 (22): 7957-64. doi:10.1128/MCB.23.22.7957-7964.2003. PMC 262385. PMID 14585957. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, ... 2002). "Proneural and proneuroendocrine transcription factor expression in cutaneous mechanoreceptor (Merkel) ...
... is a fully human monoclonal antibody medication for the treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, and renal ... For Merkel-cell carcinoma, Phase II has been reached and for NSCLC there is also a study in Phase III. In May 2017, avelumab ... The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved it in March 2017 for Merkel-cell carcinoma. an aggressive type of skin ... January 2018). "Updated efficacy of avelumab in patients with previously treated metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma after ≥1 year ...
... squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, lymphoma, and small cell carcinoma, or as a benign cyst. Merkel-cell carcinomas ... Media related to Merkel cell carcinoma at Wikimedia Commons National Cancer Institute "Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment" (CS1 ... "Immunotherapy for Merkel Cell Carcinoma , Merkel Cell Carcinoma". Retrieved 2020-05-14. Clinical trial number NCT01913691 for " ... In 1878 the term Merkel cell was coined by the anatomist Robert Bonnet (1851-1921). Merkel-cell carcinoma was first described ...
The PD-1 inhibitor received accelerated approval for adults with metastatic or recurrent locally advanced Merkel cell carcinoma ... High Rate of Subsequent Cancers in Merkel Cell Carcinoma * Mohs Found to Confer Survival Benefit in Localized Merkel Cell ... FDA Approves New Merkel Cell Carcinoma Drug Zynyz * 2001/viewarticle/rethinking-approach-manage-fever-ed-children-sickle-cell- ... Cite this: FDA Approves New Merkel Cell Carcinoma Drug Zynyz - Medscape - Mar 22, 2023. ...
Most Merkel cell skin cancer involves some type of surgery. Learn about possible options here. ... Merkel cell carcinoma: An update and review: Current and future therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018;78(3):445-454. ... Because of this, a sentinel lymph node biopsy (described in Tests for Merkel Cell Carcinoma) is a very important part of ... Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)-Health Professional Version. February 1, 2018. Accessed at www.cancer.gov/types/skin/hp/ ...
Merkel cell carcinoma is a complex condition to treat, but the specialists within Moffitt Cancer Centers Cutaneous Oncology ... Merkel Cell Carcinoma Radiation Oncologists. Meet the radiation oncologists who specialize in Merkel cell carcinoma treatment. ... Merkel Cell Carcinoma Head and Neck Surgeons. Meet the providers who specialize in head and neck surgery to treat Merkel cell ... Merkel cell carcinoma is a complex condition to treat, but the specialists within Moffitt Cancer Centers Cutaneous Oncology ...
... the term Merkel cell carcinoma is still most commonly used in view of the many similarities of the constituent tumor cell to ... Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, aggressive, primary skin cancer exhibiting neuroendocrine differentiation. Several synonyms ... RB1 is the crucial target of the Merkel cell polyomavirus Large T antigen in Merkel cell carcinoma cells. Oncotarget. 2016 May ... and immune status has shown that relative to virus-positive Merkel cell carcinomas, virus-negative Merkel cell carcinomas have ...
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an uncommon and aggressive cutaneous neoplasm that lacks distinguishing clinical features. ... is the eponym for primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, a dermal neoplasm with cytoplasmic, dense-core neuroendocrine ... encoded search term (Skin Cancer - Merkel Cell Carcinoma) and Skin Cancer - Merkel Cell Carcinoma What to Read Next on Medscape ... High Rate of Subsequent Cancers in Merkel Cell Carcinoma * Mohs Found to Confer Survival Benefit in Localized Merkel Cell ...
Merkel cell carcinoma is a fast-spreading skin cancer. A weak immune system, virus and UV light exposure can cause this cancer ... How is Merkel cell carcinoma treated?. Treatments for Merkel cell carcinoma depend on the cancer stage. Early-stage Merkel cell ... Merkel Cell Carcinoma. Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare but aggressive type of skin cancer that can be life-threatening. The ... What is Merkel cell carcinoma?. Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare and aggressive type of skin cancer that can be life-threatening ...
Visit now learn about and meet our team of Merkel cell carcinoma doctors, surgeons and other experts, including their education ... Merkel Cell Carcinoma More About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Merkel Cell Carcinoma Diagnosis & Treatment ... including rare skin cancers like Merkel cell carcinoma. We also have experience in managing complex, multiple, and recurrent ... At Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, our Merkcel cell carcinoma and skin cancer team include specialists in surgery, head ...
Merkel cell polyomavirus small T antigen initiates merkel cell carcinoma-like tumor development in mice. Cancer Res. 2017;77(12 ... Intraepidermal and dermal Merkel cell carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma in situ: a case report with review of literature. ... A case of combined Merkel cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma: Molecular insights and diagnostic pitfalls. JAAD Case Rep ... Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer that frequently carries an integrated Merkel cell ...
What is Merkel cell carcinoma?. According to the Canadian Cancer Society, Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare type of non-melanoma ... What causes Merkel cell carcinoma?. Mayo Clinic states that its unclear what causes Merkel cell carcinoma. Researchers only ... What are the symptoms of Merkel cell carcinoma?. Merkel cell carcinoma usually appears on the face, head or neck. but it can ... How can you prevent getting Merkel cell carcinoma?. The best way to prevent getting Merkel cell carcinoma is by protecting ...
About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive and rare form of skin cancer that. is often caused by a ... Merkel cell carcinoma is more likely to spread to other parts of the. body than most types of skin cancer. It is estimated that ... "Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare type of skin cancer, is an aggressive and. fast-growing disease that has been associated with ... Merkel cell carcinoma." Mercks long-term commitment to skin cancers includes a broad clinical. development program studying ...
... for its ITI-3000 programme to treat patients with Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC). ... Immunomic Therapeutics receives FTD for ITI-3000 programme to treat Merkel Cell Carcinoma. By PBR Staff Writer ... for its ITI-3000 programme to treat patients with Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC). ... program to address a serious unmet need and serve as a meaningful therapeutic option for patients with Merkel cell carcinoma. ...
