Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Krebs 2Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Carcinoma, Medullary: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)Carcinoma, Adenosquamous: A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.Carcinoma, Endometrioid: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Carcinoma, Merkel Cell: A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Carcinoma, Verrucous: A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell: A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Carcinoma, Large Cell: A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells: The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular: A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous: A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Aconitate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.3.Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase ComplexFumarate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.2.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Chemoembolization, Therapeutic: Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mucin-1: Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Carcinoma, Basosquamous: A skin carcinoma that histologically exhibits both basal and squamous elements. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar: A carcinoma thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli. Involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular. The neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures. Mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells. Metastases in regional lymph nodes, and in even more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Urothelium: The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.Vulvar Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VULVA.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Isocitrate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 1.1.1.42.) EC 1.1.1.41.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Oropharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Phenylurea Compounds: Compounds that include the amino-N-phenylamide structure.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Carcinoma, Giant Cell: An epithelial neoplasm characterized by unusually large anaplastic cells. It is highly malignant with fulminant clinical course, bizarre histologic appearance and poor prognosis. It is most common in the lung and thyroid. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Urologic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.Niacinamide: An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Keratin-7: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Benzenesulfonates: Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.Ureteral Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the URETER which may cause obstruction leading to hydroureter, HYDRONEPHROSIS, and PYELONEPHRITIS. HEMATURIA is a common symptom.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Mice, Inbred BALB CUp-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Adenoma, Oxyphilic: A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askanazy cells.Carcinosarcoma: A malignant neoplasm that contains elements of carcinoma and sarcoma so extensively intermixed as to indicate neoplasia of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Adenocarcinoma, Scirrhous: An adenocarcinoma with a hard (Greek skirrhos, hard) structure owing to the formation of dense connective tissue in the stroma. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Eyelid Neoplasms: Tumors of cancer of the EYELIDS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.

A new concept of the function of elongation factor 1 in peptid chain elongation. (1/97)

An entirely new model for the mechanism of elongation factor 1 (EF-1) function is presented. Experiments in which mixtures of [3H]EF-1, ribosomes from Drebs II ascites cells and various additional co-factors were analyzed by chromatography on Sepharose 6B, show that EF-1 binds to the ribosome early in the translation process and remains bound on the ribosome during translation. Optimal EF-1 binding occurs on polynucleotide-programmed ribosomes carrying a tRNA in their P-site. On the other hand it was clearly shown that EF-2 attached at each translocation event and was then released before a new Phe-tRNA could be bound.  (+info)

Control of the mRNA for hepatic tryptophan oxygenase during hormonal and substrate induction. (2/97)

Glucocorticoid hormones increase the level of hepatic tryptophan oxygenase (EC 1.13.11.11; L-tryptophan:oxygen 2,3-oxidoreductase (decyclizing) by increasing its rate of synthesis. Studies were performed to determine whether this induction is mediated by controlling the level of the mRNA for tryptophan oxygenase of by changing the translational efficiency of a fixed level of mRNA. Activity of tryptophan oxygenase mRNA was quantitated in a Krebs ascites cell-free, protein-synthesizing system, supplemented with tRNA and rabbit reticulocyte initiation factors. De novo synthesis of the protomeric unit(s) of the enzyme was a linear function of the amount of mRNA added. Time course and dose-response studies in which the enzyme level and mRNA activity in livers from rats injected with inducing doses of hydrocortisone were compared indicate that the induction of this enzyme is accompanied by a proportional increase in the level of its mRNA. This was true for mRNA isolated from total liver as well as from cytoplasmic polysomes. Induction of the enzyme by its substrate, tryptophan, however, was not accompanied by a parallel increase in mRNA activity.  (+info)

Isolation of rabbit reticulocyte initiation factors by means of heparin bound to sepharose. (3/97)

Passage of cell-free extracts of rabbit reticulocytes through heparin-Sepharose affinity columns results in the loss of the ability of the effluent to initiate protein synthesis. This is shown by the loss of response to added rabbit globin mRNA or to inhibitors of initiation of protein synthesis, such as heparin and aurin tricarboxylic acid, and by recovery of initiation activity by addition of protein retained and subsequently eluted from the columns. The effluent retains, however, the ability to elongate protein chains. Only 0.8% of the applied cell extract protein binds to heparin-Sepharose columns. This bound protein, which can be recovered by increasing the salt concentration of the eluting buffer, has initiation factor activity equal to that of a crude initiation factor preparation obtained from rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes by extraction with 0.5 M KCl. The protein patterns on polyacrylamide gels of the initiation factors prepared by either method are very similar and indicate a protein mixture, which may represent a complex. These data confirm that heparin interacts specifically with initiation factos, and indicate that heparin-Sepharose chromatography will simplify procedures for the preparation of initiation factors.  (+info)

Endogenous messenger ribonucleic acid-directed polypeptide chain elongation in a cell-free system from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (4/97)

An in vitro protein-synthesizing system from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been made by a modification of the procedure for preparation of the Krebs ascites system. The protein synthetic activity is directed by endogenous messenger. Amino acid incorporation occurs over a broad range of magnesium and potassium concentration, being maximal at 6 and 85 mM, respcetively. The activity of this in vitro system is due to the elongation of polypeptides whose synthesis was initiated in vivo. The cell extract does not initiate synthesis with endogenous messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA), since 1 muM pactamycin, which blocks initiation on prokaryotic or eukaryotic ribosomes invitro, fails to decrease amino acid incorporation. Ten micromolar cycloheximide, however, inhibits incorporation by 87%. Moreover, this system is not stimulated by rabbit reticulocyte polysomal RNA, which directs the synthesis of hemoglobin in extracts of Krebs ascites cells. The translation of this messenger is not masked by high endogenous incorporation, because autoradiography of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels containing [35-S]methionine-labeled products shows that no hemoglobin is made. Preincubation of this system, which reduces the high endogenous incorporation by 80%, does not increase its capacity to be stimulated by either rabbit reticulocyte RNA or yeast polyriboadenylic acid-containing RNA. Polyuridylic acid, however, does stimulate polyphenylalanine incorporation. The failure of the yeast lysate to be stimulated by or to translate added natural messenger RNA, its insensitivity to low levels of pactamycin but inhibition by cycloheximide, and its relatively high magnesium optimum (the same as that for polyuridylic acid) suggest that it elongates but does not initiate polypeptide chains.  (+info)

The binding of tritiated elongation factors 1 and 2 to ribosomes from Krebs II mouse ascites tumor cells. (5/97)

Tritiated elongation factors 1 and 2 (EF-1 and EF-2) were obtained from Krebs II ascites cells which had been grown in mice injected with radioactive amino acids. The highly purified factors were sufficiently radioactive to be used in a study of the interactions between ribosomes and elongation factors. The following results were obtained. 1. EF-1 binding to ribosomes requires the presence of a polynucleotide, an aminoacyl-tRNA specified by the latter and a guanosine nucleotide carrying three phosphate groups. The hydrolysis of the GTP molecule involved in the binding reaction leads to the immediate release of EF-1. If GTP is replaced by Guo-5'-P2-CH2-P the factor remains bound to the ribosome and can be detected by sucrose gradient centrifugation techniques. 2. Likewise EF-2 binding to ribosomes can only be detected in the presence of GUO-5'-P2-CH2-P. 3. The affinity of ribosomes for EF-2 appears to be higher than for EF-1: PREINCUBATION OF RIBOSOMES WITH EF-2 inhibits the subsequent attachment of EF-1 almost completely. EF-1 prebound to ribosomes in the presence of GUO-5'-P2-CH2-P, POLY(URIDYLIC ACID) AND Phe-tRNA-Phe is partially removed from the ribosomes together with Phe-tRNA during a second incubation with EF-2. 4. Although EF-2 binding to ribosomes precludes any stable association between ribosomes and EF-1 it does not prevent the insertion of aminoacyl-tRNA into the ribosomal A-site. The attachment of aminoacyl-tRNA under these conditions enhances the binding of EF-2 to the ribosome. 5. The antibiotic showdomycin strongly inhibits the attachment of EF-1 to ribosomes and to a lesser degree impairs the binding of EF-2. 6. A-site ribosomes display a strong preference for the attachment of EF-2 and bind EF-1 only very poorly. The reverse is true for P-site ribosomes which are good substrates for the binding of EF-1 and bind EF-2 less efficiently than A-site ribosomes. These results and a number of additional findings made in this and in previous studies are discussed in the general context of the structure and function of mammalian elongation factors 1 and 2.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of collagen messenger RNA*. (6/97)

