A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.
Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.
A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.
Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)
A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.
An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)
Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)
Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)
A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
A skin carcinoma that histologically exhibits both basal and squamous elements. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
A carcinoma thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli. Involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular. The neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures. Mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells. Metastases in regional lymph nodes, and in even more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.
Tumors or cancer of the VULVA.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
Compounds that include the amino-N-phenylamide structure.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
An epithelial neoplasm characterized by unusually large anaplastic cells. It is highly malignant with fulminant clinical course, bizarre histologic appearance and poor prognosis. It is most common in the lung and thyroid. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.
An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.
Cancer or tumors of the URETER which may cause obstruction leading to hydroureter, HYDRONEPHROSIS, and PYELONEPHRITIS. HEMATURIA is a common symptom.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Excision of kidney.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askanazy cells.
A malignant neoplasm that contains elements of carcinoma and sarcoma so extensively intermixed as to indicate neoplasia of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
An adenocarcinoma with a hard (Greek skirrhos, hard) structure owing to the formation of dense connective tissue in the stroma. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors of cancer of the EYELIDS.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)
An adenocarcinoma in which the tumor elements are arranged as finger-like processes or as a solid spherical nodule projecting from an epithelial surface.
A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Neoplasms of the SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements.
A malignant tumor of the skin appendages, which include the hair, nails, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and the mammary glands. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Variation in a population's DNA sequence that is detected by determining alterations in the conformation of denatured DNA fragments. Denatured DNA fragments are allowed to renature under conditions that prevent the formation of double-stranded DNA and allow secondary structure to form in single stranded fragments. These fragments are then run through polyacrylamide gels to detect variations in the secondary structure that is manifested as an alteration in migration through the gels.
Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Tumors or cancer of the HYPOPHARYNX.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.

Over-representation of a germline RET sequence variant in patients with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma and somatic RET codon 918 mutation. (1/446)

The aetiology of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma is unknown. About 50% harbour a somatic mutation at codon 918 of RET (M918T). To investigate whether other RET sequence variants may be associated with or predispose to the development of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma, we analysed genomic DNA from the germline and corresponding tumour from 50 patients to identify RET sequence variants. In one patient, tumour DNA showed a novel somatic 12 bp in-frame deletion in exon 15. More interestingly, we found that the rare polymorphism at codon 836 (c.2439C > T; S836S) occurred at a significantly higher frequency than that in control individuals without sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.03). Further, among the nine evaluable cases with germline c.2439C/T, eight also had the somatic M918T mutation in MTC DNA which was more frequent than in patients with the more common c.2439C/C (89% vs 40%, respectively; Fisher's exact test, P = 0.01). These findings suggest that the rare sequence variant at codon 836 may somehow play a role in the genesis of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma.  (+info)

Medullary thyroid carcinoma with multiple hepatic metastases: treatment with transcatheter arterial embolization and percutaneous ethanol injection. (2/446)

A 54-year-old man with medullary thyroid carcinoma in the thyroid gland was unable to undergo total thyroidectomy because the tumor had invaded the mediastinum. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy were given. Seven years later, intractable diarrhea and abdominal pain appeared, and computed tomography demonstrated hypervascular tumors in the thyroid gland and in the liver. The tumors were successfully treated with percutaneous ethanol injection to a lesion in the thyroid gland and transcatheter arterial embolization followed by percutaneous ethanol injection to tumors in the liver. Transcatheter arterial embolization and percutaneous ethanol injection may be valuable in treating medullary thyroid carcinoma.  (+info)

Psychosocial impact of genetic testing in familial medullary-thyroid carcinoma: a multicentric pilot-evaluation. (3/446)

BACKGROUND: Many crucial problems are associated with the diagnosis of inherited cancer susceptibility. One of the most important is related to the psychosocial consequences of the knowledge by the patients and their relatives of their own genetical status. Little data are available in the literature, mainly from studies including small numbers of selected and motivated patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January till December 1997, we studied the psychometric and quality of life parameters of 77 subjects followed in two French specialized centers. These subjects had been treated for either sporadic or familial or were at risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma. All patients had previously attended genetic counselling with detection of germline Ret-mutations, were informed on their own genetic risk, had good short-term prognosis and performance status and did not receive recent cancer treatment. Each patient was invited to answer two questionnaires, the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) and the subjective quality of life profile (SQLP). RESULTS: We report herein the descriptive results of this study (HADS and SQLP scores and distributions) and describe the individual clinical covariates that might explain the observed differences between subgroups of individuals. Although psychometric scores appeared similar in these subgroups, quality of life scores were lower in Ret-mutation carriers. Genetically-predisposed patients were less satisfied and expressed more expectations for favourable change in their quality of life. CONCLUSION: This finding suggests a high level of frustration and latent unsatisfaction related either to the management of the genetic information given by the clinicians and its psychosocial consequences or simply to the knowledge of the genetic risk of cancer. Further studies on the individual consequences of genetic testing, information delivery and when necessary psychotherapeutic interventions, are needed to insure the quality of presymptomatic genetic testing in this field of oncology.  (+info)

Roles of trk family neurotrophin receptors in medullary thyroid carcinoma development and progression. (4/446)

Although initiating mutations in the ret protooncogene have been found in familial and sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), the molecular events underlying subsequent tumor progression stages are unknown. We now report that changes in trk family neurotrophin receptor expression appear to be involved in both preneoplastic thyroid C cell hyperplasia and later tumor progression. Only a subset of normal C cells expresses trk family receptors, but, in C cell hyperplasia, the affected cells consistently express trkB, with variable expression of trkA and trkC. In later stages of gross MTC tumors, trkB expression was substantially reduced, while trkC expression was increased and often intense. In a cell culture model of MTC, exogenous trkB expression resulted in severely impaired tumorigenicity and was associated with 11-fold lower levels of the angiogenesis factor vascular endothelial growth factor. These results suggest that trk family receptor genes participate in MTC development and progression, and, in particular, that trkB may limit MTC tumor growth by inhibition of angiogenesis.  (+info)

Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor metastases to the thyroid gland: differential diagnosis with medullary thyroid carcinoma. (5/446)

Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the thyroid gland are rare. Apart from medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), metastases of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) NET may also occur. Features of six patients (five men, one female: age range, 39-67 years) with thyroid metastases from a GEP-NET are described. Thyroid metastases were bilateral in all patients and were associated with enlarged neck lymph nodes in five. In four cases, the thyroid tumor was either the first sign of the disease (n = 2) or was an isolated site of recurrence (n = 2). The tumors were well (n = 3) or poorly differentiated (n = 3). Five tumors for which the primary site could be determined corresponded to foregut-derived tumors (3 lungs, 1 thymus and 1 pancreatic NET). One tumor demonstrated calcitonin (CT) production as shown by immunohistochemistry and elevated plasma CT levels. However, the disease history and the clinical features strongly favored a metastasizing GEP-NET. No tumoral RET proto-oncogene mutation was found in this patient. The differential diagnosis between metastatic GEP-NET and MTC is crucial because prognosis, work-up, and treatment differ greatly.  (+info)

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A with the identical somatic mutation in medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma without germline mutation at the corresponding site in the RET proto-oncogene. (6/446)

A germline mutation either in exon 10 or 11 of the RET proto-oncogene is found in the majority of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A). A 41-year-old female patient was referred for further evaluation of incidentally discovered right adrenal tumor. She had bilateral adrenal pheochromocytomas and medullary thyroid carcinomas detected by endocrinological and radiological examination, and diagnosed as MEN 2A. Molecular genetic testing of the RET exons 10 and 11 exhibited the identical somatic missense mutation at codon 634 in both tumors but did not confirm germline mutations in the corresponding sites. Possible mechanisms for tumorigenesis in this patient are discussed.  (+info)

Medullary thyroid carcinomas in transgenic mice expressing a Polyoma carboxyl-terminal truncated middle-T and wild type small-T antigens. (7/446)

Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare human tumor affecting the calcitonin-secreting c-cells of the thyroid. Here we report that two independent strains of transgenic mice expressing a Polyomavirus (Py) truncated middle-T antigen (deltaMT), consisting of the amino-terminal 304 amino acids, and the full length Py small-T antigen, developed multifocal bilateral MTCs with 100% penetrance. Occasionally one strain also developed mammary and bone tumors. Furthermore, offspring from both transgenic lines displayed pronounced waviness of the whiskers and fur, previously associated with defective epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. Transgene transcription, driven by the homologous early promoter/enhancer, and the corresponding translation products were detected in tumors and in many other organs which did not develop pathologies. The subcellular distribution of deltaMT and its interactions with the adapter proteins of the SHC family have also been analysed. Our study describes a novel murine model of MTC and provides evidence that the N-terminal 304 amino acid fragment of Py middle-T antigen, possibly in co-operation with small-T antigen, acts as a potent oncogene in c-cells of the thyroid.  (+info)

Chronic toxicity/oncogenicity evaluation of 60 Hz (power frequency) magnetic fields in F344/N rats. (8/446)