Global Merkel Cell Carcinoma Therapeutics Market Key Players are Amgen Inc., Merck & Co., Pfizer Inc., BeiGene, OncoSec Medical ... Merkel Cell Carcinoma Therapeutics Market Size, Share and Global Trend By Therapy (Chemotherapy, Immunotherapy, Combination ...
Hispanic Patients Have Highest Survival Rate After Merkel Cell Carcinoma Andrea S. Blevins Primeau, PhD, MBA ... Differences in Merkel cell carcinoma presentation and outcomes among racial and ethnic groups. JAMA Dermatol. Published online ... Patients with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) may have different sites of disease, stage at diagnosis, and survival outcomes ... Close more info about Hispanic Patients Have Highest Survival Rate After Merkel Cell Carcinoma ...
... rising number of Merkel cell carcinoma, increased awareness among people, and improvements in healthcare infrastructure ... The global Merkel cell carcinoma market is expected to register a steady revenue CAGR over the forecasted period, ... for Stage IIIA Merkel Cell Carcinoma AJCC v8 and Stage IIIB Merkel Cell Carcinoma AJCC v8 or Stage III Merkel Cell Carcinoma ... Rising number of Merkel cell carcinoma cases is a major factor driving revenue growth of the global Merkel cell carcinoma ...
The Associated Press reports that though diagnoses of Merkel cell carcinoma have tripled to about 1,500 a year, there have been ... Washington - The Associated Press reports that though diagnoses of Merkel cell carcinoma have tripled to about 1,500 a year, ... Washington - The Associated Press reports that though diagnoses of Merkel cell carcinoma have tripled to about 1,500 a year, ... In January, scientists announced that they had discovered a previously unknown virus lurking inside Merkel cell tumors, but ...
Jimmy Buffett Had Merkel Cell Carcinoma, a Cancer That Strikes Fear in the Hearts of Many. admin3 September 8, 2023 ... But Merkel cell carcinoma, certainly, it does go to lymph nodes, it likes to go to lymph nodes, thats a very common way that ... "and in Merkel cell its particularly true because Merkel cell is one of the most responsive to immunotherapy." ... 1 at the age 76 at his home in Sag Harbor, Long Island, four years after receiving a diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). ...
... Merkel cells are receptors formed of neuroendocrine cells which are ... Does Merkel Cell Carcinoma Hurt & What Virus Causes It?. *How Aggressive Is Merkel Cell Carcinoma & What Is The Function Of A ... Squamous cell cancers are much more common than Merkel cell cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma makes 20% of the total skin cancers ... What is Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC), Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Complications, Prevention. *How Do You Stop Merkel Cell ...
MERKEL CELL CARCINOMA, Detail of a Merkel disc nerve ending ... MERKEL CELL CARCINOMA. Merkel cell carcinoma is an uncommonly ... Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare cutaneous malignancy with an estimated incidence of 1 in 200,000. Merkel cell carcinoma is much ... Pathogenesis: Merkel cell carcinoma is derived from a specialized cutaneous nerve ending. The normal Merkel cells function in ... The Merkel cell polyomavirus has been studied to assess its role in the development of Merkel cell carcinoma.. ...
What is Merkel cell carcinoma? * Symptoms & appearance of Merkel cell carcinoma * Causes of Merkel cell carcinoma ... What is Merkel cell carcinoma? * Symptoms & appearance of Merkel cell carcinoma * Causes of Merkel cell carcinoma ... What is Merkel cell carcinoma?. *Symptoms & appearance of Merkel cell carcinoma. *Causes of Merkel cell carcinoma ...
Study Name: Avelumab in Subjects With Merkel Cell Carcinoma (JAVELIN Merkel 200). Condition: Carcinoma, Merkel Cell. Date: 2014 ... Viral Oncoprotein Targeted Autologous T Cell Therapy for Merkel Cell Carcinoma. Condition: *Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma ... Study Name: A Proof-of-Concept Trial of GLA-SE in Patients With Merkel Cell Carcinoma. Condition: Merkel Cell Carcinoma. Date: ... Study Name: Study of the Drug Ipilimumab for Metastatic Merkel Cell Carcinoma. Condition: Merkel Cell Carcinoma. Date: 2013-07- ...
Adjuvant Avelumab in Merkel Cell Carcinoma Trial * Surgically Treated Adjuvant Merkel Cell Carcinoma with Pembrolizumab (STAMP ... Adjuvant Avelumab in Merkel Cell Carcinoma Trial * Surgically Treated Adjuvant Merkel Cell Carcinoma with Pembrolizumab (STAMP ... Adjuvant Avelumab in Merkel Cell Carcinoma Trial. *Surgically Treated Adjuvant Merkel Cell Carcinoma with Pembrolizumab (STAMP ... Radiotherapy alone in patients with Merkel cell carcinoma: the Westmead Hospital experience of 41 patients. → ...
Learn about different Merkel cell carcinoma treatment options. ... Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare form of skin cancer with ... Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive type of skin cancer that develops from Merkel cells, a type of cell in the ... How is Merkel cell carcinoma treated?. Many treatments are available for MCC, including surgery, radiation therapy, and drugs. ... Most Merkel cell carcinomas (MCCs) are treated with surgery. Different procedures depend on the persons size, location, spread ...
Join the fight against Merkel cell carcinoma. Support the work of the Nghiem Lab at the University of Washington by making a ... All gifts will be used to advance three main goals related to Merkel cell carcinoma:. *Educating new Merkel cell carcinoma ... Adjuvant Avelumab in Merkel Cell Carcinoma Trial * Surgically Treated Adjuvant Merkel Cell Carcinoma with Pembrolizumab (STAMP ... Adjuvant Avelumab in Merkel Cell Carcinoma Trial * Surgically Treated Adjuvant Merkel Cell Carcinoma with Pembrolizumab (STAMP ...
Your first thought might be, "What is a Merkel cell? Ive never heard of it." Merkel cells lie on the outermost layer of the ... The cause of Merkel cell carcinoma is still a mystery, though a few pieces of the puzzle are beginning to come to light. As ... Merkel cell carcinoma has been rare but, as with melanoma, the number of occurrences has been increasing rapidly in recent ... A friend of mine is presently being treated for Merkel cell carcinoma and began radiation about a month ago, so I thought I ...
