Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Carcinoma, Medullary: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)Carcinoma, Adenosquamous: A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.Carcinoma, Endometrioid: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Carcinoma, Merkel Cell: A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Carcinoma, Verrucous: A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell: A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Carcinoma, Large Cell: A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells: The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular: A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous: A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Chemoembolization, Therapeutic: Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Carcinoma, Basosquamous: A skin carcinoma that histologically exhibits both basal and squamous elements. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar: A carcinoma thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli. Involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular. The neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures. Mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells. Metastases in regional lymph nodes, and in even more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Urothelium: The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.Vulvar Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VULVA.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Oropharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Phenylurea Compounds: Compounds that include the amino-N-phenylamide structure.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Carcinoma, Giant Cell: An epithelial neoplasm characterized by unusually large anaplastic cells. It is highly malignant with fulminant clinical course, bizarre histologic appearance and poor prognosis. It is most common in the lung and thyroid. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Urologic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.Niacinamide: An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Keratin-7: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Benzenesulfonates: Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.Ureteral Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the URETER which may cause obstruction leading to hydroureter, HYDRONEPHROSIS, and PYELONEPHRITIS. HEMATURIA is a common symptom.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Mice, Inbred BALB CUp-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Adenoma, Oxyphilic: A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askanazy cells.Carcinosarcoma: A malignant neoplasm that contains elements of carcinoma and sarcoma so extensively intermixed as to indicate neoplasia of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Adenocarcinoma, Scirrhous: An adenocarcinoma with a hard (Greek skirrhos, hard) structure owing to the formation of dense connective tissue in the stroma. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Eyelid Neoplasms: Tumors of cancer of the EYELIDS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.Mucin-1: Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Teratoma: A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma in which the tumor elements are arranged as finger-like processes or as a solid spherical nodule projecting from an epithelial surface.Ampulla of Vater: A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Neoplasms, Squamous Cell: Neoplasms of the SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements.Carcinoma, Skin Appendage: A malignant tumor of the skin appendages, which include the hair, nails, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and the mammary glands. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Common Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Mammary Neoplasms, Animal: Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational: Variation in a population's DNA sequence that is detected by determining alterations in the conformation of denatured DNA fragments. Denatured DNA fragments are allowed to renature under conditions that prevent the formation of double-stranded DNA and allow secondary structure to form in single stranded fragments. These fragments are then run through polyacrylamide gels to detect variations in the secondary structure that is manifested as an alteration in migration through the gels.Pharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the HYPOPHARYNX.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.

Over-representation of a germline RET sequence variant in patients with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma and somatic RET codon 918 mutation. (1/446)

The aetiology of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma is unknown. About 50% harbour a somatic mutation at codon 918 of RET (M918T). To investigate whether other RET sequence variants may be associated with or predispose to the development of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma, we analysed genomic DNA from the germline and corresponding tumour from 50 patients to identify RET sequence variants. In one patient, tumour DNA showed a novel somatic 12 bp in-frame deletion in exon 15. More interestingly, we found that the rare polymorphism at codon 836 (c.2439C > T; S836S) occurred at a significantly higher frequency than that in control individuals without sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.03). Further, among the nine evaluable cases with germline c.2439C/T, eight also had the somatic M918T mutation in MTC DNA which was more frequent than in patients with the more common c.2439C/C (89% vs 40%, respectively; Fisher's exact test, P = 0.01). These findings suggest that the rare sequence variant at codon 836 may somehow play a role in the genesis of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma.  (+info)

Medullary thyroid carcinoma with multiple hepatic metastases: treatment with transcatheter arterial embolization and percutaneous ethanol injection. (2/446)

A 54-year-old man with medullary thyroid carcinoma in the thyroid gland was unable to undergo total thyroidectomy because the tumor had invaded the mediastinum. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy were given. Seven years later, intractable diarrhea and abdominal pain appeared, and computed tomography demonstrated hypervascular tumors in the thyroid gland and in the liver. The tumors were successfully treated with percutaneous ethanol injection to a lesion in the thyroid gland and transcatheter arterial embolization followed by percutaneous ethanol injection to tumors in the liver. Transcatheter arterial embolization and percutaneous ethanol injection may be valuable in treating medullary thyroid carcinoma.  (+info)

Psychosocial impact of genetic testing in familial medullary-thyroid carcinoma: a multicentric pilot-evaluation. (3/446)

BACKGROUND: Many crucial problems are associated with the diagnosis of inherited cancer susceptibility. One of the most important is related to the psychosocial consequences of the knowledge by the patients and their relatives of their own genetical status. Little data are available in the literature, mainly from studies including small numbers of selected and motivated patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January till December 1997, we studied the psychometric and quality of life parameters of 77 subjects followed in two French specialized centers. These subjects had been treated for either sporadic or familial or were at risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma. All patients had previously attended genetic counselling with detection of germline Ret-mutations, were informed on their own genetic risk, had good short-term prognosis and performance status and did not receive recent cancer treatment. Each patient was invited to answer two questionnaires, the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) and the subjective quality of life profile (SQLP). RESULTS: We report herein the descriptive results of this study (HADS and SQLP scores and distributions) and describe the individual clinical covariates that might explain the observed differences between subgroups of individuals. Although psychometric scores appeared similar in these subgroups, quality of life scores were lower in Ret-mutation carriers. Genetically-predisposed patients were less satisfied and expressed more expectations for favourable change in their quality of life. CONCLUSION: This finding suggests a high level of frustration and latent unsatisfaction related either to the management of the genetic information given by the clinicians and its psychosocial consequences or simply to the knowledge of the genetic risk of cancer. Further studies on the individual consequences of genetic testing, information delivery and when necessary psychotherapeutic interventions, are needed to insure the quality of presymptomatic genetic testing in this field of oncology.  (+info)

Roles of trk family neurotrophin receptors in medullary thyroid carcinoma development and progression. (4/446)

Although initiating mutations in the ret protooncogene have been found in familial and sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), the molecular events underlying subsequent tumor progression stages are unknown. We now report that changes in trk family neurotrophin receptor expression appear to be involved in both preneoplastic thyroid C cell hyperplasia and later tumor progression. Only a subset of normal C cells expresses trk family receptors, but, in C cell hyperplasia, the affected cells consistently express trkB, with variable expression of trkA and trkC. In later stages of gross MTC tumors, trkB expression was substantially reduced, while trkC expression was increased and often intense. In a cell culture model of MTC, exogenous trkB expression resulted in severely impaired tumorigenicity and was associated with 11-fold lower levels of the angiogenesis factor vascular endothelial growth factor. These results suggest that trk family receptor genes participate in MTC development and progression, and, in particular, that trkB may limit MTC tumor growth by inhibition of angiogenesis.  (+info)

Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor metastases to the thyroid gland: differential diagnosis with medullary thyroid carcinoma. (5/446)

Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the thyroid gland are rare. Apart from medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), metastases of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) NET may also occur. Features of six patients (five men, one female: age range, 39-67 years) with thyroid metastases from a GEP-NET are described. Thyroid metastases were bilateral in all patients and were associated with enlarged neck lymph nodes in five. In four cases, the thyroid tumor was either the first sign of the disease (n = 2) or was an isolated site of recurrence (n = 2). The tumors were well (n = 3) or poorly differentiated (n = 3). Five tumors for which the primary site could be determined corresponded to foregut-derived tumors (3 lungs, 1 thymus and 1 pancreatic NET). One tumor demonstrated calcitonin (CT) production as shown by immunohistochemistry and elevated plasma CT levels. However, the disease history and the clinical features strongly favored a metastasizing GEP-NET. No tumoral RET proto-oncogene mutation was found in this patient. The differential diagnosis between metastatic GEP-NET and MTC is crucial because prognosis, work-up, and treatment differ greatly.  (+info)

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A with the identical somatic mutation in medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma without germline mutation at the corresponding site in the RET proto-oncogene. (6/446)

A germline mutation either in exon 10 or 11 of the RET proto-oncogene is found in the majority of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A). A 41-year-old female patient was referred for further evaluation of incidentally discovered right adrenal tumor. She had bilateral adrenal pheochromocytomas and medullary thyroid carcinomas detected by endocrinological and radiological examination, and diagnosed as MEN 2A. Molecular genetic testing of the RET exons 10 and 11 exhibited the identical somatic missense mutation at codon 634 in both tumors but did not confirm germline mutations in the corresponding sites. Possible mechanisms for tumorigenesis in this patient are discussed.  (+info)

Medullary thyroid carcinomas in transgenic mice expressing a Polyoma carboxyl-terminal truncated middle-T and wild type small-T antigens. (7/446)

Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare human tumor affecting the calcitonin-secreting c-cells of the thyroid. Here we report that two independent strains of transgenic mice expressing a Polyomavirus (Py) truncated middle-T antigen (deltaMT), consisting of the amino-terminal 304 amino acids, and the full length Py small-T antigen, developed multifocal bilateral MTCs with 100% penetrance. Occasionally one strain also developed mammary and bone tumors. Furthermore, offspring from both transgenic lines displayed pronounced waviness of the whiskers and fur, previously associated with defective epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. Transgene transcription, driven by the homologous early promoter/enhancer, and the corresponding translation products were detected in tumors and in many other organs which did not develop pathologies. The subcellular distribution of deltaMT and its interactions with the adapter proteins of the SHC family have also been analysed. Our study describes a novel murine model of MTC and provides evidence that the N-terminal 304 amino acid fragment of Py middle-T antigen, possibly in co-operation with small-T antigen, acts as a potent oncogene in c-cells of the thyroid.  (+info)

Chronic toxicity/oncogenicity evaluation of 60 Hz (power frequency) magnetic fields in F344/N rats. (8/446)

