Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Lewis Acids: Any chemical species which accepts an electron-pair from a LEWIS BASE in a chemical bonding reaction.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Mice, Inbred C57BLLung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Rats, Inbred LewCarcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Semustine: 4-Methyl derivative of LOMUSTINE; (CCNU). An antineoplastic agent which functions as an alkylating agent.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Leukemia P388: An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Tetrahydrouridine: An inhibitor of nucleotide metabolism.Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Leukemia L1210Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Fucosyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.Carcinoma, Medullary: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mice, Inbred BALB CNasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Carcinoma, Adenosquamous: A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.Mopidamol: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor which inhibits platelet aggregation. Formerly used as an antineoplastic.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Sarcoma 180Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Syndecan-2: A syndecan that is predominantly expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It may play a role in mediating cellular interactions with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and may modulate the signaling activity of certain INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Angiostatins: Circulating 38-kDa proteins that are internal peptide fragments of PLASMINOGEN. The name derives from the fact that they are potent ANGIOGENESIS INHIBITORS. Angiostatins contain four KRINGLE DOMAINS which are associated with their potent angiostatic activity.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Carcinoma, Large Cell: A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Endometrioid: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Polygonaceae: The only family of the buckwheat order (Polygonales) of dicotyledonous flowering plants. It has 40 genera of herbs, shrubs, and trees.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Nitrosourea CompoundsOvarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Carcinoma, Merkel Cell: A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Antigenic Modulation: Loss of detectable antigen from the surface of a cell after incubation with antibodies. This is one method in which some tumors escape detection by the immune system. Antigenic modulation of target antigens also reduces the therapeutic effectiveness of treatment by monoclonal antibodies.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.X-Ray Therapy: Medical treatment involving the use of controlled amounts of X-Rays.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Carcinoma, Verrucous: A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell: A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Transplantation, Isogeneic: Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: A form of highly malignant lung cancer that is composed of small ovoid cells (SMALL CELL CARCINOMA).Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Lung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Sarcoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.Fibrosarcoma: A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mice, Inbred DBALaryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells: The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular: A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Extravascular Lung Water: Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.Razoxane: An antimitotic agent with immunosuppressive properties.Radiation-Sensitizing Agents: Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar: A carcinoma thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli. Involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular. The neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures. Mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells. Metastases in regional lymph nodes, and in even more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Plasminogen: Precursor of plasmin (FIBRINOLYSIN). It is a single-chain beta-globulin of molecular weight 80-90,000 found mostly in association with fibrinogen in plasma; plasminogen activators change it to fibrinolysin. It is used in wound debriding and has been investigated as a thrombolytic agent.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous: A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Endostatins: Angiostatic proteins that are formed from proteolytic cleavage of COLLAGEN TYPE XVIII.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.

Successful adoptive immunotherapy of murine poorly immunogenic tumor with specific effector cells generated from gene-modified tumor-primed lymph node cells. (1/549)

We previously reported that cytokine gene transfer into weakly immunogenic tumor cells could enhance the generation of precursor cells of tumor-reactive T cells and subsequently augment antitumor efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy. We investigated whether such potent antitumor effector T cells could be generated from mice bearing poorly immunogenic tumors. In contrast to similarly modified weakly immunogenic tumors, MCA102 cells, which are chemically induced poorly immunogenic fibrosarcoma cells transfected with cDNA for IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-gamma, failed to augment the host immune reaction. Because priming of antitumor effector T cells in vivo requires two important signals provided by tumor-associated Ags and costimulatory molecules, these tumor cells were cotransfected with a B7-1 cDNA. Transfection of both IFN-gamma and B7-1 (MCA102/B7-1/IFN-gamma) resulted in regression of s.c. tumors, while tumor transfected with other combinations of cytokine and B7-1 showed progressive growth. Cotransfection of IFN-gamma and B7-1 into other poorly immunogenic tumor B16 and LLC cells also resulted in the regression of s.c. tumors. Cells derived from lymph nodes draining MCA102/B7-1/IFN-gamma tumors showed potent antitumor efficacy, eradicating established pulmonary metastases, but this effect was not seen with parental tumors. This mechanism of enhanced antitumor efficacy was further investigated, and T cells with down-regulated L-selectin expression, which constituted all the in vivo antitumor reactivity, were significantly increased in lymph nodes draining MCA102/B7-1/IFN-gamma tumors. These T cells developed into potent antitumor effector cells after in vitro activation with anti-CD3/IL-2. The strategy presented here may provide a basis for developing potent immunotherapy for human cancers.  (+info)

Rapid induction of cytokine and E-selectin expression in the liver in response to metastatic tumor cells. (2/549)

The cytokine-inducible endothelial cell adhesion receptor E-selectin has been implicated in cancer metastasis. Previously, we reported that experimental liver metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma subline H-59 cells could be abrogated in animals treated with an anti-E-selectin antibody. To gain further insight into the functional relevance of E-selectin expression to liver colonization, we investigated here the time course of cytokine and hepatic E-selectin expression after the intrasplenic/portal inoculation of H-59 cells by using a combination of reverse transcription-PCR, Northern blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. In parallel, we analyzed cytokine induction in response to the injection of Lewis lung carcinoma subline M-27 and murine melanoma B16-F1 cells, which do not spontaneously metastasize to the liver. In livers derived from normal or saline-injected mice, only minimal basal levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1 mRNA were detectable by RT-PCR. Rapid cytokine mRNA induction was noted within 30-60 min of H-59 injection, reaching maximal levels at 4-6 h. This was followed by the appearance of E-selectin mRNA, which was detectable at 2 h after injection and reached maximal levels at 6-8 h, declining to basal levels by 24 h. In situ hybridization analysis and immunohistochemistry localized E-selectin mRNA and protein, respectively, to the sinusoidal endothelium. M-27 cells failed to induce cytokine or E-selectin expression, whereas B-16 cells elicited a delayed and more short-lived response. The results demonstrate that upon entry into the hepatic circulation, tumor cells can rapidly trigger a molecular cascade leading to the induction of E-selectin expression on the sinusoidal endothelium and suggest that E-selectin induction may contribute to the liver-colonizing potential of tumor cells.  (+info)

Mediastinal lymph node metastasis model by orthotopic intrapulmonary implantation of Lewis lung carcinoma cells in mice. (3/549)

This study is designed to establish a pulmonary tumour model to investigate the biology and therapy of lung cancer in mice. Current methods for forming a solitary intrapulmonary nodule and subsequent metastasis to mediastinal lymph nodes are not well defined. Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell suspensions were orthotopically introduced into the lung parenchyma of C57/BL6 mice via a limited skin incision without thoracotomy followed by direct puncture through the intercostal space. The implantation process was performed within approximately 50 s per mouse, and the operative mortality was less than 5%. Single pulmonary nodules developed at the implanted site in 93% of animals and subsequent mediastinal lymph node metastasis was observed in all mice that formed a lung nodule after intrapulmonary implantation. The size of tumour nodule and the weight of mediastinal lymph node increased in a time-dependent manner. The mean survival time of mice implanted successfully with LLC cells was 21+/-2 days (range 19-24 days). Histopathological analysis revealed that no metastatic tumour was detectable in the mediastinal lymph nodes on day 11, but metastatic foci at mediastinal lymph nodes were clearly observed on days 17 and 21 after implantation. Other metastases in distant organs or lymph nodes were not observed at 21 days after the implantation. Comparative studies with intrapleural and intravenous injections of LLC cells suggest that the mediastinal lymph node metastasis by intrapulmonary implantation is due to the release of tumour cells from the primary nodule, and not due to extrapulmonary leakage of cells. An intravenous administration of cis-diamine dichloro platinum on day 1 after tumour implantation tended to suppress the primary tumour nodule and significantly inhibited lymph node metastasis. Thus, a solitary pulmonary tumour nodule model with lymph node metastasis approximates clinical lung cancer and may provide a useful basis for lung cancer research.  (+info)

Inhibitory effect of Cordyceps sinensis on spontaneous liver metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma and B16 melanoma cells in syngeneic mice. (4/549)

