Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.
The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A primary malignant neoplasm of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the non-INSULIN-producing cell types, the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and the pancreatic delta cells (SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS) in GLUCAGONOMA and SOMATOSTATINOMA, respectively.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A pancreatic beta-cell hormone that is co-secreted with INSULIN. It displays an anorectic effect on nutrient metabolism by inhibiting gastric acid secretion, gastric emptying and postprandial GLUCAGON secretion. Islet amyloid polypeptide can fold into AMYLOID FIBRILS that have been found as a major constituent of pancreatic AMYLOID DEPOSITS.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 5-20% of the islet cells. Alpha cells secrete GLUCAGON.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
An almost always malignant GLUCAGON-secreting tumor derived from the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS. It is characterized by a distinctive migratory ERYTHEMA; WEIGHT LOSS; STOMATITIS; GLOSSITIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; hypoaminoacidemia; and normochromic normocytic ANEMIA.
A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.
A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.
Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.
A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Endocrine cells found throughout the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and in islets of the PANCREAS. D cells secrete SOMATOSTATIN that acts in both an endocrine and paracrine manner. Somatostatin acts on a variety of tissues including the PITUITARY GLAND; gastrointestinal tract; pancreas; and KIDNEY by inhibiting the release of hormones, such as GROWTH HORMONE; GASTRIN; INSULIN; and RENIN.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)
A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.
Glucose in blood.
A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular RDGS-adhesion recognition motif and a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain.
An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)
Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
In vivo method of screening investigative anticancer drugs and biologic response modifiers for individual cancer patients. Fresh tumor tissue is implanted under the kidney capsule of immunocompetent mice or rats; gross and histological assessments follow several days after tumor treatment in situ.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus which is a model for spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, INSULIN-DEPENDENT).
A general term collectively applied to tumors associated with the APUD CELLS series, irrespective of their specific identification.
Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A tumor that secretes VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE, a neuropeptide that causes VASODILATION; relaxation of smooth muscles; watery DIARRHEA; HYPOKALEMIA; and HYPOCHLORHYDRIA. Vipomas, derived from the pancreatic ISLET CELLS, generally are malignant and can secrete other hormones. In most cases, Vipomas are located in the PANCREAS but can be found in extrapancreatic sites.
An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.
The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.
Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a reduction product of 4-NITROQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE. It binds with nucleic acids and inactivates both bacteria and bacteriophage.
Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)
A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.
Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
Secretory cells of the ductless glands. They secrete HORMONES directly into the blood circulation (internal secretion) to be carried to the target cells. The secreted chemicals can be PEPTIDES; STEROIDS; NEUROPEPTIDES; or BIOGENIC AMINES.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A subfamily of HELIX-TURN-HELIX DNA-binding proteins that contain a variable length loop adjacent to the HTH motif. The loop connects two anti-parallel strands and forms a wing when bound to DNA.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Cell surface proteins that bind somatostatin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Activated somatostatin receptors on pituitary cells inhibit the release of growth hormone; those on endocrine and gastrointestinal cells regulate the absorption and utilization of nutrients; and those on neurons mediate somatostatin's role as a neurotransmitter.
A 7-carbon keto sugar having the mannose configuration.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.

Effects of angiogenesis inhibitors on multistage carcinogenesis in mice. (1/51)

Solid tumors depend on angiogenesis for their growth. In a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic islet cell carcinogenesis (RIP1-Tag2), an angiogenic switch occurs in premalignant lesions, and angiogenesis persists during progression to expansive solid tumors and invasive carcinomas. RIP1-Tag2 mice were treated so as to compare the effects of four angiogenesis inhibitors at three distinct stages of disease progression. AGM-1470, angiostatin, BB-94, and endostatin each produced distinct efficacy profiles in trials aimed at preventing the angiogenic switch in premalignant lesions, intervening in the rapid expansion of small tumors, or inducing the regression of large end-stage cancers. Thus, anti-angiogenic drugs may prove most efficacious when they are targeted to specific stages of cancer.  (+info)

Cellular composition and anatomic distribution in nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumors: immunohistochemical study of 30 cases. (2/51)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cytological pattern and distribution in nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumors. METHODS: Using labeled streptavidin-biotin (LSAB), immunohistochemical staining for insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide and gastrin was performed on 30 nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumors from 30 patients. The cellular composition and anatomic distribution in these tumors were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 30 tumor tissues, 22 (73.3%) were found to contain cells immunoreactive to 1-4 kinds of peptide hormones; 17 (56.7%) showed positive staining for more than one peptide and up to 4 peptides; and 8 (26.7%) showed negative immunoreaction to all antiserum applied. No tumor was found to contain immunoreactive gastrin. Among 17 multihormonal tumors, 4 contained 2 kinds of peptide hormones, 8 had 3 kinds, and 5 harbored 4 kinds of peptide hormones. In addition, the difference in the number and type of positive endocrine cells between the tumors arising from the head of the pancreas and those arising from the body and tail of the pancreas were statistically significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemically, the high positive rate to peptide hormones suggests that the nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumors are actually not nonfunctioning; they are asymptomatic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Moreover, an uneven distribution of positive endocrine cells in the nonfunctioning pancreas endocrine tumors within the pancreas was identified.  (+info)

Induction of pancreatic islet cell tumors in rats by repeated intravenous administration of 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide. (3/51)

The inducibility of pancreatic islet cell tumors by administration of 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide (4HAQO) was investigated in male 6-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were given 4HAQO intravenously at a weekly dose of 5 mg/kg 4 times (group 1) or a single dose of 10 mg/kg (group 2). Control rats received the vehicle alone (group 3). Fifty-six weeks after the first 4HAQO administration, all surviving animals were killed and the pancreas was examined histopathologically, immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. The incidences and multiplicities of islet cell tumors in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 52.3% (p < 0.05 vs group 2, p < 0.01 vs group 3), 19.2% and 0%, and 0.70/animal (p < 0.05 vs group 2, p < 0.01 vs group 3), 0.23 and 0, respectively. Islet cell carcinomas were induced only in group 1, accounting for 6/44 (26%) tumors. Islet cell hyperplasias were found in 61.4% (p < 0.05 vs group 3), 42.3% and 10.0% of groups 1, 2, and 3, with multiplicities of 0.95 (p < 0.05 vs groups 2 and 3), 0.54 and 0.20, respectively. As compared with normal islets from control subjects, islet cell tumors showed an increase in the number of insulin positive cells associated with cytological features indicative of enhanced insulin synthesis and secretion, and a decrease in the number of glucagon positive cells without ultrastructural signs of modified secretory activity. Thus our results indicate that repeated intravenous administration of 4HAQO to rats is useful for the induction of islet cell tumors at high incidence.  (+info)

The effects of ad libitum overfeeding and moderate and marked dietary restriction on age-related spontaneous pancreatic islet pathology in Sprague-Dawley rats. (4/51)

This study compared the effects of ad libitum (AL) overfeeding and moderate or marked dietary restriction (DR) on aged-related degenerative and proliferative changes of the endocrine pancreas in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. SD rats were fed Purina Certified Rodent Diet AL (group 1), DR at 72-79% of AL (group 2), DR at 68-72% of AL (group 3) or DR at 47-48% of AL (group 4) for 106 weeks. Interim necropsies were performed at 13, 26, and 53 weeks, after a 7-day 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-filled minipump implantation. Before each necropsy, glucose and serum insulin levels were measured. In addition to the routine histopathologic examination performed in both sexes, determination of 9 pancreatic islet stereologic parameters was done in males at 13, 26, and 53 weeks. In AL-fed rats, early changes in the islet morphology occurred, which resulted in a high incidence of islet fibrosis, focal hyperplasias and adenomas by two years. DR was dose-proportionally associated with decreased glucose and serum insulin levels, and delayed the onset, and decreased the incidence and severity of islet fibrosis and hyperplasia. Results of the stereology supported the histopathologic and clinical chemistry findings. It demonstrated that, compared to AL-fed rats, DR-fed rats had smaller pancreas, smaller pancreatic islets, smaller insulin secreting cell volumes, a lower degree of islet fibrosis and a lower islet cell BrdU labeling index, which correlated with a lower incidence of islet adenoma and carcinoma at study termination. Moderate and marked degrees of DR delayed the onset and severity of islet hyperplasia and fibrosis in a temporal- and dose-related manner. In contrast to marked DR, which dramatically prevented these changes, moderate DR delayed but not prevented onset of islet tumors. These findings support the concept that moderate DR results in a better-controlled animal model with a lower incidence or delayed onset of chronic spontaneous endocrine diseases in the rat bioassay.  (+info)

