A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Any chemical species which accepts an electron-pair from a LEWIS BASE in a chemical bonding reaction.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
'Rats, Inbred Lew' is a strain of laboratory rat that is widely used in biomedical research, known for its consistent genetic background and susceptibility to certain diseases, which makes it an ideal model for studying the genetic basis of complex traits and disease processes.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
4-Methyl derivative of LOMUSTINE; (CCNU). An antineoplastic agent which functions as an alkylating agent.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)
Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.
An inhibitor of nucleotide metabolism.
Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Leukemia L1210 is a designation for a specific murine (mouse) leukemia cell line that was originally isolated from a female mouse with an induced acute myeloid leukemia, which is widely used as a model in cancer research, particularly for in vivo studies of drug efficacy and resistance.
A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.
A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor which inhibits platelet aggregation. Formerly used as an antineoplastic.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Sarcoma 180 is an undifferentiated, transplantable mouse tumor model originally induced by methylcholanthrene, widely used in preclinical cancer research for evaluating efficacy of potential therapeutic agents.
A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
A syndecan that is predominantly expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It may play a role in mediating cellular interactions with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and may modulate the signaling activity of certain INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Circulating 38-kDa proteins that are internal peptide fragments of PLASMINOGEN. The name derives from the fact that they are potent ANGIOGENESIS INHIBITORS. Angiostatins contain four KRINGLE DOMAINS which are associated with their potent angiostatic activity.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
The only family of the buckwheat order (Polygonales) of dicotyledonous flowering plants. It has 40 genera of herbs, shrubs, and trees.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Nitrosourea compounds are a class of alkylating agents used in cancer chemotherapy, which contain a nitro group (NO2) and a urea functional group (R-NH-CO-NH2), known for their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and damage DNA, thereby inhibiting tumor growth.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.
Loss of detectable antigen from the surface of a cell after incubation with antibodies. This is one method in which some tumors escape detection by the immune system. Antigenic modulation of target antigens also reduces the therapeutic effectiveness of treatment by monoclonal antibodies.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Medical treatment involving the use of controlled amounts of X-Rays.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A form of highly malignant lung cancer that is composed of small ovoid cells (SMALL CELL CARCINOMA).
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.
Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.
A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Inbred DBA mice are a strain of laboratory mice that are genetically identical and share specific characteristics, including a high incidence of deafness, coat color (black and white), and susceptibility to certain diseases, which make them useful for research purposes in biomedical studies.
Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.
The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.
An antimitotic agent with immunosuppressive properties.
Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.
Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.
A carcinoma thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli. Involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular. The neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures. Mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells. Metastases in regional lymph nodes, and in even more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Precursor of plasmin (FIBRINOLYSIN). It is a single-chain beta-globulin of molecular weight 80-90,000 found mostly in association with fibrinogen in plasma; plasminogen activators change it to fibrinolysin. It is used in wound debriding and has been investigated as a thrombolytic agent.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Angiostatic proteins that are formed from proteolytic cleavage of COLLAGEN TYPE XVIII.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.

Successful adoptive immunotherapy of murine poorly immunogenic tumor with specific effector cells generated from gene-modified tumor-primed lymph node cells. (1/549)

We previously reported that cytokine gene transfer into weakly immunogenic tumor cells could enhance the generation of precursor cells of tumor-reactive T cells and subsequently augment antitumor efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy. We investigated whether such potent antitumor effector T cells could be generated from mice bearing poorly immunogenic tumors. In contrast to similarly modified weakly immunogenic tumors, MCA102 cells, which are chemically induced poorly immunogenic fibrosarcoma cells transfected with cDNA for IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-gamma, failed to augment the host immune reaction. Because priming of antitumor effector T cells in vivo requires two important signals provided by tumor-associated Ags and costimulatory molecules, these tumor cells were cotransfected with a B7-1 cDNA. Transfection of both IFN-gamma and B7-1 (MCA102/B7-1/IFN-gamma) resulted in regression of s.c. tumors, while tumor transfected with other combinations of cytokine and B7-1 showed progressive growth. Cotransfection of IFN-gamma and B7-1 into other poorly immunogenic tumor B16 and LLC cells also resulted in the regression of s.c. tumors. Cells derived from lymph nodes draining MCA102/B7-1/IFN-gamma tumors showed potent antitumor efficacy, eradicating established pulmonary metastases, but this effect was not seen with parental tumors. This mechanism of enhanced antitumor efficacy was further investigated, and T cells with down-regulated L-selectin expression, which constituted all the in vivo antitumor reactivity, were significantly increased in lymph nodes draining MCA102/B7-1/IFN-gamma tumors. These T cells developed into potent antitumor effector cells after in vitro activation with anti-CD3/IL-2. The strategy presented here may provide a basis for developing potent immunotherapy for human cancers.  (+info)

Rapid induction of cytokine and E-selectin expression in the liver in response to metastatic tumor cells. (2/549)

The cytokine-inducible endothelial cell adhesion receptor E-selectin has been implicated in cancer metastasis. Previously, we reported that experimental liver metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma subline H-59 cells could be abrogated in animals treated with an anti-E-selectin antibody. To gain further insight into the functional relevance of E-selectin expression to liver colonization, we investigated here the time course of cytokine and hepatic E-selectin expression after the intrasplenic/portal inoculation of H-59 cells by using a combination of reverse transcription-PCR, Northern blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. In parallel, we analyzed cytokine induction in response to the injection of Lewis lung carcinoma subline M-27 and murine melanoma B16-F1 cells, which do not spontaneously metastasize to the liver. In livers derived from normal or saline-injected mice, only minimal basal levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1 mRNA were detectable by RT-PCR. Rapid cytokine mRNA induction was noted within 30-60 min of H-59 injection, reaching maximal levels at 4-6 h. This was followed by the appearance of E-selectin mRNA, which was detectable at 2 h after injection and reached maximal levels at 6-8 h, declining to basal levels by 24 h. In situ hybridization analysis and immunohistochemistry localized E-selectin mRNA and protein, respectively, to the sinusoidal endothelium. M-27 cells failed to induce cytokine or E-selectin expression, whereas B-16 cells elicited a delayed and more short-lived response. The results demonstrate that upon entry into the hepatic circulation, tumor cells can rapidly trigger a molecular cascade leading to the induction of E-selectin expression on the sinusoidal endothelium and suggest that E-selectin induction may contribute to the liver-colonizing potential of tumor cells.  (+info)

Mediastinal lymph node metastasis model by orthotopic intrapulmonary implantation of Lewis lung carcinoma cells in mice. (3/549)

This study is designed to establish a pulmonary tumour model to investigate the biology and therapy of lung cancer in mice. Current methods for forming a solitary intrapulmonary nodule and subsequent metastasis to mediastinal lymph nodes are not well defined. Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell suspensions were orthotopically introduced into the lung parenchyma of C57/BL6 mice via a limited skin incision without thoracotomy followed by direct puncture through the intercostal space. The implantation process was performed within approximately 50 s per mouse, and the operative mortality was less than 5%. Single pulmonary nodules developed at the implanted site in 93% of animals and subsequent mediastinal lymph node metastasis was observed in all mice that formed a lung nodule after intrapulmonary implantation. The size of tumour nodule and the weight of mediastinal lymph node increased in a time-dependent manner. The mean survival time of mice implanted successfully with LLC cells was 21+/-2 days (range 19-24 days). Histopathological analysis revealed that no metastatic tumour was detectable in the mediastinal lymph nodes on day 11, but metastatic foci at mediastinal lymph nodes were clearly observed on days 17 and 21 after implantation. Other metastases in distant organs or lymph nodes were not observed at 21 days after the implantation. Comparative studies with intrapleural and intravenous injections of LLC cells suggest that the mediastinal lymph node metastasis by intrapulmonary implantation is due to the release of tumour cells from the primary nodule, and not due to extrapulmonary leakage of cells. An intravenous administration of cis-diamine dichloro platinum on day 1 after tumour implantation tended to suppress the primary tumour nodule and significantly inhibited lymph node metastasis. Thus, a solitary pulmonary tumour nodule model with lymph node metastasis approximates clinical lung cancer and may provide a useful basis for lung cancer research.  (+info)

Inhibitory effect of Cordyceps sinensis on spontaneous liver metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma and B16 melanoma cells in syngeneic mice. (4/549)

We investigated the effect of the water extract of Cordyceps sinensis (WECS) on liver metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and B16 melanoma (B16) cells in mice. C57BL/6 mice were given a s.c. injection of LLC and B16 cells and sacrificed 20 and 26 days after tumor inoculation, respectively. WECS was daily administered p.o. to the mice in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight (wt.) in the experiment of LLC and in a dose of 100 or 200 mg/kg body wt. in the experiment of B16 from one week before tumor inoculation to one day before the date of sacrifice. The tumor cells increased in the thigh in LLC-inoculated mice and in the footpad in B16-inoculated mice. The relative liver wt. of the tumor-inoculated mice significantly increased as compared to that of the normal mice due to the tumor metastasis, as verified by the hematoxylin-eosin staining pathological study in the LLC experiment. The relative liver wt. of the WECS-administered mice significantly decreased relative to that of the control mice in both the LLC and B16 experiments. WECS showed a strong cytotoxicity against LLC and B16 cells, while cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine), an active component of WECS, was not cytotoxic against these cells. These findings suggest that WECS has an anti-metastatic activity that is probably due to components other than cordycepin.  (+info)

Mechanisms of synergism between cisplatin and gemcitabine in ovarian and non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. (5/549)

2',2'-Difluorodeoxycytidine (gemcitabine, dFdC) and cis-diammine-dichloroplatinum (cisplatin, CDDP) are active agents against ovarian cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). CDDP acts by formation of platinum (Pt)-DNA adducts; dFdC by dFdCTP incorporation into DNA, subsequently leading to inhibition of exonuclease and DNA repair. Previously, synergism between both compounds was found in several human and murine cancer cell lines when cells were treated with these drugs in a constant ratio. In the present study we used different combinations of both drugs (one drug at its IC25 and the other in a concentration range) in the human ovarian cancer cell line A2780, its CDDP-resistant variant ADDP, its dFdC-resistant variant AG6000 and two NSCLC cell lines, H322 (human) and Lewis lung (LL) (murine). Cells were exposed for 4, 24 and 72 h with a total culture time of 96 h, and possible synergism was evaluated by median drug effect analysis by calculating a combination index (CI; CI < 1 indicates synergism). With CDDP at its IC25, the average CIs calculated at the IC50, IC75 IC90 and IC95 after 4, 24 and 72 h of exposure were < 1 for all cell lines, indicating synergism, except for the CI after 4 h exposure in the LL cell line which showed an additive effect. With dFdC at its IC25, the CIs for the combination with CDDP after 24 h were < 1 in all cell lines, except for the CIs after 4 h exposure in the LL and H322 cell lines which showed an additive effect. At 72 h exposure all CIs were < 1. CDDP did not significantly affect dFdCTP accumulation in all cell lines. CDDP increased dFdC incorporation into both DNA and RNA of the A2780 cell lines 33- and 79-fold (P < 0.01) respectively, and tended to increase the dFdC incorporation into RNA in all cell lines. In the AG6000 and LL cell lines, CDDP and dFdC induced > 25% more DNA strand breaks (DSB) than each drug alone; however, in the other cell lines no effect, or even a decrease in DSB, was observed. dFdC increased the cellular Pt accumulation after 24 h incubation only in the ADDP cell line. However, dFdC did enhance the Pt-DNA adduct formation in the A2780, AG6000, ADDP and LL cell lines (1.6-, 1.4-, 2.9- and 1.6-fold respectively). This increase in Pt-DNA adduct formation seems to be related to the incorporation of dFdC into DNA (r = 0.91). No increase in DNA platination was found in the H322 cell line. dFdC only increased Pt-DNA adduct retention in the A2780 and LL cell lines, but decreased the Pt-DNA adduct retention in the AG6000 cell line. In conclusion, the synergism between dFdC and CDDP appears to be mainly due to an increase in Pt-DNA adduct formation possibly related to changes in DNA due to dFdC incorporation into DNA.  (+info)

Diminution of 37-kDa laminin binding protein expression reduces tumour formation of murine lung cancer cells. (6/549)

Expression of the 37-kDa laminin binding protein (37LBP/p40), a precursor of the 67-kDa laminin receptor, is well-correlated with the biological aggressiveness of cancer cells. To elucidate the direct role played by 37LBP/p40 in cancer cells, a murine lung cancer cell line T11, the 37LBP/p40 expression of which was remarkably diminished, was established by the introduction of the antisense 37LBP/p40-RNA using a retroviral vector. As a result, the population doubling time of T11 was prolonged (60 h) compared with that of P29, the non-transfected parental cell line (42 h), and TN2, a transfectant with vehicle only (40 h). In-vitro studies also showed that T11 cells adhered to immobilized laminin less firmly than P29 cells did. When 5 x 10(5) cells were subcutaneously inoculated into syngenic mice, the mean survival time of T11-recipients (77.0+/-14.8 days) was also significantly prolonged compared with that for P29 (34.8+/-5.5 days) and TN2 (36.7+/-6.1 days) recipients (P < 0.001). The electron-microscopic view of the tumour tissue revealed that T11 cells were loosely apposed and their intercellular space was markedly widened. Some of the T11 cells sporadically degenerated with the infiltration of lymphocytes and neutrophils. These results suggest that the suppressed expression of 37LBP/p40 reduces the capability of lung cancer cell proliferation in vitro and tumour formation in vivo.  (+info)

Impaired ability of MHC class II-/- dendritic cells to provide tumor protection is rescued by CD40 ligation. (7/549)

The contribution of CD4+ T cells to dendritic cell (DC) activation and to the induction of CD8+ T cell responses in vivo was investigated using a model of antitumor immune responses. Immunization with peptide-loaded MHC class II-deficient (MHC class II-/-) DC induced the activation of Ag-specific CD8+ T cells and their accumulation in the lymph nodes and spleens of immunized mice. The accumulation induced by MHC class II-/- DC immunization was lower than the accumulation observed after immunization with MHC class II+/+ DC. Similarly, immunization with peptide-loaded, MHC class II-/- DC induced some degree of protection against tumor challenge, but this protection was lower than the protection achieved after immunization with MHC class II+/+ DC. Incubation with a membrane-associated form of CD40 ligand resulted in the up-regulation of costimulatory molecules on MHC class II-/- DC and fully rescued their ability to induce antitumor immunity. We conclude that CD4+ T cells play a critical role in the generation of antitumor immune responses through their capacity to induce the activation of DC via CD40/CD40 ligand interaction, and thus maximize CD8+ T cell responses.  (+info)

Antitumor activity of phenylahistin in vitro and in vivo. (8/549)

Phenylahistin is a new cell cycle inhibitor produced by Aspergillus ustus. Since phenylahistin was produced as a scalemic mixture of (-)-phenylahistin and its enantiomer, we separated each enantiomer and evaluated their antitumor activity in vitro. (-)-Phenylahistin exhibited antitumor activity against 8 tumor cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 1.8 x 10(-7) to 3.7 x 10(-6), while (+)-phenylahistin exhibited 33-100-fold less potent activity than (-)-phenylahistin did. (-)-Phenylahistin also showed antitumor activity against P388 leukemia and Lewis lung carcinoma cells in vivo.  (+info)

"Carcinoma, Lewis lung" is a term used to describe a specific type of lung cancer that was first discovered in strain C57BL/6J mice by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis in 1951. It is a spontaneously occurring undifferentiated carcinoma that originates from the lung epithelium and is highly invasive and metastatic, making it a popular model for studying cancer biology and testing potential therapies.

The Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells are typically characterized by their rapid growth rate, ability to form tumors when implanted into syngeneic mice, and high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which promotes angiogenesis and tumor growth.

It is important to note that while the LLC model has been useful for studying certain aspects of lung cancer, it may not fully recapitulate the complexity and heterogeneity of human lung cancers. Therefore, findings from LLC studies should be validated in more clinically relevant models before being translated into human therapies.

Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body. These cells cover organs, glands, and other structures within the body. Carcinomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, lungs, breasts, prostate, colon, and pancreas. They are often characterized by the uncontrolled growth and division of abnormal cells that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis. Carcinomas can be further classified based on their appearance under a microscope, such as adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the lung tissue. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant lung neoplasms are further classified into two main types: small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung neoplasms can cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss. They are often caused by smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, but can also occur due to genetic factors, radiation exposure, and other environmental carcinogens. Early detection and treatment of lung neoplasms is crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that begins in the squamous cells, which are flat, thin cells that form the outer layer of the skin (epidermis). It commonly occurs on sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, lips, and backs of the hands. Squamous cell carcinoma can also develop in other areas of the body including the mouth, lungs, and cervix.

This type of cancer usually develops slowly and may appear as a rough or scaly patch of skin, a red, firm nodule, or a sore or ulcer that doesn't heal. While squamous cell carcinoma is not as aggressive as some other types of cancer, it can metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body if left untreated, making early detection and treatment important.

Risk factors for developing squamous cell carcinoma include prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds, fair skin, a history of sunburns, a weakened immune system, and older age. Prevention measures include protecting your skin from the sun by wearing protective clothing, using a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, avoiding tanning beds, and getting regular skin examinations.

The Lewis blood-group system is one of the human blood group systems, which is based on the presence or absence of two antigens: Lea and Leb. These antigens are carbohydrate structures that can be found on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) as well as other cells and in various body fluids.

The Lewis system is unique because its antigens are not normally present at birth, but instead develop during early childhood or later in life due to the action of certain enzymes in the digestive tract. The production of Lea and Leb antigens depends on the activity of two genes, FUT3 (also known as Lewis gene) and FUT2 (also known as Secretor gene).

There are four main phenotypes or blood types in the Lewis system:

1. Le(a+b-): This is the most common phenotype, where individuals have both Lea and Leb antigens on their RBCs.
2. Le(a-b+): In this phenotype, individuals lack the Lea antigen but have the Leb antigen on their RBCs.
3. Le(a-b-): This is a rare phenotype where neither Lea nor Leb antigens are present on the RBCs.
4. Le(a+b+): In this phenotype, individuals have both Lea and Leb antigens on their RBCs due to the simultaneous expression of FUT3 and FUT2 genes.

The Lewis blood-group system is not typically associated with transfusion reactions or hemolytic diseases, unlike other blood group systems such as ABO and Rh. However, the presence or absence of Lewis antigens can still have implications for certain medical conditions and tests, including:

* Infectious diseases: Some bacteria and viruses can use the Lewis antigens as receptors to attach to and infect host cells. For example, Helicobacter pylori, which causes gastritis and peptic ulcers, binds to Lea antigens in the stomach.
* Autoimmune disorders: In some cases, autoantibodies against Lewis antigens have been found in patients with autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
* Pregnancy: The Lewis antigens can be expressed on the surface of placental cells, and changes in their expression have been linked to pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction.
* Blood typing: Although not a primary factor in blood transfusion compatibility, the Lewis blood-group system is still considered when determining the best match for patients who require frequent transfusions or organ transplants.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults. It originates from the hepatocytes, which are the main functional cells of the liver. This type of cancer is often associated with chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B or C virus infection, alcohol abuse, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and aflatoxin exposure.

The symptoms of HCC can vary but may include unexplained weight loss, lack of appetite, abdominal pain or swelling, jaundice, and fatigue. The diagnosis of HCC typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, as well as blood tests to measure alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. Treatment options for Hepatocellular carcinoma depend on the stage and extent of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and liver function. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or liver transplantation.

Experimental neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that are induced and studied in a controlled laboratory setting, typically in animals or cell cultures. These studies are conducted to understand the fundamental mechanisms of cancer development, progression, and potential treatment strategies. By manipulating various factors such as genetic mutations, environmental exposures, and pharmacological interventions, researchers can gain valuable insights into the complex processes underlying neoplasm formation and identify novel targets for cancer therapy. It is important to note that experimental neoplasms may not always accurately represent human cancers, and further research is needed to translate these findings into clinically relevant applications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lewis acids" is actually a term from the field of chemistry rather than medicine. It was named after Gilbert N. Lewis, who proposed the concept in 1923. A Lewis acid is defined as an electron-pair acceptor in a chemical reaction. In simpler terms, it's a molecule or ion that can accept a pair of electrons from another molecule or ion to form a covalent bond. Common examples of Lewis acids include aluminum chloride (AlCl3), boron trifluoride (BF3), and iron(III) chloride (FeCl3).

Neoplasm transplantation is not a recognized or established medical procedure in the field of oncology. The term "neoplasm" refers to an abnormal growth of cells, which can be benign or malignant (cancerous). "Transplantation" typically refers to the surgical transfer of living cells, tissues, or organs from one part of the body to another or between individuals.

The concept of neoplasm transplantation may imply the transfer of cancerous cells or tissues from a donor to a recipient, which is not a standard practice due to ethical considerations and the potential harm it could cause to the recipient. In some rare instances, researchers might use laboratory animals to study the transmission and growth of human cancer cells, but this is done for scientific research purposes only and under strict regulatory guidelines.

In summary, there is no medical definition for 'Neoplasm Transplantation' as it does not represent a standard or ethical medical practice.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Lung diseases refer to a broad category of disorders that affect the lungs and other structures within the respiratory system. These diseases can impair lung function, leading to symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and wheezing. They can be categorized into several types based on the underlying cause and nature of the disease process. Some common examples include:

1. Obstructive lung diseases: These are characterized by narrowing or blockage of the airways, making it difficult to breathe out. Examples include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis.
2. Restrictive lung diseases: These involve stiffening or scarring of the lungs, which reduces their ability to expand and take in air. Examples include idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, and asbestosis.
3. Infectious lung diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that infect the lungs. Examples include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and influenza.
4. Vascular lung diseases: These affect the blood vessels in the lungs, impairing oxygen exchange. Examples include pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).
5. Neoplastic lung diseases: These involve abnormal growth of cells within the lungs, leading to cancer. Examples include small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
6. Other lung diseases: These include interstitial lung diseases, pleural effusions, and rare disorders such as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM).

It is important to note that this list is not exhaustive, and there are many other conditions that can affect the lungs. Proper diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases require consultation with a healthcare professional, such as a pulmonologist or respiratory therapist.

Carcinoma in situ is a medical term used to describe the earliest stage of cancer, specifically a type of cancer that begins in the epithelial tissue, which is the tissue that lines the outer surfaces of organs and body structures. In this stage, the cancer cells are confined to the layer of cells where they first developed and have not spread beyond that layer into the surrounding tissues or organs.

Carcinoma in situ can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, cervix, breast, lung, prostate, bladder, and other areas. It is often detected through routine screening tests, such as Pap smears for cervical cancer or mammograms for breast cancer.

While carcinoma in situ is not invasive, it can still be a serious condition because it has the potential to develop into an invasive cancer if left untreated. Treatment options for carcinoma in situ may include surgery, radiation therapy, or other forms of treatment, depending on the location and type of cancer. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine the best course of action for each individual case.

Neoplasm metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from the primary site (where the original or primary tumor formed) to other places in the body. This happens when cancer cells break away from the original (primary) tumor and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system. The cancer cells can then travel to other parts of the body and form new tumors, called secondary tumors or metastases.

Metastasis is a key feature of malignant neoplasms (cancers), and it is one of the main ways that cancer can cause harm in the body. The metastatic tumors may continue to grow and may cause damage to the organs and tissues where they are located. They can also release additional cancer cells into the bloodstream or lymphatic system, leading to further spread of the cancer.

The metastatic tumors are named based on the location where they are found, as well as the type of primary cancer. For example, if a patient has a primary lung cancer that has metastasized to the liver, the metastatic tumor would be called a liver metastasis from lung cancer.

It is important to note that the presence of metastases can significantly affect a person's prognosis and treatment options. In general, metastatic cancer is more difficult to treat than cancer that has not spread beyond its original site. However, there are many factors that can influence a person's prognosis and response to treatment, so it is important for each individual to discuss their specific situation with their healthcare team.

Carcinoma, papillary is a type of cancer that begins in the cells that line the glandular structures or the lining of organs. In a papillary carcinoma, the cancerous cells grow and form small finger-like projections, called papillae, within the tumor. This type of cancer most commonly occurs in the thyroid gland, but can also be found in other organs such as the lung, breast, and kidney. Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland is usually slow-growing and has a good prognosis, especially when it is diagnosed at an early stage.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the liver that can be benign or malignant. Benign liver neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant liver neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue and spread to other organs.

Liver neoplasms can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or secondary, meaning they have metastasized (spread) to the liver from another part of the body. Primary liver neoplasms can be further classified into different types based on their cell of origin and behavior, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic hemangioma.

The diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type and extent of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or liver transplantation.

I'm happy to help! "Rats, Inbred Lew" is a specific strain of laboratory rats that have been inbred for research purposes. The "Lew" part of the name refers to the location where they were first developed, the Lewis Institute in Lake Bluff, Illinois, USA.