We investigated the effect of the water extract of Cordyceps sinensis (WECS) on liver metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and B16 melanoma (B16) cells in mice. C57BL/6 mice were given a s.c. injection of LLC and B16 cells and sacrificed 20 and 26 days after tumor inoculation, respectively. WECS was daily administered p.o. to the mice in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight (wt.) in the experiment of LLC and in a dose of 100 or 200 mg/kg body wt. in the experiment of B16 from one week before tumor inoculation to one day before the date of sacrifice. The tumor cells increased in the thigh in LLC-inoculated mice and in the footpad in B16-inoculated mice. The relative liver wt. of the tumor-inoculated mice significantly increased as compared to that of the normal mice due to the tumor metastasis, as verified by the hematoxylin-eosin staining pathological study in the LLC experiment. The relative liver wt. of the WECS-administered mice significantly decreased relative to that of the control mice in both the LLC and B16 experiments. WECS showed a strong cytotoxicity against LLC and B16 cells, while cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine), an active component of WECS, was not cytotoxic against these cells. These findings suggest that WECS has an anti-metastatic activity that is probably due to components other than cordycepin.  (+info)

Mechanisms of synergism between cisplatin and gemcitabine in ovarian and non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. (5/549)

2',2'-Difluorodeoxycytidine (gemcitabine, dFdC) and cis-diammine-dichloroplatinum (cisplatin, CDDP) are active agents against ovarian cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). CDDP acts by formation of platinum (Pt)-DNA adducts; dFdC by dFdCTP incorporation into DNA, subsequently leading to inhibition of exonuclease and DNA repair. Previously, synergism between both compounds was found in several human and murine cancer cell lines when cells were treated with these drugs in a constant ratio. In the present study we used different combinations of both drugs (one drug at its IC25 and the other in a concentration range) in the human ovarian cancer cell line A2780, its CDDP-resistant variant ADDP, its dFdC-resistant variant AG6000 and two NSCLC cell lines, H322 (human) and Lewis lung (LL) (murine). Cells were exposed for 4, 24 and 72 h with a total culture time of 96 h, and possible synergism was evaluated by median drug effect analysis by calculating a combination index (CI; CI < 1 indicates synergism). With CDDP at its IC25, the average CIs calculated at the IC50, IC75 IC90 and IC95 after 4, 24 and 72 h of exposure were < 1 for all cell lines, indicating synergism, except for the CI after 4 h exposure in the LL cell line which showed an additive effect. With dFdC at its IC25, the CIs for the combination with CDDP after 24 h were < 1 in all cell lines, except for the CIs after 4 h exposure in the LL and H322 cell lines which showed an additive effect. At 72 h exposure all CIs were < 1. CDDP did not significantly affect dFdCTP accumulation in all cell lines. CDDP increased dFdC incorporation into both DNA and RNA of the A2780 cell lines 33- and 79-fold (P < 0.01) respectively, and tended to increase the dFdC incorporation into RNA in all cell lines. In the AG6000 and LL cell lines, CDDP and dFdC induced > 25% more DNA strand breaks (DSB) than each drug alone; however, in the other cell lines no effect, or even a decrease in DSB, was observed. dFdC increased the cellular Pt accumulation after 24 h incubation only in the ADDP cell line. However, dFdC did enhance the Pt-DNA adduct formation in the A2780, AG6000, ADDP and LL cell lines (1.6-, 1.4-, 2.9- and 1.6-fold respectively). This increase in Pt-DNA adduct formation seems to be related to the incorporation of dFdC into DNA (r = 0.91). No increase in DNA platination was found in the H322 cell line. dFdC only increased Pt-DNA adduct retention in the A2780 and LL cell lines, but decreased the Pt-DNA adduct retention in the AG6000 cell line. In conclusion, the synergism between dFdC and CDDP appears to be mainly due to an increase in Pt-DNA adduct formation possibly related to changes in DNA due to dFdC incorporation into DNA.  (+info)

Diminution of 37-kDa laminin binding protein expression reduces tumour formation of murine lung cancer cells. (6/549)

Expression of the 37-kDa laminin binding protein (37LBP/p40), a precursor of the 67-kDa laminin receptor, is well-correlated with the biological aggressiveness of cancer cells. To elucidate the direct role played by 37LBP/p40 in cancer cells, a murine lung cancer cell line T11, the 37LBP/p40 expression of which was remarkably diminished, was established by the introduction of the antisense 37LBP/p40-RNA using a retroviral vector. As a result, the population doubling time of T11 was prolonged (60 h) compared with that of P29, the non-transfected parental cell line (42 h), and TN2, a transfectant with vehicle only (40 h). In-vitro studies also showed that T11 cells adhered to immobilized laminin less firmly than P29 cells did. When 5 x 10(5) cells were subcutaneously inoculated into syngenic mice, the mean survival time of T11-recipients (77.0+/-14.8 days) was also significantly prolonged compared with that for P29 (34.8+/-5.5 days) and TN2 (36.7+/-6.1 days) recipients (P < 0.001). The electron-microscopic view of the tumour tissue revealed that T11 cells were loosely apposed and their intercellular space was markedly widened. Some of the T11 cells sporadically degenerated with the infiltration of lymphocytes and neutrophils. These results suggest that the suppressed expression of 37LBP/p40 reduces the capability of lung cancer cell proliferation in vitro and tumour formation in vivo.  (+info)

Impaired ability of MHC class II-/- dendritic cells to provide tumor protection is rescued by CD40 ligation. (7/549)

The contribution of CD4+ T cells to dendritic cell (DC) activation and to the induction of CD8+ T cell responses in vivo was investigated using a model of antitumor immune responses. Immunization with peptide-loaded MHC class II-deficient (MHC class II-/-) DC induced the activation of Ag-specific CD8+ T cells and their accumulation in the lymph nodes and spleens of immunized mice. The accumulation induced by MHC class II-/- DC immunization was lower than the accumulation observed after immunization with MHC class II+/+ DC. Similarly, immunization with peptide-loaded, MHC class II-/- DC induced some degree of protection against tumor challenge, but this protection was lower than the protection achieved after immunization with MHC class II+/+ DC. Incubation with a membrane-associated form of CD40 ligand resulted in the up-regulation of costimulatory molecules on MHC class II-/- DC and fully rescued their ability to induce antitumor immunity. We conclude that CD4+ T cells play a critical role in the generation of antitumor immune responses through their capacity to induce the activation of DC via CD40/CD40 ligand interaction, and thus maximize CD8+ T cell responses.  (+info)

Antitumor activity of phenylahistin in vitro and in vivo. (8/549)

Phenylahistin is a new cell cycle inhibitor produced by Aspergillus ustus. Since phenylahistin was produced as a scalemic mixture of (-)-phenylahistin and its enantiomer, we separated each enantiomer and evaluated their antitumor activity in vitro. (-)-Phenylahistin exhibited antitumor activity against 8 tumor cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 1.8 x 10(-7) to 3.7 x 10(-6), while (+)-phenylahistin exhibited 33-100-fold less potent activity than (-)-phenylahistin did. (-)-Phenylahistin also showed antitumor activity against P388 leukemia and Lewis lung carcinoma cells in vivo.  (+info)