Elevated levels of IGF-1 receptor convey invasive and metastatic capability in a mouse model of pancreatic islet tumorigenesis. (5/51)

In a prototypical model of multistage tumorigenesis involving pancreatic islets in RIP1-Tag2 transgenic mice, activation of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) was previously shown to serve as a survival factor that inhibited apoptosis. Now IGF-1R, the receptor tyrosine kinase for IGF-II, has been found to be variably upregulated, first uniformly in dysplastic and angiogenic progenitors and then focally at the margins and in invasive regions of carcinomas. When the levels of IGF-1R were forcibly elevated throughout islet tumorigenesis, progression was accelerated at all stages in the pathway, although apoptosis was not differentially suppressed. Notably, encapsulated tumors were absent; instead, invasive carcinomas with downregulated E-cadherin were prevalent, and the majority of mice had local lymph node metastasis.  (+info)

Benefits of targeting both pericytes and endothelial cells in the tumor vasculature with kinase inhibitors. (6/51)

Functions of receptor tyrosine kinases implicated in angiogenesis were pharmacologically impaired in a mouse model of pancreatic islet cancer. An inhibitor targeting VEGFRs in endothelial cells (SU5416) is effective against early-stage angiogenic lesions, but not large, well-vascularized tumors. In contrast, a kinase inhibitor incorporating selectivity for PDGFRs (SU6668) is shown to block further growth of end-stage tumors, eliciting detachment of pericytes and disruption of tumor vascularity. Importantly, PDGFRs were expressed only in perivascular cells of this tumor type, suggesting that PDGFR(+) pericytes in tumors present a complimentary target to endothelial cells for efficacious antiangiogenic therapy. Therapeutic regimes combining the two kinase inhibitors (SU5416 and SU6668) were more efficacious against all stages of islet carcinogenesis than either single agent. Combination of the VEGFR inhibitor with another distinctive kinase inhibitor targeting PDGFR activity (Gleevec) was also able to regress late-stage tumors. Thus, combinatorial targeting of receptor tyrosine kinases shows promise for treating multiple stages in tumorigenesis, most notably the often-intractable late-stage solid tumor.  (+info)

Octreotide-sensitive ectopic ACTH production by islet cell carcinoma with multiple liver metastases. (7/51)

We report a 21-year-old woman with ectopic ACTH syndrome due to islet cell carcinoma with multiple liver metastases. On admission, she showed Cushingoid appearance (moon face, central obesity etc.) and had acute respiratory distress syndrome due to pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Laboratory examination revealed marked elevations of plasma ACTH (735 pg/ml) and cortisol (145 microg/dl) with a profound hypokalemia (2.0 mEq/l). She was found to have multiple masses in the liver and a solid mass in the tail of pancreas by abdominal computerized tomography scanning. Treatment with octreotide successfully reduced elevated plasma ACTH and cortisol levels, and she received frequent transhepatic arterial embolization and chemotherapy. The primary pancreatic tumor was surgically removed, revealing islet cell carcinoma which contained high content of ACTH (100 microg/g wet weight) and abundantly expressed proopiomelanocortin and somatostatin receptor subtype-2 mRNAs as determined by Northern blot analysis. Postoperatively, she was free from symptoms for almost one year. However, progressive enlargement of multiple liver metastases refractory to chemotherapy led her to decide on total hepatectomy and liver transplantation from her father. After liver transplantation, she remained almost free from symptoms for almost one year. However, metastases developed to the mediastinal and paraaortic lymph nodes as detected by 111[In] pentetreotide scintigraphy. Eleven months after liver transplantation, she was again treated with octreotide and, 16 months after, with metyrapone, both of which were effective in reducing ACTH and cortisol levels, respectively, until she died of acute respiratory failure. This case of a young female patient with ectopic ACTH-producing islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas was quite unique in that she survived for 5 years despite the acute onset and rapid progression of the multiple liver metastases at least in part due to the long-lasting favorable response to octreotide and living-related liver transplantation.  (+info)

Liver metastases arising from well-differentiated pancreatic endocrine neoplasms demonstrate increased VEGF-C expression. (8/51)