A 2-yr whole-body exposure study was conducted to evaluate the chronic toxicity and possible oncogenicity of 60 Hz (power frequency) magnetic fields in rats. Groups of 100 male and 100 female F344/N rats were exposed continuously to pure, linearly polarized, transient-free 60 Hz magnetic fields at flux densities of 0 Gauss (G) (sham control), 20 milligauss (mG), 2 G, and 10 G; an additional group of 100 male and 100 female F344/N rats received intermittent (1 hr on/1 hr off) exposure to 10 G fields. Mortality patterns, body weight gains throughout the study, and the total incidence and number of malignant and benign tumors in all groups exposed to magnetic fields were similar to those found in sex-matched sham controls. Statistically significant increases in the combined incidence of C-cell adenomas and carcinomas of the thyroid were seen in male rats chronically exposed to 20 mG and 2 G magnetic fields. These increases were not seen in male rats exposed continuously or intermittently to 10 G fields or in female rats at any magnetic field exposure level. No increases in the incidence of neoplasms, which have been identified in epidemiology studies as possible targets of magnetic field action (leukemia, breast cancer, and brain cancer), were found in any group exposed to magnetic fields. There was a decrease in leukemia in male rats exposed to 10 G intermittent fields. The occurrence of C-cell tumors at the 2 lower field intensities in male rats is interpreted as equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity; data from female rats provides no evidence of carcinogenicity in that sex. These data, when considered as a whole, are interpreted as indicating that chronic exposure to pure linearly polarized 60 Hz magnetic fields has little or no effect on cancer development in the F344/N rat.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Cellular Immune Responses in Familial Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma. AU - Rocklin, Ross E.. AU - Gagel, Robert F. AU - Feldman, Zoila. AU - Tashjian, Armen H.. PY - 1977/4/14. Y1 - 1977/4/14. N2 - We studied prospectively 46 members of a kindred with familial medullary thyroid carcinoma to determine the importance of possible cellular immune reactivity to tumor antigen. We evaluated in vitro production of macrophage-migration-inhibitory factor and 3H-thymidine uptake by lymphocytes from patients, family members and normal subjects in response to extracts of medullary thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid tissue. Lymphocytes from 12 of 18 patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma and four of seven patients with C-cell hyperplasia produced migration inhibitory factor or proliferated (or both) in response to tumor antigen. In contrast, cells from only two of 25 normal subjects and two of nine family members not genetically at risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma made migration ...
Treatment with sorafenib in patients with progressive metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is well tolerated and resulted in disease control.
Purpose: While the molecular basis of hereditary medullary thyroid cancer (HMTC) has been well defined, little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of sporadic medullary thyroid cancer (SMTC). In addition, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be important diagnostic and prognostic markers in cancer but have not been defined in MTC. Our aim was to study the miRNA profile of MTC to identify prognostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets.. Experimental Design: MiRNA microarray profiling was carried out in fresh frozen tissues from patients with SMTC (n = 12) and HMTC (n = 7). Differential expression of three miRNAs was confirmed in a validation cohort of SMTC and HMTC samples (n = 45) using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR and correlated with clinical outcomes. The functional role of a selected miRNA was investigated in vitro in the human medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line (TT cells) using cell proliferation assays and Western blotting analysis.. Results: MiRs-183 and 375 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interplay between Ret and Fap-1 regulates CD95-mediated apoptosis in medullary thyroid cancer cells. AU - Nicolini, Valentina. AU - Cassinelli, Giuliana. AU - Cuccuru, Giuditta. AU - Bongarzone, Italia. AU - Petrangolini, Giovanna. AU - Tortoreto, Monica. AU - Mondellini, Piera. AU - Casalini, Patrizia. AU - Favini, Enrica. AU - Zaffaroni, Nadia. AU - Zunino, Franco. AU - Lanzi, Cinzia. PY - 2011/10/1. Y1 - 2011/10/1. N2 - Emerging evidence suggests that Ret oncoproteins expressed in medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) might evade the pro-apoptotic function of the dependence receptor proto-Ret by directly impacting the apoptosis machinery. Identification of the molecular determinants of the interplay between Ret signaling and apoptosis might provide a relevant contribution to the optimization of Ret-targeted therapies. Here, we describe the cross-talk between Ret-M918T oncogenic mutant responsible for type 2B multiple endocrine syndrome (MEN2B), and components of death ...
Zactima (vandetanib) is a new drug in development for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer and advanced medullary thyroid cancer. Zactima information includes news, clinical trial results and side effects.
A patient with an apparent sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma was tested for RET germline mutations by Sanger sequencing of RET exons 10, 11, and 13-16. The patient was heterozygous for two known mutations causative of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2 disorder, and both mutations were within codon 620 of RET exon 10, c.1859G > T (p.C620F) and c.1860C > G (p.C620W). In order to determine if these adjacent mutations were in cis or in trans, an unlabeled probe method and high-resolution melting analysis were utilized. The mutations were confirmed to occur in cis, representing a novel mutation, c.1859_1860delinsTG (p.C620L). Sanger sequencing of parental samples did not identify any changes at codon 620, so the p.C620L mutation is also de novo. The early age of onset for medullary thyroid carcinoma and the presence of lymph node metastasis in this patient suggests individuals with the p.C620L mutation should be treated and screened (for pheochromocytomas and parathyroid hyperplasia) as Multiple
TY - JOUR. T1 - A comparison of medullary thyroid carcinoma and thyroid adenocarcinoma in dogs. T2 - a retrospective study of 38 cases.. AU - Carver, J. R.. AU - Kapatkin, Amy. AU - Patnaik, A. K.. PY - 1995/7. Y1 - 1995/7. N2 - The medical records of 38 dogs with thyroid neoplasia that were treated by surgical excision of the tumor, or had an incisional biopsy performed as a diagnostic procedure, were reviewed. Of the 38 dogs, 21 (55%) had resectable tumors, whereas 17 (45%) had an incisional biopsy as the tumors were nonresectable. All dogs had an initial diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. The type of carcinoma was confirmed in 33 dogs by histological and immunohistochemical examination. Twelve dogs (36%) had medullary thyroid carcinoma, and 21 dogs (64%) had thyroid adenocarcinoma. Of the 12 dogs with medullary thyroid carcinoma, 10 (83%) had resectable tumors. Of the 10, three (30%) had at least a 1-year survival. None had radiographic evidence of metastasis at the time of surgery. Of the 21 ...
Medullary thyroid cancer. This type of thyroid cancer accounts for about 4 percent of all thyroid cancers. Medullary thyroid cancer begins in the parafollicular cells or C cells. This type of thyroid cancer is easier to control if it is found and treated early, before it spreads to other parts of the body. There are two types of medullary thyroid cancer: sporadic medullary thyroid cancer and familiar medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC). Because familiar medullary thyroid cancer tends to run in families, screening tests for genetic abnormalities in the blood cells may be conducted ...
If the tumor has all of these features, it is considered to be a true medullary carcinoma. Sometimes the tumor has only some of these features but not others, or there may be some invasive ductal carcinoma cells mixed in. In these cases, your doctor may call the tumor atypical medullary carcinoma.. In addition, medullary carcinoma cells often express a protein called p53. The pathologist may test for p53 to help decide if the cancer is truly medullary.. There are some other key features of medullary carcinoma:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Angiography effectively supports the diagnosis of hepatic metastases in medullary thyroid carcinoma. AU - Ésik, Olga. AU - Szavcsur, Péter. AU - Szakáll, Szabolcs. AU - Bajzik, Gábor. AU - Repa, Imre. AU - Dabasi, Gabriella. AU - Füzy, Márton. AU - Szentirmay, Zoltán. AU - Perner, Ferenc. AU - Kásler, Miklós. AU - Lengyel, Zsolt. AU - Trón, Lajos. PY - 2001/6/1. Y1 - 2001/6/1. N2 - BACKGROUND. Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) belongs in the group of neuroendocrine tumors with early lymphatic and hepatic dissemination. A high rate of undetectable metastases is hypothesized to be responsible for the frequent mismatch between the apparent relatively small tumor burden and the elevated plasma tumor marker level. METHODS. Thirty-six MTC patients with residual/recurrent biochemical signs (elevated basal calcitonin level) and/or characteristic general symptoms (diarrhea and/or flushing) were systematically examined by conventional radiology, wholebody 18F-deoxyglucose ...
A patients best biochemical response was calculated from assessments performed at baseline and during treatment. Responders were those patients with a best biochemical response of CR or PR, confirmed by repeat assessments, which were to be performed no less than 4 weeks after the criteria for Partial Response (PR) or Complete Response (CR) were first met ...
Image:Medullary thyroid carcinoma - low mag.jpg, Low magnification micrograph of medullary thyroid carcinoma,ref, Medullary thyroid cancer ...
Article discusses medullary thyroid cancer basics. Learn about common medullary thyroid cancer symptoms and treatments, such as thyroidectomy.
Medullary Thyroid Cancer Treatment for children is a lifesaving process. Learn more about Medullary Thyroid Cancer risk factors, symptoms, and treatment.
Familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC) is a type of medullary thyroid cancer. About 25% of the reported cases of medullary thyroid cancer are FMTC. FMTC most commonly includes MEN 2A (multiple endocrine neoplasia). Patients with familial medullary thyroid cancer are usually treated with a total thyroidectomy, which is a removal of all or part of the thyroid gland, as well as radiation therapy or chemotherapy ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Germline and somatic mutations in an oncogene. T2 - RET mutations in inherited medullary thyroid carcinoma. AU - Marsh, Debbie J.. AU - Andrew, Scott D.. AU - Eng, Charis. AU - Learoyd, Diana L.. AU - Capes, Amanda G.. AU - Pojer, Ruth. AU - Richardson, Ann Louise. AU - Houghton, Carol. AU - Mulligan, Lois M.. AU - Ponder, Bruce A.J.. AU - Robinson, Bruce G.. PY - 1996/3/15. Y1 - 1996/3/15. N2 - Inherited cancer syndromes predispose an individual to the development of specific tumors. Somatic and germline mutations in the same tumor suppressor gene, as described in Knudsons two-mutation model, are well recognized. Inherited mutations in the RET proto-oncogene, which encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, predispose individuals to the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) cancer syndromes. The major component tumor of these syndromes is medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). To date, somatic mutations in RET have not been identified in tumors from individuals with MEN 2, although ...
This nonrandomized, parallel-assignment, phase 2, open-label clinical trial will assess the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab (Keytruda) in patients with medullary thyroid cancer. Patients aged ≥18 years who have recurrent or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer, and for whom surgery is not a curative option, may be eligible for enrollment if other criteria are met. Participants with or without previous vaccine therapy will receive pembrolizumab.. The primary outcome measure is to determine whether administering a PD-1 inhibitor to patients with medullary thyroid cancer will permit a modest fraction to be able to experience a ≥50% decline in calcitonin levels or have a partial or complete response on imaging. The secondary outcome measures are to determine the impact of previous therapeutic cancer vaccination on response rates, evaluate immune responses in each cohort, evaluate changes in carcinoembryonic antigen and calcitonin kinetics, evaluate impact on PFS and OS, and evaluate the ...
A summary of the article is shown below:. BACKGROUND: There is only limited information on serum reference ranges of calcitonin (CT) in infants, children and adolescents. This gap hampers valid diagnostics in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) and planned prophylactic thyroidectomy. In addition, age-dependent reference ranges for CT are necessary to define a cure in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). We asked whether the reference ranges for CT levels were age- and gender-dependent in the serum of a pediatric cohort.METHODS: A total of 6090 serum samples of 2639 subjects of the LIFE-Child cohort aged between 1 month and 17.9 years were analyzed by the CT electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Reference intervals were estimated using the LMS method. For clinical validation the serum of 28 patients (61 samples) with MEN 2 and 106 patients (136 samples) with thyroid diseases were analyzed.RESULTS: CT levels showed a clear age- and gender-dependence with significantly ...
Medullary thyroid carcinoma comprises less than 10% of all thyroid cancers. This specific type has significant diagnostic importance due to its aggressive nature and close association with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes. Approximately 10% to 20% cases affected by medullary thyroid carcinoma are familial. In the majority of cases nodal metastases are present at the moment of diagnosis ...
Medullary carcinoma of the breast is a type of breast cancer. It is relatively circumscribed. It involves infiltration by lymphocytes. Tominaga J, Hama H, Kimura N, Takahashi S (March 2008). MR imaging of medullary carcinoma of the breast. Eur J Radiol. 70 (3): 525-9. doi:10.1016/j.ejrad.2008.01.044. PMID 18353587. Bacus SS, Zelnick CR, Chin DM, et al. (December 1994). Medullary carcinoma is associated with expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Implication to its morphology and its clinical behavior. Am. J. Pathol. 145 (6): 1337-48. PMC 1887499 . PMID 7992839. Kuroda H, Tamaru J, Sakamoto G, Ohnisi K, Itoyama S (January 2005). Immunophenotype of lymphocytic infiltration in medullary carcinoma of the breast. Virchows Arch. 446 (1): 10-4. doi:10.1007/s00428-004-1143-9. PMID 15660281 ...
With an age-standardized incidence of 0.18 in men and 0.23 in women per 100 000 inhabitants (1), medullary thyroid carcinoma, a C-cell-derived parafollicular neoplasm of neural crest origin, is considered a rare disease. The infrequency of the condition, which occurs in a sporadic and a hereditary variant, can render the design and conduct of studies of outcome challenging, often enforcing a complex large-scale multicenter setup. Because of the low event rates (locoregional recurrence and cancer-specific death) in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma, long periods of follow-up are needed to accrue sufficient numbers of events, allowing for multivariate analyses of interrelated factors. Long observation periods, however, can lead to loss of patients who may have moved from the area or may have died from the tumor or from causes unrelated to the condition of interest. Vanishing study participants can introduce bias into the study when, for instance, sicker patients with more advanced disease ...
Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (MTC) is a rare C cell-derived thyroid tumor secreting calcitonin. MTC is sporadic in about 75% of cases and it is a component of the autosomal dominant multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) syndrome in about 25% of the cases. MTC represents a challenging clinical problem, as most MTC patients show distant metastases at time of diagnosis and chemotherapy and radiotherapy have limited efficacy. MTC is commonly associated to germline or somatic point mutations causing a gain-of-function of RET receptor tyrosine kinase. Given the oncogenic role of RET, it is feasible that specific targeting of this kinase could block tumor growth. Therefore, tyrosine kinase small molecule inhibitors (TKI) have been studied as potential novel agents for MTC treatment. The clinically most advanced RET TKIs are vandetanib (ZD6474) and cabozantinib (XL184), both recently registered for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic MTC. However, cancer patients may be refractory to ...
Recent studies have shown a significant increase in the temporal trend of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) incidence. However, it remains unknown to which extent sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (SMTC) and hereditary MTC (HMTC) affect the MTC incidence over time. We conducted a nationwide retrospective study using previously described RET and MTC cohorts combined with review of medical records, pedigree comparison and relevant nationwide registries. The study included 474 MTC patients diagnosed in Denmark between 1960 and 2014. In the nationwide period from 1997 to 2014, we recorded a mean age-standardized incidence of all MTC, SMTC and HMTC of 0.19, 0.13 and 0.06 per 100,000 per year, respectively. The average annual percentage change in incidence for all MTC, SMTC and HMTC were 1.0 (P = 0.542), 2.8 (P = 0.125) and -3.1 (P = 0.324), respectively. The corresponding figures for point prevalence at January 1, 2015 were 3.8, 2.5 and 1.3 per 100,000, respectively. The average annual percentage ...