Merkel cell carcinoma. Share on Pinterest. This rare skin cancer looks like a reddish, purple, or blue-colored bump that grows ... Basal cell carcinoma. Share on Pinterest. Basal cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that appears as red, pink, or shiny ... Merkel cell carcinoma signs & symptoms. (n.d.).. https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/skin-cancer/types/common/merkel-cell/ ... Basal cell carcinoma overview. (2021).. http://www.skincancer.org/skin-cancer-information/basal-cell-carcinoma. ...
BAVENCIO is a prescription medicine used to treat a type of skin cancer called Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in adults and ... BAVENCIO is a prescription medicine used to treat a type of skin cancer called Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in adults and ... BAVENCIO is a prescription medicine used to treat a type of skin cancer called Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in adults and ... BAVENCIO is a prescription medicine used to treat a type of skin cancer called Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in adults and ...
Merkel cell expert Paul Nghiem, MD, PhD, explains how this rare but deadly condition differs from other forms of skin cancer. ... squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, or small cell lung cancer), but for patients who have developed distant ... Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, and often fatal neuroendocrine skin cancer. The incidence of MCC has been ... Merkel Cell Carcinoma: Not Just Another Skin Cancer. An Interview With Paul Nghiem, MD, PhD. ...
Search Keyword: Carcinoma, Merkel Cell. Pembrolizumab as First-line Therapy for Advanced Merkel Cell Carcinoma. March 10, 2022 ... Search Keyword: Carcinoma, Merkel Cell. This is a single-arm, open-label, multicenter, efficacy, and safety study of ... and safety study of pembrolizumab in adult and pediatric participants with previously untreated advanced Merkel Cell Carcinoma ... pembrolizumab in adult and pediatric participants with previously untreated advanced Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC). The primary ...
  • Factors involved in the development of MCC include the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV or MCV), a weakened immune system, and exposure to ultraviolet radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, in vitro experiments have demonstrated that fibroblasts not only support Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) infection but can be induced into having a MCC phenotype by the expression of viral proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • Merkel cell polyomavirus expression in merkel cell carcinomas and its absence in combined tumors and pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas. (medscape.com)
  • MicroRNA Expression Patterns Related to Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infection in Human Merkel Cell Carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • Kwun HJ, Shuda M, Feng H, Camacho CJ, Moore PS, Chang Y. Merkel cell polyomavirus small T antigen controls viral replication and oncoprotein expression by targeting the cellular ubiquitin ligase SCFFbw7. (medscape.com)
  • Faust H, Andersson K, Ekström J, Hortlund M, Robsahm TE, Dillner J. Prospective study of Merkel cell polyomavirus and risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • Eight in 10 people with Merkel cell carcinoma have the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCP). (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Researchers only recently discovered that a common virus, called Merkel cell polyomavirus, plays a role in the development of this disease. (yahoo.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive and rare form of skin cancer that is often caused by a Merkel cell associated polyomavirus. (merck.com)
  • Image: MCC is a rare but aggressive form of skin cancer typically caused by Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). (pharmaceutical-business-review.com)
  • The tumor promoting Merkel cell polyomavirus has been implicated in its pathogenesis. (pediagenosis.com)
  • The Merkel cell polyomavirus has been studied to assess its role in the development of Merkel cell carcinoma. (pediagenosis.com)
  • Researchers have implicated the Merkel cell polyomavirus as a potential cause of Merkel cell carcinoma. (pediagenosis.com)
  • In 2008 a common virus, polyomavirus, was found in a vast majority of Merkel cancer cells, at least 80% of the time. (melanomaactioncoalition.org)
  • The Merkel cell polyomavirus may be a contributory factor. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Merkel-Cell Carcinoma (MCC) is rare and highly aggressive skin cancer, usually due to Merckel-cell polyomavirus. (oncologyradiotherapy.com)
  • MCC is a rare, highly aggressive skin cancer most frequently caused by the Merkel cell polyomavirus. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
  • Responses to avelumab occurred regardless of whether tumors expressed PD-L1 or whether Merkel cell polyomavirus was present. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
  • Further investigation led to identification and sequence analysis of the 5387-base-pair genome of a previously unknown polyomavirus that we call Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV or MCPyV). (qxmd.com)
  • Its carcinogenesis may be either caused by the clonal integration of the Merkel cell polyomavirus into the host genome or by UV-induced mutations. (pnlab.org)
  • Cutaneous metastasis of mixed neuroendocrine, sarcomatous, and squamous rectal carcinoma mimicking a Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative Merkel cell carcinoma. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, others have argued that MCC likely derives from an epithelial precursor cell due to its frequent presence in mixed tumors including epithelial neoplasms such as squamous cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also see Merkel Cell Tumors of the Head and Neck and Merkel Cell Carcinoma and Rare Appendageal Tumors . (medscape.com)
  • As a result, the virus causes skin cells to make a protein that turns off the genes that normally suppress the growth of tumors . (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Tumors from Merkel cell carcinoma typically appear on sun-exposed areas of skin. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • KEYTRUDA, as a single agent, is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose tumors have high PD-L1 expression [Tumor Proportion Score (TPS) ≥50%] as determined by an FDA-approved test, with no EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations. (merck.com)
  • In January, scientists announced that they had discovered a previously unknown virus lurking inside Merkel cell tumors, but added that if they had had more funding they could have easily discovered the virus five years previously. (dermatologytimes.com)
  • This virus has been isolated from a high percentage of Merkel cell tumors, but not from all of them. (pediagenosis.com)
  • Those whose tumors contain more killer T cells and those whose immune systems are able to heal their primary tumor without intervention tend to fare better. (melanomaactioncoalition.org)
  • Subsequent studies involving immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy revealed that these tumors originate from the Merkel cell. (medscape.com)
  • About 3% of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) have tumors at several sites. (medscape.com)
  • Some localized melanomas may result from azathioprine, which acts synergistically with ultraviolet radiation, while T-cell depleting induction therapies may promote late stage tumors. (cdc.gov)
  • Sun exposure and a weakened immune system can both increase the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. (reportsanddata.com)
  • And, making it possible for our doctors to recommend the most appropriate treatments for each patient's unique needs is a team of diagnostic specialists, including radiologists and pathologists who provide in-depth information regarding the cell type and stage of each patient's tumor. (moffitt.org)