A 2-yr whole-body exposure study was conducted to evaluate the chronic toxicity and possible oncogenicity of 60 Hz (power frequency) magnetic fields in rats. Groups of 100 male and 100 female F344/N rats were exposed continuously to pure, linearly polarized, transient-free 60 Hz magnetic fields at flux densities of 0 Gauss (G) (sham control), 20 milligauss (mG), 2 G, and 10 G; an additional group of 100 male and 100 female F344/N rats received intermittent (1 hr on/1 hr off) exposure to 10 G fields. Mortality patterns, body weight gains throughout the study, and the total incidence and number of malignant and benign tumors in all groups exposed to magnetic fields were similar to those found in sex-matched sham controls. Statistically significant increases in the combined incidence of C-cell adenomas and carcinomas of the thyroid were seen in male rats chronically exposed to 20 mG and 2 G magnetic fields. These increases were not seen in male rats exposed continuously or intermittently to 10 G fields or in female rats at any magnetic field exposure level. No increases in the incidence of neoplasms, which have been identified in epidemiology studies as possible targets of magnetic field action (leukemia, breast cancer, and brain cancer), were found in any group exposed to magnetic fields. There was a decrease in leukemia in male rats exposed to 10 G intermittent fields. The occurrence of C-cell tumors at the 2 lower field intensities in male rats is interpreted as equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity; data from female rats provides no evidence of carcinogenicity in that sex. These data, when considered as a whole, are interpreted as indicating that chronic exposure to pure linearly polarized 60 Hz magnetic fields has little or no effect on cancer development in the F344/N rat.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Cellular Immune Responses in Familial Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma. AU - Rocklin, Ross E.. AU - Gagel, Robert F. AU - Feldman, Zoila. AU - Tashjian, Armen H.. PY - 1977/4/14. Y1 - 1977/4/14. N2 - We studied prospectively 46 members of a kindred with familial medullary thyroid carcinoma to determine the importance of possible cellular immune reactivity to tumor antigen. We evaluated in vitro production of macrophage-migration-inhibitory factor and 3H-thymidine uptake by lymphocytes from patients, family members and normal subjects in response to extracts of medullary thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid tissue. Lymphocytes from 12 of 18 patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma and four of seven patients with C-cell hyperplasia produced migration inhibitory factor or proliferated (or both) in response to tumor antigen. In contrast, cells from only two of 25 normal subjects and two of nine family members not genetically at risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma made migration ...
Purpose: While the molecular basis of hereditary medullary thyroid cancer (HMTC) has been well defined, little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of sporadic medullary thyroid cancer (SMTC). In addition, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be important diagnostic and prognostic markers in cancer but have not been defined in MTC. Our aim was to study the miRNA profile of MTC to identify prognostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets.. Experimental Design: MiRNA microarray profiling was carried out in fresh frozen tissues from patients with SMTC (n = 12) and HMTC (n = 7). Differential expression of three miRNAs was confirmed in a validation cohort of SMTC and HMTC samples (n = 45) using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR and correlated with clinical outcomes. The functional role of a selected miRNA was investigated in vitro in the human medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line (TT cells) using cell proliferation assays and Western blotting analysis.. Results: MiRs-183 and 375 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interplay between Ret and Fap-1 regulates CD95-mediated apoptosis in medullary thyroid cancer cells. AU - Nicolini, Valentina. AU - Cassinelli, Giuliana. AU - Cuccuru, Giuditta. AU - Bongarzone, Italia. AU - Petrangolini, Giovanna. AU - Tortoreto, Monica. AU - Mondellini, Piera. AU - Casalini, Patrizia. AU - Favini, Enrica. AU - Zaffaroni, Nadia. AU - Zunino, Franco. AU - Lanzi, Cinzia. PY - 2011/10/1. Y1 - 2011/10/1. N2 - Emerging evidence suggests that Ret oncoproteins expressed in medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) might evade the pro-apoptotic function of the dependence receptor proto-Ret by directly impacting the apoptosis machinery. Identification of the molecular determinants of the interplay between Ret signaling and apoptosis might provide a relevant contribution to the optimization of Ret-targeted therapies. Here, we describe the cross-talk between Ret-M918T oncogenic mutant responsible for type 2B multiple endocrine syndrome (MEN2B), and components of death ...
Zactima (vandetanib) is a new drug in development for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer and advanced medullary thyroid cancer. Zactima information includes news, clinical trial results and side effects.
A patient with an apparent sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma was tested for RET germline mutations by Sanger sequencing of RET exons 10, 11, and 13-16. The patient was heterozygous for two known mutations causative of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2 disorder, and both mutations were within codon 620 of RET exon 10, c.1859G > T (p.C620F) and c.1860C > G (p.C620W). In order to determine if these adjacent mutations were in cis or in trans, an unlabeled probe method and high-resolution melting analysis were utilized. The mutations were confirmed to occur in cis, representing a novel mutation, c.1859_1860delinsTG (p.C620L). Sanger sequencing of parental samples did not identify any changes at codon 620, so the p.C620L mutation is also de novo. The early age of onset for medullary thyroid carcinoma and the presence of lymph node metastasis in this patient suggests individuals with the p.C620L mutation should be treated and screened (for pheochromocytomas and parathyroid hyperplasia) as Multiple
Medullary thyroid cancer. This type of thyroid cancer accounts for about 4 percent of all thyroid cancers. Medullary thyroid cancer begins in the parafollicular cells or C cells. This type of thyroid cancer is easier to control if it is found and treated early, before it spreads to other parts of the body. There are two types of medullary thyroid cancer: sporadic medullary thyroid cancer and familiar medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC). Because familiar medullary thyroid cancer tends to run in families, screening tests for genetic abnormalities in the blood cells may be conducted ...
If the tumor has all of these features, it is considered to be a "true" medullary carcinoma. Sometimes the tumor has only some of these features but not others, or there may be some invasive ductal carcinoma cells mixed in. In these cases, your doctor may call the tumor "atypical medullary carcinoma.". In addition, medullary carcinoma cells often express a protein called p53. The pathologist may test for p53 to help decide if the cancer is truly medullary.. There are some other key features of medullary carcinoma:. ...
A patients best biochemical response was calculated from assessments performed at baseline and during treatment. Responders were those patients with a best biochemical response of CR or PR, confirmed by repeat assessments, which were to be performed no less than 4 weeks after the criteria for Partial Response (PR) or Complete Response (CR) were first met ...
Image:Medullary thyroid carcinoma - low mag.jpg, Low magnification micrograph of medullary thyroid carcinoma,ref, Medullary thyroid cancer ...
Article discusses medullary thyroid cancer basics. Learn about common medullary thyroid cancer symptoms and treatments, such as thyroidectomy.
Medullary Thyroid Cancer Treatment for children is a lifesaving process. Learn more about Medullary Thyroid Cancer risk factors, symptoms, and treatment.
Familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC) is a type of medullary thyroid cancer. About 25% of the reported cases of medullary thyroid cancer are FMTC. FMTC most commonly includes MEN 2A (multiple endocrine neoplasia). Patients with familial medullary thyroid cancer are usually treated with a total thyroidectomy, which is a removal of all or part of the thyroid gland, as well as radiation therapy or chemotherapy ...
This nonrandomized, parallel-assignment, phase 2, open-label clinical trial will assess the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab (Keytruda) in patients with medullary thyroid cancer. Patients aged ≥18 years who have recurrent or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer, and for whom surgery is not a curative option, may be eligible for enrollment if other criteria are met. Participants with or without previous vaccine therapy will receive pembrolizumab.. The primary outcome measure is to determine whether administering a PD-1 inhibitor to patients with medullary thyroid cancer will permit a modest fraction to be able to experience a ≥50% decline in calcitonin levels or have a partial or complete response on imaging. The secondary outcome measures are to determine the impact of previous therapeutic cancer vaccination on response rates, evaluate immune responses in each cohort, evaluate changes in carcinoembryonic antigen and calcitonin kinetics, evaluate impact on PFS and OS, and evaluate the ...
Medullary thyroid carcinoma comprises less than 10% of all thyroid cancers. This specific type has significant diagnostic importance due to its aggressive nature and close association with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes. Approximately 10% to 20% cases affected by medullary thyroid carcinoma are familial. In the majority of cases nodal metastases are present at the moment of diagnosis ...
Medullary carcinoma of the breast is a type of breast cancer. It is relatively circumscribed. It involves infiltration by lymphocytes. Tominaga J, Hama H, Kimura N, Takahashi S (March 2008). "MR imaging of medullary carcinoma of the breast". Eur J Radiol. 70 (3): 525-9. doi:10.1016/j.ejrad.2008.01.044. PMID 18353587. Bacus SS, Zelnick CR, Chin DM, et al. (December 1994). "Medullary carcinoma is associated with expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Implication to its morphology and its clinical behavior". Am. J. Pathol. 145 (6): 1337-48. PMC 1887499 . PMID 7992839. Kuroda H, Tamaru J, Sakamoto G, Ohnisi K, Itoyama S (January 2005). "Immunophenotype of lymphocytic infiltration in medullary carcinoma of the breast". Virchows Arch. 446 (1): 10-4. doi:10.1007/s00428-004-1143-9. PMID 15660281 ...
Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (MTC) is a rare C cell-derived thyroid tumor secreting calcitonin. MTC is sporadic in about 75% of cases and it is a component of the autosomal dominant "multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2" (MEN2) syndrome in about 25% of the cases. MTC represents a challenging clinical problem, as most MTC patients show distant metastases at time of diagnosis and chemotherapy and radiotherapy have limited efficacy. MTC is commonly associated to germline or somatic point mutations causing a gain-of-function of RET receptor tyrosine kinase. Given the oncogenic role of RET, it is feasible that specific targeting of this kinase could block tumor growth. Therefore, tyrosine kinase small molecule inhibitors (TKI) have been studied as potential novel agents for MTC treatment. The clinically most advanced RET TKIs are vandetanib (ZD6474) and cabozantinib (XL184), both recently registered for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic MTC. However, cancer patients may be refractory to ...
Recent studies have shown a significant increase in the temporal trend of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) incidence. However, it remains unknown to which extent sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (SMTC) and hereditary MTC (HMTC) affect the MTC incidence over time. We conducted a nationwide retrospective study using previously described RET and MTC cohorts combined with review of medical records, pedigree comparison and relevant nationwide registries. The study included 474 MTC patients diagnosed in Denmark between 1960 and 2014. In the nationwide period from 1997 to 2014, we recorded a mean age-standardized incidence of all MTC, SMTC and HMTC of 0.19, 0.13 and 0.06 per 100,000 per year, respectively. The average annual percentage change in incidence for all MTC, SMTC and HMTC were 1.0 (P = 0.542), 2.8 (P = 0.125) and -3.1 (P = 0.324), respectively. The corresponding figures for point prevalence at January 1, 2015 were 3.8, 2.5 and 1.3 per 100,000, respectively. The average annual percentage ...
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a malignant neoplasm derived from parafollicular C-cells. MTC comprises approximately 3-10% of thyroid carcinomas and can occur in sporadic (75-80% of cases) or heritable forms (multiple endocrine neoplasia [MEN] 2a, MEN 2b and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma [FMTC]). Patients with sporadic MTC and FMTC present at the age of 44-50 years and usually have a solitary thyroid nodule. These patients can have paraneoplastic syndromes such as diarrhea and Cushings syndrome. The patients with MEN 2a and MEN 2b are younger and often have bilateral, multiple tumor nodules that are associated C-cell hyperplasia. The hereditary forms of MTC are caused by germline mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. MTC is an indolent but aggressive tumor that spreads via hematogenous and lymphatic routes. Up to 50% of patients have cervical nodal metastasis at the presentation. The classic cytomorphologic features of MTC include single and discohesive clusters of intermediate ...