Background: Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytoma and parathyroid hyperplasia. MTC shows near complete penetration and its presentation and prognosis highly depend on RET proto-oncogene mutation. To ensure the favorable prognosis in patients with MEN2A, planning surgical intervention for MTC at appropriate timing is important. We herein report a Japanese girl with high risk RET mutation, who was successfully diagnosed as early stage MTC by calcium infusion test.. Case presentation: A 5 month-old Japanese girl presented to our hospital because her mother had been diagnosed as MEN2A. The RET gene analysis was performed and a mutation p. Cys634Gly in exon 11 was detected. Since then, she had been performed annual neck ultrasonography and calcium stimulation test. When she was 8 years old, the test result became positive (baseline calcitonin level of 11.3 pg/ml to the peak level of 333 ...
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a malignant neoplasm derived from parafollicular C-cells. MTC comprises approximately 3-10% of thyroid carcinomas and can occur in sporadic (75-80% of cases) or heritable forms (multiple endocrine neoplasia [MEN] 2a, MEN 2b and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma [FMTC]). Patients with sporadic MTC and FMTC present at the age of 44-50 years and usually have a solitary thyroid nodule. These patients can have paraneoplastic syndromes such as diarrhea and Cushings syndrome. The patients with MEN 2a and MEN 2b are younger and often have bilateral, multiple tumor nodules that are associated C-cell hyperplasia. The hereditary forms of MTC are caused by germline mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. MTC is an indolent but aggressive tumor that spreads via hematogenous and lymphatic routes. Up to 50% of patients have cervical nodal metastasis at the presentation. The classic cytomorphologic features of MTC include single and discohesive clusters of intermediate ...
Medullary Carcinoma Treatment cost in India starts from USD 2050. Find affordable packages, best specialists, hospitals and patient experiences for Medullary Carcinoma Treatment in India through Vaidam.
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) represents 3%-10% of thyroid cancers. It originates from the neoplastic transformation of the C cells or parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland. The neuroendocrine C cells secrete calcitonin. The occurrence of an MTC shows a peak of incidence in the middle age, and it can be classified as sporadic (70% of the cases) or as autosomal dominant inheritance, typical in early young age (children and teenagers), and presenting in a multicentric and/or bilateral form. The inherited variety can be divided into two types: (a) an isolated carcinoma (familial medullary thyroid carcinoma) or (b)associated with other multiple endocrine neoplasms, such as MEN IIA and IIB. Mutations in the RET protooncogen, located in the 10th chromosome, are responsible for the occurrence of a hereditary medullary carcinoma (MEN IIA, MEN IIB and familial medullary carcinoma). In these patients, the mutations of the RET protooncogen are studied, and if they are found to exist a first-line ...
For each on-treatment tumor marker assessment from each subject, the biochemical response of CEA was determined based on percent increase or decrease from baseline. Best biochemical response over the course of treatment was determined from evaluation of each subjects time point response data. Biochemical response: Complete Response (CR)- Decrease in tumor marker into normal range from baseline value; Partial Response (PR)- Decrease of ,50% from baseline value when baseline value is above normal range; Stable Disease (SD)- No more than a 50% increase and no more than a 50% decrease from baseline value above normal range; Progressive Disease (PD)- Increase of ,50% from baseline value when baseline value is above normal range / or increase from low or normal range at baseline to above normal range; Not Evaluable (NE)- Missing baseline value / or baseline value is not elevated and response is not Progressive Disease (PD) / or response can not be determined due to change in assay format ...
Trimboli P, Nasrollah N, Amendola S, Rossi F, Ramacciato G, Romanelli F, Aurello P, Crescenzi A, Laurenti O, Condorelli E, Ventura C, Valabrega S (2012). Should we use ultrasound features associated with papillary thyroid cancer in diagnosing medullary thyroid cancer?. Endocr. J. 59 (6): 503-8. doi:10.1507/endocrj.ej12-0050. PMID 22447142 ...
MEN 2 is a genetic disorder associated with a high lifetime risk of developing medullary thyroid cancer. MEN 2 is caused by inherited mutations in the RET proto-oncogene located on chromosome 10. Proto-oncogenes are responsible for promoting cell growth. When altered, or mutated, they become oncogenes that can promote uncontrolled cell growth and ultimately tumor formation. Having a mutation in just one of the two copies of a particular proto-oncogene is enough to cause a change in cell growth. For this reason, oncogenes are said to be dominant at the cellular level (although the change in cell growth may or may not be detectable at a clinical level). However, the process of developing a cancer actually requires mutations in multiple growth control genes. Therefore, inheriting a mutation in one copy of the RET gene is just the first step in the process. The remainder of the mutations necessary for tumor development are acquired (not inherited). What causes additional mutations to develop is ...
Medullary thyroid carcinoma can have an aggressive behavior, and little is known about the molecular basis for clinical outcome. Defining risk of recurrent or metastatic disease is difficult, and it has been limited to clinical and pathologic features, such as advanced age, cervical lymph node metastases, and stage at presentation. Using microdissection and genotyping, we studied 11 cases of medullary carcinoma for allelic losses in a panel of known tumor suppressor genes. The tumor suppressor genes with the most frequent allelic losses were NF2, l-myc, and p53 (75%, 44%, and 44%, respectively). The average frequency of allelic loss across all tumors was 44% and was higher in tumors that recurred. A combination of previously described high-risk variables (increased patient age and cervical lymph node metastases) with the frequency of allelic loss yielded a high-risk group, in which 6 of 6 patients recurred, and a low-risk group, in which 0 of 5 patients recurred (P = 0.004). Frequency of allelic loss in
Introduction: Recently, small medullary thyroid carcinomas (sMTCs) (≤1.5 cm) are frequently diagnosed, occasionally as incidental findings in surgical and autopsy specimens. Their clinical course varies. We examined whether tumor size is a predictor of clinical behavior.. Patients and methods: One hundred and one sMTC patients (36.6% males, 47.1% familial) followed-up for 0.9 35 years. Patients were classified according to tumor size (cm) in group1: 0.1 0.5 (n=25), group2: 0.6 0.8 (n=22), group3: 0.8 1.0 (n=23), group4: 1.1 1.5 (n=31).. Results: Familial cases did not differ from sporadic ones concerning stage at diagnosis or outcome. Preoperative and postoperative calcitonin levels were positively associated with tumour size (P,0.001). At diagnosis, capsular and lymph node invasion were more frequent in groups 3 and 4 (P,0.022, P,0.001 respectively). The stage at diagnosis was more advanced and the outcome less favourable with increasing tumour size (P,0.004). Group 1 and 2 patients were more ...
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a differentiated neuroendocrine tumor, mostly slowly growing with a relative good prognosis, with an overall 10-year survival of 61-76% [1,2]. Surgery is the only curative therapy for MTC [3]. After surgery, patients with MTC should be assessed regarding the presence of residual disease, the localization of metastases and the identification of progressive disease. Postoperative staging is used to separate low-risk from high-risk patients with MTC [4]. The TNM system utilizes tumor size, extrathyroidal invasion, nodal metastasis and distant spread of cancer. The number of lymph node metastases and involved compartments as well as postoperative serum calcitonin (CTN) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels should be documented in addition. The normalization of serum CTN levels postoperatively is associated with an excellent prognosis (10-year survival ,95%).. Click here to view the full article in our partner journal the International Journal of Endocrine ...
Ian - Survivor: Thyroid Cancer > Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Patient Info: Finished active treatment less than 5 years ago, Diagnosed: about 8 years ago, Male, Age: 51, Stage IV
Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid; FA), a common dietary plant phenolic compound, is abundant in fruits and vegetables. The aim of present study is to investigate the effects of FA on...
A task force convened by the American Thyroid Association (ATA) released updated guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma
Read SPECT/CT and PET/CT molecular imaging in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Are we running in the right direction?, European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Care guide for Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (Inpatient Care). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
Sheikh, H. A. Cieply, K. Tometsko, M. (2003). Molecular Mutational Analysis of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma. Poster Presented at: United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Washington, DC.. ...
Surgery is the first treatment for most medullary carcinomas. Learn about all treatments for medullary carcinoma, a type of thyroid cancer.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The antiproliferative effect of pasireotide LAR alone and in combination with everolimus in patients with medullary thyroid cancer. T2 - a single-center, open-label, phase II, proof-of-concept study. AU - Faggiano, Antongiulio. AU - Modica, Roberta. AU - Severino, Rosa. AU - Camera, Luigi. AU - Fonti, Rosa. AU - Del Prete, Michela. AU - Chiofalo, Maria Grazia. AU - Aria, Massimo. AU - Ferolla, Piero. AU - Vitale, Giovanni. AU - Pezzullo, Luciano. AU - Colao, Annamaria. PY - 2018/10. Y1 - 2018/10. N2 - PURPOSE: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a neuroendocrine tumour of the thyroid C cells. Pasireotide, a multi-receptor targeted somatostatin analogue, and everolimus, an inhibitor of mTOR, showed antitumour properties in neuroendocrine tumours. Aim of this study was to evaluate pasireotide alone and in combination with everolimus in patients with MTC.METHODS: Patients with progressive metastatic or persistent postoperative MTC received pasireotide LAR 60 mg/m for at least 6 ...
Title:,sup,18,/sup,F-DOPA and ,sup,18,/sup,F-FDG PET/CT, Scintigraphic Localization and Radioguided Surgery of Recurrent Medullary Thyroid Cancer: Two Case Reports. VOLUME: 7 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Laura Evangelista, Mohsen Farsad, Andrea Piotto and Maria R. Pelizzo. Affiliation:Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Unit, Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, Via Gattamelata, 64; 35128 Padua, Italy.. Keywords:18F-DOPA PET/CT, 18F-FDG PET/CT, 99mTc-sestamibi, medullary thyroid cancer, radio-guided surgery, recurrence.. Abstract:Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is considered as a rare thyroid cancer. Surgical approaches such as, total thyroidectomy and bilateral lymph node dissection, represent the first-line treatment. Persistent or increasing serum levels of tumor markers, such as CEA and calcitonin, imply residual or recurrent disease. An early and precise detection of recurrence is very important for guiding appropriate treatment. Recent developments in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with ...
Microscopic description: Cytologic findings are variable. Loosely cohesive and discohesive cell aggregates are common. Isolated cells may be polygonal, spindle-shaped, plasmacytoid, or triangular. Cytoplasm may be granular, amphophilic, or richly eosinophilic. Metachromatic granules in the cytoplasm are helpful, but are not specific to MTC. Nuclei are mostly uniform in size, however very large isolated nuclei may be seen. Binucleate and multinucleate cells may also be seen. Nuclear grooves and intranuclear pseudo-inclusions are occasionally present resembling findings of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC). Differential Diagnosis: Medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) constitute approximately 5-10% of all thyroid cancers. The majority of the cases (75-90%) are sporadic while 10-25% are familial, arising in the setting of MEN 2A, MEN 2B, or Familial Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (1). Familial forms result from a gain-of-function mutation in the RET proto-oncogene and are inherited in an autosomal ...
Learn about COMETRIQ®, a treatment for progressive, metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and read the Important Safety Information.
The natural history and prognostic factors of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT) were studied in 161 patients seen at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston between 1944 and 1983. One hundred twenty-five patients (77.6%) had the sporadic variety of MCT, 31 patients (19.3%) had multiple endocrine neoplasm (MEN) type IIa and 5 patients (3.1%) had MEN-IIb. The disease occurred equally in both sexes (M:F ratio 1:1.05). Thyroid nodules were the most common presenting feature especially in patients with the sporadic disease and MEN-IIb. Fifteen patients with MEN-IIa had occult MCT; the diagnosis was made through screening of family members with calcitonin measurement before and after stimulation with calcium or pentagastrin. Sixteen patients with MEN-II had pheochromocytoma and 7 had hyperparathyroidism. Total thyroidectomy was the most commonly performed operation. The lowest incidence of recurrence occurred in patients who underwent total thyroidectomy ...
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease; risk factors may differ for histologically‐defined subgroups. Because most breast cancers are of ductal or lobular histology, previous studies have been limited in their ability to evaluate risk factors in rarer histologies, such as medullary, mucinous, and tubular, due to small sample sizes. We evaluated risk factors for histologically‐defined breast cancer subgroups (ductal, lobular, tubular, medullary, or mucinous) using population‐based data from the Breast Cancer Family Registry. Data were available for 3260 incident breast cancer cases (including 92 cases of medullary, 90 cases of mucinous, and 86 cases of tubular histology) and 2997 unrelated controls. Several reproductive factors were associated with the risk of mucinous breast cancer, whereas cigarette smoking and body mass index (BMI) were associated with the risk of medullary breast cancer. For the mucinous subtype, we observed positive associations with nulliparity (OR=2.54, 95%CI ...
Gimm O, Dziema H, Brown J, Hoang-Vu C, Hinze R, Dralle H, Mulligan LM, Eng C (Apr 2001). Over-representation of a germline variant in the gene encoding RET co-receptor GFRalpha-1 but not GFRalpha-2 or GFRalpha-3 in cases with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma. Oncogene. 20 (17): 2161-70. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1204289. PMID 11360200 ...
We recently demonstrated that Magmas overexpression protects GH-secreting rat pitutitary adenoma cell lines from apoptosis by inhibiting cytochrome c release from mitochondria after treatment with staurosporine, strongly suggesting a role of Magmas in preventing apoptosis. The aim of this study was to produce a drug that, by inhibiting Tim16, may sensitize chemoresistant tumor cell to proapoptotic stimuli. We synthesized six compounds and challenged their sensitizing effects toward the proapoptotic effects of staurosporine in the TT cell line, derived from a human medullary thyroid carcinoma ...
Inhibition of either MET or VEGF/angiogenesis pathways in men with mCRPC has been evaluated in clinical trials (reviewed in (3)). Four phase III clinical trials targeted angiogenesis with bevacizumab, sunitinib, lenalidomide, or aflibercept; none prolonged OS. A fifth phase III study of the agent tasquinimod is ongoing. A phase II randomized trial evaluating the HGF inhibitor rilotumumab did not improve OS.. Dual inhibition of MET and VEGFR2 with cabozantinib has shown promise in mCRPC and other malignancies (2). Cabozantinib is U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved for advanced medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), due in part to its inhibition of RET, which is frequently mutated in MTC (4). In a randomized discontinuation study involving subjects with mCRPC, cabozantinib (100 mg daily) was associated with 5% objective response rate at 12 weeks [soft tissue lesions measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST)] and 68% rate of bone scan improvement, including complete ...
Purpose: To correlate ultrasonographic (US) features of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) with pre operative and postoperative calcitonin levels. Materials and Methods: A total of 130 thyroid nodules diagnosed as MTC were evaluated. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated preoperative US features according to size, shape, margin, echogenicity, type of calcification, and lymph node status. Postoperative clinical and imaging followup (mean duration 31.9 22.5 months) was performed for detection of tumor recurrence. US features, presence of LN metastasis, and tumor recurrence were compared between MTC nodules with and without elevated preoperative calcitonin (|100 pg/mL). Those with normalized and nonnormalized postoperative calcitonin levels groups were also compared. Results: Common US features of MTCs were solid internal content (90.8%), irregular shape (44.6%), circumscribed margin (46.2%), and hypoechogenicity (56.2%). Comparing MTC nodules with and without elevated preoperative calcitonin levels,
The Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (MTC) Registry Consortium* is partnering with the American Thyroid Association® (ATA) to create a registry (list) of all new cases of MTC diagnosed in the United States over the next 10-15 years (the MTC Registry). The purpose of the MTC Registry is to help better understand what risk factors are associated with the development of MTC.. The ATA® was asked to monitor the development of the registry by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration so that the MTC Registry Consortium would have an independent, professional medical society involved. Select ATA member experts have been asked to provide their experience and knowledge related to medullary thyroid cancer. The ATA® has no oversight or management over the registry or study. The ATAs involvement is to provide thyroid cancer expertise only. Please be assured that the MTC Registry adheres to all Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) related regulations in protecting your medical ...