  • This skin cancer has been called by several other names, including primary small-cell carcinoma of the skin, APUDoma, primary undifferentiated carcinoma of the skin, and the Toker tumor. (medscape.com)
  • With the advent of improved immunohistochemical profiling, the tumor was reclassified as Merkel cell carcinoma because shared epithelial and neuroendocrine markers, along with ultrastructural features suggestive of neural crest origin, were observed in both the constituent tumor cell and the physiologic Merkel cell of the skin. (medscape.com)
  • KEYNOTE-017 represents the longest observation to date of patients with advanced Merkel cell carcinoma receiving anti-PD-1 therapy in the first-line setting, and demonstrated durable tumor control in these patients. (merck.com)
  • KEYTRUDA is an anti-PD-1 therapy that works by increasing the ability of the body's immune system to help detect and fight tumor cells. (merck.com)
  • PD-1 and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, thereby activating T lymphocytes which may affect both tumor cells and healthy cells. (merck.com)
  • In February 2020, OncoSec Medical Incorporated, which is a company developing late-stage intratumoral cancer immunotherapies, announced the publication of data demonstrating that TAVOTM (plasmid-based interleukin-12) treatment, administered via OncoSec's electroporation gene delivery system, resulted in tumor regression in both injected and non-injected Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). (reportsanddata.com)
  • It is a tumor suppressor gene and its suppression can lead to stimulation of oncogenes which are responsible for reducing the cell death. (epainassist.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma is an uncommonly encountered neuroendocrine malignant skin tumor that has an aggressive behavior. (pediagenosis.com)
  • The clinical differential diagnosis is often between Merkel cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, inflamed cyst, squamous cell carcinoma, or an adnexal tumor. (pediagenosis.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma is a neuroendocrine tumor. (pediagenosis.com)
  • The tumor is composed of small, uni- formly shaped, basophilic-staining cells. (pediagenosis.com)
  • We have found that a patient's "killer T cells" are important in fighting Merkel cell carcinoma and that when they are present in the tumor, patients do very well. (merkelcell.org)
  • H-E staining showing both thyroid follicles in the down left part and tumor cells in the upper right part, original magnification ×100. (springeropen.com)
  • [ 2 ] On the basis of the histologic characteristics of the tumor, he named it trabecular cell carcinoma of the skin. (medscape.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare malignant cutaneous tumor of the elderly that is characterized by an aggressive course with regional nodal involvement, distant metastases and a high rate of recurrence. (ispub.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare cutaneous neuroendocrine tumor thought to be derived from a specialized epithelial cell, the Merkel cell. (ispub.com)
  • In six of eight MCV-positive MCCs, viral DNA was integrated within the tumor genome in a clonal pattern, suggesting that MCV infection and integration preceded clonal expansion of the tumor cells. (qxmd.com)
  • MCC is sometimes mistaken for other histological types of cancer, including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, lymphoma, and small cell carcinoma, or as a benign cyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • Having other types of skin cancer like basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma or melanoma. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • According to the Canadian Cancer Society , Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare type of non-melanoma skin cancer. (yahoo.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare type of skin cancer, is an aggressive and fast-growing disease that has been associated with mortality rates higher than other types of skin cancer, including melanoma," said Dr. (merck.com)
  • The prognosis of Merkel cell carcinoma is worse than that of melanoma. (pediagenosis.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma has been rare but, as with melanoma, the number of occurrences has been increasing rapidly in recent years. (melanomaactioncoalition.org)
  • MCC is about 30 times less common than melanoma and far less common than basal or squamous cell carcinoma, and the clinical features of MCC are not extremely specific. (medscape.com)
  • While the two most common types of skin cancer - basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma - are highly treatable, other types of skin cancer, such as melanoma or Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), are still treatable but pose a greater threat. (uoflhealth.org)
  • To put it in perspective, they estimate that cases of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) are rising six times faster than other types of skin cancers and twice as fast as melanoma. (veintherapynews.com)
  • However, melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma are very likely to spread to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body. (veintherapynews.com)
  • Together, these two factors make Merkel cell cancers even deadlier than melanoma. (veintherapynews.com)
  • According to the Skin Cancer Foundation, Merkel cell cancers kill about one in three patients , compared to one in nine patients who die from melanoma. (veintherapynews.com)
  • While signs of skin cancer, including melanoma, are relatively easy to recognize, Merkel cell cancers are more likely to fly under the radar. (veintherapynews.com)
  • The nonspecific characteristics of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) lead to a lengthy differential diagnosis that includes basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, keratoacanthoma, amelanotic melanoma, epidermal cysts, lymphoma, and metastatic carcinoma of the skin. (medscape.com)
  • A form of non-melanoma skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma affects the cells found in the outer layer of the skin, known as the epidermis. (baptisthealth.net)
  • Cite this: FDA Approves New Merkel Cell Carcinoma Drug Zynyz - Medscape - Mar 22, 2023. (medscape.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma with growing incidence and high metastatic potential. (medscape.com)
  • [ 9 ] Since our understanding of the histogenesis is still evolving, some authors choose to refer to Merkel cell carcinoma as neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin or cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is the eponym for primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, a dermal neoplasm with cytoplasmic, dense-core neuroendocrine granules and keratin filaments. (medscape.com)
  • The cause of Merkel cell carcinoma is still a mystery, though a few pieces of the puzzle are beginning to come to light. (melanomaactioncoalition.org)
  • And I specialize in Merkel cell carcinoma, but I am also a practicing dermatologist who does general derm(atology) and I think it's a diagnosis that sort of strikes fear in the hearts of many because it's a diagnosis you don't want to miss - but (it) can be hard to catch early. (cmlalliance.com)
  • Because of the differences in physiology and prognosis between MCV+ and MCV- MCC (see below), however, some have suggested that these two subtypes of MCC may actually derive from different progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • So, in terms of how fast (it spreads) or what's the prognosis of someone with Merkel cell, it's really entirely dependent on their stage. (cmlalliance.com)
  • Although both can be metastatic in nature but Merkel cell cancer is more metastatic and is associated with a poorer prognosis than the squamous carcinoma. (epainassist.com)