Inbreeding is a process of mating closely related individuals over many generations to create a genetically homogeneous population. This results in a high degree of genetic similarity among members of the strain, making them ideal for use as experimental models because any differences observed between individuals are more likely to be due to the experimental manipulation rather than genetic variation.

Inbred Lew rats have been widely used in biomedical research, particularly in studies related to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. They exhibit a number of unique characteristics that make them useful for these types of studies, including their susceptibility to developing high blood pressure when fed a high-salt diet or given certain drugs.

It's important to note that while inbred strains like Lew rats can be very useful tools for researchers, they are not perfect models for human disease. Because they have been bred in a controlled environment and selected for specific traits, they may not respond to experimental manipulations in the same way that humans or other animals would. Therefore, it's important to interpret findings from these studies with caution and consider multiple lines of evidence before drawing any firm conclusions.

Carcinoma, non-small-cell lung (NSCLC) is a type of lung cancer that includes several subtypes of malignant tumors arising from the epithelial cells of the lung. These subtypes are classified based on the appearance of the cancer cells under a microscope and include adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma. NSCLC accounts for about 85% of all lung cancers and tends to grow and spread more slowly than small-cell lung cancer (SCLC).

NSCLC is often asymptomatic in its early stages, but as the tumor grows, symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, hoarseness, and weight loss may develop. Treatment options for NSCLC depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and lung function. Common treatments include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Pathologic neovascularization is the abnormal growth of new blood vessels in previously avascular tissue or excessive growth within existing vasculature, which occurs as a result of hypoxia, inflammation, or angiogenic stimuli. These newly formed vessels are often disorganized, fragile, and lack proper vessel hierarchy, leading to impaired blood flow and increased vascular permeability. Pathologic neovascularization can be observed in various diseases such as cancer, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and chronic inflammation. This process contributes to disease progression by promoting tumor growth, metastasis, and edema formation, ultimately leading to tissue damage and organ dysfunction.

Semustine is not a medical term itself, but it's a brand name for the chemical compound called lomustine. Here is the medical definition of Lomustine:

Lomustine: A nitrosourea alkylating agent used in cancer chemotherapy. It is classified as an antineoplastic agent and works by preventing the growth of cancer cells through inhibiting DNA replication. Lomustine is used to treat various types of cancers, including Hodgkin's lymphoma, brain tumors, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, and bone marrow suppression leading to anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

Carcinoma, ductal, breast is a type of breast cancer that begins in the milk ducts (the tubes that carry milk from the lobules of the breast to the nipple). It is called "ductal" because it starts in the cells that line the milk ducts. Ductal carcinoma can be further classified as either non-invasive or invasive, based on whether the cancer cells are confined to the ducts or have spread beyond them into the surrounding breast tissue.

Non-invasive ductal carcinoma (also known as intraductal carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ) is a condition where abnormal cells have been found in the lining of the milk ducts, but they have not spread outside of the ducts. These cells have the potential to become invasive and spread to other parts of the breast or body if left untreated.

Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is a type of breast cancer that starts in a milk duct and then grows into the surrounding breast tissue. From there, it can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream and lymphatic system. IDC is the most common form of breast cancer, accounting for about 80% of all cases.

Symptoms of ductal carcinoma may include a lump or thickening in the breast, changes in the size or shape of the breast, dimpling or puckering of the skin on the breast, nipple discharge (especially if it is clear or bloody), and/or redness or scaling of the nipple or breast skin. However, many cases of ductal carcinoma are detected through mammography before any symptoms develop.

Treatment for ductal carcinoma depends on several factors, including the stage and grade of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and personal preferences. Treatment options may include surgery (such as a lumpectomy or mastectomy), radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and/or targeted therapies.

Carcinoma, basal cell is a type of skin cancer that arises from the basal cells, which are located in the lower part of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin). It is also known as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and is the most common form of skin cancer.

BCC typically appears as a small, shiny, pearly bump or nodule on the skin, often in sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, neck, hands, and arms. It may also appear as a scar-like area that is white, yellow, or waxy. BCCs are usually slow growing and rarely spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. However, they can be locally invasive and destroy surrounding tissue if left untreated.

The exact cause of BCC is not known, but it is thought to be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds. People with fair skin, light hair, and blue or green eyes are at increased risk of developing BCC.

Treatment for BCC typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with a margin of healthy tissue. Other treatment options may include radiation therapy, topical chemotherapy, or photodynamic therapy. Prevention measures include protecting your skin from UV radiation by wearing protective clothing, using sunscreen, and avoiding tanning beds.

Lung injury, also known as pulmonary injury, refers to damage or harm caused to the lung tissue, blood vessels, or air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. This can result from various causes such as infection, trauma, exposure to harmful substances, or systemic diseases. Common types of lung injuries include acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pneumonia, and chemical pneumonitis. Symptoms may include difficulty breathing, cough, chest pain, and decreased oxygen levels in the blood. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.

Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.

Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.

It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.

Carcinoma, small cell is a type of lung cancer that typically starts in the bronchi (the airways that lead to the lungs). It is called "small cell" because the cancer cells are small and appear round or oval in shape. This type of lung cancer is also sometimes referred to as "oat cell carcinoma" due to the distinctive appearance of the cells, which can resemble oats when viewed under a microscope.

Small cell carcinoma is a particularly aggressive form of lung cancer that tends to spread quickly to other parts of the body. It is strongly associated with smoking and is less common than non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which accounts for about 85% of all lung cancers.

Like other types of lung cancer, small cell carcinoma may not cause any symptoms in its early stages. However, as the tumor grows and spreads, it can cause a variety of symptoms, including coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, hoarseness, and weight loss. Treatment for small cell carcinoma typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and sometimes surgery.

CD15 is a type of antigen that is found on the surface of certain types of white blood cells called neutrophils and monocytes. It is also expressed on some types of cancer cells, including myeloid leukemia cells and some lymphomas. CD15 antigens are part of a group of molecules known as carbohydrate antigens because they contain sugar-like substances called carbohydrates.

CD15 antigens play a role in the immune system's response to infection and disease. They can be recognized by certain types of immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T cells, which can then target and destroy cells that express CD15 antigens. In cancer, the presence of CD15 antigens on the surface of cancer cells can make them more visible to the immune system, potentially triggering an immune response against the cancer.

CD15 antigens are also used as a marker in laboratory tests to help identify and classify different types of white blood cells and cancer cells. For example, CD15 staining is often used in the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to distinguish it from other types of leukemia.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Leukemia P388" is not a widely recognized medical term or a specific type of leukemia. The term "P388" is often used to refer to a particular type of mouse leukemia that is commonly used in laboratory research for testing potential anti-cancer drugs.

Leukemia, in general, is a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow and results in an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells (leukocytes). These abnormal cells crowd out the healthy cells in the bone marrow, leading to a weakened immune system and various complications.

There are many different types of leukemia, classified based on the type of white blood cell affected (myeloid or lymphocytic) and the speed of progression (acute or chronic). If you're looking for information about a specific type of leukemia, I would be happy to help if you could provide more details.

Neoplasm invasiveness is a term used in pathology and oncology to describe the aggressive behavior of cancer cells as they invade surrounding tissues and organs. This process involves the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion, increased motility and migration, and the ability of cancer cells to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) through the production of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).

Invasive neoplasms are cancers that have spread beyond the original site where they first developed and have infiltrated adjacent tissues or structures. This is in contrast to non-invasive or in situ neoplasms, which are confined to the epithelial layer where they originated and have not yet invaded the underlying basement membrane.

The invasiveness of a neoplasm is an important prognostic factor in cancer diagnosis and treatment, as it can indicate the likelihood of metastasis and the potential effectiveness of various therapies. In general, more invasive cancers are associated with worse outcomes and require more aggressive treatment approaches.

I cannot provide a specific medical definition for "Melanoma, Experimental," as it is not a standardized medical term. However, I can give you information about melanoma and experimental treatments related to this disease.

Melanoma is a type of cancer that develops from pigment-producing cells known as melanocytes. It usually occurs in the skin but can rarely occur in other parts of the body, such as the eyes or internal organs. Melanoma is characterized by the uncontrolled growth and multiplication of melanocytes, forming malignant tumors.

Experimental treatments for melanoma refer to novel therapeutic strategies that are currently being researched and tested in clinical trials. These experimental treatments may include:

1. Targeted therapies: Drugs that target specific genetic mutations or molecular pathways involved in melanoma growth and progression. Examples include BRAF and MEK inhibitors, such as vemurafenib, dabrafenib, and trametinib.
2. Immunotherapies: Treatments designed to enhance the immune system's ability to recognize and destroy cancer cells. These may include checkpoint inhibitors (e.g., ipilimumab, nivolumab, pembrolizumab), adoptive cell therapies (e.g., CAR T-cell therapy), and therapeutic vaccines.
3. Oncolytic viruses: Genetically modified viruses that can selectively infect and kill cancer cells while leaving healthy cells unharmed. Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is an example of an oncolytic virus approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma.
4. Combination therapies: The use of multiple experimental treatments in combination to improve efficacy and reduce the risk of resistance. For instance, combining targeted therapies with immunotherapies or different types of immunotherapies.
5. Personalized medicine approaches: Using genetic testing and biomarker analysis to identify the most effective treatment for an individual patient based on their specific tumor characteristics.

It is essential to consult with healthcare professionals and refer to clinical trial databases, such as ClinicalTrials.gov, for up-to-date information on experimental treatments for melanoma.

Lung transplantation is a surgical procedure where one or both diseased lungs are removed and replaced with healthy lungs from a deceased donor. It is typically considered as a treatment option for patients with end-stage lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, who have exhausted all other medical treatments and continue to suffer from severe respiratory failure.

The procedure involves several steps, including evaluating the patient's eligibility for transplantation, matching the donor's lung size and blood type with the recipient, and performing the surgery under general anesthesia. After the surgery, patients require close monitoring and lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the new lungs.

Lung transplantation can significantly improve the quality of life and survival rates for some patients with end-stage lung disease, but it is not without risks, including infection, bleeding, and rejection. Therefore, careful consideration and thorough evaluation are necessary before pursuing this treatment option.

Tetrahydrouridine (THU) is not a medication itself, but rather a metabolic inhibitor. It is a derivative of the nucleoside uridine and has been studied in the context of its ability to inhibit the enzyme cytidine deaminase. This enzyme is responsible for the breakdown of certain antiviral medications, such as zidovudine (AZT) and stavudine (d4T), which are used in the treatment of HIV infection.

By inhibiting cytidine deaminase, THU can help to increase the levels and effectiveness of these antiviral drugs, while also reducing some of their side effects. However, it is important to note that THU is not currently approved for use as a medication by itself and is typically used in research or experimental settings in combination with other antiretroviral therapies.

Carcinoma, bronchogenic is a medical term that refers to a type of lung cancer that originates in the bronchi, which are the branching tubes that carry air into the lungs. It is the most common form of lung cancer and can be further classified into different types based on the specific cell type involved, such as squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, or large cell carcinoma.

Bronchogenic carcinomas are often associated with smoking and exposure to environmental pollutants, although they can also occur in non-smokers. Symptoms may include coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, wheezing, hoarseness, or unexplained weight loss. Treatment options depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and other molecules from genes in neoplastic cells, or cells that are part of a tumor or cancer. In a normal cell, gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that the right genes are turned on or off at the right time. However, in cancer cells, this regulation can be disrupted, leading to the overexpression or underexpression of certain genes.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation can be affected by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and signals from the tumor microenvironment. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes (genes that promote cancer growth and development) or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (genes that prevent cancer).

Understanding neoplastic gene expression regulation is important for developing new therapies for cancer, as targeting specific genes or pathways involved in this process can help to inhibit cancer growth and progression.

Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body and their presence can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer or other conditions. Biological tumor markers refer to those substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These markers can be found in various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or tissue samples.

Examples of biological tumor markers include:

1. Proteins: Some tumor markers are proteins that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to the presence of cancer. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells and in higher amounts by prostate cancer cells.
2. Genetic material: Tumor markers can also include genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or microRNA that are shed by cancer cells into bodily fluids. For example, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is genetic material from cancer cells that can be found in the bloodstream.
3. Metabolites: Tumor markers can also include metabolic products produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that is released into the bloodstream when cancer cells break down glucose for energy.

It's important to note that tumor markers are not specific to cancer and can be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well. Therefore, they should not be used alone to diagnose cancer but rather as a tool in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is a type of cancer that develops in the transitional epithelium, which is the tissue that lines the inner surface of the urinary tract. This includes the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer and can also occur in other parts of the urinary system.

Transitional cells are specialized epithelial cells that can stretch and change shape as the organs they line expand or contract. These cells normally have a flat, squamous appearance when at rest but become more cuboidal and columnar when the organ is full. Transitional cell carcinomas typically start in the urothelium, which is the innermost lining of the urinary tract.

Transitional cell carcinoma can be classified as non-invasive (also called papillary or superficial), invasive, or both. Non-invasive TCCs are confined to the urothelium and have not grown into the underlying connective tissue. Invasive TCCs have grown through the urothelium and invaded the lamina propria (a layer of connective tissue beneath the urothelium) or the muscle wall of the bladder.

Transitional cell carcinoma can also be categorized as low-grade or high-grade, depending on how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope and how likely they are to grow and spread. Low-grade TCCs tend to have a better prognosis than high-grade TCCs.

Treatment for transitional cell carcinoma depends on the stage and grade of the cancer, as well as other factors such as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy.

"Nude mice" is a term used in the field of laboratory research to describe a strain of mice that have been genetically engineered to lack a functional immune system. Specifically, nude mice lack a thymus gland and have a mutation in the FOXN1 gene, which results in a failure to develop a mature T-cell population. This means that they are unable to mount an effective immune response against foreign substances or organisms.

The name "nude" refers to the fact that these mice also have a lack of functional hair follicles, resulting in a hairless or partially hairless phenotype. This feature is actually a secondary consequence of the same genetic mutation that causes their immune deficiency.

Nude mice are commonly used in research because their weakened immune system makes them an ideal host for transplanted tumors, tissues, and cells from other species, including humans. This allows researchers to study the behavior of these foreign substances in a living organism without the complication of an immune response. However, it's important to note that because nude mice lack a functional immune system, they must be kept in sterile conditions and are more susceptible to infection than normal mice.

Colonic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the large intestine, also known as the colon. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two most common types of colonic neoplasms are adenomas and carcinomas.

Adenomas are benign tumors that can develop into cancer over time if left untreated. They are often found during routine colonoscopies and can be removed during the procedure.

Carcinomas, on the other hand, are malignant tumors that invade surrounding tissues and can spread to other parts of the body. Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and colonic neoplasms are a significant risk factor for developing this type of cancer.

Regular screenings for colonic neoplasms are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 or those with a family history of colorectal cancer or other risk factors. Early detection and removal of colonic neoplasms can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Leukemia L1210 is not a medical definition itself, but it refers to a specific mouse leukemia cell line that was established in 1948. These cells are a type of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and have been widely used in cancer research as a model for studying the disease, testing new therapies, and understanding the biology of leukemia. The L1210 cell line has contributed significantly to the development of various chemotherapeutic agents and treatment strategies for leukemia and other cancers.

Intraductal carcinoma, noninfiltrating is a medical term used to describe a type of breast cancer that is confined to the milk ducts of the breast. It is also sometimes referred to as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Noninfiltrating means that the cancer cells have not spread beyond the ducts into the surrounding breast tissue or elsewhere in the body.

In this type of cancer, abnormal cells line the milk ducts and fill the inside of the ducts. These abnormal cells may look like cancer cells under a microscope, but they have not grown through the walls of the ducts into the surrounding breast tissue. However, if left untreated, noninfiltrating intraductal carcinoma can progress to an invasive form of breast cancer where the cancer cells spread beyond the milk ducts and invade the surrounding breast tissue.

It is important to note that while noninfiltrating intraductal carcinoma is considered a precancerous condition, it still requires medical treatment to prevent the development of invasive breast cancer. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, or hormone therapy, depending on the size and location of the tumor and other individual factors.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Cell proliferation is the process by which cells increase in number, typically through the process of cell division. In the context of biology and medicine, it refers to the reproduction of cells that makes up living tissue, allowing growth, maintenance, and repair. It involves several stages including the transition from a phase of quiescence (G0 phase) to an active phase (G1 phase), DNA replication in the S phase, and mitosis or M phase, where the cell divides into two daughter cells.

Abnormal or uncontrolled cell proliferation is a characteristic feature of many diseases, including cancer, where deregulated cell cycle control leads to excessive and unregulated growth of cells, forming tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites in the body.

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is a rare type of cancer that can occur in various glands and tissues of the body, most commonly in the salivary glands. AdCC is characterized by its slow growth and tendency to spread along nerves. It typically forms solid, cystic, or mixed tumors with distinct histological features, including epithelial cells arranged in tubular, cribriform, or solid patterns.

The term "carcinoma" refers to a malignant tumor originating from the epithelial cells lining various organs and glands. In this case, adenoid cystic carcinoma is a specific type of carcinoma that arises in the salivary glands or other glandular tissues.

The primary treatment options for AdCC include surgical resection, radiation therapy, and sometimes chemotherapy. Despite its slow growth, adenoid cystic carcinoma has a propensity to recur locally and metastasize to distant sites such as the lungs, bones, and liver. Long-term follow-up is essential due to the risk of late recurrences.

Neoplasm staging is a systematic process used in medicine to describe the extent of spread of a cancer, including the size and location of the original (primary) tumor and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the body. The most widely accepted system for this purpose is the TNM classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In this system, T stands for tumor, and it describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. N stands for nodes, and it indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M stands for metastasis, and it shows whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Each letter is followed by a number that provides more details about the extent of the disease. For example, a T1N0M0 cancer means that the primary tumor is small and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The higher the numbers, the more advanced the cancer.

Staging helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient and estimate the patient's prognosis. It is an essential tool for communication among members of the healthcare team and for comparing outcomes of treatments in clinical trials.

Fucosyltransferases (FUTs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of fucose, a type of sugar, to specific acceptor molecules, such as proteins and lipids. This transfer results in the addition of a fucose residue to these molecules, creating structures known as fucosylated glycans. These structures play important roles in various biological processes, including cell-cell recognition, inflammation, and cancer metastasis.

There are several different types of FUTs, each with its own specificity for acceptor molecules and the linkage type of fucose it adds. For example, FUT1 and FUT2 add fucose to the terminal position of glycans in a alpha-1,2 linkage, while FUT3 adds fucose in an alpha-1,3 or alpha-1,4 linkage. Mutations in genes encoding FUTs have been associated with various diseases, including congenital disorders of glycosylation and cancer.

In summary, Fucosyltransferases are enzymes that add fucose to acceptor molecules, creating fucosylated glycans that play important roles in various biological processes.

Medullary carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops in the neuroendocrine cells of the thyroid gland. These cells produce hormones that help regulate various bodily functions. Medullary carcinoma is a relatively rare form of thyroid cancer, accounting for about 5-10% of all cases.

Medullary carcinoma is characterized by the presence of certain genetic mutations that cause the overproduction of calcitonin, a hormone produced by the neuroendocrine cells. This overproduction can lead to the formation of tumors in the thyroid gland.

Medullary carcinoma can be hereditary or sporadic. Hereditary forms of the disease are caused by mutations in the RET gene and are often associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2), a genetic disorder that affects the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, and parathyroid glands. Sporadic forms of medullary carcinoma, on the other hand, are not inherited and occur randomly in people with no family history of the disease.

Medullary carcinoma is typically more aggressive than other types of thyroid cancer and tends to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lungs, and liver. Symptoms may include a lump or nodule in the neck, difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, and coughing. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Regular monitoring of calcitonin levels is also recommended to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and detect any recurrence of the disease.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

Acute Lung Injury (ALI) is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and damage to the lung tissue, which can lead to difficulty breathing and respiratory failure. It is often caused by direct or indirect injury to the lungs, such as pneumonia, sepsis, trauma, or inhalation of harmful substances.

The symptoms of ALI include shortness of breath, rapid breathing, cough, and low oxygen levels in the blood. The condition can progress rapidly and may require mechanical ventilation to support breathing. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the injury, providing supportive care, and managing symptoms.

In severe cases, ALI can lead to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), a more serious and life-threatening condition that requires intensive care unit (ICU) treatment.

Carcinoma, lobular is a type of breast cancer that begins in the milk-producing glands (lobules) of the breast. It can be either invasive or non-invasive (in situ). Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) occurs when the cancer cells break through the wall of the lobule and invade the surrounding breast tissue, and can potentially spread to other parts of the body. Non-invasive lobular carcinoma (LCIS), on the other hand, refers to the presence of abnormal cells within the lobule that have not invaded nearby breast tissue.

ILC is usually detected as a mass or thickening in the breast, and it may not cause any symptoms or show up on mammograms until it has grown quite large. It tends to grow more slowly than some other types of breast cancer, but it can still be serious and require extensive treatment. LCIS does not typically cause any symptoms and is usually found during a biopsy performed for another reason.

Treatment options for carcinoma, lobular depend on several factors, including the stage of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and their personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or the development of new cancers.

Carcinoma, neuroendocrine is a type of cancer that arises from the neuroendocrine cells, which are specialized cells that have both nerve and hormone-producing functions. These cells are found throughout the body, but neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) most commonly occur in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and thyroid gland.

Neuroendocrine carcinomas can be classified as well-differentiated or poorly differentiated based on how closely they resemble normal neuroendocrine cells under a microscope. Well-differentiated tumors tend to grow more slowly and are less aggressive than poorly differentiated tumors.

Neuroendocrine carcinomas can produce and release hormones and other substances that can cause a variety of symptoms, such as flushing, diarrhea, wheezing, and heart palpitations. Treatment for neuroendocrine carcinoma depends on the location and extent of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

A neoplasm is a tumor or growth that is formed by an abnormal and excessive proliferation of cells, which can be benign or malignant. Neoplasm proteins are therefore any proteins that are expressed or produced in these neoplastic cells. These proteins can play various roles in the development, progression, and maintenance of neoplasms.

Some neoplasm proteins may contribute to the uncontrolled cell growth and division seen in cancer, such as oncogenic proteins that promote cell cycle progression or inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death). Others may help the neoplastic cells evade the immune system, allowing them to proliferate undetected. Still others may be involved in angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels that supply the tumor with nutrients and oxygen.

Neoplasm proteins can also serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment response. For example, the presence or level of certain neoplasm proteins in biological samples such as blood or tissue may indicate the presence of a specific type of cancer, help predict the likelihood of cancer recurrence, or suggest whether a particular therapy will be effective.

Overall, understanding the roles and behaviors of neoplasm proteins can provide valuable insights into the biology of cancer and inform the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Nasopharyngeal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the nasopharynx, which is the upper part of the pharynx (throat) behind the nose. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Malignant nasopharyngeal neoplasms are often referred to as nasopharyngeal carcinoma or cancer. There are different types of nasopharyngeal carcinomas, including keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, non-keratinizing carcinoma, and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.

The risk factors for developing nasopharyngeal neoplasms include exposure to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), consumption of certain foods, smoking, and genetic factors. Symptoms may include a lump in the neck, nosebleeds, hearing loss, ringing in the ears, and difficulty swallowing or speaking. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Thyroid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the thyroid gland, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can vary in size and may cause a noticeable lump or nodule in the neck. Thyroid neoplasms can also affect the function of the thyroid gland, leading to hormonal imbalances and related symptoms. The exact causes of thyroid neoplasms are not fully understood, but risk factors include radiation exposure, family history, and certain genetic conditions. It is important to note that most thyroid nodules are benign, but a proper medical evaluation is necessary to determine the nature of the growth and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

Adenosquamous carcinoma is a rare type of cancer that contains two types of cells: glandular (adeno) and squamous. This mixed composition leads to a unique microscopic appearance and more aggressive behavior compared to other types of carcinomas. Adenosquamous carcinoma can occur in various organs, such as the lung, pancreas, cervix, and skin.

The glandular (adeno) component is made up of columnar epithelial cells that form glands or tubular structures. These cells produce mucus or other secretions. The squamous component consists of flat, scale-like cells that resemble the cells found in the outer layer of the skin.

The presence of both adeno and squamous components in a single tumor can lead to more rapid growth, increased likelihood of metastasis (spreading to other parts of the body), and poorer prognosis compared to carcinomas with only one cell type. Treatment typically involves surgical resection, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the location and stage of the cancer.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mopidamol" does not appear to be a recognized medication or substance in the field of medicine. It is possible that there may be a spelling error or typo in your query. If you meant "Moclobemide," which is an antidepressant drug, I can provide a medical definition for that.

Moclobemide is a type of antidepressant known as a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA). It works by blocking the breakdown of certain chemicals in the brain, such as serotonin and noradrenaline, which helps to elevate mood and reduce symptoms of depression. Moclobemide is typically used to treat major depressive disorders, and it may also be used off-label for other conditions like social anxiety disorder or panic disorder.