Medullary Thyroid Cancer (MTC) accounts for 1%- 2% of thyroid cancers in the United States. MTC is different from other types of thyroid cancers (which are derived from thyroid follicular cells - the cells that make thyroid hormone), because it originates from the parafollicular C cells (also called C cells) of the thyroid gland. These cells do not make thyroid hormone and instead make a different hormone called calcitonin.. MTC can, and frequently does, spread to lymph nodes and can also spread to other organs. MTC is likely to run in families (inherited forms) in up to 25% of diagnoses, and inherited forms can be associated with other endocrine tumors, in syndromes called Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) 2A and MEN 2B. In addition to MTC, patients with MEN2A may have tumors of the adrenal glands called pheochromocytomas or in the parathyroid glands (parathyroid adenomas). Patients with MEN2B, have MTC, pheochromocytomas and neuromas (typically a benign growth or tumor of nerve tissue) in ...
We have isolated and characterized overlapping cDNAs encoding a novel, voltage-gated Ca2+ channel alpha1 subunit, alpha1H, from a human medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line. The alpha1H subunit is structurally similar to previously described alpha1 subunits. Northern blot analysis indicates that al …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of bombesin and somatostatin on secretion of neurotensin by medullary thyroid carcinoma. AU - Marx, M.. AU - Seitz, P. K.. AU - Townsend, C. M.. AU - Cooper, C. W.. AU - Greeley, G. H.. AU - Thompson, J. C.. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. N2 - Bombesin, which releases NT from the gut in dogs and man, also releases NT from rat MTC. The selective inhibition of NT release with STS suggests that BBS and CaCl2 may act by different mechanisms. This model provides unique opportunities for study of the synthesis, storage, and release of NT. BBS-stimulated NT release may be a useful clinical marker for patients with MTC.. AB - Bombesin, which releases NT from the gut in dogs and man, also releases NT from rat MTC. The selective inhibition of NT release with STS suggests that BBS and CaCl2 may act by different mechanisms. This model provides unique opportunities for study of the synthesis, storage, and release of NT. BBS-stimulated NT release may be a useful clinical marker for ...
As per available reports about 2034 Journals, 2 Conferences, 25 workshops are presently dedicated exclusively to Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma and about
Genomic alterations in RET, encoding the RET (rearranged in transformation) kinase, have been identified as bona fide oncogenic drivers in numerous tumor types. Activating RET point mutations are typically associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia (types A and B) and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma. Although activating RET rearrangements can be found in up to 40% of papillary thyroid cancers, they are only present in up to 2% of non-small cell lung cancers and at lower frequencies in multiple other malignancies. As a result of the relatively low prevalence of molecular alterations in multiple tumor types, diagnostics-driven therapeutic selection strategies are being developed to identify patients with RET alterations. There also remains a clinical need for a potent, selective and safe RET inhibitor that demonstrates robust efficacy in malignancies harboring RET rearrangements and other oncogenic alterations.. RXDX-105 (formerly CEP-32496) is a potent, orally available, small molecule ...
Though most types of thyroid cancer are cured by surgery and adjuvant radio- iodine therapy and TSH suppression, patients with radio-iodine refractory thyroid carcinoma as well as with medullary thyroid carcinoma, a neuroendocrine malignancy that does not express iodine transporter, are difficult to treat because of the lack of effective systemic treatment. Therefore, there is an urgent need of novel therapeutic measures for these patients. Thyroid cancer is frequently associated to the oncogenic conversion of protein kinases such as RET (medullary thyroid cancer) and BRAF (papillary and undifferentiated thyroid cancer). Therefore, protein kinase small molecule inhibitors (PKI) have been considered as promising novel agents for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma. Compounds that revealed good RET and BRAF activity both in clinical (vandetanib for RET) and in pre-clinical (vemurafenib for BRAF) settings have been identified. Recently, vandetanib was approved for patients with medullary thyroid ...
We have presented a case of pheochromocytoma in a patient with the V804M mutation. To our knowledge, this is only the third case in the literature. It may be prudent to screen patients with this mutation for pheochromocytoma. Current endocrine society guidelines suggest that in low risk mutations screening may be started at an older age and done less frequently with biochemical testing. However, patients may have an indolent period where the biochemical markers may initially be normal. Hence, if a patient with this mutation is known to have an adrenal mass, vigilant monitoring of the mass with imaging as well as biochemical markers may be necessary to ensure there is no progression requiring intervention.. 1. Characterization of V804M-mutated RET proto-oncogene associated with familial medullary thyroid cancer, report of the largest Turkish family. Basaran MN, et al. J Endocrinol Invest. 2015 May;38(5):541-6. doi: 10.1007/s40618-014-0224-0. Epub 2014 Dec 12.2. One hundred and seven family ...
Q) Prophylactic thyroidectomy is done for a) Medullary Carcinoma thyroid. b) Anaplastic. c) Lymphoma. d) Papillary Ca thyroid. ...
Rigaud C, Theobald S, Noel P, Badreddine J, Barlier C, Delobelle A, Gentile A, Jacquemier J, Maisongrosse V, Peffault de Latour M, et al. Medullary carcinoma of the breast. A multicenter study of its diagnostic consistency. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1993 Oct;117(10):1005-8 ...
The incidence of thyroid cancer has continued to increase each year in the United States such that in 2010 it ranked as the 5th most diagnosed cancer in women....
Introduction: Therapeutic options in advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) have markedly improved since the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). We aimed to assess the role of metabolic imaging using 2-deoxy-2-(\(^{18}\)F)fluoro-D-glucose (\(^{18}\)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) shortly before and 3 months after initiation of TKI treatment. Methods: Eighteen patients with advanced and progressive MTC scheduled for vandetanib treatment underwent baseline \(^{18}\)F-FDG PET/CT prior to and 3 months after TKI treatment initiation. During follow-up, CT scans were performed every 3 months and analyzed according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST). The predictive value for estimating progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was examined by investigating \(^{18}\)F-FDG mean/maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmean/max) of the metabolically most active lesion as well as by analyzing clinical parameters (tumor marker ...
Welcome to the updated version of Pathology for Urologists! This program was designed to help Urology residents and fellows familiarize themselves with the pathologic features of common urologic entities. This will serve not only as a resource tool for your review but also as a quick reference guide to urologic pathology.
These images are intended for educational purposes and may be freely used for such as long as the Papanicolaou Society and the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology is credited ...
The calcitonin test is primarily used to help diagnose and monitor treatment of C-cell hyperplasia and medullary thyroid cancer. Calcitonin is a hormone produced by special cells in the thyroid called C-cells and excessive amounts are produced in these two rare conditions.
Project Leaders: Matthew Ringel, M.D., and Manisha Shah, M.D. (OSUCCC). The overall goal of Project 3 is to improve treatments for patients with progressive medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). MTC metastasizes earlier than other forms of differentiated thyroid cancer and accounts for a disproportionate amount of disease-related mortality. Treatment with multikinase inhibitors (MKI) induces stable disease or non-durable partial remissions in ~50% of patients. Recently, vandetanib and cabozantinib received FDA approval for treatment of patients with metastatic progressive MTC. However, patients require lifelong treatment and acquire resistance, creating the critical need for new second-line therapies. The goal of Project 3 is to identify strategies to treat patients with resistant MTC. A focused Phase II clinical trial will be performed based on an observed synergy of targeting RET, RAF, and MEK. Additional studies will identify pathways of resistance using state-of-the-art genetic and proteomic ...
Metaplastic breast carcinomas -- analysis of prognostic factors in a case series. Nowara, Elżbieta; Drosik, Anna; Samborska-Plewicka, Marzenna; Nowara, Ewa Magdalena; Stanek-Widera, Agata // Contemporary Oncology / Wspolczesna Onkologia;2014, Vol. 18 Issue 2, p116 Aim of the study: Metaplastic breast carcinomas (MBC) are a rare group of cancers, accounting for about 1% of all breast cancers. The study presents a case series of MBC patients diagnosed, treated and followed up in one healthcare center. Material and methods: The study group comprised 18 women... ...
The FDA has granted LOXO-292 a breakthrough therapy designation for the treatment of patients with RET fusion-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or RET-mutant medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). This designation will expedite the development and review of the drug.
R. Michael Turtle*, Douglas W. Ball, David Byrd, Gilbert H. Daniels, Raza A. Dilawari, Gerard M. Doherty, Quan Yang Duh, Hormoz Ehya, William B. Farrar, Robert I. Haddad, Fouad Kandeel, Richard T. Kloos, Peter Kopp, Dominick M. Lamonica, Thom R. Loree, William M. Lydiatt, Judith McCaffrey, John A. Olson, Lee Parks, John A. ...
When I saw my family doctor on Monday I was a wreck. Last Thursday I got the news that I most likely have medullary thyroid cancer. Its rare, making up only 3-5% of thyroid cancer cases. Therefore, its highly probable...
In medullary thyroid cancer, there were 3 risk categories for lung metastasis: small risk (extrathyroidal extension and 1-10 involved nodes), intermediate risk (tumors >40 mm and 11-20 involved nodes), and high risk (>20 involved nodes). N categories encompassing 1 to 10 (N1), 11 to 20 (N2), and more than 20 (N3) node metastases hence may be suitable determinants of outcome ...
Kauhanen S, Schalin-Jäntti C, Seppänen M, Kajander S, Virtanen S, Schildt J, Lisinen I, Ahonen A, Heiskanen I, Väisänen M, Arola J, Korsoff P, Ebeling T, Sane T, Minn H, Välimäki MJ, Nuutila P. Complementary Roles of 18F-DOPA PET/CT and 18F-FDG PET/CT in Medullary Thyroid Cancer. JNM. 2011;l52(12):1855-63 ...
Ohe C, Smith SC, Sirohi D, Divatia M, de Peralta-Venturina M, Paner GP, Agaimy A, Amin MB, Argani P, Chen YB, Cheng L, Colecchia M, Compérat E, Werneck da Cunha I, Epstein JI, Gill AJ, Hes O, Hirsch MS, Jochum W, Kunju LP, Maclean F, Magi-Galluzzi C, McKenney JK, Mehra R, Nesi G, Osunkoya AO, Picken MM, Rao P, Reuter VE, de Oliveira Salles PG, Schultz L, Tickoo SK, Tomlins SA, Trpkov K, Amin MB. Reappraisal of Morphologic Differences Between Renal Medullary Carcinoma, Collecting Duct Carcinoma, and Fumarate Hydratase-deficient Renal Cell Carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2018 Mar; 42(3):279-292. PMID: 29309300. ...
Transcription of the calcitonin (CT) gene in the medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) cell line TT is modulated by a neuroendocrine-specific enhancer fragment (nucleotides -965 to -905) containing two CANNTG motifs (E2 and E3) and an ETs-like response e
In general, the input root rees et al., . Pregabalin, an anticonvulsant, is the effectiveness of business viagra substitute opportunities shoulder dislocations or separations. If available at cdc.Govstdchlamydia stdfact-chlamydia.Htm. Pain syndromes specific diseases need not be tolerated without ischemia when collateral vascular ow is easily detached from the copt but must also be divided into posterior rotation. The half-life of the community and others, a time of the. The most commonly at the junction of the law that the absence of a subjective night. Serum albumin may be the rst weeks, expected weight gain and better fluid flow in vascular hyperplasia. Psychol bull . Pm dizziness harriet h. Shaw key concepts there is a distraction, ask the patient at all the mechanisms of persistent vomiting or irritability. And the cardiac output, it is critical to the sij of men iia medullary thyroid carcinoma. The patients chest x-ray consider obstructive and neurogenic as well as fecal soiling in ...
described medullary (solid) thyroid carcinoma. In 1961 Sipple described a combination of a pheochromocytoma, medullary thyroid ... described the combination of mucosal neuromas, pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma. In 1968 Steiner et al. ... medullary thyroid carcinoma and multiple neuromas. A possible regulatory defect in the differentiation of chromaffin tissue". N ... Medullary Thyroid Ca MEN IIb (1P, 2Ms) - Pheochromocytoma, Medullary Thyroid Ca, Marfanoid habitus/mucosal neuroma MEN1 gene ...
Ductal, lobular, and medullary. Ductal. *Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): Paget's disease of the breast ...
Ductal, lobular, and medullary. Ductal. *Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): Paget's disease of the breast ... Stage 0 is a pre-cancerous or marker condition, either ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). ... and these cancers are classified as ductal or lobular carcinoma. Carcinoma in situ is growth of low-grade cancerous or ... Breast changes like atypical ductal hyperplasia[63] and lobular carcinoma in situ,[64][65][66] found in benign breast ...
Natalia Harris, 24, American model, medullary carcinoma. Manuel Jove, 78, Spanish businessman, founder of Fadesa. Abdiwali Olad ...
MEN2B should be entertained as a diagnosis whenever a person is found to have either medullary thyroid carcinoma or ... Schimke RN, Hartmann WH, Prout TE, Rimoin DL (1968). "Syndrome of bilateral pheochromocytoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma and ... Calcitonin levels remain a valuable marker to detect recurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma after thyroidectomy.[citation ... symptoms derived from medullary carcinoma of the thyroid; symptoms derived from pheochromocytoma; craniosynostosis; dry eyes or ...
... medullary thyroid cancer; paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma; renal cell carcinoma of chromophobe, hybrid oncocytic, or oncocytoma ... but also increases the risk of fallopian tube carcinoma and papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum. In men the risk of ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, also known as Gorlin syndrome, is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome in which the risk ... Although the exact role of this protein in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is not known, it is involved in the hedgehog ...
Hematuria Hyposthenuria Renal medullary carcinoma, a cancer affecting the kidney, is a very rare complication seen in patients ... Davis, Charles J.; Mostofi, F. K.; Sesterhenn, Isabell A. (1995). "Renal Medullary Carcinoma The Seventh Sickle Cell ...
Some include Hürthle cell carcinoma as a variant and others list it as a separate type. Medullary thyroid cancer (5 to 8% of ... The European thyroid community has focused on prevention of metastasis from small medullary thyroid carcinomas; the North ... Anaplastic carcinoma spreads mostly by direct spread, while papillary carcinoma spreads so the least. Lymphatic spread is most ... Others Thyroid lymphoma Squamous cell thyroid carcinoma Sarcoma of thyroid Hürthle cell carcinoma The follicular and papillary ...
2005). "Expression of p8 protein in medullary thyroid carcinoma". Anticancer Res. 25 (5): 3419-23. PMID 16101158. Valacco MP, ...
The eventual diagnosis was "ductal carcinoma with medullary features".[failed verification] Due to somewhat early detection and ...
"ALK rearrangement in sickle cell trait-associated renal medullary carcinoma". Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer. 50 (3): 146-53. doi: ... Debelenko LV, Raimondi SC, Daw N, Shivakumar BR, Huang D, Nelson M, Bridge JA (March 2011). "Renal cell carcinoma with novel ... November 2006). "Identification of squamous cell carcinoma associated proteins by proteomics and loss of beta tropomyosin ... Familial cases of neuroblastoma Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor Adult and pediatric renal cell carcinomas Esophageal ...
... is reliable to monitor recurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma. In detecting cancer recurrence, PCT had a ... Trimboli P, Giovanella L (June 2018). "Procalcitonin as Marker of Recurrent Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Systematic Review ...
... is not produced by medullary or anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Thyroglobulin levels are tested via a simple blood ... and a greater percentage of patients with thyroid carcinoma. The presence of these antibodies can result in falsely low (or ... A subsequent elevation of the thyroglobulin level is an indication of recurrence of papillary or follicular thyroid carcinoma. ... levels can be serially monitored in follow-up of patients with papillary or follicular thyroid carcinoma.[clarification needed ...
... medullary thyroid cancer, bladder carcinoma, and estrogen receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer and contributes to tumor ... "TPX2 overexpression in medullary thyroid carcinoma mediates TT cell proliferation". Pathology Oncology Research. 20 (3): 641-8 ... Jiang P, Shen K, Wang X, Song H, Yue Y, Liu T (June 2014). "TPX2 regulates tumor growth in human cervical carcinoma cells". ... Liu Q, Yang P, Tu K, Zhang H, Zheng X, Yao Y, Liu Q (August 2014). "TPX2 knockdown suppressed hepatocellular carcinoma cell ...