The role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in directly stimulating metastatic spread by Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells was examined with the use of an in vitro migration model for tumor dissemination. The extent to which cloned metastatic and nonmetastatic LLC cells migrated out of glass capillary tubes in vitro reflected their capacity to form pulmonary metastases in vivo. The addition of PGE2 to metastatic LLC cells further stimulated their migration. Other cyclooxygenase products, besides PGE2, did not stimulate the migration of metastatic LLC cells. Nonmetastatic LLC cells did not migrate out of capillary tubes, even in the presence of exogenous PGE2. the amount of PGE2 secreted by cloned LLC cells was quantitated by a radioimmunoassay. Nonmetastatic LLC cells secreted more PGE2 than did the metastatic LLC cells. When the nonmetastatic LLC cells were either mixed with or placed adjacent to cloned metastatic LLC cells, the migration by the metastatic LLC cells was stimulated. The ...
Rigorous and systematic pre-clinical studies are necessary and essential to establish the efficacy and safety of Oriental herbs and formulas in order to transform traditional herbal practices into evidence-based medicine. Here we evaluated the anti-cancer activities of the ethanol extract of Ka-mi-kae-kyuk-tang (KMKKT), a formula of ten Oriental herbs, with a battery of in vitro and in vivo mechanism-based biomarkers involving angiogenesis, apoptosis and metastasis. The results show that KMKKT suppressed the vascular endothelial responses by inhibiting basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, cell migration as well as tube formation in the human umbilical vein endothelial cell model, and decreased the hypoxia-induced HIF1α and vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in the mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells in vitro, and inhibited the bFGF-induced angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane model, and in the Matrigel plugs in mice. Intraperitoneal ...
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
Abstract: Several classes of flavonoids [flavanoids (1-10), flavonol (11), isoflavones (12-18), isoflavanones (19-22), isoflavans (23-26), chalcones (27-30), auronol (31), pterocarpans (32-37), 2-arylbenzofuran (38), and neoflavonoid (39)] and lignans (40-42) isolated from the MeOH extract of Brazilian red propolis were investigated for their cytotoxic activity against a panel of six different cancer cell lines including murine colon 26-L5 carcinoma, murine B16-BL6 melanoma, murine Lewis lung carcinoma, human lung A549 adenocarcinoma, human cervix HeLa adenocarcinoma, and human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cell lines ...
The surface exposure of CRT and ERp57 was increased in CT26 clones derived from cells transiently exposed to nocodazole that contained close to twice the DNA content of parental cells (which we refer to as "hyperploid" cells), although the surface expression of most other membrane proteins was unaltered (Fig. 1D and fig. S8). This hyperploidy-associated increase in CRT exposure was also observed in mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and fibrosarcoma MCA205 cells, as well as in human cancer cell lines (fig. S9). As compared to their parental counterparts, hyperploid clones exhibited constitutive PERK and eIF2α phosphorylation (Fig. 1E). Interruption of the CRT exposure pathway reduced the clonogenic potential of hyperploid cells (Fig. 1, F and G), suggesting a functional link between the ER stress-associated CRT exposure pathway and the fitness of hyperploid cells.. Because hyperploidization is linked to CRT exposure, we wondered whether cancer cells with increased DNA content might be subjected ...
The surface exposure of CRT and ERp57 was increased in CT26 clones derived from cells transiently exposed to nocodazole that contained close to twice the DNA content of parental cells (which we refer to as "hyperploid" cells), although the surface expression of most other membrane proteins was unaltered (Fig. 1D and fig. S8). This hyperploidy-associated increase in CRT exposure was also observed in mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and fibrosarcoma MCA205 cells, as well as in human cancer cell lines (fig. S9). As compared to their parental counterparts, hyperploid clones exhibited constitutive PERK and eIF2α phosphorylation (Fig. 1E). Interruption of the CRT exposure pathway reduced the clonogenic potential of hyperploid cells (Fig. 1, F and G), suggesting a functional link between the ER stress-associated CRT exposure pathway and the fitness of hyperploid cells.. Because hyperploidization is linked to CRT exposure, we wondered whether cancer cells with increased DNA content might be subjected ...
Authors: Riordan NH, Meng X, Riordan HD.. ABSTRACT: Recruitment of new blood vessels plays a crucial role in tumor survival and growth. Several agents that act as angiogenesis inhibitors are currently being investigated as anti-tumor agents. Proteoglycan extract (PGM) was tested for anti-angiogenic, immunostimulatory, and anti-neoplastic activity. PGM is a non-toxic extract of the ubiquitous plant, Convolvulus arvensis. In the chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay PGM inhibited new blood vessel growth in a dose-dependent manner. Results were 18, 55, and 73% inhibition at concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 mcg, respectively. PGM significantly inhibited tumor growth in the mouse fibrosarcoma (S-180 Kun Ming 3-4 wk old mixed male/female, 10 animals per group, 250-1000 mcg daily doses for 14 days), and mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (C57, 6 wk old mixed male/female, 10 animals per group, 250-1000 mcg daily doses for 14 days) models. Inhibition (54-77% inhibition by weight compared to controls, up ...
Background: Lung cancer is the most common human cancer. There are numerous studies that have sought to discover genetic impact factors associated with it. The study reported on in this article is a systematic search for the genetic networks underlying the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) model.Methods: LLC-Gene relation data were extracted from the ResNet 11 Mammalian database, containing 175 LLC candidate genes (nodes). Pathway Enrichment Analysis, Sub-Network Enrichment Analysis, Network Connectivity Analysis, and Network Metrics Analysis were conducted to study network attributes and select the top nodes (genes). LLC-Drug and Drug-Gene relation data examined LLC-Gene relations at the small molecule level.Results: A total of 166 of 175 genes that were enriched in 134 LLC candidate pathways (p < 1e-07), demonstrated strong gene-gene interactions. Metrics analysis revealed 4 genes, IL6, TNF, VEGFA, and HIF1A, as top LLC candidates as measured by replication frequency, network centrality, and functional
Id1 promotes carcinogenesis and metastasis, and predicts prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-adenocarcionoma patients. We hypothesized that Id1 may play a critical role in lung cancer colonization of the liver by affecting both tumor cells and the microenvironment. Depleted levels of Id1 in LLC (Lewis lung carcinoma cells, LLC shId1) significantly reduced cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Genetic loss of Id1 in the host tissue (Id1(-/-) mice) impaired liver colonization and increased survival of Id1(-/-) animals. Histologically, the presence of Id1 in tumor cells of liver metastasis was responsible for liver colonization. Microarray analysis comparing liver tumor nodules from Id1(+/+) mice and Id1(-/-) mice injected with LLC control cells revealed that Id1 loss reduces the levels of EMT-related proteins, such as vimentin. In tissue microarrays containing 532 NSCLC patients samples, we found that Id1 significantly correlated with vimentin and other EMT-related proteins. Id1 ...
Inflammatory angiogenesis is a critical process in tumor progression and other diseases. The inflammatory cytokine IL-1β promotes angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis, but its mechanisms remain unclear. We examined the association between IL-1β-induced angiogenesis and cell inflammation. IL-1β induced neovascularization in the mouse cornea at rates comparable to those of VEGF. Neutrophil infiltration occurred on day 2. Macrophage infiltration occurred on days 4 and 6. The anti-Gr-1 Ab-induced depletion of infiltrating neutrophils did not affect IL-1β- or VEGF-induced angiogenesis. The former was reduced in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-deficient (MCP-1-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. After day 4, clodronate liposomes, which kill macrophages, reduced IL-1β-induced angiogenesis and partially inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis. Infiltrating macrophages near the IL-1β-induced neovasculature were COX-2 positive. Lewis lung carcinoma cells expressing IL-1β (LLC/IL-1β) ...
Cancer-associated inflammation contributes to tumor progression and metastasis. Defective dendritic cell (DC) function causes impaired adaptive immunity to antigens expressed by tumors. We recently found that the intra-tumor inflammatory milieu recruits and skews development of DC precursors (pre-cDC) towards a novel Gr-1+ subpopulation, which has tolerogenic properties. This transformation reduced the proliferation and expansion of antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells in tumors. We sought to identify cytokines that regulate this differentiation. Isolated pre-cDC from mice spleen was incubated with tumor-conditioned medium (TCM) derived from Lewis lung carcinoma cell line. Supernatants from cultures were collected to analyze cytokine levels. Expression of Gr-1+ on DC was monitored by flow cytometry. We found that TCM induced pre-cDC to differentiate into Gr-1+ cDC. Neutralizing anti-cytokine Ab studies revealed that IL-6 play a role in promoting Gr-1+ cDC differentiation. Pre-cDC from IL-6-/- mice ...