Please let me know if you have any further questions or if there's something else I can help you with!

Cell survival refers to the ability of a cell to continue living and functioning normally, despite being exposed to potentially harmful conditions or treatments. This can include exposure to toxins, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, or other stressors that can damage cells or interfere with their normal processes.

In scientific research, measures of cell survival are often used to evaluate the effectiveness of various therapies or treatments. For example, researchers may expose cells to a particular drug or treatment and then measure the percentage of cells that survive to assess its potential therapeutic value. Similarly, in toxicology studies, measures of cell survival can help to determine the safety of various chemicals or substances.

It's important to note that cell survival is not the same as cell proliferation, which refers to the ability of cells to divide and multiply. While some treatments may promote cell survival, they may also inhibit cell proliferation, making them useful for treating diseases such as cancer. Conversely, other treatments may be designed to specifically target and kill cancer cells, even if it means sacrificing some healthy cells in the process.

Tumor burden is a term used to describe the total amount of cancer in the body. It can refer to the number of tumors, the size of the tumors, or the amount of cancer cells in the body. In research and clinical trials, tumor burden is often measured to assess the effectiveness of treatments or to monitor disease progression. High tumor burden can cause various symptoms and complications, depending on the type and location of the cancer. It can also affect a person's prognosis and treatment options.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sarcoma 180" is not a recognized medical term or an official classification of sarcomas in humans. It appears to be a term used primarily in research involving mice. Sarcoma 180 is a transplantable tumor that was first isolated from a mouse and has been used as a model for cancer research, particularly in studies involving immunotherapy and cancer treatment.

In general, sarcomas are cancers that develop from connective tissues such as bones, muscles, tendons, cartilages, nerves, and blood vessels. They can be further classified into various subtypes based on the specific type of tissue they originate from and their genetic characteristics. If you have any concerns about a specific medical condition or term, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional for accurate information.

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops in the salivary glands or, less commonly, in other areas such as the lungs or skin. It is called "mucoepidermoid" because it contains two types of cells: mucus-secreting cells and squamous (or epidermoid) cells.

Mucoepidermoid carcinomas can vary in their behavior, ranging from low-grade tumors that grow slowly and rarely spread to other parts of the body, to high-grade tumors that are aggressive and can metastasize. The treatment and prognosis for mucoepidermoid carcinoma depend on several factors, including the grade and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health.

It is important to note that while I strive to provide accurate and up-to-date information, this definition may not capture all the nuances of this medical condition. Therefore, it is always best to consult with a healthcare professional for medical advice.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Angiogenesis inhibitors are a class of drugs that block the growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). They work by targeting specific molecules involved in the process of angiogenesis, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors. By blocking these molecules, angiogenesis inhibitors can prevent the development of new blood vessels that feed tumors, thereby slowing or stopping their growth.

Angiogenesis inhibitors are used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including colon, lung, breast, kidney, and ovarian cancer. They may be given alone or in combination with other cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Some examples of angiogenesis inhibitors include bevacizumab (Avastin), sorafenib (Nexavar), sunitinib (Sutent), and pazopanib (Votrient).

It's important to note that while angiogenesis inhibitors can be effective in treating cancer, they can also have serious side effects, such as high blood pressure, bleeding, and damage to the heart or kidneys. Therefore, it's essential that patients receive careful monitoring and management of these potential side effects while undergoing treatment with angiogenesis inhibitors.

Syndecan-2 is a type of transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is widely expressed in various cell types, including endothelial cells and fibroblasts. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular signaling, adhesion, and migration by interacting with extracellular matrix components, growth factors, and cytokines. Syndecan-2 has been implicated in several biological processes, including angiogenesis, wound healing, and tumor progression.

In medical terms, Syndecan-2 is defined as a cell surface proteoglycan that belongs to the syndecan family of four members (Syndecan-1, -2, -3, and -4). It has a molecular weight of approximately 25-30 kDa and consists of a core protein with attached heparan sulfate chains. The cytoplasmic domain of Syndecan-2 interacts with various intracellular signaling molecules, such as kinases, adaptor proteins, and cytoskeletal components, thereby mediating cellular responses to extracellular stimuli.

Syndecan-2 has been shown to be involved in the regulation of several signaling pathways, including the Wnt/β-catenin, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathways. Dysregulation of Syndecan-2 expression or function has been associated with various pathological conditions, such as cancer, fibrosis, and inflammation.

In summary, Syndecan-2 is a crucial regulator of cellular signaling, adhesion, and migration, and its dysregulation has been implicated in several diseases.

'Mammary neoplasms, experimental' is not a recognized medical term. However, I can provide definitions for the individual terms:

1. Mammary: Pertaining to the breast or mammary glands in females, which are responsible for milk production.
2. Neoplasms: Abnormal growths of tissue, also known as tumors or masses, that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
3. Experimental: Relating to a scientific experiment or study, typically conducted in a controlled setting to test hypotheses and gather data.

In the context of medical research, 'experimental mammary neoplasms' may refer to artificially induced breast tumors in laboratory animals (such as rats or mice) for the purpose of studying the development, progression, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer. These studies can help researchers better understand the biology of breast cancer and develop new therapies and strategies for its diagnosis and management.

Angiostatin is a naturally occurring inhibitor of angiogenesis, which is the process of new blood vessel formation. It is a proteolytic fragment of plasminogen, a glycoprotein present in plasma. Angiostatin works by binding to and inhibiting the activity of endothelial cell surface receptors that are necessary for angiogenesis, such as the ATP-binding cassette transporter protein ABCB1.

Angiostatin has been shown to have anti-tumor effects in preclinical models, as tumor growth and metastasis depend on the formation of new blood vessels to supply nutrients and oxygen. Inhibition of angiogenesis by angiostatin can therefore starve tumors and prevent their growth and spread. Angiostatin has also been studied in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer, although its efficacy as a therapeutic agent remains to be established.

Head and neck neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the head and neck region, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These tumors can develop in various sites, including the oral cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx, hypopharynx, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands, and thyroid gland.

Benign neoplasms are slow-growing and generally do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or structures. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade nearby tissues and organs and may also metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Head and neck neoplasms can have various symptoms depending on their location and size. Common symptoms include difficulty swallowing, speaking, or breathing; pain in the mouth, throat, or ears; persistent coughing or hoarseness; and swelling or lumps in the neck or face. Early detection and treatment of head and neck neoplasms are crucial for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.

Antibiotics are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth.

Antineoplastics, also known as chemotherapeutic agents, are a class of drugs used to treat cancer. These medications target and destroy rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, although they can also affect other quickly dividing cells in the body, such as those in the hair follicles or digestive tract, which can lead to side effects.

Antibiotics and antineoplastics are two different classes of drugs with distinct mechanisms of action and uses. It is important to use them appropriately and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Carcinoma, large cell is a type of lung cancer that is characterized by the presence of large, abnormal-looking cells when viewed under a microscope. These cells have a large nucleus and a significant amount of cytoplasm. This type of lung cancer can be further divided into subtypes based on the appearance of the cells and the presence or absence of specific genetic mutations.

Large cell carcinoma is often aggressive and tends to grow and spread quickly. It is typically treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy. The prognosis for large cell carcinoma varies depending on the stage at diagnosis and the individual's overall health.

Carcinoma, endometrioid is a type of cancer that arises from the glandular cells of the endometrium, which is the lining of the uterus. This type of cancer is named for its similarity in appearance to the normal endometrial cells, and it is the second most common type of endometrial cancer after serous carcinoma.

Endometrioid carcinomas are typically divided into different grades based on how abnormal the cells look under a microscope. Low-grade tumors tend to grow more slowly and are less likely to spread beyond the uterus than high-grade tumors.

Risk factors for endometrioid carcinoma include obesity, older age, early menstruation, late menopause, never having been pregnant, and a history of taking estrogen hormone replacement therapy without progesterone. Treatment typically involves surgery to remove the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and nearby lymph nodes, followed by radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormonal therapy in some cases.

Esophageal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissue of the esophagus, which is the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant esophageal neoplasms are typically classified as either squamous cell carcinomas or adenocarcinomas, depending on the type of cell from which they originate.

Esophageal cancer is a serious and often life-threatening condition that can cause symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, chest pain, weight loss, and coughing. Risk factors for esophageal neoplasms include smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and Barrett's esophagus. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polygonaceae" is not a medical term. It is a botanical term that refers to a family of flowering plants, also known as the buckwheat family. This family includes various genera such as Polygonum, Rumex, and Reynoutria, among others. Many members of this family are important sources of food, medicine, and ornamental plants.

Lymphatic metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to distant lymph nodes through the lymphatic system. It occurs when malignant cells break away from the original tumor, enter the lymphatic vessels, and travel to nearby or remote lymph nodes. Once there, these cancer cells can multiply and form new tumors, leading to further progression of the disease. Lymphatic metastasis is a common way for many types of cancer to spread and can have significant implications for prognosis and treatment strategies.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Cell adhesion refers to the binding of cells to extracellular matrices or to other cells, a process that is fundamental to the development, function, and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Cell adhesion is mediated by various cell surface receptors, such as integrins, cadherins, and immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules (Ig-CAMs), which interact with specific ligands in the extracellular environment. These interactions lead to the formation of specialized junctions, such as tight junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes, that help to maintain tissue architecture and regulate various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. Disruptions in cell adhesion can contribute to a variety of diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and degenerative disorders.

Nitrosoureas are a class of chemical compounds that contain a nitroso (--NO) and urea (-NH-CO-NH-) functional group. In the field of medicine, nitrosoureas are primarily used as antineoplastic agents, or drugs designed to inhibit the growth of cancer cells.

These compounds work by alkylating and crosslinking DNA, which ultimately leads to the disruption of DNA replication and transcription processes in cancer cells, causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Nitrosoureas can also inhibit the activity of certain enzymes involved in DNA repair, further enhancing their cytotoxic effects.

Some common nitrosourea compounds used in clinical settings include:

1. Carmustine (BCNU)
2. Lomustine (CCNU)
3. Semustine (MeCCNU)
4. Fotemustine
5. Streptozocin

These drugs have been used to treat various types of cancer, such as brain tumors, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. However, their use is often limited by significant side effects, including myelosuppression (decreased production of blood cells), nausea, vomiting, and liver toxicity.

Ovarian neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the ovary, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from various cell types within the ovary, including epithelial cells, germ cells, and stromal cells. Ovarian neoplasms are often classified based on their cell type of origin, histological features, and potential for invasive or metastatic behavior.

Epithelial ovarian neoplasms are the most common type and can be further categorized into several subtypes, such as serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and Brenner tumors. Some of these epithelial tumors have a higher risk of becoming malignant and spreading to other parts of the body.

Germ cell ovarian neoplasms arise from the cells that give rise to eggs (oocytes) and can include teratomas, dysgerminomas, yolk sac tumors, and embryonal carcinomas. Stromal ovarian neoplasms develop from the connective tissue cells supporting the ovary and can include granulosa cell tumors, thecomas, and fibromas.

It is essential to diagnose and treat ovarian neoplasms promptly, as some malignant forms can be aggressive and potentially life-threatening if not managed appropriately. Regular gynecological exams, imaging studies, and tumor marker tests are often used for early detection and monitoring of ovarian neoplasms. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, depending on the type, stage, and patient's overall health condition.

Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat various types of cancers, including testicular, ovarian, bladder, head and neck, lung, and cervical cancers. It is an inorganic platinum compound that contains a central platinum atom surrounded by two chloride atoms and two ammonia molecules in a cis configuration.

Cisplatin works by forming crosslinks between DNA strands, which disrupts the structure of DNA and prevents cancer cells from replicating. This ultimately leads to cell death and slows down or stops the growth of tumors. However, cisplatin can also cause damage to normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hearing loss, and kidney damage. Therefore, it is essential to monitor patients closely during treatment and manage any adverse effects promptly.

A mouth neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth or tumor in the oral cavity, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant mouth neoplasms are also known as oral cancer. They can develop on the lips, gums, tongue, roof and floor of the mouth, inside the cheeks, and in the oropharynx (the middle part of the throat at the back of the mouth).

Mouth neoplasms can have various causes, including genetic factors, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Symptoms may include a lump or thickening in the oral soft tissues, white or red patches, persistent mouth sores, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and numbness in the mouth. Early detection and treatment of mouth neoplasms are crucial for improving outcomes and preventing complications.

Embryonal carcinoma is a rare and aggressive type of cancer that arises from primitive germ cells. It typically occurs in the gonads (ovaries or testicles), but can also occur in other areas of the body such as the mediastinum, retroperitoneum, or sacrococcygeal region.

Embryonal carcinoma is called "embryonal" because the cancerous cells resemble those found in an embryo during early stages of development. These cells are capable of differentiating into various cell types, which can lead to a mix of cell types within the tumor.

Embryonal carcinoma is a highly malignant tumor that tends to grow and spread quickly. It can metastasize to other parts of the body, including the lungs, liver, brain, and bones. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, followed by chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to kill any remaining cancer cells.

Prognosis for embryonal carcinoma depends on several factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the location of the tumor, and the patient's overall health. In general, this type of cancer has a poor prognosis, with a high risk of recurrence even after treatment.

Lung volume measurements are clinical tests that determine the amount of air inhaled, exhaled, and present in the lungs at different times during the breathing cycle. These measurements include:

1. Tidal Volume (TV): The amount of air inhaled or exhaled during normal breathing, usually around 500 mL in resting adults.
2. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): The additional air that can be inhaled after a normal inspiration, approximately 3,000 mL in adults.
3. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): The extra air that can be exhaled after a normal expiration, about 1,000-1,200 mL in adults.
4. Residual Volume (RV): The air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation, approximately 1,100-1,500 mL in adults.
5. Total Lung Capacity (TLC): The total amount of air the lungs can hold at full inflation, calculated as TV + IRV + ERV + RV, around 6,000 mL in adults.
6. Functional Residual Capacity (FRC): The volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal expiration, equal to ERV + RV, about 2,100-2,700 mL in adults.
7. Inspiratory Capacity (IC): The maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal expiration, equal to TV + IRV, around 3,500 mL in adults.
8. Vital Capacity (VC): The total volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximal inspiration, calculated as IC + ERV, approximately 4,200-5,600 mL in adults.

These measurements help assess lung function and identify various respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

Cell movement, also known as cell motility, refers to the ability of cells to move independently and change their location within tissue or inside the body. This process is essential for various biological functions, including embryonic development, wound healing, immune responses, and cancer metastasis.

There are several types of cell movement, including:

1. **Crawling or mesenchymal migration:** Cells move by extending and retracting protrusions called pseudopodia or filopodia, which contain actin filaments. This type of movement is common in fibroblasts, immune cells, and cancer cells during tissue invasion and metastasis.
2. **Amoeboid migration:** Cells move by changing their shape and squeezing through tight spaces without forming protrusions. This type of movement is often observed in white blood cells (leukocytes) as they migrate through the body to fight infections.
3. **Pseudopodial extension:** Cells extend pseudopodia, which are temporary cytoplasmic projections containing actin filaments. These protrusions help the cell explore its environment and move forward.
4. **Bacterial flagellar motion:** Bacteria use a whip-like structure called a flagellum to propel themselves through their environment. The rotation of the flagellum is driven by a molecular motor in the bacterial cell membrane.
5. **Ciliary and ependymal movement:** Ciliated cells, such as those lining the respiratory tract and fallopian tubes, have hair-like structures called cilia that beat in coordinated waves to move fluids or mucus across the cell surface.

Cell movement is regulated by a complex interplay of signaling pathways, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and adhesion molecules, which enable cells to respond to environmental cues and navigate through tissues.

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive type of skin cancer that originates from the uncontrolled growth of Merkel cells, which are specialized nerve cells found in the top layer of the skin (epidermis). These cells are responsible for touch sensation. MCC typically presents as a painless, firm, rapidly growing nodule or mass, often on sun-exposed areas such as the head, neck, and arms of older adults.

The primary risk factors for Merkel cell carcinoma include:

1. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight or tanning beds
2. Advanced age (most commonly occurs in people over 50)
3. A weakened immune system due to conditions like HIV/AIDS, organ transplantation, or long-term use of immunosuppressive medications
4. History of other types of skin cancer, such as melanoma or basal cell carcinoma
5. Fair skin and light eye color

MCC is considered an aggressive cancer because it can spread quickly to nearby lymph nodes and other parts of the body (metastasize). The major prognostic factor for MCC is the presence or absence of lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Early detection and treatment are crucial for improving outcomes.

Standard treatments for Merkel cell carcinoma include surgical excision, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Immunotherapy with drugs like avelumab has also shown promising results in treating advanced stages of MCC. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or metastasis.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Carcinoma, ductal refers to a type of cancer that begins in the milk ducts (tubes that carry milk from the breast to the nipple). It is most commonly found in the breast and is often referred to as "invasive ductal carcinoma" when it has spread beyond the ducts into the surrounding breast tissue. Ductal carcinoma can also occur in other organs, such as the pancreas, where it is called "pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma." This type of cancer is usually aggressive and can metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Antigenic modulation is a process that occurs when the expression or display of antigens on the surface of cells is altered as a result of interaction with antibodies or other immune effector molecules. This can occur through several mechanisms, including:

1. Internalization and degradation of the antigens by endocytosis after binding to antibodies.
2. Shedding of antigens from the cell surface upon engagement with antibodies or complement components.
3. Changes in the glycosylation or conformation of antigens, which can affect their recognition by the immune system.
4. Upregulation or downregulation of gene expression leading to altered antigen presentation.

Antigenic modulation can have significant implications for the immune response, as it may allow cells to evade detection and elimination by the immune system. This is particularly relevant in the context of cancer and infectious diseases, where antigenic modulation can contribute to disease progression and treatment resistance.

Heterologous transplantation is a type of transplantation where an organ or tissue is transferred from one species to another. This is in contrast to allogeneic transplantation, where the donor and recipient are of the same species, or autologous transplantation, where the donor and recipient are the same individual.

In heterologous transplantation, the immune systems of the donor and recipient are significantly different, which can lead to a strong immune response against the transplanted organ or tissue. This is known as a graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), where the immune cells in the transplanted tissue attack the recipient's body.

Heterologous transplantation is not commonly performed in clinical medicine due to the high risk of rejection and GVHD. However, it may be used in research settings to study the biology of transplantation and to develop new therapies for transplant rejection.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Immunoenzyme techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry that combine the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions with the sensitivity and amplification capabilities of enzyme reactions. These techniques are primarily used for the detection, quantitation, or identification of various analytes (such as proteins, hormones, drugs, viruses, or bacteria) in biological samples.

In immunoenzyme techniques, an enzyme is linked to an antibody or antigen, creating a conjugate. This conjugate then interacts with the target analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The presence and amount of this immune complex can be visualized or measured by detecting the enzymatic activity associated with it.

There are several types of immunoenzyme techniques, including:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A widely used method for detecting and quantifying various analytes in a sample. In ELISA, an enzyme is attached to either the capture antibody or the detection antibody. After the immune complex formation, a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme, producing a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.
2. Immunoblotting (Western blot): A method used for detecting specific proteins in a complex mixture, such as a protein extract from cells or tissues. In this technique, proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, where they are probed with an enzyme-conjugated antibody directed against the target protein.
3. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): A method used for detecting specific antigens in tissue sections or cells. In IHC, an enzyme-conjugated primary or secondary antibody is applied to the sample, and the presence of the antigen is visualized using a chromogenic substrate that produces a colored product at the site of the antigen-antibody interaction.
4. Immunofluorescence (IF): A method used for detecting specific antigens in cells or tissues by employing fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. The presence of the antigen is visualized using a fluorescence microscope.
5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A method used for detecting and quantifying specific antigens or antibodies in liquid samples, such as serum or culture supernatants. In ELISA, an enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is added after the immune complex formation, and a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.

These techniques are widely used in research and diagnostic laboratories for various applications, including protein characterization, disease diagnosis, and monitoring treatment responses.

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer that develops in the outer layer of the adrenal gland, known as the adrenal cortex. The adrenal glands are small hormone-producing glands located on top of each kidney. They produce important hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and sex steroids.

ACC is a malignant tumor that can invade surrounding tissues and organs and may metastasize (spread) to distant parts of the body. Symptoms of ACC depend on the size and location of the tumor and whether it produces excess hormones. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, a mass in the abdomen, weight loss, and weakness. Excessive production of hormones can lead to additional symptoms such as high blood pressure, Cushing's syndrome, virilization (excessive masculinization), or feminization.

The exact cause of ACC is not known, but genetic factors, exposure to certain chemicals, and radiation therapy may increase the risk of developing this cancer. Treatment options for ACC include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapy. The prognosis for ACC varies depending on the stage and extent of the disease at diagnosis, as well as the patient's overall health.

Experimental liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the liver that are intentionally created or manipulated in a laboratory setting for the purpose of studying their development, progression, and potential treatment options. These experimental models can be established using various methods such as chemical induction, genetic modification, or transplantation of cancerous cells or tissues. The goal of this research is to advance our understanding of liver cancer biology and develop novel therapies for liver neoplasms in humans. It's important to note that these experiments are conducted under strict ethical guidelines and regulations to minimize harm and ensure the humane treatment of animals involved in such studies.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

X-ray therapy, also known as radiation therapy, is a medical treatment that uses high-energy radiation to destroy cancer cells and shrink or control the growth of tumors. The radiation used in x-ray therapy can come from a machine outside the body (external beam radiation) or from radioactive material placed in or near the tumor (internal radiation or brachytherapy).

The goal of x-ray therapy is to kill cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells. The treatment is carefully planned and tailored to the size, shape, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. X-ray therapy can be used alone or in combination with other cancer treatments, such as surgery and chemotherapy.

It is important to note that x-ray therapy itself does not cause cancer, but it can increase the risk of developing secondary cancers in the future. This risk is generally low and will be weighed against the potential benefits of treatment. Patients should discuss any concerns about this risk with their healthcare provider.

Drug screening assays for antitumor agents are laboratory tests used to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of potential drugs or compounds that can inhibit the growth of tumor cells or induce their death. These assays are typically performed in vitro (in a test tube or petri dish) using cell cultures of various types of cancer cells.

The assays measure different parameters such as cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and cytotoxicity to determine the ability of the drug to kill or inhibit the growth of tumor cells. The results of these assays can help researchers identify promising antitumor agents that can be further developed for clinical use in cancer treatment.

There are different types of drug screening assays for antitumor agents, including high-throughput screening (HTS) assays, which allow for the rapid and automated testing of a large number of compounds against various cancer cell lines. Other types of assays include phenotypic screening assays, target-based screening assays, and functional screening assays, each with its own advantages and limitations.

Overall, drug screening assays for antitumor agents play a critical role in the development of new cancer therapies by providing valuable information on the activity and safety of potential drugs, helping to identify effective treatments and reduce the time and cost associated with bringing new drugs to market.

Urinary Bladder Neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors in the urinary bladder, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant neoplasms can be further classified into various types of bladder cancer, such as urothelial carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. These malignant tumors often invade surrounding tissues and organs, potentially spreading to other parts of the body (metastasis), which can lead to serious health consequences if not detected and treated promptly and effectively.

Stomach neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the stomach that can be benign or malignant. They include a wide range of conditions such as:

1. Gastric adenomas: These are benign tumors that develop from glandular cells in the stomach lining.
2. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): These are rare tumors that can be found in the stomach and other parts of the digestive tract. They originate from the stem cells in the wall of the digestive tract.
3. Leiomyomas: These are benign tumors that develop from smooth muscle cells in the stomach wall.
4. Lipomas: These are benign tumors that develop from fat cells in the stomach wall.
5. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs): These are tumors that develop from the neuroendocrine cells in the stomach lining. They can be benign or malignant.
6. Gastric carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the glandular cells in the stomach lining. They are the most common type of stomach neoplasm and include adenocarcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, and others.
7. Lymphomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the immune cells in the stomach wall.

Stomach neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and difficulty swallowing. The diagnosis of stomach neoplasms usually involves a combination of imaging tests, endoscopy, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy.

Carcinoma, verrucous is a type of slow-growing, well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma that has a exophytic, papillary, and warty appearance. It typically occurs in the oral cavity, larynx, and genital regions. The tumor often has a long clinical course and is locally invasive but has low potential for metastasis.

It's also known as Ackerman's tumor or Buschke-Lowenstein tumor when it occurs in the genital region. It can be caused by long-standing irritation, chronic inflammation, or infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV). The diagnosis is usually made through a biopsy and imaging studies may be used to determine the extent of the tumor. Treatment typically involves surgical excision, but radiation therapy and chemotherapy may also be used in some cases.

Carcinoma, signet ring cell is a type of adenocarcinoma, which is a cancer that begins in glandular cells. In signet ring cell carcinoma, the cancer cells have a characteristic appearance when viewed under a microscope. They contain large amounts of mucin, a substance that causes the nucleus of the cell to be pushed to one side, giving the cell a crescent or "signet ring" shape.