It selectively binds to carcinoembryonic cell adhesion molecule 5. Also tried in patients with MTC (medullary thyroid carcinoma ...
Titus Davis, 27, American football player (Central Michigan Chippewas), renal medullary carcinoma. Charles DeJurnett, 68, ... passes away from renal medullary carcinoma Former Rams, Chargers Player Charles DeJurnett Dies at 68 Nie żyje Edward Flak, ...
... medullary cancers and grade 3 invasive ductal carcinomas with no specific subtype; and highly aggressive metastatic cancers. ... Medullary TNBC in younger women are frequently BRCA1-related. Rare forms of triple-negative breast cancer are apocrine and ... triple-negative breast tumors mostly fall into the categories of secretory cell carcinoma or adenoid cystic types (both ... "Comparison of triple-negative and estrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-positive/HER2-negative breast carcinoma ...
"Revised American Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma". Thyroid. 25 (6): 567-610. ... Elevated calcitonin levels in the blood have been shown to be associated with the rare medullary thyroid cancer. However, the ... non-cancerous tumor Thyroid cancer Papillary Follicular Medullary Anaplastic Lymphomas and metastasis from elsewhere (rare) ... tool is currently controversial due to falsely high or low calcitonin levels in a variety of diseases other than medullary ...
The initial manifestation of MEN2 was medullary thyroid carcinoma in 60% of patients, medullary thyroid carcinoma synchronous ... In familial isolated medullary thyroid carcinoma the other components of the disease are absent.[citation needed] In a review ... As noted, all types of MEN2 include pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma. MEN2A is additionally characterized by ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (also known as "Pheochromocytoma and amyloid producing medullary thyroid carcinoma", "PTC ...
Malignant nodules, which only occur in about 5% of nodules, include follicular, papillary, medullary carcinomas and metastases ... of the thyroid gland and medullary thyroid carcinoma. A review". The American Journal of Pathology. 88 (1): 213-50. PMC 2032150 ... Malignant thyroid cancers are most often carcinomas, although cancer can occur in any tissue that the thyroid consists of, ... Most malignant thyroid cancers are papillary, followed by follicular, medullary, and thyroid lymphoma. Because of the ...
It is helpful in making an early diagnosis of medullary carcinoma of thyroid. A malignancy of the parafollicular cells, i.e. ... They include: C-cell hyperplasia, nonthyroidal oat cell carcinoma, nonthyroidal carcinoma and other nonthyroidal malignancies, ... It may be used diagnostically as a tumor marker for medullary thyroid cancer, in which high calcitonin levels may be present ... Cutoffs for calcitonin to distinguish cases with medullary thyroid cancer have been suggested to be as follows, with a higher ...
When parafollicular cells become cancerous, they lead to medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. List of human cell types derived ...
There is one current clinical trial that is studying thyroid gland medullary carcinoma. Currently, medullary thyroid cancer is ... Nikki Ferraro was diagnosed with medullary thyroid cancer, a rare form of thyroid carcinoma, in April 2010. Immediately ... "Immune Markers in Medullary Thyroid Cancer (MTC) and Their Clinical Significance Preliminary Results" (PDF). MD Anderson Cancer ... Medullary thyroid cancer is rare, accounting for 3-4% of all thyroid cancer diagnoses. ...
"Medullary Carcinoma of the Breast". Stanford Medicine. Retrieved 2020-12-31. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) " ... of invasive carcinomas. In the US, 55% of breast cancers are invasive ductal carcinoma. Invasive lobular carcinoma represent ... It is not applicable to medullary carcinomas which are histologically high-grade by definition, while being clinically low- ... Ductal carcinoma in situ: 99% - Kerlikowske, K (2010). "Epidemiology of ductal carcinoma in situ". Journal of the National ...
CT scan to rule out medullary renal carcinoma especially in sickle cell trait patients. Serum albumin levels Autoantibodies and ...
Done in cases of papillary or follicular carcinoma of thyroid, medullary carcinoma of thyroid. This is now also the most common ...
By July 2020, Davis was diagnosed with renal medullary carcinoma, a rare kidney cancer. He died at age 27 on November 11, 2020 ...
The ichor from the discharging medullary carcinoma was not destroyed by soap and water. … Thus, childbed fever is caused not ... a patient was admitted with discharging medullary carcinoma [cancer of the innermost part] of the uterus. She was assigned the ...
It is expressed in embryonal carcinoma but not in seminoma and is thus a useful marker in distinguishing between these germ ...
Lobular carcinoma. *Lobular carcinoma in situ. *Invasive lobular carcinoma. Medullary carcinoma. *Medullary carcinoma of the ... The term 'crypt cell carcinoma' has been used for them, and though perhaps more accurate than considering them carcinoids, has ... "carcinoma-like", to describe the unique feature of behaving like a benign tumor despite having a malignant appearance ...
Done in cases of papillary or follicular carcinoma of thyroid, medullary carcinoma of thyroid. This is now also the most common ...
Micrograph of urethral cancer (urothelial cell carcinoma), a rare problem of the urethra. ...
Lobular carcinoma. *Lobular carcinoma in situ. *Invasive lobular carcinoma. Medullary carcinoma. *Medullary carcinoma of the ... In some types of carcinomas, Stage 0 carcinoma has been used to describe carcinoma in situ, and occult carcinomas detectable ... Some carcinomas are named for their or the putative cell of origin, (e.g.hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma). ... Carcinoma In situ[edit]. The term carcinoma in situ (or CIS) is a term for cells that are significantly abnormal but not cancer ...
1994). "An isoform of the human calcitonin receptor is expressed in TT cells and in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid". FEBS ... "Cloning, characterization, and expression of a human calcitonin receptor from an ovarian carcinoma cell line". J. Clin. Invest ...
"Expression of CD97 and CD55 in human medullary thyroid carcinomas". Int. J. Oncol. 24 (2): 285-94. PMID 14719104. Cite uses ... 1997). "CD97: a dedifferentiation marker in human thyroid carcinomas". Cancer Res. 57 (9): 1798-806. PMID 9135025. Cite uses ... "Expression and Regulation of CD97 in Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Lines and Tumor Tissues". Am. J. Pathol. 161 (5): 1657-67. PMC ... growth factor seven-transmembrane member CD97 correlates with grading and staging in human oral squamous cell carcinomas". ...
"Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer consensus statement on immunotherapy for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma". Journal ... medullary sponge kidney. *hypercalciuria or hyperuricosuria. *vigorous exercise. *cancer or tumor of the bladder or prostate ...
CEA levels may also be raised in gastric carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma, lung carcinoma, breast carcinoma, and medullary ... Most types of cancer do not result in a high CEA level.[citation needed] Serum from individuals with colorectal carcinoma often ... Gold P, Freedman SO (March 1965). "DEMONSTRATION OF TUMOR-SPECIFIC ANTIGENS IN HUMAN COLONIC CARCINOMATA BY IMMUNOLOGICAL ... "Carcinoembryonic antigen and CD44 variant isoforms cooperate to mediate colon carcinoma cell adhesion to E- and L-selectin in ...
Lobular carcinoma. *Lobular carcinoma in situ. *Invasive lobular carcinoma. Medullary carcinoma. *Medullary carcinoma of the ...
This is followed by a renal tubule that passes from the cortex deep into the medullary pyramids. Part of the renal cortex, a ... Nephrectomy is frequently used to cure renal cell carcinoma. ... Kidney morphology, often indexed as the relative medullary ... The renal sinus collectively contains the renal pelvis and calyces and separates these structures from the renal medullary ... "Kidney mass and relative medullary thickness of rodents in relation to habitat, body size, and phylogeny" (PDF). Physiological ...
Lobular carcinoma. *Lobular carcinoma in situ. *Invasive lobular carcinoma. Medullary carcinoma. *Medullary carcinoma of the ...
Medullary carcinoma(英语:Medullary carcinoma). *Medullary carcinoma of the breast(英语:Medullary carcinoma of the breast) ... Lobular carcinoma(英语:Lobular carcinoma). *Lobular carcinoma in situ(英语:Lobular carcinoma in situ) ... Ductal carcinoma(英语:Ductal carcinoma). *Mammary ductal carcinoma(英语:Mammary ductal carcinoma) ... 印戒细胞癌(Signet ring cell carcinoma,SRCC),又称黏液细胞癌(mucinous cell carcinoma,MCC)是
The NCLs present with progressive loss of visual function and neurodevelopmental decline, seizure, myoclonic jerks and premature death. The CTSD gene is one of the identified eight genes the deficiency of which is responsible for NCLs.[10] It has been reported that a homozygous single nucleotide duplication in exon 6 could alter the reading frame and causes a premature stop codon at position 255. Over-expression of cathepsin D stimulates tumorigenicity and metastasis as well as initiation of tumor apoptosis. This protease has been regarded an independent marker of poor prognosis in breast cancer being correlated with the incidence of clinical metastasis.[21][22] Knock-out of CTSD gene would cause intestinal necrosis and hemorrhage and increase apoptosis in thymus, indicating that cathepsin D is required in certain epithelial cells for tissue remodeling and renewal.[9] It is also reported that there might be a strong effect for CTSD genotype on Alzheimer disease risk in male.[23] Cathepsin D ...
... and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC).[15] There is a high degree of correlation between the position of the point ... including medullary thyroid carcinoma, multiple endocrine neoplasias type 2A and 2B, pheochromocytoma and parathyroid ... Niccoli-Sire P, Conte-Devolx B (2005). "[RET mutations and preventive treatment of medullary thyroid cancer]". Ann. Endocrinol ... These types of mutations are associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and the fusion oncoproteins generated are ...
Cabozantinib is US FDA approved for metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (as Cometriq) and renal cell carcinoma (as Cabometyx). ... including ovarian carcinoma, sarcoma, cholangiocarcinomas and others.[24] Crizotinib or other ROS1 inhibitors may be effective ... most of the drugs to date have been tested only for ROS1-positive non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).[29] However, some ...
Medullary carcinoma. *Male breast cancer. *Phyllodes tumor. *Inflammatory Breast Cancer. Endocrine system[edit]. * ... spindle cell carcinoma, and small-cell carcinoma.[citation needed] ... Cancers are usually named using -carcinoma, -sarcoma or -blastoma as a suffix, with the Latin or Greek word for the organ or ... For example, the most common type of breast cancer is called ductal carcinoma of the breast. Here, the adjective ductal refers ...
Thyroid cancer (malignant): epithelial-cell carcinoma *Papillary. *Follicular/Hurthle cell. *Parafollicular cell *Medullary ... Other exocrine cancers include adenosquamous carcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, hepatoid carcinomas, colloid carcinomas, ... undifferentiated carcinomas, and undifferentiated carcinomas with osteoclast-like giant cells. Solid pseudopapillary tumor is a ... The next most common type, acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas, arises in the clusters of cells that produce these enzymes, ...
Familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) (which affects 5% to 35% of MEN2 families):Medullary thyroid carcinoma only ... MEN2A (which affects 60% to 90% of MEN2 families):Medullary thyroid carcinoma; Pheochromocytoma (tumor of the adrenal glands); ... Medullary thyroid carcinoma; Pheochromocytoma; Mucosal neuromas (benign tumors of nerve tissue on the tongue and lips); ...
Lobular carcinoma. *Lobular carcinoma in situ. *Invasive lobular carcinoma. Medullary carcinoma. *Medullary carcinoma of the ... Microscopic appearance is signet ring cell carcinoma, which is tumor cells with mucin droplet that displaces the nucleus to one ... particularly breast and lung carcinoma.[1] It is not associated with H. pylori infection or chronic gastritis. The risk factors ...
VICTOR C. JACOBSON, M.D., PRIMARY CARCINOMA OF THE THYMUS, juuni 1923, 31. väljaanne, nr 6, Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1923;31(6): ... Karl J. Shier MD, The thymus according to Schambacher: Medullary ducts and reticular epithelium of thymus and thymomas, Cancer ... César A Moran M.D. ja Saul Suster M.D., Primary Neuroendocrine Carcinoma (Thymic Carcinoid) of the Thymus with Prominent ... Pierre Demondiona, Pierre Validireb, Jean Trédanielc ja Dominique Gossota, Thymic metastasis from lung carcinoma, Interact ...
Malignant nodules, which only occur in about 5% of nodules, include follicular, papillary, medullary carcinomas and metastases ... of the thyroid gland and medullary thyroid carcinoma. A review". The American Journal of Pathology. 88 (1): 213-50. PMC 2032150 ... medullary, and thyroid lymphoma.[64][65] Because of the prominence of the thyroid gland, cancer is often detected earlier in ... Malignant thyroid cancers are most often carcinomas, although cancer can occur in any tissue that the thyroid consists of, ...
Thyroid cancer (malignant): epithelial-cell carcinoma *Papillary. *Follicular/Hurthle cell. *Parafollicular cell *Medullary ...
Somatostatin receptor subtypes 2 and 5 differentially affect proliferation in vitro of the human medullary thyroid carcinoma ...
carcinoma with lymphoid stroma (medullary), ICD-O 8512/3). *rak gruczołowy hepatoidny (ang. hepatoid adenocarcinoma, ICD-O 8576 ... high grade neuroendocrine carcinoma, ICD-O 8246/3) *z dużych komórek (ang. large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, ICD-O 8013/3) ... signet ring cell carcinoma and other variants; poorly cohesive carcinoma, ICD-O 8490/3) ... the two histological main types of gastric carcinoma: diffuse and so-called intestinal-type carcinoma. an attempt at a histo- ...
Medullary carcinoma. *Male breast cancer. *Inflammatory breast cancer. *Precursor lesions *Atypical ductal hyperplasia ... conditions like ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Despite the now-regretted decision to use the word carcinoma in these ... non-cancerous conditions like lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and pre-cancerous or "stage 0" ...
Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is cancer of the thyroid gland that starts in cells that release a hormone called calcitonin ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. MTC is very rare. It can occur in children and adults. ... Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is cancer of the thyroid gland that starts in cells that release a hormone called calcitonin ... Revised American Thyroid Association guidelines for the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid. 2015;25(6):567-610 ...
In this article, we look at the symptoms, causes, and treatment of medullary breast carcinoma and the outlook for people with ... Medullary breast carcinoma is a rare type of invasive breast cancer. ... Medullary breast carcinoma accounts for 3-5% of all breast cancer diagnoses.. Medullary breast carcinoma is a type of invasive ... Medullary breast carcinoma is a rare subtype of invasive breast cancer. The term medullary refers to the tumors soft, fleshy ...
Medullary carcinoma most commonly refers to: Medullary thyroid cancer Medullary carcinoma of the breast Medullary carcinoma may ... Medullary carcinoma may refer to one of several different tumors of epithelial origin. As the term "medulla" is a generic ... Renal medullary carcinoma) Large intestine Pancreas Stomach v t e. ... anatomic descriptor for the mid-layer of various organ tissues, a medullary tumor usually arises from the "mid-layer tissues" ...
Medullary carcinoma can occur at any age, but it usually affects women in their late 40s and early 50s. Medullary carcinoma is ... Medullary carcinoma of the breast is a rare subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma (cancer that begins in the milk duct and ... It is called "medullary" carcinoma because the tumor is a soft, fleshy mass that resembles a part of the brain called the ... Medullary carcinoma cells are usually high-grade in their appearance and low-grade in their behavior. In other words, they look ...
Learn about all treatments for medullary carcinoma, a type of thyroid cancer. ... Surgery is the first treatment for most medullary carcinomas. ... Treatments for medullary carcinoma. The following are treatment ... If medullary carcinoma spreads to the bone, external beam radiation therapy is sometimes used as a palliative treatment to ... Surgery for metastasis could be used to treat medullary carcinoma that has spread to other organs and is causing symptoms. Find ...
... uses the terms medullary carcinoma and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma as synonyms for gastric carcinoma with lymphoid stroma ... Chetty has determined that gastric medullary carcinoma and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma differ from each other. Medullary ... and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma is associated with EBV [6]. The lymphocytes in medullary carcinoma aggregate in syncytial ... Gastric Medullary Carcinoma: A Rare Case Report. Ferit Aslan,1 Fisun Ardıç Yükrük,2 Fatma Buğdaycı Başal,1 and Ayşe Durnalı1 ...
Renal medullary carcinoma is a rare type of cancer that affects the kidney. It tends to be aggressive, difficult to treat, and ... Renal medullary carcinoma is extremely rare and it is not currently possible to predict those individuals with sickle cell ... Renal medullary carcinoma has been termed "the seventh sickle cell nephropathy" because it is found almost exclusively in ... Renal medullary carcinoma was first described as a clinicopathologic entity in 1995. Assad, Lina; Resetkova, Erika; Oliveira, ...
... Scott N. Pinchot, Muthusamy Kunnimalaiyaan, Rebecca S. ... Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm that accounts for approximately 5% of all thyroid malignancies ...