Pancreatic endocrine neoplasms (PENs) are uncommon, generally well-differentiated neoplasms that demonstrate prominent endocrine differentiation. Although the majority of PENs remain localized, malignant spread may occur via lymphatic or hematogenous routes. Angiogenic growth factors, including the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, have been implicated in new vessel growth and hematogenous metastases, although this has not been studied in PENs. We therefore examined 19 primary well-differentiated PENs and 7 liver metastases to determine the expression of VEGF-A and its family member VEGF-C by immunolabeling analysis. VEGF-A immunoreactivity was evident only in scattered cells throughout all lesions. VEGF-C, however, demonstrated low-to-moderate expression in primary PENs by semiquantitative histoscore analysis (factor of labeling intensity by percentage of positive cells), with significantly increased expression in liver metastases (mean histoscore indices: primary PEN, 4.7 versus liver metastases, 9.5; Student's t test; P =.002773). Microvascular density of primary PENs and liver metastases did not appear to linearly correlate with VEGF-C expression. Examination of the VEGF-C-specific receptors VEGFR-2/KDR/Flk-1 and VEGFR-3/Flt-4 demonstrated intense endothelial immunoreactivity for VEGFR-2, as well as VEGFR-2 and -3 expression on the majority of neoplastic cells, suggesting a possible role in autocrine/paracrine neoplastic growth regulation. We postulate that the upregulation of VEGF-C may be involved in PEN progression and metastases, although not via a direct proangiogenic mechanism.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Wilms tumor, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma in a child. AU - Sola, Juan E. AU - Gutierrez, Juan C.. AU - Thompson, William R.. AU - Alvarez, Ofelia A. AU - Casillas, Victor. AU - Rodriguez, Maria. PY - 2008/3/1. Y1 - 2008/3/1. N2 - We present the first case of Wilms tumor, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma affecting the same individual. This case underscores the importance of repeat biopsies in patients with multiple neoplasms to confirm the diagnosis and guide management.. AB - We present the first case of Wilms tumor, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma affecting the same individual. This case underscores the importance of repeat biopsies in patients with multiple neoplasms to confirm the diagnosis and guide management.. KW - Multiple endocrine neoplasia. KW - Pancreatic islet cell carcinoma. KW - Pediatric. KW - Pheochromocytoma. KW - Wilms tumor. UR - ...
Organic hyperinsulinism has been recognized with increasing frequency in the last few years. It is most commonly due to adenomata of the islands of Langerhans. More and more case reports appear of successful surgical removal of these tumors with consequent alleviation of symptoms. At times there seems to be a general hypersecretion of insulin by the islet cells without discernible tumor in which resection of varying amounts of pancreatic tissue has been found effective. Carcinoma of islet cells occurs much less frequently. In these cases the tumor is often slow to grow and slow to metastasize. In a few instances ...
Islet cell carcinoma Islet cell carcinoma or nesidioblastoma is an uncommon cancer of the endocrine pancreas. For more information, see neuroendocrine tumor.
The accurate measurement of glucose in serum or plasma is important in the diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolism disorders such as diabetes mellitus, neonatal hypoglycemia and idiopathic hypoglycemia and of pancreatic islet cell carcinoma. Glucose is often measured in conjunction with various tolerance tests after the administration of doses of leucine, insulin, glucagon or glucose. ...
Glucose determination is useful in the detection and management of Diabetes mellitus.Glucose levels are used to diagnose and manage diabetes mellitus and other carbohydrate metabolism disorders including gestational diabetes, neonatal hypoglycemia, idiopathic hypoglycemia, and pancreatic islet cell carcinoma. ...
Most pancreatic cancers are aggressive and always terminal, but Steve was lucky (if you can call it that) and had a rare form called an islet cell neuroendocrine tumor, which is actually quite treatable with excellent survival rates - if caught soon enough. The median survival is about a decade, but it depends on how soon its removed surgically. Steve caught his very early, and should have expected to survive much longer than a decade. Unfortunately Steve relied on a diet instead of early surgery. There is no evidence that diet has any effect on islet cell carcinoma. As he dieted for nine months, the tumor progressed, and took him from the high end to the low end of the survival rate ...
In this study we characterized the early onset, prediabetic phenotype observed in AKT1Myr mice and highlighted a novel mechanism by which AKT1 hyperactivation affects glucose homeostasis. AKT1Myr mice, previously described for their aged onset islet cell carcinomas (Albury et al. 2015), have bicistronic regulation of myristoylated Akt1 through a Pdx1-TetA and TetO-MyrAkt1 system. This allows the expression of myristoylated, membrane-bound and thus activated AKT1 in the pancreas except in the presence of doxycycline, a tetracycline analogue. The Pdx1 promoter, which is important for pancreas development in utero and postnatal β-cell maintenance (Holland et al. 2002), drives expression within the pancreatic progenitor cells, which eventually give rise to the endocrine cells (islets of Langerhans), exocrine cells (acini cells) and ductal cells of the pancreas (Hale et al. 2005). The hyperactivation of AKT1 throughout all cell types of the pancreas distinguishes this model from other constitutively ...
Most pancreatic endocrine neoplasms are non-syndromic, that is they do not produce a clinical syndrome caused by excess hormone production by the tumor. A growing number of these are asymptomatic, discovered when a patient is imaged for a different indication. When the patients do have symptoms, the symptoms typically include abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, weight loss, or rarely jaundice (a yellowing of the skin caused by blockage of the bile duct). The diagnosis can often be suggested on CT scan, as most pancreatic endocrine neoplasms have a rich blood supply (they are hypervascular), and, as a result, they enhance when contrast is used in CT scanning.. The treatment of choice is usually surgical removal. When removed, most pancreatic endocrine neoplasms can be seen to be well-demarcated, soft tan to reddish masses. This appearance is very different from the more common pancreatic cancer (ductal adenocarcinoma) of the pancreas, which forms firm, sometimes rock-hard, white to yellow ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Liver transplantation for metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. T2 - Outcomes and prognostic variables. AU - Sher, Linda S.. AU - Levi, David M.. AU - Wecsler, Julie S.. AU - Lo, Mary. AU - Petrovic, Lydia M.. AU - Groshen, Susan. AU - Ji, Lingyun. AU - Uso, Teresa Diago. AU - Tector, A. Joseph. AU - Hamilton, Ann S.. AU - Marsh, J. Wallis. AU - Schwartz, Myron E.. PY - 2015/8/1. Y1 - 2015/8/1. N2 - Background Patient selection for liver transplantation for metastatic neuroendocrine tumors remains a topic of debate. There is no established MELD exception, making it difficult to obtain donor organs. Methods A multicenter database was created assessing outcomes for liver and multivisceral transplantation for metastatic neuroendocrine tumors and identifying prognostic factors for survival. Demographic, transplant, primary tumor site and management, pathology, recurrent disease and survival data were collected and analyzed. Survival probabilities were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier ...
Endocrine cancers arise in cells of the endocrine system and include Adrenocortical Carcinoma, Carcinoid Tumor, Gastrointestinal, Islet Cell Carcinoma (Endocrine Pancreas), Parathyroid Cancer, Pheochromocytoma, Pituitary Tumor, and Thyroid Cancer.
Nuclear medicine octreotide scans reveal focal radiotracer accumulation which corresponds to the known pancreatic mass. No other foci of abnormal accumulation are seen to suggest metastatic disease.
Pfizer announced results from a randomized phase III trial of sunitinib malate (Sutent) in patients with advanced pancreatic islet cell (neuroendocrine) tumors 1
Materials and methods: The study includes a total of 57 patients who were treated at the Royal Brisbane and Womens Hospital in the last 5 years with PRRT. Data were collected by studying individual patient records and charts. The factors studied include presence or absence of liver metastases, GE vs. pancreatic histology, Ki 67, number of cycles and dose of PRRT, adverse effects, delays in treatment and improvement of QOL and PFS. In addition OS is being calculated using historical controls ...