Signet ring cell carcinoma can occur in various organs, including the stomach, colon, rectum, and breast. It is often aggressive and has a poor prognosis, as it tends to grow and spread quickly. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, depending on the location and extent of the cancer.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Combined modality therapy (CMT) is a medical treatment approach that utilizes more than one method or type of therapy simultaneously or in close succession, with the goal of enhancing the overall effectiveness of the treatment. In the context of cancer care, CMT often refers to the combination of two or more primary treatment modalities, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies (chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, etc.).

The rationale behind using combined modality therapy is that each treatment method can target cancer cells in different ways, potentially increasing the likelihood of eliminating all cancer cells and reducing the risk of recurrence. The specific combination and sequence of treatments will depend on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and individual preferences.

For example, a common CMT approach for locally advanced rectal cancer may involve preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemoradiation therapy, followed by surgery to remove the tumor, and then postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy. This combined approach allows for the reduction of the tumor size before surgery, increases the likelihood of complete tumor removal, and targets any remaining microscopic cancer cells with systemic chemotherapy.

It is essential to consult with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals to determine the most appropriate CMT plan for each individual patient, considering both the potential benefits and risks associated with each treatment method.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

The term "DNA, neoplasm" is not a standard medical term or concept. DNA refers to deoxyribonucleic acid, which is the genetic material present in the cells of living organisms. A neoplasm, on the other hand, is a tumor or growth of abnormal tissue that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

In some contexts, "DNA, neoplasm" may refer to genetic alterations found in cancer cells. These genetic changes can include mutations, amplifications, deletions, or rearrangements of DNA sequences that contribute to the development and progression of cancer. Identifying these genetic abnormalities can help doctors diagnose and treat certain types of cancer more effectively.

However, it's important to note that "DNA, neoplasm" is not a term that would typically be used in medical reports or research papers without further clarification. If you have any specific questions about DNA changes in cancer cells or neoplasms, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or conducting further research on the topic.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Isogeneic transplantation is a type of transplant where the donor and recipient are genetically identical, meaning they are identical twins or have the same genetic makeup. In this case, the immune system recognizes the transplanted organ or tissue as its own and does not mount an immune response to reject it. This reduces the need for immunosuppressive drugs, which are typically required in other types of transplantation to prevent rejection.

In medical terms, isogeneic transplantation is defined as the transfer of genetic identical tissues or organs between genetically identical individuals, resulting in minimal risk of rejection and no need for immunosuppressive therapy.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Local neoplasm recurrence is the return or regrowth of a tumor in the same location where it was originally removed or treated. This means that cancer cells have survived the initial treatment and started to grow again in the same area. It's essential to monitor and detect any local recurrence as early as possible, as it can affect the prognosis and may require additional treatment.

Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the skin that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled multiplication of skin cells, which can form various types of lesions. These growths may appear as lumps, bumps, sores, patches, or discolored areas on the skin.

Benign skin neoplasms include conditions such as moles, warts, and seborrheic keratoses, while malignant skin neoplasms are primarily classified into melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. These three types of cancerous skin growths are collectively known as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer, while NMSCs tend to be less invasive but more common.

It's essential to monitor any changes in existing skin lesions or the appearance of new growths and consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment if needed.

Inbred strains of mice are defined as lines of mice that have been brother-sister mated for at least 20 consecutive generations. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the mice of an inbred strain are genetically identical to one another, with the exception of spontaneous mutations.

Inbred strains of mice are widely used in biomedical research due to their genetic uniformity and stability, which makes them useful for studying the genetic basis of various traits, diseases, and biological processes. They also provide a consistent and reproducible experimental system, as compared to outbred or genetically heterogeneous populations.

Some commonly used inbred strains of mice include C57BL/6J, BALB/cByJ, DBA/2J, and 129SvEv. Each strain has its own unique genetic background and phenotypic characteristics, which can influence the results of experiments. Therefore, it is important to choose the appropriate inbred strain for a given research question.

Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (SCLC) is a type of lung cancer that typically originates in the central part of the lungs. It is called "small cell" because the tumor cells appear small and round under a microscope. SCLC is an aggressive form of lung cancer that tends to spread rapidly to other parts of the body, such as the lymph nodes, liver, bones, and brain.

SCLC is strongly associated with smoking and is relatively uncommon in people who have never smoked. It accounts for about 10-15% of all lung cancer cases. SCLC is often diagnosed at a later stage because it can grow quickly and cause symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss.

Treatment for SCLC typically involves a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Surgery is not usually an option due to the advanced stage of the disease at diagnosis. The prognosis for SCLC is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of less than 7%. However, early detection and treatment can improve outcomes in some cases.

Neoplasm antigens, also known as tumor antigens, are substances that are produced by cancer cells (neoplasms) and can stimulate an immune response. These antigens can be proteins, carbohydrates, or other molecules that are either unique to the cancer cells or are overexpressed or mutated versions of normal cellular proteins.

Neoplasm antigens can be classified into two main categories: tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). TSAs are unique to cancer cells and are not expressed by normal cells, while TAAs are present at low levels in normal cells but are overexpressed or altered in cancer cells.

TSAs can be further divided into viral antigens and mutated antigens. Viral antigens are produced when cancer is caused by a virus, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer. Mutated antigens are the result of genetic mutations that occur during cancer development and are unique to each patient's tumor.

Neoplasm antigens play an important role in the immune response against cancer. They can be recognized by the immune system, leading to the activation of immune cells such as T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which can then attack and destroy cancer cells. However, cancer cells often develop mechanisms to evade the immune response, allowing them to continue growing and spreading.

Understanding neoplasm antigens is important for the development of cancer immunotherapies, which aim to enhance the body's natural immune response against cancer. These therapies include checkpoint inhibitors, which block proteins that inhibit T cell activation, and therapeutic vaccines, which stimulate an immune response against specific tumor antigens.

Antineoplastic agents, phytogenic, also known as plant-derived anticancer drugs, are medications that are derived from plants and used to treat cancer. These agents have natural origins and work by interfering with the growth and multiplication of cancer cells, helping to slow or stop the spread of the disease. Some examples of antineoplastic agents, phytogenic include paclitaxel (Taxol), vincristine, vinblastine, and etoposide. These drugs are often used in combination with other treatments such as surgery, radiation therapy, and other medications to provide a comprehensive approach to cancer care.

Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are a group of disorders characterized by inflammation and scarring (fibrosis) in the interstitium, the tissue and space around the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs. The interstitium is where the blood vessels that deliver oxygen to the lungs are located. ILDs can be caused by a variety of factors, including environmental exposures, medications, connective tissue diseases, and autoimmune disorders.

The scarring and inflammation in ILDs can make it difficult for the lungs to expand and contract normally, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough, and fatigue. The scarring can also make it harder for oxygen to move from the air sacs into the bloodstream.

There are many different types of ILDs, including:

* Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF): a type of ILD that is caused by unknown factors and tends to progress rapidly
* Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: an ILD that is caused by an allergic reaction to inhaled substances, such as mold or bird droppings
* Connective tissue diseases: ILDs can be a complication of conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and scleroderma
* Sarcoidosis: an inflammatory disorder that can affect multiple organs, including the lungs
* Asbestosis: an ILD caused by exposure to asbestos fibers

Treatment for ILDs depends on the specific type of disease and its underlying cause. Some treatments may include corticosteroids, immunosuppressive medications, and oxygen therapy. In some cases, a lung transplant may be necessary.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sarcoma, Experimental" is not a recognized medical term or definition. Sarcomas are a type of cancer that develop in the body's connective tissues, such as bones, muscles, tendons, cartilage, and fat. There are many different types of sarcomas, classified based on the specific type of tissue they originate from.

Experimental, on the other hand, refers to something that is being tested or tried out for the first time, typically as part of a scientific experiment or clinical trial. In the context of cancer treatment, an experimental therapy might refer to a new drug, procedure, or device that is still being studied in clinical trials to determine its safety and effectiveness.

Therefore, "Sarcoma, Experimental" could potentially refer to a clinical trial or research study involving a new treatment for sarcoma, but it would not be a medical definition in and of itself. If you have any specific questions about sarcomas or experimental treatments, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or medical researcher for more accurate information.

Fibrosarcoma is a type of soft tissue cancer that develops in the fibrous (or connective) tissue found throughout the body, including tendons, ligaments, and muscles. It is characterized by the malignant proliferation of fibroblasts, which are the cells responsible for producing collagen, a structural protein found in connective tissue.

The tumor typically presents as a painless, firm mass that grows slowly over time. Fibrosarcomas can occur at any age but are more common in adults between 30 and 60 years old. The exact cause of fibrosarcoma is not well understood, but it has been linked to radiation exposure, certain chemicals, and genetic factors.

There are several subtypes of fibrosarcoma, including adult-type fibrosarcoma, infantile fibrosarcoma, and dedifferentiated fibrosarcoma. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, often followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to reduce the risk of recurrence. The prognosis for patients with fibrosarcoma depends on several factors, including the size and location of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence or absence of metastasis (spread of cancer to other parts of the body).

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA) is a specific isoform of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. It is a well-characterized signaling protein that plays a crucial role in angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation from pre-existing vessels. VEGFA stimulates the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels, thereby contributing to the growth and development of new vasculature. This protein is essential for physiological processes such as embryonic development and wound healing, but it has also been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. The regulation of VEGFA expression and activity is critical to maintaining proper vascular function and homeostasis.

Melanoma is defined as a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes. It typically occurs in the skin but can rarely occur in other parts of the body, including the eyes and internal organs. Melanoma is characterized by the uncontrolled growth and multiplication of melanocytes, which can form malignant tumors that invade and destroy surrounding tissue.

Melanoma is often caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds, but it can also occur in areas of the body not exposed to the sun. It is more likely to develop in people with fair skin, light hair, and blue or green eyes, but it can affect anyone, regardless of their skin type.

Melanoma can be treated effectively if detected early, but if left untreated, it can spread to other parts of the body and become life-threatening. Treatment options for melanoma include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, depending on the stage and location of the cancer. Regular skin examinations and self-checks are recommended to detect any changes or abnormalities in moles or other pigmented lesions that may indicate melanoma.

Flow cytometry is a medical and research technique used to measure physical and chemical characteristics of cells or particles, one cell at a time, as they flow in a fluid stream through a beam of light. The properties measured include:

* Cell size (light scatter)
* Cell internal complexity (granularity, also light scatter)
* Presence or absence of specific proteins or other molecules on the cell surface or inside the cell (using fluorescent antibodies or other fluorescent probes)

The technique is widely used in cell counting, cell sorting, protein engineering, biomarker discovery and monitoring disease progression, particularly in hematology, immunology, and cancer research.

Oligosaccharides are complex carbohydrates composed of relatively small numbers (3-10) of monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic linkages. They occur naturally in foods such as milk, fruits, vegetables, and legumes. In the body, oligosaccharides play important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and protection against pathogens.

There are several types of oligosaccharides, classified based on their structures and functions. Some common examples include:

1. Disaccharides: These consist of two monosaccharide units, such as sucrose (glucose + fructose), lactose (glucose + galactose), and maltose (glucose + glucose).
2. Trisaccharides: These contain three monosaccharide units, like maltotriose (glucose + glucose + glucose) and raffinose (galactose + glucose + fructose).
3. Oligosaccharides found in human milk: Human milk contains unique oligosaccharides that serve as prebiotics, promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. These oligosaccharides also help protect infants from pathogens by acting as decoy receptors and inhibiting bacterial adhesion to intestinal cells.
4. N-linked and O-linked glycans: These are oligosaccharides attached to proteins in the body, playing crucial roles in protein folding, stability, and function.
5. Plant-derived oligosaccharides: Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are examples of plant-derived oligosaccharides that serve as prebiotics, promoting the growth of beneficial gut bacteria.

Overall, oligosaccharides have significant impacts on human health and disease, particularly in relation to gastrointestinal function, immunity, and inflammation.

Genetic therapy, also known as gene therapy, is a medical intervention that involves the use of genetic material, such as DNA or RNA, to treat or prevent diseases. It works by introducing functional genes into cells to replace missing or faulty ones caused by genetic disorders or mutations. The introduced gene is incorporated into the recipient's genome, allowing for the production of a therapeutic protein that can help manage the disease symptoms or even cure the condition.

There are several approaches to genetic therapy, including:

1. Replacing a faulty gene with a healthy one
2. Inactivating or "silencing" a dysfunctional gene causing a disease
3. Introducing a new gene into the body to help fight off a disease, such as cancer

Genetic therapy holds great promise for treating various genetic disorders, including cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, and certain types of cancer. However, it is still an evolving field with many challenges, such as efficient gene delivery, potential immune responses, and ensuring the safety and long-term effectiveness of the therapy.

Tissue distribution, in the context of pharmacology and toxicology, refers to the way that a drug or xenobiotic (a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism) is distributed throughout the body's tissues after administration. It describes how much of the drug or xenobiotic can be found in various tissues and organs, and is influenced by factors such as blood flow, lipid solubility, protein binding, and the permeability of cell membranes. Understanding tissue distribution is important for predicting the potential effects of a drug or toxin on different parts of the body, and for designing drugs with improved safety and efficacy profiles.

Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent, which is a type of chemotherapy medication. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. This helps to stop the spread of cancer in the body. Cyclophosphamide is used to treat various types of cancer, including lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, and breast cancer. It can be given orally as a tablet or intravenously as an injection.

Cyclophosphamide can also have immunosuppressive effects, which means it can suppress the activity of the immune system. This makes it useful in treating certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. However, this immunosuppression can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects.

Like all chemotherapy medications, cyclophosphamide can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and increased susceptibility to infections. It is important for patients receiving cyclophosphamide to be closely monitored by their healthcare team to manage these side effects and ensure the medication is working effectively.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Multiple primary neoplasms refer to the occurrence of more than one primary malignant tumor in an individual, where each tumor is unrelated to the other and originates from separate cells or organs. This differs from metastatic cancer, where a single malignancy spreads to multiple sites in the body. Multiple primary neoplasms can be synchronous (occurring at the same time) or metachronous (occurring at different times). The risk of developing multiple primary neoplasms increases with age and is associated with certain genetic predispositions, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices such as smoking and alcohol consumption.

A clone is a group of cells that are genetically identical to each other because they are derived from a common ancestor cell through processes such as mitosis or asexual reproduction. Therefore, the term "clone cells" refers to a population of cells that are genetic copies of a single parent cell.

In the context of laboratory research, cells can be cloned by isolating a single cell and allowing it to divide in culture, creating a population of genetically identical cells. This is useful for studying the behavior and characteristics of individual cell types, as well as for generating large quantities of cells for use in experiments.

It's important to note that while clone cells are genetically identical, they may still exhibit differences in their phenotype (physical traits) due to epigenetic factors or environmental influences.

'DBA' is an abbreviation for 'Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes,' but in the context of "Inbred DBA mice," it refers to a specific strain of laboratory mice that have been inbred for many generations. The DBA strain is one of the oldest inbred strains, and it was established in 1909 by C.C. Little at the Bussey Institute of Harvard University.

The "Inbred DBA" mice are genetically identical mice that have been produced by brother-sister matings for more than 20 generations. This extensive inbreeding results in a homozygous population, where all members of the strain have the same genetic makeup. The DBA strain is further divided into several sub-strains, including DBA/1, DBA/2, and DBA/J, among others.

DBA mice are known for their black coat color, which can fade to gray with age, and they exhibit a range of phenotypic traits that make them useful for research purposes. For example, DBA mice have a high incidence of retinal degeneration, making them a valuable model for studying eye diseases. They also show differences in behavior, immune response, and susceptibility to various diseases compared to other inbred strains.

In summary, "Inbred DBA" mice are a specific strain of laboratory mice that have been inbred for many generations, resulting in a genetically identical population with distinct phenotypic traits. They are widely used in biomedical research to study various diseases and biological processes.

Laryngeal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the larynx, also known as the voice box. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Laryngeal neoplasms can affect any part of the larynx, including the vocal cords, epiglottis, and the area around the vocal cords called the ventricle.

Benign laryngeal neoplasms may include papillomas, hemangiomas, or polyps. Malignant laryngeal neoplasms are typically squamous cell carcinomas, which account for more than 95% of all malignant laryngeal tumors. Other types of malignant laryngeal neoplasms include adenocarcinoma, sarcoma, and lymphoma.

Risk factors for developing laryngeal neoplasms include smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to industrial chemicals, and a history of acid reflux. Symptoms may include hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, sore throat, ear pain, or a lump in the neck. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols refer to a treatment plan for cancer that involves the use of more than one antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drug given in a specific sequence and schedule. The combination of drugs is used because they may work better together to destroy cancer cells compared to using a single agent alone. This approach can also help to reduce the likelihood of cancer cells becoming resistant to the treatment.

The choice of drugs, dose, duration, and frequency are determined by various factors such as the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and potential side effects. Combination chemotherapy protocols can be used in various settings, including as a primary treatment, adjuvant therapy (given after surgery or radiation to kill any remaining cancer cells), neoadjuvant therapy (given before surgery or radiation to shrink the tumor), or palliative care (to alleviate symptoms and prolong survival).

It is important to note that while combined chemotherapy protocols can be effective in treating certain types of cancer, they can also cause significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. Therefore, patients undergoing such treatment should be closely monitored and managed by a healthcare team experienced in administering chemotherapy.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Uterine cervical neoplasms, also known as cervical cancer or cervical dysplasia, refer to abnormal growths or lesions on the lining of the cervix that have the potential to become cancerous. These growths are usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and can be detected through routine Pap smears.

Cervical neoplasms are classified into different grades based on their level of severity, ranging from mild dysplasia (CIN I) to severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ (CIN III). In some cases, cervical neoplasms may progress to invasive cancer if left untreated.

Risk factors for developing cervical neoplasms include early sexual activity, multiple sexual partners, smoking, and a weakened immune system. Regular Pap smears and HPV testing are recommended for early detection and prevention of cervical cancer.

A precancerous condition, also known as a premalignant condition, is a state of abnormal cellular growth and development that has a higher-than-normal potential to progress into cancer. These conditions are characterized by the presence of certain anomalies in the cells, such as dysplasia (abnormal changes in cell shape or size), which can indicate an increased risk for malignant transformation.

It is important to note that not all precancerous conditions will eventually develop into cancer, and some may even regress on their own. However, individuals with precancerous conditions are often at a higher risk of developing cancer compared to the general population. Regular monitoring and appropriate medical interventions, if necessary, can help manage this risk and potentially prevent or detect cancer at an early stage when it is more treatable.

Examples of precancerous conditions include:

1. Dysplasia in the cervix (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or CIN)
2. Atypical ductal hyperplasia or lobular hyperplasia in the breast
3. Actinic keratosis on the skin
4. Leukoplakia in the mouth
5. Barrett's esophagus in the digestive tract

Regular medical check-ups, screenings, and lifestyle modifications are crucial for individuals with precancerous conditions to monitor their health and reduce the risk of cancer development.

A xenograft model antitumor assay is a type of preclinical cancer research study that involves transplanting human tumor cells or tissues into an immunodeficient mouse. This model allows researchers to study the effects of various treatments, such as drugs or immune therapies, on human tumors in a living organism.

In this assay, human tumor cells or tissues are implanted into the mouse, typically under the skin or in another organ, where they grow and form a tumor. Once the tumor has established, the mouse is treated with the experimental therapy, and the tumor's growth is monitored over time. The response of the tumor to the treatment is then assessed by measuring changes in tumor size or weight, as well as other parameters such as survival rate and metastasis.

Xenograft model antitumor assays are useful for evaluating the efficacy and safety of new cancer therapies before they are tested in human clinical trials. They provide valuable information on how the tumors respond to treatment, drug pharmacokinetics, and toxicity, which can help researchers optimize dosing regimens and identify potential side effects. However, it is important to note that xenograft models have limitations, such as differences in tumor biology between mice and humans, and may not always predict how well a therapy will work in human patients.

Preclinical drug evaluation refers to a series of laboratory tests and studies conducted to determine the safety and effectiveness of a new drug before it is tested in humans. These studies typically involve experiments on cells and animals to evaluate the pharmacological properties, toxicity, and potential interactions with other substances. The goal of preclinical evaluation is to establish a reasonable level of safety and understanding of how the drug works, which helps inform the design and conduct of subsequent clinical trials in humans. It's important to note that while preclinical studies provide valuable information, they may not always predict how a drug will behave in human subjects.

Adenocarcinoma, follicular is a type of cancer that develops in the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the neck that produces hormones responsible for regulating various bodily functions such as metabolism and growth.

Follicular adenocarcinoma arises from the follicular cells, which are responsible for producing thyroid hormones. This type of cancer is typically slow-growing and may not cause any symptoms in its early stages. However, as it progresses, it can lead to a variety of symptoms such as a lump or nodule in the neck, difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, or pain in the neck or throat.

Follicular adenocarcinoma is usually treated with surgical removal of the thyroid gland (thyroidectomy), followed by radioactive iodine therapy to destroy any remaining cancer cells. In some cases, additional treatments such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy may be necessary. The prognosis for follicular adenocarcinoma is generally good, with a five-year survival rate of around 90%. However, this can vary depending on the stage and aggressiveness of the cancer at the time of diagnosis.

Tumor suppressor protein p53, also known as p53 or tumor protein p53, is a nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a crucial role in preventing cancer development and maintaining genomic stability. It does so by regulating the cell cycle and acting as a transcription factor for various genes involved in apoptosis (programmed cell death), DNA repair, and cell senescence (permanent cell growth arrest).

In response to cellular stress, such as DNA damage or oncogene activation, p53 becomes activated and accumulates in the nucleus. Activated p53 can then bind to specific DNA sequences and promote the transcription of target genes that help prevent the proliferation of potentially cancerous cells. These targets include genes involved in cell cycle arrest (e.g., CDKN1A/p21), apoptosis (e.g., BAX, PUMA), and DNA repair (e.g., GADD45).

Mutations in the TP53 gene, which encodes p53, are among the most common genetic alterations found in human cancers. These mutations often lead to a loss or reduction of p53's tumor suppressive functions, allowing cancer cells to proliferate uncontrollably and evade apoptosis. As a result, p53 has been referred to as "the guardian of the genome" due to its essential role in preventing tumorigenesis.

Fluorouracil is a antineoplastic medication, which means it is used to treat cancer. It is a type of chemotherapy drug known as an antimetabolite. Fluorouracil works by interfering with the growth of cancer cells and ultimately killing them. It is often used to treat colon, esophageal, stomach, and breast cancers, as well as skin conditions such as actinic keratosis and superficial basal cell carcinoma. Fluorouracil may be given by injection or applied directly to the skin in the form of a cream.

It is important to note that fluorouracil can have serious side effects, including suppression of bone marrow function, mouth sores, stomach and intestinal ulcers, and nerve damage. It should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Immunotherapy is a type of medical treatment that uses the body's own immune system to fight against diseases, such as cancer. It involves the use of substances (like vaccines, medications, or immune cells) that stimulate or suppress the immune system to help it recognize and destroy harmful disease-causing cells or agents, like tumor cells.

Immunotherapy can work in several ways:

1. Activating the immune system: Certain immunotherapies boost the body's natural immune responses, helping them recognize and attack cancer cells more effectively.
2. Suppressing immune system inhibitors: Some immunotherapies target and block proteins or molecules that can suppress the immune response, allowing the immune system to work more efficiently against diseases.
3. Replacing or enhancing specific immune cells: Immunotherapy can also involve administering immune cells (like T-cells) that have been genetically engineered or modified to recognize and destroy cancer cells.

Immunotherapies have shown promising results in treating various types of cancer, autoimmune diseases, and allergies. However, they can also cause side effects, as an overactive immune system may attack healthy tissues and organs. Therefore, careful monitoring is necessary during immunotherapy treatment.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Endothelial cells are the type of cells that line the inner surface of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and heart chambers. They play a crucial role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by controlling vasomotor tone, coagulation, platelet activation, and inflammation. Endothelial cells also regulate the transport of molecules between the blood and surrounding tissues, and contribute to the maintenance of the structural integrity of the vasculature. They are flat, elongated cells with a unique morphology that allows them to form a continuous, nonthrombogenic lining inside the vessels. Endothelial cells can be isolated from various tissues and cultured in vitro for research purposes.

Laminin is a family of proteins that are an essential component of the basement membrane, which is a specialized type of extracellular matrix. Laminins are large trimeric molecules composed of three different chains: α, β, and γ. There are five different α chains, three different β chains, and three different γ chains that can combine to form at least 15 different laminin isoforms.

Laminins play a crucial role in maintaining the structure and integrity of basement membranes by interacting with other components of the extracellular matrix, such as collagen IV, and cell surface receptors, such as integrins. They are involved in various biological processes, including cell adhesion, differentiation, migration, and survival.