The lymphatic system is an important route for cancer dissemination, and lymph node metastasis (LNM) serves as a critical prognostic determinant in cancer patients. We investigated the contribution of COX-2-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the formation of a premetastatic niche and LNM. A murine model of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell metastasis revealed that COX-2 is expressed in DCs from the early stage in the lymph node subcapsular regions, and COX-2 inhibition markedly suppressed mediastinal LNM. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) was elevated in DCs before LLC cell infiltration to the lymph nodes, and a COX-2 inhibitor, an SDF-1 antagonist, and a CXCR4 neutralizing antibody all reduced LNM. Moreover, LNM was reduced in mice lacking the PGE2 receptor EP3, and stimulation of cultured DCs with an EP3 agonist increased SDF-1 production. Compared with WT CD11c+ DCs, injection of EP3-deficient CD11c+ DCs dramatically reduced accumulation of SDF-1+CD11c+ DCs in regional LNs and LNM in ...
Characterization of the stem-like properties of cancer stem cells (CSCs) remain indirect and qualitative, especially the ability of CSCs to undergo asymmetric cell division for self renewal and differentiation, a unique property of cells of stem origin. It is partly due to the lack of stable cellular models of CSCs. In this study, we developed a new approach for CSC isolation and purification to derive a CSC-enriched cell line (LLC-SE). By conducting five consecutive rounds of single cell cloning using the LLC-SE cell line, we obtained two distinct sub-population of cells within the Lewis lung cancer CSCs that employed largely symmetric division for self-renewal (LLC-SD) or underwent asymmetric division for differentiation (LLC-ASD ...
A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy ...
An investigation of the ill vitro toxicities of a group of commercial chemicals and formulations revealed very poor ill vivo/in vitro correlations. Some were toxic to the 3T3-Ll cells, yet of very low toxicity to rats. This was partly due to the poor solubility of some of the substances, which probably caused their virtual non-toxicity to rats by oral dosage. Chemical volatility is another methodological problem for ill vitro assays. A simple modification of the FRAME KB cytotoxicity assay was successfully developed in order to prevent the underestimation of the cytotoxicities of volatile liquids ...
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Introduction. Current forms of antitumor anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin (DOXO) are highly toxic to the patient and can cause systematic complications, most notably cardiotoxicity. Systemic toxicity can seriously decrease the effectiveness of the drug since a lower dose must be administrated to avoid toxicity. Drug resistance is the single most important cause of cancer treatment failure and carries a massive burden to patients, healthcare providers, drug developers and society. Thus, problems related to the development multidrug resistance have led researchers to investigate alternative forms of nanocomplex from nanoparticles and DOXO for treatment of cancer. This paper examines the effects of nanocomplex from nanoparticles iron (II,III) oxide and DOXO on nonlinear dynamics of the growth during treatment by of Lewis lung carcinoma. Materials and methods. Mechanochemical synthesis (MS) and mechanomagnetochemical dry synthesis (MMS) of DOXO (Pfizer, Italy) with nanoparticles ferric oxide in
Clarithromycin (CAM), a 14-membered macrolide, has some effects as a biological response modifier in addition to its antibiotic effects. Long-term CAM treatment has been shown to improve the prognosis of patients with unresectable non-small cell lung cancer, including their quality of life. In the present study, I examined the suppression of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell proliferation, expression of mRNAs for integrin and TGF -β in LLC cells, suppression of lung metastasis and cytokine mRNA in spleen cells of mice lung cancer model by CAM. Proliferation of LLC cells and the expression of mRNAs for integrin (α4, α6, β1) and TGF-β were suppressed by CAM, CAM decreased the number of lung metastasis nodules in LLC-bearing mice. The expression of mRNAs for IL-12 and IFN-γ in spleen cells was increased after CAM treatment. On the contrary, the expression of mRNAs for IL-6 and IL-10 was decreased. Furthermore I determined the in-vivo effect of CAM on metastasis in unresectable non -small cell ...
Host resistance to tumor growth was studied in athymic nude mice of C57BL background. Animals were pretreated in the left hind leg by local hyperthermia, local X-irradiation, or combined local hyperthermia and X-irradiation. Twenty-four hr posttreatment, the animals were inoculated with the metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma tumor. Half of the animals in each group were inoculated in the pretreated leg and animals of the other half of the group were inoculated in the contralateral untreated leg. An increase of 30 to 45% in life span was achieved in normal and nude mice pretreated by combined local hyperthermia and irradiation. The increase in life span was similar in animals inoculated in the pretreated leg or in the untreated contralateral leg. These results indicate that T-lymphocytes are not involved in the protection against tumor growth.. ...
Vaccination with irradiated granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-transduced autologous tumor cells (GVAX) has been shown to induce therapeutic antitumor immunity. However, its effectiveness is limited. We therefore attempted to improve the antitumor effect by identifying little-known key pathways in GM-CSF-sensitized dendritic cells (GM-DC) in tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLN). We initially confirmed that syngeneic mice subcutaneously injected with poorly immunogenic Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells transduced with Sendai virus encoding GM-CSF (LLC/SeV/GM) remarkably rejected the tumor growth. Using cDNA microarrays, we found that expression levels of type I interferon (IFN)-related genes, predominantly expressed in plasmacytoid DCs (pDC), were significantly upregulated in TDLN-derived GM-DCs and focused on pDCs. Indeed, mouse experiments demonstrated that the effective induction of GM-CSF-induced antitumor immunity observed in immunocompetent mice treated with LLC/SeV/GM ...
A series of amidoximes was prepared and evaluated for possible antitumor activity against L1210 leukemia. Three of the most active compounds in the L1210 system, formamidoxime, acetamidoxime, and 2-aminoacetamidoxime hydrochloride, were also active against P388 leukemia. Acetamidoxime was marginally active against Lewis lung carcinoma. The active amidoximes showed best activity against L1210 leukemia when given two times daily, 5 hours apart, for 8 days. Most of the amidoximes produced excessive central nervous system stimulation.
Antitumor activity was assessed by growth of Lewis Lung Carcinoma/2 (LL/2) cells. PC numbers were increased in JH-injected mice compared to control mice. In Dot Plot analysis by FACS, a new cell population appeared in JH-injected mice. The percent of Gr-1 surface antigen and the intensity of Gr-1 antigen expression of PC were increased in JH-injected mice. The new cell population was neutrophils. JH possessed chemotactic activity for neutrophils ...
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Use the following form to complete our LLC formation questionnaire. This form should only be used after you have scheduled your consultation with Randhawa , Hundal LLP. You can save your progress and return to the form at a later time. Your progress will remain saved for 30 days.. Please contact us at [email protected] or 916-246-9950 if you have any questions or concerns regarding this form. Any information provided to Randhawa , Hundal LLP through the use of this form is secure and confidential. ...
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Developing novel chemo-prevention techniques and advancing treatment are key elements to beating lung cancer, the most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Our previous cohort study showed that cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonists, mainly montelukast, decreased the lung cancer risk in asthma patients. In the current study, we conducted in vivo and in vitro experiments to demonstrate the inhibiting effect of montelukast on lung cancer and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Using Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice, we showed that feeding montelukast significantly delayed the tumor growth in mice (p < 0.0001). Montelukast inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation and induced the cell death of lung cancer cells. Further investigation showed the down-regulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), up-regulation of Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak), and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) in montelukast-treated lung cancer cells. Montelukast also markedly