Author(s): Zoran Erlic, Ursula Ploeckinger, Alberto Cascon, Michael M Hoffmann, Laura von Duecker, Aurelia Winter, Gerit Kammel, Janina Bacher, Maren Sullivan, Berend Isermann, Lars Fischer, Andreas Raffel, Wolfram Trudo Knoefel, Matthias Schott, Tobias Baumann, Oliver Schaefer, Tobias Keck, Richard P Baum, Ioana Milos, Mihaela Muresan, Mariola Peczkowska, Andrzej Januszewicz, Kenko Cupisti, Anke Tönjes, Mathias Fasshauer, Jan Langrehr, Peter von Wussow, Abbas Agaimy, Günter Schlimok, Regina Lamberts, Thorsten Wiech, Kurt Werner Schmid, Alexander Weber, Mercedes Nunez, Mercedes Robledo, Charis Eng, Hartmut P H Neumann, , Journal: ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. (Onkologisk endokrinologi, Kjell Öberg) ...
I try my hardest to look forward. I encourage others to do the same when exiting the gates of Cancerland and transitioning into life after. Dont look back. Push forward. Look ahead. Yes, its true. Vital to let go of the past in order to embrace what lies ahead. But sometimes healing requires us to step back in order to equip us to move forward.. I always told myself that one day I would visit the hospital in Denver where I received all of my treatment and surgeries. I thought fondly of the moment I would visit my doctors. I imagined that we would rejoice and celebrate at the hard work we all put in for me to be able to sit here today and be cancer free. Hugs and tears flowing as we would reflect over the difficult road that led us to this very moment. The numerous surgeries and chemotherapies. The middle of the night calls of desperation to my oncologist. Each needle poke in my chest to access my port. Every encouraging word and prayer that pushed me over the finish line. I dreamt of the day I ...
Mixed ductal-endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas are extremely rare and show morphologically separate ductal adenocarcinoma and endocrine components. Prognostically, they are more aggressive than pure endocrine neoplasms. These are true mixed neoplasms and are distinct from ductal adenocarcinomas with scattered endocrine cells (in which the endocrine component is non-neoplastic). A mixed ductal endocrine carcinoma in a 73-year-old male is reported.
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE:. I. To determine the objective response rate (ORR) (complete and partial response) of GW786034 (pazopanib hydrochloride) 800 mg administered orally once daily in patients with advanced low or intermediate grade carcinoid tumors (in carcinoid cohort).. II. To determine the objective response rate (ORR) (complete response and partial response) of GW786034 800mg administered orally once daily in patients with advanced low or intermediate grade pancreatic islet cell carcinoma (in islet cell cohort).. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine the progression free survival (PFS) duration of GW786034 800mg administered orally once daily in patients with low grade neuroendocrine carcinoma.. II. To determine the safety and tolerability of GW786034 800mg administered orally once daily in patients with low grade neuroendocrine carcinoma.. III. To explore the effect on tumor blood flow as determined by functional computed tomography (CT) of GW786034 800 mg orally once daily in patients with ...
Pancreatic islet cell tumors (ICTs) occur as sporadic neoplasias or as a manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). Molecular classification of ICTs is mandatory for timely diagnosis and surveillance. Systematic comparison of VHL-ICTs and sporadic ICTs has been lacking. Our registry-based approaches used the German NET-Registry with 259 patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), who were primarily diagnosed with NETs, and the German VHL-Registry with 485 molecular genetically confirmed patients who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography of the abdomen. All patients provided blood DNA for testing of the MEN1 and VHL genes for intragenic mutations and large deletions. In the NET-Registry, 9/101 patients (8.9%) with ICTs had germline mutations, 8 in MEN1 and 1 in VHL. In the VHL-Registry, prevalence of NETs was 52/487 (10.6%), and all were ICTs. Interestingly, of those with VHL p.R167W, 47% developed ICTs, compared to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gastroenteropancreatic (neuro)endocrine neoplasms: the histology report. AU - Rindi, Guido. AU - Bordi, C. AU - La Rosa, S. AU - Solcia, E. AU - Delle Fave, G.. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Based on the year 2000 World Health Organization (WHO) classification and the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) grading and staging proposals, we here define the minimal guidelines for pathology reporting of (neuro)endocrine neoplasms. The macroscopical description is recommended according to standard procedures and the microscopical description according to recognized architectural and cytological features for endocrine lesions. Minimal diagnostic immunohistochemistry entails the use of chromogranin A, synaptophysin and Ki67. Other potentially useful tests are those for CD56 N-CAM, PGP 9.5 and hormones for diagnosis, the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 for potential radiodiagnostics and therapy, and transcription factors like TTF1 and CDX2, for site of origin. Grading definition is ...
Clinical trial for Gastric Neuroendocrine Carcinoma | Islet cell carcinoma | Intestinal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma , Cisplatin Carboplatin and Etoposide or Temozolomide and Capecitabine in Treating Patients With Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Gastrointestinal Tract or Pancreas That Is Metastatic or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery
Clinical trial for Gastric Neuroendocrine Carcinoma | Islet cell carcinoma | Intestinal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma , Cisplatin Carboplatin and Etoposide or Temozolomide and Capecitabine in Treating Patients With Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Gastrointestinal Tract or Pancreas That Is Metastatic or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery
What Is an Insulinoma?. An insulinoma (also known as beta-cell carcinoma and islet cell carcinoma) is a tumor of the pancreas that causes an increase in the secretion of insulin, which leads to severely low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Insulinomas are common in middle-aged to older ferrets, most commonly those aged 3 to 4 years and older. They can develop in both male and female ferrets.. What Are the Clinical Signs of Insulinoma?. Signs of the disease may appear suddenly as an episode of collapse lasting from minutes to hours. During such an episode, the ferret usually appears depressed, recumbent (unable to stand), and unresponsive. In severe cases, seizures may occur. However, in many ferrets, clinical signs appear gradually as progressive weakness and lethargy (tiredness) over weeks to months. Excessive salivation, pawing at the mouth, and weakness of the hindlimbs are also common. These signs may be intermittent, with periods of normal activity in between periods of lethargy.. Prolonged, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinicopathological features of pancreatic endocrine tumors. T2 - A prospective multicenter study in italy of 297 sporadic cases. AU - Zerbi, Alessandro. AU - Falconi, Massimo. AU - Rindi, Guido. AU - Fave, Gianfranco Delle. AU - Tomassetti, Paola. AU - Pasquali, Claudio. AU - Capitanio, Vanessa. AU - Boninsegna, Letizia. AU - Di Carlo, Valerio. PY - 2010/6. Y1 - 2010/6. N2 - Objectives: Information on pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) comes mostly from small, retrospective, uncontrolled studies conducted on highly selected patients. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical and pathological features of PETs in a prospective, multicenter study.Methods: Newly diagnosed, histologically proven, sporadic PETs observed from June 2004 to March 2007 in 24 Italian centers were included in a specific data set.Results: Two hundred ninety-seven patients (mean age 58.614.7 years, females 51.2%, males 48.8%) were analyzed. In 73 cases (24.6%), the tumor was functioning (F) (53 ...
Gastrinomas are islet cell tumors / pancreatic endocrine neoplasms that release large quantities of the hormone gastrin into the blood stream leading to stomach/duodenal ulcers. In 1955 Zollinger and Ellison described two patients with severe peptic ulcer disease and pancreatic endocrine tumors, postulating that an ulcerogenic agent originated from the pancreatic tumor (9, 63). At present it is estimated that one in 1,000 patients with primary duodenal ulcer disease and two in 100 patients with recurrent ulcer following ulcer surgery harbor a gastrinoma (64). Seventy-five percent of gastrinomas occur sporadically, whereas 25% are associated with the MEN-1 syndrome (see below). In the past, the majority of gastrinomas had already metastasized at the time of diagnosis. More recently, with increased awareness and earlier screening, the diagnosis of gastrinoma is being made earlier, leading to the discovery of a higher percentage of curable neoplasms (65, 66).. Peptic ulceration of the upper GI ...
Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment of Tumors of the GI Tract from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals.