Medullary Carcinoma Treatment cost in India starts from USD 2050. Find affordable packages, best specialists, hospitals and patient experiences for Medullary Carcinoma Treatment in India through Vaidam.
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) represents 3%-10% of thyroid cancers. It originates from the neoplastic transformation of the C cells or parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland. The neuroendocrine C cells secrete calcitonin. The occurrence of an MTC shows a peak of incidence in the middle age, and it can be classified as sporadic (70% of the cases) or as autosomal dominant inheritance, typical in early young age (children and teenagers), and presenting in a multicentric and/or bilateral form. The inherited variety can be divided into two types: (a) an isolated carcinoma (familial medullary thyroid carcinoma) or (b)associated with other multiple endocrine neoplasms, such as MEN IIA and IIB. Mutations in the RET protooncogen, located in the 10th chromosome, are responsible for the occurrence of a hereditary medullary carcinoma (MEN IIA, MEN IIB and familial medullary carcinoma). In these patients, the mutations of the RET protooncogen are studied, and if they are found to exist a first-line ...
For each on-treatment tumor marker assessment from each subject, the biochemical response of CEA was determined based on percent increase or decrease from baseline. Best biochemical response over the course of treatment was determined from evaluation of each subjects time point response data. Biochemical response: Complete Response (CR)- Decrease in tumor marker into normal range from baseline value; Partial Response (PR)- Decrease of ,50% from baseline value when baseline value is above normal range; Stable Disease (SD)- No more than a 50% increase and no more than a 50% decrease from baseline value above normal range; Progressive Disease (PD)- Increase of ,50% from baseline value when baseline value is above normal range / or increase from low or normal range at baseline to above normal range; Not Evaluable (NE)- Missing baseline value / or baseline value is not elevated and response is not Progressive Disease (PD) / or response can not be determined due to change in assay format ...
Trimboli P, Nasrollah N, Amendola S, Rossi F, Ramacciato G, Romanelli F, Aurello P, Crescenzi A, Laurenti O, Condorelli E, Ventura C, Valabrega S (2012). "Should we use ultrasound features associated with papillary thyroid cancer in diagnosing medullary thyroid cancer?". Endocr. J. 59 (6): 503-8. doi:10.1507/endocrj.ej12-0050. PMID 22447142 ...
MEN 2 is a genetic disorder associated with a high lifetime risk of developing medullary thyroid cancer. MEN 2 is caused by inherited mutations in the RET proto-oncogene located on chromosome 10. Proto-oncogenes are responsible for promoting cell growth. When altered, or mutated, they become oncogenes that can promote uncontrolled cell growth and ultimately tumor formation. Having a mutation in just one of the two copies of a particular proto-oncogene is enough to cause a change in cell growth. For this reason, oncogenes are said to be dominant at the cellular level (although the change in cell growth may or may not be detectable at a clinical level). However, the process of developing a cancer actually requires mutations in multiple growth control genes. Therefore, inheriting a mutation in one copy of the RET gene is just the first step in the process. The remainder of the mutations necessary for tumor development are acquired (not inherited). What causes additional mutations to develop is ...
Medullary thyroid carcinoma can have an aggressive behavior, and little is known about the molecular basis for clinical outcome. Defining risk of recurrent or metastatic disease is difficult, and it has been limited to clinical and pathologic features, such as advanced age, cervical lymph node metastases, and stage at presentation. Using microdissection and genotyping, we studied 11 cases of medullary carcinoma for allelic losses in a panel of known tumor suppressor genes. The tumor suppressor genes with the most frequent allelic losses were NF2, l-myc, and p53 (75%, 44%, and 44%, respectively). The average frequency of allelic loss across all tumors was 44% and was higher in tumors that recurred. A combination of previously described high-risk variables (increased patient age and cervical lymph node metastases) with the frequency of allelic loss yielded a high-risk group, in which 6 of 6 patients recurred, and a low-risk group, in which 0 of 5 patients recurred (P = 0.004). Frequency of allelic loss in
Introduction: Recently, small medullary thyroid carcinomas (sMTCs) (≤1.5 cm) are frequently diagnosed, occasionally as incidental findings in surgical and autopsy specimens. Their clinical course varies. We examined whether tumor size is a predictor of clinical behavior.. Patients and methods: One hundred and one sMTC patients (36.6% males, 47.1% familial) followed-up for 0.9 35 years. Patients were classified according to tumor size (cm) in group1: 0.1 0.5 (n=25), group2: 0.6 0.8 (n=22), group3: 0.8 1.0 (n=23), group4: 1.1 1.5 (n=31).. Results: Familial cases did not differ from sporadic ones concerning stage at diagnosis or outcome. Preoperative and postoperative calcitonin levels were positively associated with tumour size (P,0.001). At diagnosis, capsular and lymph node invasion were more frequent in groups 3 and 4 (P,0.022, P,0.001 respectively). The stage at diagnosis was more advanced and the outcome less favourable with increasing tumour size (P,0.004). Group 1 and 2 patients were more ...
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a differentiated neuroendocrine tumor, mostly slowly growing with a relative good prognosis, with an overall 10-year survival of 61-76% [1,2]. Surgery is the only curative therapy for MTC [3]. After surgery, patients with MTC should be assessed regarding the presence of residual disease, the localization of metastases and the identification of progressive disease. Postoperative staging is used to separate low-risk from high-risk patients with MTC [4]. The TNM system utilizes tumor size, extrathyroidal invasion, nodal metastasis and distant spread of cancer. The number of lymph node metastases and involved compartments as well as postoperative serum calcitonin (CTN) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels should be documented in addition. The normalization of serum CTN levels postoperatively is associated with an excellent prognosis (10-year survival ,95%).. Click here to view the full article in our partner journal the International Journal of Endocrine ...
Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid; FA), a common dietary plant phenolic compound, is abundant in fruits and vegetables. The aim of present study is to investigate the effects of FA on...
Read "SPECT/CT and PET/CT molecular imaging in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Are we running in the right direction?, European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Care guide for Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (Inpatient Care). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
Sheikh, H. A. Cieply, K. Tometsko, M. (2003). Molecular Mutational Analysis of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma. Poster Presented at: United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Washington, DC.. ...
Surgery is the first treatment for most medullary carcinomas. Learn about all treatments for medullary carcinoma, a type of thyroid cancer.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The antiproliferative effect of pasireotide LAR alone and in combination with everolimus in patients with medullary thyroid cancer. T2 - a single-center, open-label, phase II, proof-of-concept study. AU - Faggiano, Antongiulio. AU - Modica, Roberta. AU - Severino, Rosa. AU - Camera, Luigi. AU - Fonti, Rosa. AU - Del Prete, Michela. AU - Chiofalo, Maria Grazia. AU - Aria, Massimo. AU - Ferolla, Piero. AU - Vitale, Giovanni. AU - Pezzullo, Luciano. AU - Colao, Annamaria. PY - 2018/10. Y1 - 2018/10. N2 - PURPOSE: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a neuroendocrine tumour of the thyroid C cells. Pasireotide, a multi-receptor targeted somatostatin analogue, and everolimus, an inhibitor of mTOR, showed antitumour properties in neuroendocrine tumours. Aim of this study was to evaluate pasireotide alone and in combination with everolimus in patients with MTC.METHODS: Patients with progressive metastatic or persistent postoperative MTC received pasireotide LAR 60 mg/m for at least 6 ...
Microscopic description: Cytologic findings are variable. Loosely cohesive and discohesive cell aggregates are common. Isolated cells may be polygonal, spindle-shaped, plasmacytoid, or triangular. Cytoplasm may be granular, amphophilic, or richly eosinophilic. Metachromatic granules in the cytoplasm are helpful, but are not specific to MTC. Nuclei are mostly uniform in size, however very large isolated nuclei may be seen. Binucleate and multinucleate cells may also be seen. Nuclear grooves and intranuclear pseudo-inclusions are occasionally present resembling findings of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC). Differential Diagnosis: Medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) constitute approximately 5-10% of all thyroid cancers. The majority of the cases (75-90%) are sporadic while 10-25% are familial, arising in the setting of MEN 2A, MEN 2B, or Familial Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (1). Familial forms result from a gain-of-function mutation in the RET proto-oncogene and are inherited in an autosomal ...
The natural history and prognostic factors of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT) were studied in 161 patients seen at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston between 1944 and 1983. One hundred twenty-five patients (77.6%) had the sporadic variety of MCT, 31 patients (19.3%) had multiple endocrine neoplasm (MEN) type IIa and 5 patients (3.1%) had MEN-IIb. The disease occurred equally in both sexes (M:F ratio 1:1.05). Thyroid nodules were the most common presenting feature especially in patients with the sporadic disease and MEN-IIb. Fifteen patients with MEN-IIa had occult MCT; the diagnosis was made through screening of family members with calcitonin measurement before and after stimulation with calcium or pentagastrin. Sixteen patients with MEN-II had pheochromocytoma and 7 had hyperparathyroidism. Total thyroidectomy was the most commonly performed operation. The lowest incidence of recurrence occurred in patients who underwent total thyroidectomy ...
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease; risk factors may differ for histologically‐defined subgroups. Because most breast cancers are of ductal or lobular histology, previous studies have been limited in their ability to evaluate risk factors in rarer histologies, such as medullary, mucinous, and tubular, due to small sample sizes. We evaluated risk factors for histologically‐defined breast cancer subgroups (ductal, lobular, tubular, medullary, or mucinous) using population‐based data from the Breast Cancer Family Registry. Data were available for 3260 incident breast cancer cases (including 92 cases of medullary, 90 cases of mucinous, and 86 cases of tubular histology) and 2997 unrelated controls. Several reproductive factors were associated with the risk of mucinous breast cancer, whereas cigarette smoking and body mass index (BMI) were associated with the risk of medullary breast cancer. For the mucinous subtype, we observed positive associations with nulliparity (OR=2.54, 95%CI ...
We recently demonstrated that Magmas overexpression protects GH-secreting rat pitutitary adenoma cell lines from apoptosis by inhibiting cytochrome c release from mitochondria after treatment with staurosporine, strongly suggesting a role of Magmas in preventing apoptosis. The aim of this study was to produce a drug that, by inhibiting Tim16, may sensitize chemoresistant tumor cell to proapoptotic stimuli. We synthesized six compounds and challenged their sensitizing effects toward the proapoptotic effects of staurosporine in the TT cell line, derived from a human medullary thyroid carcinoma ...
Inhibition of either MET or VEGF/angiogenesis pathways in men with mCRPC has been evaluated in clinical trials (reviewed in (3)). Four phase III clinical trials targeted angiogenesis with bevacizumab, sunitinib, lenalidomide, or aflibercept; none prolonged OS. A fifth phase III study of the agent tasquinimod is ongoing. A phase II randomized trial evaluating the HGF inhibitor rilotumumab did not improve OS.. Dual inhibition of MET and VEGFR2 with cabozantinib has shown promise in mCRPC and other malignancies (2). Cabozantinib is U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved for advanced medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), due in part to its inhibition of RET, which is frequently mutated in MTC (4). In a randomized discontinuation study involving subjects with mCRPC, cabozantinib (100 mg daily) was associated with 5% objective response rate at 12 weeks [soft tissue lesions measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST)] and 68% rate of bone scan improvement, including complete ...
BACKGROUND: Thyroid dysfunction is a common adverse event associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), but its underlying pathophysiology is unclear. Cabozantinib is a novel TKI currently Food and Drug Administration approved for advanced medullary thyroid cancer and tested in clinical trials on solid tumors including prostate, liver, bladder, breast, and ovarian cancer. METHODS: We analyzed the thyroid function of patients enrolled in two phase 2 clinical trials using cabozantinib at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center ...