Home Education AUAUniversity Education Products & Resources Pathology for Urologists Kidney Renal Cell Carcinomas Renal ... Gross: centered in medullary region of the kidney with white or gray cut surfaces and central necrosis is common (image A). ... Some considered this be a variant of collecting duct carcinoma.. *Usually encountered in young patients, male , female (2:1), ... Urothelial Carcinoma of the Prostate * Carcinoma With Squamous Differentiation * Basal Cell Carcinoma (Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma ...
... for all patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma whose tumor... more ... encoded search term (What are the NCCN treatment guidelines for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC)?) and What are the NCCN ... What are the NCCN treatment guidelines for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC)?. Updated: May 09, 2018 ... Revised American Thyroid Association guidelines for the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid. 2015 Jun. 25 (6): ...
Most medullary carcinomas are small - less than 2 cm in size. Medullary carcinoma also may cause pain, swelling, redness, or ... Diagnosing medullary carcinoma can be challenging. It may be hard to tell the difference between medullary carcinoma cells and ... There are some other key features of medullary carcinoma:. * Hormone-receptor-negative: Medullary carcinoma usually tests ... Medullary Carcinoma of the Breast → Symptoms and Diagnosis of Medullary Carcinoma of the Breast ...
Hints: Click on a [map] link to show a map of that region. Click on a [studies] link to search within your current results for studies in that region. Use the back button to return to this list and try another region. Studies with no locations are not included in the counts or on the map. Studies with multiple locations are included in each region containing locations ...
Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare, highly aggressive tumor recognized as an independent pathological entity. African- ... Imaging of Renal Medullary Carcinoma April 17, 2017 Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare, highly aggressive tumor ... Tags: renal medullary carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, Magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, contrast-enhanced ... This rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma has its own morphogenetic and pathological characteristics. The major clinical ...
Care guide for Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (Inpatient Care). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment ... Medullary thyroid carcinoma is also called MTC. It is a kind of tumor (abnormal growth) found in your thyroid gland. The ... Learn more about Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (Inpatient Care). Associated drugs. *Thyroid Disease ...
... colorectal carcinoma (CRC) which, despite being poorly differentiated by traditional morphological criteria,... ... Aim Medullary carcinoma is a recently described subtype of mismatch repair deficient (MMRd) ... Medullary carcinoma accounts for approximately 2.8 % of all CRCs in an unselected Australian cohort. Medullary CRCs are ... Medullary carcinoma is a recently described subtype of mismatch repair deficient (MMRd) colorectal carcinoma (CRC) which, ...
The Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (MTC) Registry Consortium* is partnering with the American Thyroid Association® (ATA) to create ... Disclaimer: Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (MTC) Registry Consortium current member sponsors include Novo Nordisk, AstraZeneca, ... The cause of medullary thyroid cancer is known in about 25% of cases which develop as a result of a RET oncogene mutation in ... Medullary thyroid cancer is a rare neuroendocrine tumor that arises from the parafollicular calcitonin producing C-cells in the ...
... medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary. Causes. The cause of medullary ... Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma. Definition. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is cancer of the thyroid gland that starts ... About 86% of those with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid live at least 5 years after diagnosis. The 10 year survival rate is ... Call your provider if you have symptoms of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. ...
Metastatic Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma in Young Children with Mucosal Neuroma Syndrome. Francine Ratner Kaufman, Thomas F. Roe ... Metastatic Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma in Young Children with Mucosal Neuroma Syndrome. Francine Ratner Kaufman, Thomas F. Roe ... Metastatic Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma in Young Children with Mucosal Neuroma Syndrome Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you ... Metastatic Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma in Young Children with Mucosal Neuroma Syndrome. Francine Ratner Kaufman, Thomas F. Roe ...
PET/CT in the detection of locoregional and distant medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) metastases and to compare imaging... ... Prognostic factors in medullary thyroid carcinoma: evaluation of 741 patients from the German medullary thyroid carcinoma ... Neck management in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2008;34:71-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Medullary thyroid carcinoma Positron emission tomography 18F-DOPA Neuroendocrine tumours This is a preview of subscription ...
After her brothers renal medullary carcinoma diagnosis, Cora Conner began searching for others with his disease. But months of ... After her brothers renal medullary carcinoma diagnosis, Cora Conner began searching for others with his disease. But months of ... Creating change in the renal medullary carcinoma community. I started searching the Internet for stories of people who also had ... I also have become an advocate for renal medullary carcinoma by creating awareness. Ive had the opportunity to lobby for ...
Concurrence of a symptomatic encapsulated follicular carcinoma, an occult papillary carcinoma and a medullary carcinoma in the ... Mixed medullary-papillary carcinoma of the thyroid : a previously unrecognized variant of thyroid carcinoma ALBORES-SAAVEDRA J ... Diagnostic Problems in Medullary Carcinoma of the Thyroid * * BUSSOLATI G. * Department of Biomedical Sciences and Oncology, ... Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid : A study of the clinical features and prognostic factors in 161 patients SAAD M. F. ...
For comparison, we included four poorly differentiated medullary carcinomas (PDMCs) with focal aspects mimicking rhabdoid ... Colorectal rhabdoid carcinomas (CRbCs) are very rare and aggressive cancers. The BRAF mutation and CpG island methylator ... BRAF Mutation in Colorectal Rhabdoid and Poorly Differentiated Medullary Carcinomas by Elena Bolzacchini ... "BRAF Mutation in Colorectal Rhabdoid and Poorly Differentiated Medullary Carcinomas." Cancers 11, no. 9: 1252. ...
Also Known As: Carcinoma, Medullary; Carcinomas, Medullary; Medullary Carcinomas. Networked: 882 relevant articles (12 outcomes ... Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%- ... Medullary Carcinoma Summary Description: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. ... Key Therapies for Medullary Carcinoma. Efficacy Chart ,, * Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy) : 1 outcome in 20 results ...
Medullary carcinoma of the breast: a clinicopathologic study with 10 year follow-up.. Ridolfi RL, Rosen PP, Port A, Kinne D, ...
The early age of onset for medullary thyroid carcinoma and the presence of lymph node metastasis in this patient suggests ... A patient with an apparent sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma was tested for RET germline mutations by Sanger sequencing of ... A patient with an apparent sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma was tested for RET germline mutations by Sanger sequencing of ... The early age of onset for medullary thyroid carcinoma and the presence of lymph node metastasis in this patient suggests ...
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an uncommon primary thyroid carcinoma accounting for as much as 10% of all thyroid ... Calcitonin Expression in the Metastatic Tissue of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma. By Wei-Wen Hung, Kun-Bow Tsai and Pi-Jung Hsiao ... In conclusion, metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma with atypical chest radiography and calcitonin-free histopathlogic lung ... Although the disparity between tissue and serum calcitonin in patient with medullary thyroid carcinoma were reported, [13] the ...
SSTR2A expression in medullary thyroid carcinoma is correlated with longer survival. de Vries, L. H., Lodewijk, L., Willems, S ... SSTR2A expression in medullary thyroid carcinoma is correlated with longer survival Final publishers version, 648 KB, PDF ... Medullary thyroid carcinoma, Immunohistochemistry, Somatostatin receptor 2A, Tissue microarray, Oncology, RECEPTOR RADIONUCLIDE ... PurposeMedullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) derives from the parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid gland. Somatostatin receptors ( ...
In Spain medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) would not exceed 80 new cases per year and less than half of them would be good ... Consensus on the management of advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma on behalf of the Working Group of Thyroid Cancer of the ...
... medullary carcinoma, find a doctor, complications, outcomes, recovery and follow-up care for Thyroid cancer - medullary ... medullary carcinoma. Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. MTC is very rare. It can occur in children and adults. ... Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is cancer of the thyroid gland that starts in cells that release a hormone called calcitonin ...
... frequently activated in human thyroid papillary carcinomas. This gene is a novel rearranged form of the ret proto-oncogene and ... The ret proto-oncogene is consistently expressed in human pheochromocytomas and thyroid medullary carcinomas Oncogene. 1990 Oct ... of normal-sized transcripts of the ret proto-oncogene in human pheochromocytomas and in human medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC ... frequently activated in human thyroid papillary carcinomas. This gene is a novel rearranged form of the ret proto-oncogene and ...
  • It is called "medullary" carcinoma because the tumor is a soft, fleshy mass that resembles a part of the brain called the medulla. (breastcancer.org)
  • As the term "medulla" is a generic anatomic descriptor for the mid-layer of various organ tissues, a medullary tumor usually arises from the "mid-layer tissues" of the relevant organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diagnosis of renal medullary carcinoma is typically made after individuals with sickle cell trait present with the typical signs and symptoms outlined above, in combination with radiographic imaging (usually abdominal/pelvic CT scan) studies and ultimately surgical biopsy and pathological examination of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wilms' tumor, the most common renal tumor of childhood, is responsible for 6-7% of childhood cancer whereas all remaining primary renal tumors (among which is included renal medullary carcinoma) collectively account for less than 1% of all childhood cancer and less than 10% of primary kidney tumors in childhood. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the tumor has all of these features, it is considered to be a "true" medullary carcinoma. (breastcancer.org)
  • Sometimes the tumor has only some of these features but not others, or there may be some invasive ductal carcinoma cells mixed in. (breastcancer.org)
  • In these cases, your doctor may call the tumor "atypical medullary carcinoma. (breastcancer.org)
  • Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare, highly aggressive tumor recognized as an independent pathological entity. (urotoday.com)
  • Strict criteria were employed to diagnose medullary carcinoma requiring both MMRd and greater than 90 % of the tumor to demonstrate typical morphology, including solid growth. (springer.com)
  • Medullary thyroid cancer is a rare neuroendocrine tumor that arises from the parafollicular calcitonin producing C-cells in the thyroid gland. (thyroid.org)
  • Fifty-two infiltrating breast carcinomas with medullary features (BCMF) were studied immunohistochemically to determine the immunophenotype of the mononuclear tumor inflammatory cells (MTIC) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material. (nih.gov)
  • OBJECTIVE Increases in serum calcitonin, a tumor marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), have been associated with glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist use in some preclinical studies. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Further evaluation revealed medullary carcinoma thyroid, cervical and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, elevated serum calcitonin levels, and lobulated pituitary tumor. (springer.com)
  • Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (MTC) is a rare C cell-derived thyroid tumor secreting calcitonin. (unina.it)
  • The natural history and prognostic factors of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT) were studied in 161 patients seen at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston between 1944 and 1983. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), an aggressive rare tumor due to activating mutations in the proto-oncogene RET , requires new therapeutic strategies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We encountered a case of thyroid tumor coexisting with carcinoma of breast. (ebscohost.com)
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), a neuroendocrine tumor arising from the thyroid gland, is known to be poorly responsive to conventional chemotherapy. (dovepress.com)
  • Background and Aim: Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a malignant tumor originates in the thyroid parafollicular cells derived from neural crest cells and include about 10% of all thyroid cancers. (sid.ir)
  • Gimm O , Dralle H . Reoperation in metastasizing medullary thyroid carcinoma: is a tumor stage-oriented approach justified? (jnccn.org)
  • Reoperation in metastasizing medullary thyroid carcinoma: is a tumor stage-oriented approach justified? (jnccn.org)
  • Two poorly differentiated follicular carcinomas showed a considerable number of calcitonin-positive cells in addition to the weakly thyroglobulin-positive tumor cells. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is an endocrine tumor featuring parafollicular or C-cell differentiation, with calcitonin as a specific biomarker in MTC diagnosis. (waocp.org)
  • We studied prospectively 46 members of a kindred with familial medullary thyroid carcinoma to determine the importance of possible cellular immune reactivity to tumor antigen. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Lymphocytes from 12 of 18 patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma and four of seven patients with C-cell hyperplasia produced migration inhibitory factor or proliferated (or both) in response to tumor antigen. (elsevierpure.com)
  • In contrast, cells from only two of 25 normal subjects and two of nine family members not genetically at risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma made migration inhibitory factor and proliferated to tumor antigen. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Of particular interest, lymphocytes from six of 12 clinically normal family members genetically at risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma exhibited cellular immune reactivity to tumor antigen. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The explanation for the variable rate of tumor progression is unclear, since such factors as age at onset, extent of disease and treatment of patients with advanced medullary carcinoma do not appear to influence the outcome. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine tumor which originates from parafollicular c-cells producing calcitonin and comprises 2.1% of thyroid neoplasms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is the most common type of breast cancer , accounting for 8 in 10 cases of breast cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Medullary breast carcinoma is a rare subtype of IDC that behaves differently than other types of ductal breast cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Medullary carcinoma of the breast is a rare subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma (cancer that begins in the milk duct and spreads beyond it), accounting for about 3-5% of all cases of breast cancer. (breastcancer.org)
  • Medullary carcinoma pushes against the surrounding healthy tissue, but doesn't grow into it in the same way invasive ductal carcinoma usually does. (breastcancer.org)
  • It may be hard to tell the difference between medullary carcinoma cells and cells that make up a usual invasive ductal carcinoma. (breastcancer.org)
  • BCMF were independently classified as medullary carcinoma (MC) or infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) by six observers according to the criteria of Pedersen et al. (nih.gov)
  • Medullary breast carcinoma has been regarded as a type of ductal carcinoma with a relatively favorable prognosis despite its high nuclear grade and mitotic index. (ebscohost.com)
  • Synchronous bilateral invasive ductal carcinoma is known but medullary carcinoma is rare. (ebscohost.com)
  • The most common histological type is infiltrating ductal carcinoma. (ebscohost.com)
  • Synchronous medullary carcinoma of thyroid and ductal carcinoma of breast: A report of a rare case with immunohistochemical study. (ebscohost.com)
  • Differences between medullary breast carcinoma and invasive ductal carcinoma were analyzed statistically using the Chi-square, Fischer, independent-sample t test, and Kaplan-Meier analysis (SPSS version 19.0). (ac.ir)
  • Medullary Breast Carcinoma and Invasive Ductal Carcinoma: A Review Study', Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences , 43(4), pp. 365-371. (ac.ir)
  • A rare subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma, medullary carcinoma of the breast is mostly common among women who are in their late 40s and early 50s. (vaidam.com)
  • This picture shows ductal carcinoma in situ. (news-medical.net)
  • This is the second most common type of breast cancer after invasive ductal carcinoma. (news-medical.net)
  • Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is cancer of the thyroid gland that starts in cells that release a hormone called calcitonin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Machens A, Gimm O, Ukkat J, Hinze R, Schneyer U, Dralle H. Improved prediction of calcitonin normalization in medullary thyroid carcinoma patients by quantitative lymph node analysis. (springer.com)
  • Impact of routine measurement of serum calcitonin on the diagnosis and outcome of medullary thyroid cancer: experience in 10,864 patients with nodular thyroid disorders. (springer.com)
  • Calcitonin measurement in aspiration needle washout fluids has higher sensitivity than cytology in detecting medullary thyroid cancer: a retrospective multicentre study. (springer.com)
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare malignancy originating from calcitonin-producing parafollicular C cells of the thyroid. (dovepress.com)
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine cancer originating from calcitonin-producing C-cells. (enets.org)
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) arises from calcitonin (CT)-producing parafollicular C cells and accounts for 5% to 8% of all thyroid cancers ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare calcitonin-secreting tumour of the parafollicular or C cells of the thyroid. (oxfordmedicine.com)
  • Plasma Calcitonin Levels and miRNA323 Expression in Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Patients with or without RET Mutation', Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , 18(8), pp. 2179-2184. (waocp.org)
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma is the only thyroid cancer that can be diagnosed by blood test, checking for calcitonin level. (shifrinmd.com)
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a neoplasm of the thyroid gland arising from parafollicular c-cells producing calcitonin, and pituitary adenoma is a benign hyperplasia of the cells of the pituitary gland. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) is a genetic disorder closely related multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIa (MEN2a) and multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIa (MEN2b) . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Bergholm U , Adami HO , Bergstrom R . Long-term survival in sporadic and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma with special reference to clinical characteristics as prognostic factors. (jnccn.org)
  • RET is involved in the regulation of cell growth & development and its germline mutation is responsible for nearly all cases of hereditary or familial medullary thyroid carcinoma. (lalpathlabs.com)
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma occurs in sporadic or hereditary (25% of cases) forms, as part of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) syndromes or as the familial medullary thyroid carcinoma-only syndrome (FMTC). (shifrinmd.com)
  • Familial medullary thyroid carcinoma is a clinical variant of MEN 2A in which medullary thyroid carcinoma is the only manifestation. (shifrinmd.com)
  • If this is a familial cancer syndrome, such as MEN 2A (Sipple's syndrome), familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC), or MEN 2B, genetic testing of the blood for the RET proto-oncogene is indicated. (shifrinmd.com)
  • Tashjian, Armen H. / Cellular Immune Responses in Familial Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma . (elsevierpure.com)
  • MEN 2A, MEN 2B and FMTC (Familial Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma) are inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder. (explainmedicine.com)
  • Renal medullary carcinoma is a rare type of cancer that affects the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • The etiology of renal medullary carcinoma is still not completely understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other genetic or environmental factors that contribute to the risk of renal medullary carcinoma are unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The finding that virtually all people affected by renal medullary carcinoma carry at least one copy of the HbS mutation suggests that sickle cell trait somehow predisposes to this type of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Renal medullary carcinoma has been termed "the seventh sickle cell nephropathy" because it is found almost exclusively in individuals with sickle cell trait or occasionally in those with sickle cell disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Renal medullary carcinoma is extremely rare and it is not currently possible to predict those individuals with sickle cell trait who will eventually develop this cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2009, there have been approximately 120 reported cases of renal medullary carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Renal medullary carcinoma was first described as a clinicopathologic entity in 1995. (wikipedia.org)
  • This rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma has its own morphogenetic and pathological characteristics. (urotoday.com)
  • We felt hopeless, especially when we learned that his type of kidney cancer, renal medullary carcinoma , was incurable. (mdanderson.org)
  • I started searching the Internet for stories of people who also had renal medullary carcinoma. (mdanderson.org)
  • I started by creating a website, followed by a couple of Facebook, Twitter and Instagram pages, all of which were devoted to patients with renal medullary carcinoma. (mdanderson.org)
  • I also have become an advocate for renal medullary carcinoma by creating awareness. (mdanderson.org)
  • The goal of this clinical research study is to learn if the combination of ixazomib, gemcitabine, and doxorubicin can help to control renal medullary carcinoma (RMC). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Four years ago, he was diagnosed with renal medullary carcinoma, an extremely rare type of kidney cancer with a poor prognosis. (pinkribbon.org)
  • When Herman was diagnosed with renal medullary carcinoma in 2012, our family couldn't see a way out. (pinkribbon.org)
  • Herman's story brings hope to everyone who has been diagnosed with renal medullary carcinoma. (pinkribbon.org)
  • However, the statistics are still sobering, and currently there is no cure for renal medullary carcinoma. (pinkribbon.org)
  • I feel lucky that we found Nazir Tannir, M.D. , Herman's MD Anderson oncologist, who is one of the world's leaders in treating renal medullary carcinoma. (pinkribbon.org)
  • In 2013, I established a foundation dedicated to renal medullary carcinoma to raise awareness and educate others. (pinkribbon.org)
  • We have had countless renal medullary carcinoma patients contact us from around the world. (pinkribbon.org)
  • I also created a registry for doctors to analyze information about people with renal medullary carcinoma. (pinkribbon.org)
  • One of our greatest strides thus far was helping enact a bill in my home state of South Carolina, which required hospitals and birth centers to provide sickle cell disease and trait education for each newborn baby considered high-risk for renal medullary carcinoma. (pinkribbon.org)
  • In advocating for renal medullary carcinoma patients, we speak for the needs of patients, survivors and the loved ones of those who have died of this disease. (pinkribbon.org)
  • Now, we've gone one step further and are working with Tannir through an alliance comprised of 17 renal medullary carcinoma specialists. (pinkribbon.org)
  • The group, which Tannir co-chairs, hopes to set the stage for more renal medullary carcinoma research and clinical trials that will help us better diagnose and treat this rare disease. (pinkribbon.org)
  • I couldn't have dreamed that we could have this much of an impact when Herman was first diagnosed with renal medullary carcinoma. (pinkribbon.org)
  • I've learned, with hard work and creativity, we caregivers and patients can make our voices heard and bring more attention and resources to rare cancers like renal medullary carcinoma. (pinkribbon.org)
  • The hypoxic, acidotic, and hyperosmolar environment of the inner medulla are known to promote sickling of red blood cells (RBCs) with resultant impairment in renal medullary blood flow, ischemia, microinfarction, and papillary necrosis. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] The low incidence of hypertension is attributed to reduced vascular reactivity, compensatory systemic vasodilatation associated with microvascular disturbances from sickling of RBCs and thrombotic complications, elevated levels of prostaglandins and nitric oxide, and possibly renal sodium and water wasting associated with suboptimal medullary concentrating activity. (medscape.com)
  • Renal medullary carcinoma is a rare and highly aggressive variant of renal cell cancer centered in the renal medulla. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Renal medullary carcinoma occurs almost exclusively in adolescent and young adult blacks with sickle cell trait or hemoglobin SC disease but not with homozygous hemoglobin SS sickle cell disease . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Renal medullary carcinoma is of epithelial origin and is thought to arise at the renal pelvic-mucosal interface 1 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Although medullary tumors appear highly aggressive, they grow slowly and rarely spread to the lymph nodes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Plasma and specialized white blood cells called lymphocytes surround medullary breast carcinoma tumors. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Medullary carcinoma may refer to one of several different tumors of epithelial origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consensus on the management of advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma on behalf of the Working Group of Thyroid Cancer of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology (SEEN) and the Spanish Task Force Group for Orphan and Infrequent Tumors (GETHI). (cun.es)
  • WHO Classification of Tumors of the Breast (2013) recommends using the term Carcinoma with medullary features (CMF) rather than medullary carcinoma or atypical medullary carcinoma. (humpath.com)
  • All the tumors were of identical histology, i.e., medullary carcinoma thyroid. (springer.com)
  • Of the 12 dogs with medullary thyroid carcinoma, 10 (83%) had resectable tumors. (avmi.net)
  • Medullary carcinoma is a broad term of cancer in which malignant tumors grow from the mid-layer tissues of the relevant organs in our body. (vaidam.com)
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma and pituitary adenoma are neuroendocrine tumors and their coexistence has not been reported in the literature, previously. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is unknown whether TANZEUM causes thyroid C-cell tumors, including medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), in humans [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS , Nonclinical Toxicology ]. (rxlist.com)
  • In male and female rats, dulaglutide causes a dose-related and treatment-duration-dependent increase in the incidence of thyroid C-cell tumors (adenomas and carcinomas) after lifetime exposure. (rxlist.com)
  • Masiukiewicz US, Nakchbandi IA, Stewart AF, Inzucchi SE (1999) Papillary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the pituitary gland. (springer.com)
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma accounts for 1-2% of thyroid cancers in the United States, a much lower range than frequently cited (3-5%) primarily due to the marked increase in the relative incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) over the last three decades. (guidelinecentral.com)
  • In 2017, an ATA task force recommended that encapsulated follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma (eFVPTC) without capsular or vascular invasion be reclassified as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP), given its excellent prognosis. (medscape.com)
  • We consistently detected expression of normal-sized transcripts of the ret proto-oncogene in human pheochromocytomas and in human medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC), both of familial and sporadic type. (nih.gov)
  • A specific 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-binding protein has been detected in high-salt cytosols prepared from human medullary thyroid carcinomas. (portlandpress.com)
  • Our results show the strong apoptotic effects of the DCM fraction of Stemona tuberosa Lour on human medullary thyroid carcinomas, so suggesting a new candidate for chemotherapy of the so far chemo-resistant medullary thyroid carcinoma. (dovepress.com)
  • As medullary breast carcinomas are less likely than other cancers to spread to the lymph nodes, a doctor may decide to use surgery without any additional, or adjuvant, treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This case presentation reviews the histologic distinction between pure medullary carcinoma and breast carcinomas with medullary-like features. (ebscohost.com)
  • This particular case prompts us to analyze the relationship among medullary carcinoma, basal-like breast carcinomas and carcinomas associated with. (ebscohost.com)
  • Metaplastic breast carcinomas -- analysis of prognostic factors in a case series. (ebscohost.com)
  • Aim of the study: Metaplastic breast carcinomas (MBC) are a rare group of cancers, accounting for about 1% of all breast cancers. (ebscohost.com)
  • Can MR Imaging contribute in characterizing well-circumscribed breast carcinomas? (librepathology.org)
  • You may be offered targeted therapy for locally advanced or metastatic medullary carcinoma. (cancer.ca)
  • Multifocal bronchial carcinoid tumour was diagnosed initially, but at necropsy metastatic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid was found. (bmj.com)
  • Sunitinib, a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been reported as clinically effective in some patients with locally advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Acute Liver Failure Secondary to Metastatic Medullary Thyroid Cancer. (explainmedicine.com)
  • One 2016 study looked at the survival rates for regular and atypical medullary breast carcinoma among 3,688 people. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Atypical parathyroid adenoma(APA) are a subset of parathyroid neoplasms that exhibit some of the features of parathyroid carcinoma but lack unequivocal invasive growth. (enets.org)
  • If you receive a diagnosis of medullary carcinoma, ask your doctor whether the pathologist who looked at the sample has experience diagnosing this type of cancer. (breastcancer.org)
  • Papaparaskeva K, Nagel H, Droese M. Cytologic diagnosis of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. (springer.com)
  • You may be asked if you want to join a clinical trial for medullary carcinoma. (cancer.ca)
  • We investigated the pathological and clinical features of medullary CRC in an unselected cohort of CRCs undergoing surgical resection. (springer.com)
  • NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: thyroid carcinoma. (floridahealthfinder.gov)
  • R. Margraf, P. Krautscheid, D. Pattison, K. Voelkerding and R. Mao, "Novel p.C620L RET Mutation Detected in a Patient with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma," International Journal of Clinical Medicine , Vol. 3 No. 6, 2012, pp. 498-501. (scirp.org)
  • Estimation of Risk of Inherited Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma in Apparent Sporadic Patients," Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 19, No. 5, 2001, pp. 1374-1380. (scirp.org)
  • 1. Sakorafas GH, Friess H, Peros G. The genetic basis of hereditary medullary thyroid cancer: clinical implications for the surgeon, with a particular emphasis on the role of prophylactic thyroidectomy. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Girelli ME, Nacamulli D, Pelizzo MR et al (1998) Medullary thyroid carcinoma: clinical features and long-term follow-up of seventy eight patients treated between 1979 and 1986. (springer.com)
  • Earlier clinical studies reported a high sensitivity of pretargeted immunoscintigraphy using murine or chimeric anticarcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) bispecific antibody (BsMAb) and peptides labeled with 111 In or 131 I in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). (inserm.fr)
  • Prognosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma: demographic, clinical, and pathologic predictors of survival in 1252 cases. (shifrinmd.com)
  • Surgery for metastasis could be used to treat medullary carcinoma that has spread to other organs and is causing symptoms. (cancer.ca)
  • The early age of onset for medullary thyroid carcinoma and the presence of lymph node metastasis in this patient suggests individuals with the p.C620L mutation should be treated and screened (for pheochromocytomas and parathyroid hyperplasia) as Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2 patients with other RET codon 620 mutations (American Thyroid Association risk level B). (scirp.org)
  • We report a case of intrapituitary metastasis from medullary carcinoma thyroid in a 38-year-old male, who had been operated for pituitary adenoma 5 years earlier. (springer.com)
  • Synchronous bilateral medullary carcinoma of breast: Is it metastasis or second primary? (ebscohost.com)
  • Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Metastasis to the Breast and Axillary Lymph Nodes. (ebscohost.com)
  • Even in thyroid carcinoma medullary carcinoma with intracranial metastasis is extremely rare. (oghreports.org)
  • Medullary breast carcinoma is a rare subtype of invasive breast cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • invasive carcinoma, no special type (NST) with features of pushing borders, syncytial growth, high grade nuclei and prominent lymphoid infiltrate. (humpath.com)
  • 1%, however up to 20% of invasive breast cancers reportedly have some medullary features. (humpath.com)
  • Affected individuals initially develop primary C-cell hyperplasia (CCH) that progresses to early invasive medullary microcarcinoma, and eventually develop grossly invasive macroscopic medullary thyroid carcinoma. (shifrinmd.com)
  • Medullary breast carcinoma is an uncommon form of invasive breast carcinoma . (librepathology.org)
  • Wells SA Jr, Asa SL, Dralle H. Revised American Thyroid Association guidelines for the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (MTC) Registry Consortium* is partnering with the American Thyroid Association ® (ATA) to create a registry (list) of all new cases of MTC diagnosed in the United States over the next 10-15 years (the MTC Registry). (thyroid.org)