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Looking for online definition of acinar cell carcinoma in the Medical Dictionary? acinar cell carcinoma explanation free. What is acinar cell carcinoma? Meaning of acinar cell carcinoma medical term. What does acinar cell carcinoma mean?
Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) presenting as metastatic cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) are suspected to confer poorer prognosis compared to metastatic NETs of known primary site. We performed a retrospective, single centre study to determine the prognostic indicators in CUP-NETs compared to metastatic small intestinal NET (SiNET), before and after adjusting for factors known to affect overall survival. Subjects were selected from a departmental database of 1050 NET patients discussed by the Oxford neuroendocrine service between 2011 and 2019. Inclusion criteria were histologically proven NET with radiological evidence of metastatic disease at diagnosis. Survival time began from the date of histological diagnosis until the last known follow-up. The primary end-point was death. Patients were divided into 3 cohorts: 1) CUP-NET, no primary identified; 2) likely SiNET, radiological evidence of mesenteric/SiNET, and 3) histologically confirmed SiNET. Cox proportional hazards models were ...
|i|Background:|/i| To assess prospectively the safety and efficacy of Yttrium-90 microspheres in patients with unresectable liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumors. |i|Materials
Context Acinar cell carcinoma is rare disease of exocrine pancreas with an indolent course and favorable tumor biology. It usually occurs in elderly m..
A Syrian gentleman 58 years came to the clinic 05-11-2004 with complaining of right oculomotor plegia. He was referred as a case of meningioma and he was sent for more MRI and MRA investigations, which confirmed the diagnosis of right posterior clinoid meningioma. The patient start to complain of Diplopea for 2 days then the last 2 weeks progressed complete right oculomotor plegia. The patient was admitted to Al-Shmaisani hospital 09-11-2004 and was operated the same day: Wide right fronto-temporal approach with tranzygomatic route was achieved and the tumor was morphologically identical for meningioma with matrix and carpet of meningial involvement. It was engulfing the supraclinoid ICA and pushing the M1 and the solitary A1 upward. The tumor was radically removed with preservation of all even tiny anatomical structures, including the anterior choroidal artery, the right PcoA, the right ICA, right optic nerve and the compressed right oculomotor nerve. The Liliquist membrane was opened for 2 mm ...
Recently, the therapeutic possibilities for the locally invasive or metastatic neuroendocrine tumors developed signifi cantly, although we have no widely accepted predictive or prognostic factors, which could help to design the most effective sequential therapy. To make therapeutic strategy the internationally accepted clinical guidelines should be considered. The therapeutic activity has to be performed in oncological centers with the support of a multidisciplinary team.. ...
Introduction to Pancreatic Islet Cell Cancer as a medical condition including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, prevention, and prognosis.
The pancreatic Islet Cell Biology Core is located on the 12 floor (12-169 to 12-171) of the Smilow Center for Translation Research, 3400 Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia, PA 19104. A Core is well equipped for physiological, biochemical and biophysical studies ...
Since acinar cell carcinoma(ACC)of pancreas is rare, we sometimes meet a case hard to make diagnosis before surgery. We here reported a case of ACC of pancreas with extensive intraductal growth to the main pancreatic duct and the branch of the pancreatic duct. A 43-year-old man visit a clinic with a concern of uncomfortable feeling on left side abdomen. CT/MRI examination showed a ischemic tumor, 38×25 mm, in the body-tail of the pancreas, and the tumor infiltrated to left renal capsule. ERCP showed the interruption and stenosis of the pancreatic duct at the point adjacent to tumor. Cytological diagnosis of the pancreatic juice was performed, but malignant cells were not detected(Class III ). The tumor abnormally accumulated FDGin PET-CT examination(SUVmax 3.3). We diagnosed the tumor PDAC with infiltrating to the left renal capsule, and the distal pancreatectomy was performed. The pathological examination of the resected specimen showed that the tumor progressed into main pancreatic duct and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genome-wide genetic and epigenetic analyses of pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas reveal aberrations in genome stability. AU - Jäkel, Cornelia. AU - Bergmann, Frank. AU - Toth, Reka. AU - Assenov, Yassen. AU - Van Der Duin, Daniel. AU - Strobel, Oliver. AU - Hank, Thomas. AU - Klöppel, Günter. AU - Dorrell, Craig. AU - Grompe, Markus. AU - Moss, Joshua. AU - Dor, Yuval. AU - Schirmacher, Peter. AU - Plass, Christoph. AU - Popanda, Odilia. AU - Schmezer, Peter. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive exocrine tumor with largely unknown biology. Here, to identify potential targets for personalized treatment, we perform integrative genome-wide and epigenome-wide analyses. The results show frequently aberrant DNA methylation, abundant chromosomal amplifications and deletions, and mutational signatures suggesting defective DNA repair. In contrast to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, no recurrent point mutations are detected. The ...
ecancermedicalscience is the peer-reviewed open access cancer journal founded by the European Institute of Oncology in Milan. We consider articles on all aspects of research relating to cancer, including molecular biology, genetics, pathophysiology, epide
Pancreatic Endocrine Tumor - Pipeline Insight, 2017 is a market research report available at US $1250 for a Single User PDF License from RnR Market Research Reports Library.
The report summarizes all the dormant and discontinued pipeline projects - A review of the Pancreatic Endocrine Tumor products under development by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources
Ekeblad S, Skogseid B. Ekeblad S, Skogseid B Ekeblad, Sara, and Britt Skogseid.Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors. In: Boyiadzis MM, Frame JN, Kohler DR, Fojo T. Boyiadzis M.M., Frame J.N., Kohler D.R., Fojo T Eds. Michael M. Boyiadzis, et al.eds. Hematology-Oncology Therapy, 2e New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; . http://hemonc.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1611§ionid=126324630. Accessed December 12, 2017 ...
A thoracotomy combined with laparotomy may be required. To ensure blood supply to the gastric remnant, the right gastroepiploic vessels are preserved. ♦ For lesions in the body of the stomach, total gastrectomy with esophagojejunostomy is typically performed (Figure 6â 1B). ♦ For antral lesions, subtotal gastrectomy with gastrojejunal reconstruction is performed (Figure 6â 1C). • Figure 6â 2: Surgical anatomy of the stomach. ♦ The esophagus terminates in the stomach after penetrating the diaphragm at the esophageal hiatus. 30 drain, replacement of lost fluid and electrolytes, adequate nutrition, and consideration of octreotide therapy for high-output fistulas. • Postoperative hemorrhage, most commonly resulting from a bleeding short gastric vessel or a gastroduodenal or pancreaticoduodenal pseudoaneurysm. • Delayed gastric emptying. Pearls and Tips • Most clinically recognized pancreatic endocrine neoplasms are functional, producing clinically recognizable syndromes. • ...
Looking for medication to treat increased+growth+of+islet+cells+of+pancreas? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when used to treat or reduce the symptoms of increased+growth+of+islet+cells+of+pancreas
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Mutations of the MEN1 gene located on chromosome 11q13 are associated with the development of a variety of endocrine neoplasms, including parathyroid hyperplasia and adenomas, pituitary adenomas, and pancreatic islet cell tumors. Tumor development is associated with deletion or mutation of the remaining MEN1 allele (1, 2). MEN1 mutations have also been reported in a variety of sporadic endocrine tumors including those commonly seen in multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1) as well as gastric and pulmonary carcinoid tumors (3). Men1 knockout mice have provided many insights into the role of menin in endocrine homeostasis and tumor suppression (4-7). Although Men1 knockout mice are embryonic lethal, heterozygous mice develop a variety of endocrine tumors similar to those in MEN1 patients. In this model, tumors arising from pancreatic islet cells have been most intensively studied. Heterozygous Men1 knockout mice develop progressive islet cell hyperplasia associated with loss of the ...
