Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Large Cell: A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse: Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Lymphoma, Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell: Anaplastic lymphoma of the skin which develops as a primary neoplasm expressing the CD30 ANTIGEN. It is characterized by solitary nodules or ulcerated tumors.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Carcinoma, Medullary: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Lymphomatoid Papulosis: Clinically benign, histologically malignant, recurrent cutaneous T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by an infiltration of large atypical cells surrounded by inflammatory cells. The atypical cells resemble REED-STERNBERG CELLS of HODGKIN DISEASE or the malignant cells of CUTANEOUS T-CELL LYMPHOMA. In some cases, lymphomatoid papulosis progresses to lymphomatous conditions including MYCOSIS FUNGOIDES; HODGKIN DISEASE; CUTANEOUS T-CELL LYMPHOMA; or ANAPLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Carcinoma, Adenosquamous: A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Immunoblastic: Malignant lymphoma characterized by the presence of immunoblasts with uniformly round-to-oval nuclei, one or more prominent nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm. This class may be subdivided into plasmacytoid and clear-cell types based on cytoplasmic characteristics. A third category, pleomorphous, may be analogous to some of the peripheral T-cell lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, PERIPHERAL) recorded in both the United States and Japan.Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)Hodgkin Disease: A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Lymphoma, T-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Carcinoma, Endometrioid: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Carcinoma, Merkel Cell: A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Lymphoma, B-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Carcinoma, Verrucous: A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell: A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral: A group of malignant lymphomas thought to derive from peripheral T-lymphocytes in lymph nodes and other nonlymphoid sites. They include a broad spectrum of lymphocyte morphology, but in all instances express T-cell markers admixed with epithelioid histiocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils. Although markedly similar to large-cell immunoblastic lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, LARGE-CELL, IMMUNOBLASTIC), this group's unique features warrant separate treatment.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed: Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Reed-Sternberg Cells: Large cells, usually multinucleate, whose presence is a common histologic characteristic of classical HODGKIN DISEASE.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous: A group of lymphomas exhibiting clonal expansion of malignant T-lymphocytes arrested at varying stages of differentiation as well as malignant infiltration of the skin. MYCOSIS FUNGOIDES; SEZARY SYNDROME; LYMPHOMATOID PAPULOSIS; and PRIMARY CUTANEOUS ANAPLASTIC LARGE CELL LYMPHOMA are the best characterized of these disorders.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Anaplasia: Loss of structural differentiation and useful function of neoplastic cells.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Giant Cell: An epithelial neoplasm characterized by unusually large anaplastic cells. It is highly malignant with fulminant clinical course, bizarre histologic appearance and poor prognosis. It is most common in the lung and thyroid. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mycosis Fungoides: A chronic, malignant T-cell lymphoma of the skin. In the late stages, the LYMPH NODES and viscera are affected.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells: The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Common Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular: A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Ampulla of Vater: A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-6: A DNA-binding protein that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target genes by recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Aberrant Blc-6 expression is associated with certain types of human B-CELL LYMPHOMA.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous: A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Lymphoma, Follicular: Malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are clustered into identifiable nodules within the LYMPH NODES. The nodules resemble to some extent the GERMINAL CENTER of lymph node follicles and most likely represent neoplastic proliferation of lymph node-derived follicular center B-LYMPHOCYTES.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Mucin-1: Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Lymphoma, AIDS-Related: B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational: Variation in a population's DNA sequence that is detected by determining alterations in the conformation of denatured DNA fragments. Denatured DNA fragments are allowed to renature under conditions that prevent the formation of double-stranded DNA and allow secondary structure to form in single stranded fragments. These fragments are then run through polyacrylamide gels to detect variations in the secondary structure that is manifested as an alteration in migration through the gels.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Chemoembolization, Therapeutic: Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Mitotic Index: An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Peplomycin: An antineoplastic agent derived from BLEOMYCIN.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Mice, Inbred BALB CNeovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Carcinoma, Basosquamous: A skin carcinoma that histologically exhibits both basal and squamous elements. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Oncogene Proteins, Fusion: The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Genes, p16: Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 9 in the region 9p21. This gene is either deleted or mutated in a wide range of malignancies. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995) Two alternatively spliced gene products are encoded by p16: CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.

Mechanisms of apoptosis induced by the synthetic retinoid CD437 in human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. (1/382)

The novel synthetic retinoid 6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphthalene carboxylic acid (CD437) has been shown to induce apoptosis in various tumor cell lines including human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells, which are resistant to the natural all-trans retinoic acid and to many synthetic receptor-selective retinoids. Although the mechanism of this effect was not elucidated, it was found to be independent of nuclear retinoid receptors. In the present study, we analysed the mechanisms by which CD437 induces apoptosis in two human NSCLC cell lines: H460 with wild-type p53 and H1792 with mutant p53. Both cell lines underwent apoptosis after exposure to CD437, although the cell line with wild-type p53 (H460) was more sensitive to the induction of apoptosis. CD437 increased the activity of caspase in both cell lines, however, the effect was much more pronounced in the H460 cells. The caspase inhibitors (Z-DEVD-FMK and Z-VAD-FMK) suppressed CD437-induced CPP32-like caspase activation and apoptosis in both cell lines. CD437 induced the expression of the p53 gene and its target genes, p21, Bax, and Killer/DR5, only in the H460 cells. These results suggest that CD437-induced apoptosis is more extensive in NSCLC cells that express wild-type p53, possibly due to the involvement of the p53 regulated genes Killer/DR5, and Bax although CD437 can also induce apoptosis by means of a p53-independent mechanism. Both pathways of CD437-induced apoptosis appear to involve activation of CPP32-like caspase.  (+info)

A case of synchronous double primary lung cancer with neuroendocrine features. (2/382)

We report a case of unique double primary lung cancers with neuroendocrine features in a 63-year-old male smoker. The mass in the left lower lobe (LLL) was a small cell/large cell carcinoma with spindle cell sarcomatous areas and organoid structure. The mass in the left upper lobe (LUL) was a tubular adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine features including organoid nests showing occasional rosette formation, nuclear palisading in the periphery of the nests and positive immunoreaction for CD56, chromogranin A and synaptophysin. The difference in histological structures between the two masses led us to diagnose double primary lung cancer. The combination of small cell lung carcinoma and spindle cell carcinoma is very uncommon. The relationship between LLL and LUL tumors remains unclear. Multiple lung cancers with neuroendocrine features have only rarely been reported in the literature. The patient in our case died of widespread cancer 2 years and 4 months after the surgery without adjuvant chemotherapy, a longer postoperative survival time than in cases of ordinary extensive small cell lung cancer. Multiple lung cancers with neuroendocrine features are extremely rare and similar cases have not been reported in the literature. Neuroendocrine differentiation has attracted widespread attention and, therefore, examining neuroendocrine features in lung cancers is important.  (+info)

Lung cancer incidence rates by histologic type in high- and low-risk areas; a population-based study in Osaka, Okinawa, and Saku Nagano, Japan. (3/382)

We investigated lung cancer incidence by histologic type using the data from population-based cancer registries in high-risk (Osaka and Okinawa) and low-risk (Saku Nagano) areas. Since the proportion of cases with histologic types identified was not sufficiently high, sex- and age-specific incidence rates by histologic type were estimated assuming that the distribution of histologic types was the same across the same sex and age groups regardless of reporting status. Compared to Saku in Nagano Prefecture, the cumulative risk of lung cancer incidence rates in Osaka and Okinawa were 1.3 and 1.5 times higher for males and 1.3 and 1.2 times higher for females, respectively. When divided by histologic type, male adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma were 1.6-2.1 times higher in Osaka and Okinawa, while squamous cell carcinoma was 1.6 times higher only in Okinawa compared to Saku Nagano. In females, squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma were 2.5-3.3 times higher in Osaka and Okinawa compared to Saku Nagano, while adenocarcinoma was almost equal in the 3 areas. These results indicate that the pattern of incidence of lung cancer by histologic type may differ between high- and low- risk areas.  (+info)

Ethnic differences in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase pseudogene genotype distribution and association with lung cancer risk. (4/382)

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PADPRP) is a nuclear DNA-binding enzyme that can modulate chromatin structure close to DNA replication, recombination and repair regions. Two-allele polymorphism on the PADPRP chromosome 13 pseudogene has been studied in several ethnic subpopulations, and the association of each allele with different types of cancer has been investigated. To study the frequency of the allele in the context of lung cancer, we performed a PCR assay for the PADPRP polymorphism in 288 lung cancer patients and 292 matched controls and examined the frequency of the alleles in different ethnic groups. Our results showed that the allele distribution was significantly different among members of different ethnic groups. Specifically, the A allele was dominant in Mexican-American and Caucasian groups but not in the African-American group. The frequencies of the B allele in Mexican-American, Caucasian and African-American controls were 0.184, 0.218 and 0.606, respectively, with the Caucasian cases and controls showing an almost identical lower B allele frequency (0.199 in cases versus 0.218 in controls), and the African-American cases and controls showing an almost identical but considerably higher frequency (0.578 in cases versus 0. 606 in controls). In contrast, the Mexican-American cases and controls exhibited a considerable difference in the B allele frequency (0.306 in cases versus 0.184 in controls). When we combined subjects with the AB or BB genotype into a susceptible genotype group and compared them with the AA group using univariate analysis, the susceptible genotype was not shown to be associated with a risk of lung cancer in either the Caucasian or African-American subpopulation but was significantly associated with an increased risk (2.29-fold) of lung cancer in the Mexican-American group. When lung cancer was categorized by histologic type, no elevated risk was noted for squamous cell carcinoma in any ethnicity. However, in Mexican-Americans, susceptible genotypes were associated with significantly increased risks of adenocarcinoma (3. 21-fold) and large cell carcinoma (10.79). Our study and others have demonstrated that the PADPRP polymorphism may modify an individual's susceptibility to certain cancers. Assessment of the interaction between genetic constitution and environmental exposure might expand our understanding of carcinogenesis and enhance our ability to evaluate the populational cancer risk.  (+info)

p53 protein, EGF receptor, and anti-p53 antibodies in serum from patients with occupationally derived lung cancer. (5/382)

The oncogene product epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R), the tumour suppressor gene product p53 and anti-p53 antibodies are detectable in the serum of certain cancer patients. Increased levels of some of these products were reported in lung cancer patients after occupational asbestos exposure and after exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or vinylchloride. In the first step, this study investigated the possible diagnostic value of serum EGF-R, p53-protein and anti-p53 antibodies, measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in lung tumour patients. In addition to being investigated on a molecular epidemiological basis, these parameters were examined as biomarkers of carcinogenesis, especially with regard to asbestos incorporation effects or of radon-induced lung cancers. Also, a possible effect of cigarette smoking and age dependence were studied. A total of 116 male patients with lung or pleural tumours were examined. The histological classification was four small-cell cancers, six large-cell cancers, 32 adenocarcinomas, 47 squamous carcinomas, 12 mixed lung carcinomas, five diffuse malignant mesotheliomas and ten lung metastasis of extrapulmonary tumours. Twenty-two lung cancers and all mesotheliomas were related to asbestos, 22 lung cancers were related to ionizing radiation and 61 patients had cigarette smoke-related lung cancer. Besides these patients 50 male patients with non-malignant lung or pleural diseases were included; of the latter eight subjects suffered from asbestosis. Controls were 129 male subjects without any lung disease. No significantly elevated or decreased serum values for p53 protein, EGF-R, or anti-p53 antibodies as a function of histological tumour type, age, or degree and type of exposure (asbestos, smoking, ionizing radiation) could be found. The utility of p53-protein, EGF-R and anti-p53 antibodies as routine biomarkers for screening occupationally derived lung cancers is limited.  (+info)

Overexpression of bax associated with mutations in the loop-sheet-helix motif of p53. (6/382)