  • In most people, the cancer has already spread by the time the diagnosis has been made, so the prognosis for Merkel cell carcinoma is poor. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Friedrich Sigmund Merkel discovered the Merkel cell in 1875. (medscape.com)
  • Effect of radiation therapy on survival in patients with resected Merkel cell carcinoma: a propensity score surveillance, epidemiology, and end results database analysis. (medscape.com)
  • Each team member has expertise in evaluating and treating patients with cancers of the skin - including rare skin cancers like Merkel cell carcinoma. (mskcc.org)
  • License Application (sBLA) seeking accelerated approval for KEYTRUDA, Merck's anti-PD-1 therapy, for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with recurrent locally advanced or metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). (merck.com)
  • We look forward to working closely with the FDA throughout the review process and to bringing KEYTRUDA to patients with Merkel cell carcinoma. (merck.com)
  • A clinical stage biotechnology company Immunomic Therapeutics has received Fast Track Designation (FTD) from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for its ITI-3000 programme to treat patients with Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC). (pharmaceutical-business-review.com)
  • Immunomic Therapeutics CEO Dr. William Hearl said: "The FDA's decision to grant FTD underscores the potential for the ITI-3000 program to address a serious unmet need and serve as a meaningful therapeutic option for patients with Merkel cell carcinoma. (pharmaceutical-business-review.com)
  • Patients with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) may have different sites of disease, stage at diagnosis, and survival outcomes according to their racial or ethnic group, a new study suggests. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • And we cure lots of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma who are living great lives. (cmlalliance.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma, Thakuria said, is a very rare cancer, affecting approximately 2,400 patients in the United States per year. (cmlalliance.com)
  • It has been estimated that up to 50% of all patients diagnosed with a Merkel cell carcinoma will develop lymph node metastasis. (pediagenosis.com)
  • Grouping all stages together, one third of the patients diagnosed with Merkel cell carcinoma will die from their disease. (pediagenosis.com)
  • It is likely to be a player in the pathogenesis of a subset of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma, but it is unlikely to be the only explanation. (pediagenosis.com)
  • Radiotherapy alone in patients with Merkel cell carcinoma: the Westmead Hospital experience of 41 patients. (parallelpublicworks.com)
  • Educating new Merkel cell carcinoma patients and their physicians about this serious and uncommon disease. (merkelcell.org)
  • Our Merkel cell carcinoma website serves as a resource for patients around the world, free of charge, to help guide management of this disease about which many physicians are not familiar. (merkelcell.org)
  • We have developed a new test that can be carried out on a tiny amount of blood from Merkel cell carcinoma patients. (merkelcell.org)
  • We believe that these insights and tools will significantly improve the prospects of current and future patients with Merkel cell carcinoma. (merkelcell.org)
  • This is a tricky one because 92% of MCC patients are not immune compromised, but those with long-term T-cell dysfunction (organ transplant recipients, autoimmune disease patients receiving immune suppression, HIV patients, chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients) are at much higher risk of developing MCC, but they represent less than 10% of all cases. (medscape.com)
  • When you consider the AEIOU characteristics together, almost 90% of Merkel patients have three or more of those five features. (medscape.com)
  • The FDA granted accelerated approval to avelumab for the treatment of patients 12 years and older with Merkel cell carcinoma. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
  • We describe two patients of Merkel cell carcinoma presented to us. (ispub.com)
  • KEYTRUDA, Merck's anti-PD-1 therapy, plus best supportive care, for the treatment of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who were previously treated with systemic therapy, did not meet its co-primary endpoints of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) compared with placebo plus best supportive care. (merck.com)
  • Feng et al established in 2008 that approximately 80% of Merkel cell carcinomas in the Northern hemisphere occur after genomic integration by a ubiquitous skin commensal virus, Merkel cell polyoma virus (MCPyV). (medscape.com)
  • Surgery is the main treatment for most Merkel cell carcinomas (MCCs). (cancer.org)
  • Most Merkel cell carcinomas (MCCs) are treated with surgery. (skincancer.net)
  • More than half of Merkel cell carcinomas (MCCs) occur in the head and neck of elderly people in areas of actinically damaged skin. (medscape.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinomas (MCCs) usually appear as indurated plaques or violaceous (red or deep purple) solitary and dome-shaped nodules. (medscape.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinomas (MCCs) usually occur in sun-damaged skin. (medscape.com)
  • Merkel-cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive skin cancer occurring in about three people per million members of the population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even in people who have MCC with no obvious spread to nearby lymph nodes (or distant organs), about 1 out of 3 have cancer cells in their lymph nodes when the nodes are looked at with a microscope. (cancer.org)
  • Because of this, a sentinel lymph node biopsy (described in Tests for Merkel Cell Carcinoma ) is a very important part of determining the stage of the cancer. (cancer.org)
  • If the SLNB is negative (the sentinel nodes do not contain cancer cells), no more lymph node surgery is needed because it's very unlikely the cancer would have spread beyond this point. (cancer.org)
  • If cancer cells are found in the sentinel node(s), the other nearby lymph nodes are often taken out and checked, too. (cancer.org)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma is a complex condition to treat, but the specialists within Moffitt Cancer Center's Cutaneous Oncology Program have extensive experience in dealing with challenging cancers. (moffitt.org)
  • Our skin cancer specialists are widely published in scientific journals, and their contributions are often sought when developing new evidence-based pathways and best practices for the treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma . (moffitt.org)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare but aggressive type of skin cancer that can be life-threatening. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma is a very rare type of skin cancer , affecting approximately 3,000 Americans every year. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Merkel cell cancer. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • UV rays from sun exposure or artificial light sources like tanning beds cause most types of skin cancer, including Merkel cell carcinoma. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive cancer that spreads quickly to other parts of your body. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Our scientists pursue every aspect of cancer research-from exploring the biology of genes and cells, to developing immune-based treatments, uncovering the causes of metastasis, and more. (mskcc.org)
  • At Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, our Merkcel cell carcinoma and skin cancer team include specialists in surgery, head and neck cancers, radiation oncology, medical oncology, and dermatology. (mskcc.org)