The year started out well enough, with investors waiting for highly anticipated phase 3 data testing its cancer compound cabozantinib in medullary thyroid cancer. As so often happens, investors piled on, looking for a piece of the binary action, causing shares to rise.. As it turned out, they had to wait a bit longer. Despite the companys best efforts to determine when patients would progress, Exelixis estimate was off by about three months. Thats really not surprising considering the phase 3 trial enrolled only a subset of the patients that were enrolled in the phase 2 trial.. And the delay turned out not to matter that much. Cabozantinib was a huge success. The median progression-free survival, a measurement of how long it takes for the tumor to start growing again, was 11.2 months for patients taking cabozantinib, compared to just 4.0 months for patients taking placebo. Shares deservedly jumped on the news. Without any drugs approved to treat medullary thyroid cancer patients this late in ...
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Access numbers for the phone replay are: 888-286-8010 (domestic) and 617-801-6888 (international); the passcode is 91510575. About COMETRIQ COMETRIQs safety and efficacy was assessed in an international, multi-center, randomized double-blinded controlled trial called EXAM of 330 patients with progressive, metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Patients were required to have evidence of actively progressive disease within 14 months prior to study entry confirmed by an Independent Radiology Review Committee (IRRC) masked to treatment assignment (89%) or the treating physician (11%). Patients were randomized (2:1) to receive COMETRIQ 140 mg (n = 219) or placebo (n = 111) orally, once daily until disease progression determined by the treating physician or until intolerable toxicity. Randomization was stratified by age (≤65 years vs. , 65 years) and prior use of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). No cross-over was allowed at the time of progression. The main efficacy outcome measures of ...
Discussion:. Although the nuclear morphology of the tumor cells on cytology in this case have many features suggestive of papillary carcinoma, their frequent presence as single cells, an uncommon finding in papillary carcinoma, and their occasional plasmacytoid appearance, as well as the scattered fragments of extracellular material raised the possibility of medullary carcinoma. A cellblock was not available on which to perform immunohistochemical staining for thyroglobulin and calcitonin. However, medullary carcinomas are invariably associated with elevated serum calcitonin that can be easily measured.. Little evidence of hyperthyroidism was present other than the chronic inflammation since the patient had been under treatment for several months prior to sampling. Flame cells, cytoplasmic aggregates of mauve material, can be seen on Romanowsky stained smears in cases of Graves disease, but we only had Papanicolaou stained material. Lymphocytes are commonly found on aspirates of the thyroid in ...
CAPRELSA is a kinase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of symptomatic or progressive medullary thyroid cancer in patients with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic disease.. Use CAPRELSA in patients with indolent, asymptomatic or slowly progressing disease only after careful consideration of the treatment related risks of CAPRELSA.. Please see full Prescribing Information for CAPRELSA, including Boxed WARNING.. Tell your healthcare provider if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. You may also contact Sanofi Genzyme at 1-800-745-4447, option 2.. ...
of contents A1 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in staging and restaging of Prostate Cancer Sufferers: comparative research with 18F-Choline Family pet/CT W Langsteger A Rezaee W Loidl HS Geinitz F Fitz M Steinmair G Broinger L Pallwien-Prettner M Beheshti A2 F18 Choline Family pet - CT: a precise diagnostic tool for the detection of parathyroid adenoma? L Imamovic M Beheshti G Rendl D Hackl O Tsybrovsky M Steinmair K Emmanuel F Moinfar C Pirich W Langsteger A3 [18F]Fluoro-DOPA-PET/CT in the principal medical diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma A Bytyqi G Karanikas M Mayerh?fer O Koperek B Niederle M Hartenbach A4 Variants of clinical Family pet/MR functions: A global survey over the clinical usage of Family pet/MRI T Beyer K Herrmann J Czernin A5 Regular Dixon-based attenuation modification in combined Family pet/MRI: Reproducibility and the chance of Lean muscle estimation We Rausch P Corrosion MD DiFranco M Lassen A Stadlbauer Me personally Mayerh?fer M Hartenbach M Hacker T Beyer A6 High res digital ...
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Jaskula-Sztul R, Eide J, Tesfazghi S, Dammalapati A, Harrison AD, Yu XM, Scheinebeck C, Winston-McPherson G, Kupcho KR, Robers MB, et al. Tumor-Suppressor Role of Notch3 in Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Revealed by Genetic and Pharmacological Induction. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. 2015 ;14:499-512. ...
However, medullary thyroid carcinoma is the most common manifestation and usually develops in childhood. (d) Enhancement by adaptive gain processing of DD interpolation coefВcients.
Purpose: To correlate ultrasonographic (US) features of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) with pre operative and postoperative calcitonin levels. Materials and Methods: A total of 130 thyroid nodules diagnosed as MTC were evaluated. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated preoperative US features according to size, shape, margin, echogenicity, type of calcification, and lymph node status. Postoperative clinical and imaging followup (mean duration 31.9 22.5 months) was performed for detection of tumor recurrence. US features, presence of LN metastasis, and tumor recurrence were compared between MTC nodules with and without elevated preoperative calcitonin (|100 pg/mL). Those with normalized and nonnormalized postoperative calcitonin levels groups were also compared. Results: Common US features of MTCs were solid internal content (90.8%), irregular shape (44.6%), circumscribed margin (46.2%), and hypoechogenicity (56.2%). Comparing MTC nodules with and without elevated preoperative calcitonin levels,
The Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (MTC) Registry Consortium* is partnering with the American Thyroid Association® (ATA) to create a registry (list) of all new cases of MTC diagnosed in the United States over the next 10-15 years (the MTC Registry). The purpose of the MTC Registry is to help better understand what risk factors are associated with the development of MTC.. The ATA® was asked to monitor the development of the registry by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration so that the MTC Registry Consortium would have an independent, professional medical society involved. Select ATA member experts have been asked to provide their experience and knowledge related to medullary thyroid cancer. The ATA® has no oversight or management over the registry or study. The ATAs involvement is to provide thyroid cancer expertise only. Please be assured that the MTC Registry adheres to all Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) related regulations in protecting your medical ...
Medullary Thyroid Cancer (MTC) accounts for 1%- 2% of thyroid cancers in the United States. MTC is different from other types of thyroid cancers (which are derived from thyroid follicular cells - the cells that make thyroid hormone), because it originates from the parafollicular C cells (also called "C cells") of the thyroid gland. These cells do not make thyroid hormone and instead make a different hormone called calcitonin.. MTC can, and frequently does, spread to lymph nodes and can also spread to other organs. MTC is likely to run in families (inherited forms) in up to 25% of diagnoses, and inherited forms can be associated with other endocrine tumors, in syndromes called Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) 2A and MEN 2B. In addition to MTC, patients with MEN2A may have tumors of the adrenal glands called pheochromocytomas or in the parathyroid glands (parathyroid adenomas). Patients with MEN2B, have MTC, pheochromocytomas and neuromas (typically a benign growth or tumor of nerve tissue) in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of bombesin and somatostatin on secretion of neurotensin by medullary thyroid carcinoma. AU - Marx, M.. AU - Seitz, P. K.. AU - Townsend, C. M.. AU - Cooper, C. W.. AU - Greeley, G. H.. AU - Thompson, J. C.. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. N2 - Bombesin, which releases NT from the gut in dogs and man, also releases NT from rat MTC. The selective inhibition of NT release with STS suggests that BBS and CaCl2 may act by different mechanisms. This model provides unique opportunities for study of the synthesis, storage, and release of NT. BBS-stimulated NT release may be a useful clinical marker for patients with MTC.. AB - Bombesin, which releases NT from the gut in dogs and man, also releases NT from rat MTC. The selective inhibition of NT release with STS suggests that BBS and CaCl2 may act by different mechanisms. This model provides unique opportunities for study of the synthesis, storage, and release of NT. BBS-stimulated NT release may be a useful clinical marker for ...
As per available reports about 2034 Journals, 2 Conferences, 25 workshops are presently dedicated exclusively to Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma and about
Genomic alterations in RET, encoding the RET (rearranged in transformation) kinase, have been identified as bona fide oncogenic drivers in numerous tumor types. Activating RET point mutations are typically associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia (types A and B) and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma. Although activating RET rearrangements can be found in up to 40% of papillary thyroid cancers, they are only present in up to 2% of non-small cell lung cancers and at lower frequencies in multiple other malignancies. As a result of the relatively low prevalence of molecular alterations in multiple tumor types, diagnostics-driven therapeutic selection strategies are being developed to identify patients with RET alterations. There also remains a clinical need for a potent, selective and safe RET inhibitor that demonstrates robust efficacy in malignancies harboring RET rearrangements and other oncogenic alterations.. RXDX-105 (formerly CEP-32496) is a potent, orally available, small molecule ...
Though most types of thyroid cancer are cured by surgery and adjuvant radio- iodine therapy and TSH suppression, patients with radio-iodine refractory thyroid carcinoma as well as with medullary thyroid carcinoma, a neuroendocrine malignancy that does not express iodine transporter, are difficult to treat because of the lack of effective systemic treatment. Therefore, there is an urgent need of novel therapeutic measures for these patients. Thyroid cancer is frequently associated to the oncogenic conversion of protein kinases such as RET (medullary thyroid cancer) and BRAF (papillary and undifferentiated thyroid cancer). Therefore, protein kinase small molecule inhibitors (PKI) have been considered as promising novel agents for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma. Compounds that revealed good RET and BRAF activity both in clinical (vandetanib for RET) and in pre-clinical (vemurafenib for BRAF) settings have been identified. Recently, vandetanib was approved for patients with medullary thyroid ...
We have presented a case of pheochromocytoma in a patient with the V804M mutation. To our knowledge, this is only the third case in the literature. It may be prudent to screen patients with this mutation for pheochromocytoma. Current endocrine society guidelines suggest that in low risk mutations screening may be started at an older age and done less frequently with biochemical testing. However, patients may have an indolent period where the biochemical markers may initially be normal. Hence, if a patient with this mutation is known to have an adrenal mass, vigilant monitoring of the mass with imaging as well as biochemical markers may be necessary to ensure there is no progression requiring intervention.. 1. Characterization of V804M-mutated RET proto-oncogene associated with familial medullary thyroid cancer, report of the largest Turkish family. Basaran MN, et al. J Endocrinol Invest. 2015 May;38(5):541-6. doi: 10.1007/s40618-014-0224-0. Epub 2014 Dec 12.2. One hundred and seven family ...
Q) Prophylactic thyroidectomy is done for a) Medullary Carcinoma thyroid. b) Anaplastic. c) Lymphoma. d) Papillary Ca thyroid. ...
Rigaud C, Theobald S, Noel P, Badreddine J, Barlier C, Delobelle A, Gentile A, Jacquemier J, Maisongrosse V, Peffault de Latour M, et al. Medullary carcinoma of the breast. A multicenter study of its diagnostic consistency. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1993 Oct;117(10):1005-8 ...
The incidence of thyroid cancer has continued to increase each year in the United States such that in 2010 it ranked as the 5th most diagnosed cancer in women....
Introduction: Therapeutic options in advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) have markedly improved since the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). We aimed to assess the role of metabolic imaging using 2-deoxy-2-(\(^{18}\)F)fluoro-D-glucose (\(^{18}\)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) shortly before and 3 months after initiation of TKI treatment. Methods: Eighteen patients with advanced and progressive MTC scheduled for vandetanib treatment underwent baseline \(^{18}\)F-FDG PET/CT prior to and 3 months after TKI treatment initiation. During follow-up, CT scans were performed every 3 months and analyzed according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST). The predictive value for estimating progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was examined by investigating \(^{18}\)F-FDG mean/maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmean/max) of the metabolically most active lesion as well as by analyzing clinical parameters (tumor marker ...
Welcome to the updated version of Pathology for Urologists! This program was designed to help Urology residents and fellows familiarize themselves with the pathologic features of common urologic entities. This will serve not only as a resource tool for your review but also as a quick reference guide to urologic pathology.