Case Report: 59-year-old man was admitted with an infiltrative, solid lesion in pancreatic tail diagnosed as PACC. Lymph nodes in the hepatic hilum were enlarged, and many metastatic liver nodules were observed. After partial pancreatectomy, the left and right lobes of the liver were separately treated with Y-90 resin microspheres. Follow-up imaging revealed that all hepatic nodules shrank by at least 50%, and 3 nodules disappeared completely. Lipase concentration was 8407 U/L at baseline, rose to 12,705 U/L after pancreatectomy, and declined to 344 U/L after SIRT. Multiple rounds of chemotherapy in the subsequent year shrank the hepatic tumors further; disease then progressed, but a third line of chemotherapy shrank the tumors again, 16 months after SIRT treatment ...
acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Functional endocrine neoplasms in the pediatric patient are rare; however, these lesions are the most frequent indication for surgical resection of endocrine glands. Oftentimes, the surgeon may need to perform a resection not only to alleviate symptoms due to hormone hypersecretion but to distinguish between benign and malignant neoplastic processes as well, particularly in this age where advanced radiographic imaging is bringing more incidental lesions to the clinicians attention. Other disorders of the endocrine glands may come to the surgeons attention due to pathologic hyperfunction, enlargement, or for risk reduction. The surgeon should feel comfortable in the technical aspects of the surgical management of endocrine neoplasms and other endocrinopathies. In this chapter we focus on operative techniques for the management of thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal neoplasms and endocrinopathies. ...
SAN FRANCISCO-Two agents dramatically delayed the time to disease progression in metastatic neuroendocrine tumors, according to reports at the 2009 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium. 1
Common causes of acromegaly include pituitary adenoma and acidophil stem cell adenomas. Less common causes of acromegaly include GHRH secreting tumors as hypothalamic tumors, small cell lung cancer, adrenal adenoma, and pheochromocytoma. Other causes include GH secreting tumors as lymphoma and pancreatic islet cell tumor. ...
Well, my device is only slightly mechanical, but should do the trick. Its modeled after Sernovas islet cell pouch system, but takes it a bit further. My device is a patch that is similar to a nicotine patch. It is removable and discreet. It is easily applied to any area of the skin. It holds an incredible amount of islet cells (pig), that were created to be able to elude the bodys immune system. No immunosuppression is necessary. Its only electronic function is to perform a weekly C-peptide. When the C-peptide value decreases to a minimal value, the patch will be removed and replace with another. Glucose monitoring would not be necessary because there would be no significant fluctuations in blood sugar anyway ...
This week in Lab Notes, discover how milk may rejuvenate pancreatic islet cells to help manage diabetes. Plus the dumbing effects of anesthesia and curing well groomed mice with OCD.
1. Although most areas of decreased function do not repre- sent malignancies, lack of function increases the likelihood of malignancy, particularly if only omeprazle nonfunctioning area is present.
... of microRNAs expressed highly in pancreatic islet-like cell clusters differentiated from human embryonic stem cells". Cell ... Tang N, Zhang J, Du Y (April 2010). "[Curcumin promoted the apoptosis of cisplain-resistant human lung carcinoma cells A549/DDP ... Zhang Y, Li M, Wang H, Fisher WE, Lin PH, Yao Q, Chen C (April 2009). "Profiling of 95 microRNAs in pancreatic cancer cell ... "Comparative expression profiles of mRNAs and microRNAs among human mesenchymal stem cells derived from breast, face, and ...
The Medical Subject Headings indexing system refers to "islet cell carcinoma", which is subdivided into gastrinoma, glucagonoma ... Other exocrine cancers include adenosquamous carcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, hepatoid carcinomas, colloid carcinomas, ... "islet cell cancers",[28] even though it is now known that they do not actually arise from islet cells as previously thought.[27 ... The next most common type, acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas, arises in the clusters of cells that produce these enzymes, ...
Several forms of cancer (see below) including elevation of miR-184 levels in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. All-trans- ... showed miR-184 reduced Argonaute 2 levels in the MIN6 mouse pancreatic beta islet cell line. Furthermore, miR-184 has multiple ... Wong TS, Ho WK, Chan JY, Ng RW, Wei WI (2009). "Mature miR-184 and squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue". ... miR-184 has been found to be significantly increased in the tumor cells in comparison with the normal epithelial cells of the ...
... islet cell MeSH C19.344.421.249.500 - insulinoma MeSH C19.344.421.500 - carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C19.344.421.500.124 - ... carcinoma, endometrioid MeSH C19.391.630.705.398 - granulosa cell tumor MeSH C19.391.630.705.464 - luteoma MeSH C19.391.630.705 ... granulosa cell tumor MeSH C19.344.410.464 - luteoma MeSH C19.344.410.531 - meigs syndrome MeSH C19.344.410.648 - sertoli-leydig ... sertoli-leydig cell tumor MeSH C19.344.894.800 - thyroid nodule MeSH C19.391.482.293 - eunuchism MeSH C19.391.482.600 - ...
... familial Pancreatic diseases Pancreatic islet cell neoplasm Pancreatic islet cell tumors Pancreatic lipomatosis duodenal ... divisum Pancreatic adenoma Pancreatic beta cell agenesis with neonatal diabetes mellitus Pancreatic cancer Pancreatic carcinoma ... stenosis with Café au lait spot Punctate acrokeratoderma freckle like pigmentation Punctate inner choroidopathy Pure red cell ... chronic arthritis Pavone-Fiumara-Rizzo syndrome Peanut hypersensitivity Pearson's marrow/pancreas syndrome Pediatric T-cell ...
Aggressive PanNET tumors have traditionally been termed "islet cell carcinoma". PanNETs are quite distinct from the usual form ... "islet cell tumors",[1][2] or "pancreatic endocrine tumors"[3][4] are neuroendocrine neoplasms that arise from cells of the ... "islet cell tumors". The high grade subtype, termed neuroendocrine cancer (NEC) in the WHO scheme, is synonymous with "islet ... a b Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ) Health Professional Version. National Cancer Institute ...
The islet cell autoantibodies are absent in MODY in at least some populations (Japanese, Britons). Persistence of a low insulin ... Liver adenoma or hepatocellular carcinoma in MODY type 3 Renal cysts, rudimentary or bicornuate uterus, vaginal aplasia, ... found that about one quarter of Central European MODY patients are positive for islet cell autoantibodies (GABA and IA2A). ... Urbanova J, Rypackova B, Prochazkova Z, Kucera P, Cerna M, Andel M, Heneberg P (2014). "Positivity for islet cell ...
The Medical Subject Headings indexing system refers to "islet cell carcinoma", which is subdivided into gastrinoma, glucagonoma ... adenosquamous carcinoma)、印戒細胞癌、肝樣細胞癌(英語:hepatoid carcinoma)、膠狀癌、未分化腺癌和具有蝕骨細胞(英語:osteoclast)樣巨大細胞(英語:giant cell)的未分化腺癌。固狀偽乳頭狀腫瘤( ... 胰臟內的腫瘤也可能來自身體的其他地方,但這種狀
... of the islet cells being unable to produce insulin and one of the actions of dulaglutide is to stimulate functioning islet cell ... There is also a potential risk of medullary thyroid carcinoma associated with the use of the drug. The compound is ... GLP-1 is normally secreted by L cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa in response to a meal. The safety and effectiveness of ... Simultaneously the compound reduces the elevated glucagon secretion by inhibiting alpha cells of the pancreas, as glucagon is ...
Octreotide is used for suppression of the hormonal syndromes which accompany several pancreatic islet cell tumors, including ... including renal cell carcinoma and melanoma. List of hormonal cytostatic antineoplastic agents Antiestrogen withdrawal response ... The target receptor may be on the cell surface, as in the case of peptide and glycoprotein hormones, or it may be intracellular ... The exact mechanism of action of these hormones is unclear, and may involve both direct effect on the tumor cells (suppression ...
Cell. 125 (4): 801-14. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.032. PMID 16713569. Dasgupta I, Sanglas L, Enghild JJ, Lindberg I (September ... and rat thyroid gland and in human medullary carcinoma". Endocrinology. 123 (2): 866-73. doi:10.1210/endo-123-2-866. PMID ... "Secretory protein 7B2 is associated with pancreatic hormones within normal islets and some experimentally induced tumors". ... May 2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". ...
"FAM71E1- Pancreatic islet-like cell clusters derived from T3 embryonic stem cells". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2018-05-07 ... Its expression is also altered in Parkinson's disease and several cancers, such as non-triple negative ductal carcinoma in situ ... Its expression is elevated prior to the differentiation of embryonic stem cells into pancreatic islet-like cells. The FAM71E1 ... Kwon JT, Ham S, Jeon S, Kim Y, Oh S, Cho C (2017-07-25). "Expression of uncharacterized male germ cell-specific genes and ...