Chick embryo collagen-synthesizing polysomes were isolated by differential centrifugation. RNA extracted from these particles was chromatographed in oligo(dT)-cellulose solumns and the mRNA thus obtained characterized as collagen mRNA by its electrophoetical mobility in acrylamide gels (equivalent to 1.05 x 10-6 daltons) and its effect upon a cell-free system derived from Krebs ascites tumor cells. The incorporation of 3H-proline was markedly dependent upon rabbit reticulocyte initiation factors and inhibited by initiation inhibitors such as aurintricaboxilate and pyrocatechol violet. The incorporation product was characterized as collagen by its lack of tryptophan, digestibility by purified bacterial collagenase, and by its co-chromatography with unlabled chick collagen in Sephadex G-200 and CM-cellulose columns.  (+info)

Messenger activity of RNA transcribed in vitro by DNA-RNA polymerase associated to vaccinia virus cores. (7/97)

The coding properties of RNA transcribed in vitro by purified vaccinia cores have been investigated using Krebs ascites tumor cells, L cells, and reticulocyte lysates. Six to 10 proteins synthesized in vitro are separated on polyacrylamide gels by electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Their molecular weights vary from 10,000 to 44,000. The electrophoretic behavior of these proteins is similar to that of early proteins isolated from infected L cells. The tryptic peptide analysis of one of these proteins indicates similarity in amino acid sequences. These results show fidelity of both in vitro transcription and molecular weight above 44,000 are synthesized in vitro does not seem due to a competition between 12S mRNA synthesized in excess and RNA of a higher sedimentation coefficient present in a lower amount.  (+info)

Assay of protamine messenger RNA from rainbow trout testis. (8/97)

A low molecular weight RNA fraction possessing protamine mRNA activity was prepared from rainbow trout testis polysomes. Addition of low molecular weight RNA to a Krebs II ascites S-30 cell-free protein synthesis system strongly stimulated [14C]arginine incorporation into acid-insoluble material. This stimulation was completely abolished by 10-4 M aurintricarboxylic acid, an inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis at the level of initiation. Starch gel electrophoresis showed that labeled arginine was incorporated in vitro into products identical with both authentic protamine and histones as found previously (Gilmour, R. S., and Dixon, G. H. (1972) J. Biol. Chem. 247, 4621-4627). The 4 to 6 S RNA fraction, isolated from the polysomal low molecular weight RNA by sucrose gradient fractionation, enhanced the incorporation of [14C]arginine into acid-insoluble material and when this product was examined by starch gel electrophoresis, it co-migrated with authentic rainbow trout protamine.  (+info)