Recent investigations have revealed that mutations of the loop-sheet-helix motif of p53 is a significant factor for a poor prognosis in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To clarify this mechanism, bcl-2 and bax expression were evaluated in relation to mutations of p53. Tumor tissues of 203 patients with NSCLC were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate bcl-2 and bax expression, and polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism following direct sequencing was performed to investigate p53 status. A total of 79 carcinomas were bcl-2 positive, 146 carcinomas were bax positive, and 72 carcinomas had missense mutations of p53. There was no difference in bcl-2 expression in relation to p53 status. On the other hand, tumors with structural mutations of p53 had significantly lower expression of bax than those with wild-type p53 (P = 0.0026). In contrast, tumors with mutations of the loop-sheet-helix motif of p53 had significantly higher expression of bax than those with wild-type p53 (P = 0.0236). The frequency of a bcl-2/bax ratio of >/=1 was significantly lower in tumors with mutations of the loop-sheet-helix motif than that in tumors with wild-type p53 (P = 0.0240). The bcl-2/bax ratio status was a significant factor for a prognosis in patients with NSCLC (P = 0.0083). Mutations of the loop-sheet-helix motif of p53 were correlated with overexpression of bax, while other mutations of p53 were correlated with low levels of bax expression. This variation in pattern of bax expression in relation to mutant p53 might reflect the biological behavior of tumors in patients with bcl-2-positive NSCLC.  (+info)

k-ras mutation and occupational asbestos exposure in lung adenocarcinoma: asbestos-related cancer without asbestosis. (7/382)

Environmental carcinogen exposure is requisite for the development of nearly all lung cancer, and it is well known that asbestos exposure interacts synergistically with tobacco smoke to induce lung cancer. However, the precise molecular lesions induced by asbestos are unknown. Furthermore, it is also unknown whether asbestos carcinogenesis proceeds in a fashion independent of or dependent upon the induction of fibrosis in workers with high asbestos exposures. Previous studies have suggested that asbestos is associated with the presence of a k-ras mutation in adenocarcinoma of the lung. We aimed to test whether occupational asbestos exposure was associated with k-ras codon 12 mutations in lung adenocarcinoma tumors and to determine whether this was conditional on the presence of asbestosis. All newly diagnosed, resectable lung cancer patients receiving treatment at the Massachusetts General Hospital between November 1992 and December 1996 were eligible to participate. Because k-ras mutation is very strongly associated with adenocarcinoma, and men were more likely to be occupationally exposed to asbestos, the study was restricted to males with this histological diagnosis. There were 84 male patients with available questionnaire-derived work history data and paraffin-embedded tumor tissue for determination of k-ras mutation status. Chest radiographic evaluation was done for all of the patients who reported occupational exposure to asbestos. The prevalence of k-ras mutation was higher among those with a history of occupational asbestos exposure (crude odds ratio, 4.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-15.4) compared to those without asbestos exposure, and this association remained after adjustment for age and pack-years smoked (adjusted odds ratio, 6.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-28.6). An index score that weights both the dates of exposure and the estimated intensity of exposure indicated that those with k-ras mutations had significantly greater asbestos exposures than those without mutations (P < 0.01). Analysis of the descriptive components of exposure indicated that the duration of exposure was not associated with k-ras mutation, but that the time since initial exposure was significantly associated with mutation status. The association of k-ras mutation and reported asbestos exposure was not dependent on the presence of radiographic evidence of asbestos-related disease. These data suggest that asbestos exposure increases the likelihood of mutation at k-ras codon 12 and that this process occurs independently of the induction of interstitial fibrosis.  (+info)

Multiple clonal abnormalities in the bronchial epithelium of patients with lung cancer. (8/382)

BACKGROUND: Several molecular changes, including loss of heterozygosity (i.e., deletion of one copy of allelic DNA sequences) and alterations in microsatellite DNA, have been detected early in the pathogenesis of lung cancer, even in histologically normal epithelium. In the bronchial epithelium of patients with lung cancer, we have determined the frequency, size, and patterns of molecularly abnormal clonal patches. METHODS: We studied formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples from 16 surgically resected lung carcinomas (five squamous cell carcinomas, four small-cell carcinomas, six adenocarcinomas, and one large-cell carcinoma). From each carcinoma, we microdissected foci (each containing about 200 cells) of tumor tissue and equivalent samples of histologically normal and abnormal epithelium. Furthermore, multiple discontinuous foci of bronchial epithelium were analyzed from methanol-fixed samples from three additional patients with lung cancer (two with squamous cell carcinoma and one with adenocarcinoma). We used two-step polymerase chain reaction-based assays involving 12 microsatellite markers at seven chromosomal regions frequently deleted in lung cancer. RESULTS: Two hundred eighteen foci of nonmalignant bronchial epithelium (195 of histologically normal or slightly abnormal epithelium and 23 of dysplastic epithelium) were studied from the 19 surgically resected lobectomy specimens. Thirteen (68%) of the 19 specimens had at least one focus of bronchial epithelium with molecular changes. At least one molecular abnormality was detected in 32% of the 195 histologically normal or slightly abnormal foci and in 52% of the 23 dysplastic foci. Extrapolating from our two-dimensional analyses, we estimate that most clonal patches contain approximately 90 000 cells. Although, in a given individual, tumors appeared homogeneous with respect to molecular changes, the clonally altered patches of mildly abnormal epithelium were heterogeneous. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that multiple small clonal or subclonal patches containing molecular abnormalities are present in normal or slightly abnormal bronchial epithelium of patients with lung cancer.  (+info)