  • Jimmy Buffett died of a rare form of skin cancer: What is Merkel cell carcinoma? (yahoo.com)
  • Jimmy Buffett died on Friday due to a rare form of skin cancer called Merkel cell carcinoma. (yahoo.com)
  • This disease is also sometimes called neuroendocrine cancer of the skin or trabecular carcinoma. (yahoo.com)
  • While many factors play a role in survival rates for the cancer, experts estimate that three out of four people who have Merkel cell carcinoma that hasn't spread are alive five years after their diagnosis . (yahoo.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma is more likely to spread to other parts of the body than most types of skin cancer. (merck.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma, also known as neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin or trabecular cancer, is a very rare skin disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form. (reportsanddata.com)
  • According to the American Cancer Society, MCC, also referred to as neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin, trabecular carcinoma or trabecular cancer, is both a rare type of skin cancer and one of the most dangerous, more likely than common skin cancers to spread to other parts of the body and potentially very difficult to treat if it spreads. (cmlalliance.com)
  • Squamous cell cancers are much more common than Merkel cell cancer. (epainassist.com)
  • Squamous cell carcinoma makes 20% of the total skin cancers of non-melanomatous origin whereas, on the other hand, the Merkel cell cancer is quite rare cancer to be found alone [2] . (epainassist.com)
  • The squamous cell cancers are having a much larger number of cases than Merkel cell cancer because of the strong association with etiological factors. (epainassist.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive type of skin cancer that develops from Merkel cells, a type of cell in the skin that helps to sense touch. (skincancer.net)
  • The removed tissue is then examined under a microscope to see if any cancer cells are present. (skincancer.net)
  • If cancer cells are found, the doctor removes another thin layer of skin and examines it under the microscope. (skincancer.net)
  • This process is repeated until no cancer cells are found. (skincancer.net)
  • To kill any cancer cells that might be left behind after surgery. (skincancer.net)
  • Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells. (skincancer.net)
  • Immunotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses the body's immune system to fight cancer cells. (skincancer.net)
  • Cancer cells can sometimes use these checkpoints to their advantage. (skincancer.net)
  • This allows cancer cells to grow and spread without being detected by the immune system. (skincancer.net)
  • These treatments can help the immune system to start attacking cancer cells again. (skincancer.net)
  • We also have discovered ways that this cancer sometimes evades such T cells. (merkelcell.org)
  • A friend of mine is presently being treated for Merkel cell carcinoma and began radiation about a month ago, so I thought I might write a little about this form of skin cancer. (melanomaactioncoalition.org)
  • Mycosis fungoides is the most common form of cutaneous T cell lymphoma , a type of blood cancer that involves infection-fighting white blood cells called T cells. (healthline.com)
  • Actinic cheilitis can turn into squamous cell cancer if you don't have the bumps removed. (healthline.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, and often fatal neuroendocrine skin cancer. (medscape.com)
  • MCC is a rare and aggressive type of skin cancer that originates from the uncontrolled proliferation of Merkel cells. (callfred.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare type of skin cancer that may initially resemble a harmless mole, but in fact is very aggressive, can spread throughout the body, and is potentially fatal," Joshua Zeichner , director of cosmetic and clinical research in dermatology at Mount Sinai in New York City, tells Allure . (veintherapynews.com)
  • Currently, there are 2,488 cases of Merkel cell cancer diagnosed in the United States each year, but researchers at the University of Washington predict that will jump to 3,284 cases by 2025. (veintherapynews.com)
  • The most common skin cancers - basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer - can usually be cured with surgery and only rarely spread beyond the skin," explains Paulson. (veintherapynews.com)
  • The second reason to be concerned is that Merkel cell cancers have a high risk of recurrence, according to the Skin Cancer Foundation . (veintherapynews.com)
  • Merkel cell cancer usually shows up as a rapidly growing, often symmetrical, red or purple, painless nodule or bump," says Paulson. (veintherapynews.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare but very aggressive form of skin cancer. (integrateddermmv.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but aggressive human skin cancer that typically affects elderly and immunosuppressed individuals, a feature suggestive of an infectious origin. (qxmd.com)
  • The most frequently occurring type of skin cancer, a basal cell carcinoma can be hard to tell from other skin conditions such as psoriasis or eczema. (samhealth.org)
  • The second most common skin cancer, a squamous cell carcinoma may appear scaly, red or wart-like. (samhealth.org)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive, often lethal neuroendocrine cancer. (pnlab.org)
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common type of liver cancer in adults, which is the sixth most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. (merck.com)
  • Nonmelanoma skin cancer with potential metastatic spreading to regional lymph nodes regroups skin lesions like high-risk squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), and pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM). (hindawi.com)
  • They are among the 2-3 million people diagnosed with skin cancer globally each year, many with basal cell lesions emerging on their face due to years of sun exposure. (baptisthealth.net)
  • While basal cell cancer is rarely fatal, it can be very disfiguring if left untreated. (baptisthealth.net)
  • Squamous cell cancer accounts for about 20 percent of skin cancers, according to the American Cancer Society. (baptisthealth.net)
  • The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • PDT uses a drug and a type of laser light to kill cancer cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What's New in Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancer Research? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma: changing incidence trends. (medscape.com)
  • Since there is more of the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma than the Merkel cell carcinoma, these factors are found commonly associated with squamous cell cancers. (epainassist.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare cutaneous malignancy with an estimated incidence of 1 in 200,000. (pediagenosis.com)
  • Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC) is an uncommon neuroendocrine cutaneous carcinoma which is characterized by high incidence of early loco-regional relapse and distant metastases (Poulsen 2004 ). (springeropen.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive non-melanomatous cutaneous tumour of neuroendocrine origin with an increasing incidence in the recent years. (aku.edu)
  • Trends in solitary plasmacytoma, extramedullary plasmacytoma, and plasma cell myeloma incidence and myeloma mortality by racial‐ethnic group, United States 2003-2016. (cdc.gov)