Nolan, R D.; Grasmuk, H; Hogenauer, G; and Drews, J, "Elongation factor 1 from krebs ii mouse ascites cells. Interaction with guanosine nucleotides and aminoacyl-trna." (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 1110 ...
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Nykanen, A., Holmstrom, E. J., Tuuminen, R., Krebs, R., Dhaygude, K., Kankainen, M., Jokinen, J. J., Lommi, J., Helantera, I., Raisanen-Sokolowski, A., Syrjala, S. O. & Lemstrom, K. B., 20 elokuuta 2019, julkaisussa : Circulation . 140, 8, s. 627-640 14 Sivumäärä. Tutkimustuotos: Artikkelijulkaisu › Artikkeli › Tieteellinen › vertaisarvioitu ...
Abilities: Genius-level intelligence, Ph.D in Psychology, Doctor of veterinary medicine.. Mousey Mitsi Murina grew up with her nose in the books. Ironically though, her parents were both lowly minions for hire; Iron Head Harry and Quick Draw Doris. Harry and Doris worked at different times for a variety of masked supervillains, such as: being tricksters under the Trixtress; cooking up trouble as short order cooks for Chef Pasty; and criminal Klowns under the Black Hat among other various nefarious occupations. So, it was just as surprising to Harry and Doris as it was to everyone else that their child Mitsi was a natural-born genius.. True to their criminal natures, Harry and Doris saw Mitsis brilliance as a vehicle to make themselves rich. They used their underworld friends and influence to get Mitsi the best tutors and into the best schools. Her parents relentlessly drove her to study non-stop. Mitsi had no time for friends or any kind of social life. Her every waking moment was spent ...
Highly purified RNase H (RNA·DNA hybrid ribonucleotidohydrolase, EC 3.1.4.34) from calf thymus was used to specifically remove the poly(A) sequences of purified rabbit globin mRNA after its hybridization with poly(dT). The deadenylylated globin mRNA was repurified by a one-step procedure including a nitrocellulose column. The poly(A) size and the content of unmodified mRNA were determined by hybridization with [(3)H]-poly(U), and it could be shown that the RNase H digestion method effectively removes this terminal poly(A) sequence. No difference in activity was found between mRNAs with and without poly(A) to initiate, elongate, terminate, and release newly synthesized globin chains in exogenous-mRNA-dependent, cell-free, protein-synthesizing systems from wheat embryo, ascites Krebs II cells, and rat liver. Furthermore, poly(A)-free globin mRNA competed with the same efficiency as authentic globin mRNA against chick ovalbumin mRNA when translated under total mRNA saturation conditions. It is ...
Scoli de soferi Timisoara este un site in care se promoveaza scoala de soferi Krebs din Timisoara, activitatile acestei scoli de soferi,in care se poate invata parcarea cu fata,parcarea laterala,parcarea cu spatele,plecarea in rampa,conducerea de noapte,scoli de soferi timisoara conduita preventiva,mecanica scoli de soferi si multe altele in vederea promovarii examenului auto si a obtinerii permisului de conducere.Scoli moto si examen moto Timisoara. Scoli de soferi Timisoara.
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Mehr Prävention im Leben - eine Qual? - Nein, mehr Qual-ität für`s Leben - Krebs und Prävention - Prävention, Einflussfaktoren und Krebsrisiken
Lee, H; Richards, V; and Furst, A, "Change in dry mass of ascites cells after hn2 treatment. Abstr." (1961). Subject Strain Bibliography 1961. 565 ...
Oh once again neej you seem to be a very confused soul… Hopefully you are intelligent get lost but I sense you arent that smart. Just because Distributed is in the name means nothing. Ill explain so people like you that dont grasp much hopefully wont make a fool of themselves a third time. Or maybe you are going for three times in a row?. My comment is in relation to the total power behind the DDoS attack as listed in the chart at the top of the article. The Attack barely touched over 2 GBps. However, Brian seems to be on the lucky end because the people upset at him dont have much of a backbone and had to use many hosts to reach these speeds.. Where-as it wouldnt be difficult for certain parties to hit just as hard with no more than two un-metered GB lines. Now lets imagine if said people actually got annoyed at someone they of course wouldnt use only two GB boxes. It is simply a statement as to how pitiful this attack was that it could be overpowered with a meager 2 hosts. Back to my ...
The major difference between anaerobic and aerobic conditions is the requirement of oxygen. Anaerobic processes do not require oxygen while aerobic...
Biology Lecture - 38 - Finishing the Krebs Cycle tutorial of Biology I course Online Tutorials. You can download the course for FREE !
Inflammatory reactions mediated by oxidative stress (OS) have been implicated in the deterioration of oocyte quality, which may lead to subfertility. Oxidative stress generated from enhancement of activated macrophages secondary to an inflammatory response are the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide (O2•−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical (•OH), and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), as well as, the pro-inflammatory enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO). Previously, it has been shown that these ROS have deleterious effect on oocytes; however the link between inflammation through macrophage activity and oocyte quality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated: 1) the mechanism through which direct exposure of ROS and MPO, or through their generation by activated macrophages, deteriorate oocyte quality and whether melatonin (MLT), a potent MPO inhibitor and ROS scavenger, can protect oocyte quality; and 2) the mechanism through which MLT inhibits MPO catalytic activity.
Definition of Encephalomyocarditis virus with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Krebs worked as a doctor in the Altona hospital and at the University of Freiburg. At the University of Freiburg he researched the urea cycle.. Because he was Jewish, Krebs could not be a doctor in Germany. In 1933 he moved to England. He worked at Cambridge with Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins. In Cambridge he researched biochemistry. In 1945 he became a Professor (teacher) at the University of Sheffield.. In 1954 he became a professor in Oxford. After his retirement, Krebs continued work at the Radcliffe Infirmary until his death. He was a fellow of Trinity College in Oxford.. ...
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Support healthy heart function* Why are Krebs minerals important? They can more easily support many functions in the body that require mineral replenishment:* Supplementation with Krebs cycle minerals is often used to enhance the production of energy at a cellular level, in the mitochondria.* Sustainable energy
Definition of Encephalomyocarditis with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
So are u saying avoid the Glisodin if you have gluten issues but the Energy Enzymes is ok? I have been on a desperate search for energy for years. Do...
NSE, or Enolase 2 (gamma, neuronal), is a human gene encoded by ENO2. It may also be known as: Gamma-enolase; Enolase 2; Neural enolase; Neuron-specific enolase; Gamma-enolase ; HEL-S-279. The encoded protein is an enzyme with an amino acid length of 434 and a mass of 47.3 kDa. Other isoforms may exist. NSE is a member of the Enolase family. Homologs of this gene exist in other organisms, including: Mouse, Rat.. Abbkine NSE Monoclonal Antibody was affinity-purified from mouse ascites by affinity-chromatography using specific immunogen. The antibody detects endogenous NSE proteins. Its suitable to be applied in WB, IHC and IF. Its verified to react with human, mouse and rat. The concentration of this monoclonal antibody is 1mg/ml.. Our group purchased Abbkine NSE monoclonal antibody for detecting NSE proteins in paraffin-embedded Human-colon tissue sections. Our sample were incubated with Abbkine NSE monoclonal antibody (diluted at 1:200) overnight at +4°C. The sensitivity of the antibody was ...
As I said above the Krebs cycle was discovered by Hans Adolf Krebs in the year of 1937. The Krebs cycle occurs in an aerobic organism that is part of the metabolic pathway where it converts carbohydrates into water and carbon dioxide for usable energy in cellular respiration. The Krebs cycle starts with a glucose molecule and that glucose molecule is broken up due to the process of glycolysis into two pyruvates or pyruvic acids. Glyciolysis occurs in the cytoplasm. Remember, the Krebs cycle must go around two times to create one PGAL or G3P (glyceroldeyhde 3 phosphate). The next step of the Krebs cycle is the pyruvate joins with CoA, or coenzyme A, and forms a two carbon molecule called an acetyl group. After this acetyl group is formed, it joins with a four carbon molecule called oxaloacetic acid forming a six carbon molecule called citric acid. This is why the Krebs cycle is also referenced as the citric acid cycle. Throughout theKrebs cycle carbon dioxide molecules are released. For example, ...
Edwin G. Krebs. Edwin G. Krebs is a soft-spoken, understated Midwesterner, but theres one thing that gets his goat. Since he turned his attention from medicine to biochemistry, people have been asking him about "his" cycle. They confuse him with Sir H.A. Krebs, the British scientist who won the Nobel Prize in 1953 for elucidating the metabolic Krebs (or tricarboxylic acid) cycle.. One person who made this mistake was the chairman of a clinical department at the UW School of Medicine in 1948, when Krebs started as an assistant professor of biochemistry. "I must confess that I didnt correct his wrong impression," says Krebs. "I was so uneasy about my status then that I enjoyed being treated with such deference, even for the wrong reason.". In 1992, Krebs and Edmond H. Fischer were awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for figuring out how reversible phosphorylation works as a switch to activate proteins and regulate various cellular processes. Their discovery was a key to unlocking ...