Large cell carcinoma Accounts for 5-10% of all lung cancers. Strongly associated with cigarette smoking. The lesion occurs peripherally and grows rapidly, with early metastases and a poor outcome They lack any diagnosic features to suggest their diagnosis prior to biopsy.
Some of these tumours showed a solid growth pattern of polygonal cells with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Histochemically, these cells were periodic acid-Schiff-negative. Immunohistochemically, vimentin and neuron-specific enolase were positive. Epithelial membrane antigen was focally and weakly positive and p53 was positive in 60% of tumoral cells.. Electron microscopy revealed intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies consisting of whorled intermediate filaments. Based on histological and immunohistochemical findings, the patient was diagnosed as having pulmonary large cell carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype. Because of its aggressive clinical course, early diagnosis and decision on therapy is very important for this disease.. ...
article{cf0dde2a-1de1-4aeb-9f7b-5f410161f5f1, abstract = {Lung carcinomas were studied immunohistochemically and the results were related to type of tissue sample (bronchoscopic biopsies, surgical specimens, autopsies). All cytokeratins (CAM 5.2, PKK-1, AE1/AE3) reacted with virtually all adenocarcinomas, most squamous, and 65% of the large cell carcinomas, while CAM 5.2 was most efficient with the small cell carcinomas. CEA stained 33% and 60% of the small and large cell carcinomas, respectively, most adenocarcinomas, and 84% of the squamous cell carcinomas, among which staining decreased with dedifferentiation and was often focal. EMA reacted with 90%, and NSE with 20% of all histological types. There was no staining for NF. All antibodies, except EMA, were more efficient with surgical specimens. Our study implies that the cytokeratins we used work better with surgical material, but are generally comparable to monospecific cytokeratin antibodies. Also, EMA is a reliable marker for epithelial ...
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Lung cancer (LNCR) [MIM:211980]: A common malignancy affecting tissues of the lung. The most common form of lung cancer is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that can be divided into 3 major histologic subtypes: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell lung cancer. NSCLC is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis. {ECO:0000269,PubMed:15118125, ECO:0000269,PubMed:16533793, ECO:0000269,PubMed:16672372}. Note=The gene represented in this entry is involved in disease pathogenesis ...
Lung cancer (LNCR) [MIM:211980]: A common malignancy affecting tissues of the lung. The most common form of lung cancer is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that can be divided into 3 major histologic subtypes: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell lung cancer. NSCLC is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis. {ECO:0000269,PubMed:15118125, ECO:0000269,PubMed:16533793, ECO:0000269,PubMed:16672372}. Note=The gene represented in this entry is involved in disease pathogenesis ...
The heterogeneity of the H460 large cell lung cancer cell line was investigated by selecting for chemokinetic cells from a CON population that demonstrated both chemokinesis and chemotaxis. Using Boyden chambers, cells that migrated under chemokinetic conditions were collected and their numbers expanded. Time-lapsed microscopy under isotropic conditions showed that KINE cells moved faster and changed directions more frequently than CON confirming their chemokinetic character. KINE cells which lacked stable focal adhesion were also less adhesive to culture plates compared to CON cells which had focal adhesions at the leading edge shown by phospho-Paxillin-tyr118 antibody labeling. Weak substrate adhesion in KINE cells may account for motile characteristics of rapid and random movement [16-19]. Furthermore, the selection for increased chemokinesis did not compromise the ability of KINE cells to chemotax. KINE cells were also significantly more invasive compared to CON.. These results underscore ...
Cellular glutathione (GSH) levels were measured from 27 human lung tumor biopsies, enzymatically disaggregated, and compared with cells isolated from normal lung of the same patients. GSH levels from normal lung were similar among patients with a mean value of 11.20 ± 0.58 (SEM) nmol GSH/mg protein (24 patients) with a range from 6.1 to 17.5 nmol GSH/mg protein. GSH levels varied considerably within and across histological tumor types with the following values: adenocarcinomas, 8.83 ± 0.96 nmol/mg protein (8 patients); large cell carcinomas, 8.25 ± 2.51 nmol/mg protein (3 patients); and squamous cell carcinomas, 23.25 ± 5.99 nmol/mg protein (8 patients). The cyclic GSH reductase assay gave only average GSH values and could not distinguish possible GSH variation among subpopulations of cells isolated. Cell volume measurements and microscopic evaluation of cells isolated from both tumors and normal lung revealed heterogeneity with respect to cell types present. To determine the extent of thiol ...
Patients who underwent chemotherapy had longer overall survival. Research presented in the July 2012 issue of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancers (IASLC) Journal of Thoracic Oncology, concluded that patients with limited large cell neuroendocrine tumors or with limited stage small-cell lung cancer who were treated with perioperative chemotherapy and surgery had better overall survival outcomes than patients treated with surgery alone.. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) represents about 15 percent of lung cancers annually. Of those, about 30 percent of patients have limited disease SCLC. Whereas large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a subgroup of large-cell carcinoma, that has characteristics similar to SCLC. Surgery in these groups of patients are rare and researchers wanted to know if perioperative chemotherapy would benefit the patients.. The retrospective study looked at 74 patients who underwent lung cancer surgery at the Surgical Centre Marie Lannelongue in Le ...
Two mutually exclusive genomic LCNEC subtypes have been identified by molecular studies: one shows co-mutated TP53 and RB1, which is similar to SCLC, and the STK11/KEAP1 subtype with predominantly RB1 wild-type that is similar to NSCLC.. Reviewing clinical data and tumour specimens of 232 patients in the Netherlands Cancer Registry and Pathology Registry from 2003 to 2012, this retrospective analysis identified 148 patients who had been diagnosed with LCNEC. Of these, samples from all patients receiving first-line chemotherapy for panel-consensus diagnosed LCNEC were included for next-generation sequencing (NGS) for the TP53, RB1, STK11, and KEAP1 genes. RB1 (pRB1, 13A10) was analysed by immunohistochemistry, with samples having an H-score of ≥50 considered positive.. The results of the NGS and pRB1 were correlated with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) by Kaplan Meier plots and Log-rank test.. Quality control of the samples determined that 79 samples were sufficient ...
Disease Ontology : 12 A cervix carcinoma that has material basis in neuroendocrine tissue and is characerized by a diffuse, organoid, trabecular, or cord-like pattern of neoplastic cells with abundant cytoplasm, large nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and a high mitotic rate ...
M-800:M-800) Neoplasms, NOS M-8000/0 Neoplasm, benign M-8000/1 Neoplasm, uncertain whether benign or malignant M-8000/3 Neoplasm, malignant M-8000/6 Neoplasm, metastatic M-8000/9 Neoplasm, malignant, uncertain whether primary or metastatic M-8001/0 Tumour cells, benign M-8001/1 Tumour cells, uncertain whether benign or malignant M-8001/3 Tumour cells, malignant M-8002/3 Malignant tumour, small cell type M-8003/3 Malignant tumour, giant cell type M-8004/3 Malignant tumour, spindle cell type M-8005/0 Clear cell tumour, NOS M-8005/3 Malignant tumour, clear cell type (M-801:M-804) Epithelial neoplasms, NOS M-8010/0 Epithelial tumour, benign M-8010/2 Carcinoma in situ, NOS M-8010/3 Carcinoma, NOS M-8010/6 Carcinoma, metastatic, NOS M-8010/9 Carcinomatosis M-8011/0 Epithelioma, benign M-8011/3 Epithelioma, malignant M-8012/3 Large cell carcinoma, NOS M-8013/3 Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma M-8014/3 Large cell carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype M-8015/3 Glassy cell carcinoma M-8020/3 Carcinoma, ...
The characteristics of 112 patients with COPD were as follows; mild COPD/moderate COPD: number of patients (male) 42 (21)/70 (57), age 71.0/70.5 years-old, pathological stage of NSCLC IA 30/25 IB 5/8 IIA 3/8 IIB 3/4 IIIA 5/19 IIIB 0/1, histology adenocarcinoma (Ad) 29/40 squamous cell carcinoma (Sq) 9/27 large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) 2/2 pleomorphic carcinoma 0/2 Ad + Sq 1/0 Sq + LCNEC 1/0. Each of OS and DFS was 2287 days (1984 - 2589) and 2015 (1679 - 2351) days in mild COPD patients and 2004 (1873 - 2135) days and 1768 (1656 -1890) days in moderate COPD patients. Compared with patients with mild COPD, patients with moderate COPD had increased risk of worse OS (p = 0.035) but had no differences in CSS (p = 0.867) and DFS (p = 0.125) by log-rank analysis. ...
Small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCLC) together with the large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), typical carcinoid (TC), and atypical carcinoid (AC) make a group of morphologically identifiable neuroendocrine tumors. The...
A common classification framework for neuroendocrine neoplasms: an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and World Health Organization (WHO) expert consensus proposal. Rindi G, Klimstra DS, Abedi-Ardekani B, Asa SL, Bosman FT, Brambilla E, Busam KJ, de Krijger RR, Dietel M, El-Naggar AK, Fernandez-Cuesta L, Klöppel G, McCluggage WG, Moch H, Ohgaki H, Rakha EA, Reed NS, Rous BA, Sasano H, Scarpa A, Scoazec JY, Travis WD, Tallini G, Trouillas J, van Krieken JH, Cree IA. Mod Pathol. 2018 PMID: 30140036. Integrative genomic profiling of large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas reveals distinct subtypes of high-grade neuroendocrine lung tumors. George J, Walter V, Peifer M, Alexandrov LB, Seidel D, Leenders F, Maas L, Müller C, Dahmen I, Delhomme TM, Ardin M, Leblay N, Byrnes G, Sun R, De Reynies A, McLeer-Florin A, Bosco G, Malchers F, Menon R, Altmüller J, Becker C, Nürnberg P, Achter V, Lang U, Schneider PM, Bogus M, Soloway MG, Wilkerson MD, Cun Y, McKay JD, Moro-Sibilot D, Brambilla ...
Introduction: Lung neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are rare and heterogeneous, with wide range of aggressiveness. Aim: Describe clinical and epidemiologic characteristics, stage, treatment and survival of patients with lung NET according to histological group -[typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (AT), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). Methods: Retrospective longitudinal, multicenter study analyzing files of patients diagnosed with NET from 2005 to 2010. Small cell carcinoma was excluded. Comparisons among groups were done with X2. Survival curves were generated using Kaplan-Meier method. Results: 137 patients were included, mean age (SD) 59 (± 14) years; 71 (52%) male; 82 (60%) non-smokers. Histological classification: 54 TC, 49 NEC and 34 AC. Table below describes patients characteristics. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 78 months. Twenty seven patients (20%) died, 1 in TC, 2 in AC, 23 in NEC. The median overall survival (OS) calculated for NEC was 42 months, for other patients median ...
Using enrichment analysis for Gene Ontology Biological Function we see that the genes/proteins with up-regulated PTMs and expression levels are associated with RNA processing, RNA splicing and, gene expression. Re-running the analysis for the sub-cluster of very highly regulated PTMS/genes (the large cluster in the middle) reveals enrichment for neuronal functions including: neuron projection, axon guidance, and neuron morphology. Enrichment for genes that are up-regulated in disease (using the Disease Perturbations from GEO Up library) shows enrichment for neuronal related cancers including: oligodendroglioma, multiple sclerosis, astrocytoma, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Finally, enrichment using the MGI Mammalian Phenotype library shows enrichment for genes that cause neuronal abnormalities in mice after knockdown including: abnormal neuron morphology, abnormal brain morphology, abnormal spinal cord morphology, and abnormal nervous system. Collectively, these results indicate that ...
The objectives of this research were to test treatment and survival differences between women and men with lung cancer as there is minimal investigation in the literature. Three research questions were developed with statistical testing for gender differences based on similar cancer type, stage, treatment assignment and survival. Data for 44,863 primary lung cancer cases were collected from eight U.S. state-based cancer registries to investigate the research questions. The lung cancer incidence data included the morphological cell-types of adenocarcinoma (AC); squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); large cell carcinoma (LCC) and small cell carcinoma (SCC). Stage, grade, treatment type, as well as, individual characteristics such as gender, age at diagnosis, marital status at diagnosis and race were other variables obtained to be included in the statistical models. Reporting the overall effect for lung cancer gender specific treatment differences or survival has not been demonstrated in the literature to the
Small Cell Cancer (SCLC) is much more rare than Non-Small Cell, only about 15% of cases are Small Cell. Within SCLC, there are three different types: small cell carcinoma (oat cell cancer), mixed small cell/large cell carcinoma and combined small cell carcinoma. Most SCLC cases are oat cell. SCLC is the most aggressive form of lung cancer compared to the other type. It is mainly caused by smoking and starts in the bronchi (breathing tubes) in the center of the chest. This type of lung cancer grows quickly and produces large tumors. Because SCLC grows so quickly, it also metastasizes rapidly to other parts of the body including the brain, liver and bone. Metastasis is when a part of a cancerous tumor breaks off from the original tumor and spreads to another part of the body, spreading the cancer. When you have SCLC, there are many symptoms that come from it, including bloody sputum (spitting up blood), chest pain, coughing, loss of appetite, shortness of breath, weight loss, wheezing, facial ...
Small Cell Cancer (SCLC) is much more rare than Non-Small Cell, only about 15% of cases are Small Cell. Within SCLC, there are three different types: small cell carcinoma (oat cell cancer), mixed small cell/large cell carcinoma and combined small cell carcinoma. Most SCLC cases are oat cell. SCLC is the most aggressive form of lung cancer compared to the other type. It is mainly caused by smoking and starts in the bronchi (breathing tubes) in the center of the chest. This type of lung cancer grows quickly and produces large tumors. Because SCLC grows so quickly, it also metastasizes rapidly to other parts of the body including the brain, liver and bone. Metastasis is when a part of a cancerous tumor breaks off from the original tumor and spreads to another part of the body, spreading the cancer. When you have SCLC, there are many symptoms that come from it, including bloody sputum (spitting up blood), chest pain, coughing, loss of appetite, shortness of breath, weight loss, wheezing, facial ...