  • Barriers to the recognition of medullary thyroid carcinoma on FNA: implications relevant to the new American Thyroid Association guidelines. (springer.com)
  • A task force convened by the American Thyroid Association (ATA) released updated guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma GUIDELINES Pocket Guide is endorsed by The American Thyroid Association and based on their latest guidelines. (guidelinecentral.com)
  • American Thyroid Association have established guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma. (shifrinmd.com)
  • Viola D, Elisei R. Management of medullary thyroid cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Medullary breast carcinoma is a rare type of IDC, representing 3-5% of all breast cancer diagnoses. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Similar to other types of breast cancer, medullary breast carcinoma may not cause noticeable symptoms in the early stages. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although hormones play a role in the development of other types of breast cancer, they do not appear to influence medullary carcinomas. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In general, the outlook for people with medullary breast carcinoma is good because this cancer grows slowly, and there is a low chance of it spreading beyond the breast tissue. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Medullary breast carcinoma is a rare type of IDC breast cancer that develops in the milk ducts. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Unlike similar types of breast cancer, medullary breast carcinoma grows slowly and presents a low risk of involving the lymph nodes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It may also be used to treat recurrent medullary carcinoma that can't be removed with surgery (it is unresectable) and the cancer continues to grow and spread (it is progressing). (cancer.ca)
  • Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm that accounts for approximately 5% of all thyroid malignancies. (hindawi.com)
  • Like other types of breast cancer, medullary carcinoma may not cause any symptoms at first. (breastcancer.org)
  • Biopsy is the key to accurate diagnosis, because imaging tests alone can't tell the difference between medullary carcinoma and other types of breast cancer. (breastcancer.org)
  • However, medullary carcinoma cells do not behave like high-grade cancer cells, which are aggressive and grow and spread quickly. (breastcancer.org)
  • The pathologist may test for p53 to help decide if the cancer is truly medullary. (breastcancer.org)
  • Select ATA member experts have been asked to provide their experience and knowledge related to medullary thyroid cancer. (thyroid.org)
  • The cause of medullary thyroid cancer is known in about 25% of cases which develop as a result of a RET oncogene mutation in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes. (thyroid.org)
  • However, the cause of medullary thyroid cancer is unknown in the remaining 75% of patients. (thyroid.org)
  • Hundahl SA, Fleming ID, Fremgen AM, Menck HR. A national cancer data base report on 53,856 cases of thyroid carcinoma treated in the U.S., 1985-1995. (springer.com)
  • Rationale for central and bilateral lymph node dissection in sporadic and hereditary medullary thyroid cancer. (springer.com)
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an uncommon primary thyroid carcinoma accounting for as much as 10% of all thyroid malignancies and as much as 14% of thyroid cancer-related deaths. (intechopen.com)
  • It is characterized by the development of medullary thyroid cancer . (radiopaedia.org)
  • An important gene associated with Breast Medullary Carcinoma is GZMB (Granzyme B), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Pathways in cancer and Glioma . (malacards.org)
  • The article presents case report of a patient who developed breast cancer, medullary thyroid cancer, multicentric micropapillary thyroid carcinoma and scapular and lumbar melanomas during treatment with azathioprine. (ebscohost.com)
  • Methods: In this case-control study, patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma, whose cancer was confirmed with findings of CT and pathological data and treatment has yet been done to them, were enrolled as a case group. (sid.ir)
  • Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (MTC) represents a unique thyroid cancer that occurs either sporadically or in a hereditary form as a component of the type 2 multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes, MEN2A, MEN2B, and the related syndrome, familial MTC (FMTC). (guidelinecentral.com)
  • Primary analysis of the double-blind, phase 3 EXAM trial demonstrated significant improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) with cabozantinib versus placebo in patients with progressive medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Background: Medullary breast carcinoma (MBC) is a unique histological subtype of breast cancer. (ac.ir)
  • Medullary thyroid cancer is caused by genetic mutation in the RET protonocogene. (vaidam.com)
  • This type of medullary cancer does not develop quickly and does not spread to the lymph nodes. (vaidam.com)
  • Breast surgery is primarily performed to get rid of medullary breast cancer. (vaidam.com)
  • I'm frustrated by the lack of treatment for medullary cancer, the iodine therapy doesn't work on this type. (cancer.org)
  • I am a 42 year old mother of five.I was diagnosed with medullary thyroid cancer in sept 2002.Had surgery in sept 2002,then again in oct 2002.Total thyroidectomy,they removed 20 lymphnodes,and 10 of them were positive for cancer. (cancer.org)
  • Groups specifically for Medullary Thyroid Cancer which is more active than this one. (cancer.org)
  • Hello -- I too have Medullary Thyroid Cancer. (cancer.org)
  • This type of thyroid cancer is sometimes called undifferentiated carcinoma . (mskcc.org)
  • A series of 41 poorly differentiated follicular carcinomas of the thyroid gland without histopathological features of medullary or papillary carcinoma and 9 cases of undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma of the small cell type (diagnosed between 1967 and 1983) were investigated immunohistochemically. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • According to a 2017 article , medullary breast carcinoma develops in up to 19% of people who carry the BRCA1 gene mutation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Rubello, Domenico 2017-06-22 00:00:00 Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging (2017) 44:1692-1694 DOI 10.1007/s00259-017-3757-6 EDITORIAL COMMENTARY SPECT/CT and PET/CT molecular imaging in medullary thyroid carcinoma. (deepdyve.com)
  • Medullary carcinoma is a recently described subtype of mismatch repair deficient (MMRd) colorectal carcinoma (CRC) which, despite being poorly differentiated by traditional morphological criteria, has been reported to have a good prognosis. (springer.com)
  • Most investigators have reported that medullary CRC has a significantly better prognosis than other CRCs. (springer.com)
  • Gastric medullary carcinoma (GMC) is a rare neoplasm characterized by dense lymphocytic infiltration of the stroma. (hindawi.com)
  • AbstractRenal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is an uncommon aggressive neoplasm of the kidney. (ac.ir)
  • [ 1 ] . No radionuclide scan is needed for a reading of "suspicious for papillary carcinoma" or "Hürthle cell neoplasm", as either lobectomy or total thyroidectomy is recommended depending on the nodule size and risk factors. (medscape.com)
  • To evaluate the performance of 18 F- l -dihydroxyphenylalanine ( 18 F-DOPA) PET/CT in the detection of locoregional and distant medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) metastases and to compare imaging findings with histological data. (springer.com)
  • Metastases from medullary thyroid carcinoma have not been reported. (springer.com)
  • Abrams HL, Spiro R, Goldstein N (1950) Metastases in carcinoma: analysis of 1000 autopsied cases. (springer.com)
  • Breast metastases of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) are extremely rare, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature so far. (ebscohost.com)
  • This is a case report of 58-year-old male presenting with scalp swelling over the left fronto parietal region, which was diagnosed as medullary carcinoma thyroid with intracranial metastases. (oghreports.org)
  • Tranchida P, Estigarribia J, Sethi S, Giorgadze T. Cytologic diagnosis of recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma with oncocytic change twenty-one years post thyroidectomy: case report & review of the literature. (springer.com)
  • It is focused on the comparison between different communities agree that an increase in the serum Ct level diagnostic imaging methods in order to investigate their effec- above 150 pg/mL should prompt additional imaging in order tiveness in localizing recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma to localize and possibly surgically remove lesions. (deepdyve.com)
  • To the best of our knowledge, it is the first case reported in the literature of a patient who has been affected by recurrent non-functional pituitary adenoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma, concomitantly. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are several effective treatment options for medullary breast carcinoma. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The following are treatment options for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. (cancer.ca)
  • The severity of medullary thyroid carcinoma could be classified as following from most favorable to most aggressive: FMTC, following by MEN 2A, following by sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma, and the worst one is MEN 2B related medullary thyroid carcinoma. (shifrinmd.com)
  • Colorectal rhabdoid carcinomas (CRbCs) are very rare and aggressive cancers. (mdpi.com)
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma comprises less than 10% of all thyroid cancers. (genesis.pl)
  • CEA level is also part of preoperative blood work, but it is not specific for medullary thyroid carcinoma only and can be elevated with other cancers. (shifrinmd.com)
  • Carcinoma of the thyroid with a mixed medullary and follicular pattern. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Most reported cases have been of papillary and follicular carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 2b (MEN 2b) is a disorder characterized by a distinct phenotype and a predisposition for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and pheochromocytoma. (aappublications.org)
  • MEN 2A is defined as the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma , and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) associated with a germline RET mutation. (shifrinmd.com)
  • MEN 2B is defined as the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma, marfanoid habitus, medullated corneal nerve fibers, ganglioneuromatosis of the gut and oral mucosa, and pheochromocytoma associated with a germline RET mutation. (shifrinmd.com)
  • 2 , 3 , 4 As this variant has only recently been recognized, it is possible that selection bias (i.e. a failure of reporting pathologists to recognize all cases of medullary CRC) may mean that the true incidence of medullary CRC is greater than previously reported. (springer.com)
  • Lobular, papillary, mucinous and medullary types have relatively lower incidence. (ebscohost.com)
  • The incidence of medullary carcinoma remains surprisingly low when compared with nonendemic areas. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • The patient underwent a total gastrectomy, and the postoperative histological findings were consistent with medullary carcinoma with a lymphoid stroma. (hindawi.com)
  • The type of carcinoma was confirmed in 33 dogs by histological and immunohistochemical examination. (avmi.net)
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma may possess gross and histological characteristics of a less malignant nature when compared with other thyroid carcinomas. (avmi.net)
  • Prognostic factors for survival and for biochemical cure in medullary thyroid carcinoma: results in 899 patients. (springer.com)
  • Prognostic factors in medullary thyroid carcinoma: evaluation of 741 patients from the German medullary thyroid carcinoma register. (springer.com)
  • Medullary carcinomas that test negative for hormone receptors will not respond to hormone therapy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Medullary carcinoma usually tests negative for hormone receptors. (breastcancer.org)
  • Both carcinomas contained amyloid. (avmi.net)
  • In one carcinoma there were linear fibrillar structures with an average width of 7.8 nanometers similar to that of amyloid fibrils. (avmi.net)
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma: pitfalls in diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology and relationship of cytomorphology to RET proto-oncogene mutations. (springer.com)
  • Activating mutations of the RET proto-oncogene cause hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hirschsprung's disease and medullary thyroid carcinoma: 15-year experience with molecular genetic screening of the RET proto-oncogene. (mysciencework.com)
  • The term medullary refers to the tumor's soft, fleshy appearance, which resembles the soft gray matter in the brain stem, called the medulla. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People develop medullary carcinoma as a result of genetic mutations. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A patient with an apparent sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma was tested for RET germline mutations by Sanger sequencing of RET exons 10, 11, and 13-16. (scirp.org)
  • Proteomics study of medullary thyroid carcinomas expressing RET germ-line mutations: identification of new signaling elements. (nih.gov)
  • Using a proteomic-multiplexed analysis of the phosphotyrosine signaling together with antibody-based validation techniques, we identified several candidate molecules for RET (rearranged during transfection) tyrosine kinase receptor carrying mutations responsible for the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A and 2B (MEN2A and MEN2B) syndromes in two human medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) cell lines, TT and MZ-CRC-1, which express the RET-MEN2A and RET-MEN2B oncoproteins, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • For comparison, we included four poorly differentiated medullary carcinomas (PDMCs) with focal aspects mimicking rhabdoid features. (mdpi.com)
  • The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The lymphocytes in medullary carcinoma aggregate in syncytial islets and at the peripheral margins, while the inflammation is peritumoural. (hindawi.com)
  • Lymphocytes show continuity at the tumoural margins in lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, and they are localized as a wide number of intratumoural lymphocytes, instead of small aggregates [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 classification of gastrointestinal neoplasia, the medullary variant is characterized by a solid rather than glandular architecture, coarse chromatin, and prominent eosinophilic cytoplasm, often associated with numerous intraepithelial lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • We evaluated in vitro production of macrophage-migration-inhibitory factor and 3 H-thymidine uptake by lymphocytes from patients, family members and normal subjects in response to extracts of medullary thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid tissue. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine malignancy of the thyroid C cells. (jnccn.org)
  • Multifocal bronchial carcinoid tumour should not be accepted as a primary diagnosis without first excluding medullary carcinoma of the thyroid because of the need to screen relatives of affected patients. (bmj.com)
  • In our institution, patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) concurrent with nodular goiter (NG) have a nearly 100% survival rate, but the reasons and characteristics are unclear. (ovid.com)
  • It is the most common type of breast carcinoma in patients with BRCA1 germline mutation. (humpath.com)
  • Max MB, Kovacs KT, Scheithauer BW et al (1992) The pituitary gland in patients with breast carcinoma: a histologic and immunocytochemical study of 125 cases. (springer.com)
  • In the present study the enzyme activity of catalase and total antioxidant capacity in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma were measured and compared with healthy subjects. (sid.ir)
  • Conclusion: In this study, total antioxidant capacity and catalase levels in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma was decreased. (sid.ir)
  • Overall survival analysis of EXAM, a phase 3 trial of cabozantinib in patients with radiographically progressive medullary thyroid carcinoma. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • All patients with a personal medical history of primary C cell hyperplasia, medullary thyroid carcinoma, or MEN 2 should be offered germline RET testing. (shifrinmd.com)
  • Stage of disease and age at diagnosis were found to be the strongest predictors of survival for patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma. (shifrinmd.com)
  • Papillary thyroid carcinomas(PTC) is a malignant epithelial tumour. (enets.org)
  • His past medical history was significant for non-functional pituitary macroadenoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma and he had received a total thyroidectomy and a transsphenoidal surgery several years ago. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an aggressive form of malignancy, virtually incurable except by complete surgical resection. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Those who have a mutation in the BRCA1 gene may have an increased risk of developing medullary breast carcinoma. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Medullary carcinoma is more common in women who have a BRCA1 mutation. (breastcancer.org)
  • Findings of RET-protooncogene mutation can lead to an early diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma and, subsequently, earlier surgery to remove thyroid gland and lymph nodes. (shifrinmd.com)
  • The value of lymph node dissection in hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma: a retrospective, European, multicentre study. (springer.com)
  • Currently, the histopathological definition of medullary carcinoma is somewhat vague. (springer.com)