Infection with L. major is a well-characterized model in which differentiation of class II-restricted T cells into the two mature helper subsets is required for expression of the resistant and susceptible disease phenotype. Ii is required for stable expression of surface class II molecules and, as predicted, cells from Ii −/− mice have substantially lower amounts of surface class II that do not assume the compact conformation that characterizes stable peptide binding ((17), (28), (29)). The major immunologic consequences are twofold: a severely compromised ability to present processed antigens via the class II pathway, and a quantitatively and qualitatively altered CD4+ population due to aberrant selection by thymic epithelial cells unable to present self peptides in a normal manner ((40), (41)). Despite this drastic effect on the class II-dependent immune response, we could discern little consequence to the host in generating either Th1 or Th2 responses to L. major. How might we explain ...
What is the difference between Krebs Cycle and Glycolysis? Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle / TCA cycle) occurs inside mitochondria of eukaryotes. Glycolysis
Kitar Krebs, juga dikenali sebagai kitar asid trikarboksilik, kitar asid sitrik, atau jarang-jarang sekalisebagai kitaran Szent-Györgyi-Krebs[1][...
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In this Behind the paper: blog, I discuss the rationale for searching non-enzymatic, metabolism like chemical networks, and the circumstances that led to their discovery. I can also not omit to also make reference to some of the original reactions to this work,
I talk to real life cyberheist victims every week, companies that have lost well into six figures because some employee clicked a link they shouldnt have. How many of these victims were running antivirus? All of them. Guess how many had detections when they infected their systems? None. Im publishing a story later this week about a victim that clicked a link 4 days after it was emailed to her and her companys AV *still* didnt detect it. I continue to look for and encourage several different, unbiased researchers who arent getting paid to do the kind of testing needed to see just how much attention any of us should pay to what the antivirus companies - or their apologists - say about anything. I think Im close to making that happen with a similar month-long study of this same type of malware. Stay tuned. For anyone interested, about two years ago I wrote about a study from NGS Software, which actually did do some of the testing Ive been advocating, but on a shorter term scale. They found ...
1. The tumour cells were starved in a solution lacking Na+ and then transferred to a Ringer solution containing 2mm-sodium cyanide, 150m-equiv. of Na+/l. and 10m-equiv. of K+/l. Such cells were depleted of ATP and contained an endogenous pool of various amino acids equivalent to a 26mm solution. 2. At 4min. after the transfer the cellular Na+ content had increased by about 100% and roughly an equivalent amount of K+ had left the cells. 3. Under these conditions [14C]glycine was absorbed from an 11mm solution and reached the same cellular concentration by about 4min. The pool size increased by approximately the same amount (ΔGly), so glycine did not simply exchange with the endogenous components. 4. After 4min. with glycine, the cells contained about 20% more Na+ (ΔNa+) than the control and about 10% less K+ (ΔK+). The mean values of ΔNa+/ΔGly and ΔK+/ΔGly from five experiments were respectively 0·90±0·11 and 0·62±0·11equiv./mole. 5. A further indication that these two ratios were ...
Chiropractor, Eric A. Krebs DC, located in Austin, TX. We are a Family Wellness Clinic. We specialize in Pediatric care and care during pregnancy. Dr. Krebs is certified in the
Im Forschungsverbund forimmun kooperieren 12 Gruppen aus 5 verschiedenen, bayerischen Universitäten mit 11 Industriepartnern aus der Biotech-Branche. Ziel ist die Entwicklung neuer immuntherapeutischer Konzepte gegen Krebs, Infektionen, Allergien und Autoimmunerkrankungen. Der Forschungsverbund will dabei so unterschiedliche Bereiche wie Onkologie, Infektionsbiologie, Immunologie und Genomforschung vernetzen. Die Bayerische Forschungsstiftung fürdert den Verbund mit 2,5 Mio. Euro für eine Laufzeit von 3 Jahren.Infektions- und Krebserkrankungen verursachen weltweit über die Hälfte aller Todesfälle. Konventionelle Therapiekonzepte wie der Einsatz von Antibiotika bei Infektionen und Chemotherapie oder Bestrahlung bei Krebs stoßen immer wieder an ihre Grenzen. Kritisch ist vor allem das vermehrte Auftreten von Resistenzen und Mutationen bei vielen Infektionserregern und Tumorzellen. Sie sind so in der Lage sich immer wieder einer Behandlung zu entziehen. Aus diesen Gründen sind neue Strategien zur
Das Nationale Centrum für Tumorerkrankungen (NCT) Heidelberg vereinigt Patientenversorgung, Krebsforschung und Krebsprävention unter einem Dach, um alle für den Kampf gegen Krebs relevanten Aspekte zu berücksichtigen.
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Shop Running On The Krebs Cycle (Science Humour) Coffee Mug created by wordsunwords. Personalise it with photos & text or purchase as is!
This short slide set explains the uniformity of the Krebs cycle across all life using evolutionary theory. Save the slide set to your computer to view the explanation and notes that go along with each slide.. Author/Source: ...
Tryptophan oxygenase (tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase) activity increases immediately before the initiation of actinomycin D production by Streptomyces parvullus. We have attempted to discern whether this increase is due to a release from catabolite repression or to the synthesis of an inducer substance. The standard culture medium (glutamic acid-histidine-fructose medium) used in antibiotic production studies with S. parvullus contains l-glutamate as a major constituent. l-Glutamate is almost totally consumed before the onset of actinomycin D synthesis. The addition of 10 mM l-glutamate at this stage completely abolished actinomycin D production as well as tryptophan oxygenase synthesis. Fourteen amino acids were tested for a similar effect. Of these, l-glutamate and l-aspartate had the most dramatic effect on tryptophan oxygenase and beta-galactosidase (beta-d-galactosidase), another inducible enzyme. Standard glutamic acid-histidine-fructose medium, preincubated for 23 h to remove l-glutamate, allowed the
Buy, download and read Food: A Very Short Introduction ebook online in EPUB or PDF format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and Mobile readers. Author: John Krebs. ISBN: 9780191637001. Publisher: OUP Oxford. In this Very Short Introduction, Prof Lord John Krebs provides a brief history of human food, from our remote ancestors 3 million years ago to the present day. By looking at the four great transitions
Edwin Gerhard Krebs (lahir di Lansing, Iowa, Amerika Serikat, 6 Juni 1918 - meninggal di Seattle, Washington, Amerika Serikat, 21 Desember 2009 pada umur 91 tahun) ialah seorang biokimiawan Amerika Serikat. Ia belajar kedokteran dan mendapatkan gelar PhD dari Universitas Washington, Missouri. Ia kemudian menjadi profesor pembantu biokimia di perguruan tinggi yang sama. Kerja samanya dengan Edmond Fischer membuatnya memenangkan Nobel Fisiologi atau Kedokteran pada tahun 1992 karena berhasil menggambarkan bagaimana fosforilasi reversibel bekerja sebagai saklar untuk mengaktifkan protein dan mengatur berbagai proses seluler. ...
Aspects of metabolic regulation : papers contributed by some of his students and colleagues to mark the 80th birthday of H.A.Krebs, 25th August ...
Volume 1 ml (1 mg/ml) Description Anti-GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein) Tag (GF28R) Monoclonal Antibody Clonality | Host Species | Isotype GF28R | Mouse | IgG2b Immunogen GFP from the jellyfish Aequorea Victoria N-terminal peptide-KLH conjugates Specificity Recognizes native and denatured forms of GFP and its variants such as: EGFP, YFP, EYFP, and CFP Purification Protein A affinity chromatography from mouse ascites fluid Application Dot, ELISA, IP, IS, WB Sensitivity WB (with ECL): 1-10ng of purified GFP or GFP fusion proteins Working Condition WB (with ECL): 1:1000-3000 dilution (incubate for 1 hour at room temperature) IS: 1:500-2000 dilution For best results with other assays (e.g.: Dot, ELISA, IP, etc), please determine optimal working dilution by titration test Storage Store at -20 C for 2 years or more. Centrifuge after first thaw to maximize product recovery. Aliquot to avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Store aliquots at 4 C (add 0.05 NaN3) for several days to weeks Images Fig. 1:1000 (1 g/mL)
This coherent text translates the methods of statisticians into ecological English so that students may readily apply these methods to the real world. Ecological Methodology, Second Edition provides a balance of material on animal and plant populations. It teaches students of ecology how to design the most efficient tests in order to obtain maximum precision with minimal work. The first part of the text focuses on biological and technical issues in statistical methodology. Students learn about advances that have been made in designing better sampling devices, along with the techniques and equipment used for sampling. The second part deals with creating solid statistical design, and presents all methods that are well-known to statisticians in a language and context that students will easily understand.