Histologically confirmed Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) of adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, or NSCLC not otherwise specified. Patients with suspected NSCLC may enroll prior to the diagnostic biopsy in order to obtain both the diagnostic and molecular analysis-required specimen during the same procedure. Must have blood work within 30 days prior to biopsy to eliminate any unnecessary biopsies on patients that do not qualify (screen failures) due to laboratory values that do not meet the inclusion/exclusion criteria. If a patient has blood work obtained at an outside facility, this can be utilized for the preliminary assessment prior to biopsy, but final inclusion/exclusion values must be obtained within 14 days of start of treatment ...
Results RHAMM expression in the subgroup of large cell carcinomas (LCC) was associated with inferior survival (p=0.000223). Median overall survival was 92 versus 18 months for RHAMM-negative and positive patients, respectively. This survival difference remained significant in both nodal negative and positive patients (pN0: p=0.013 and pN≥1: p=0.007, respectively). P-gp expression was associated with inferior survival in adenocarcinomas (ACA; p=0.013) and appeared to be a postsurgical Union International Contre le Cancer (pUICC)- stage and gender-independent prognostic factor, irrespective of adjuvant chemotherapy, in the multivariable analysis; considering nodal status, this survival difference applied to pN0 cancers (p=0.026).. ...
... In order to be able to write the value 100 to /proc/acpi/video/.../brightness, we have to allocate 5 bytes: 4 characters will be written (1, 0, 0 plus null byte), and 1 byte should be buffer for a terminating NULL character. http://bugzilla.kernel.org/show_bug.cgi?id=9278 Signed-off-by: Danny Baumann ,[EMAIL PROTECTED], Acked-by: Zhang Rui ,[EMAIL PROTECTED], Signed-off-by: Len Brown ,[EMAIL PROTECTED], --- drivers/acpi/video.c , 2 +- 1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 1 deletions(-) diff --git a/drivers/acpi/video.c b/drivers/acpi/video.c index dce0a6e..44a0d9b 100644 --- a/drivers/acpi/video.c +++ b/drivers/acpi/video.c @@ -897,7 +897,7 @@ acpi_video_device_write_brightness(struct file *file, { struct seq_file *m = file-,private_data; struct acpi_video_device *dev = m-,private; - char str[4] = { 0 }; + char str[5] = { 0 }; unsigned int level = 0; int i; - To unsubscribe from this list: send the line unsubscribe ...
We are going to change ARM virt ACPI DSDT table, which will cause make check to fail, so temporarily add related golden masters to ignore list. Signed-off-by: Heyi Guo ,[email protected], Reviewed-by: Michael S. Tsirkin ,[email protected], --- Cc: Peter Maydell ,[email protected], Cc: Michael S. Tsirkin ,[email protected], Cc: Igor Mammedov ,[email protected], Cc: Shannon Zhao ,[email protected], Cc: [email protected] Cc: [email protected] --- tests/qtest/bios-tables-test-allowed-diff.h , 3 +++ 1 file changed, 3 insertions(+) diff --git a/tests/qtest/bios-tables-test-allowed-diff.h b/tests/qtest/bios-tables-test-allowed-diff.h index dfb8523c8b..32a401ae35 100644 --- a/tests/qtest/bios-tables-test-allowed-diff.h +++ b/tests/qtest/bios-tables-test-allowed-diff.h @@ -1 +1,4 @@ /* List of comma-separated changed AML files to ignore */ +tests/data/acpi/virt/DSDT, +tests/data/acpi/virt/DSDT.memhp, +tests/data/acpi/virt/DSDT.numamem, -- 2.19.1 ...
The synchronous primary lung tumors is a rare condition and presented patient is the first reported case of simultaneous two distinct neuroendocrine lung cancer lesions in the same lobe. We present the case of a 55-year-old woman with synchronous two distinct neuroendocrine lung cancer lesions in the right upper lobe. Initially she showed no signs or symptoms related to lung lesions and was admitted to Thoracic Surgery Ward for the investigation of two oval, solitary pulmonary nodules (11 and 19 mm in diameter) detected on a chest X-ray performed three months earlier. The radiological imaging showed a variability of growth of both lesions (smaller tumor has enlarged while the larger one remained unchanged). After the CT-guided lung biopsy, patient underwent right upper lobectomy. Histological examination revealed a small cell carcinoma in one of the tumors and a large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in the other one. The patient was discharged in good condition and lung inflation in chest X-ray ...
2 MANECs are rare entities known to be associated with biological aggressiveness and poor patient survival, but otherwise remain incompletely characterized.3 In a recent study that compared CRC-NE to conventional colorectal carcinoma, CRC-NE was more frequently located in the right colon (76% vs. 46%), more often presented with metastasis (59% vs. 18%) and often had perineural (68%), lymphatic (97%), and venous (62%) invasion and high tumor budding (71%). BRAF V600E mutation was more common in CRC-NE compared with conventional CRC (53% vs. 12%). Neuroendocrine differentiation, high stage, BRAF mutation without microsatellite instability, and signet ring histology were all associated with poor overall survival.4 In the same study, CRC-NE was further divided into large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), MANEC composed of LCNEC and conventional adenocarcinoma (MANEC-conventional type), and MANEC composed of LCNEC and signet ring cell carcinoma (MANEC-signet ring type). MANEC-signet ring type ...
ABSTRACT. Background: We reported our experience with thymic carcinomas and review their clinical features, treatment strategies, and prognoses. Methods: From April 1998 to November 2012, 11 patients pathologically diagnosed with thymic carcinoma and treated in our hospital were investigated. Results: There were 7 men and 4 women, with a median age of 62 years (range, 35 - 72). According to the Masaoka staging system, 3 patients had stage II, 1 stage III disease, 3 stage IVa disease and 4 stage IVb disease. Ten patients had squamous cell carcinoma, whereas 1 had large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC). We performed surgery or multimodality therapy including surgery as the initial therapy for 8 patients. Of the non-surgical cases, 1 patient received chemoradiotherapy and survived for over 6 years without recurrence, whereas 2 received palliative care. Three of 4 patients who underwent complete resection survived without disease recurrence, whereas only 1 patient with LCNEC survived in the ...
The worldwide incidence of pulmonary carcinoids is increasing, but little is known about their molecular characteristics. Through machine learning and multi-omics factor analysis, we compare and contrast the genomic profiles of 116 pulmonary carcinoids (including 35 atypical), 75 large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNEC), and 66 small-cell lung cancers. Here we report that the integrative analyses on 257 lung neuroendocrine neoplasms stratify atypical carcinoids into two prognostic groups with a 10-year overall survival of 88% and 27%, respectively. We identify therapeutically relevant molecular groups of pulmonary carcinoids, suggesting DLL3 and the immune system as candidate therapeutic targets; we confirm the value of OTP expression levels for the prognosis and diagnosis of these diseases, and we unveil the group of supra-carcinoids. This group comprises samples with carcinoid-like morphology yet the molecular and clinical features of the deadly LCNEC, further supporting the previously ...
Primary neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung represent a clinical spectrum of tumors ranging from the relatively benign and slow-growing typical carcinoid to the highly aggressive small-cell lung carcinoma. The rarity of carcinoids has made the role of radiation therapy in their management controversial. This review considers the results of published studies to generate treatment recommendations and identify areas for future research. Surgery remains the standard of care for medically operable disease. Histology plays the most important role in determining the role of adjuvant radiation. Resected typical carcinoids likely do not require adjuvant therapy irrespective of nodal status. Resected atypical carcinoids and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas have a significant risk of local failure, for which adjuvant radiation likely improves local control. Definitive radiation is warranted in unresectable disease. Palliative radiation for symptomatic lesions has demonstrated efficacy for all histologies.
Results These 93 patients were referred from 12 hospitals and 20 had undergone previous undiagnostic procedures (6 EBUS, 14 bronchoscopy). The mean age was 67 years (range 27 - 87) and 50 were male. 82 were performed under local anaesthesia using lignocaine spray and intravenous midazolam (1 - 10 mg; mean 4 mgs) and the remaining 11 under general anaesthesia. 200 lymph nodes (2R, 4R, 4L, 7, 10R, 10L, 11R) and 13 lung lesions were biopsied. Results were as follows: Adequate samples were obtained in 99% (91/93) and the NSCLC - NOS rate was 2%. 31 adenocarcinoma, 10 squamous cell carcinoma, 10 small cell carcinoma, 1 NSCLC - NOS, 1 large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, 1 soft tissue lesion (repeat EBUS showed myxoid spindle cell mesenchymal lesion), 1 breast carcinoma, 19 nonspecific benign nodes, 15 sarcoid and 2 TB. There were no complications. ...
... is the most common type of lung cancer. About 85% of lung cancers are non-small cell lung cancers. Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma are all subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer.
... is the most common type of lung cancer. About 85% of lung cancers are non-small cell lung cancers. Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma are all subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer.
Background: More than 50% of new cases of lung cancer are diagnosed in elderly patients. Does age is a factor for deciding the treatment options? The question remains unsolved even in present era as the median survival time of elderly patients was significantly lower compared with that of younger patients. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study using data base of 175 patients of primary lung cancer with age 60 years and above diagnosed in indoor and outdoor of the Department of Radiotherapy at Regional Cancer Centre, RIMS, Manipur, India from January 2011 to December 2015. Results: The median age at diagnosis was 70years. There were 113 male (64.6%) patients and 62 female (35.4%) patients. The most common radiological presentation was mass (59.4%) followed by collapse-consolidation (22.8%) and pleural effusion (17.8%). Out of 175 patients, 51% of patients had squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma (33.7%), large cell carcinoma (9.1%) and undifferentiated carcinoma (6%). The median ...
Lung cancer is the leading killer cancer that starts with the abormal growth and duplication of cells in the lungs.. The sad part is that its symptoms appear only at later stages. Lungs are vital organs of the body that bring in fresh oxygen and distribute it to other parts of the body through blood. Moreover, it aids in expelling out the carbodioxide from the blood as well. Thus, if the lungs are affected by cancer, it can endanger your life, and hence it is essential that you take proper care of your lungs. There are basically two types of lung cancer, small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Nearly fifteen percent cases are of the small cell type. This cancer is seen in the bronchi and is present near the center of the chest. Though small, they multiply and spread really fast . The non-small cell lung cancer occurs in nearly eight five percent cases and has three types, viz., adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma.. Causes. Smoking and second hand ...
Large cell lung carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype (LCLC-RP) is a rare histological form of lung cancer, currently classified as a variant of large cell lung carcinoma (LCLC). In order for a LCLC to be subclassified as the rhabdoid phenotype variant, at least 10% of the malignant tumor cells must contain distinctive structures composed of tangled intermediate filaments that displace the cell nucleus outward toward the cell membrane. The whorled eosinophilic inclusions in LCLC-RP cells give it a microscopic resemblance to malignant cells found in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a rare neoplasm arising from transformed skeletal muscle. Despite their microscopic similarities, LCLC-RP is not associated with rhabdomyosarcoma. Although rhabdoid variants of LCLC are sometimes referred to as "rhabdoid carcinomas", this particular term should be reserved for examples of "pure" rhabdoid neoplasms (i.e. those that do not contain cells containing other histological variants) Although Colby and colleagues were the ...
The overall survival of patients treated with either the pemetrexed regimen or gemcitabine regimen was found to be non-inferior, with a median survival of 10.3 months. However, when researchers reviewed survival rates according to histological analysis, it was found that patients with adenocarcinoma achieved 12.6 months of overall median survival when treated with the pemetrexed regimen compared to 10.9 months for those treated with the gemcitabine regimen. Patients with large cell carcinoma who were treated with the pemetrexed regimen achieved 10.4 months of overall median survival versus 6.7 months for those treated with the gemcitabine regimen. Both findings are statistically significant ...
Small round malignant cells that grow rapidly and spread throughout the body. Almost all cases of small cell lung cancer is caused by smoking. Also known as Oat Cell cancer. There are three types of lung cancer: Small Cell (Oat Cell), mixed small cell/large cell carcinoma, and combined small cell carcinoma.
Lung cancer can involve a number of abnormalities of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes ( 13). Biologically, lung cancers are highly invasive and metastatic tumors ( 19). We have determined that the cytoskeletal protein paxillin had elevated levels of paxillin (compared with normal adjacent lung) in NSCLC, especially with higher stages, implicating it in invasion and metastasis. The gene amplification for PXN was also high in large cell carcinoma (17%) compared with other histologies. Interestingly, MET was highly amplified with or without PXN. Because there is precedence in the literature that there are somatic mutations, such as K-ras and EGFR ( 20, 21), and germ-line mutations, such as c-Met ( 4, 14), for a number of genes, we also investigated whether the paxillin gene could be mutated in lung cancer. Somatic paxillin mutations were identified in lung cancer tumor tissue samples. The mutations were particularly clustered between the LD domains, as well as in the LIM domains. Our current ...
Exhibits signaling receptor binding activity. Involved in negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II and negative regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway. Predicted to localize to the SMN complex; SMN-Sm protein complex; and cytosol. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in adenocarcinoma; colorectal carcinoma; large cell carcinoma; lung carcinoma; and squamous cell neoplasm. Is expressed in several structures, including alimentary system; branchial arch; metanephros; nervous system; and sensory organ. Orthologous to human STRAP (serine/threonine kinase receptor associated protein ...
...NEW YORK May 15 2012 /- Reportlinker.com announces that...http://www.reportlinker.com/p0606218/Neuroendocrine-Carcinoma-Therapeu...Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Therapeutics - Pipeline Assessment and Market...GlobalData has estimated that the global neuroendocrine carcinoma ther...,Neuroendocrine,Carcinoma,Therapeutics,-,Pipeline,Assessment,and,Market,Forecast,to,2019,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of lung cancer and represents a heterogeneous group of cancers, consisting mainly of squamous cell (SCC), adeno (AC) and large-cell carcinoma. Molecular mechanisms altered in NSCLC include activation of oncogenes, such as K-RAS, EGFR and EML4-ALK, and inactivation of tumorsuppressor genes, such as p53, p16INK4a, RAR-beta, and RASSF1. Point mutations within the K-RAS gene inactivate GTPase activity and the p21-RAS protein continuously transmits growth signals to the nucleus. Mutations or overexpression of EGFR leads to a proliferative advantage. EML4-ALK fusion leads to constitutive ALK activation, which causes cell proliferation, invasion, and inhibition of apoptosis. Inactivating mutation of p53 can lead to more rapid proliferation and reduced apoptosis. The protein encoded by the p16INK4a inhibits formation of CDK-cyclin-D complexes ...