Laminin dysfunction has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, diabetic nephropathy, and muscular dystrophy.

Adenocarcinoma, mucinous is a type of cancer that begins in the glandular cells that line certain organs and produce mucin, a substance that lubricates and protects tissues. This type of cancer is characterized by the presence of abundant pools of mucin within the tumor. It typically develops in organs such as the colon, rectum, lungs, pancreas, and ovaries.

Mucinous adenocarcinomas tend to have a distinct appearance under the microscope, with large pools of mucin pushing aside the cancer cells. They may also have a different clinical behavior compared to other types of adenocarcinomas, such as being more aggressive or having a worse prognosis in some cases.

It is important to note that while a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, mucinous can be serious, the prognosis and treatment options may vary depending on several factors, including the location of the cancer, the stage at which it was diagnosed, and the individual's overall health.

Colorectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the colon or rectum, which can be benign or malignant. These growths can arise from the inner lining (mucosa) of the colon or rectum and can take various forms such as polyps, adenomas, or carcinomas.

Benign neoplasms, such as hyperplastic polyps and inflammatory polyps, are not cancerous but may need to be removed to prevent the development of malignant tumors. Adenomas, on the other hand, are precancerous lesions that can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated.

Colorectal cancer is a malignant neoplasm that arises from the uncontrolled growth and division of cells in the colon or rectum. It is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

Regular screening for colorectal neoplasms is recommended for individuals over the age of 50, as early detection and removal of precancerous lesions can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Embryonal carcinoma stem cells (ECSCs) are a type of cancer stem cell found in embryonal carcinomas, which are a rare form of germ cell tumor that primarily affect the testicles and ovaries. These stem cells are characterized by their ability to differentiate into various cell types, similar to embryonic stem cells. They are believed to play a key role in the development and progression of embryonal carcinomas, as they can self-renew and generate the heterogeneous population of cancer cells that make up the tumor.

Embryonal carcinoma stem cells have been studied extensively as a model system for understanding the biology of cancer stem cells and developing new therapies for germ cell tumors. They are known to express specific markers, such as Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox2, which are also expressed in embryonic stem cells and are involved in maintaining their pluripotency.

It is important to note that while embryonal carcinoma stem cells share some similarities with embryonic stem cells, they are distinct from them and have undergone malignant transformation, making them a target for cancer therapy.

Total Lung Capacity (TLC) is the maximum volume of air that can be contained within the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It includes all of the following lung volumes: tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume. TLC can be measured directly using gas dilution techniques or indirectly by adding residual volume to vital capacity. Factors that affect TLC include age, sex, height, and lung health status.

Pulmonary alveoli, also known as air sacs, are tiny clusters of air-filled pouches located at the end of the bronchioles in the lungs. They play a crucial role in the process of gas exchange during respiration. The thin walls of the alveoli, called alveolar membranes, allow oxygen from inhaled air to pass into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide from the bloodstream to pass into the alveoli to be exhaled out of the body. This vital function enables the lungs to supply oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body and remove waste products like carbon dioxide.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Pancreatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the pancreas that can be benign or malignant. The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach that produces hormones and digestive enzymes. Pancreatic neoplasms can interfere with the normal functioning of the pancreas, leading to various health complications.

Benign pancreatic neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not spread to other parts of the body. They are usually removed through surgery to prevent any potential complications, such as blocking the bile duct or causing pain.

Malignant pancreatic neoplasms, also known as pancreatic cancer, are cancerous growths that can invade and destroy surrounding tissues and organs. They can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs, or bones. Pancreatic cancer is often aggressive and difficult to treat, with a poor prognosis.

There are several types of pancreatic neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, and cystic neoplasms. The specific type of neoplasm is determined through various diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies, biopsies, and blood tests. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

Papillary and follicular carcinomas are both types of differentiated thyroid cancer. They are called "differentiated" because the cells still have some features of normal thyroid cells. These cancers tend to grow slowly and usually have a good prognosis, especially if they are treated early.

Papillary carcinoma is the most common type of thyroid cancer, accounting for about 80% of all cases. It tends to grow in finger-like projections called papillae, which give the tumor its name. Papillary carcinoma often spreads to nearby lymph nodes, but it is usually still treatable and curable.

Follicular carcinoma is less common than papillary carcinoma, accounting for about 10-15% of all thyroid cancers. It tends to grow in round clusters called follicles, which give the tumor its name. Follicular carcinoma is more likely to spread to distant parts of the body, such as the lungs or bones, than papillary carcinoma. However, it is still usually treatable and curable if it is caught early.

It's important to note that while these cancers are called "papillary" and "follicular," they are not the same as benign (non-cancerous) tumors called papillomas or follicular adenomas, which do not have the potential to spread or become life-threatening.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Extravascular lung water (EVLW) refers to the amount of fluid that has accumulated in the lungs outside of the pulmonary vasculature. It is not a part of the normal physiology and can be a sign of various pathological conditions, such as heart failure, sepsis, or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

EVLW can be measured using various techniques, including transpulmonary thermodilution and pulmonary artery catheterization. Increased EVLW is associated with worse outcomes in critically ill patients, as it can lead to impaired gas exchange, decreased lung compliance, and increased work of breathing.

It's important to note that while EVLW can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, it should be interpreted in the context of other clinical findings and used as part of a comprehensive assessment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Razoxane" is not a medical term that has a widely accepted or specific definition in the field of medicine. It is possible that you may be referring to "razoxane," which is a medication used in the treatment of certain types of cancer. Razoxane is an antineoplastic agent, which means it is a drug that is used to treat cancer. It works by interfering with the formation of blood vessels that supply tumors, which can help to slow or stop the growth of the tumor.

It is important to note that the use of razoxane is not widely accepted and it is not a commonly used cancer treatment. It is typically used only in certain specific circumstances and when other treatments have not been effective. As with any medication, razoxane should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional, and it is important to be aware of the potential risks and benefits.

Radiation-sensitizing agents are drugs that make cancer cells more sensitive to radiation therapy. These agents work by increasing the ability of radiation to damage the DNA of cancer cells, which can lead to more effective tumor cell death. This means that lower doses of radiation may be required to achieve the same therapeutic effect, reducing the potential for damage to normal tissues surrounding the tumor.

Radiation-sensitizing agents are often used in conjunction with radiation therapy to improve treatment outcomes for patients with various types of cancer. They can be given either systemically (through the bloodstream) or locally (directly to the tumor site). The choice of agent and the timing of administration depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, the patient's overall health, and the specific radiation therapy protocol being used.

It is important to note that while radiation-sensitizing agents can enhance the effectiveness of radiation therapy, they may also increase the risk of side effects. Therefore, careful monitoring and management of potential toxicities are essential during treatment.

Gallbladder neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissue of the gallbladder, which can be benign or malignant. Benign neoplasms are non-cancerous and typically do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant neoplasms, also known as gallbladder cancer, can invade nearby tissues and organs and may metastasize (spread) to distant parts of the body. Gallbladder neoplasms can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, and nausea, but they are often asymptomatic until they have advanced to an advanced stage. The exact causes of gallbladder neoplasms are not fully understood, but risk factors include gallstones, chronic inflammation of the gallbladder, and certain inherited genetic conditions.

Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a subtype of adenocarcinoma, which is a type of lung cancer that originates in the cells that line the alveoli (tiny air sacs) in the lungs. BAC is characterized by the spread of cancerous cells along the alveolar walls, without invading the surrounding tissues. It often appears as multiple nodules or a large mass in the lung and can be difficult to diagnose due to its growth pattern.

BAC is typically associated with a better prognosis compared to other types of lung cancer, but it can still be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body. Treatment options for BAC may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches. It's important to note that medical definitions and classifications of diseases and conditions are constantly evolving as new research emerges, so it's always a good idea to consult with a healthcare professional for the most up-to-date information.

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that are an essential part of the immune system. They are large, specialized cells that engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as damaged or dead cells. Macrophages are found throughout the body, including in the bloodstream, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, and connective tissues. They play a critical role in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair and remodeling.

Macrophages originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter the tissues, they differentiate into macrophages, which have a larger size and more specialized functions than monocytes. Macrophages can change their shape and move through tissues to reach sites of infection or injury. They also produce cytokines, chemokines, and other signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

Macrophages have a variety of surface receptors that allow them to recognize and respond to different types of foreign substances and signals from other cells. They can engulf and digest foreign particles, bacteria, and viruses through a process called phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell that helps coordinate the immune response.

Overall, macrophages are crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, defending against infection, and promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Dysregulation of macrophage function has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

Drug synergism is a pharmacological concept that refers to the interaction between two or more drugs, where the combined effect of the drugs is greater than the sum of their individual effects. This means that when these drugs are administered together, they produce an enhanced therapeutic response compared to when they are given separately.

Drug synergism can occur through various mechanisms, such as:

1. Pharmacodynamic synergism - When two or more drugs interact with the same target site in the body and enhance each other's effects.
2. Pharmacokinetic synergism - When one drug affects the metabolism, absorption, distribution, or excretion of another drug, leading to an increased concentration of the second drug in the body and enhanced therapeutic effect.
3. Physiochemical synergism - When two drugs interact physically, such as when one drug enhances the solubility or permeability of another drug, leading to improved absorption and bioavailability.

It is important to note that while drug synergism can result in enhanced therapeutic effects, it can also increase the risk of adverse reactions and toxicity. Therefore, healthcare providers must carefully consider the potential benefits and risks when prescribing combinations of drugs with known or potential synergistic effects.

Plasminogen is a glycoprotein that is present in human plasma, and it is the inactive precursor of the enzyme plasmin. Plasmin is a serine protease that plays a crucial role in the dissolution of blood clots by degrading fibrin, one of the major components of a blood clot.

Plasminogen can be activated to form plasmin through the action of various activators, such as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). Once activated, plasmin can break down fibrin and other proteins, helping to prevent excessive clotting and promoting the normal turnover of extracellular matrix components.

Abnormalities in plasminogen activation have been implicated in various diseases, including thrombosis, fibrosis, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of plasminogen is important for developing therapies to treat these conditions.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

Endometrial neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the endometrium, which is the innermost lining of the uterus. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two main types of endometrial cancer are type I, also known as endometrioid adenocarcinoma, and type II, which includes serous carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, and carcinosarcoma.

Type I endometrial cancers are usually estrogen-dependent and associated with risk factors such as obesity, diabetes, and prolonged exposure to estrogen without progesterone. They tend to grow more slowly and have a better prognosis than type II cancers.

Type II endometrial cancers are less common but more aggressive, often presenting at an advanced stage and having a worse prognosis. They are not typically associated with hormonal factors and may occur in women who have gone through menopause.

Endometrial neoplasms can also include benign growths such as polyps, hyperplasia, and endometriosis. While these conditions are not cancerous, they can increase the risk of developing endometrial cancer and should be monitored closely by a healthcare provider.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

Disease-free survival (DFS) is a term used in medical research and clinical practice, particularly in the field of oncology. It refers to the length of time after primary treatment for a cancer during which no evidence of the disease can be found. This means that the patient shows no signs or symptoms of the cancer, and any imaging studies or other tests do not reveal any tumors or other indications of the disease.

DFS is often used as an important endpoint in clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments for cancer. By measuring the length of time until the cancer recurs or a new cancer develops, researchers can get a better sense of how well a particular treatment is working and whether it is improving patient outcomes.

It's important to note that DFS is not the same as overall survival (OS), which refers to the length of time from primary treatment until death from any cause. While DFS can provide valuable information about the effectiveness of cancer treatments, it does not necessarily reflect the impact of those treatments on patients' overall survival.

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is a type of clinical specimen obtained through a procedure called bronchoalveolar lavage. This procedure involves inserting a bronchoscope into the lungs and instilling a small amount of saline solution into a specific area of the lung, then gently aspirating the fluid back out. The fluid that is recovered is called bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

BAL fluid contains cells and other substances that are present in the lower respiratory tract, including the alveoli (the tiny air sacs where gas exchange occurs). By analyzing BAL fluid, doctors can diagnose various lung conditions, such as pneumonia, interstitial lung disease, and lung cancer. They can also monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions by comparing the composition of BAL fluid before and after treatment.

BAL fluid is typically analyzed for its cellular content, including the number and type of white blood cells present, as well as for the presence of bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms. The fluid may also be tested for various proteins, enzymes, and other biomarkers that can provide additional information about lung health and disease.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

Adenocarcinoma, clear cell is a type of cancer that begins in the glandular cells lining various organs and appears "clear" under the microscope due to its characteristic appearance. These cells produce and release mucus or other fluids. This type of cancer can occur in several parts of the body including the lungs, breasts, ovaries, prostate, and kidneys. Clear cell adenocarcinoma is most commonly found in the ovary and accounts for around 5-10% of all ovarian cancers. It is also associated with endometriosis, a condition where tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterine cavity.

Clear cell adenocarcinoma has unique features that distinguish it from other types of cancer. The cells are often large and have distinct borders, giving them a "clear" appearance under the microscope due to their high lipid or glycogen content. This type of cancer tends to be more aggressive than some other forms of adenocarcinoma and may have a poorer prognosis, particularly if it has spread beyond its original site.

Treatment for clear cell adenocarcinoma typically involves surgery to remove the tumor, followed by chemotherapy or radiation therapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. The specific treatment plan will depend on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a process in which a normal cell undergoes genetic alterations that cause it to become cancerous or malignant. This process involves changes in the cell's DNA that result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, loss of contact inhibition, and the ability to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Neoplastic transformation can occur as a result of various factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to carcinogens, viral infections, chronic inflammation, and aging. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, which regulate cell growth and division.

The transformation of normal cells into cancerous cells is a complex and multi-step process that involves multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. It is characterized by several hallmarks, including sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, enabling replicative immortality, induction of angiogenesis, activation of invasion and metastasis, reprogramming of energy metabolism, and evading immune destruction.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a fundamental concept in cancer biology and is critical for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression. It also has important implications for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, as identifying the specific genetic alterations that underlie neoplastic transformation can help guide targeted therapies and personalized medicine approaches.

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal development. In adults, AFP is normally present in very low levels in the blood. However, abnormal production of AFP can occur in certain medical conditions, such as:

* Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
* Germ cell tumors, including non-seminomatous testicular cancer and ovarian cancer
* Hepatitis or liver inflammation
* Certain types of benign liver disease, such as cirrhosis or hepatic adenomas

Elevated levels of AFP in the blood can be detected through a simple blood test. This test is often used as a tumor marker to help diagnose and monitor certain types of cancer, particularly HCC. However, it's important to note that an elevated AFP level alone is not enough to diagnose cancer, and further testing is usually needed to confirm the diagnosis. Additionally, some non-cancerous conditions can also cause elevated AFP levels, so it's important to interpret the test results in the context of the individual's medical history and other diagnostic tests.

Tongue neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the tongue tissue. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign tongue neoplasms may include entities such as papillomas, fibromas, or granular cell tumors. They are typically slow growing and less likely to spread to other parts of the body.

Malignant tongue neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancers that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant tongue neoplasm is squamous cell carcinoma, which arises from the thin, flat cells (squamous cells) that line the surface of the tongue.

Tongue neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening on the tongue, pain or burning sensation in the mouth, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and unexplained bleeding from the mouth. Early detection and treatment are crucial for improving outcomes and preventing complications.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

Tissue Microarray (TMA) analysis is a surgical pathology technique that allows for the simultaneous analysis of multiple tissue samples (known as "cores") from different patients or even different regions of the same tumor, on a single microscope slide. This technique involves the extraction of small cylindrical samples of tissue, which are then arrayed in a grid-like pattern on a recipient paraffin block. Once the TMA is created, sections can be cut and stained with various histochemical or immunohistochemical stains to evaluate the expression of specific proteins or other molecules of interest.

Tissue Array Analysis has become an important tool in biomedical research, enabling high-throughput analysis of tissue samples for molecular markers, gene expression patterns, and other features that can help inform clinical decision making, drug development, and our understanding of disease processes. It's widely used in cancer research to study the heterogeneity of tumors, identify new therapeutic targets, and evaluate patient prognosis.

RNA (Ribonucleic acid) is a single-stranded molecule similar in structure to DNA, involved in the process of protein synthesis in the cell. It acts as a messenger carrying genetic information from DNA to the ribosomes, where proteins are produced.

A neoplasm, on the other hand, is an abnormal growth of cells, which can be benign or malignant. Benign neoplasms are not cancerous and do not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body. Malignant neoplasms, however, are cancerous and have the potential to invade surrounding tissues and spread to distant sites in the body through a process called metastasis.

Therefore, an 'RNA neoplasm' is not a recognized medical term as RNA is not a type of growth or tumor. However, there are certain types of cancer-causing viruses known as oncoviruses that contain RNA as their genetic material and can cause neoplasms. For example, human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are RNA viruses that can cause certain types of cancer in humans.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Liposomes are artificially prepared, small, spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers that enclose an aqueous compartment. They can encapsulate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, making them useful for drug delivery applications in the medical field. The lipid bilayer structure of liposomes is similar to that of biological membranes, which allows them to merge with and deliver their contents into cells. This property makes liposomes a valuable tool in delivering drugs directly to targeted sites within the body, improving drug efficacy while minimizing side effects.

Keratins are a type of fibrous structural proteins that constitute the main component of the integumentary system, which includes the hair, nails, and skin of vertebrates. They are also found in other tissues such as horns, hooves, feathers, and reptilian scales. Keratins are insoluble proteins that provide strength, rigidity, and protection to these structures.

Keratins are classified into two types: soft keratins (Type I) and hard keratins (Type II). Soft keratins are found in the skin and simple epithelial tissues, while hard keratins are present in structures like hair, nails, horns, and hooves.

Keratin proteins have a complex structure consisting of several domains, including an alpha-helical domain, beta-pleated sheet domain, and a non-repetitive domain. These domains provide keratin with its unique properties, such as resistance to heat, chemicals, and mechanical stress.

In summary, keratins are fibrous structural proteins that play a crucial role in providing strength, rigidity, and protection to various tissues in the body.

Cystadenocarcinoma, serous is a type of cystic tumor that arises from the lining of the abdominal or pelvic cavity (the peritoneum). It is called "serous" because the tumor cells produce a thin, watery fluid similar to serum.

Cystadenocarcinoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor that can invade surrounding tissues and spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. It typically affects women over the age of 50 and can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel or bladder habits.

Serous cystadenocarcinoma is a subtype of ovarian cancer that arises from the surface of the ovary. It can also occur in other organs, including the fallopian tubes, peritoneum, and endometrium. This type of tumor tends to grow slowly but can spread widely throughout the abdominal cavity, making it difficult to treat.

Treatment for serous cystadenocarcinoma typically involves surgery to remove the tumor and any affected tissues, followed by chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. The prognosis for this type of cancer depends on several factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, and the response to treatment.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Endostatin is a naturally occurring protein that inhibits the growth of new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis. It is derived from collagen type XVIII, which is found in the basement membrane of blood vessels. Endostatin has been studied for its potential use in treating various diseases, including cancer, because tumors need to form new blood vessels to grow and spread. By inhibiting this process, endostatin may be able to slow or stop tumor growth. It has also been investigated for its potential role in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of blindness, due to its ability to inhibit the growth of new blood vessels in the eye.

Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) are a type of tumor antigen that are expressed on the surface of cancer cells. These antigens are abnormal forms of carbohydrates, also known as glycans, which are attached to proteins and lipids on the cell surface.

TACAs are often overexpressed or expressed in a different form on cancer cells compared to normal cells. This makes them attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy because they can be recognized by the immune system as foreign and elicit an immune response. Some examples of TACAs include gangliosides, fucosylated glycans, and sialylated glycans.

Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens have been studied as potential targets for cancer vaccines, antibody therapies, and other immunotherapeutic approaches. However, their use as targets for cancer therapy is still in the early stages of research and development.

p53 is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a protein responsible for controlling cell growth and division. The p53 protein plays a crucial role in preventing the development of cancer by regulating the cell cycle and activating DNA repair processes when genetic damage is detected. If the damage is too severe to be repaired, p53 can trigger apoptosis, or programmed cell death, to prevent the propagation of potentially cancerous cells. Mutations in the TP53 gene, which encodes the p53 protein, are among the most common genetic alterations found in human cancers and are often associated with a poor prognosis.

Immunologic cytotoxicity refers to the damage or destruction of cells that occurs as a result of an immune response. This process involves the activation of immune cells, such as cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which release toxic substances, such as perforins and granzymes, that can kill target cells.

In addition, antibodies produced by B cells can also contribute to immunologic cytotoxicity by binding to antigens on the surface of target cells and triggering complement-mediated lysis or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) by activating immune effector cells.

Immunologic cytotoxicity plays an important role in the body's defense against viral infections, cancer cells, and other foreign substances. However, it can also contribute to tissue damage and autoimmune diseases if the immune system mistakenly targets healthy cells or tissues.

The Kaplan-Meier estimate is a statistical method used to calculate the survival probability over time in a population. It is commonly used in medical research to analyze time-to-event data, such as the time until a patient experiences a specific event like disease progression or death. The Kaplan-Meier estimate takes into account censored data, which occurs when some individuals are lost to follow-up before experiencing the event of interest.

The method involves constructing a survival curve that shows the proportion of subjects still surviving at different time points. At each time point, the survival probability is calculated as the product of the conditional probabilities of surviving from one time point to the next. The Kaplan-Meier estimate provides an unbiased and consistent estimator of the survival function, even when censoring is present.

In summary, the Kaplan-Meier estimate is a crucial tool in medical research for analyzing time-to-event data and estimating survival probabilities over time while accounting for censored observations.

Epithelial cells are types of cells that cover the outer surfaces of the body, line the inner surfaces of organs and glands, and form the lining of blood vessels and body cavities. They provide a protective barrier against the external environment, regulate the movement of materials between the internal and external environments, and are involved in the sense of touch, temperature, and pain. Epithelial cells can be squamous (flat and thin), cuboidal (square-shaped and of equal height), or columnar (tall and narrow) in shape and are classified based on their location and function.

Dinoprostone is a prostaglandin E2 analog used in medical practice for the induction of labor and ripening of the cervix in pregnant women. It is available in various forms, including vaginal suppositories, gel, and tablets. Dinoprostone works by stimulating the contraction of uterine muscles and promoting cervical dilation, which helps in facilitating a successful delivery.

It's important to note that dinoprostone should only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as its use is associated with certain risks and side effects, including uterine hyperstimulation, fetal distress, and maternal infection. The dosage and duration of treatment are carefully monitored to minimize these risks and ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.

A "carbohydrate sequence" refers to the specific arrangement or order of monosaccharides (simple sugars) that make up a carbohydrate molecule, such as a polysaccharide or an oligosaccharide. Carbohydrates are often composed of repeating units of monosaccharides, and the sequence in which these units are arranged can have important implications for the function and properties of the carbohydrate.

For example, in glycoproteins (proteins that contain carbohydrate chains), the specific carbohydrate sequence can affect how the protein is processed and targeted within the cell, as well as its stability and activity. Similarly, in complex carbohydrates like starch or cellulose, the sequence of glucose units can determine whether the molecule is branched or unbranched, which can have implications for its digestibility and other properties.

Therefore, understanding the carbohydrate sequence is an important aspect of studying carbohydrate structure and function in biology and medicine.

Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped organs that are part of the immune system. They are found throughout the body, especially in the neck, armpits, groin, and abdomen. Lymph nodes filter lymph fluid, which carries waste and unwanted substances such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. They contain white blood cells called lymphocytes that help fight infections and diseases by attacking and destroying the harmful substances found in the lymph fluid. When an infection or disease is present, lymph nodes may swell due to the increased number of immune cells and fluid accumulation as they work to fight off the invaders.

Pulmonary fibrosis is a specific type of lung disease that results from the thickening and scarring of the lung tissues, particularly those in the alveoli (air sacs) and interstitium (the space around the air sacs). This scarring makes it harder for the lungs to properly expand and transfer oxygen into the bloodstream, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, coughing, fatigue, and eventually respiratory failure. The exact cause of pulmonary fibrosis can vary, with some cases being idiopathic (without a known cause) or related to environmental factors, medications, medical conditions, or genetic predisposition.

Salivary gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the salivary glands. These glands are responsible for producing saliva, which helps in digestion, lubrication of food and maintaining oral health. Salivary gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms are slow-growing and typically do not spread to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as swelling, painless lumps, or difficulty swallowing if they grow large enough to put pressure on surrounding tissues.

Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can be aggressive and have the potential to invade nearby structures and metastasize (spread) to distant organs. Symptoms of malignant salivary gland neoplasms may include rapid growth, pain, numbness, or paralysis of facial nerves.

Salivary gland neoplasms can occur in any of the major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands) or in the minor salivary glands located throughout the mouth and throat. The exact cause of these neoplasms is not fully understood, but risk factors may include exposure to radiation, certain viral infections, and genetic predisposition.