Purpose: We previously reported that autophagy in tumor cells plays a critical role in cross-presentation of tumor antigens and that autophagosomes are efficient antigen carriers for cross-priming of tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells. Here, we sought to characterize further the autophagosome-enriched vaccine named DRibble (DRiPs-containing blebs), which is derived from tumor cells after inhibition of protein degradation, and to provide insights into the mechanisms responsible for their efficacy as a novel cancer immunotherapy.. Experimental Design: DRibbles were characterized by Western blot and light or transmission electron microscopy. The efficiency of cross-presentation mediated by DRibbles was first compared with that of whole-tumor cells and pure proteins. The mechanisms of antigen cross-presentation by DRibbles were analyzed, and the antitumor efficacy of the DRibble vaccine was tested in 3LL Lewis lung tumors and B16F10 melanoma.. Results: The DRibbles sequester both long-lived and short-lived ...
Previous observations in cancer patients and tumor-bearing animals suggested that myeloid lineage cells were involved in tumor-induced immunosuppression. Expansion of immature myeloid cells or macrophage/monocytes with characteristics of immune suppressive cells has been described in patients with head and neck cancer (6), gastric cancer (7), in mice bearing most carcinomas: Lewis lung carcinoma (8), Ehrlich carcinoma (9, 22), mammary adenocarcinoma (23), chemically induced fibrosarcoma (24), and colon carcinoma (13, 14, 15). This expansion was associated with a decline in T cell responses; however, little is known regarding the mechanism by which immune-suppressive cells inhibit primary T cell activation.. In the present study, we investigated how Gr-1+ myeloid cells, isolated from MCA-26 tumor-bearing mice and enriched by fractionation, contribute to inhibition of CD3/CD28-induced T cell activation. Several findings can be drawn from our experiments. We demonstrated a quantitative increase in ...
Although seemingly dispensable under physiological conditions, Areg production by T reg cells has been demonstrated to play a role in tissue repair during viral lung infection without exerting a detectable effect on the immune response (Arpaia et al., 2015). To test whether T cell production of Areg affects lung tumor growth, we used AregFL/FLCD4-Cre and AregFL/FLFoxp3YFP-cre mice with a pan-T cell- or T reg-restricted Areg deficiency, respectively, transplanted with LLC and EO771. At days 21-24 after transplantation, LLC tumors in lungs of AregFL/FL CD4-cre mice were significantly smaller than those in the lungs of littermate controls (Fig. 3 A). However, in AregFL/FLFoxp3YFP-cre mice, this reduction in tumor size was merely a non-statistically significant trend, suggesting that production of Areg by both T reg and non-T reg T cells may contribute to LLC growth in the lungs. EO771 tumors in the lungs of AregFL/FLCD4-cre mice were also smaller than in littermate controls (Fig. 3 B). In contrast ...
Abstract Autophagy plays an important role in neoplastic transformation of cells and in resistance of cancer cells to radio and chemotherapy. p62 (SQSTM1) is a key component of autophagic machinery which is also involved in signal transduction. Although recent empirical observations demonstrated that p62 is overexpressed in variety of human tumors, a mechanism of p62 overexpression is not known. Here we report that the transformation of normal human mammary epithelial cells with diverse oncogenes (RAS, PIK3CA and Her2) causes marked accumulation of p62. Based on this result, we hypothesized that p62 may be a feasible candidate to be an anti- cancer DNA vaccine. Here we performed a preclinical study of a novel DNA vaccine encoding p62. Intramuscularly administered p62-encoding plasmid induced anti-p62 antibodies and exhibited strong antitumor activity in three models of allogeneic mouse tumors - B16 melanoma, Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), and S37 sarcoma. P62-encoding plasmid has demonstrated its ...
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Despite the evidence from cellular and epidemiologic animal studies, clinicians should note that there are no controlled trials in humans demonstrating a direct effect of opioids in facilitating tumor progression or of opioid antagonists in attenuating tumor progression. Animal models do not uniformly translate into human disease. In addition, certain caveats apply to our work. Lewis lung carcinoma is among the most robust tumors in both growth and response to drugs. Whether our findings are applicable to other tumors or to humans is not known. In addition, the work presented in this communication deals with the effects of MOR antagonists, and the effect of chronic opioid administration has not been specifically assessed. There is considerable evidence that chronic exposure to exogenous opioids changes the response in both brain and gut.39 Whether MOR expression changes with chronic exposure in tumor cells or endothelial cells is unknown. Finally, although there may be evidence of a direct ...
Fucoidan is known to exhibit crucial biological activities, including anti-tumor activity. In this study, we examined the influence of crude fucoidan extracted from Sargassum sp. (MTA) and Fucus vesiculosus (SIG) on Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LCC) and melanoma B16 cells (MC). In vitro studies were performed using cell viability analysis and showed that SIG and MTA fucoidans significantly decreased the viable number of LCC and MC cells in a dose-response fashion. Histochemical staining showed morphological changes of melanoma B16 cells after exposure to fucoidan. The observed changes were indicative of crude fucoidan induced apoptosis. Male C57BL/6JJCL mice were subjected to daily i.p. injections over 4 days with either SIG or MTA fucoidan (50 mg/kg body wt.). The cytolytic activity of natural killer (NK) cells was enhanced by crude fucoidan in a dose-dependent manner as indicated by 51Cr labeled YAC-1 target cell release. This study provides substantial indications that crude fucoidan exerts ...
Invasion is an important early step in the metastatic cascade and is the primary cause of death of prostate cancer patients. In order to invade, cells must detach from the primary tumor. Cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions are important regulators of cohesion - a property previously demonstrated to mediate cell detachment and invasion. The studies reported here propose a novel role for α5β1 integrin - the principle mediator of fibronectin matrix assembly (FNMA) - as an invasion suppressor of prostate cancer cells. Using a combination of biophysical and cell biological methods, and well-characterized prostate cancer cell lines of varying invasiveness, we explore the relationship between cohesion, invasiveness, and FNMA. We show that cohesion is inversely proportional to invasive capacity. We also show that more invasive cells express lower levels of α5β1 integrin and lack the capacity for FNMA. Cells were generated to over-express either wild-type α5 integrin or an integrin in which the cytoplasmic
consist of a backbone of (1→3)- and/or (1→4)-linked α-L-fucopyranose residues that may be substituted with sulfate (SO3-) on C-2, C-3, or C-4 and acetyl groups at C-4 on the main chain or may have short fucoside side chains that are usually linked from the O-4 of one or several of the fucopyranose backbone residues. FCSPs are known to exhibit crucial biological activities including anti-tumor activity. Although differently extracted, purified, fucose-rich, modified fucoidans have been reported to exert bioactive properties such as anti-coagulant and enhance immune response activity, few studies have investigated the bioactivity of unfractionated FCSPs, notably FCSPs extracted using milder and fewer processing steps. Crude fucoidan from Sargassum sp. and Fucus vesiculosus were examined for their bioactivity against lung and skin cancer cell lines in both in vitro and in vivo studies. This study showed that unfractionated FCSPs hinder the in vitro proliferation of Lewis lung carcinoma and ...
Title: Extracellular Matrix and Aberrant Signaling in Lung Carcinoma: Role of Fibronectin in the Control of Human Lung Carcinoma Cell Growth,Apoptosis and Resistance to Therapy. VOLUME: 2 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Shou Wei Han and Jesse Roman. Affiliation:Division of Pulmonary,Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine,Whitehead Bioresearch Building, 615 Michael Street, Suite 205-M, Atlanta,Georgia, 30322, USA.. Keywords:Fibronectin, integrin, signaling, human lung carcinoma cells, proliferation, therapy. Abstract: Despite recent advances in understanding the molecular biology of lung carcinoma and the introduction of multiple new chemotherapeutic agents for its treatment, its dismal five-year survival rate ( < 15%) has not changed substantially. The lack of advancements in this area reflects the limited knowledge available concerning the factors that promote oncogenic transformation and proliferation of carcinoma cells in the lung. Tumor growth and invasion are not only ...
The objective of this study was to evaluate qualitative and quantitative biodistribution of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted thiolated type B gelatin nanoparticles in vivo in subcutaneous human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (Panc-1) bearing female SCID Beige mice. EGFR-targeted nanoparticles showed