The calcitonin test is primarily used to help diagnose and monitor treatment of C-cell hyperplasia and medullary thyroid cancer. Calcitonin is a hormone produced by special cells in the thyroid called C-cells and excessive amounts are produced in these two rare conditions.
Project Leaders: Matthew Ringel, M.D., and Manisha Shah, M.D. (OSUCCC). The overall goal of Project 3 is to improve treatments for patients with progressive medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). MTC metastasizes earlier than other forms of differentiated thyroid cancer and accounts for a disproportionate amount of disease-related mortality. Treatment with multikinase inhibitors (MKI) induces stable disease or non-durable partial remissions in ~50% of patients. Recently, vandetanib and cabozantinib received FDA approval for treatment of patients with metastatic progressive MTC. However, patients require lifelong treatment and acquire resistance, creating the critical need for new second-line therapies. The goal of Project 3 is to identify strategies to treat patients with resistant MTC. A focused Phase II clinical trial will be performed based on an observed synergy of targeting RET, RAF, and MEK. Additional studies will identify pathways of resistance using state-of-the-art genetic and proteomic ...
Metaplastic breast carcinomas -- analysis of prognostic factors in a case series. Nowara, Elżbieta; Drosik, Anna; Samborska-Plewicka, Marzenna; Nowara, Ewa Magdalena; Stanek-Widera, Agata // Contemporary Oncology / Wspolczesna Onkologia;2014, Vol. 18 Issue 2, p116 Aim of the study: Metaplastic breast carcinomas (MBC) are a rare group of cancers, accounting for about 1% of all breast cancers. The study presents a case series of MBC patients diagnosed, treated and followed up in one healthcare center. Material and methods: The study group comprised 18 women... ...
When I saw my family doctor on Monday I was a wreck. Last Thursday I got the news that I most likely have medullary thyroid cancer. Its rare, making up only 3-5% of thyroid cancer cases. Therefore, its highly probable...
In medullary thyroid cancer, there were 3 risk categories for lung metastasis: small risk (extrathyroidal extension and 1-10 involved nodes), intermediate risk (tumors >40 mm and 11-20 involved nodes), and high risk (>20 involved nodes). N categories encompassing 1 to 10 (N1), 11 to 20 (N2), and more than 20 (N3) node metastases hence may be suitable determinants of outcome ...
Ohe C, Smith SC, Sirohi D, Divatia M, de Peralta-Venturina M, Paner GP, Agaimy A, Amin MB, Argani P, Chen YB, Cheng L, Colecchia M, Compérat E, Werneck da Cunha I, Epstein JI, Gill AJ, Hes O, Hirsch MS, Jochum W, Kunju LP, Maclean F, Magi-Galluzzi C, McKenney JK, Mehra R, Nesi G, Osunkoya AO, Picken MM, Rao P, Reuter VE, de Oliveira Salles PG, Schultz L, Tickoo SK, Tomlins SA, Trpkov K, Amin MB. Reappraisal of Morphologic Differences Between Renal Medullary Carcinoma, Collecting Duct Carcinoma, and Fumarate Hydratase-deficient Renal Cell Carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2018 Mar; 42(3):279-292. PMID: 29309300. ...
Transcription of the calcitonin (CT) gene in the medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) cell line TT is modulated by a neuroendocrine-specific enhancer fragment (nucleotides -965 to -905) containing two CANNTG motifs (E2 and E3) and an ETs-like response e
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Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare and deadly kidney cancer in patients of African descent with sickle cell trait. Through direct-to-patient outreach, we developed genomically faithful patient-derived models of RMC. Using whole genome sequencing, we identified intronic fusion events in one SMARCB1 allele with concurrent loss of the other allele, confirming that SMARCB1 loss occurs in RMC. Biochemical and functional characterization of these RMC models revealed that RMC depends on the loss of SMARCB1 for survival and functionally resemble other cancers that harbor loss of SMARCB1, such as malignant rhabdoid tumors or atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors. We performed RNAi and CRISPR-Cas9 loss of function genetic screens and a small-molecule screen and identified UBE2C as an essential gene in SMARCB1 deficient cancers. We found that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway was essential for the survival of SMARCB1 deficient cancers in vitro and in vivo. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of this ...
Abstract:. Thyroid carcinoma with metastatic intracranial involvement is very rare. Intracranial metastases occur in ,1% of all cases. Even in thyroid carcinoma medullary carcinoma with intracranial metastasis is extremely rare. This is a case report of 58-year-old male presenting with scalp swelling over the left fronto parietal region, which was diagnosed as medullary carcinoma thyroid with intracranial metastases. This case presented because of it rarity of presentation.. ...
The high level of activity in Sobis partner portfolio also continued during 2014. In collaboration with US partner Exelixis, Inc., Sobi announced in March that Cometriq was authorised by the European Commission for the -treatment of patients with progressive, unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer. In 2013, Sobi signed a ten-year partnership agreement with Auxilium Pharmaceuticals, Inc. for the development and commercialisation of Xiapex for the treatment of patients with Dupuytrens contracture in 71 European, Asian and African countries, becoming Marketing Authorisation Holder in Europe in April 2014. In June, Sobi and Auxilium submitted an application to the EMA for an expansion of the indication for -Xiapex to also include Peyronies disease, which is caused by collagen-rich patches of scar tissue that develop along the shaft of the penis under the skin. The Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the EMA adopted a positive opinion for the use ...
On pathological examination, a medullary thyroid tumor measuring 0.5 cm by 0.5 cm had been discovered in the thyroid gland of this patient. This clinical history is suggestive of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B syndrome, an autosomal dominant condition characterized by medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, mucosal neuromas, intestinal ganglioneuromas, and marfanoid body habitus. Although comprehensive genotyping of the RET proto-oncogene was not available at the time of this familys presentation, such analysis now allows for highly specific screening of family members and subsequent initiation of genetic counseling, pheochromocytoma screening, and prophylactic thyroidectomy. The boy continues to receive levothyroxine replacement therapy and appropriate screening investigations. ...
This is the card info for the flashcard For which one of the following tumors Gastrin is a biochemical marker? (AIPG 2010) A Medullary carcinoma of thyroid B Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor C Pheochromocytoma D Gastrointestinal stromal tumor . Here you can access the FlashCards form Neoplasia. These flash cards come under Pathology which is a part of Dr. Bhatia Medical Coaching Institute Pvt. Ltd.. Dr. Bhatia Medical Coaching Institute This PG preparation course gives you a sneak peak into the NEET PG Medical preparation modules from Dr Bhatias classes. Get high quality learning material built for studying on the go on your mobile phone and tablet. Dr. Bhatias content is updated based on the latest syllabus of the NEET PG Medical exam and covers all the topics that are present in the entrance exam. A very handy tool for your entrance to AIIMS, JIMPER, PGIMER etc. Get the Dr Bhatia course and you are on your way to success in the NEET PG Medical entrance.
The rare event of a single cutaneous metastasis occurred in a 37-year-old white man two years after a subtotal thyroidectomy for sporadic medullary carcinoma is reported. The endocrine nature of the tumor is revealed by the ultrastructural study, and the type of secretion by the biochemical assay of calcitonin (CT) in the serum and in the tumor tissue extract and by the PAP (peroxidase-anti-peroxidase) technique with anti-CT antibodies on paraffin sections. The cytological and histological findings are described. Some peculiar ultrastructural aspects are presented in details. The fact that the patient received a course of Rx therapy (3,000 rads) on the neck for cervical syringomyelia at the age of 20 years is stressed. ...
In order to determine the role of mitochondrial DNA mutations in thyroid tumorigenesis, Abu-Amero et al. (2005) sequenced the entire mtDNA from 24 thyroid tumor specimens and four thyroid cancer cell lines. Somatic mutations were identified in 37% of primary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) and among 25% of multinodular hyperplasia cases. Most mutations were nucleotide substitutions resulting in missense mutations. Of these sequence changes, 14 were nonsynonymous and 36 were synonymous. Seven synonymous and five nonsynonymous mtDNA sequence changes were detected in the ND5 gene; four were novel. The 12403C,T mutation was found in both PTC and control samples. In a later study, Abu-Amero et al. (2006) sequenced the entire coding region of mitochondrial DNA for 26 MTC patients and 119 normal population controls. Of the MTC patients, 13 were sporadic, nine had MEN 2A, one had MEN 2B and three had FMTC. In 20 MTC samples, 41 nonsynonymous mutations were detected; nine were from sporadic MTC and 11 were from ...
National Cancer Institute. Thyroid cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the thyroid gland. Age, gender, and exposure to radiation can affect the risk of developing thyroid cancer. Medullary thyroid cancer is sometimes caused by a change in a gene that is passed from parent to child. Possible signs of thyroid cancer include a swelling or lump in the neck. Tests that examine the thyroid, neck, and blood are used to detect (find) and diagnose thyroid cancer. Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Thyroid cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the thyroid gland. The thyroid is a gland at the base of the throat near the trachea (windpipe). It is shaped like a butterfly, with a right lobe and a left lobe. The isthmus, a thin piece of tissue, connects the two lobes. A healthy thyroid is a little larger than a quarter. It usually cannot be felt through the skin. The thyroid uses iodine, a ...
Background Forty-fifty percent of the patients with metastatic TC suffer from bone metastases. 99mTc scintigraphy is employed to assess bone lesions although it lacks of accuracy, mostly in lytic lesions of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). CT scan has a sensitivity of 71-100% while data on the accuracy of 18F-FDG-PET/CT are scanty. MRI captures both bone and bone marrow involvement, more common in medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Whole body MRI (WB) and whole-body diffusion (WB-DWI) are emerging as accurate tools for detection and therapy monitoring of bone metastases. We investigated the role of WB and WB-DWI in bone lesions from TC i) sensitivity and specificity; ii) evaluation of response during TKIs.. Material and methods Radiological records of patients with metastatic TC submitted to WB-DWI at the baseline staging were reviewed. For our first purpose, patients with at least one another bone imaging were included. A false-positive was a positive bone imaging not confirmed by ...
A healthy immune system remains your bodys best defense. Not only is a weak immune system a major reason patients have cancer - and cancer itself can further weaken the immune system.. Beta glucans help regulate the immune system, making it more efficient. In addition, beta glucans stimulate white blood cells (lymphocytes) that bind to tumors or viruses and release chemicals to destroy it.. Beta Glucan has been approved in Japan, Australia, South Korea, and Taiwan as an immunoadjuvant therapy for cancer. In fact, helping with cancer is just the beginning with Beta Glucan. There have thousands of studies showing the product can protect against infections, lower your cholesterol, lower blood sugar, reduce stress, increase your antibody production, heal wounds, help radiation burns, overcome mercury-induced immunosuppression (like Thimerosal, used as a preservative in vaccines), help with diabetes, and even naturally prevent metastasisThe spread of cancer cells from the place where they first ...
The RET ("rearranged during transfection") proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase also known as cadherin family member 12 (CDHF12), cadherin-related family member 16 (CDHR16), Hirschsprung disease 1, PTC, MTC1, HSCR1, MEN2A, MEN2B, RET51, and RET-ELE1. Alternative splicing of the RET gene results in three isoforms of the Ret protein. These contain 51, 43, and 9 amino acids in their C-terminal sections and are designated Ret-51, Ret-43, and Ret-9, respectively. The extracellular domain of Ret protein contains a cadherin-like domain and several N-terminal glycosylation sites. The fully glycosylated Ret protein is reported to have a molecular weight of 170 kDa; other isoforms are reported as 150 kDa and 190 kDa. The RET gene plays an essential role in neural crest development. Mutations in the RET gene are associated with several types of endocrine neoplasia, Hirschsprung disease, and medullary thyroid carcinoma.. ...
The RET ("rearranged during transfection") proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase also known as cadherin family member 12 (CDHF12), cadherin-related family member 16 (CDHR16), Hirschsprung disease 1, PTC, MTC1, HSCR1, MEN2A, MEN2B, RET51, and RET-ELE1. Alternative splicing of the RET gene results in three isoforms of the Ret protein. These contain 51, 43, and 9 amino acids in their C-terminal sections and are designated Ret-51, Ret-43, and Ret-9, respectively. The extracellular domain of Ret protein contains a cadherin-like domain and several N-terminal glycosylation sites. The fully glycosylated Ret protein is reported to have a molecular weight of 170 kDa; other isoforms are reported as 150 kDa and 190 kDa. The RET gene plays an essential role in neural crest development. Mutations in the RET gene are associated with several types of endocrine neoplasia, Hirschsprung disease, and medullary thyroid carcinoma.. ...
All patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) should undergo calcitonin (CT) determination at regular intervals after total thyroidectomy. Within 6 weeks after operation serum CT measurement...
HEDINGER C Histological typing of thyroid tumors. World Health Organization International Histological Classification of Tumors, 1988 被引用文献1件 ...
Of 80 MEN2A gene carriers (in 61 of whom carrier status was proved by DNA analysis), 66 had abnormal plasma calcitonin values and medullary thyroid carcinoma. Fourteen young carriers had normal results of plasma calcitonin tests. In 8 of these 14, thyroidectomy revealed small foci of medullary thyroid carcinoma; the remaining 6 have not yet been operated on. Of the other 220 family members, 68 were found by DNA analysis not to carry the MEN2A gene. None of these 68 subjects had medullary thyroid carcinoma or pheochromocytoma; 6 had elevated plasma calcitonin concentrations and underwent thyroidectomy but had only C-cell hyperplasia. Conclusions: ...
Thyroid neoplasms encompass a variety of lesions that range from benign adenomas to malignancies. These latter can be well-differentiated, poorly differentiated or undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinomas. More than 95% of thyroid cancers are derived from thyroid follicular cells, while 2-3% (medullary thyroid cancers, MTC) originate from calcitonin producing C-cells. Over the last decade, investigators have developed a clearer understanding of genetic alterations underlying thyroid carcinogenesis. A number of point mutations and translocations are involved, not only in its tumorigenesis, but also as have potential use as diagnostic and prognostic indicators and therapeutic targets. Many occur in genes for several important signaling pathways, in particular the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Sporadic (isolated) lesions account for 75% of MTC cases, while inherited MTC, often in association with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A and 2B syndromes, constitute the remainder.
Suns research activities are directed toward discovering new agents that are more selective for cancer cells than normal cells with novel mechanisms of action, elucidating the mechanisms of action of novel natural products with antineoplastic activity, and understanding drug resistance mechanisms in human cancer cells to anticancer drugs. His laboratorys research projects focus on three specific areas, as described below.. 1. Suppression of mutated RET expression in MTC with small molecules. Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) represents the most frequent initial diagnosis for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) and is the most common cause of death in these syndromes. Activating germline RET mutations are known to play a central role in the development of MEN2 syndromes. Therefore, the RET protooncogene has been proposed to have a significant place in the prevention and treatment of cancers caused by these syndromes. Not surprisingly, recently developed molecular therapeutics that target ...
No one knows exactly what causes thyroid cancer. It is clear, however, that certain situations greatly increase a persons risk of developing the disease. For example, people who have been exposed to radiation (either after nuclear bomb fallout, or through medical use of radiation to the head, neck, chest, or back) have a higher risk of developing thyroid cancer than those who have not. Medullary thyroid cancer also runs in certain families, along with other endocrine cancers. People who have had other conditions affecting their thyroid (chronic goiter, sometimes due to too little iodine in the diet) are also at somewhat greater risk of developing thyroid cancer in the future. Thyroid cancer can cause an enlarging lump in the neck, hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, and a harsh sound while breathing (called stridor). If thyroid cancer is left untreated, it can spread outside of the thyroid to the nearby lymph nodes, nerves, and blood vessels. It can also spread to distant sites within the body. ...
... can happen by chance, can be caused by environmental exposures, could be caused by a combination of genetic factors, or can be caused by a mutation in a gene.. Certain types of endocrine cancers are more likely to be genetic than others, such as medullary thyroid cancer or adrenal cortical carcinoma in children. Other times endocrine cancers are caused by other factors. Individuals with genetic syndromes have a mutation (or change) in a gene that causes them to be at increased for breast cancer. These mutations are typically inherited from a either parent and can be passed on to children. People with genetic cancer syndromes may be at risk to develop other types of cancers as well. Learning if you have a cancer syndrome can help you understand your risk to develop cancer, your familys risk to develop cancer, and potentially provide you with ways to reduce your cancer risk. ...
Clinicopathological evidence has accumulated that colorectal adenocarcinoma with minimal or no glandular differentiation constitutes two entities with different prognosis. In a series of 20 predominantly nonglandular, poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas, histological features, DNA content, p53 protein expression, Ki-ras mutation, and microsatellite instability were analyzed and correlated to the biology of the tumors. In addition, the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transcripts was tested by RNA in situ hybridization and EBV DNA was demonstrated by nested polymerase chain reaction. Histologically, 13 tumors showed small uniform cells and 7 tumors showed large pleomorphic cells. Tumors with uniform cells exhibited more commonly an expansive growth pattern (69.2% versus 0%; P | 0.025) and a dense peritumor lymphoid infiltrate (84.6% versus 14.3%; P | 0.01) resembling their gastric counterpart, solid or medullary carcinoma. These tumors showed less frequent lymph node as well as hematogeneous
Background and Objective: Vitamin D is known to modulate thyroid neoplastic and autoimmune disease. We investigated the role of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in normal thyroid development and function (thyrocytes and C cells). Methods: The thyroid phenotype of VDR knockout mice was studied in comparison to wild-type controls. The mice were fed a normal diet or a calcium-rich diet to circumvent effects induced by hypocalcemia. Results: Thyroid morphology was unaltered in VDR knockout mice. Also, expression of different parameters of thyrocyte function was comparable (immunohistochemistry). C cell physiology was, however, affected in the absence of the VDR, resulting in increased thyroidal calcitonin expression (immunohistochemistry), paralleled by increased serum calcitonin levels, but only in normocalcemic mice. To study a possible effect of vitamin D status on basal calcitonin levels in humans, serum calcitonin concentrations were compared between vitamin D-deficient and -sufficient patients ...
The largest case series of ganglioneuromatosis was reported by Shekitka et al.3 in 1994 where 43 patients with intestinal ganglioneuromatous disease were followed. While some patients presented with abdominal pain, rectal bleeding or megacolon, many were asymptomatic. However, cases with watery diarrhea secondary to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide secretion and diffuse ganglioneuromatosis involving the colon and rectum have been reported,8,9 as well as upper GI bleeding from a ganglioneuroma of the duodenum10 and polypoid GN causing colonic intussusception.11 The prevalence of diffuse ganglioneuromatosis in patients with MEN-IIB syndrome is nearly 100%, and often gastrointestinal involvement predates the development of medullary thyroid cancer.1 Diarrhea or constipation from diffuse alimentary tract involvement, was reported in a case series of 16 patients with MEN-IIB.1 DG was found before medullary thyroid carcinoma in 12 of these16 cases. Therefore, the authors concluded that diffuse ...
The incidence of thyroid cancer, the most common endocrine malignancy, continues to increase steadily during the past few decades worldwide [1, 2]. The majority of thyroid cancer types are classified as: follicular epithelial cell-derived papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), and para-follicular C-cell derived medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) [3]. The prognosis of patients with thyroid cancer is closely correlated with local invasion outside the thyroid capsule and the development of distant metastases [4]. Therefore, dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying thyroid cancer invasion and metastasis is still imperative and may put new insight into the clinical treatment of thyroid cancer.. Human tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (TACSTD2), also known as trophoblast cell-surface antigen 2 (Trop2), is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein originally identified in human placental trophoblastic tissue [5]. As a cell surface ...
Aim: The aim was to study the BRAF status by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the variants of papillary carcinoma thyroid and compare it with the clinicopathological parameters. Materials and Methods: All the thyroid carcinomas diagnosed during the period of January 2015-June 2018 were reviewed and classified according to the WHO 2017 criteria. The demographic and clinicopathological features were noted. Microarrays were prepared on 27 cases, including classic and variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC), and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). IHC was performed with BRAF V600E by automated staining. The BRAF status was correlated with known prognostic markers. Results: There were 23 PTC, 3 PDTC, and one MTC. The PTC included seven classic, three solid, two each of microcarcinoma, infiltrative and encapsulated follicular variant, tall-cell variant (TCV), oncocytic and one each of diffuse sclerosing, nodular fasciitis-like stroma, and Warthin-like ...
by TimH , Sep 5, 2014. According to the Joint Committee on Cancer, the 10-year survival rates for stages I, II, III, and IV medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) are 100%, 93%, 71%, and 21%, respectively. Guidelines from the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and the North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society recommend that standard treatment for clinical MTC consist of total thyroidectomy with prophylactic central lymph node dissection. To understand if this "one-size-fits-all" surgical approach to MTC is effective, Nazanene H. Esfandiari, MD, and colleagues conducted a study of nearly 3,000 patients with MTC. "We wanted to understand the factors that were associated with worse survival, including the role of more versus less extensive surgery," she says. Disease Severity & Extent of Resection Dr. Esfandiari and colleagues gathered data from the National Cancer Database on patients who were diagnosed with MTC between 1998 and 2005. "Disease severity was characterized by the size of the tumor, the ...
18 Apr 2017. When cancer metastases, bone unwittingly offers a friendly place for tumour cell growth--only to have its hospitality betrayed by pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, the need for bone surgery or irradiation, and an increased risk of death.. In the largest-known study on bone metastases in thyroid cancer, researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center found that patients with follicular and medullary thyroid cancer had the highest rate of cancer-related bone lesions and fractures and an increased risk of death.. We know that metastases are bad.. But patients in our study who had bone metastases had a worse survival rate compared to patients who had metastases at other distant sites, says Megan Haymart, M.D., assistant professor of medicine at Michigan Medicine and one of the researchers on the study.. This suggests that bone metastases are a uniquely poor prognostic indicator.. However, patients with localised or regional thyroid cancer---without ...
Mature teratomas in the ovary are benign [9080/0]. For testis, mature teratoma in an adult is malignant (9080/3); however, mature teratoma in a child is benign (9080/0). With regard to the thyroid issue, from the information above, the medullary carcinoma in the patients thyroid is clearly a separate event. According to our expert pathologist consultant, "thyroid tissue is one of the many tissue types that may be seen in teratomas. When the teratoma has exclusively or predominantly thyroid tissue the term struma ovarii is used Adenoma or carcinoma of the thyroid type may be seen in this thyroid tissue. If medullary carcinoma were present in the thyroid tissue in the ovary/teratoma, there would be mention of it in the path report." ...
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) is caused by a RET mutation in chromosome 10. All MEN 2 patients develop medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The age-related risk of MTC is associated with the type of RET mutation. Our aim was to identify prognostic factors associated with recurrent MTC in MEN 2 patients. In a nationwide case-control study, all patients who underwent total thyroidectomy in the Netherlands under the age of 20 years were classified into standard (1), high (2), or very high risk (3) for MTC based on RET-mutation type. Disease-free patients were compared with those with recurrent disease. A total of 93 patients were included in the study. Sixty-six percent had MTC on histology, the youngest being 1 year old. Codon 634 was most affected. Sixteen (18%) patients had persistent or recurrent disease, one of whom died. Significantly associated determinants of outcome in univariate analysis were higher age at surgery, no age-appropriate prophylactic surgery according to risk level,