The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a type of receptor found on the surface of many cells in the body, including those of the epidermis or outer layer of the skin. It is a transmembrane protein that has an extracellular ligand-binding domain and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain.

EGFR plays a crucial role in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. When EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor) or other ligands bind to the extracellular domain of EGFR, it causes the receptor to dimerize and activate its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. This leads to the autophosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues on the receptor, which in turn recruits and activates various downstream signaling molecules, resulting in a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately regulate gene expression and cell behavior.

Abnormal activation of EGFR has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer. Overexpression or mutation of EGFR can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division, angiogenesis, and metastasis, making it an important target for cancer therapy.

Pericytes are specialized cells that surround the endothelial cells which line the blood capillaries. They play an important role in the regulation of capillary diameter, blood flow, and the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). Pericytes also contribute to the maintenance of the blood-brain barrier, immune surveillance, and the clearance of waste products from the brain. They are often referred to as "mural cells" or "rouleaux cells" and can be found in various tissues throughout the body.

Adenoviridae is a family of viruses that includes many species that can cause various types of illnesses in humans and animals. These viruses are non-enveloped, meaning they do not have a lipid membrane, and have an icosahedral symmetry with a diameter of approximately 70-90 nanometers.

The genome of Adenoviridae is composed of double-stranded DNA, which contains linear chromosomes ranging from 26 to 45 kilobases in length. The family is divided into five genera: Mastadenovirus, Aviadenovirus, Atadenovirus, Siadenovirus, and Ichtadenovirus.

Human adenoviruses are classified under the genus Mastadenovirus and can cause a wide range of illnesses, including respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, and upper respiratory tract infections. Some serotypes have also been associated with more severe diseases such as hemorrhagic cystitis, hepatitis, and meningoencephalitis.

Adenoviruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through respiratory droplets, fecal-oral route, or by contact with contaminated surfaces. They can also be spread through contaminated water sources. Infections caused by adenoviruses are usually self-limiting, but severe cases may require hospitalization and supportive care.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Bronchial neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the bronchi, which are the large airways that lead into the lungs. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant bronchial neoplasms are often referred to as lung cancer and can be further classified into small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer, depending on the type of cells involved.

Benign bronchial neoplasms are less common than malignant ones and may include growths such as papillomas, hamartomas, or chondromas. While benign neoplasms are not cancerous, they can still cause symptoms and complications if they grow large enough to obstruct the airways or if they become infected.

Treatment for bronchial neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

A lung abscess is a localized collection of pus in the lung parenchyma caused by an infectious process, often due to bacterial infection. It's characterized by necrosis and liquefaction of pulmonary tissue, resulting in a cavity filled with purulent material. The condition can develop as a complication of community-acquired or nosocomial pneumonia, aspiration of oral secretions containing anaerobic bacteria, septic embolism, or contiguous spread from a nearby infected site.

Symptoms may include cough with foul-smelling sputum, chest pain, fever, weight loss, and fatigue. Diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques such as chest X-ray or CT scan, along with microbiological examination of the sputum to identify the causative organism(s). Treatment often includes antibiotic therapy tailored to the identified pathogen(s), as well as supportive care such as bronchoscopy, drainage, or surgery in severe cases.

A pneumonectomy is a surgical procedure in which an entire lung is removed. This type of surgery is typically performed as a treatment for certain types of lung cancer, although it may also be used to treat other conditions such as severe damage or infection in the lung that does not respond to other treatments. The surgery requires general anesthesia and can be quite complex, with potential risks including bleeding, infection, pneumonia, and air leaks. Recovery from a pneumonectomy can take several weeks, and patients may require ongoing rehabilitation to regain strength and mobility.

Down-regulation is a process that occurs in response to various stimuli, where the number or sensitivity of cell surface receptors or the expression of specific genes is decreased. This process helps maintain homeostasis within cells and tissues by reducing the ability of cells to respond to certain signals or molecules.

In the context of cell surface receptors, down-regulation can occur through several mechanisms:

1. Receptor internalization: After binding to their ligands, receptors can be internalized into the cell through endocytosis. Once inside the cell, these receptors may be degraded or recycled back to the cell surface in smaller numbers.
2. Reduced receptor synthesis: Down-regulation can also occur at the transcriptional level, where the expression of genes encoding for specific receptors is decreased, leading to fewer receptors being produced.
3. Receptor desensitization: Prolonged exposure to a ligand can lead to a decrease in receptor sensitivity or affinity, making it more difficult for the cell to respond to the signal.

In the context of gene expression, down-regulation refers to the decreased transcription and/or stability of specific mRNAs, leading to reduced protein levels. This process can be induced by various factors, including microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation, histone modification, or DNA methylation.

Down-regulation is an essential mechanism in many physiological processes and can also contribute to the development of several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Up-regulation is a term used in molecular biology and medicine to describe an increase in the expression or activity of a gene, protein, or receptor in response to a stimulus. This can occur through various mechanisms such as increased transcription, translation, or reduced degradation of the molecule. Up-regulation can have important functional consequences, for example, enhancing the sensitivity or response of a cell to a hormone, neurotransmitter, or drug. It is a normal physiological process that can also be induced by disease or pharmacological interventions.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

F344 is a strain code used to designate an outbred stock of rats that has been inbreeded for over 100 generations. The F344 rats, also known as Fischer 344 rats, were originally developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and are now widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background.

Inbred strains, like the F344, are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or parents and offspring) for many generations until a state of complete homozygosity is reached, meaning that all members of the strain have identical genomes. This genetic uniformity makes inbred strains ideal for use in studies where consistent and reproducible results are important.

F344 rats are known for their longevity, with a median lifespan of around 27-31 months, making them useful for aging research. They also have a relatively low incidence of spontaneous tumors compared to other rat strains. However, they may be more susceptible to certain types of cancer and other diseases due to their inbred status.

It's important to note that while F344 rats are often used as a standard laboratory rat strain, there can still be some genetic variation between individual animals within the same strain, particularly if they come from different suppliers or breeding colonies. Therefore, it's always important to consider the source and history of any animal model when designing experiments and interpreting results.

The Ki-67 antigen is a cellular protein that is expressed in all active phases of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2, and M), but not in the resting phase (G0). It is often used as a marker for cell proliferation and can be found in high concentrations in rapidly dividing cells. Immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 can help to determine the growth fraction of a group of cells, which can be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of various malignancies, including cancer. The level of Ki-67 expression is often associated with the aggressiveness of the tumor and its response to treatment.

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a protein that is normally produced in small amounts during fetal development. In adults, low levels of CEA can be found in the blood, but elevated levels are typically associated with various types of cancer, particularly colon, rectal, and breast cancer.

Measurement of CEA levels in the blood is sometimes used as a tumor marker to monitor response to treatment, detect recurrence, or screen for secondary cancers in patients with a history of certain types of cancer. However, it's important to note that CEA is not a specific or sensitive indicator of cancer and can be elevated in various benign conditions such as inflammation, smoking, and some gastrointestinal diseases. Therefore, the test should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical and diagnostic findings.

Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body, and it is a major component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. Collagen provides structure and strength to these tissues and helps them to withstand stretching and tension. It is made up of long chains of amino acids, primarily glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline, which are arranged in a triple helix structure. There are at least 16 different types of collagen found in the body, each with slightly different structures and functions. Collagen is important for maintaining the integrity and health of tissues throughout the body, and it has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in various medical conditions.

Adenocarcinoma, papillary is a type of cancer that begins in the glandular cells and grows in a finger-like projection (called a papilla). This type of cancer can occur in various organs, including the lungs, pancreas, thyroid, and female reproductive system. The prognosis and treatment options for papillary adenocarcinoma depend on several factors, such as the location and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and personalized treatment plan.

Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) is a term used in genetics to describe the loss of one copy of a gene or a segment of a chromosome, where there was previously a pair of different genes or chromosomal segments (heterozygous). This can occur due to various genetic events such as mutation, deletion, or mitotic recombination.

LOH is often associated with the development of cancer, as it can lead to the loss of tumor suppressor genes, which normally help to regulate cell growth and division. When both copies of a tumor suppressor gene are lost or inactivated, it can result in uncontrolled cell growth and the formation of a tumor.

In medical terms, LOH is used as a biomarker for cancer susceptibility, progression, and prognosis. It can also be used to identify individuals who may be at increased risk for certain types of cancer, or to monitor patients for signs of cancer recurrence.

The endothelium is a thin layer of simple squamous epithelial cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and heart chambers. The vascular endothelium, specifically, refers to the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels. These cells play a crucial role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by regulating vasomotor tone, coagulation, platelet activation, inflammation, and permeability of the vessel wall. They also contribute to the growth and repair of the vascular system and are involved in various pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

A drug combination refers to the use of two or more drugs in combination for the treatment of a single medical condition or disease. The rationale behind using drug combinations is to achieve a therapeutic effect that is superior to that obtained with any single agent alone, through various mechanisms such as:

* Complementary modes of action: When different drugs target different aspects of the disease process, their combined effects may be greater than either drug used alone.
* Synergistic interactions: In some cases, the combination of two or more drugs can result in a greater-than-additive effect, where the total response is greater than the sum of the individual responses to each drug.
* Antagonism of adverse effects: Sometimes, the use of one drug can mitigate the side effects of another, allowing for higher doses or longer durations of therapy.

Examples of drug combinations include:

* Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection, which typically involves a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
* Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where combinations of cytotoxic agents are used to target different stages of the cell cycle and increase the likelihood of tumor cell death.
* Fixed-dose combination products, such as those used in the treatment of hypertension or type 2 diabetes, which combine two or more active ingredients into a single formulation for ease of administration and improved adherence to therapy.

However, it's important to note that drug combinations can also increase the risk of adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, and medication errors. Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the selection of appropriate drugs, dosing regimens, and monitoring parameters when using drug combinations in clinical practice.

Tumor suppressor genes are a type of gene that helps to regulate and prevent cells from growing and dividing too rapidly or in an uncontrolled manner. They play a critical role in preventing the formation of tumors and cancer. When functioning properly, tumor suppressor genes help to repair damaged DNA, control the cell cycle, and trigger programmed cell death (apoptosis) when necessary. However, when these genes are mutated or altered, they can lose their ability to function correctly, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and the development of tumors. Examples of tumor suppressor genes include TP53, BRCA1, and BRCA2.

Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI) is a type of lung injury that can occur in patients who require mechanical ventilation to assist their breathing. It's caused by the application of excessive pressure or volume to the lungs during the process of mechanical ventilation, which can lead to damage of the alveoli (tiny air sacs in the lungs). This can result in inflammation, increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary membrane, and potentially even progressive lung dysfunction.

The risk factors for VILI include high tidal volumes (the amount of air moved into and out of the lungs during each breath), high inspiratory pressures, and high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). To minimize the risk of VILI, clinicians often use a lung protective ventilation strategy that involves using lower tidal volumes and limiting inspiratory pressures.

It's important to note that while mechanical ventilation is a lifesaving intervention for many critically ill patients, it is not without risks. VILI is one of the potential complications of this therapy, and clinicians must be mindful of this risk when managing mechanically ventilated patients.

Drug resistance, also known as antimicrobial resistance, is the ability of a microorganism (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand the effects of a drug that was originally designed to inhibit or kill it. This occurs when the microorganism undergoes genetic changes that allow it to survive in the presence of the drug. As a result, the drug becomes less effective or even completely ineffective at treating infections caused by these resistant organisms.

Drug resistance can develop through various mechanisms, including mutations in the genes responsible for producing the target protein of the drug, alteration of the drug's target site, modification or destruction of the drug by enzymes produced by the microorganism, and active efflux of the drug from the cell.

The emergence and spread of drug-resistant microorganisms pose significant challenges in medical treatment, as they can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents, as well as poor infection control practices, contribute to the development and dissemination of drug-resistant strains. To address this issue, it is crucial to promote prudent use of antimicrobials, enhance surveillance and monitoring of resistance patterns, invest in research and development of new antimicrobial agents, and strengthen infection prevention and control measures.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

'C3H' is the name of an inbred strain of laboratory mice that was developed at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. The mice are characterized by their uniform genetic background and have been widely used in biomedical research for many decades.

The C3H strain is particularly notable for its susceptibility to certain types of cancer, including mammary tumors and lymphomas. It also has a high incidence of age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases. The strain is often used in studies of immunology, genetics, and carcinogenesis.

Like all inbred strains, the C3H mice are the result of many generations of brother-sister matings, which leads to a high degree of genetic uniformity within the strain. This makes them useful for studying the effects of specific genes or environmental factors on disease susceptibility and other traits. However, it also means that they may not always be representative of the genetic diversity found in outbred populations, including humans.

Natural Killer (NK) cells are a type of lymphocyte, which are large granular innate immune cells that play a crucial role in the host's defense against viral infections and malignant transformations. They do not require prior sensitization to target and destroy abnormal cells, such as virus-infected cells or tumor cells. NK cells recognize their targets through an array of germline-encoded activating and inhibitory receptors that detect the alterations in the cell surface molecules of potential targets. Upon activation, NK cells release cytotoxic granules containing perforins and granzymes to induce target cell apoptosis, and they also produce a variety of cytokines and chemokines to modulate immune responses. Overall, natural killer cells serve as a critical component of the innate immune system, providing rapid and effective responses against infected or malignant cells.

Cadherins are a type of cell adhesion molecule that play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of intercellular junctions. They are transmembrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent homophilic binding between adjacent cells, meaning that they bind to identical cadherin molecules on neighboring cells.

There are several types of cadherins, including classical cadherins, desmosomal cadherins, and protocadherins, each with distinct functions and localization in tissues. Classical cadherins, also known as type I cadherins, are the most well-studied and are essential for the formation of adherens junctions, which help to maintain cell-to-cell contact and tissue architecture.

Desmosomal cadherins, on the other hand, are critical for the formation and maintenance of desmosomes, which are specialized intercellular junctions that provide mechanical strength and stability to tissues. Protocadherins are a diverse family of cadherin-related proteins that have been implicated in various developmental processes, including neuronal connectivity and tissue patterning.

Mutations in cadherin genes have been associated with several human diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and heart defects. Therefore, understanding the structure, function, and regulation of cadherins is essential for elucidating their roles in health and disease.

Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of certain enzymes in the body, including cyclooxygenase (COX), which plays a role in producing prostaglandins, chemicals involved in the inflammatory response.

Indomethacin is available in various forms, such as capsules, suppositories, and injectable solutions, and is used to treat a wide range of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, and bursitis. It may also be used to relieve pain and reduce fever in other conditions, such as dental procedures or after surgery.

Like all NSAIDs, indomethacin can have side effects, including stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney damage, especially when taken at high doses or for long periods of time. It may also increase the risk of heart attack and stroke. Therefore, it is important to use indomethacin only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Proteoglycans are complex, highly negatively charged macromolecules that are composed of a core protein covalently linked to one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. They are a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell signaling, regulation of growth factor activity, and maintenance of tissue structure and function.

The GAG chains, which can vary in length and composition, are long, unbranched polysaccharides that are composed of repeating disaccharide units containing a hexuronic acid (either glucuronic or iduronic acid) and a hexosamine (either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine). These GAG chains can be sulfated to varying degrees, which contributes to the negative charge of proteoglycans.

Proteoglycans are classified into four major groups based on their core protein structure and GAG composition: heparan sulfate/heparin proteoglycans, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans, keratan sulfate proteoglycans, and hyaluronan-binding proteoglycans. Each group has distinct functions and is found in specific tissues and cell types.

In summary, proteoglycans are complex macromolecules composed of a core protein and one or more GAG chains that play important roles in the ECM and various biological processes, including cell signaling, growth factor regulation, and tissue structure maintenance.

Experimental leukemia refers to the stage of research or clinical trials where new therapies, treatments, or diagnostic methods are being studied for leukemia. Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow, leading to an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells.

In the experimental stage, researchers investigate various aspects of leukemia, such as its causes, progression, and potential treatments. They may conduct laboratory studies using cell cultures or animal models to understand the disease better and test new therapeutic approaches. Additionally, clinical trials may be conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of novel treatments in human patients with leukemia.

Experimental research in leukemia is crucial for advancing our understanding of the disease and developing more effective treatment strategies. It involves a rigorous and systematic process that adheres to ethical guidelines and scientific standards to ensure the validity and reliability of the findings.

Mucin-1, also known as MUC1, is a type of protein called a transmembrane mucin. It is heavily glycosylated and found on the surface of many types of epithelial cells, including those that line the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts.

Mucin-1 has several functions, including:

* Protecting the underlying epithelial cells from damage caused by friction, chemicals, and microorganisms
* Helping to maintain the integrity of the mucosal barrier
* Acting as a receptor for various signaling molecules
* Participating in immune responses

In cancer, MUC1 can be overexpressed or aberrantly glycosylated, which can contribute to tumor growth and metastasis. As a result, MUC1 has been studied as a potential target for cancer immunotherapy.

Epithelium is the tissue that covers the outer surface of the body, lines the internal cavities and organs, and forms various glands. It is composed of one or more layers of tightly packed cells that have a uniform shape and size, and rest on a basement membrane. Epithelial tissues are avascular, meaning they do not contain blood vessels, and are supplied with nutrients by diffusion from the underlying connective tissue.

Epithelial cells perform a variety of functions, including protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, and sensation. They can be classified based on their shape and the number of cell layers they contain. The main types of epithelium are:

1. Squamous epithelium: composed of flat, scalelike cells that fit together like tiles on a roof. It forms the lining of blood vessels, air sacs in the lungs, and the outermost layer of the skin.
2. Cuboidal epithelium: composed of cube-shaped cells with equal height and width. It is found in glands, tubules, and ducts.
3. Columnar epithelium: composed of tall, rectangular cells that are taller than they are wide. It lines the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts.
4. Pseudostratified epithelium: appears stratified or layered but is actually made up of a single layer of cells that vary in height. The nuclei of these cells appear at different levels, giving the tissue a stratified appearance. It lines the respiratory and reproductive tracts.
5. Transitional epithelium: composed of several layers of cells that can stretch and change shape to accommodate changes in volume. It is found in the urinary bladder and ureters.

Epithelial tissue provides a barrier between the internal and external environments, protecting the body from physical, chemical, and biological damage. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by regulating the exchange of substances between the body and its environment.

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a soluble cytokine that is primarily produced by the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, especially CD4+ Th1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response against viral and intracellular bacterial infections, as well as tumor cells. IFN-γ has several functions, including activating macrophages to enhance their microbicidal activity, increasing the presentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules on antigen-presenting cells, stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of T cells and NK cells, and inducing the production of other cytokines and chemokines. Additionally, IFN-γ has direct antiproliferative effects on certain types of tumor cells and can enhance the cytotoxic activity of immune cells against infected or malignant cells.

Chemoembolization, therapeutic is a medical procedure that involves the delivery of chemotherapy drugs directly to a tumor through its blood supply, followed by the blocking of the blood vessel leading to the tumor. This approach allows for a higher concentration of the chemotherapy drug to be delivered directly to the tumor while minimizing exposure to the rest of the body. The embolization component of the procedure involves blocking the blood vessel with various substances such as microspheres, gel foam, or coils, which can help to starve the tumor of oxygen and nutrients.

Therapeutic chemoembolization is typically used in the treatment of liver cancer, including primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) and metastatic liver cancer. It may also be used in other types of cancer that have spread to the liver. The procedure can help to reduce the size of the tumor, relieve symptoms, and improve survival rates in some patients. However, like all medical procedures, it carries a risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, and damage to surrounding tissues.

Hyperplasia is a medical term that refers to an abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue, leading to an enlargement of the affected area. It's a response to various stimuli such as hormones, chronic irritation, or inflammation. Hyperplasia can be physiological, like the growth of breast tissue during pregnancy, or pathological, like in the case of benign or malignant tumors. The process is generally reversible if the stimulus is removed. It's important to note that hyperplasia itself is not cancerous, but some forms of hyperplasia can increase the risk of developing cancer over time.

Tumor suppressor proteins are a type of regulatory protein that helps control the cell cycle and prevent cells from dividing and growing in an uncontrolled manner. They work to inhibit tumor growth by preventing the formation of tumors or slowing down their progression. These proteins can repair damaged DNA, regulate gene expression, and initiate programmed cell death (apoptosis) if the damage is too severe for repair.

Mutations in tumor suppressor genes, which provide the code for these proteins, can lead to a decrease or loss of function in the resulting protein. This can result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, leading to the formation of tumors and cancer. Examples of tumor suppressor proteins include p53, Rb (retinoblastoma), and BRCA1/2.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

Mucins are high molecular weight, heavily glycosylated proteins that are the major components of mucus. They are produced and secreted by specialized epithelial cells in various organs, including the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts, as well as the eyes and ears.

Mucins have a characteristic structure consisting of a protein backbone with numerous attached oligosaccharide side chains, which give them their gel-forming properties and provide a protective barrier against pathogens, environmental insults, and digestive enzymes. They also play important roles in lubrication, hydration, and cell signaling.

Mucins can be classified into two main groups based on their structure and function: secreted mucins and membrane-bound mucins. Secreted mucins are released from cells and form a physical barrier on the surface of mucosal tissues, while membrane-bound mucins are integrated into the cell membrane and participate in cell adhesion and signaling processes.

Abnormalities in mucin production or function have been implicated in various diseases, including chronic inflammation, cancer, and cystic fibrosis.

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue found inside certain bones in the body, such as the hips, thighs, and vertebrae. It is responsible for producing blood-forming cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow, which is involved in blood cell production, and yellow marrow, which contains fatty tissue.

Red bone marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells, which can differentiate into various types of blood cells. These stem cells continuously divide and mature to produce new blood cells that are released into the circulation. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body, white blood cells help fight infections, and platelets play a crucial role in blood clotting.

Bone marrow also serves as a site for immune cell development and maturation. It contains various types of immune cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, which help protect the body against infections and diseases.

Abnormalities in bone marrow function can lead to several medical conditions, including anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and various types of cancer, such as leukemia and multiple myeloma. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are common diagnostic procedures used to evaluate bone marrow health and function.

"ErbB-2" is also known as "HER2" or "human epidermal growth factor receptor 2." It is a type of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) found on the surface of some cells. ErbB-2 does not bind to any known ligands, but it can form heterodimers with other ErbB family members, such as ErbB-3 and ErbB-4, which do have identified ligands. When a ligand binds to one of these receptors, it causes a conformational change that allows the ErbB-2 receptor to become activated through transphosphorylation. This activation triggers a signaling cascade that regulates cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

Overexpression or amplification of the ERBB2 gene, which encodes the ErbB-2 protein, is observed in approximately 20-30% of breast cancers and is associated with a more aggressive disease phenotype and poorer prognosis. Therefore, ErbB-2 has become an important target for cancer therapy, and several drugs that target this receptor have been developed, including trastuzumab (Herceptin), lapatinib (Tykerb), and pertuzumab (Perjeta).

"Bronchi" are a pair of airways in the respiratory system that branch off from the trachea (windpipe) and lead to the lungs. They are responsible for delivering oxygen-rich air to the lungs and removing carbon dioxide during exhalation. The right bronchus is slightly larger and more vertical than the left, and they further divide into smaller branches called bronchioles within the lungs. Any abnormalities or diseases affecting the bronchi can impact lung function and overall respiratory health.

Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis is a type of microarray analysis that allows for the simultaneous measurement of the expression levels of thousands of genes in a single sample. In this technique, oligonucleotides (short DNA sequences) are attached to a solid support, such as a glass slide, in a specific pattern. These oligonucleotides are designed to be complementary to specific target mRNA sequences from the sample being analyzed.

During the analysis, labeled RNA or cDNA from the sample is hybridized to the oligonucleotide array. The level of hybridization is then measured and used to determine the relative abundance of each target sequence in the sample. This information can be used to identify differences in gene expression between samples, which can help researchers understand the underlying biological processes involved in various diseases or developmental stages.

It's important to note that this technique requires specialized equipment and bioinformatics tools for data analysis, as well as careful experimental design and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Pneumonia is an infection or inflammation of the alveoli (tiny air sacs) in one or both lungs. It's often caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Accumulated pus and fluid in these air sacs make it difficult to breathe, which can lead to coughing, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. The severity of symptoms can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the underlying cause, the patient's overall health, and age. Pneumonia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics for bacterial pneumonia, antivirals for viral pneumonia, and supportive care like oxygen therapy, hydration, and rest.

Carcinogens are agents (substances or mixtures of substances) that can cause cancer. They may be naturally occurring or man-made. Carcinogens can increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular DNA, disrupting cellular function, or promoting cell growth. Examples of carcinogens include certain chemicals found in tobacco smoke, asbestos, UV radiation from the sun, and some viruses.

It's important to note that not all exposures to carcinogens will result in cancer, and the risk typically depends on factors such as the level and duration of exposure, individual genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle choices. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies carcinogens into different groups based on the strength of evidence linking them to cancer:

Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans
Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans
Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans
Group 3: Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic to humans

This information is based on medical research and may be subject to change as new studies become available. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.

Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs) are a group of medical tests that measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air, and how well they transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of your blood. They can help diagnose certain lung disorders, measure the severity of lung disease, and monitor response to treatment.

RFTs include several types of tests, such as:

1. Spirometry: This test measures how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases.
2. Lung volume testing: This test measures the total amount of air in your lungs. It can help diagnose restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis.
3. Diffusion capacity testing: This test measures how well oxygen moves from your lungs into your bloodstream. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and other lung diseases that affect the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
4. Bronchoprovocation testing: This test involves inhaling a substance that can cause your airways to narrow, such as methacholine or histamine. It's often used to diagnose and monitor asthma.
5. Exercise stress testing: This test measures how well your lungs and heart work together during exercise. It's often used to diagnose lung or heart disease.

Overall, Respiratory Function Tests are an important tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of lung conditions.

"Rats, Inbred BN" are a strain of laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been inbred for many generations to maintain a high level of genetic consistency and uniformity within the strain. The "BN" designation refers to the place where they were first developed, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia (now Slovakia).

These rats are often used in biomedical research because their genetic homogeneity makes them useful for studying the effects of specific genes or environmental factors on health and disease. They have been widely used as a model organism to study various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including hypertension, kidney function, immunology, and neuroscience.

Inbred BN rats are known for their low renin-angiotensin system activity, which makes them a useful model for studying hypertension and related disorders. They also have a unique sensitivity to dietary protein, making them a valuable tool for studying the relationship between diet and kidney function.

Overall, Inbred BN rats are an important tool in biomedical research, providing researchers with a consistent and well-characterized model organism for studying various aspects of human health and disease.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

In situ hybridization (ISH) is a molecular biology technique used to detect and localize specific nucleic acid sequences, such as DNA or RNA, within cells or tissues. This technique involves the use of a labeled probe that is complementary to the target nucleic acid sequence. The probe can be labeled with various types of markers, including radioisotopes, fluorescent dyes, or enzymes.

During the ISH procedure, the labeled probe is hybridized to the target nucleic acid sequence in situ, meaning that the hybridization occurs within the intact cells or tissues. After washing away unbound probe, the location of the labeled probe can be visualized using various methods depending on the type of label used.

In situ hybridization has a wide range of applications in both research and diagnostic settings, including the detection of gene expression patterns, identification of viral infections, and diagnosis of genetic disorders.

A peptide fragment is a short chain of amino acids that is derived from a larger peptide or protein through various biological or chemical processes. These fragments can result from the natural breakdown of proteins in the body during regular physiological processes, such as digestion, or they can be produced experimentally in a laboratory setting for research or therapeutic purposes.

Peptide fragments are often used in research to map the structure and function of larger peptides and proteins, as well as to study their interactions with other molecules. In some cases, peptide fragments may also have biological activity of their own and can be developed into drugs or diagnostic tools. For example, certain peptide fragments derived from hormones or neurotransmitters may bind to receptors in the body and mimic or block the effects of the full-length molecule.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Obstructive lung disease is a category of respiratory diseases characterized by airflow limitation that causes difficulty in completely emptying the alveoli (tiny air sacs) of the lungs during exhaling. This results in the trapping of stale air and prevents fresh air from entering the alveoli, leading to various symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and decreased exercise tolerance.

The most common obstructive lung diseases include:

1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A progressive disease that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, often caused by smoking or exposure to harmful pollutants.
2. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by variable airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and an underlying inflammation. Symptoms can be triggered by various factors such as allergens, irritants, or physical activity.
3. Bronchiectasis: A condition in which the airways become abnormally widened, scarred, and thickened due to chronic inflammation or infection, leading to mucus buildup and impaired clearance.
4. Cystic Fibrosis: An inherited genetic disorder that affects the exocrine glands, resulting in thick and sticky mucus production in various organs, including the lungs. This can lead to chronic lung infections, inflammation, and airway obstruction.
5. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency: A genetic condition characterized by low levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin protein, which leads to uncontrolled protease enzyme activity that damages the lung tissue, causing emphysema-like symptoms.

Treatment for obstructive lung diseases typically involves bronchodilators (to relax and widen the airways), corticosteroids (to reduce inflammation), and lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation and pulmonary rehabilitation programs. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or even lung transplantation may be considered.

Doxorubicin is a type of chemotherapy medication known as an anthracycline. It works by interfering with the DNA in cancer cells, which prevents them from growing and multiplying. Doxorubicin is used to treat a wide variety of cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and many others. It may be given alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs.

Doxorubicin is usually administered through a vein (intravenously) and can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, mouth sores, and increased risk of infection. It can also cause damage to the heart muscle, which can lead to heart failure in some cases. For this reason, doctors may monitor patients' heart function closely while they are receiving doxorubicin treatment.

It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of doxorubicin therapy with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure where all or part of the thyroid gland is removed. The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the neck, responsible for producing hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and development.

There are different types of thyroidectomy procedures, including:

1. Total thyroidectomy: Removal of the entire thyroid gland.
2. Partial (or subtotal) thyroidectomy: Removal of a portion of the thyroid gland.
3. Hemithyroidectomy: Removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland, often performed to treat benign solitary nodules or differentiated thyroid cancer.

Thyroidectomy may be recommended for various reasons, such as treating thyroid nodules, goiter, hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid), or thyroid cancer. Potential risks and complications of the procedure include bleeding, infection, damage to nearby structures like the parathyroid glands and recurrent laryngeal nerve, and hypoparathyroidism or hypothyroidism due to removal of or damage to the parathyroid glands or thyroid gland, respectively. Close postoperative monitoring and management are essential to minimize these risks and ensure optimal patient outcomes.

Carcinoma, basosquamous is a rare type of skin cancer that has features of both basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. It is also known as metatypical carcinoma or basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. This cancer typically appears as a firm, shiny, pearly nodule or plaque on the skin, often on sun-exposed areas such as the head, neck, or hands. It can be aggressive and has a higher risk of recurrence and metastasis compared to traditional basal cell carcinomas. Treatment options include surgical excision, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a type of short, double-stranded RNA molecule that plays a role in the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. The RNAi pathway is a natural cellular process that regulates gene expression by targeting and destroying specific messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, thereby preventing the translation of those mRNAs into proteins.

SiRNAs are typically 20-25 base pairs in length and are generated from longer double-stranded RNA precursors called hairpin RNAs or dsRNAs by an enzyme called Dicer. Once generated, siRNAs associate with a protein complex called the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which uses one strand of the siRNA (the guide strand) to recognize and bind to complementary sequences in the target mRNA. The RISC then cleaves the target mRNA, leading to its degradation and the inhibition of protein synthesis.

SiRNAs have emerged as a powerful tool for studying gene function and have shown promise as therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases, including viral infections, cancer, and genetic disorders. However, their use as therapeutics is still in the early stages of development, and there are challenges associated with delivering siRNAs to specific cells and tissues in the body.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

The breast is the upper ventral region of the human body in females, which contains the mammary gland. The main function of the breast is to provide nutrition to infants through the production and secretion of milk, a process known as lactation. The breast is composed of fibrous connective tissue, adipose (fatty) tissue, and the mammary gland, which is made up of 15-20 lobes that are arranged in a radial pattern. Each lobe contains many smaller lobules, where milk is produced during lactation. The milk is then transported through a network of ducts to the nipple, where it can be expressed by the infant.

In addition to its role in lactation, the breast also has important endocrine and psychological functions. It contains receptors for hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, which play a key role in sexual development and reproduction. The breast is also a source of sexual pleasure and can be an important symbol of femininity and motherhood.

It's worth noting that males also have breast tissue, although it is usually less developed than in females. Male breast tissue consists mainly of adipose tissue and does not typically contain functional mammary glands. However, some men may develop enlarged breast tissue due to conditions such as gynecomastia, which can be caused by hormonal imbalances or certain medications.