In pharmaceutics, biodegradable and biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles have shown considerable potential as drug carriers [1-3]. Delivery of therapeutic proteins and drugs has received significant attention in recent years [4-5]. Gelatin is a natural polymer derived from animals collagen, which is most abundant available protein. Its enormous biomedical application including plasma expander, stabilizer in a number of protein formulations, vaccines and gelatin sponge (Gelfoam®). Moreover, gelatin proved as a safety food supplement which is also documented by the classification as "Generally Recognized as Safe" (GRAS) by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) are very efficient in delivery and controlled release of the drugs, proteins and peptides. GNPs based delivery system is biocompatible and biodegradable without toxic degradation products in body. They are nontoxic, biodegradable, bioactive and inexpensive. Gelatin is a poly-ampholyte consisting of both ...
"Growth and dissemination of lewis lung carcinoma in plasminogen-deficient mice". Blood. 90 (11): 4522-4531. PMID 9373263. ... techniques demonstrated an increase in cathepsin activity in the angiogenic blood vessels and invasive fronts of carcinoma in ...
"Mechanical heterogenization of Lewis lung carcinoma cells can improve antimetastatic effect of dendritic cells". J. Journal of ... This active phosphorylation may serve as a biomarker in clear-cell carcinoma. Mechanochemical heterogeneity is a hallmark of ... lung cancer). A more common source is genomic instability, which often arises when key regulatory pathways are disrupted in the ... bladder and gynecological carcinomas, liposarcoma, and multiple myeloma. There are two models used to explain the heterogeneity ...
A study compared isoform expression between a low- and highly-metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma cell line. It is interesting to ... and high-metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma cells". Mol Cell Biol. 8 (9): 3934-3937. PMC 365453 . PMID 3221870. Takenaga, K; ... "Alterations in tropomyosin isoform expression in human transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder". Int J Cancer. 110 ( ...
... is an angiogenesis inhibitor that suppresses the growth of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice". The Journal of Experimental Medicine ... a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that mediates the suppression of metastases by a Lewis lung carcinoma". Cell. 79 (2): 315-328. ...
... a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that mediates the suppression of metastases by a Lewis lung carcinoma". Cell. 79 (2): 315-28. ... Study of rhAngiostatin Administered in Combination With Paclitaxel and Carboplatin to Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer ...
... reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice". Int. J. Cancer. 131: 1260-1266. doi:10.1002/ijc.27355. Ip, C ... that methaneseleninic acid restricts tumor growth in the nude mouse model of metastatic breast cancer and Lewis lung carcinoma ...
Work with zinc NC with various amido substituents revealed that the best phototherapeutic response (Lewis lung carcinoma in ... are an efficient photosensitiser against Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. SiNC[OSi(i-Bu)2-n-C18H37]2 is effective against Balb/c ... A methyl ALA ester (Metvix) is now available for basal cell carcinoma and other skin lesions. Benzyl (Benvix) and hexyl ester ( ... It also treats malignant cancers[2] including head and neck, lung, bladder and particular skin. The technology has also been ...
"Intravenous injection of siRNA directed against hypoxia-inducible factors prolongs survival in a Lewis lung carcinoma cancer ... In analysis of lung and ovarian cancer, poor prognosis and decreased patient survival times correlate with decreased dicer and ...
Expression and mutation analysis of the discoidin domain receptors 1 and 2 in non-small cell lung carcinoma.". Br. J. Cancer. ... Nicholas C. Price; Lewis Stevens (1999). Fundamentals of Enzymology: The Cell and Molecular Biology of Catalytic Proteins ( ...
Alox5 gene knockout mice exhibit an increase in the lung tumor volume and liver metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma cells that ... reduces growth and progression of the Lewis carcinoma by recruiting cancer-inhibiting CD4+ T helper cells and CD8+ T Cytotoxic ... Setileuton (MK-0633) has completed a Phase II clinical trial for the treatment of asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, and ... lung, ovary, and pancreas. ALOX5 may be overexpressed in some of these cancers; 5-Oxo-ETE and to a lesser extent 5-HETE ...
Furthermore, increased expression and activity of MMP-2 has been tied to increased vascularization of lung carcinoma metastases ... McQuibban GA, Gong JH, Tam EM, McCulloch CA, Clark-Lewis I, Overall CM (August 2000). "Inflammation dampened by gelatinase A ... "Expression of MMP-2 correlates with increased angiogenesis in CNS metastasis of lung carcinoma". International Journal of ... Bronchiectasis patients with P. aeruginosa infection have a more rapid decline in lung function. Altered expression and ...
Strong and diffuse cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of p16 in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the female genital tract is ... Sinha P, Thorstad WT, Nussenbaum B, Haughey BH, Adkins DR, Kallogjeri D, Lewis JS (January 2014). "Distant metastasis in p16- ... Carriers of germline mutations in CDKN2A have besides their high risks of melanoma also increased risks of pancreatic, lung, ... Tissue samples of primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) display hypermethylation in the promoter regions of p16. Cancer ...
Lewis isolated a spontaneous epidermoid carcinoma in a mouse lung, which became known as a Lewis lung carcinoma. This carcinoma ... Their children were Margaret Nast Lewis, who became a physicist, Warren R. Lewis, who worked as an engineer and atomic ... In the Locke-Lewis solution, the more robust cells, such as fibroblasts and macrophages, had a tendency to migrate out of the ... Lewis also found no evidence of vacuoles forming fibrils as was believed to be the case by other researchers. In 1951, ...
... in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma". Chemico-Biological Interactions. 45 (1): 1-6. doi:10.1016/0009-2797(83)90037-6. Coluccia ... Based Compounds with Encouraging Antiproliferative Activity against Non-small-Cell Lung Cancer". Chemistry: A European Journal ...
Vitamin-K-dependent proteins in microsomes of primary lewis lung tumors. Int J Cancer 8(6):877-82. ... "Abnormal Prothrombin (DES-γ-Carboxy Prothrombin) in Hepatocellular Carcinoma". Departments of Surgery and Pathology, University ...
... is required for Lewis lung carcinoma in mice to metastasize to lung, liver and adrenal glands, acting via TLR2 to ... Kim S, Takahashi H, Lin WW, Descargues P, Grivennikov S, Kim Y, Luo JL, Karin M (Jan 2009). "Carcinoma-produced factors ... Versican is increased in the changing tissue extracellular matrix in inflammatory lung disorders such as chronic obstructive ... the impact on lung disorders". Glycobiol. 25 (3): 243-251. doi:10.1093/glycob/cwu120. PMC 4310351 . PMID 25371494. Jumper N, ...
Following Karrer, Goldin and Humphreys' description of the Lewis lung (3LL) carcinoma as a model for metastases Hellmann set up ...
... expression was found to be altered in tumor vessels: in Lewis carcinoma lung metastasis the expression of T-cadherin ... Thus, tumor progression in basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), ovarian ... In primary lung tumors the loss of T-cadherin was not attributed to the presence of metastasis in lymph nodes, and in ... 1998). "The H-cadherin (CDH13) gene is inactivated in human lung cancer". Hum. Genet. 103 (1): 96-101. doi:10.1007/ ...
The growth and metastasis of implanted Lewis lung carcinoma cells, a mouse lung cancer cell line, is suppressed in EP33 ... Claar D, Hartert TV, Peebles RS (February 2015). "The role of prostaglandins in allergic lung inflammation and asthma". Expert ...
... including Lewis lung carcinoma, colon cancer (adenocarcinoma), Kaposi's sarcoma (connective tissue), uveal melanoma, hepatoma, ...
... implanted Lewis lung carcinoma, i.p. or s.c. implanted B16 melanoma, s.c. implanted colon 38 carcinoma, and five s.c. implanted ... lung LX-1 tumor, ovarian 2780 carcinoma, and prostatic DU-145 carcinoma. Carzelesin treatment produced 100% complete remissions ... and adozelesin caused marked tumor shrinkage in mice bearing human lung LX-1 or advanced-stage human ovarian 2780 carcinoma; ... Cyclopropylpyrroloindole Drugs Adozelesin and Bizelesin Induce Different DNA Damage Response Pathways in Human Colon Carcinoma ...
Doll R, Hill AB (Sep 1950). "Smoking and carcinoma of the lung; preliminary report". British Medical Journal. 2 (4682): 739-748 ... Carter BD, Abnet CC, Feskanich D, Freedman ND, Hartge P, Lewis CE, Ockene JK, Prentice RL, Speizer FE, Thun MJ, Jacobs EJ (Feb ... "Benefits of Quitting - American Lung Association". Stop Smoking. American Lung Association. Retrieved 2012-05-06. "Light ... "Smoking and Carcinoma of the Lung" which appeared in the British Medical Journal. This paper reported that "heavy smokers were ...
... is a tumor discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated ... In 1975, Munson discovered that cannabinoids suppress Lewis lung carcinoma cell growth. The mechanism of this action was shown ... Friedman MA (1977). "In vivo effects of cannabinoids on macromolecular biosynthesis in Lewis lung carcinomas". Cancer Biochem ... spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority ...
Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. 309 (2): L147-57. doi:10.1152/ajplung.00088.2015. PMC 4504974 . PMID 26001776. Lewis J ... However, no statistically significant relationship was determined in hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition to cancers, 14-3-3ζ ... So far, it stands to become a prognostic marker for breast cancer, lung cancer, head and neck cancer, and possibly gastric ... The protein has been implicated in many cancers, including lung cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma, and head and neck cancer, ...
Krauskopf, Lewis (29 December 2009). "Pfizer ends late-stage lung-cancer study". Reuters. Clinical trial number NCT00976508 for ... for example adrenocortical carcinoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This drug was being developed by Pfizer, but they ... for the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer". Clinical Lung Cancer. 10 (4): 273-80. doi:10.3816/CLC.2009.n. ... and pharmacokinetics of the anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody figitumumab in patients with refractory adrenocortical carcinoma". ...
Basal cell carcinoma, the most common form of cancerous malignancy, has the closest association with hedgehog signaling. Loss- ... In 1995, they shared the Nobel Prize with Edward B. Lewis for their work studying genetic mutations in Drosophila embryogenesis ... Activation of the hedgehog pathway has been implicated in the development of cancers in various organs, including brain, lung, ... Diseases associated with the malfunction of this pathway include basal cell carcinoma. The Hedgehog signaling pathway is one of ...
Lewis lung carcinoma is a tumor discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated ... In 1975, Munson discovered that cannabinoids suppress Lewis lung carcinoma cell growth. The mechanism of this action was shown ... Friedman MA (1977). "In vivo effects of cannabinoids on macromolecular biosynthesis in Lewis lung carcinomas". Cancer Biochem ... spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority ...
Lewis Lung" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Carcinoma, Lewis Lung" was a major or minor topic of ... Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL ... "Carcinoma, Lewis Lung" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Carcinoma, Lewis Lung*Carcinoma, Lewis Lung. *Lewis Lung Carcinoma. *Lung Carcinoma, Lewis ...
... line established from the lung of a C57BL mouse bearing a tumor resulting from an implantation of primary Lewis lung carcinoma ...
... we examined the underlying molecular mechanism of luteolin and its effect on in vivo tumor growth of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC ... and extracellular signal-regulated kinase/Akt inhibition were involved in luteolin-induced apoptosis in Lewis lung carcinoma ... and extracellular signal-regulated kinase/Akt inhibition were involved in luteolin-induced apoptosis in Lewis lung carcinoma ... Carcinoma, Lewis Lung/drug therapy. *Carcinoma, Lewis Lung/enzymology*. *Carcinoma, Lewis Lung/pathology* ...
Our study shows that the growth kinetics of Lewis lung carcinoma and dissemination of tumor are dynamically similar to chaotic ... Conclusion In the research of animals with Lewis lung carcinoma was shown, that mechano- magnetochemically synthesized ... oxide and DOXO on nonlinear dynamics of the growth during treatment by of Lewis lung carcinoma. Materials and methods. ... The Effect of Anticancer Nanotherapy on Lewis Lung Carcinoma. V.E. Orel, A.D. Shevchenko, N.A. Nikolov, N.N. Dzyatkovskya, A.V ...
MMP-9 involves radiation-enhanced in vitro invasiveness and in vivo pulmonary metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma Jason Chia- ... This study is to clarify whether MMP associates with radiation-accelerated pulmonary metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC-LM ... MMP-9 involves radiation-enhanced in vitro invasiveness and in vivo pulmonary metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma ... MMP-9 involves radiation-enhanced in vitro invasiveness and in vivo pulmonary metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma ...
A549 (CCL-185), Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC; CRL-1642), and HeLa (CCL-2) cell line were obtained from ATCC. MDA-MB-231 and HEK- ... The transfection efficiency was evaluated in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell lines cultured in vitro and in orthotopic cancer ... AT2R Gene Delivered by Condensed Polylysine Complexes Attenuates Lewis Lung Carcinoma after Intravenous Injection or ... AT2R Gene Delivered by Condensed Polylysine Complexes Attenuates Lewis Lung Carcinoma after Intravenous Injection or ...
Decrease of Metastatogenic Potential by Pregraft Treatment of Lewis Lung Carcinoma Cells with Proteinase and Protein Kinase ... Decrease of Metastatogenic Potential by Pregraft Treatment of Lewis Lung Carcinoma Cells with Proteinase and Protein Kinase ... Decrease of Metastatogenic Potential by Pregraft Treatment of Lewis Lung Carcinoma Cells with Proteinase and Protein Kinase ... Decrease of Metastatogenic Potential by Pregraft Treatment of Lewis Lung Carcinoma Cells with Proteinase and Protein Kinase ...
In vivo percent inhibition of Lewis Lung Carcinoma cell line in mice at 100 mg/Kg per day (p<0.001) compared with NCDAC. ...
A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma cell line), Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC, a mouse lung cancer cell line), and MRC-5 (normal human ... Viola Yedoensis Suppresses Cell Invasion by Targeting the Protease and NF-κB Activities in A549 and Lewis Lung Carcinoma Cells ... this herb can be used as a valuable tool in the combination therapy of metastatic lung carcinoma and the prevention of lung ... Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer. NSCLC comprises 85% of lung cancers and is divided ...
We previously reported that a mouse Lewis lung carcinoma-derived stroma-inducing clone, P29, highly expresses a syndecan-like ... expressed in a stroma-inducing clone from a mouse Lewis lung carcinoma. Naoki ITANO, Kayoko OGURI, Yuko NAGAYASU, Yuri KUSANO, ... expressed in a stroma-inducing clone from a mouse Lewis lung carcinoma ... expressed in a stroma-inducing clone from a mouse Lewis lung carcinoma ...
Synthetic Phenolic Antioxidant TS-13 Suppresses the Growth of Lewis Lung Carcinoma and Potentiates Oncolytic Effect of ... on the tumor growth and oncolytic properties of doxorubicin were studied in the experimental model of Lewis lung carcinoma in ... was observed on day 21 after inoculation of Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Two-fold intraperitoneal injections of doxorubicin in a ... reactive oxygen metabolites grafted Leis lung carcinoma sulphur-containing phenolic antioxidant TS-13 ...
LLC1 cell line was established from the lung of a C57BL mouse bearing a tumor of primary Lewis lung carcinoma. This cell line ... LLC1 mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cell line was obtained from the ATCC (Rockville, Maryland, USA). Cells were cultured under ... Mice were injected subcutaneously with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC1) cells (1x106 cells suspended in RPMI medium) in the right ... To elucidate structural changes in cellular morphology we examined mouse Lewis lung carcinoma LLC1 cells grown under 2D or lr- ...
... against Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) in C57BL/6 mice was determined. Intrapleural (i.pl.) administration of LC 9018 was effective ... administration of LC 9018 into the mice rendered their lung macrophages tumoricidal for 3LL cells in vitro. These results show ... Anti-tumour activity of Lactobacillus casei on lewis lung carcinoma and line-10 hepatoma in syngeneic mice and guinea pigs. * ... Augmentation of antimetastatic effect on Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) in C57BL/6 mice by priming with Lactobacillus casei. * ...
... low-immunogenic D122 clone of the Lewis lung carcinoma with a mammalian expression vector containing the human IL-6 ... In mature T-cell deficient nude mice, the IL-6 transfectants showed some arrest of local growth but no suppression of lung ... Interleukin 6 gene transfection into Lewis lung carcinoma tumor cells suppresses the malignant phenotype and confers ... article{Porgador1992Interleukin6G, title={Interleukin 6 gene transfection into Lewis lung carcinoma tumor cells suppresses the ...
... including the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) model, remains unclear. High and low metastatic LLC variants were generated by ... Despite the extracellular acidity of tumor tissues, the effect of acidic extracellular pH (pH e ) on EMT in carcinoma models, ... can induce EMT in some types of carcinoma. ... epithelial mesenchymal transition in Lewis lung carcinoma model ...
To investigate the effect of lactic acidosis on the survival of Lewis lung carcinoma cells under glucose-deprived conditions. ... Impact of lactic acidosis on the survival of Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Kolesnik D.L.*, Pyaskovskaya O.N., Solyanik G.I. ... In the work, LLC/R9 variant of Lewis lung carcinoma cells was used [8]. Tumor cells are maintained in vitro in complete RPMI ... Materials and Methods: LLC/R9 variant of Lewis lung carcinoma cells was cultured in glucose deficit or complete culture medium ...