Looking for online definition of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 in the Medical Dictionary? multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 explanation free. What is multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2? Meaning of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 medical term. What does multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 mean?
A 55-year-old woman diagnosed with sporadic MTC underwent total thyroidectomy 20 years ago. After the first surgery, elevated calcitonin levels in parallel with local disease persistence were noted and therefore she underwent repeated neck dissections. During follow-up, multiple foci of metastatic disease were noted in the neck and mediastinal lymph nodes, lungs and bones; however, the disease had an indolent course for a number of years, in parallel with a calcitonin doubling time of more than two years and without significant symptoms. During a routine follow-up visit 2 years ago, findings suggestive of Cushings syndrome were observed on physical examination. The biochemical evaluation demonstrated markedly elevated serum calcitonin level, in parallel with lack of cortisol suppression after an overnight 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test, lack of cortisol and ACTH suppression after high-dose IV dexamethasone 8 mg, elevated plasma ACTH up to 79 pg/mL (normal ,46 pg/mL) and elevated 24-h ...
To report a new mutation of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene in an Italian kindred.The study included the female proband, aged 50 years, affected by primary hyperparathyroidism, insulinoma and prolactinoma, and ten relatives. Blood samples were obtained for biochemical and genetic analyses. Clinical screening tests included serum glucose, ionized calcium, intact parathyroid hormone, GH, insulin and prolactin. The coding sequence, including nine coding exons and 16 splice sites, was amplified by PCR and directly sequenced.Two additional cases of primary hyperparathyroidism were identified among the paternal family members. The sequence analysis showed a heterozygous T to C transition at codon 444 in exon 9, resulting in a leucine to proline substitution (L444P) in the patient and in the two paternal family members with primary hyperparathyroidism. The L444P amino acid change was absent in 50 normal subjects. The mutation determined the loss of a BlnI restriction site of the ...
Katy and Houston Texas diabetes endocrinologists Diana Desai MD, Cristina Dumitru MD, Medhavi Jogi MD, Fareed Elhaj MD and pediatric endocrinologist Dr. Deepa Suresh treat thyroid diseases, thyroid nodules, parathyroid, pituitary, and diabetes mellitus. They diagnose and manage Papillary thyroid cancer, follicular thyroid cancer, and medullary thyroid cancer. Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism are common conditions that they treat. There are many Pituitary disorders that they treat. Adrenal disease, low testosterone, and calcium disorders are within their expertise. They have thyroid ultrasound, thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, and nuclear thyroid treatment capability.
Ductal, lobular, and medullary. Ductal. *Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): Paget's disease of the breast ...
Ductal, lobular, and medullary. Ductal. *Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): Paget's disease of the breast ... Stage 0 is a pre-cancerous or marker condition, either ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). ... and these cancers are classified as ductal or lobular carcinoma. Carcinoma in situ is growth of low-grade cancerous or ... Breast changes like atypical ductal hyperplasia[63] and lobular carcinoma in situ,[64][65][66] found in benign breast ...
... thyroid carcinoma. In 1961 Sipple described a combination of a pheochromocytoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma and parathyroid ... Micrograph of a medullary thyroid carcinoma, as may be seen in MEN 2A and MEN 2B. H&E stain. ... In 1966 Williams et al. described the combination of mucosal neuromas, pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma. ... MEN IIa (2Ps, 1M) - Pheochromocytoma, Parathyroid, Medullary Thyroid Ca. MEN IIb (1P, 2Ms) - Pheochromocytoma, Medullary ...
... medullary thyroid cancer; paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma; renal cell carcinoma of chromophobe, hybrid oncocytic, or oncocytoma ... but also increases the risk of fallopian tube carcinoma and papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum. In men the risk of ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome in which ... Manfredi M, Vescovi P, Bonanini M, Porter S (March 2004). "Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: a review of the literature". ...
Familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) (which affects 5% to 35% of MEN2 families):Medullary thyroid carcinoma only ... MEN2A (which affects 60% to 90% of MEN2 families):Medullary thyroid carcinoma; Pheochromocytoma (tumor of the adrenal glands); ... Medullary thyroid carcinoma; Pheochromocytoma; Mucosal neuromas (benign tumors of nerve tissue on the tongue and lips); ...
"Revised American Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma". Thyroid. 25 (6): 567-610. ... Elevated calcitonin levels in the blood have been shown to be associated with the rare medullary thyroid cancer. However, the ... larger, broad calcifications (note: these can be seen in medullary thyroid cancer) ... tool is currently controversial due to falsely high or low calcitonin levels in a variety of diseases other than medullary ...
Malignant nodules, which only occur in about 5% of nodules, include follicular, papillary, medullary carcinomas and metastases ... of the thyroid gland and medullary thyroid carcinoma. A review". The American Journal of Pathology. 88 (1): 213-50. PMC 2032150 ... medullary, and thyroid lymphoma.[64][65] Because of the prominence of the thyroid gland, cancer is often detected earlier in ... Malignant thyroid cancers are most often carcinomas, although cancer can occur in any tissue that the thyroid consists of, ...
Davis, Charles J.; Mostofi, F. K.; Sesterhenn, Isabell A. (1995). "Renal Medullary Carcinoma the Seventh Sickle Cell ... "Immunotherapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma" (PDF). "Landmarks in the diagnosis and treatment of renal cell carcinoma". ... The Many Faces of Renal Cell Carcinoma". Rev Urol. 4: 163-70. PMC 1475999 . PMID 16985675. "Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma: ... "Localized renal cell carcinoma management: an update". Retrieved 6 September 2016. "Kidney Cancer Resources". Retrieved 6 ...
MEN2B should be entertained as a diagnosis whenever a person is found to have either medullary thyroid carcinoma or ... Calcitonin levels remain a valuable marker to detect recurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma after thyroidectomy. Luxol fast ... Schimke RN, Hartmann WH, Prout TE, Rimoin DL (1968). "Syndrome of bilateral pheochromocytoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma and ... symptoms derived from medullary carcinoma of the thyroid; symptoms derived from pheochromocytoma; craniosynostosis; dry eyes or ...
Hematuria Hyposthenuria Renal medullary carcinoma, a cancer affecting the kidney, is a very rare complication seen in patients ... Davis, Charles J.; Mostofi, F. K.; Sesterhenn, Isabell A. (1995). "Renal Medullary Carcinoma The Seventh Sickle Cell ...
The European thyroid community has focused on prevention of metastasis from small medullary thyroid carcinomas; the North ... who first arbitrarily coined the term "occult papillary carcinoma" in 1960, to describe papillary carcinomas ≤ 1.5 cm in ... the finding of an elevated serum calcitonin is associated with the finding of a medullary thyroid carcinoma in as high as 20% ... "New therapeutic approaches to treat medullary thyroid carcinoma". Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 4 (1): 22-32. doi:10.1038/ ...
2005). "Expression of p8 protein in medullary thyroid carcinoma". Anticancer Res. 25 (5): 3419-23. PMID 16101158. Valacco MP, ...
The eventual diagnosis was "ductal carcinoma with medullary features".[not in citation given] Due to somewhat early detection ...
Expression of CD97 and CD55 in human medullary thyroid carcinomas". Int. J. Oncol. 24 (2): 285-94. PMID 14719104.. ... 2002). „Expression and Regulation of CD97 in Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Lines and Tumor Tissues". Am. J. Pathol. 161 (5): 1657- ... 1997). „CD97: a dedifferentiation marker in human thyroid carcinomas". Cancer Res. 57 (9): 1798-806. PMID 9135025.. ... growth factor seven-transmembrane member CD97 correlates with grading and staging in human oral squamous cell carcinomas". ...
"ALK rearrangement in sickle cell trait-associated renal medullary carcinoma". Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer. 50 (3): 146-53. doi: ... Debelenko LV, Raimondi SC, Daw N, Shivakumar BR, Huang D, Nelson M, Bridge JA (Mar 2011). "Renal cell carcinoma with novel VCL- ... Familial cases of neuroblastoma Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor Adult and pediatric renal cell carcinomas Esophageal ... "ALK alterations in adult renal cell carcinoma: frequency, clinicopathologic features and outcome in a large series of ...
... is not produced by medullary or anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. In the clinical laboratory, thyroglobulin testing ... and a greater percentage of patients with thyroid carcinoma. The presence of these antibodies can result in falsely low (or ... A subsequent elevation of the thyroglobulin level is an indication of recurrence of papillary or follicular thyroid carcinoma. ... report of the role of serum thyroglobulin as a monitoring method for low-risk patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma". J. ...
... and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC).[15] There is a high degree of correlation between the position of the point ... including medullary thyroid carcinoma, multiple endocrine neoplasias type 2A and 2B, pheochromocytoma and parathyroid ... Niccoli-Sire P, Conte-Devolx B (2005). "[RET mutations and preventive treatment of medullary thyroid cancer]". Ann. Endocrinol ... These types of mutations are associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and the fusion oncoproteins generated are ...
carcinoma with lymphoid stroma (medullary), ICD-O 8512/3). *rak gruczołowy hepatoidny (ang. hepatoid adenocarcinoma, ICD-O 8576 ... high grade neuroendocrine carcinoma, ICD-O 8246/3) *z dużych komórek (ang. large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, ICD-O 8013/3) ... signet ring cell carcinoma and other variants; poorly cohesive carcinoma, ICD-O 8490/3) ... the two histological main types of gastric carcinoma: diffuse and so-called intestinal-type carcinoma. an attempt at a histo- ...
... medullary cancers and grade 3 invasive ductal carcinomas with no specific subtype; and highly aggressive metastatic cancers. ... Medullary TNBC in younger women are frequently BRCA1-related. Rare forms of triple-negative breast cancer are apocrine and ... triple-negative breast tumors mostly fall into the categories of secretory cell carcinoma or adenoid cystic types (both ... "Comparison of triple-negative and estrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-positive/HER2-negative breast carcinoma ...
The initial manifestation of MEN2 was medullary thyroid carcinoma in 60% of patients, medullary thyroid carcinoma synchronous ... In familial isolated medullary thyroid carcinoma the other components of the disease are absent.[citation needed] In a review ... MEN2A associates medullary thyroid carcinoma with pheochromocytoma in about 20-50% of cases and with primary ... As noted, all types of MEN2 include pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma. MEN2A is additionally characterized by ...
Malignant nodules, which only occur in about 5% of nodules, include follicular, papillary, medullary carcinomas and metastases ... of the thyroid gland and medullary thyroid carcinoma. A review". The American Journal of Pathology. 88 (1): 213-50. PMID 18012 ... Malignant thyroid cancers are most often carcinomas, although cancer can occur in any tissue that the thyroid consists of, ... Most malignant thyroid cancers are papillary, followed by follicular, medullary, and thyroid lymphoma. Because of the ...
It is helpful in making an early diagnosis of medullary carcinoma of thyroid. A malignancy of the parafollicular cells, i.e. ... They include: C-cell hyperplasia, nonthyroidal oat cell carcinoma, nonthyroidal small cell carcinoma and other nonthyroidal ... It may be used diagnostically as a tumor marker for medullary thyroid cancer, in which high calcitonin levels may be present ... Cutoffs for calcitonin to distinguish cases with medullary thyroid cancer have been suggested to be as follows, with a higher ...
When parafollicular cells become cancerous, they lead to medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Yoko Kameda Y and associates(from ...
Both syndromes are characterized by pheochromocytoma as well as thyroid cancer (thyroid medullary carcinoma). MEN IIA also ... Common mutations in the RET oncogene may also account for medullary sponge kidney as well. Pheochromocytoma linked to MEN II ... and medullary thyroid cancer. Mutations in the autosomal RET proto-oncogene drives these malignancies. ...
Done in cases of papillary or follicular carcinoma of thyroid, medullary carcinoma of thyroid. This is now also the most common ...
The ichor from the discharging medullary carcinoma was not destroyed by soap and water. … Thus, childbed fever is caused not ... a patient was admitted with discharging medullary carcinoma [cancer of the innermost part] of the uterus. She was assigned the ...
It is expressed in embryonal carcinoma but not in seminoma and is thus a useful marker in distinguishing between these germ ...