ACPI 3.0 includes UUID-labelled vendor-defined resources (section 6.4.3.2), so move the code that supports this from arch/ia64 into ACPI proper. Len, Tony, this touches both acpi and ia64. Probably easiest if Tony acks it and Len decides whether to apply it. HP owns all the copyrights on the code being moved, and we agree that the code being moved into the ACPI CA may be used under either the GPL or the BSD-style license used by the ACPI CA. (There should be something in Documentation/acpi about how to contribute to the ACPI CA. Its a royal pain in the rear :-)). Signed-off-by: Bjorn Helgaas ,[email protected], ===== arch/ia64/kernel/acpi-ext.c 1.5 vs edited ===== Index: work-vga2/arch/ia64/kernel/acpi-ext.c =================================================================== --- work-vga2.orig/arch/ia64/kernel/acpi-ext.c 2005-09-14 09:28:07.000000000 -0600 +++ work-vga2/arch/ia64/kernel/acpi-ext.c 2005-09-15 14:52:33.000000000 -0600 @@ -1,105 +1,45 @@ /* - * arch/ia64/kernel/acpi-ext.c + * ...
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the data of patients diagnosed with primary breast neuroendocrine carcinoma. METHODS: Patients with more than 50% neuroendocrine differentiation identified in the histopathological examination between January 2010 and January 2015 and who had no other focus on imaging were evaluated retrospectively from the hospital registry system. Patients with secondary n...
Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics, diagnostic features and prognosis of primary renal neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). Methods: The clinicopathologic data of eight cases of renal NEC was collected from January 2008 to December 2017 from Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University.
My brother has very aggressive, widely metastasized neuroendocrine carcinoma. From what I understand, its treated very differently than carcinoids and NETs, which are slow-growing. Im having a horrible time finding a specialist with experience with theaggressiveform. Does anybody know how I find a good specialist? We need help SOON!. ...
Old Synopsis: hw.acpi.thermal.tz0.temperature shows strange value New Synopsis: [acpi] hw.acpi.thermal.tz0.temperature shows strange value Responsible-Changed-From-To: freebsd-bugs-,freebsd-acpi Responsible-Changed-By: linimon Responsible-Changed-When: Fri Jan 20 09:00:34 UTC 2012 Responsible-Changed-Why: Over to maintainer(s). http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/query-pr.cgi?pr=164329 ...
Prof Sandip Patel speaks to ecancer at the 2019 American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) meeting about the DART study, which examined the administrati
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Large cell carcinoma now includes five variants in addition to large cell carcinoma defined as undifferentiated malignant epithelial cells. Two variants are recognized, both with dismal prognosis, LCNEC and basaloid carcinoma.. The concept of neuroendocrine tumours has been examined as a spectrum extending from low grade typical carcinoid to intermediate grade atypical carcinoid to high grade neuroendocrine tumours including large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Because of differences in clinical behaviour, therapeutic implications, and epidemiological context, these tumours have been presented separately in the WHO revised classification.. Typical and atypical carcinoid have been more precisely defined and clearly differentiated from each other with more objective criteria. Typical carcinoids have ,2 mitotic figures per 2 mm2, and have no necrosis. The presence of necrosis, or a mitotic count between 2-10·2 mm−2, allows separation of atypical carcinoid ...
Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine carcinomas are rare tumors, but Memorial Sloan Kettering experts have experience treating both large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell carcinoma. Learn about diagnosis and treatments including surgery, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, radiation therapy.
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that insulinoma-associated protein 1 (INSM1) is a sensitive and specific marker of neuroendocrine neoplasms. The aims of this study were to determine whether INSM1 can be reliably used in cytology (Cellient) cell blocks, to ascertain whether staining correlates with paired surgical pathology specimens, and to compare its sensitivity and specificity with those of synaptophysin (SYN), chromogranin (CHR), and CD56 for neuroendocrine lung tumors. METHODS: Seventy-four primary lung neoplasms diagnosed on cytology were stained with INSM1, SYN, CHR, and CD56: 41 small cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs), 1 large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), 10 carcinoid tumors, 11 adenocarcinomas, 9 squamous cell carcinomas, 1 mesothelioma and 1 poorly differentiated non-small cell lung carcinoma, not otherwise specified ...
4F2hc (CD98) has been associated with tumor growth, and is highly expressed in various tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of 4F2hc expression in pulmonary neuroendocrine (NE) tumors. Surgically-resected patient tumors including 16 large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), 12 small cell lung cancer (SCLC), 1 atypical carcinoid (AC) and 5 typical carcinoid (TC) samples were included in this study. Tumor sections were immunohistochemically stained for 4F2hc (CD98), glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) and 3 (Glut3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), hexokinase I, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), microvessel density (CD34), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway (p-Akt, p-mTOR and p-S6K) and for a cell cycle regulator (p53). 4F2hc was overexpressed in 0% of the pulmonary carcinoids (TCs and ACs), 62.5% of the LCNECs and 50.0% of the SCLCs. A positive 4F2hc expression was ...
1. Hosp. Brigadeiro-UNIFESP-B12-6746:. CNS: Chordoid glioma of the 3rd venticle (IHC: Vim, AE1AE3,CD34 positive; KI67 focal; S100, Progesterone R, CD99 negative.. 2. Ribeirão Preto- Hypothalamic hamartoma.. 3.Salomão & Zoppi- IH12-1365. Burkitt lymphoma, primary from the CNS. (IHC: CD20, CD79a, CD10, Pax5 positive; KIi67 more than. 95%; EBV positive in 25-40 of the cells) (Brit.J. Surg. 1998; 46: 218).. 4. Suster case: SS12-5126:. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (IHC: CK7, CD56 positive; TTF1 negative). 5. UNIFESP- B12-7105:. Metaplastic carcinoma with a malignant stroma (matriz chondroid). (IHC: E-caderin, HER-2, estrogen receptor positive.. 6. Hospital Aliança: AP12-2630: Case 1: Hydropic abortion.. AP12/2358: Case 2: Complete hydatidiform mole.. 7. Botucatu-UNESP-Internet case: B-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma.. ...
We have developed and validated an immunocompromised rat orthotopic model of human large cell lung carcinoma and correlated the presence of circulating exogenous xenograft tumor marker proteins with disease progression. It was found that the orthotopic implantation of human large cell lung carcinoma cells into the tracheal airway of the nude rat produced a viable and feasible model of NSCLC lung cancer. Although there were definite clinical signs that were associated with survival, each animal displayed an independent disease process, similar to that seen in man. Animals that were able to initially adapt to the disease and succumbed to the disease later than other animals were found to have a greater tumor burden, whereas those that were moribund early in the studies and were euthanized showed less tumor burden. This variability in survival and tolerance to the symptoms and disease process associated with lung cancer mimic the clinical setting.. Tumor xenograft-secreted human IL-8 was identified ...
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality and requires more effective molecular markers of prognosis and therapeutic responsiveness. Special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1) is a global genome organiser that recruits chromatin remodelling proteins to epigenetically regulate hundreds of genes in a tissue-specific manner. SATB1 overexpression is a powerful predictor of poor prognosis in breast cancer, but the significance of SATB1 expression has not been previously evaluated in lung cancer. Results: In a cohort of 285 primary lung cancers, significant loss of SATB1 expression was found in squamous preinvasive lesions (P|0.042) and in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC, P|0.001), with adenocarcinomas, squamous cell and large cell carcinomas showing significant loss of expression (P|0.001) compared with matched normal bronchial epithelium. We found that loss of SATB1 independently predicted poor cancer-specific survival in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC; HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.1-3.7, P=0.016)
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is any type of epithelial lung cancer other than small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). The most common types of NSCLC are squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma, but there are several other types that occur less frequently, and all types c
non-small-cell lung cancer, which is the most common type, occurring in 80% of the cases; can be either squamous cell carcinoma (caused by smoking, develops in the cells that line the airways), adenocarcinoma (cells that produce mucus in the airway lining; this type becomes more common) or large-cell carcinoma (known also as undifferentiated carcinoma; the name is given from the large cell ...
Large-cell carcinoma is a heterogeneous group of undifferentiated malignant neoplasms that lack the cytologic and architectural features of small cell carcinoma and glandular or squamous differentiation. LCC is categorized as a type of NSCLC (Non-Small Cell Carcinoma) which originates from epithelia
New video from NET Kanker, the Dutch NET support group, with English subtitles. Poorly differentiated, high grade, neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC, stage 3) are an aggressive form of cancer. NEC originating outside the lungs are very rare. In this film expert physicians in NET and NEC explain about diagnosis and treatment options for NEC. The specialists from the centers of expertise are:. - Dr. Margot Tesselaar, internist-oncologist, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, ...
Badari Pulavarty ,[email protected], wrote: , , Andi, , , I noticed these on my AMD64 box earlier. Just a warning or anything , to be concerned about ? What happened with this one? Looks like a bug in the vesafb code. Do we know if it is fixed in 2.6.13-rc4? (Badari is on leave - could one of the fbdev developers please help out?) Thanks. , Thanks, , Badari , , NET: Registered protocol family 16 , PCI: Using configuration type 1 , mtrr: v2.0 (20020519) , ACPI: Subsystem revision 20050309 , ACPI: Interpreter enabled , ACPI: Using IOAPIC for interrupt routing , ACPI: PCI Root Bridge [PCI0] (0000:00) , PCI: Probing PCI hardware (bus 00) , ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKA] (IRQs 3 *5 10 11) , ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKB] (IRQs 3 5 *10 11) , ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKC] (IRQs 3 5 10 *11) , ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKD] (IRQs 3 5 10 *11) , ACPI: PCI Root Bridge [PCI1] (0000:08) , PCI: Probing PCI hardware (bus 08) , SCSI subsystem initialized , PCI: Using ACPI for IRQ routing , PCI: If a device ...
I had a tumor removed from my liver and it was diagnosed as NEC. They arent sure if its the primary but I had tumor markers done recently and all my levels were normal. Have any of you had markers done and levels were normal but more tumors were found? Im asking because less than 1% of NEC tumors originate in the liver and that is where mine was, so Im worried there might be something somewhere else that isnt excreting any horomones. ...
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Platinum, Carcinoma, Cell, Cervix, Chemotherapy, Combination Chemotherapy, Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Patients, Population, Survival
Klotho is known as an anti‑aging gene. We previously reported that the expression of Klotho is a postoperative prognostic factor for patients with lung large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and lung small cell carcinoma. Recently, Klotho was shown to suppress the epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT). In the present study, we examined the association between the expression of Klotho and the regulation of EMT in lung squamous cell carcinoma. We immunohistochemically examined the expression of Klotho in patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma who had undergone surgical resection or photodynamic therapy. The immunohistochemical analysis showed that Klotho expression was observed not only in normal bronchial epithelial cells, but also in centrally located early lung cancers, which were all carcinomas in situ and were treated using PDT. However, in lung cancer patients with invasive and or advanced squamous cell carcinoma who had undergone a complete surgical resection, Klotho expression was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Challenges in the diagnosis and management of well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the lung (typical and atypical carcinoid). T2 - Current status and future considerations. AU - Wolin, Edward M.. PY - 2015/8/25. Y1 - 2015/8/25. N2 - Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the lung represent approximately 25% of all primary lung tumors and can be classified as low grade (typical carcinoids), intermediate grade (atypical carcinoids), or high grade (large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma or small cell lung carcinoma). Low- and intermediate-grade lung NET are increasingly recognized as biologically distinct from high-grade lung NET based on clinical behavior and underlying molecular abnormalities. This review summarizes current knowledge and challenges in the diagnosis and management of low- and intermediate-grade lung NET. Accurate histopathologic classification of lung NET is critical to determining appropriate treatment options but can be challenging even for experts. For low- and ...
Doctor answers on Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and More: Dr. Wright on life chances with non small cell lung cancer: Stage 1 nsclc; surgical resection, appr70%5yrsurv stage2nsclc;surgery apprx. 30-35% 5 yr survival. for topic: Life Chances With Non Small Cell Lung Cancer
Clinical trial for Gastric Neuroendocrine Carcinoma | Islet cell carcinoma | Intestinal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma , Cisplatin Carboplatin and Etoposide or Temozolomide and Capecitabine in Treating Patients With Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Gastrointestinal Tract or Pancreas That Is Metastatic or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery
Clinical trial for Gastric Neuroendocrine Carcinoma | Islet cell carcinoma | Intestinal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma , Cisplatin Carboplatin and Etoposide or Temozolomide and Capecitabine in Treating Patients With Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Gastrointestinal Tract or Pancreas That Is Metastatic or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery
A summary of the article is shown below:. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as key regulators of numerous types of cancers. miRNA (miR)‑421 expression is dysregulated in a variety of tumors; however, its role in non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear. In the present study, the role and molecular mechanism of miR‑421 in NSCLC was investigated. In this study, miRNA (miR)‑421 was upregulated in NSCLC tissues and cell lines used the reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Ectopic expression of miR‑421 significantly promoted cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo by promoting cell cycle progression via CCK-8, colony formation, EdU assay, xenograft model and cell cycle assay. In addition, miR‑421 inhibited NSCLC cell apoptosis by flow cytometry apoptosis assay, as evidenced by anti‑apoptosis gene Bcl‑2 and apoptosis gene cleaved caspase‑3 and cleaved PARP using western blot assay. Furthermore, miR‑421 promoted cell migration and invasion ...
The study is designed for patients with non small cell lung cancer whose cancer is too advanced and therefore cannot be operated with the goal of completely removing the cancer. At this stage of the disease, most patients cannot be cured from the disease, however, treatment can help to live longer and better by keeping the cancer under control. For that purpose, patients traditionally receive radiation therapy or chemotherapy or both treatments in succession. Recently, the administration of both treatment methods given concurrently showed somewhat better results when compared to successive administration. In some studies the drug Taxotere together with radiation performed well in keeping the cancer better under control.. Combination of the drug Taxotere together with a compound called 5-FU either as continuous infusion or in its oral form of a pill called Xeloda enhanced its anti cancer activity substantially.. One goal of this study is to investigate how much of the combination can be given ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inactivation of LLC1 gene in nonsmall cell lung cancer. AU - Hong, Kyeong Man. AU - Yang, Sei Hoon. AU - Chowdhuri, Sinchita Roy. AU - Player, Audrey. AU - Hames, Megan. AU - Fukuoka, Junya. AU - Meerzaman, Daoud. AU - Dracheva, Tatiana. AU - Sun, Zhifu. AU - Yang, Ping. AU - Jen, Jin. PY - 2007/6/1. Y1 - 2007/6/1. N2 - Serial analysis of gene expression studies led us to identify a previously unknown gene, c20orf85, that is present in the normal lung epithelium but absent or downregulated in most primary non-small cell lung cancers and lung cancer cell lines. We named this gene LLC1 for Low in Lung Cancer 1. LLC1 is located on chromosome 20q13.3 and has a 70% GC content in the promoter region. It has 4 exons and encodes a protein containing 137 amino acids. By in situ hybridization, we observed that LLC1 message is localized in normal lung bronchial epithelial cells but absent in 13 of 14 lung adenocarcinoma and 9 out of 10 lung squamous carcinoma samples. Methylation at CpG ...
The results of the present study demonstrated that the use of statins led to a good response in patients treated with nivolumab for advanced NSCLC. A number of predictive biomarkers of nivolumab or other immune checkpoint blockade therapies have been previously proposed. PD-L1 expression on tumor cells was demonstrated to be a possible biomarker predictor of nivolumab or other immune checkpoint blockade therapies in patients with advanced NSCLC, melanoma or renal cell cancer (5,6,22). Besides PD-L1 expression of the tumor tissue, smoking history and oncogenic driver mutations (EGFR mutation and ALK fusion) were previously suggested to be predictive biomarkers (5,6). In addition, previous studies revealed that counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and lactate dehydrogenase levels in the peripheral blood could be predictive biomarkers of ipilimumab therapy for melanoma (24-26). However, evidence is not sufficient to use these indicators as predictive biomarkers. Therefore, in the present ...
Lung Cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in the United States with an estimated mortality in excess of 160,000, more than the combined morta
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G9419 Documentation of medical reason(s) for not including the histological type or nsclc-nos classification with an explanation (e.g., biopsy taken for other purposes in a patient with a history of primary non-small cell lung cancer or other documented medical reasons) ...
The patients from 12 centers were included into the study. pN2 patients received PORT, pN1 patients did not. PORT was 3D-planned and consisted in 54-5
This seems to be a problem on a number of Fujitsu Siemens Amilo models and also on other distros, so its not Ubuntu specific. At least M3438G (which I have) M4438, 7440G, M1439G and probably more[1]. It was discussed on the kernel bugzilla[2] but was finally rejected as not an ACPI bug. However, several of these models also carry a Linux-based media system called PowerCinema InstantOn, which has a working fan that adjusts after temperature. The company has a lot of source code available un...
The current Fascicle contains new information accumulated during the last ten years on tumors and tumor-like lesions of the gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts and Vaterian system. Because of the increasing number of laparoscopic cholecystectomies and Whipple procedures performed, surgical pathologists now have the opportunity to examine more cancer precursors, early cancers, and adenomas of the gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts and ampulla of Vater than previously. These lesions are discussed in detail and profusely illustrated. Likewise, lesions that closely simulate malignant neoplasms are also described and illustrated. Also included are the giant cell neoplasms and the gastrointestinal stromal tumors as well as the new subtypes of carcinomas such as large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and adenocarcinomas with pyloric gland or foveolar phenotype. The role of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of a wide variety of neoplasms is emphasized, as well ...
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene over expression correlates with poor prognosis in non small cell lung cancer patients. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC), also called small cell carcinoma or large cell carcinoma, is a rare and aggressive tumor that develops mainly in the lung and intestine. More rarely, NEC develops in gynecologic organs, with poor prognoses. We experienced a case of NEC in the broad ligament of the uterus. The patient was a 74-year-old woman with symptoms of abdominal distension and constipation. Ultrasound sonography detected an abdominal tumor larger than 10 cm. She was then admitted to our hospital. She underwent surgery under the diagnosis of ovarian cancer, but the bilateral ovaries and uterus were normal in appearance, and a tumor was developing instead from the broad ligament of the uterus ...
Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a medical term referring to a histological variant of malignant tumor arising from the uncontrolled mitosis of transformed cells originating in epithelial tissue (or in cells that display epithelial characteristics) that bear microscopic resemblance to lymphoepithelioma (nasopharyngeal carcinoma). There is considerable variation in the classification of LELC-while it is perhaps most commonly considered a subtype of squamous cell carcinoma, it can also be classified as a form of large cell carcinoma (i.e. when occurring in the lung), and can be considered as a separate, unique entity. In most anatomical sites, many cases are associated with the Epstein-Barr virus. In the breast, the macroscopic, microscopic, epidemiologic, and prognostic features of LELC are very similar to medullary carcinoma; EBV status is one differentiator. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma Lymphoepithelioma Travis, William D; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Muller-Hermelink, H Konrad; et al., eds. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunohistochemical markers associated with brain metastases in patients with nonsmall cell lung carcinoma. AU - Saad, A.G.. AU - Yeap, B.Y.. AU - Thunnissen, F.B.J.M.. AU - Pinkus, G.S.. AU - Pinkus, J.L.. AU - Loda, M.. AU - Sugarbaker, D.J.. AU - Johnson, BE. AU - Chirieac, L.R.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. U2 - 10.1002/cncr.23826. DO - 10.1002/cncr.23826. M3 - Article. C2 - 18720359. VL - 113. SP - 2129. EP - 2138. JO - Cancer. JF - Cancer. SN - 0008-543X. IS - 8. ER - ...
Thanks to the TRACERx nationwide team effort, including adoption of pulmonary vein (PV) blood sampling at surgery, we enriched and enumerated epithelial cells from the PV of 100 patients. These putative tumour cells were found in 48/100 patients and their prevalence was associated with poorer disease-free survival, confirming our pilot data. Whilst analysis in a larger cohort is required to validate this finding, the implication is that epithelial cell number in the PV at surgery could identify those patients at higher risk of relapse who need more frequent monitoring with serial ctDNA analysis4. We also discovered across the patient cohort that the majority of epithelial cells in the PV blood harboured few or no genomic aberrations. This mixed population of bona fide CTCs with cancer genomes and apparently normal epithelial cells in the bloodstream may have diluted the strength of lung cancer recurrence prediction. Further studies using more sensitive CTC technologies, including detection of ...
Stage 4 Lung Cancer Learn more about the symptoms and treatments of non small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer at homepage
Materials and methods: Patients with PDEC (small cell lung carcinomas excluded). WHO performance status 0-2. Adequate organ function tests. At least one previous platin-containing chemotherapy regimen. Informed consent. TMZ schedule: 200 mg/sqm orally days 1-5 every 28 days. Response evaluation at least every three courses ...
The number of therapeutic options for lung and pancreatic cancer is increasing because of the identification of new druggable molecular targets and development of new drug combinations
Dear Donna, I have four children and one of them will turn l6 tomorrow. Stay off the roads!! My oldest is l9, and I have a 7year old and a 5 year old. All girls except the 5 year old. Donna, did they drain any fluid from your pluera? They havent done that to my husband and I noticed they did to Suzanne. My husbands is in his chest cavity also. I wonder why they havent talked about draining any fluid? We are still waiting to hear from Dr. Lederman. Hope it is soon. Angelo only has two chemo sessions left. Good LUck in New York, Bless You, Mary , , Hello Suzanne, , , We are neighbors! I live in Sykesville, MD. I was diagnosed on July 13, 1998 , with adenocarcinoma, non small cell lung cancer. Upper right lung. I had all , the symptoms you did. I first went to the doctors on June 23. They did x- , rays, and Ct scan which turned up a 4.8 cmx4.0 mass. Right now they cannot , surgically remove it due to the location. I am 35 years old. I started , smoking when I was 18. I have three children (3,8 ...
Evidence-based recommendations on nintedanib (Vargatef) for treating locally advanced, metastatic, or locally recurrent non‑small‑cell lung cancer
Cathy. I had stage 3A nonsmall cell and was treated with carboplatin and taxol followed by same drug regimen in combo with radiation. I had phenomenol results. I finished treatment in Feb and I am cancer free. My oncologist says the drug combo can be differentl. You just have to find what works for you. I had a CT scan after the first round of chemo just to make sure it was working for me and I already had major destruction of the tumor. Good Luck. Cheryl. ...
[130 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Non Small Cell Lung Cancer Therapeutics Industry 2016 Market Research Report report by QYResearch Group. The United States Non Small Cell Lung Cancer Therapeutics Industry...
... is a cancer that starts in the lungs. When a person has lung cancer, they have abnormal cells that cluster together to form a tumor. Unlike normal cells, cancer cells grow without order or control and destroy the healthy lung tissue around them. These types of tumors are called malignant tumors.. According to the American Lung Association, there are two main types of lung cancer: small cell lung cancer and non-small lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancer is more common. It makes up about 80 percent of lung cancer cases. This type of cancer usually grows and spreads to other parts of the body more slowly than small cell lung cancer does. There are three different types of non-small cell lung cancer: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma. Each type is different, but they are grouped together because they are treated similarly. There are two different types of small cell lung cancer: small cell carcinoma (oat cell cancer) and mixed small cell/large cell ...
Pulmonary carcinoids are rare neuroendocrine tumours of the lung. The molecular alterations underlying the pathogenesis of these tumours have not been systematically studied so far. Here we perform gene copy number analysis (n=54), genome/exome (n=44) and transcriptome (n=69) sequencing of pulmonary carcinoids and observe frequent mutations in chromatin-remodelling genes. Covalent histone modifiers and subunits of the SWI/SNF complex are mutated in 40 and 22.2% of the cases, respectively, with MEN1, PSIP1 and ARID1A being recurrently affected. In contrast to small-cell lung cancer and large-cell neuroendocrine lung tumours, TP53 and RB1 mutations are rare events, suggesting that pulmonary carcinoids are not early progenitor lesions of the highly aggressive lung neuroendocrine tumours but arise through independent cellular mechanisms. These data also suggest that inactivation of chromatin-remodelling genes is sufficient to drive transformation in pulmonary carcinoids.
Ras. Ras is an oncogene that is altered in up to 30% of non small cell lung cancers (NSCLC).17 The ras protein is involved in transmitting signals through the cell that drive the cell into the division process. Learn more about Ras. Myc. The Myc family of oncogenes that are expressed abnormally in many types of cancer, including lung cancer. The myc protein acts as a transcription factor to regulate the expression of several genes. Learn more about transcription and transcription factors. Myc protein expression is altered in up to 80% of small cell lung cancers (SCLC).17Learn more about Myc. Rb. The retinoblastoma gene (Rb) is a tumor suppressor altered in up to 90% of small cell lung cancers (SCLC).17Learn more about tumor suppressors The Rb protein interacts with transcription factors to indirectly control cell division. Learn more about Rb. TP53. TP53 (or P53) is a tumor suppressor gene altered in up to 50% of non small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and 80% of small cell lung cancers (SCLC).17 ...
Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of lung cancer and represents a heterogeneous group of cancers, consisting mainly of squamous cell (SCC), adeno (AC) and large-cell carcinoma. Molecular mechanisms altered in NSCLC include activation of oncogenes, such as K-RAS, EGFR and EML4-ALK, and inactivation of tumorsuppressor genes, such as p53, p16INK4a, RAR-beta, and RASSF1. Point mutations within the K-RAS gene inactivate GTPase activity and the p21-RAS protein continuously transmits growth signals to the nucleus. Mutations or overexpression of EGFR leads to a proliferative advantage. EML4-ALK fusion leads to constitutive ALK activation, which causes cell proliferation, invasion, and inhibition of apoptosis. Inactivating mutation of p53 can lead to more rapid proliferation and reduced apoptosis. The protein encoded by the p16INK4a inhibits formation of CDK-cyclin-D complexes ...