... activity of Lewis lung carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Experiments were performed on female mice C57Bl/6 with Lewis lung ... Lewis lung carcinoma, metastases, Nω-hydroxy-nor-arginine, ornithine decarboxylase, polyamine metabolism, α- ... 1. Lewis lung carcinoma growth in mice under the influence of inhibitors of PA metabolism. *Significant difference (p , 0.05) ... Effect of polyamine metabolism inhibitors on Lewis lung carcinoma growth and metastasis. Samoilenko О.А., Milinevska O.A., ...
The study reported on in this article is a systematic search for the genetic networks underlying the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC ... Lung cancer is the most common human cancer. There are numerous studies that have sought to discover genetic impact factors ... Lewis lung carcinoma is a tumor named after its 1951 discoverer, Dr. Margaret R. Lewis, of the Wistar Institute. Worldwide lung ... A Network-Based, Genetic-Marker Evaluation for Lewis Lung Carcinoma. Xiangyao Lian1, Dexiang Yang2, Shaolong Cao3* ...
Lewis Lung Carcinoma In vivo Model. The Lewis lung carcinoma clone M47 is a metastatic model. These cells were maintained in ... The effect of pentamidine alone and in combination with cisplatin on tumor growth in the Lewis lung carcinoma mouse tumor model ... We have also analyzed the effect of pentamidine on tumor metastases using the Lewis lung tumor model. Pentamidine reduces lung ... The M47 Lewis lung carcinoma cell line was kindly provided by Dr. P. Brodt (McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada). The ...
A human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549, and the murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) line were obtained from Riken Cell Bank ... small cell lung carcinoma and nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) (1). The multiple genetic alterations resulting in NSCLC are ... and spheroplast fusion was used to transfer them into human A549 NSCLC or murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell lines. The ... nonsmall cell lung carcinoma;. LOH,. loss of heterozygosity;. Chr,. chromosome;. YAC,. yeast artificial chromosome;. LLC,. ...
Lewis lung carcinoma;. LXD,. domain having one LXXLL motif (X meaning any amino acid);. SRC-1,. steroid receptor coactivator-1; ... Lewis lung carcinoma cells contain specific high-affinity binding sites for the eicosanoid 12(S)-hydroxy-5,8,10,14- ... Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and B16 melanoma], to metastasize, apparently as a consequence of increased expression of a cell ... Eicosanoid Activation of Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase1/2 in Human Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells ...
Japanese-based researchers have uncovered a biomarker that may help to diagnose lung cancer much earlier than the current tests ... carcinoma embryonic antigen (CEA). *sialyl Lewis X antigen. *squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) ... Lung cancer is the second most prevalent form of cancer in men and women and the top cancer killer among both sexes. ... The antibody detected CKAP4 in lung cancer tissue and tumor cells.. Sato and team explain the significance of their findings, ...
Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC): nearly all vessels are at least partially covered by α-SMA-positive cells. D: Lewis lung carcinoma ... B and E: Implanted MCa-IV mammary carcinoma. C and F: Implanted Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC). Unlike their different ... Furthermore, pericytes in RIP-Tag2 tumors, as well as those in MCa-IV breast carcinomas and Lewis lung carcinomas, had an ... MCa-IV breast carcinomas, and Lewis lung carcinomas. Frequency of tumor vessels with pericytes was analyzed on 50 blood vessels ...
  • Three yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones spanning the minimal loss of heterozygosity region were modified, and spheroplast fusion was used to transfer them into human A549 NSCLC or murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell lines. (pnas.org)
  • A human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549, and the murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) line were obtained from Riken Cell Bank (Tsukuba, Japan) and grown in DMEM (A549) or Eagle's minimal essential medium (LLC) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, penicillin, and streptomycin (GIBCO/BRL) ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • In particular, the need for completely new therapeutics to treat the most aggressive lung cancers is especially great. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Most research shows that taking shark cartilage by mouth does not benefit people with advanced, previously treated cancers of the breast, colon, lung, prostate, or brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It also treats malignant cancers including head and neck, lung, bladder and particular skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 90 to 95 percent of lung cancers in the United States are caused by smoking, these changes in lung cancer rates likely reflect that fewer people are smoking, she said. (drugs.com)
  • Adenocarcinomas account for about 40 percent of all lung cancers, according to the American Cancer Society (ACS). (drugs.com)
  • This type of cancer accounts for about 30 percent of all lung cancers. (drugs.com)
  • Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) was the first paraneoplasia to be described and occurs in a wide range of different types of neoplasia such as lymphomas, carcinomas of the ovaries, uterus, breast, in addition to the most frequently culpable small cell carcinoma. (redorbit.com)
  • A single administration of these complexes markedly attenuated lung cancer growth, offering preclinical proof-of-concept for a novel nonviral gene delivery method exhibiting effective lung tumor gene therapy via either intravenous or intratracheal administration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The use of CKAP4 as a biomarker could change current practices regarding the treatment of lung cancer patients, and the diagnostic accuracies may be markedly improved by the combination of CKAP4 and conventional markers. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by lung destruction and inflammation. (hindawi.com)
  • Pulmonary carcinoma in chromate workers. (cdc.gov)
  • Takahashi Y, Izumi Y, Matsutani N, Dejima H, Nakayama T, Okamura R, Uehara H, Kawamura M. Optimized magnitude of cryosurgery facilitating anti-tumor immunoreaction in a mouse model of Lewis lung cancer. (harvard.edu)
  • The study reported on in this article is a systematic search for the genetic networks underlying the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) model. (hapres.com)
  • According to Karin, these findings are relevant, not just to the mouse model, but also to human lung cancer - the most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. (ucsd.edu)
  • Cuccarese MF, Dubach JM, Pfirschke C, Engblom C, Garris C, Miller MA, Pittet MJ, Weissleder R. Heterogeneity of macrophage infiltration and therapeutic response in lung carcinoma revealed by 3D organ imaging. (harvard.edu)
  • Macrophage-derived metalloelastase is responsible for the generation of angiostatin in Lewis lung carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • Hao Y, Yasmin-Karim S, Moreau M, Sinha N, Sajo E, Ngwa W. Enhancing radiotherapy for lung cancer using immunoadjuvants delivered in situ from new design radiotherapy biomaterials: a preclinical study. (harvard.edu)
  • This simple nonviral formulation approach showed negligible cytotoxicity in four different human cell lines (cervix, breast, kidney, and lung cell lines) and one mouse cell line (a lung cancer cell line). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Even though progress has been made in early detection and prevention, mortality, and morbidity associated with lung cancer is still unacceptably high ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Worldwide lung cancer is the most common human cancer measured by incidence and mortality . (hapres.com)
  • The main reason behind why lung cancer has such a high mortality rate is that it is often caught at an advanced stage. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Lung cancer mortality among workers making lead chromate and zinc chromate pigments at three English factories. (cdc.gov)
  • Biologic barriers and toxicity continue to confound lung cancer treatment, even though the lungs may be accessed via inhalation or intravenous administration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Carcinoma, Lewis Lung" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • through explant culture of lung carcinomatous tissue from a 58-year-old Caucasian male. (atcc.org)
  • Because acrolein is a DNA damaging agent and induces ER stresses [ 14 ] and induces myeloid infiltration to lung [ 19 ], here we investigated whether GADD34 might affects pathogenesis of acrolein-induced lung injury. (hindawi.com)
  • For the study, researchers collected data from more than 450,000 people diagnosed with lung cancer between 1977 and 2010. (drugs.com)
  • Researchers may have found a biomarker for lung cancer, which could soon enable healthcare professionals to detect the disease while it is still in stage 1. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Crucially, the biomarker sensitivity remained high even in stage 1 lung cancer, meaning that CKAP4 blood levels were high in people with this early stage of the disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)