... is a tumor that spontaneously developed as an epidermoid carcinoma in the lung of a C57BL mouse. It was ... Lewis lung carcinoma is the only reproducible syngeneic lung cancer model, meaning that it is the only reproducible lung cancer ... In fact, a 1996 study found that the carcinoma predominantly metastasized into the lungs after tail vein injections. Lewis lung ... implanting a Lewis lung carcinoma into the lung of another C57BL mouse). Because of this fidelity to mimicking the tumor ...
"Growth and dissemination of lewis lung carcinoma in plasminogen-deficient mice". Blood. 90 (11): 4522-4531. doi:10.1182/blood. ... techniques demonstrated an increase in cathepsin activity in the angiogenic blood vessels and invasive fronts of carcinoma in ...
Lewis isolated a spontaneous epidermoid carcinoma in a mouse lung, which became known as a Lewis lung carcinoma. This carcinoma ... "A highly metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma orthotopic green fluorescent protein model". Clinical & Experimental Metastasis. 18 (1 ... Lewis was among the first scientists to observe the dynamics of mitochondria in living cells. In 1915 Margaret and Warren Lewis ... Their children were Margaret Nast Lewis, who became a physicist, Warren R. Lewis, who worked as an engineer and atomic ...
"FBI1/Akirin2 promotes tumorigenicity and metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma cells". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... As an oncogene, Zbtb7 is overexpressed in many types of cancer, including lung, liver, prostate, and oral. In initial studies ... Zbtb7 has also been studied in association with renal carcinoma. The study indicated that Zbtb7 was present in abundance in ... "The expression and clinical significance of ZBTB7 in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder". Oncology Letters. 14 (4): ...
Furthermore, increased expression and activity of MMP-2 has been tied to increased vascularization of lung carcinoma metastases ... McQuibban GA, Gong JH, Tam EM, McCulloch CA, Clark-Lewis I, Overall CM (August 2000). "Inflammation dampened by gelatinase A ... "Expression of MMP-2 correlates with increased angiogenesis in CNS metastasis of lung carcinoma". International Journal of ... Bronchiectasis patients with P. aeruginosa infection have a more rapid decline in lung function. Disease-causing mutations in ...
"Mechanical heterogenization of Lewis lung carcinoma cells can improve antimetastatic effect of dendritic cells". Journal of ... This active phosphorylation may serve as a biomarker in clear-cell carcinoma. Mechanochemical heterogeneity is a hallmark of ... lung cancer). A more common source is genomic instability, which often arises when key regulatory pathways are disrupted in the ... bladder and gynecological carcinomas, liposarcoma, and multiple myeloma. There are two models used to explain the heterogeneity ...
A study compared isoform expression between a low- and highly-metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma cell line. The study found that ... and high-metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma cells". Mol Cell Biol. 8 (9): 3934-3937. doi:10.1128/MCB.8.9.3934. PMC 365453. PMID ... "Alterations in tropomyosin isoform expression in human transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder". Int J Cancer. 110 ( ...
... is an angiogenesis inhibitor that suppresses the growth of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice". The Journal of Experimental Medicine ... a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that mediates the suppression of metastases by a Lewis lung carcinoma". Cell. 79 (2): 315-328. ...
... a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that mediates the suppression of metastases by a Lewis lung carcinoma". Cell. 79 (2): 315-28. ... Study of rhAngiostatin Administered in Combination With Paclitaxel and Carboplatin to Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer ...
... a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that mediates the suppression of metastases by a Lewis lung carcinoma". Cell. 79 (2): 315-28. ... Lewis A.; Moses, Marsha A. (2022-10-11). "Escape from breast tumor dormancy: The convergence of obesity and menopause". ...
... reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice". Int. J. Cancer. 131 (6): 1260-1266. doi:10.1002/ijc.27355. ... that methaneseleninic acid restricts tumor growth in the nude mouse model of metastatic breast cancer and Lewis lung carcinoma ...
"Intravenous injection of siRNA directed against hypoxia-inducible factors prolongs survival in a Lewis lung carcinoma cancer ... In analysis of lung and ovarian cancer, poor prognosis and decreased patient survival times correlate with decreased dicer and ...
Lewis lung carcinoma in mice) with a tetrabenzamido analogue. Complexes of silicon (IV) NCs with two axial ligands in ... are an efficient photosensitiser against Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. SiNC[OSi(i-Bu)2-n-C18H37]2 is effective against Balb/c ... Of six patients with a facial basal cell carcinoma, treated with a 1% eosin solution and long-term exposure either to sunlight ... A methyl ALA ester (Metvix) is now available for basal cell carcinoma and other skin lesions. Benzyl (Benvix) and hexyl ester ( ...
Lewis lung tumours, cancers of the digestive tract, lymphoma, malignant melanoma, and epidermoid carcinoma of the lung. It has ... There was an increase found in peritoneal sarcoma and lung tumours, indicating a different toxicity to animals. Kramer RA, ... in advanced bronchogenic carcinoma". Cancer Letters. 1 (2): 97-102. doi:10.1016/S0304-3835(75)95630-X. PMID 65213. Guo Y, Lu JJ ...
... in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma". Chemico-Biological Interactions. 45 (1): 1-6. doi:10.1016/0009-2797(83)90037-6. PMID ... Based Compounds with Encouraging Antiproliferative Activity against Non-small-Cell Lung Cancer". Chemistry: A European Journal ...
Current apoptin therapeutic agents have been used to treat Lewis lung carcinomas, and osteosarcomas with future implications in ... lung carcinoma) exhibit preferential cytotoxicity towards it in comparison to primary cells such T cells, human lung ... Mutations in the p53 pathway have been observed in almost all cancer types including breast cancer, bladder cancer, lung cancer ... "Characterization of an 800 kb region at 3p22-p21.3 that was homozygously deleted in a lung cancer cell line". Human Molecular ...
Strong and diffuse cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of p16 in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the female genital tract is ... Sinha P, Thorstad WT, Nussenbaum B, Haughey BH, Adkins DR, Kallogjeri D, Lewis JS (January 2014). "Distant metastasis in p16- ... Carriers of germline mutations in CDKN2A have, besides their high risks of melanoma, also increased risks of pancreatic, lung, ... Tissue samples of primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) often display hypermethylation in the promoter regions of p16. ...
Keshav Meshram, 70, Indian writer and critic, lung cancer. Lord Bloody Wog Rolo, 62, Australian activist, renal cell carcinoma ... "Professor David Maybury-Lewis". The Times. January 1, 2008. Archived from the original on May 24, 2010. Retrieved June 23, 2018 ... David Maybury-Lewis, 78, British anthropologist. Eleonora Rossi Drago, 82, Italian actress, cerebral haemorrhage. Les Shannon, ... Murray Klein, 84, American businessman, co-owner of New York City's Zabar's food emporium, lung cancer. Shelley Rohde, 74, ...
Alox5 gene knockout mice exhibit an increase in the lung tumor volume and liver metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma cells that ... reduces growth and progression of the Lewis carcinoma by recruiting cancer-inhibiting CD4+ T helper cells and CD8+ T cytotoxic ... Avis IM, Jett M, Boyle T, Vos MD, Moody T, Treston AM, Martínez A, Mulshine JL (February 1996). "Growth control of lung cancer ... These metabolites may also contribute to the progression of certain cancers such as those of the prostate, breast, lung, ovary ...
... is required for Lewis lung carcinoma in mice to metastasize to lung, liver and adrenal glands, acting via TLR2 to ... Kim S, Takahashi H, Lin WW, Descargues P, Grivennikov S, Kim Y, Luo JL, Karin M (Jan 2009). "Carcinoma-produced factors ... Versican is increased in the changing tissue extracellular matrix in inflammatory lung disorders such as chronic obstructive ... the impact on lung disorders". Glycobiology. 25 (3): 243-251. doi:10.1093/glycob/cwu120. PMC 4310351. PMID 25371494. Jumper N, ...
... expression was found to be altered in tumor vessels: in Lewis carcinoma lung metastasis the expression of T-cadherin ... Thus, tumor progression in basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), ovarian ... In primary lung tumors the loss of T-cadherin was not attributed to the presence of metastasis in lymph nodes, and in ... 1998). "The H-cadherin (CDH13) gene is inactivated in human lung cancer". Hum. Genet. 103 (1): 96-101. doi:10.1007/ ...
The growth and metastasis of implanted Lewis lung carcinoma cells, a mouse lung cancer cell line, is suppressed in EP3 receptor ... Claar D, Hartert TV, Peebles RS (February 2015). "The role of prostaglandins in allergic lung inflammation and asthma". Expert ...
Sarcoma 180 and Lewis lung carcinoma). The bark is used for dying, with colours ranging from red-brown to black (requires ...
... including Lewis lung carcinoma, colon cancer (adenocarcinoma), Kaposi's sarcoma (connective tissue), uveal melanoma, hepatoma, ...
... emphasis on carcinoma-associated fibroblasts and non-small cell lung cancer". Journal of Thoracic Oncology. 6 (1): 209-17. doi: ... Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, Alexander; Lewis, Julian; Raff, Martin; Roberts, Keith; Walter, Peter (2002). "T Cells and MHC ... Certain types of skin cancers (basal cell carcinomas) cannot spread throughout the body because the cancer cells require nearby ... These changes include the formation of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) which comprises a major portion of the reactive ...
February 2017). "Heterogeneity of macrophage infiltration and therapeutic response in lung carcinoma revealed by 3D organ ... Lewis CE, Pollard JW (January 2006). "Distinct role of macrophages in different tumor microenvironments". Cancer Research. 66 ( ...
... gastric and colorectal carcinoma or lung cancer. Also, CXCL1 is secreted by human melanoma cells, has mitogenic properties and ... Schumacher C, Clark-Lewis I, Baggiolini M, Moser B (November 1992). "High- and low-affinity binding of GRO alpha and neutrophil ... Moser B, Clark-Lewis I, Zwahlen R, Baggiolini M (May 1990). "Neutrophil-activating properties of the melanoma growth- ... Chen X, Jin R, Chen R, Huang Z (2018-02-01). "Complementary action of CXCL1 and CXCL8 in pathogenesis of gastric carcinoma". ...
... of carcinoma-reactive BR96-doxorubicin conjugate against human carcinomas in athymic mice and rats and syngeneic rat carcinomas ... Multiple tumor models including lung, breast and colon were evaluated, and cBR96-Dox was found to have broad and potent anti- ... The payload is the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin which is connected with a hydrazone linker to cysteine residues of the Lewis-Y ... directed to the Lewis-Y antigen designed for the treatment of cancer. ...
Desai MA, Mehrad M, Ely KA, Bishop JA, Netterville J, Aulino JM, Lewis JS (December 2019). "Secretory Carcinoma of the Thyroid ... Huang T, McHugh JB, Berry GJ, Myers JL (April 2018). "Primary mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the lung: a case report ... The formerly termed secretory carcinomas include: Mammary secretory carcinoma, also termed secretory carcinoma of the breast, ... Salivary gland-type carcinoma of the thyroid appears to be a more aggressive disease than mammary secretory carcinoma or MASCSG ...
Psammoma bodies are commonly seen in certain tumors such as: Papillary thyroid carcinoma Papillary renal cell carcinoma Ovarian ... Lewis RB (2010). "Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors: Radiologic-Clinicopathologic Correlation". RadioGraphics. 30 (6): 1445-1464. doi ... Prolactinoma of the pituitary Glucagonoma Micropapillary subtype of Lung Adenocarcinoma Psammoma bodies may be seen in: ... "Renal Cell Carcinoma". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 1 October 2021. Ovarian papillary serous ...
Lewis lung carcinoma is a tumor that spontaneously developed as an epidermoid carcinoma in the lung of a C57BL mouse. It was ... Lewis lung carcinoma is the only reproducible syngeneic lung cancer model, meaning that it is the only reproducible lung cancer ... In fact, a 1996 study found that the carcinoma predominantly metastasized into the lungs after tail vein injections. Lewis lung ... implanting a Lewis lung carcinoma into the lung of another C57BL mouse). Because of this fidelity to mimicking the tumor ...
... effects and the mechanism of lycopene in combination with sorafenib in C57BL/6 mice xenografted with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC ... effects and the mechanism of lycopene in combination with sorafenib in C57BL/6 mice xenografted with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC ... Overall, the present study demonstrates that lycopene in combination with sorafenib additively inhibits the lung metastasis of ... Overall, the present study demonstrates that lycopene in combination with sorafenib additively inhibits the lung metastasis of ...
Augmented immunogenicity of Lewis lung carcinoma by infection with herpes simplex virus type 2. In: European Journal of Cancer ... Augmented immunogenicity of Lewis lung carcinoma by infection with herpes simplex virus type 2. / Reiss-Gutfreund, Ruth J.; ... Reiss-Gutfreund RJ, Nowotny NR, Dostal V, Wrba H. Augmented immunogenicity of Lewis lung carcinoma by infection with herpes ... Reiss-Gutfreund, R. J., Nowotny, N. R., Dostal, V., & Wrba, H. (1982). Augmented immunogenicity of Lewis lung carcinoma by ...
Kensler, T. W. ; Cooney, D. A. ; McGee, E. K. / Alterations in PRPP and uridine nucleotide pools in the Lewis lung carcinoma by ... Kensler, TW, Cooney, DA & McGee, EK 1981, Alterations in PRPP and uridine nucleotide pools in the Lewis lung carcinoma by N-( ... Alterations in PRPP and uridine nucleotide pools in the Lewis lung carcinoma by N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA). / ... Alterations in PRPP and uridine nucleotide pools in the Lewis lung carcinoma by N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA). ...
... liver metastasis and secondary metastatic tumor growth in the liver in intrasplenic Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)-implanted mice. ... liver metastasis and secondary metastatic tumor growth in the liver in intrasplenic Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)-implanted mice. ... Carcinoma, Lewis Lung / drug therapy* * Carcinoma, Lewis Lung / prevention & control * Carcinoma, Lewis Lung / secondary ...
Metastatic establishment and growth of Lewis lung carcinoma is promoted by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) in C57BL6/J ... Nanotechnology; Lung; Lung-disease; Lung-disorders; Lung-cancer; Cancer; Carcinomas; Cell-function; Cellular-function; Cell- ... Lewis lung carcinoma; myeloid-derived suppressor cells; SWCNT; tumor metastasis ... Carbon nanotubes enhance metastatic growth of lung carcinoma via up-regulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. ...
Angiostatin: a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that mediates the suppression of metastases by a Lewis lung carcinoma. Cell 79, 315 ... Obesity alters the lung myeloid cell landscape to enhance breast cancer metastasis through IL5 and GM-CSF. Nat. Cell Biol. 19, ... Disseminated tumor cells in the bone marrow of patients with ductal carcinoma in situ. Int. J. Cancer 129, 2522-2526 (2011). ... Breast cancer cells produce tenascin C as a metastatic niche component to colonize the lungs. Nat. Med. 17, 867-874 (2011). ...
Three transplantable rodent tumors (osteogenic sarcoma, Lewis lung carcinoma, and P388 leukemia). No antitumor activity at 20% ... lung carcinoma, and leukemia) were transplanted into rats and mice.[2,3] In both studies, the animals were treated with ... mammary carcinoma E0771, Taper liver tumor, Ehrlich carcinoma (solid and ascites), and Walker carcinosarcoma 256. Not effective ... Gostomski FE: The effects of amygdalin on the Krebs-2 carcinoma and adult and fetal DUB(ICR) mice. [Abstract] Diss Abstr Int B ...
Dietary fish oil suppresses tumor growth and metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Nutrition Biochemistry, 8, 619-622. ... 2005). Dietary lipids modulate eicosanoid release and apoptosis of cells of a murine lung alveolar carcinoma. Prostaglandins, ... Xia, S. H., Wang, J., & Kang, J. X. (2005). Decreased n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio reduces the invasive potential of human lung ... America Journal of Physiology: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 284, L84-L89. ...
Effect of AE-941 (Neovastat), an angiogenesis inhibitor, in the Lewis lung carcinoma metastatic model, efficacy, toxicity ... in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. Clin Lung Cancer 2003;4:231-236. View abstract. ... Phase I/II lung cancer clinical trial results with AE-941 (Neovastat ®) an inhibitor of angiogenesis. Clin Invest Med ( ... Chemoradiotherapy with or without AE-941 in stage III non-small cell lung cancer: a randomized phase III trial. J Natl Cancer ...
Were the Lewis lung carcinoma cells derived from a male or female mouse? ... 01.High expression of PD-L1 mainly occurs in non-small cell lung cancer patients with squamous cell carcinoma or poor ... 04.The synergistic effects of PRDX5 and Nrf2 on lung cancer progression and drug resistance under oxidative stress in the ... 02.Changes of protein expression during tumorosphere formation of small cell lung cancer circulating tumor cells ...
B16-F10 (murine melanoma; #CRL-6475) and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC; murine lung carcinoma; #CRL-1642) cell lines were purchased ... and B16-F10 melanoma and Lewis lung carcinoma progressed more quickly than in control mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that ... Tumor growth curves and tumor mass determinations indicated that both melanoma and lung carcinoma progressed roughly twice as ... Dysbiosis alters the gastrointestinal tract and enhances melanoma and lung carcinoma progression. The small intestines (A), ...
Henderson, R. F., A. H. Rebar, et al. (1979). "Early damage indicators in the lungs. IV. Biochemical and cytologic response of ... Baetjer, A. M. (1950). Pulmonary carcinoma in chromate workers. 1. A review of the literature and report of cases, A. M. A. ... Lewis, R. (2004). "Occupational Exposures: Metals. In: Current Occupational & Environmental Medicine. LaDou, J. editor. 3rd Ed ... Park, R. M., J. F. Bena, et al. (2004). "Hexavalent chromium and lung cancer in the chromate industry: a quantitative risk ...
148) Patel, V. K.; Wang, J.; Shen, R. N.; Sharma, H. M.; and Brahmi, Z. (1992) Reduction of metastases of Lewis Lung Carcinoma ... Prevention of Metastasis of Lewis Lung Carcinoma in Animals (148). -Reversion of Neuroblastoma Tumour Cells to Normal Cell ... and lung problems. They were not different than the norms on non-disease related use of the hospital (for childbirth). The ...
... study evaluated the expression of several miRNAs in the tibialis anterior muscles of C57BL/6J mice with Lewis lung carcinoma. ... non-small-cell lung carcinoma, TLR7: toll-like receptor 7, UCP1: uncoupling protein 1, LIPE: hormone-sensitive lipase E, PNPLA2 ... non-small-cell lung carcinoma. * miRNA not mentioned in the text. ... in skeletal muscles of cachectic non-small-cell lung carcinoma ... Identification of microRNAs in skeletal muscle associated with lung cancer cachexia. J. Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2020, 11, ...
who were studying the combination of gemcitabine plus superoxide dismutase in the Lewis Lung murine lung carcinoma model [98]. ... RENCA (renal cell carcinoma), LLC (lung carcinoma) [murine]. Anti-PD-1. JQ1 [70]. Bromodomain proteins (BRD2, BRD4, BRD9). AB1 ... derived suppressor cells and enhances the antitumor effect of PD-1 inhibition in murine models of lung and renal cell carcinoma ... Tgfbr1/Pten 2cKO Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma [murine]. IPI-145 [68]. PI3Kδ, PI3Kγ. MOC Head and neck squamous cell ...
... sildenafil was reported to reduce the proportion of PMN-MDSCs and the expression of Arg1 in MDSCs in the Lewis lung carcinoma ( ... in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after RT. Improved tumor control can be ... 8 Gy had synergistic effects in both mammary carcinoma and colorectal carcinoma mouse models.211 However, CD25 is expressed on ... Following RT at a dose of 11.7 Gy, TLSs in the lungs of KP mice demonstrated a fivefold reduction in size, and 14 days after RT ...
Puppa MJ, Gao S, Narsale AA and Carson JA: Skeletal muscle glycoprotein 130s role in Lewis lung carcinoma-induced cachexia. ... Among the many available models, the colon-26 adenocarcinoma (C26) and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) models are the most commonly ... adenocarcinoma or Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC). In each model, tumor-bearing (TB) and control (CN) mice were injected with cancer ... and Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LLC cells) (Shanghai Branch of Chinese Academy of Science, China) were cultured in Dulbeccos ...
Asian ginseng extract inhibits in vitro and in vivo growth of mouse lewis lung carcinoma via modulation of ERK-p53 and NF-& ... Kwon, K. R., Kim, H., Kim, J. S., Yoo, H. S., and Cho, C. K. Case series of non-small cell lung cancer treated with mountain ... Lewis R, Wake G, Court G, et al. Non-ginsenoside nicotinic activity in ginseng species. Phytother Res 1999;13;59-64. View ... A lipid-soluble red ginseng extract inhibits the growth of human lung tumor xenografts in nude mice. J Med Food 2010;13(1):1-5 ...
The exposure of lung fibroblasts to supernatant from mesothelial cell (with or without adenocarcinoma) did not affect collagen ... Further, lung fibroblasts were cultured with and without cell supernatants from previously established cell cultures for 24 h. ... They found that mice that received intrapleural injection of Lewis lung carcinoma cells and underwent pleurodesis had lower ... Recently, the effect of pleural progression of lung carcinoma on the inflammatory process and fibrosis was investigated in an ...
... derived cells inhibits in vivo tumor growth in colon cancer and miR-301a knockout impedes tumorigenesis of lewis lung carcinoma ... Wu Z, Li Y, Zhang G. Downregulation of microRNA-301a inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of non-small cell lung ... Modulation of tumorigenesis by the pro-inflammatory microRNA miR-301a in mouse models of lung cancer and colorectal cancer. ... Ma and colleagues showed that miR-301a knockout mice inhibit KrasLA2-driven lung tumorigenesis and significantly decreased the ...
Safety and efficacy of C-D-NLC were investigated on Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) tumor cells in vitro and in vivo using ... Claudin-1 expression in lung tissues of mice decreased after O,sub,3,/sub, exposure,  especially in the groups exposed to ... Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of lung tissues, collection of BALF, and  cell count were carried out. ... p,,strong,Purpose,/strong,: To determine the influence of oxaliplatin on skin squamous cell carcinoma cell line, and the ...
In mice that had Lewis lung carcinoma transplanted into them afterwards, ESCs were 80% effective in preventing tumour growth ... Researchers in America have discovered that vaccinating mice with embryonic stem cells prevented lung cancer in those animals ... In mice subsequently exposed to a carcinogen that causes lung cancer (3-methylcholanthrene followed by repetitive dosing with ... "Researchers in America have discovered that vaccinating mice with embryonic stem cells prevented lung cancer in those animals ...
Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), MB-F10 melanoma and ADC-755 mammary adenocarcinoma. Intraperitoneal administration of bromelain (1 ... Bromelain significantly reduced the number of lung metastasis induced by LLC transplantation, as observed with 5-FU. The ... Diseases : Cancer Metastasis : CK(798) : AC(431), Lung Cancer : CK(2308) : AC(999) ...
... extracted from Undaria pinnantifida on intraperitoneally implanted Lewis lung carcinoma. Oncology. 1985;42(6):364-9. ... Itoh H, Noda H, Amano H, Ito H. Immunological analysis of inhibition of lung metastases by fucoidan (GIV-A) prepared from brown ...
Under a magnification of 250X, this unstained photomicrograph of a Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell line tissue culture, ...
The inhibition of circIGF2BP3/PKP3 enhanced the treatment efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy in a Lewis lung carcinoma mouse model. ... However, much remains unknown regarding whether circRNAs impact immune escape in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We ... which primarily comprises lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), is the major type of primary lung ... The inhibition of circIGF2BP3/PKP3 enhanced the treatment efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy in a Lewis lung carcinoma mouse model. ...
Ferritin-based protein C nanoparticles (PCNs), known as TFG and TFMG, were generated and tested in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) ... In the present study, we used Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) allograft and MMTV-PyMT spontaneous breast cancer models to ... Ferritin-based protein C nanoparticles (PCNs), known as TFG and TFMG, were generated and tested in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) ... Inguinal lymph nodes (LNs) and lungs were sampled on day 28. b Representative photographic images of metastatic lungs resected ...
... has uncovered a link between the synthetic thyroid hormone commonly prescribed for hypothyroidism and an increased risk of lung ... Effects of experimental hyperand hypothyroidism on natural defense activities against Lewis lung carcinoma and its spontaneous ... 3]Faber J, Poulsen S, Iversen P, Kirkegaard C: Thyroid hormone turnover in patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung. Acta ... The observation that patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung often present symptoms suggestive of hyperthyroidism (i.e. ...
  • Carbon nanotube s enhance metastatic growth of lung carcinoma via up-regulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Multiple or bilateral renal carcinomas have been reported in association with this syndrome, most commonly hybrid oncocytic tumors with features of chromophobe renal carcinoma (50%), followed by chromophobe renal cancer, clear cell renal carcinoma, and renal oncocytoma. (medscape.com)
  • Multiple or bilateral renal carcinomas, commonly chromophobe renal carcinoma and renal oncocytomas, and rarely, clear cell renal carcinomas have been reported in association with this syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Lewis lung carcinoma is a tumor that spontaneously developed as an epidermoid carcinoma in the lung of a C57BL mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orthotopic models focus upon correctly modeling the tumor microenvironment by injecting or implanting tumors into the corresponding organ that they originated from (i.e. implanting a Lewis lung carcinoma into the lung of another C57BL mouse). (wikipedia.org)
  • Navelbine and carboplatin, two chemotherapeutics currently on the market, were tested in C57BL mice with Lewis lung carcinoma tumors in their hind flank. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we examined the anti-lung-metastatic effects and the mechanism of lycopene in combination with sorafenib in C57BL/6 mice xenografted with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Este tumor se originó espontáneamente como carcinoma del pulmón en un ratón C57BL. (bvsalud.org)
  • This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. (bvsalud.org)
  • Previously, we reported that orthotopic xenografts of Lewis lung carcinoma 1 in C57BL/6 mice caused them to develop lung cancer with albuminuria . (bvsalud.org)
  • In cases of lung metastasis, large tumor masses underwent necrosis, with some of them hemorrhaging and even fewer exhibiting acute inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Lewis lung carcinoma tumor model's role in cancer has been its use for research into tumor metastasis and angiogenesis properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, the present study demonstrates that lycopene in combination with sorafenib additively inhibits the lung metastasis of tumor, indicating lycopene has potential as an adjuvant for sorafenib in cancer treatment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, inhibiting cancer metastasis can be one of the strategies to effectively treat lung cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • The triterpenoid fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg) of the fruit bodies of Ganoderma lucidum inhibited primary solid-tumor growth in the spleen, liver metastasis and secondary metastatic tumor growth in the liver in intrasplenic Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)-implanted mice. (nih.gov)
  • Bromelain significantly reduced the number of lung metastasis induced by LLC transplantation, as observed with 5-FU. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • To examine whether miRs130a and 145 inhibit lung metastasis via down-regulation of T¿RII in immature myeloid cells, we used 2 different mouse models with myeloid specific miR130a or miR145 overexpression: 1) 4T1 tumor model transplanted with CD11b driven-miR130a or miR145 engineered bone marrow haematopoietic stem /progenitor cells and 2) Lewis lung carcinoma model with doxycycline-inducible myeloid specific miR130a transgenic mice. (nih.gov)
  • Ectopic miR130a or miR145 expression decreased T¿RII expression in Gr1+CD11b+ cells and significantly inhibited lung metastasis. (nih.gov)
  • IGF1R inhibitor NT157 also decreased lung metastasis via improved anti-tumor immunity. (nih.gov)
  • To evaluate therapeutic potentials of miRs130a and 145 mimics for lung metastasis, we used a preclinical mouse model with 4T1 mammary tumor. (nih.gov)
  • a The number of mice with (purple) or without (pink) lung metastasis 16 days after control (NTC) or AGC1-KD LLC1 cells (KD1, sh911 or KD2, sh908) were injected in the flanks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • H&E-stained lung slides were screened for metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Generally, Lewis lung carcinoma is highly metastatic in immunocompetent mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • If subcutaneously injected into mice, it is known to avidly metastasize to the lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • Targeting of CD169+ macrophages in order to inhibit tumor Lewis lung carcinoma growth also caused depletion of bone and bone marrow in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metastatis was likewise decreased and 25% of the mice had healthy lungs. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Metastatic establishment and growth of Lewis lung carcinoma is promoted by single-walled carbon nanotube s (SWCNT) in C57BL6/J mice. (cdc.gov)
  • On the host side, antibiotic-induced dysbiosis caused elongated small intestines and ceca, and B16-F10 melanoma and Lewis lung carcinoma progressed more quickly than in control mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Researchers in America have discovered that vaccinating mice with embryonic stem cells prevented lung cancer in those animals that had had cancer cells transplanted into them after the vaccination or that had been exposed to cancer-causing chemicals. (fightaging.org)
  • Proteins Secreted by Lung Cancer Cells Induce the Onset of Proteinuria via Focal Adhesion Kinase Signaling in Mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • This implies that these mice can be used as a model of human disease and suggests that Lewis lung carcinoma 1 cell -secreted proteins (LCSePs) contain nephrotoxic molecules and cause inflammation in renal cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • IOX antitumor activity in vivo was assessed by use of the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells transplanted subcutaneously in the mice flank. (phytojournal.com)
  • d (left) Percent of the metastatic area in the lungs of mice that were bearing control (NTC), or AGC1-KD LLC1 tumors on the flanks 22 days after injections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A phase II study showed that patients with resected local-regionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) had improved survival when pembrolizumab was added to adjuvant RT (NCT02641093). (nature.com)
  • Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which primarily comprises lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), is the major type of primary lung cancer [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Current biomarkers for lung cancer includes carcinoma embryonic antigen (CEA), sialyl Lewis X antigen (SLX), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen, and cytokeratin fragment (CYFRA) 21-1, but these are not sensitive enough to detect tumors early, the researchers said. (india4u.com)
  • It was discovered in 1951 by Dr. Margaret Lewis of the Wistar Institute and became one of the first transplantable tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results showed that lycopene reduced the number of metastatic tumors in the lungs, which was further suppressed by the combined treatment with sorafenib. (frontiersin.org)
  • Persistence of solitary mammary carcinoma cells in a secondary site: a possible contributor to dormancy. (nature.com)
  • T4 has been reported as one of the several endogenous factors capable of supporting proliferation of lung cancer cells. (wakeup-world.com)
  • They found that KU-Lu-1 reacted only with tumour cells and tumour stromal fibroblasts in lung cancer tissues and not with normal lung tissues. (india4u.com)
  • Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, they confirmed that the KU-Lu-1 antibody recognised CKAP4 in lung cancer cells and tissues, and its secretion into the culture supernatant was also confirmed. (india4u.com)
  • Abstract: Disclosed are methods of reducing lung inflammation in acute respiratory distress syndrome elicited by various factors such as COVID-19 infection by reduction of neutrophil extracellular trap formation through administration of mesenchymal stem cells and/or exosomes thereof. (therapeuticsolutionsint.com)
  • in particular IOX signiï¬ cantly reduced the survival rate of human oral epidermoid (KB) and human lung cancer (LU-1) cells with IC50 values of 2.51 and 3.52 µg/ml, respectively. (phytojournal.com)
  • Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC1) cells with AGC1-knockdown have higher potential to metastasize. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study, we established models of ECC and late cancer cachexia (LCC) and compared different stages of cancer cachexia using two cancer cachectic mouse models induced by colon-26 (C26) adenocarcinoma or Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Among the many available models, the colon-26 adenocarcinoma (C26) and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) models are the most commonly used ( 3 , 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The exposure of lung fibroblasts to supernatant from mesothelial cell (with or without adenocarcinoma) did not affect collagen secretion. (medscimonit.com)
  • The in vivo antitumoral/antileukemic activity was evaluated using the following panel of tumor lines: P-388 leukemia, sarcoma (S-37), Ehrlich ascitic tumor (EAT), Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), MB-F10 melanoma and ADC-755 mammary adenocarcinoma. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • According to the World Health Organization, lung cancer has the highest mortality rate of all cancers. (frontiersin.org)
  • They then correlated drug sales with cancers, eliminating the contribution of age and smoking for lung cancer risk. (wakeup-world.com)
  • The disease is associated with a poor prognosis because most lung cancers are only diagnosed at an advanced stage. (india4u.com)
  • Expressions of DKK1 and CKAP4 were frequently observed in tumor lesions of human pancreatic and lung cancers, and the simultaneous expression of both proteins in tumour tissues was inversely correlated with prognosis and relapse-free survival, the researchers added. (india4u.com)
  • Afatinib is a medication that has shown potential in treating several advanced cancers, including those of the lung and breast. (blogsunit.com)
  • For example, loss-of-function mutations in Ptc1 , or gain-of-function mutations in Smo, Shh, Gli1 , and Gli2 , can each contribute to skin cancers, most notably basal cell carcinomas - the most common of all human cancers. (bcm.edu)
  • Out of a sense of gratitude for all the help they got, Lewis and Amy decided to start a support group for people with head and neck cancers. (cdc.gov)
  • Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS) is an autosomal dominant disorder clinically manifested by fibrofolliculomas, renal cell carcinoma, lung cysts, and spontaneous pneumothorax. (medscape.com)
  • Further, the study demonstrated 24% of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome patients and 34% of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome family members screened for lung cysts had a history of spontaneous pneumothorax. (medscape.com)
  • Together, these surfaces delimit the pleural cavity, which resembles a collapsed sac that encases the lung. (medscimonit.com)
  • I]n rats lung the deiodination of LT4 is the lowest compared to all the other tissues. (wakeup-world.com)
  • 8] This means that the amount of LT4 reaching the lungs following an external supplementation cannot to be transformed into LT3 as in the other tissues, and make lungs very vulnerable to possible toxic effects of LT4. (wakeup-world.com)
  • [ 35 ] Expression of the Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome protein has been widespread in a variety of tissues, including the kidneys, lungs, and skin. (medscape.com)
  • The next day, after the tests, Lewis was told that it was a malignant (cancerous) tumor. (cdc.gov)
  • What is the link between ascites, nodular peritoneal thickening and serosal carcinoma, ovarian cancer, high CA-125? (researchgate.net)
  • A very Emergency case, The Mother of my best friend, the results of her MRI said that she had nodular peritoneal thickening that suggested peritoneal serosal carcinoma, and ovarian cancer, also she has ascites, what is the source of ascites in case of high CA-125? (researchgate.net)
  • Ovarian cancer can sometimes spread to the peritoneum, leading to peritoneal serosal carcinoma. (researchgate.net)
  • Lewis lung carcinoma can also be utilized as an orthotopic model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized the treatment of advanced malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (mdpi.com)
  • Ferritin-based protein C nanoparticles (PCNs), known as TFG and TFMG, were generated and tested in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) allograft and MMTV-PyMT spontaneous breast cancer models. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An Italian study published in the journal Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, titled " Levothyroxine and lung cancer in females: the importance of oxidative stress ," has raised a concerning possibility: levothyroxine (T4), one of the world's most commonly prescribed forms of hormone replacement, may be raising the risk of lung cancer in millions of men and women being treated for low thyroid function (hypothyroidism). (wakeup-world.com)
  • Further, lung fibroblasts were cultured with and without cell supernatants from previously established cell cultures for 24 h. (medscimonit.com)
  • The study looked at the prevalence of breast, colorectal, gastric and lung cancer in 18 Italian Regions during 2010 and correlated this data with sales of LT4 in 2009, focusing on women aged 30-84. (wakeup-world.com)
  • A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. (bvsalud.org)
  • Under a magnification of 250X, this unstained photomicrograph of a Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell line tissue culture, depicted a small colony of pleuropneumonia-like organisms (PPLO), surrounded by a number of smaller like colonies, all exhibiting what was categorized as a morphologically typical growth pattern. (cdc.gov)
  • DI activity in lung cancer was found to be lower than in peripheral lung tissue. (wakeup-world.com)
  • Toll-like receptor 4 mediates cancer-induced muscle wasting in a Lewis lung carcinoma model. (wikipedia.org)
  • En este estudio estaremos analizando la expresión relativa de dos receptores que median inflamación: el receptor nicotínico de alfa 7 y el de TLT-1. (uccaribe.edu)
  • A study has uncovered a link between the synthetic thyroid hormone (trade name Synthroid) used to treat millions diagnosed with hypothyroidism and lung cancer, bringing to the forefront the harmful role that overdiagnosis and overtreatment plays in nutritional deficiency and chemical exposure related 'diseases. (wakeup-world.com)
  • The inhibition of circIGF2BP3/PKP3 enhanced the treatment efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy in a Lewis lung carcinoma mouse model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, much remains unknown regarding whether circRNAs impact immune escape in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1-in-4 NSCLC Patients Alive at 5 Years After Pembrolizumab With up to a quarter of nonsmall-cell lung cancer patients treated with pembrolizumab "around 5 years from now, that completely changes our mindset," says David Graham, MD, Levine Cancer Institute. (medscape.com)
  • Basically, Afatinib 30mg tablet uses for treating lung cancer by blocking certain molecules that promote tumor growth. (blogsunit.com)
  • Tokyo, May 8 : Researchers have identified a protein which could serve as a biomarker for the early diagnosis of lung cancer. (india4u.com)
  • The use of CKAP4 as a biomarker could change current practices regarding the treatment of lung cancer patients, and the diagnostic accuracies may be markedly improved by the combination of CKAP4 and conventional markers," lead author Yuichi Sato from Kitasato University School of Allied Health Sciences, added. (india4u.com)
  • Design and methodological considerations for biomarker discovery and validation in the Integrative Analysis of Lung Cancer Etiology and Risk (INTEGRAL) Program. (who.int)
  • According to a 2015 review article, Lewis lung carcinoma is the only reproducible syngeneic lung cancer model, meaning that it is the only reproducible lung cancer model that utilizes a transplant that is immunologically compatible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Melittin, a polypeptide found in bee venom, on tumor-associated macrophages has been examined in a Lewis lung carcinoma model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, in this mouse model of lung cancer , FAK signaling prompts podocyte FP effacement and proteinuria , indicative of PNS. (bvsalud.org)
  • In Lewis lung carcinoma model, FK228 also blocked angiogenesis induced by hypoxia. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Lung and breast carcinoma have been reported to be responsible for 53-75.2% of all MPEs [3,4]. (medscimonit.com)
  • Biology and targetability of the extended spectrum of PIK3CA mutations (PIK3CAm) detected in breast carcinoma. (cdc.gov)
  • 1985). "An analysis of lung cancer risk from exposure to hexavalent chromium. (cdc.gov)
  • Mycotoxin Exposure and Renal Cell Carcinoma Risk: An Association Study in the EPIC European Cohort. (who.int)
  • Epidemiology of Renal Cell Carcinoma: 2022 Update. (who.int)
  • Margaret R. Lewis del Wistar Institut en 1951. (bvsalud.org)
  • Lung cancer mortality among workers making lead chromate and zinc chromate pigments at three English factories. (cdc.gov)
  • The presence of high CA-125 levels, along with the imaging findings of nodular peritoneal thickening, suggests the possibility of peritoneal serosal carcinoma, which is a type of cancer that affects the lining of the abdominal cavity (peritoneum). (researchgate.net)
  • The observation that patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung often present symptoms suggestive of hyperthyroidism (i.e. weight loss, anorexia) was made many years ago together with an over production of both T4 and T3. (wakeup-world.com)
  • En este proyecto utilizamos como modulador nicotínico el cembranoide 4R como tratamiento para el cáncer de pulmón tipo "non-small cell lung carcinoma", que representa el 85% de los casos de cáncer de pulmón. (uccaribe.edu)
  • Recently, small cell lung cancer was shown to be dependent on activated hedgehog signaling. (bcm.edu)
  • MCPyV is associated with Merkel cell carcinoma a CFX96 real-time thermocycler (BioRad, Hercules, CA, ( 3 ), and TSPyV has been linked to trichodysplasia USA). (cdc.gov)
  • The relationship between blood pressure and risk of renal cell carcinoma. (who.int)
  • Biomarkers of the transsulfuration pathway and risk of renal cell carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. (who.int)
  • See Study of DCA (Dichloroacetate) in Combination With Cisplatin and Definitive Radiation in Head and Neck Carcinoma . (shu.edu)
  • Lewis had seven chemotherapy treatments and 35 radiation treatments over the course of the next seven weeks. (cdc.gov)
  • The pleura is a thin membrane that covers the outer surface of the lungs as well as the mediastinum, diaphragm, and inner surface of the chest wall. (medscimonit.com)
  • An old clinical observation on the relationship between lung cancer and thyroid function reported that patients were characterized by a low concentration of T3 and an increased T4/T3 ratio due to a decrease of 5′-monodeiodination (DI). (wakeup-world.com)
  • Interaction between blood pressure and genetic risk score for bladder cancer, and risk of urothelial carcinoma in men. (cdc.gov)
  • I still have a high risk of the cancer coming back, but I'm still going to live my life," Lewis says. (cdc.gov)
  • Opium use and risk of lung cancer: A multicenter case-control study in Iran. (who.int)
  • Then, in December of 2015, Lewis found a sore on his tongue that wouldn't go away, even with steroid treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • In fact, a 1996 study found that the carcinoma predominantly metastasized into the lungs after tail vein injections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study, published in The American Journal of Pathology, found that high levels of cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 (CKAP4) have been identified in the blood of patients with lung cancer than in healthy individuals. (india4u.com)
  • The results of our study provide evidence that the CKAP4 protein may be a novel early sero-diagnostic marker for lung cancer," said co-author Ryo Nagashio from Kitasato University School of Allied Health Sciences in Japan. (india4u.com)
  • For the study, researchers performed reverse-phase protein array analysis using a monoclonal antibody designated as KU-Lu-1 antibody on the blood of 271 lung cancer patients and 100 healthy individuals. (india4u.com)