  • MCC is similar to Merkel cells in its histological appearance (see below: Diagnosis) and shares many immunohistochemical markers with Merkel cells, including epidermal marker cytokeratin 20 and neuroendocrine markers synaptophysin and chromogranin A. Furthermore, the ion channel Piezo2 and transcription factor Atoh1, both specific to Merkel cells, are also expressed by MCC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis and treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • However, the number of people receiving a Merkel cell carcinoma diagnosis is steadily increasing. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • is done to confirm the diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The normal Merkel cells function in mechanoreception of the skin. (pediagenosis.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma arises from uncontrolled growth of cells in the skin that share some characteristics with normal Merkel cells. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Merkel Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Recommendations for Diagnostics and Treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma usually presents as nodule of small size on the skin especially of head and neck regions with a property of changing colors like blue, purple, red, etc. whereas squamous cell carcinoma presents as a shallow ulcerative lesion with elevated margins and presence of plaques marks its configuration. (epainassist.com)
  • Common distribution of Merkel cell carcinoma in the head and neck is shown in the image below. (medscape.com)
  • An immunofluorescent staining of a Merkel cell carcinoma tumour tissue. (yahoo.com)
  • The rise is concerning for two major reasons: First, Merkel cell cancers are incredibly aggressive, meaning they're more likely to metastasize and harder to cure. (veintherapynews.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an uncommon and aggressive cutaneous neoplasm that lacks distinguishing clinical features. (medscape.com)
  • Merkel cells are highly specialized cells that act as pressure receptors in the epidermis. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 4 ] These specialized sensory cells are normally found in the basal epidermis of skin and parts of mucosal surfaces derived from the ectoderm. (medscape.com)
  • Within skin, Merkel cells have also been shown to cluster in the basal layers of the interfollicular epidermis in specialized epithelial structures called touch domes, where they are juxtaposed with epidermal keratinocytes. (medscape.com)
  • [ 6 ] As they are primarily postmitotic, Merkel cells putatively have low sensitivity to oncogenic stimuli, and they are found in the basal epidermis, whereas cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinomas arise in the dermis. (medscape.com)
  • It develops in Merkel cells found in your skin's outer layer (your epidermis). (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Merkel cells are found deep in your epidermis (top layer of your skin ). (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Squamous cells are flat cells of epithelial origin forming the outermost and uppermost layer of skin and even epidermis. (epainassist.com)
  • It is a nondendritic, nonkeratizing, "clear" cell present in the basal cell layer of the epidermis, free in the dermis, and around hair follicles as the hair disk of Pinkus. (ispub.com)
  • It is also known as cutaneous APUDoma, primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin, primary small cell carcinoma of the skin, and trabecular carcinoma of the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 1 ] It was originally described by Cyril Toker in 1972 under the designation trabecular carcinoma of the skin. (medscape.com)
  • He observed tastzellen (touch cells) in the skin of the snouts of pigs and moles and deduced a mechanosensory function. (medscape.com)
  • Toker C. Trabecular carcinoma of the skin. (medscape.com)
  • Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • UV radiation can damage the genetic makeup, or DNA, of skin cells. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • People of all ages, genders and skin colors can get Merkel cell carcinoma. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • A dermatologist diagnoses and treats skin diseases like Merkel cell carcinoma. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • On sun-exposed skin, Merkel cell carcinoma typically manifests as a single painless lump. (reportsanddata.com)
  • The UV rays can lead to mutations in the genetics of the skin cells and the commonly encountered gene to be mutated is the Tp53 gene. (epainassist.com)
  • Various immune system defects like inability to do DNA repair in the skin cells known as xeroderma pigmentosum can also lead to accumulation of the mutations in the cells which can trigger the squamous cell carcinoma far more often than Merkel cell carcinoma which is relatively very rare with it. (epainassist.com)
  • Merkel cells lie on the outermost layer of the skin. (melanomaactioncoalition.org)
  • When these cells turn cancerous, they form a red, scaly rash on the skin. (healthline.com)
  • Although Merkel cell carcinoma can affect any part of the skin, it is most common on skin that has been chronically exposed to sunlight (for example, the face and arms). (msdmanuals.com)
  • C510 Labium majus C511 Labium minus C512 Clitoris C518 Overlapping lesion of vulva C519 Vulva, NOS **Note 1:** This schema is based on the UICC chapter *Merkel Cell Carcinoma of Skin,* pages 177-180. (cancer.gov)
  • In addition, basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin of the perineum would be coded to C445 and would not be reportable. (cancer.gov)
  • C632 Scrotum, NOS **Note 1:** This schema is based on the UICC chapter *Merkel Cell Carcinoma of Skin,* pages 177-180. (cancer.gov)
  • He fixed and stained the skin of geese and ducks and demonstrated touch cells in the snouts of pigs. (medscape.com)
  • They are often found near other lesions of actinically damaged skin, including skin involved with Bowen disease, squamous cell carcinoma , basal cell carcinoma , solar keratoses, or lentigo maligna . (medscape.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM), and other rare skin neoplasms have a well-known risk to spread to regional lymph nodes. (hindawi.com)
  • [ 20 ] In 2018, another PD-1 inhibitor, pembrolizumab, was approved for adults and children with metastatic or recurrent, locally advanced Merkel cell carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • A month later, this mass was surgically excised and the histology examination showed a poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma, with histopathologic features of a Merkel cell carcinoma. (springeropen.com)
  • In 2017, avelumab became the first drug approved by the FDA for metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma in adults and children aged 12 years or older. (medscape.com)
  • Merkel-cell carcinoma usually arises on the head, neck, and extremities, as well as in the perianal region and on the eyelid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma usually appears on the face, head or neck. (yahoo.com)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved retifanlimab-dlwr (Zynyz), an intravenous programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) inhibitor, for the treatment of adults with metastatic or recurrent locally advanced Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), the agency announced . (medscape.com)
  • Indicated for adults and children with metastatic or recurrent, locally advanced Merkel cell carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • While epithelial cells are not typically found in the dermis, hair follicles include epithelial cells that have been shown to have oncogenic potential, and have therefore been proposed as a possible site for a MCC precursor. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 5 , 6 ] Furthermore, experiments have demonstrated that epidermal progenitors in the touch domes are capable of producing Merkel cell lines and that epithelial progenitor populations in adults have the capacity to give rise to both neuroendocrine and squamous lineages. (medscape.com)