Most pancreatic cancers are aggressive and always terminal, but Steve was lucky (if you can call it that) and had a rare form called an islet cell neuroendocrine tumor, which is actually quite treatable with excellent survival rates - if caught soon enough. The median survival is about a decade, but it depends on how soon its removed surgically. Steve caught his very early, and should have expected to survive much longer than a decade. Unfortunately Steve relied on a diet instead of early surgery. There is no evidence that diet has any effect on islet cell carcinoma. As he dieted for nine months, the tumor progressed, and took him from the high end to the low end of the survival rate ...
Could the Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio be a Poor Prognostic Factor for Non Small Cell Lung Cancers? Lung cancer;neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio;prognostic factors;C reactive protein; Background: Although many prognostic factors have been identified for lung cancers, new ones are needed to determine the course of the disease. Recently, a high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) prior to surgery or treatment has been shown to be an indicator of prognosis for cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of NLR as a prognostic factor and the correlation between NLR and other probable clinical prognostic factors in non small cell lung cancer patients prior to treatment. Materials and Methods: Data of patients who were diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer in our institution were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics were recorded. NLR was calculated before the application of any treatment. Results: A total of 299 patients, 270 (90%) males and 29 (10
Background: Clarifying the prognostic impact of histological type is an essential issue that may influence the treatment and follow-up planning of newly diagnosed cervical cancer cases. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of histological type on survival and mortality in patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma (ADC) and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC). Materials and Methods: All patients with cervical cancer diagnosed and treated at Chiang Mai University Hospital between January 1995 and October 2011 were eligible. We included all patients with SNEC and a random weighted sample of patients with SCC and ADC. We used competing-risks regression analysis to evaluate the association between histological type and cancer-specific survival and mortality. Results: Of all 2,108 patients, 1,632 (77.4%) had SCC, 346 (16.4%) had ADC and 130 (6.2%) had SNEC. Overall, five-year cancer-specific survival was 60.0%, 54.7%, and 48.4% in patients with SCC, ADC ...
Background: Tumor-related leukocytosis is a paraneoplastic syndrome that is encountered occasionally in the clinical course of patients with lung carcinoma. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prognostic significance of leucocytosis in patients with metastatic non small cell lung carcinoma. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 205 cases of metastatic non small cell lung carcinoma diagnosed between January 2007 and December 2012 at the department of medical oncology, Hassan II University Hospital of Fez, Morocco. Clinical and laboratory data were collected including white blood cells at baseline. Leucocytosis was studied in relation to overall survival and progression free survival. Results: The frequency of leucocytosis was of 57.5%. Patients with leucocytosis had shorter overall survival (OS, p = 0.015) and disease-free survival (DFS, p < 0.0001) than those without leucocytosis. In multivariable analysis, patients with leucocytosis had a significantly greater risk of death and recurrence than
They are susceptible to induced squamous cell carcinoma. They have large litter sizes, and their oocytes possess prominent ...
... was first used in large-cell lung carcinoma; in phase I/II trial of tocilizumab in ovarian cancer EGFR pathway ... A study using large doses of tocilizumab in pregnant animals has found an increased likelihood for spontaneous abortion and ... In Japan, tocilizumab is also approved for the treatment of Castleman's disease, a rare benign tumor of B cells. Early case ... On 30 August 2017, the FDA approved tocilizumab for cytokine release syndrome, a side effect of CAR-T cell therapies. No ...
Tocilizumab was first used in large-cell lung carcinoma. In phase I/II trial of tocilizumab in ovarian cancer EGFR pathway ... However, it has become evident that eccentric exercises are not associated with a larger increase in plasma IL-6 than exercise ... of patients with metastatic castration-associated prostate cancer in combination with docetaxel and in renal cell carcinoma; ...
... small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung (LCNEC) Extrapulmonary small cell carcinomas ( ... neuroendocrine carcinomas, which are the large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinomas. Additionally, the WHO scheme ... "Large cell carcinoma of the lung with neuroendocrine differentiation. A comparison with large cell "undifferentiated" pulmonary ... mixed exocrine-neuroendocrine carcinoma (goblet cell carcinoma, also called adenocarcinoid and mucous adenocarcinoid) Hindgut ...
ISBN 0-7216-0187-1. Mulvany NJ, Allen DG (January 2008). "Combined large cell neuroendocrine and endometrioid carcinoma of the ... Endometrioid carcinoma can also arise in the endometrium. Grades 1 and 2 are considered "type 1" endometrial cancer, while ... Carcinoma, Endometrioid at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "ACS :: What Is Endometrial ... Endometrioid tumors are a class of tumor characterized by a resemblance to endometrium/ endometrial carcinoma, and over a third ...
"Large scale identification of human hepatocellular carcinoma-associated antigens by autoantibodies". Journal of Immunology. 169 ... This trafficking receptor for phosphoglycoproteins may play a role in neuroplasticity by modulating cell-cell interactions, ... "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... This gene encodes a protein receptor that localizes phosphoglycoproteins within endosomes and at the cell periphery. ...
The rate of incidence varies from 0.5 to 4%. Cytologically, the cells of apocrine carcinoma are relatively large, granular, and ... When apocrine carcinoma is tested as a "triple negative", it means that the cells of the patient cannot express the estrogen ... The apical portion of the secretory cell of the gland pinches off and enters the lumen. It loses part of its cytoplasm in their ... Cells which are classified as apocrine bud their secretions off through the plasma membrane producing membrane-bound vesicles ...
"Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... Chromosomal translocation of BRD3 with the NUT gene has been implicated in NUT midline carcinoma. BRD3-NUT driven cancers are ... The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0041-KIAA0080) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from human cell line KG-1". DNA ... French CA (2012). "Pathogenesis of NUT midline carcinoma". Annual Review of Pathology. 7: 247-65. doi:10.1146/annurev-pathol- ...
... of lung cancers are large-cell carcinoma. These are so named because the cancer cells are large, with excess cytoplasm, large ... Non-small-cell lung carcinoma[edit]. Micrograph of squamous-cell carcinoma, a type of non-small-cell carcinoma, FNA specimen, ... The three main subtypes of NSCLC are adenocarcinoma, squamous-cell carcinoma and large-cell carcinoma.[1] ... are carcinomas.[12] The two main types are small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).[3] The ...
1994). "A large cell-adhesive scatter factor secreted by human gastric carcinoma cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90 (24 ... 2000). "Differential expression of the LAMB3 and LAMC2 genes between small cell and non-small cell lung carcinomas". Biochem. ... It is expressed in several fetal tissues but differently from gamma 1, and is specifically localized to epithelial cells in ... 1997). "Differential expression of laminin-5/ladsin subunits in human tissues and cancer cell lines and their induction by ...
Also note that the bladder wall is thickened due to possible transitional cell carcinoma. Large bowel (sigmoid colon) showing ... If the enterolith stays in place, it may cause no problems, but a large enterolith expelled from a diverticulum into the lumen ... Play media Guttural pouch: A large (300-500 ml), paired, air-filled ventral diverticulum of the auditory tube found in horses ...
"High specific induction of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase in a human large cell lung carcinoma". The Biochemical ... gene in human lung carcinoma cells". The Biochemical Journal. 313 (2): 691-6. doi:10.1042/bj3130691. PMC 1216962 . PMID 8573111 ... "HIV-1 Tat reprograms immature dendritic cells to express chemoattractants for activated T cells and macrophages". Nature ... "Systematic subcellular localization of novel proteins identified by large-scale cDNA sequencing". EMBO Reports. 1 (3): 287-92. ...
high grade neuroendocrine carcinoma, ICD-O 8246/3) *z dużych komórek (ang. large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, ICD-O 8013/3) ... squamous cell carcinoma, ICD-O 8070/3). *rak z limfoidnym podścieliskiem (rdzeniasty) (ang. carcinoma with lymphoid stroma ( ... signet ring cell carcinoma and other variants; poorly cohesive carcinoma, ICD-O 8490/3) ... Signet ring cell carcinoma of the stomach is significantly associated with poor prognosis and diffuse gastric cancer (Lauren's ...
... mucoepidermoid carcinoma, mucinous bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, signet ring cell adenocarcinoma, mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, ... Their failure to identify lamellar bodies and large dense granules seemed to rule out origination from either Clara cells or ... Tsuta K; Ishii G; Nitadori J (May 2006). "Comparison of the immunophenotypes of signet-ring cell carcinoma, solid ... For treatment purposes, MCACL has been traditionally considered a non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Complete radical ...
April 2009). "Specific expression of miR-17-5p and miR-127 in testicular and central nervous system diffuse large B-cell ... A Fingerprint for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma". Clin. Chem. 56 (12): 1871-9. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2010.147553. PMID ... a proto-oncogene which is usually hypermutated in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLCL). Moreover, differential expression of ... miR-127 and miR-136 however, are only maternally expressed in the somatic cells and thus play a role in antisense regulation of ...
... up-regulated in human carcinomas and modulating cell replication and tumor growth". Am. J. Pathol. 149 (2): 493-500. PMC ... Guijarro MV, Castro ME, Romero L, Moneo V, Carnero A (2007). "Large scale genetic screen identifies MAP17 as protein bypassing ... "Interactions of MAP17 with the NaPi-IIa/PDZK1 protein complex in renal proximal tubular cells". Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. ... a major scaffolder in brush borders of proximal tubular cells". Kidney Int. 64 (5): 1733-45. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2003.00266 ...
... is characterised by Paget cells. Paget cells are large cells with clear cytoplasm (clear halo) ... ductal carcinoma in situ cells migrate into the lactiferous sinuses and the nipple skin. Cancer cells disrupt the normal ... who distinguishes Paget cells from other cell types by staining tissues to identify specific cells (immunohistochemistry). ... There is some controversy as to whether these cells arise from the ductal system of the breast, or whether these cells are a ...
2004). "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (33): 12130-5. ... 2005). "Alternative mRNA splicing of liver intestine-cadherin in hepatocellular carcinoma". Clin. Cancer Res. 11 (2 Pt 1): 483- ... 2004). "Ksp-cadherin is a functional cell-cell adhesion molecule related to LI-cadherin". Exp. Cell Res. 294 (2): 345-55. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: CDH17 cadherin 17, LI cadherin (liver-intestine)". Gessner R, Tauber R (2001). "Intestinal cell adhesion molecules ...
Cells display pagetoid growth when they invade the upper epidermis from below. Squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma in situ, ... wherein the large tumour cells are arranged singly or in small clusters within the epidermis and its appendages. These cells ... This proliferation of cells in the epidermis is responsible for the 'buckshot scatter' pattern. This is a typical feature of ... Pagetoid is a term used in dermatology to refer to "upward spreading" of abnormal cells in the epidermis (ie from bottom to top ...
"Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (33): 12130-5. doi: ... "Genome-wide comparison of human keratinocyte and squamous cell carcinoma responses to UVB irradiation: implications for skin ... Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. Kusz K, Ginter-Matuszewska B, Ziolkowska K, Spik A, ... "Human Pumilio-2 is expressed in embryonic stem cells and germ cells and interacts with DAZ (Deleted in AZoospermia) and DAZ- ...
"ALK alterations in adult renal cell carcinoma: frequency, clinicopathologic features and outcome in a large series of ... Yaakup H, Sagap I, Fadilah SA (Oct 2008). "Primary oesophageal Ki (CD30)-positive ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma of T-cell ... neuroblastoma Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor Adult and pediatric renal cell carcinomas Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma ... Debelenko LV, Raimondi SC, Daw N, Shivakumar BR, Huang D, Nelson M, Bridge JA (Mar 2011). "Renal cell carcinoma with novel VCL- ...
... and large superficial basal cell carcinoma. Ten adverse events were associated with cupping. The minor ones were keloid ... Most such reports originate from Asia, which may reflect the large number of treatments performed there or a relatively higher ... the evidence was not conclusive due to the lack of large, high-quality trials. A 2005 Cochrane Review concluded that there is ... open heart surgery while awake was ultimately found to have received a combination of three powerful sedatives as well as large ...
Kidney Renal cell carcinoma Hurthle cell Micrograph of a renal oncocytoma. H&E stain. Micrograph of a renal oncocytoma. H&E ... large eosinophilic cells having small, round, benign-appearing nuclei with large nucleoli. Oncocytoma can arise in a number of ... The cells and the tumor that they compose are often benign but sometimes may be premalignant or malignant. An oncocytoma is an ... An oncocytoma is a tumor made up of oncocytes, epithelial cells characterized by an excessive amount of mitochondria, resulting ...
For example, in a study of cancer patients with a type of lymphoma called diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), serum levels ... Included in the findings was an association between hepatocellular carcinoma and the upregulation of miR-92a, a member of ... miR-17 has been confirmed to target the cell cycle transcription factor E2F1, a protein that not only promotes cell growth but ... "Detection of elevated levels of tumour-associated microRNAs in serum of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma". British ...
The rate of incidence varies from 0.5 to 4%.[3] Cytologically, the cells of apocrine carcinoma are relatively large, granular, ... Apocrine carcinomaEdit. Apocrine carcinoma is a very rare form of female breast cancer. ... The apical portion of the secretory cell of the gland pinches off and enters the lumen. It loses part of its cytoplasm in their ... Apocrine metaplasia is a reversible transformation of cells to an apocrine phenotype. It is common in the breast in the context ...
... while squamous cell carcinomas and large cell carcinomas are rarely positive. Small cell carcinomas (of any primary site) are ... large cell carcinomas, small-cell lung carcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors other than small-cell lung carcinomas and ... "TTF-1 and p63 for distinguishing pulmonary small-cell carcinoma from poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in ... TTF-1 positive cells are found in the lung as type II pneumocytes and club cells. In the thyroid, follicular and parafollicular ...