Hydrolysis of the acetyl group from the 1-alkyl-2-acetyl and 1-alkyl-3-acetyl substrates occurs at apparently identical rates. The enzyme from Erlich ascites cells is membrane-bound. It differs from lipoprotein lipase (EC 3.1.1.34) since 1,2-diacetyl-sn-glycerols are not substrates. It also differs from EC 3.1.1.47, 1-acetyl-2-alkyl-glycerophosphocholine esterase ...
o Suchia Krebs, 1976 [1974?] sensu Parrish, 1993 ,?- †Dongusuchus efremovi Sennikov, 1988 ,?- †Energosuchus garjainovi Ochev, 1986 ,?- †Euscolosuchus olseni Sues, 1992 ,?- †Jaikosuchus magnus (Ochev, 1979) [Chasmatosuchus magnus Ochev, 1979] ,?-o †Tsylmosuchus Sennikov, 1990 , ,-- †T. jakovlevi Sennikov, 1990 , ,-- †T. samariensis Sennikov, 1990 , ,-- †T. donensis Sennikov, 1990 , `-- †T. sp. [Sennikov, 1990] [NE Europe] ,?- †Vytshegdosuchus zheshartensis Sennikov, 1988 ,-- †Saurosuchus galilei Reig, 1959 `--+-- †Batrachotomus kupferzellensis Gower, 2000? ,--o †Prestosuchidae Romer, 1966 sensu Parrish, 1993 , ,?- †Ticinosuchus ferox Krebs, 1965 ["Mandasuchus" Charig, 1957] , ,-- †Yarasuchus deccanensis Sen, 2005 , ,-- †Tikisaurus romeri Chatterjee & Majumdar, 1987 , `--o †Prestosuchus Huene, 1942 , ,-- †P. chiniquensis Huene, 1942 , `?- †P. loricatus Huene, 1942 [cospecific with P. chiniquensis sensu Parrish, 1993] ,?- †Rauisuchidae Huene, 1942 ...
1919 is a American Pale Wheat Ale style beer brewed by Choc Beer Co. / Petes Place in Krebs, OK. 3.36 average with 201 ratings, reviews and opinions.
The accuracy and stability of caffeine and halothane concentrations in liquid Krebs medium were examined. Caffeine-Krebs Ringers solution in incremental concentrations from 0.25 to 10 mM (N = 8 for each concentration) was serially assayed over a thr
Das Nationale Centrum für Tumorerkrankungen (NCT) Heidelberg vereinigt Patientenversorgung, Krebsforschung und Krebsprävention unter einem Dach, um alle für den Kampf gegen Krebs relevanten Aspekte zu berücksichtigen.
Krebs, M.; et al. (February 2012). "Analysis of Circulating Tumor Cells in Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Using ... for Circulating Tumour-Cell Detection in Patients with Metastatic Carcinomas". British Journal of Cancer. 105 (6): 847-853. doi ... 7 (2): 306-315. doi:10.1097/jto.0b013e31823c5c16. Farace; et al. (September 2011). "A Direct Comparison of CellSearch™ and ISET ... of circulating tumor cells as a prognostic factor in patients undergoing radical surgery for non-small cell lung carcinoma: ...
The mitochondrial isoenzyme is involved in the Krebs Cycle (also known as the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle [TCA] or the Citric Acid ... These include benign mesenchymal tumors of the uterus, leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma, and fumarase deficiency. ... and is also important in renal cell carcinoma. Mutations in this gene have been associated with the development of leiomyomas ... then leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma/Reed's syndrome (multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis) could result. ...
The truncated Krebs cycle and other metabolic ramifications of mitochondrial membrane cholesterol". J. Biol. Chem. 259 (16): ... lymphocyte reactivity and death in patients with bronchial carcinoma". J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 115 (6): 571-574. doi: ... citric acid cycle, malate-aspartate shuttle Krebs, HA; Bellamy D (1960). "The interconversion of glutamic acid and aspartic ... "Glutaminase and glutamine synthetase activities in human cirrhotic liver and hepatocellular carcinoma". Cancer Res. 52 (5): ...
... adrenal carcinomas and lymphomas. There is recent and growing interest in fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. The molecular ... Fischer and Krebs won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1992 for this discovery and their continued work on kinases ... Fischer EH, Krebs EG (Sep 1955). "Conversion of phosphorylase b to phosphorylase a in muscle extracts". The Journal of ... Edmond H. Fischer and Edwin G. Krebs at the University of Washington discovered PKA in the late 1950s while working through the ...
Homma MK, Li D, Krebs EG, Yuasa Y, Homma Y (April 2002). "Association and regulation of casein kinase 2 activity by adenomatous ... "Expression and interaction of different catenins in colorectal carcinoma cells". International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 8 ... 3.0.CO;2-9. PMID 10805953. van Es JH, Giles RH, Clevers HC (March 2001). "The many faces of the tumor suppressor gene APC". ... 327 (2): 359-67. doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(03)00144-X. PMID 12628243. Davies G, Jiang WG, Mason MD (April 2001). "The interaction ...
Increased nuclear β-catenin levels have also been noted in basal cell carcinoma (BCC), head and neck squamous cell carcinoma ( ... Homma MK, Li D, Krebs EG, Yuasa Y, Homma Y (April 2002). "Association and regulation of casein kinase 2 activity by adenomatous ... Ren J, Li Y, Kufe D (May 2002). "Protein kinase C delta regulates function of the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma antigen in beta-catenin ... Yamamoto M, Bharti A, Li Y, Kufe D (May 1997). "Interaction of the DF3/MUC1 breast carcinoma-associated antigen and beta- ...
... esophageal carcinoma, lung cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and neuroblastoma. HLA-F has also been associated with ... "Entrez Gene: HLA-F major histocompatibility complex, class I, F". Krebs J, Goldstein E, Kilpatrick S (2014). "Chapter 18: ... and carcinoma. HLA-F is expressed on the cell surface of activated lymphocytes, HeLa cells, EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid ... "Lesion human leukocyte antigen-F expression is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma". ...
... carcinoma, krebs 2 MeSH C04.557.470.200.260 --- carcinoma, large cell MeSH C04.557.470.200.280 --- carcinoma, lewis lung MeSH ... carcinoma, ehrlich tumor MeSH C04.557.470.200.220 --- carcinoma, giant cell MeSH C04.557.470.200.240 --- carcinoma in situ MeSH ... carcinoma, acinar cell MeSH C04.557.470.200.025.220 --- carcinoma, adenoid cystic MeSH C04.557.470.200.025.232 --- carcinoma, ... carcinoma, medullary MeSH C04.557.465.625.650.240.325 --- carcinoma, merkel cell MeSH C04.557.465.625.650.240.390 --- carcinoma ...
Mollenhauer J, Herbertz S, Helmke B, Kollender G, Krebs I, Madsen J, Holmskov U, Sorger K, Schmitt L, Wiemann S, Otto HF, Gröne ... "DMBT1 expression and glycosylation during the adenoma-carcinoma sequence in colorectal cancer". Biochem. Soc. Trans. 33 (Pt 4 ... Mollenhauer J, Holmskov U, Wiemann S, Krebs I, Herbertz S, Madsen J, Kioschis P, Coy JF, Poustka A (1999). "The genomic ... J. 366 (Pt 2): 511-20. doi:10.1042/BJ20011876. PMC 1222789 . PMID 12015815. Bikker FJ, Ligtenberg AJ, Nazmi K, Veerman EC, ...
In 2004, the technology was pioneered in the midwest United States at Miami Valley Hospital in Dayton, Ohio by Mark Krebs, MD, ... 1971). "Prospects for Cryo-Immunotherapy in Cases of Metastasizing Carcinoma of the Prostate". Cryobiology. 8 (3): 271-79. doi: ... Cryoablation has similar outcomes to radiofrequency ablation when treating renal cell carcinoma.[2] ... carcinomas and epitheliomas. De Quervain successfully used of carbonic snow to treat bladder papillomas and bladder cancers in ...
Heme increases the mitochondrial activity thereby helping in activation of respiratory system Krebs Cycle and Electron ... Qumseya, BJ; David, W; Wolfsen, HC (January 2013). "Photodynamic Therapy for Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Carcinoma". ... The enzymes involved in this pathway are glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, glutamyl-tRNA reductase, and glutamate-1-semialdehyde 2,1- ...
Lewin, Benjamin., Krebs, Jocelyn E., Kilpatrick, Stephen T., Goldstein, Elliott S., Lewin, Benjamin. (10th ed.). Sudbury, Mass ... "Contradictory mRNA and protein misexpression of EEF1A1 in ductal breast carcinoma due to cell cycle regulation and cellular ... 2 (10): 17056. doi:10.1038/natrevmats.2017.56.. *^ a b Gousseinov, Elina; Kozlov, Mikhail; Scanlan, Claire; Hammons, Aaron; Bei ... 6 (2): 149-52. doi:10.4161/rna.6.2.8046.. *^ Cenik, Can; Chua, Hon Nian; Zhang, Hui; Tarnawsky, Stefan P.; Akef, Abdalla; Derti ...
Boulter CA, Wagner EF (March 1988). "The effects of v-src expression on the differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells". ... Raisky O, Nykänen AI, Krebs R, et al. (April 2007). "VEGFR-1 and -2 regulate inflammation, myocardial angiogenesis, and ... March 2006). "Decreased expression of the human stem cell marker, Rex-1 (zfp-42), in renal cell carcinoma". Carcinogenesis. 27 ... Przyborski SA (2001). "Isolation of human embryonal carcinoma stem cells by immunomagnetic sorting". Stem Cells. 19 (6): 500-4 ...
Krebs I, Weis I, Hudler M, Rommens JM, Roth H, Scherer SW, Tsui LC, Füchtbauer EM, Grzeschik KH, Tsuji K, Kunz J (Jul 1997). " ... Zhao XL, Sun T, Che N, Sun D, Zhao N, Dong XY, Gu Q, Yao Z, Sun BC (Mar 2011). "Promotion of hepatocellular carcinoma ... Over-expression of Twist or methylation of its promoter is common in metastatic carcinomas. Hence targeting Twist has a great ... 3.0.CO;2-0. PMID 10572240. Kress W, Schropp C, Lieb G, Petersen B, Büsse-Ratzka M, Kunz J, Reinhart E, Schäfer WD, Sold J, ...