There is only one current clinical trial that is studying thyroid gland medullary carcinoma. Currently, medullary thyroid ... Nicole Ferraro was diagnosed with medullary thyroid cancer, a rare form of thyroid carcinoma, in April 2010. Immediately ... Following Nicole Ferraro's medullary thyroid cancer diagnosis, she underwent a ten-hour surgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital, ... "Immune Markers in Medullary Thyroid Cancer (MTC) and Their Clinical Significance Preliminary Results" (PDF). MD Anderson Cancer ...
Ductal, Lobular And Medullary (8500-8549). Ductal carcinoma - Comedocarcinoma - Pagets disease of the breast/Extramammary ... Papilloma/carcinoma (8010-8139). Small cell carcinoma - Verrucous carcinoma - Squamous cell carcinoma - Basal cell carcinoma - ... Mucoepidermoid carcinoma - Cystadenoma/Cystadenocarcinoma/Pseudomyxoma peritonei - Signet ring cell carcinoma/Krukenberg tumor ... Cholangiocarcinoma - Hepatocellular adenoma/Hepatocellular carcinoma - Adenoid cystic carcinoma - Familial adenomatous ...
Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is cancer of the thyroid gland that starts in cells that release a hormone called calcitonin ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. MTC is very rare. It can occur in children and adults. ... Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is cancer of the thyroid gland that starts in cells that release a hormone called calcitonin ... People with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid live at least 5 years after diagnosis, depending upon the stage of the cancer. ...
In this article, we look at the symptoms, causes, and treatment of medullary breast carcinoma and the outlook for people with ... Medullary breast carcinoma is a rare type of invasive breast cancer. ... Medullary breast carcinoma accounts for 3-5% of all breast cancer diagnoses.. Medullary breast carcinoma is a type of invasive ... Medullary breast carcinoma is a rare subtype of invasive breast cancer. The term medullary refers to the tumors soft, fleshy ...
Medullary carcinoma can occur at any age, but it usually affects women in their late 40s and early 50s. Medullary carcinoma is ... Medullary carcinoma of the breast is a rare subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma (cancer that begins in the milk duct and ... It is called "medullary" carcinoma because the tumor is a soft, fleshy mass that resembles a part of the brain called the ... Medullary carcinoma cells are usually high-grade in their appearance and low-grade in their behavior. In other words, they look ...
Learn about all treatments for medullary carcinoma, a type of thyroid cancer. ... Surgery is the first treatment for most medullary carcinomas. ... Treatments for medullary carcinoma. The following are treatment ... If medullary carcinoma spreads to the bone, external beam radiation therapy is sometimes used as a palliative treatment to ... Surgery for metastasis could be used to treat medullary carcinoma that has spread to other organs and is causing symptoms. Find ...
... uses the terms medullary carcinoma and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma as synonyms for gastric carcinoma with lymphoid stroma ... Chetty has determined that gastric medullary carcinoma and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma differ from each other. Medullary ... and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma is associated with EBV [6]. The lymphocytes in medullary carcinoma aggregate in syncytial ... Gastric Medullary Carcinoma: A Rare Case Report. Ferit Aslan,1 Fisun Ardıç Yükrük,2 Fatma Buğdaycı Başal,1 and Ayşe Durnalı1 ...
... Scott N. Pinchot, Muthusamy Kunnimalaiyaan, Rebecca S. ... Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm that accounts for approximately 5% of all thyroid malignancies ...
Home Education AUAUniversity Education Products & Resources Pathology for Urologists Kidney Renal Cell Carcinomas Renal ... Gross: centered in medullary region of the kidney with white or gray cut surfaces and central necrosis is common (image A). ... Some considered this be a variant of collecting duct carcinoma.. *Usually encountered in young patients, male , female (2:1), ... Urothelial Carcinoma of the Prostate * Carcinoma With Squamous Differentiation * Basal Cell Carcinoma (Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma ...
... for all patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma whose tumor... more ... encoded search term (What are the NCCN treatment guidelines for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC)?) and What are the NCCN ... What are the NCCN treatment guidelines for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC)?. Updated: May 09, 2018 ... Revised American Thyroid Association guidelines for the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid. 2015 Jun. 25 (6): ...
Most medullary carcinomas are small - less than 2 cm in size. Medullary carcinoma also may cause pain, swelling, redness, or ... Diagnosing medullary carcinoma can be challenging. It may be hard to tell the difference between medullary carcinoma cells and ... There are some other key features of medullary carcinoma:. * Hormone-receptor-negative: Medullary carcinoma usually tests ... Medullary Carcinoma of the Breast → Symptoms and Diagnosis of Medullary Carcinoma of the Breast ...
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Medullary carcinoma most commonly refers to: Medullary thyroid cancer Medullary carcinoma of the breast Medullary carcinoma may ... Medullary carcinoma may refer to one of several different tumors of epithelial origin. As the term "medulla" is a generic ... also refer to tumors of: Pancreas Ampulla of Vater Gallbladder Stomach Large intestine Kidney - Renal medullary carcinoma. ... anatomic descriptor for the mid-layer of various organ tissues, a medullary tumor usually arises from the "mid-layer tissues" ...
Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare, highly aggressive tumor recognized as an independent pathological entity. African- ... Imaging of Renal Medullary Carcinoma April 17, 2017 Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare, highly aggressive tumor ... Tags: renal medullary carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, Magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, contrast-enhanced ... This rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma has its own morphogenetic and pathological characteristics. The major clinical ...
Care guide for Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (Inpatient Care). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment ... Medullary thyroid carcinoma is also called MTC. It is a kind of tumor (abnormal growth) found in your thyroid gland. The ... Learn more about Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (Inpatient Care). Associated drugs. *Thyroid Disease ...
Renal medullary carcinoma is a rare type of cancer that affects the kidney. It tends to be aggressive, difficult to treat, and ... Renal medullary carcinoma is extremely rare and it is not currently possible to predict those individuals with sickle cell ... Renal medullary carcinoma has been termed "the seventh sickle cell nephropathy" because it is found almost exclusively in ... Renal medullary carcinoma was first described as a clinicopathologic entity in 1995. Davis, Charles J.; Mostofi, F. K.; ...
... colorectal carcinoma (CRC) which, despite being poorly differentiated by traditional morphological criteria,... ... Aim Medullary carcinoma is a recently described subtype of mismatch repair deficient (MMRd) ... Medullary carcinoma accounts for approximately 2.8 % of all CRCs in an unselected Australian cohort. Medullary CRCs are ... Medullary carcinoma is a recently described subtype of mismatch repair deficient (MMRd) colorectal carcinoma (CRC) which, ...
The Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (MTC) Registry Consortium* is partnering with the American Thyroid Association® (ATA) to create ... Disclaimer: Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (MTC) Registry Consortium current member sponsors include Novo Nordisk, AstraZeneca, ... The cause of medullary thyroid cancer is known in about 25% of cases which develop as a result of a RET oncogene mutation in ... Medullary thyroid cancer is a rare neuroendocrine tumor that arises from the parafollicular calcitonin producing C-cells in the ...
... medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary. Causes. The cause of medullary ... Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma. Definition. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is cancer of the thyroid gland that starts ... About 86% of those with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid live at least 5 years after diagnosis. The 10 year survival rate is ... Call your provider if you have symptoms of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. ...
PET/CT in the detection of locoregional and distant medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) metastases and to compare imaging... ... Prognostic factors in medullary thyroid carcinoma: evaluation of 741 patients from the German medullary thyroid carcinoma ... Neck management in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2008;34:71-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Medullary thyroid carcinoma Positron emission tomography 18F-DOPA Neuroendocrine tumours This is a preview of subscription ...
After her brothers renal medullary carcinoma diagnosis, Cora Conner began searching for others with his disease. But months of ... After her brothers renal medullary carcinoma diagnosis, Cora Conner began searching for others with his disease. But months of ... Creating change in the renal medullary carcinoma community. I started searching the Internet for stories of people who also had ... I also have become an advocate for renal medullary carcinoma by creating awareness. Ive had the opportunity to lobby for ...
Concurrence of a symptomatic encapsulated follicular carcinoma, an occult papillary carcinoma and a medullary carcinoma in the ... Mixed medullary-papillary carcinoma of the thyroid : a previously unrecognized variant of thyroid carcinoma ALBORES-SAAVEDRA J ... Diagnostic Problems in Medullary Carcinoma of the Thyroid * * BUSSOLATI G. * Department of Biomedical Sciences and Oncology, ... Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid : A study of the clinical features and prognostic factors in 161 patients SAAD M. F. ...
Also Known As: Carcinoma, Medullary; Carcinomas, Medullary; Medullary Carcinomas. Networked: 882 relevant articles (12 outcomes ... Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%- ... Medullary Carcinoma Summary Description: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. ... Key Therapies for Medullary Carcinoma. Efficacy Chart ,, * Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy) : 1 outcome in 20 results ...
Medullary carcinoma of the breast: a clinicopathologic study with 10 year follow-up.. Ridolfi RL, Rosen PP, Port A, Kinne D, ...
The early age of onset for medullary thyroid carcinoma and the presence of lymph node metastasis in this patient suggests ... A patient with an apparent sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma was tested for RET germline mutations by Sanger sequencing of ... A patient with an apparent sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma was tested for RET germline mutations by Sanger sequencing of ... The early age of onset for medullary thyroid carcinoma and the presence of lymph node metastasis in this patient suggests ...
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an uncommon primary thyroid carcinoma accounting for as much as 10% of all thyroid ... Calcitonin Expression in the Metastatic Tissue of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma. By Wei-Wen Hung, Kun-Bow Tsai and Pi-Jung Hsiao ... In conclusion, metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma with atypical chest radiography and calcitonin-free histopathlogic lung ... Although the disparity between tissue and serum calcitonin in patient with medullary thyroid carcinoma were reported, [13] the ...
  • Anaplastic carcinoma usually starts as a rapidly enlarging lump in the neck, and is likely to cause local symptoms such as hoarseness, difficulty breathing or swallowing, or blockage of the large veins in the neck and chest. (allthyroid.org)
  • large cell carcinoma a type of bronchogenic carcinoma of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size, a variety of squamous cell carcinoma that has undergone further dedifferentiation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2 , 3 , 4 As this variant has only recently been recognized, it is possible that selection bias (i.e. a failure of reporting pathologists to recognize all cases of medullary CRC) may mean that the true incidence of medullary CRC is greater than previously reported. (springer.com)
  • Lobular, papillary, mucinous and medullary types have relatively lower incidence. (ebscohost.com)
  • [ 2 ] The low incidence of hypertension is attributed to reduced vascular reactivity, compensatory systemic vasodilatation associated with microvascular disturbances from sickling of RBCs and thrombotic complications, elevated levels of prostaglandins and nitric oxide, and possibly renal sodium and water wasting associated with suboptimal medullary concentrating activity. (medscape.com)
  • The lymphocytes in medullary carcinoma aggregate in syncytial islets and at the peripheral margins, while the inflammation is peritumoural. (hindawi.com)
  • Lymphocytes show continuity at the tumoural margins in lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, and they are localized as a wide number of intratumoural lymphocytes, instead of small aggregates [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 classification of gastrointestinal neoplasia, the medullary variant is characterized by a solid rather than glandular architecture, coarse chromatin, and prominent eosinophilic cytoplasm, often associated with numerous intraepithelial lymphocytes. (springer.com)