Oral carcinoma[edit]. Patients after HSCT are at a higher risk for oral carcinoma. Post-HSCT oral cancer may have more ... In the case of a bone marrow transplant, the HSC are removed from a large bone of the donor, typically the pelvis, through a ... who have lost their stem cells after birth. Other conditions[13] treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease ... Peripheral blood stem cells[26] are now the most common source of stem cells for HSCT. They are collected from the blood ...
2004). "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (33): 12130-5. ... As early as 1996, the over-expression of HAAH was recognized as an indicator of carcinoma in humans. Further research has ... 2002). "Role of the aspartyl-asparaginyl-beta-hydroxylase gene in neuroblastoma cell motility". Lab. Invest. 82 (7): 881-91. ... 1996). "Overexpression of human aspartyl(asparaginyl)beta-hydroxylase in hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma". J. ...
Whereas large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a subgroup of large-cell carcinoma, that has characteristics similar to ... Chemotherapy Effective For Patients With Resected SCLC Or Large-Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma. by editor ... concluded that patients with limited large cell neuroendocrine tumors or with limited stage small-cell lung cancer who were ... Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) represents about 15 percent of lung cancers annually. Of those, about 30 percent of patients have ...
Peripheral T-cell lymphomas • Diffuse large B cell lymphoma • Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia • Hairy cell leukaemia • ... 431O - Derks J, et al. Genomic Subtypes of Pulmonary Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma (LCNEC) may Predict Chemotherapy ... Improved Survival Demonstrated with NSCLC-chemotherapy in Pulmonary Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma with RB1 wild-type. ... Improved Survival Demonstrated with NSCLC-chemotherapy in Pulmonary Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma with RB1 Wild-type ...
Primary Signet-ring cell carcinoma (Linitus Plastica) of the colon and rectum is a rare form of adenocarcinoma of the large ... 1. Giacchero A, Aste H, Barachhini P, Conio M, Fulcheri E, Laperto G, Tanzi R. Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of large ... Signet ring carcinoma of the stomach. Cancer. 1992;69:1645-1650. 6. Tendon M, Sostek M, Klein MA. Focus of signet ring-cell ... Signet ring cell carcinoma; Colorectal neoplasm; Linitus plastica. Subjects:. JOURNALS , Online Journal of Health and Allied ...
Large cells that contain abundant mitochondria. *Coarsely granular cytoplasm. *On immunohistochemistry, characteristic findings ... Synonyms and Keywords: Fibrolamellar carcinoma; FLC Overview. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLC) is a rare subtype of ... Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma was first described Edmondson in 1956.[1][2] Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma is ... Differentiating Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma from Other Diseases. *Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma must be ...
Large-cell carcinomas can begin in any part of the lung and tend to grow very quickly. ... of all lung cancers are large-cell carcinomas. There is some dispute as to whether these constitute a distinct type of cancer ... or are merely a group of unusual squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. ... Other articles where Large-cell carcinoma is discussed: … ... Large-cell carcinoma. pathology. THIS IS A DIRECTORY PAGE. ...
... but Memorial Sloan Kettering experts have experience treating both large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell carcinoma ... Gastrointestinal small cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage, after they have ... The following tests may be performed to confirm a diagnosis of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma or small cell carcinoma. ... Because small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract are usually found at an advanced ...
... with the three most common ones being small cell carcinoma, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and carcinoid tumors. Based on ... Morphologically, it is the large cell carcinoma in which tumor cells are typically more than three times greater than the ... Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma primarily in the pericardium. a case report and literature review. Yin, Yue1; Zhang, Yun1; ... Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the endometrium: a case report and literature review. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2018; 57: ...
... large cell carcinoma of the lung Clear cell carcinoma of the lung Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lung Large-cell lung ... LCC is differentiated from small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) primarily by the larger size of the anaplastic cells, a higher ... carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung One clinically significant subtype is "large- ... Large-cell carcinoma (LCC) is a heterogeneous group of undifferentiated malignant neoplasms that lack the cytologic and ...
... P. N. Shakuntala,1 K. Uma ... C. F. Lindboe, "Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ovary," APMIS, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 169-176, 2007. View at Publisher ... P. Dundr, D. Fischerová, C. Povýšil, and D. Cibula, "Primary pure large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ovary," Pathology ... J. M. Kim, H. C. Shin, and M. J. Kim, "Ovarian large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma associated with endocervical-like mucinous ...
What is large cell carcinoma? Meaning of large cell carcinoma medical term. What does large cell carcinoma mean? ... Looking for online definition of large cell carcinoma in the Medical Dictionary? large cell carcinoma explanation free. ... large cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.. oat cell carcinoma a form of small cell carcinoma in which the cells are ... large cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.. cholangiocellular carcinoma a rare type of ...
Akamatsu S, Kanamaru S, Ishihara M, Sano T, Soeda A, Hashimoto K. Primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary ... Noske A, Pahl S. Combined adenosquamous and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder. Virch Arch 2006;449:135-136 ... Hao H, Itoyama M, Tsubamoto H, Tsujimoto M, Hirota S. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix associated with ... Deodhar KK, Kerkar RA, Suryawanshi P, Menon H, Menon S. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the endometrium: an extremely ...
... but patients with large tumors (> 5 cm) have elevated rates of locoregional recurrence. With conformal radiation... ... Dose escalation Anal cancer Large tumors Overall survival benefit Squamous cell carcinoma ... The effect of dose escalation for large squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal. ... Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus at one hospital from 1948 to 1984. Br J Surg. 1989;76:806-10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Learn the symptoms, treatments, and prognosis of large cell carcinoma of the lungs. ... Large cell carcinoma is a form of non-small cell lung cancer. ... Large cell carcinomas are also called large cell lung cancers. ... One variant of large cell carcinoma, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, has a poorer prognosis than large cell carcinoma. ... Large cell carcinoma of the lungs is a form of non-small cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancers account for 80 percent ...
SC-002 in Small Cell Lung Cancer and Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ... Part 1A is a dose escalation study in patients with small cell lung cancer or large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with ... Small Cell Lung Carcinoma. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Carcinoma. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplasms by Histologic ... This is a Phase 1a/1b study of SC-002 in patients with relapsed small cell lung cancer (SCLC) or large cell neuroendocrine ...
... sequencing of pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma reveals small cell carcinoma-like and non-small cell carcinoma-like ... Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: an aggressive form of non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2005;130:166-72 ... Purpose: Although large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung shares many clinical characteristics with small-cell ... Genomic Profiling of Large-Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Lung. Tomohiro Miyoshi, Shigeki Umemura, Yuki Matsumura, ...
Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung (LCNEC) is a highly malignant neoplasm arising from transformed epithelial ... It is currently considered to be a subtype of large cell lung carcinoma. LCNEC is often generically grouped among the non-small ... "combined large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma" (c-LCNEC). Travis, William D; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Muller-Hermelink, H Konrad; ... cell lung carcinomas. The World Health Organization classification of lung tumors recognizes a variant of LCNEC, namely " ...
The RNA-seq profile of LCLC and other non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) ... This study also finds tools to diagnose LCLC and differentiate LCLC with other Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. ... We also identified the LncRNA differentially expressed in LCLC compared to lung squamous carcinoma (LUSC) and Lung- ... Undifferentiated large cell lung carcinoma (LCLC) accounts for 2.9-9% of total lung cancers. Recently, RNA-seq based studies ...
Neoadjuvant Vismodegib in Patients With Large and/or Recurrent Resectable Basal Cell Carcinoma (NICCI). The safety and ... Patients with at least 1 large (≥ 2 cm in diameter in head/neck region, ≥ 5 cm for trunk/extremities) basal cell carcinoma (BCC ... Patients with large (as defined above) recurrent basal cell carcinoma are also eligible. ... Carcinoma, Basal Cell. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Basal Cell. ...
A 73 year-old man presented with a large ulcerated plaque almost completely covered with a thick hemorrhagic black crust on the ... Large basal cell carcinoma of the scalp. Zeitschrift:. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift > Ausgabe 5-6/2017 Autoren:. MD José ... Rare association of cystic squamous cell carcinoma and small lymphocytic B cell lymphoma: successful surgical approach. ... Erratum to: Rare association of cystic squamous cell carcinoma and small lymphocytic B cell lymphoma: successful surgical ...
Molecular Subtypes of Pulmonary Large-cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Predict Chemotherapy Treatment Outcome. Jules L. Derks, ... Molecular Subtypes of Pulmonary Large-cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Predict Chemotherapy Treatment Outcome ... Molecular Subtypes of Pulmonary Large-cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Predict Chemotherapy Treatment Outcome ... Molecular Subtypes of Pulmonary Large-cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Predict Chemotherapy Treatment Outcome ...
Advanced Composite of Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report of Uterine Cervical Cancer ... "Advanced Composite of Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report of Uterine Cervical Cancer ...
Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a histologic and immunohistochemical study of 22 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 1998 ... Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a retrospective analysis of 144 surgical cases. Lung Cancer. 2006;53:111-115 ... Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a 10-year clinicopathologic retrospective study. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;77:1163 ... Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of prostate: a clinicopathologic summary of 7 cases of a rare manifestation of advanced ...
... in a large phase III clinical trial and was approved in patients who failed first-line therapy. This drug has been available in ... Axitinib has shown activity in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) ... Real world prospective experience of axitinib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma in a large comprehensive cancer centre. May 26 ... Axitinib has shown activity in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in a large phase III clinical trial and was approved in ...
Large Cell Lung Carcinoma Active Not Recruiting Phase 1 / 2 Trials for Paclitaxel (DB01229). Back to Large Cell Lung Carcinoma ... Veliparib With or Without Radiation Therapy, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Patients With Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer ...
Should large cell neuroendocrine lung carcinoma be classified and treated as a small cell lung cancer or with other large cell ... Identity, similarity, and difference between large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell carcinoma. [J Thorac Oncol. ... with those of patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) or other large cell carcinomas (OLCs) and to compare overall survival ... Pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a true high-grade neuroendocrine tumor needing prospective therapeutic data. [J ...
  • Refers to a heterogeneous group of high-grade carcinomas that feature cells lacking distinct histological or cytological evidence of any of the more specifically differentiated neoplasms . (wikipedia.org)
  • CUP), but that possess certain specific molecular, cellular, and histological characteristics typical of epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary difference between each subtype is histological (related to the unique characteristics of the cancerous cells). (moffitt.org)
  • The aim of this study is to provide this investigational drug to patients who cannot be optimally treated with conventional therapies and to collect efficacy and safety data on the use of Metvix PDT in subjects with field actinic keratoses, large/multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) or Bowen's disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We describe the first case of synchronous ILBCL and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast, and illustrate the diagnostic pitfalls and therapeutic dilemmas commonly encountered by clinicians when faced with ILBCL and synchronous tumours. (biomedcentral.com)
  • T2, T3, T4) locally advanced non-resectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma, concurrent extra-vesical (i.e., urethra, ureter or renal pelvis) non-muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium, or autoimmune disease or a medical condition that required immunosuppression. (yahoo.com)
  • Clinical features of ovarian large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: four case reports and review of the literature," Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine , vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 1083-1090, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Axitinib has shown activity in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in a large phase III clinical trial and was approved in patients who failed first-line therapy. (urotoday.com)
  • To investigate the efficacy of tazarotene in a large series of BCCs, better to define the clinical advantages and the mechanisms of action in vivo. (ovid.com)
  • The rarity of this carcinoma has restricted the understanding of its etiology and clinical outcome. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sarcomatoid carcinoma is a collective term for a heterogeneous group of NSCLCs that contain components of sarcoma or sarcoma-like cells. (icnet.uk)