LIFR is down regulated in a number of breast carcinomas and may serve a prognostic tool. Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: ... Schiemann WP, Graves LM, Baumann H, Morella KK, Gearing DP, Nielsen MD, Krebs EG, Nathanson NM (June 1995). "Phosphorylation of ... 162 (1-2): 145-9. doi:10.1016/S0303-7207(00)00200-8. PMID 10854707. Blanchard F, Duplomb L, Wang Y, Robledo O, Kinzie E, Pitard ... regulation of leukemia inhibitory factor-stimulated neuronal gene expression by protein phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 through ...
In 1954, Hans Adolf Krebs succeeded Sir Rudolph Peters as Professor and Head of the Department of Biochemistry, to which the ... with the latter leading to leukaemia and the latter to carcinoma of the bronchus and to the predominance of carcinoma of the ... 2], and Cicely Williams. Much of his time was occupied in trying to raise funds, but to a very large extent the functioning of ...
"MicroRNA-210 regulates mitochondrial free radical response to hypoxia and krebs cycle in cancer cells by targeting iron sulfur ... Mir-210 has been suggested as a useful biomarker to distinguish adrenocortical carcinoma from adrenocortical adenoma. mir-210 ... 63 (2): 94-100. doi:10.1002/iub.427. PMC 4497508 . PMID 21360638. Hu S, Huang M, Li Z, Jia F, Ghosh Z, Lijkwan MA, Fasanaro P, ... 7 (2): 265-7. doi:10.4161/cbt.7.2.5745. PMID 18347426. Camps C, Buffa FM, Colella S, Moore J, Sotiriou C, Sheldon H, Harris AL ...
Johann Heinrich Jänisch: Abhandlung von dem Krebs und von der besten Heilart desselben. 2. Ausg. St. Petersburg 1785 ( ... Displazija - Carcinoma in situ - Invazivni rak - Metastaze. Topografija. Anus - Mokraćni mjehur - Krv - Žučni kanal - Kost - ... Krebs in Deutschland, Häufigkeiten und Trends. (PDF; 2,4 MB) 4. Auflage 2004, herausgegeben von der Arbeitsgemeinschaft ... Deutsche Ausgabe: Der König aller Krankheiten: Krebs - eine Biografie, DuMont Buchverlag, Köln 2012, ISBN 978-3-8321-9644-8. ...
In 1956 Edwin Krebs and Edmond Fischer discovered that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is required for the conversion of glycogen ... February 2013). "Type 10 soluble adenylyl cyclase is overexpressed in prostate carcinoma and controls proliferation of prostate ... has been linked to human prostate carcinoma. Inhibition of sAC, or knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi) transfection has been ... 43 (3 Pt 2): 769-76. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(85)90250-8. PMID 3907860. Desch M, Schinner E, Kees F, Hofmann F, Seifert R, ...
Because succinic acid can not be made from succinyl coa, treatment is with oral succinic acid, which allows the krebs cycle, ... "Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". International Journal of Cancer. 83 (4): 456 ... 36 (2): 281-95. doi:10.1016/S1357-2725(03)00246-2. PMID 14643893. Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, Guo A, Goss VL, Spek EJ, Zhang H, ... 47 (1-2): 33-41. doi:10.1007/s10863-014-9586-4. PMID 25370487. Dobolyi A, Ostergaard E, Bagó AG, Dóczi T, Palkovits M, Gál A, ...
Allais-Bonnet A, Grohs C, Medugorac I, Krebs S, Djari A, Graf A, Fritz S, Seichter D, Baur A, Russ I, Bouet S, Rothammer S, ... melanoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines. It also has been shown that up-regulation of OLIG2 together with LMO1 ... 11 (2): 196-202. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4401332. PMID 14576772. Ligon KL, Alberta JA, Kho AT, Weiss J, Kwaan MR, Nutt CL, Louis DN ... 2 (4): e103. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020103. PMC 1087208 . PMID 15839736. Lin YW, Deveney R, Barbara M, Iscove NN, Nimer SD, ...
Svinarich DM, Twomey TA, Macauley SP, Krebs CJ, Yang TP, Krawetz SA (Jul 1992). "Characterization of the human lysyl oxidase ... LOX immunostaining has revealed that high LOX expression is associated with high extent of carcinoma invasion in samples ... 177 (2-3): 267-84. doi:10.1016/S0300-483X(02)00233-0. PMID 12135629. Wilmarth KR, Froines JR (Nov 1992). "In vitro and in vivo ... 16 (2): 401-6. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1203. PMID 8100215. Vetter U, Weis MA, Mörike M, Eanes ED, Eyre DR (Feb 1993). "Collagen ...
"Fiebertherapie bei Krebs vernachlässigt" (PDF). Ärztl. Praxis. 86: 3377. McCarthy, EF (2006). "The Toxins of William B. Coley ... by exposing the tumor to infection including the report of French physician Dussosoy who covered an ulcerated breast carcinoma ... 58 (2): 115-9. doi:10.1054/mehy.2001.1469. PMID 11812185. Kleef, Ralf; Hager, E. Dieter (2006-09-15). "Fever, Pyrogens and ... Roger, G.H. Séances et Mém Soc de Biol Paris 1890;2:573-580 "Coley Toxins". American Cancer Society. 1 November 2008. Retrieved ...
Lüscher B, Kuenzel EA, Krebs EG, Eisenman RN (April 1989). "Myc oncoproteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase II". The EMBO ... Malfunctions in Myc have also been found in carcinoma of the cervix, colon, breast, lung and stomach.[5] Myc is thus viewed as ... 57 (2-3): 109-11. PMID 1914517. doi:10.1159/000133124.. *. Blackwood EM, Eisenman RN (March 1991). "Max: a helix-loop-helix ... 2 (10): 764-76. PMID 12360279. doi:10.1038/nrc904.. *. Nilsson JA, Cleveland JL (December 2003). "Myc pathways provoking cell ...
Malfunctions in Myc have also been found in carcinoma of the cervix, colon, breast, lung and stomach. Myc is thus viewed as a ... Lüscher B, Kuenzel EA, Krebs EG, Eisenman RN (April 1989). "Myc oncoproteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase II". The EMBO ... 112 (2): 193-205. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(02)01284-9. PMID 12553908. FitzGerald MJ, Arsura M, Bellas RE, Yang W, Wu M, Chin L, ... 24 (2): 336-46. doi:10.1038/sj.emboj.7600509. PMC 545804 . PMID 15616584. Fuchs M, Gerber J, Drapkin R, Sif S, Ikura T, Ogryzko ...
"Löst Glyphosat Krebs aus? (announcement 007/2015)" (PDF) (in German). German Institute for Risk Assessment. March 23, 2015.. ... These include the induction of positive trends in the incidence of renal tubule carcinoma and haemangiosarcoma in male mice, ... Cl2P(=O)-CH2Cl + 2 H2O → (HO)2P(=O)-CH2Cl + 2 HCl. (HO)2P(=O)-CH2Cl + H2N-CH2-COOH → (HO)2P(=O)-CH2-NH-CH2-COOH + HCl. The main ... Archived from the original on April 2, 2013.. *^ a b "Resisting Roundup". The New York Times. May 16, 2010. Retrieved March 24, ...
Das Krankheitsbild des Typ-2-Diabetes scheint ber sehr distinkte Mechanismen und Signalwege mit dem Tumorgeschehen verkn pft zu ... El-Serag HB, Hampel H, Javadi F: The association between diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review of ... Diabetes und Krebs: Eine Bestandsaufnahme. Dtsch Arztebl 2016; 113(17): [18]; DOI: 10.3238/PersDia.2016.04.29.05 ... Institut f r Diabetes und Krebs (IDC), Helmholtz Zentrum M nchen, Joint Heidelberg-IDC Translational Diabetes Unit, Heidelberg ...
Krebs EG. (1990) Identification of multiple epidermal growth factor-stimulated protein serine/threonine kinases from Swiss 3T3 ... Therapeutic effects of CP-358,774 p.o. on human A431 carcinoma xenografts in athymic mice. Human vulvar A431 carcinoma cells ... such as non-small cell lung carcinoma and brain, bladder, breast, and ovarian carcinomas (Gullick, 1991). EGF at picomolar ... Inhibition of HN5 carcinoma xenograft growth by CP-358,774. In the experiment described in Fig. 4, tumor sizes for CP-358,774- ...
... being explored in an effort to develop more effective and selective treatment of patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. ... H.A. Krebs, R. Hems, B. Tyler. The regulation of folate and methionine metabolism. Biochem. J. 158: 341 (1976).PubMedGoogle ... H.S. Krebs, R. Hems, B. Tyler. The regulation of folate and methionine metabolism. Biochem. J. 158: 341 (1976).PubMedGoogle ... A phase II trial of continuous infusion 5-FU and weekly low dose cisplatin in colorectal carcinoma. Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol ...
Krebs ET Jr, Krebs ET Sr, Beard HH: The unitarian or trophoblastic thesis of cancer. Med Rec 163 (7): 149-74, 1950. ... mammary carcinoma E0771, Taper liver tumor, Ehrlich carcinoma (solid and ascites), and Walker carcinosarcoma 256. Not effective ... The term vitamin B-17 was given to laetrile by E.T. Krebs Jr, but it is not an approved designation by the Committee on ... Gostomski FE: The effects of amygdalin on the Krebs-2 carcinoma and adult and fetal DUB(ICR) mice. [Abstract] Diss Abstr Int B ...
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive skin cancer with an increasing incidence. The understanding of the molecular ... Krebs ,Medizin, (1). *MHC class I chain-related protein (1). *Molecular imaging (1) ... Activation of the PI3K/AKT Pathway in Merkel Cell Carcinoma (2012) Hafner, Christian ; Houben, Roland ; Baeurle, Anne ; Ritter ... Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare cutaneous neoplasm with increasing incidence, aggressive behavior and poor ...
Krebs K, B ttinger N, Huang LR, Chmielewski M, Arzberger S, Gasteiger G, J ger C, Schmitt E, Bohne F, Aichler M, Uckert W, ... Hepatocellular carcinoma originates from hepatocytes and not from the progenitor/biliary compartment.. J Clin Invest. 2015 Oct ... Infektion, Entz ndung und Krebs * Tumorvirologie * Prof. Jean Rommelaere *Publikationen Prof. Rommelaere ... Dual Role of the Adaptive Immune System in Liver Injury and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Development.. Cancer Cell. 2016 Aug 8;30(2 ...
Krebs. Isolation and characterization of human cDNA clones encoding the alpha and the alpha subunits of casein kinase II. ... CK2alpha/CSNK2A1 Phosphorylates SIRT6 and Is Involved in the Progression of Breast Carcinoma and Predicts Shorter Survival of ... Protein kinase CK2alpha subunit over-expression correlates with metastatic risk in breast carcinomas: quantitative ... The type 2 diabetes-associated gene ide is required for insulin secretion and suppression of alpha-synuclein levels in beta- ...