  • Other suggested cells of origin include the neural crest‒derived cell of amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) system, dermal fibroblasts, pre or pro B cells, residual epidermal stem cells, and epithelial, non-Merkel cell progenitors. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] As neuroendocrine carcinomas were thought to be of neural crest origin, in 1978 Tang and Toker proposed that this carcinoma might be derived from Merkel cells. (medscape.com)
  • Additionally, they have not been shown to support Merkel-cell polyoma virus infection, which is believed to drive oncogenesis in approximately 80% of MCC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemotherapy can be used to treat MCC that has spread to other parts of the body, or it can be used to treat Merkel cell carcinoma that has not spread to other parts of the body but is at high risk of spreading. (skincancer.net)
  • Cyril Toker first described Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in 1972. (medscape.com)
  • Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light and other risk factors can cause these cells to become cancerous and grow uncontrollably. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Very high-grade exposure to the sunlight for long periods can lead to squamous cell carcinoma but on the other hand, low-intensity exposure of, for long periods can lead to Merkel cell carcinoma. (epainassist.com)
  • Exposure to the ionizing radiation such as X rays, Gamma rays, etc. can easily propel these mutations in the cells and it could lead to cancerous growth. (epainassist.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) has also been linked to previous radiation exposure and B-cell lymphoma. (medscape.com)
  • A squamous cell carcinoma may occur anywhere on the body but it is most common in an area with frequent UV exposure. (samhealth.org)
  • A Merkel cell carcinoma usually looks like a firm bump about the size of a dime that develops in an area with frequent UV exposure. (samhealth.org)
  • Merkel-cell carcinomas have been described in children, however pediatric cases are very rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • And so, Merkel cell really is like a totally different ballgame, because it's so rare. (cmlalliance.com)
  • Merkel-cell carcinoma (MCC) usually presents as a firm nodule (up to 2 cm diameter) or mass (>2 cm diameter). (wikipedia.org)
  • The origin of Merkel cells themselves is debated and proposed to be derived from neural crest cells or epidermal progenitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, in adults, Merkel cells undergo slow turnover and are replaced by cells originating from epidermal stem cells, not through the proliferation of differentiated Merkel cells. (medscape.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma is derived from a specialized cutaneous nerve ending. (pediagenosis.com)
  • PD-L1/PD-1 interaction inhibits immune activation and reduces T-cell cytotoxic activity when bound. (medscape.com)
  • This negative feedback loop is essential for maintaining normal immune responses and limits T-cell activity to protect normal cells during chronic inflammation. (medscape.com)
  • This lysosomal targeting technology has shown to lead to enhanced antigen presentation and a balanced immune response, including, ITI-3000 activated antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in vivo. (pharmaceutical-business-review.com)
  • The immune system has built-in processes to prevent it from attacking healthy cells. (skincancer.net)
  • These "checkpoints" are proteins on immune cells that act like switches. (skincancer.net)
  • The immune system does not attack healthy cells when these switches are turned off. (skincancer.net)
  • We believe that strategic use of existing and emerging immune therapies will allow us to activate T cells to overcome the cancer's immune evasion strategies. (merkelcell.org)
  • Merkel call carcinoma also affects younger people whose immune system is weakened. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Here, we summarize current knowledge on epidemiology, biology and therapy of MCC as conclusion of the project 'Immune Modulating strategies for treatment of Merkel Cell Carcinoma', which was funded over a 5-year period by the European Commission to investigate innovative immunotherapies for MCC. (pnlab.org)
  • Merkel-cell cancers tend to invade locally, infiltrating the underlying subcutaneous fat, fascia, and muscle, and typically metastasize early in their natural history, most often to the regional lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma on a patient's sun-exposed forearm. (medscape.com)
  • As a result, Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is rarely diagnosed until biopsy is performed. (medscape.com)
  • Both the cancers have their treatment of choice is surgical resection of the lesion but the lesion of squamous carcinoma requires more margins to be resected due to ulcerative presentation whereas Merkel cell carcinoma is associated more often with lymph node dissection due to higher metastatic rate. (epainassist.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) has a propensity to recur and to cause local and distant metastases. (medscape.com)
  • Meet the surgeons who specialize in the treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma. (moffitt.org)
  • Uitentuis SE, Louwman MWJ, van Akkooi ACJ, Bekkenk M. Treatment and survival of Merkel cell carcinoma since 1993: a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands. (medscape.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma tends to spread quickly to other parts of your body and often comes back after treatment. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • It's often that Merkel cell carcinoma will return after treatment, so it's common to see your health care provider regularly after getting diagnosed. (yahoo.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma spreads quickly to other parts of the body and frequently recurs after treatment. (reportsanddata.com)
  • As a result, the region's Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) treatment market is anticipated to grow over the coming few years. (reportsanddata.com)
  • The Asia Pacific Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) treatment market is expected to expand rapidly during the forecast period due to rising environmental pollution, changing lifestyles, increased patient awareness about MCC treatment, and rising per capita expenditure for health insurance in the region. (reportsanddata.com)
  • Furthermore, economic growth in India and China is improving healthcare infrastructure as well as the expansion of pharmaceutical companies and biotech labs, which is expected to drive revenue growth of the Asia Pacific Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) treatment market shortly. (reportsanddata.com)
  • Merck Sharp & Dohme LLC 's drug candidate Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) is under clinical trials phase 3 is used for the treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma, which is expected to be complete by 2032. (reportsanddata.com)
  • Washington - The Associated Press reports that though diagnoses of Merkel cell carcinoma have tripled to about 1,500 a year, there have been no well-controlled studies on the best treatment. (dermatologytimes.com)
  • The chances of treatment and survival are more in squamous cell carcinoma. (epainassist.com)
  • The study findings make early detection and treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma a top priority. (veintherapynews.com)
  • Even as they secrete neuropeptides, Merkel cells additionally express intermediate filaments characteristic of primitive and simple epithelia such as cytokeratin (CK) 8, CK18, and CK20. (medscape.com)
  • The histopathology examination showed infiltration of the thyroid gland by a neuroendocrine carcinoma with characteristics compatible with MCC. (springeropen.com)
  • Even as the nature of the exact cell in which Merkel cell carcinoma oncogenesis occurs is controversial, there is strong support for the notion that Merkel cell carcinoma results from of one of two distinct pathways. (medscape.com)