The effects of twelve monosaccharides on the oxygen uptake of Krebs-2 ascites carcinoma cells were determined during prolonged ... Of these inhibiting sugars, the nonglycolyzable were 2-deoxyglucose, glucosone, and mannoheptulose; and the glycolyzable were ... controlled the degree of inhibition and its time of onset when added to tumor cells in combination with 2-deoxyglucose or with ...
Carcinoma-Associated Mucin; Krebs Von Den Lungen-6; Peanut-Reactive Urinary Mucin; Polymorphic Epithelial Mucin; Tumor- ... intracellular localization, and changes in glycosylation of this protein have been associated with carcinomas. This. gene is ... Mucin 1, Cell Surface Associated; PUM; PEM; CD227; Mucin 1, Transmembrane; Breast Carcinoma-Associated Antigen DF3; Cancer ... CPTC-MUC1-2 peptide ELISA. Indirect ELISA (ie, binding of Antibody to biotinylated peptide coated on a NeutrAvidin plate). Note ...
Wasmer MH, Krebs P. The Role of IL-33-dependent Inflammation in the tumor microenvironment. Front Immunol. 2016;7:682.PubMed ... Detection of interleukin-33 in serum and carcinoma tissue from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and its clinical ... ST2 deletion enhances innate and acquired immunity to murine mammary carcinoma. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41(7):1902-12.PubMed ... Interleukin-32 expression and Treg infiltration in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Anticancer Res. 2015;35(5):2941-7.PubMed ...
... to the Krebs cycle vs. ii) active segment of the Krebs cycle with aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase-3 (ACO-IDH3), which is ... to the Krebs cycle vs. ii) active segment of the Krebs cycle with aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase-3 (ACO-IDH3), which is ... Human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells are forced to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), when cultured in aglycemic ... Human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells are forced to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), when cultured in aglycemic ...
HLRCC is characterized by germ-line mutation of the Krebs cycle enzyme, FH (33 , 34) . A shows an abdominal image of a young ... The VHL gene is the gene for the inherited form of clear cell renal carcinoma associated with VHL and for common form of ... type 1 papillary renal carcinoma (21) . (A) CT of abdomen reveals multiple bilateral solid renal tumors. (B) Representative ... BHD associated renal tumors may be chromophobe renal carcinoma (upper right), hybrid-oncocytic neoplasms (center right) or ...
Das letztere wird von den Pathologen in der Regel nicht mehr als echtes Carcinoma... ... Das ductale und das lobuläre Carcinoma in situ. ... Beim Carcinoma in situ der Brust unterscheiden wir 2 Formen: ... Maass H., Eidtmann H., Schreer I. (1993) Behandlung des Carcinoma in situ. In: Krebs D., Berg D. (eds) Gynäkologie und ... Ten-year results of breast-conserving surgery and definitive irradiation for intraductal carcinoma (ductal Carcinoma in situ) ...
Accumulation of Krebs cycle intermediates and over-expression of HIF1alpha in tumours which result from germline FH and SDH ... Renal cell carcinoma 2005: new frontiers in staging, prognostication and targeted molecular therapy. J Urol 2005;173:1853-62. ... Human renal carcinoma: characterization of five new cell lines. J Surg Oncol 1985;28:237-44. ... Renal cell carcinomas (RCC) are a heterogeneous group of tumors with a wide range of aggressiveness. Noninvasive methods to ...
Lumb, G.: Changes in carcinoma of the breast following irradiation. Brit. J. Surg. 38, 82-93 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Krebs, C.: The effect of roentgen irradiation on the interrelation between malignant tumors and their host. Acta radiol. ( ... Graham, R.M.: The effect of radiation on vaginal cells in cervical carcinoma. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 84, 153-173 (1947).PubMed ... Price-Jones, C., and J.C. Mottram: A contribution to the study of in vitro plasma cultures of mouse carcinoma and rat sarcoma. ...
... carcinoma (e.g., Walker, basal cell, basosquamous, Brown-Pearce, ductal, Ehrlich tumor, in situ, Krebs 2, Merkel cell, mucinous ... ovarian carcinoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, sarcoma (e.g., Ewing, experimental, Kaposi, and mast cell), neoplasms (e.g., bone, breast ... 2 are 20 μm.. The effects of double-stranded RNA corresponding to mex-3 on levels of the endogenous mRNA was shown by in situ ... 2C).. In contrast, the progeny of animals injected with ds-gfpG RNA are affected (FIGS. 2D-F). Observable GFP fluorescence is ...
Grading Karzinom Krebs Oncology Onkologie Staging TNM TNM staging system Tumor Classifiction Tumorklassifikation carcinoma ... These are specified only for carcinoma of the breast; for other sites, reference must be made back to the general rules. which ... 2.Early Detection Branch, Division of Cancer Prevention and ControlNational Cancer InstituteBethesdaUSA ...
... carcinoma (e.g., Walker, basal cell, basosquamous, Brown-Pearce, ductal, Ehrlich tumor, in situ, Krebs 2, merkel cell, mucinous ... 10 is a copy of an autoradiogram showing TRF lengths of ovarian carcinoma and control normal cells. DNA from cells in ascitic ... Characteristics of Ovarian Carcinoma Tumor Cells from Ascitic Fluid Mean TRF Telomerase Patient Description Length (kbp) ... Counter et al., "Telomerase activity in human ovarian carcinoma," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:2900-2904 (1994). Strahl and ...
ketoglutarate in the Krebs cycle and are thought to be involved in the prevention of oxidative damage within the cell [52, 59, ... 60]. IDH mutations, first identified in colorectal carcinoma and frequently found in brain tumors, arise in approximately 15-30 ... Furthermore, study of mutations occurring in epigenetic modifying genes has identified potential biomarkers, such as 2-HG in ... 2, no. 4, pp. 254-264, 2012. View at Google Scholar. *C. L. Green, C. M. Evans, L. Zhao et al., "The prognostic significance of ...
Carcinoma-associated mucin; CD227; DF3 antigen; EMA; Episialin; Epithelial Membrane Antigen; H23 antigen; H23AG; KL-6; Krebs ... Protein Aliases: Breast carcinoma-associated antigen DF3; CA 15-3; Cancer antigen 15-3; ... References (2). Have you cited this antibody in a publication? so we can reference it in this datasheet. ... Host server : magellan-tomcat-2-prod:8080/127.0.1.1:8080. ...
HLRCC is characterized by a predisposition to leiomyomas of the skin and the uterus as well as renal cell carcinoma. The ... It is involved in generating energy through a metabolic pathway of the Krebs cycle in the mitochondria, but the role of FH in ... HLRCC is characterized by a predisposition to leiomyomas of the skin and the uterus as well as renal cell carcinoma. The ... On the resulting heat map (Figure 4), patients who had familial renal carcinoma were discriminated from controls. Principle ...
Dijkstra, B. K. S.: Origin of carcinoma of the bronchus. J. nat. Cancer. Inst. 31, 3, 511 (1963).Google Scholar ... Berndt, H. & Wildner, G.P. Z Krebs-forsch (1966) 68: 303. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00524424. * DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/ ...
Lymphoprep/Krebs HEPES Ring solution 3:1, and Lymphoprep/Krebs HEPES Ring solution 1:2. Cells were centrifuged at 1,500 × g for ... Ovarian carcinoma cells with low levels of β-F1-ATPase are sensitive to combined platinum and 2-deoxy-d-glucose treatment. Emma ... Two ovarian carcinoma cell lines (CaOv-4 and SKOV-3) were cultured in 96-well plates in the presence or absence of the glucose ... Ovarian carcinoma cells with low levels of β-F1-ATPase are sensitive to combined platinum and 2-deoxy-d-glucose treatment ...
Maggino T, Landoni F, Sartori E et al (2000) Patterns of recurrence in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. A ... Robert Koch-Institut (Hrsg) (2010) Krebs in Deutschland 2005/2006. Häufigkeiten und Trends. RKI, Berlin. http://edoc.rki.de/ ... Faul CM, Mirmow D, Huang Q, Gerszten K, Day R, Jones MW (1997) Adjuvant radiation for vulvar carcinoma: improved local control ... Homesley HD, Bundy BN, Sedlis A, Adcock L (1986) Radiation therapy versus pelvic node resection for carcinoma of the vulva with ...
  • Primary resection versus neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by resection for locally resectable or potentially resectable pancreatic carcinoma without distant metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tumeurs Du Tissu Conjonctif Et Des Tissus Mous 2 questions Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. (lookformedical.com)
  • Pathologically, 2 of the lesions were classified as adrenocortical neoplasms of uncertain malignant potential, and 1 lesion was classified as an adrenocortical adenoma. (medscape.com)
  • Dr. Messina's research interests include pathology of the sentinel node, biomarkers of prognosis in cutaneous melanoma, and etiology and treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma. (moffitt.org)
  • This scenario emphasizes that surgical therapy alone is not sufficient for pancreatic carcinoma and that prospective investigation of additional modalities is crucial. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The antisecretory effects of several Y agonists, including pancreatic polypeptide (PP), indicate the presence of Y 1 , Y 2 , and Y 4 receptors in mouse and human (h) colon mucosae. (aspetjournals.org)
  • External perfusions of the pancreatic glands of Wistar-rats were done, using a modified Krebs-Ringer-Buffer (KRB). (justtrail.site)
  • Cuccarese MF, Dubach JM, Pfirschke C, Engblom C, Garris C, Miller MA, Pittet MJ, Weissleder R. Heterogeneity of macrophage infiltration and therapeutic response in lung carcinoma revealed by 3D organ imaging. (harvard.edu)
  • High dose radiation therapy and chemotherapy as induction treatment for stage III nonsmall cell lung carcinoma. (healthtap.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 in which the target gene is a cellular gene. (google.com)
  • Clear cell renal cell carcinoma with wild-type von Hippel-Lindau gene: a non-existent or new tumour entity? (uzh.ch)
  • SOX2 Gene Amplification and Overexpression is Linked to HPV-positive Vulvar Carcinomas. (uzh.ch)
  • Phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38 and p42/44 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase, ERK1/2) and inhibitor of kappa light chain gene enhancer alpha (IĸBα) was determined by western blotting as these events are associated with early signaling cascades. (cancerindex.org)
  • Moreover, all examined CYPs showed at least a fivefold lower gene expression in Caco-2 cells compared with human jejunum, with the smallest differences for CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 and the largest difference for CYP3A4 (871-fold higher expression in human jejunum compared with Caco-2 cells). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Tumor growth in HCC xenograft models was significantly restrained after chrysin treatment and significant decrease of HK-2 expression was observed in chrysin-treated tumor tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The current standard of reference for measuring tumor oxygenation (pO 2 ) is the computerized Eppendorf oxygen electrode (18−20), which, unfortunately, is invasive and may not be suitable as a screening device. (ajnr.org)
  • Roux-en Y open surgery or colonic interposition minimun invasive surgery such as laproscopy. (cancer.org)
  • The development of techniques for non-invasive monitoring of COX-2 functional expression would greatly facilitate efforts to understand the COX-2 pharmacology in a living organism. (springeropen.com)
  • HCC cell xenograft model was used to confirm the antitumor activity of chrysin in vivo and the effect on HK-2 was tested in chrysin-treated tumor tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In vitro and in vivo studies by Mukherji et al (9, 10) confirmed that increased Cho:Cr ratios were evident in pretreated squamous cell carcinoma. (ajnr.org)
  • Standard COX-2 inhibitors were used to test for specificity of [ 18 F]Pyricoxib for COX-2 binding in vitro and in vivo. (springeropen.com)
  • Selective COX-2-mediated tumor uptake of [ 18 F]Pyricoxib in HCA-7 xenografts was confirmed in vivo. (springeropen.com)
  • Notably, BKS.Cg- Dock7 m +/+ Lepr db /JNarl mice are useful animal models for studying type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (medsci.org)
  • Obesity rapidly becomes a worldwide epidemic disease with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by malignant clonal proliferation of immature myeloid cells in the bone marrow, peripheral blood, and occasionally other body tissues [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A large proportion (30%-50%) of women with vaginal carcinomas have had a prior hysterectomy for benign, pre-malignant, or malignant disease. (cigna.com)
  • Furthermore, we provide direct evidence that fumarate inhibits HPH activity by competing with HPH's co-substrate 2-oxoglutarate, thus preventing VHL recognition of HIF. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFr) is an important early event in signal transduction, leading to cell replication for major human carcinomas. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The protein kinase casein kinase 2 (CSNK2 or CK2) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is expressed in most cell types [ 1 ] . (medsci.org)
  • Tumor cell resistance to these drugs may involve reduced cellular accumulation, altered drug metabolism, altered DNA repair, and up-regulated cell survival pathways ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ansink A, van der Velden J (1999) Surgical interventions for early squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. (springer.com)
  • Ansink A, van der Velden J, Collingwood M (2005) Surgical interventions for eatly squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva (review). (springer.com)
  • Increasing incidence of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva in young women. (springer.com)
  • Scavenger receptor BI promotes cytoplasmic accumulation of lipoproteins in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. (uzh.ch)
  • Germinal centers determine the prognostic relevance of tertiary lymphoid structures and are impaired by corticosteroids in lung squamous cell carcinoma. (uzh.ch)
  • This study dissects the renal cell carcinoma tumor microenvironment by leveraging tumorgrafts. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • A unique synthetic lethal screening strategy identified a drug with activity against VHL-deficient ccRCC that could be repurposed for renal cell carcinoma. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Resection Margins in Merkel Cell Carcinoma: Is a 1-cm Margin Wide Enough? (moffitt.org)
  • After the first successful report by Lim and Sun in 1980 ( 2 ), an increasing number of investigations have focused their interest on the cell-encapsulating devices for the treatment of wide range of diseases, such as hormone deficiencies and neurodegenerative disorders ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is marked by high mortality rate. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) characterized by a tumor thrombus (TT) extending into the inferior vena cava (IVC) generally indicates poor prognosis. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • A rare form of adenocarcinoma (clear cell carcinoma, described below) occurs in association with in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), with a peak incidence at young ages (less than 30 years). (cigna.com)
  • The association between the clear cell carcinomas and in utero exposure to DES was first reported in 1971. (cigna.com)
  • An altered metabolism is involved in the development of clear cell - renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), and in this tumor many altered genes play a fundamental role in controlling cell metabolic activities. (urotoday.com)
  • The expression of HK-2 in HCC cell line and tumor tissue was examined by western blotting and immunohistochemistry staining. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The effect of chrysin on HK-2 expression and the underlying mechanisms by which induced HCC cell apoptosis were studied. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In HK-2 exogenous overexpression cell, the changes of chrysin-induced cell apoptosis and glycolysis suppression were investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast with normal cell lines and tissue, HK-2 expression was substantially elevated in the majority of tested HCC cell lines and tumor tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After chrysin treatment, HK-2 which combined with VDAC-1 on mitochondria was significantly declined, resulting in the transfer of Bax from cytoplasm to mitochondria and induction of cell apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chrysin-mediated cell apoptosis and glycolysis suppression were dramatically impaired in HK-2 exogenous overexpression cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • white blood cells (WBCs)), or those unique carcinoma cells with double positive expression of surface epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) for isolation, and intracellular structural protein cytokeratins (CKs) for identification. (mdpi.com)
  • Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay, invasion through Matrigel™, MMP secretion was evaluated by zymography, and COX-2 and COX-1 expression by Western blot. (jcmnh.org)
  • The remaining 25% of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has distinct, yet related, molecular mechanisms, which are just beginning to be understood. (els.net)
  • There are several subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), each associated with distinct molecular genetics. (els.net)
  • The cell borders are often more distinct in this carcinoma than others and the nuclei are often smaller and darker. (els.net)
  • Schematic of clear cell renal cell carcinoma progression. (els.net)
  • Then, the mRNA expression of several markers related to different CD4 + T cell subsets including regulatory T cells (Treg), T helper (Th) type 1, 2 and 17 were determined. (springermedizin.de)
  • The European Medicines Agency approval of axitinib (Inlyta) for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma after failure of prior treatment with sunitinib or a cytokine: summary of the scientific assessment of the committee for medicinal products for human use. (nih.gov)
  • The European Medicines Agency review of pazopanib for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma: summary of the scientific assessment of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use. (nih.gov)
  • Cryoablation has similar outcomes to radiofrequency ablation when treating renal cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first to be discovered was its capability to drive cell proliferation (upregulates cyclins, downregulates p21), but it also plays a very important role in regulating cell growth (upregulates ribosomal RNA and proteins), apoptosis (downregulates Bcl-2), differentiation, and stem cell self-renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homesley HD, Bundy BN, Sedlis A, Adcock L (1986) Radiation therapy versus pelvic node resection for carcinoma of the vulva with positive groin nodes. (springer.com)