Adrenocortical carcinoma. *Islet cell carcinoma (endocrine pancreas). *Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome. *Parathyroid ... such as giant cell carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, and small-cell carcinoma.[citation needed] ... cancers are additionally classified by the type of cell that the tumor cells originated from. These types include: *Carcinoma: ... Germ cell tumor: Cancers derived from pluripotent cells, most often presenting in the testicle or the ovary (seminoma and ...
... pancreatic islet cell proliferation, and immune responses. The PRLR has been found to be essential for lobuloalveolar ... Clevenger CV, Furth PA, Hankinson SE, Schuler LA (February 2003). "The role of prolactin in mammary carcinoma". Endocrine ... Expression of the PRLR protein is found within cells of the mammary glands in accordance with its role in lactation, but also ... Arumugam R, Fleenor D, Freemark M (August 2014). "Knockdown of prolactin receptors in a pancreatic beta cell line: effects on ...
Juang HH (Mar 2004). "Modulation of mitochondrial aconitase on the bioenergy of human prostate carcinoma cells". Molecular ... Ahmed M, Forsberg J, Bergsten P (2005). "Protein profiling of human pancreatic islets by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis ... Juang HH (Mar 2004). "Modulation of mitochondrial aconitase on the bioenergy of human prostate carcinoma cells". Molecular ... "p53 downregulates the gene expression of mitochondrial aconitase in human prostate carcinoma cells". The Prostate. 71 (1): 62- ...
... benign Nesidioblastoma Islet cell adenomatosis M8150/1 Islet cell tumor, NOS (C25._) M8150/3 Islet cell carcinoma (C25._) Islet ... NOS Reserve cell carcinoma Round cell carcinoma Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma M8042/3 Oat cell carcinoma (C34._) M8043/3 ... fusiform cell M8044/3 Small cell carcinoma, intermediate cell M8045/3 Combined small cell carcinoma Mixed small cell carcinoma ... Pleomorphic carcinoma M8030/3 Giant cell and spindle cell carcinoma M8031/3 Giant cell carcinoma M8032/3 Spindle cell carcinoma ...
... has been used in miR fluorescence in situ hybridization to distinguish Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive Merkel cell carcinoma ... "Up-regulated pancreatic tissue microRNA-375 associates with human type 2 diabetes through beta-cell deficit and islet amyloid ... "MicroRNA-375 is downregulated in gastric carcinomas and regulates cell survival by targeting PDK1 and 14-3-3zeta". Cancer Res. ... miR-375 knockout mice have decreased numbers of β-cells and increased numbers of α-cells. The increase in glucagon levels, ...
2003). "Thymosin beta-10 protein synthesis suppression reduces the growth of human thyroid carcinoma cells in semisolid medium ... 2003). "Inflammatory mediators expressed in human islets of Langerhans: implications for islet transplantation". Biochem. ... 2002). "Array analysis of the genes regulated during neuronal differentiation of human embryonal cells". Biochem. Cell Biol. 79 ... relationship to actin cytoskeletal remodeling and cell motility". Histochem. Cell Biol. 127 (1): 109-13. doi:10.1007/s00418-006 ...
... in the angiogenic blood vessels and invasive fronts of carcinoma in the RIP-Tag2 transgenic mouse model of pancreatic islet ... Activated c-kit is then able to recruit hematopoietic, endothelial and mast cell progenitor cells, these cells are then ... Cathepsins also can be secreted by cells, associate with the cell surface, and degrade the ECM. A study of all 11 members of ... This is facilitated by a balanced interplay between detachment and formation of cell adhesions which enable the cell to crawl ...
"Localization of Islet-1-Positive Cells in the Healthy and Infarcted Adult Murine Heart". Circulation Research. 110 (10): 1303- ... "Activation of beta-catenin by hypoxia in hepatocellular carcinoma contributes to enhanced metastatic potential and poor ... The GSC niche consists of necessary somatic cells-terminal filament cells, cap cells, escort cells, and other stem cells which ... cell-cell interactions between stem cells, as well as interactions between stem cells and neighbouring differentiated cells, ...
Aging Cell. 13 (2): 235-44. doi:10.1111/acel.12167. PMC 4331777. PMID 24134702. Midgley AC, Morris G, Phillips AO, Steadman R ( ... Effects of radiosensitivity and X-ray dose on miR-7 expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma]". Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao = ... "Quantitative differential expression analysis reveals miR-7 as major islet microRNA". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... Aging Cell. 15 (3): 531-41. doi:10.1111/acel.12462. PMC 4854905. PMID 26931423. This article incorporates text from the United ...
15-20 mM) and thus functions as part of the "glucose sensor" in the pancreatic β-cells of rodents, though in human β-cells the ... "Early diabetes and abnormal postnatal pancreatic islet development in mice lacking Glut-2". Nature Genetics. 17 (3): 327-30. ... as a novel prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma". Oncotarget. 8 (40): 68381-68392. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.20266. ... GLUT2 is found in cellular membranes of: liver (Primary) pancreatic β cell (Primary in mice, tertiary in humans after GLUT1 and ...
It often affects the parathyroid glands, pancreatic islet cells, and anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. MEN1 may also cause ... and carcinomas. Most adenomas are benign, approximately 35% are invasive and just 0.1% to 0.2% are carcinomas. Pituitary ... present in a minority of cells) in the case of isolated male patients. X-LAG causes about 10% of cases of pituitary gigantism. ...
... breast carcinoma, the islets of Langerhans, the pancreas, the kidney, and 38 other tissues. Additionally, it is expressed an ... The glial cells missing homolog 1 and the oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factors are notable because KIAA1211L is highly ... "Cell atlas - KIAA1211L - The Human Protein Atlas". www.proteinatlas.org. Retrieved 2017-04-23. "GenScript Protein Subcellular ... Furthermore, it is associated with bipolar disease and is active in breast cancer cells. As such, the predicted interaction ...
... and increased pancreatic islet-cell adenoma in male rats.[8] In reproductive toxicity studies performed in rats and rabbits, no ... These include the induction of positive trends in the incidence of renal tubule carcinoma and haemangiosarcoma in male mice, ... Workers exposed to glyphosate were about twice as likely to get B cell lymphoma.[7] A 2016 systematic review and meta-analysis ... of the same studies found a correlation between occupational exposure to glyphosate formulations and increased risk of B cell ...
Peptomyc have demonstrated that Omomyc can be used against non-small-cell lung carcinoma and potentially be used for other ... Soucek, Laura (2007). "Mast cells are required for angiogenesis and macroscopic expansion of Myc-induced pancreatic islet ... Her research considers the Myc oncoprotein, a protein that cancer cells appear to depend on, which had long been considered too ... Her publications include: Soucek, Laura (2020). "Blocking Myc to Treat Cancer: Reflecting on Two Decades of Omomyc". Cells. 9 ( ...
March 2016). "An oncogenic MYB feedback loop drives alternate cell fates in adenoid cystic carcinoma". Nature Genetics. 48 (3 ... February 2014). "Pancreatic islet enhancer clusters enriched in type 2 diabetes risk-associated variants". Nature Genetics. 46 ... "Super-enhancers in the control of cell identity and disease". Cell. 155 (4): 934-47. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.09.053. PMC ... "3D Chromosome Regulatory Landscape of Human Pluripotent Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 18 (2): 262-75. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2015.11.007 ...
November 1975). "Cell contacts in human islets of Langerhans". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 41 (5): 841-4. doi:10.1210/jcem-41-5 ... "Gap junction blockage interferes with neuronal and astroglial differentiation of mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma cells". Dev. ... "eat-5 and unc-7 represent a multigene family in Caenorhabditis elegans involved in cell-cell coupling". J. Cell Biol. 134 (2): ... When cells are compromised due to disease or injury and start to die messages are transmitted to neighboring cells connected to ...
β-cell adaption refers to the change that pancreatic islet cells undergo during pregnancy in response to maternal hormones in ... "Relation of Height and Body Mass Index to Renal Cell Carcinoma in Two Million Norwegian Men and Women". American Journal of ... These changes in the β-cells cause increased insulin secretion as a result of increased β-cell proliferation.[22] HGF/c-MET has ... Sorenson, R.; Brelje, T. (2007). "Adaptation of Islets of Langerhans to Pregnancy: β-Cell Growth, Enhanced Insulin Secretion ...
Oral carcinoma[edit]. Patients after HSCT are at a higher risk for oral carcinoma. Post-HSCT oral cancer may have more ... who have lost their stem cells after birth. Other conditions[13] treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease ... Peripheral blood stem cells[26] are now the most common source of stem cells for HSCT. They are collected from the blood ... Sources and storage of cells[edit]. To limit the risks of transplanted stem cell rejection or of severe graft-versus-host ...
... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells.[8] PAX8 and other transcription factors play a role in binding to DNA and regulating ... almost all subtypes of renal cell carcinoma, nephrogenic adenomas, ovarian cancer cells, bladder, prostate, and endometrial ... of oncocytic carcinomas (aka Hurthle-Cell Neoplasms).[15] Tumors expressing the PAX8/PPARy are usually present in at a young ... regulation of metanephric nephron tubule epithelial cell differentiation. • cell differentiation. • mesonephric tubule ...
Transcriptional mechanisms of FZD5 in undifferentiated human ES cells, fetal liver/spleen, adult colon, pancreatic islet, and ... "A novel frizzled gene identified in human esophageal carcinoma mediates APC/beta-catenin signals". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. ... cell maturation. • Wnt signaling pathway. • embryonic camera-type eye development. • multicellular organism development. • cell ... T cell differentiation in thymus. • chorionic trophoblast cell differentiation. • positive regulation of protein targeting to ...
Micrograph of urethral cancer (urothelial cell carcinoma), a rare problem of the urethra. ... Islets of Langerhans. General anatomy: systems and organs, regional anatomy, planes and lines, superficial axial anatomy, ... It also serves as a passage for urine to flow.[1] Urine typically contains epithelial cells shed from the urinary tract. Urine ... The epithelium of the urethra starts off as transitional cells as it exits the bladder. Further along the urethra there are ...
Squamous cell carcinoma is a carcinoma that can occur in the squamous cells lining the esophagus. This type is much more common ... Islets of Langerhans. General anatomy: systems and organs, regional anatomy, planes and lines, superficial axial anatomy, ... H&E stain of a biopsy of the normal esophageal wall, showing the stratified squamous cell epithelium of the esophageal wall. ... This is most common in developed countries in those with Barrett's esophagus, and occurs in the cuboidal cells.[4] ...
... transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder or other malignancies.[29] Myeloproliferative neoplasms, including acute leukemia, ... It is used in medicine for treating certain cancers of the Islets of Langerhans and used in medical research to produce an ... Elimination of T regulatory cells (CD4+CD25+ T cells) in naive and tumor-bearing hosts ... subsequently actively transported into cancer cells. Once in the cells, the prodrug was enzymatically converted into the active ...
TTF-1 and C/EBP beta in thyroid carcinoma cells". Br. J. Cancer. 99 (5): 781-8. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604544. PMC 2528161 . PMID ... "Foxa2 and MafA regulate islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein gene expression". J. Mol. ... cell junction. • cell nucleus. Biological process. • dopaminergic neuron differentiation. • regulation of insulin secretion ... positive regulation of cell-cell adhesion mediated by cadherin. • anatomical structure morphogenesis. • chromatin organization ...
Micrograph of urethral cancer (urothelial cell carcinoma), a rare problem of the urethra. ... It also serves as a passage for urine to flow.[1] Urine typically contains epithelial cells shed from the urinary tract. Urine ... The epithelium of the urethra starts off as transitional cells as it exits the bladder. Further along the urethra there are ... Urethral smooth muscle cells are mechanically coupled to each other to coordinate mechanical force and electrical signaling in ...
... induces tumor suppressive properties in human hepatocellular carcinoma-derived cells, Huh7 and Hep3B cell lines, ... "GDF11 modulates NGN3+ islet progenitor cell number and promotes beta-cell differentiation in pancreas development". Development ... "Cell. 153 (4): 828-39. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.04.015. PMC 3677132. PMID 23663781.. ... cell development. • negative regulation of cell differentiation. • positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein ...
10). It consisting of the alveolar epithelial cells, their basement membranes and the endothelial cells of the alveolar ... Primary cancers (e.g. bronchial carcinoma, mesothelioma). *Secondary cancers (e.g. cancers that originated elsewhere in the ... The reaction is therefore catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme inside the red blood cells.[21] The reaction can go in ... Newstead James D (1967). "Fine structure of the respiratory lamellae of teleostean gills". Cell and Tissue Research. 79: 396- ...
... cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals. It is thus important in human development. GH also ... a 53-year-old female with carcinoma of the breast and widespread skeletal metastases; a 68-year-old female with advanced ... Contributes to the maintenance and function of pancreatic islets. *Stimulates the immune system ... Somatotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland then synthesize and secrete GH in a pulsatile manner, in response to these ...
There are two main types of primary tumour described as either small-cell or non-small-cell lung carcinomas. The major risk ... Islets of Langerhans. General anatomy: systems and organs, regional anatomy, planes and lines, superficial axial anatomy, ... and dendritic cells which present antigens to activate components of the adaptive immune system such as T-cells and B-cells.[51 ... The two types of cell are known as type I and type II alveolar cells[16] (also known as pneumocytes).[3] Types I and II make up ...
"The C cells (parafollicular cells) of the thyroid gland and medullary thyroid carcinoma. A review". The American Journal of ... Islets of pancreas. *Alpha cell. *Beta cell. *PP cell. *Delta cell. *Epsilon cell ... parafollicular cells.[4] These cells secrete calcitonin and so are also called C cells.[16] ... Follicular cells. The core of a follicle is surrounded by a single layer of follicular cells. When stimulated by thyroid ...
... re-aggregating cells,[31][32] cockroach hemocyte capsules,[33] rabbit skin,[34] chick embryos,[35] human islet of Langerhans,[ ... "Gap junction blockage interferes with neuronal and astroglial differentiation of mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma cells". Dev. ... "eat-5 and unc-7 represent a multigene family in Caenorhabditis elegans involved in cell-cell coupling". J. Cell Biol. 134 (2): ... When cells are compromised due to disease or injury and start to die messages are transmitted to neighboring cells connected to ...
"Gingival squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed on the occasion of osteonecrosis of the jaw in a patient with chronic GVHD". Rinsho ... cells in the graft itself that causes it but cells in the graft that make the recipient's T cells act like donor T cells. It ... T-cells and guest B-cells. In the final phase, these effector cells migrate to target organs and mediate tissue damage, ... The T-cells of umbilical cord blood (UCB) have an inherent immunological immaturity,[33] and the use of UCB stem cells in ...
... and is the result of autoimmune damage to the Islets of Langerhans cells in the pancreas. The level of adult onset T1D plus ... Squamous carcinoma of the esophagus is more prevalent in coeliac disease.[114][115] The increased prevalence may be secondary ... RCD 2 involves neoplastic tissues that the lack of surface expression of usual T-cell markers.[109] *Increased expression of: ... Clonal T-cell expansion in RCD2 is not manageable with steroids (see: RCD 1) and sometimes manageable with chemotherapeutic ...
Islets of pancreas. *Alpha cell. *Beta cell. *PP cell. *Delta cell. *Epsilon cell ... Adrenocortical carcinoma. See also[edit]. *Adrenarche. *Adrenopause. References[edit]. *^ "Embryology of the adrenal gland". ... by principal cells) and hydrogen ions (by intercalated cells of the collecting duct).[7] Sodium retention is also a response of ... by principal cells) and hydrogen ions (by intercalated cells of the collecting duct).[7] Sodium retention is also a response of ...
"Protein prenylation in glucose-induced insulin secretion from the pancreatic islet beta cell: a perspective". Journal of ... hepatocellular carcinoma,[98] and possibly prostate cancer.[99][100] They appear to have no effect on the risk of lung cancer,[ ... "Cell. 161 (1): 161-172. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.01.036. PMC 4525717. PMID 25815993.. ... The LDL receptor is transported to the liver cell membrane and binds to passing LDL and VLDL particles (colloquially, "bad ...
Carcinoma de tiroide medular Calcitonina[15]. ACal Arritmias cardíacas, amiloidose auricular illada Factor natriurético ... "Cell Death Differ 12 (1): 19-24. PMID 15592360. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4401528.. ... 2007). "Toxic human islet amyloid polypeptide (h-IAPP) oligomers are intracellular, and vaccination to induce anti-toxic ... "Islet amyloid and type 2 diabetes mellitus". The New England Journal of Medicine 343 (6): 411-9. PMID 10933741. doi:10.1056/ ...
Initiation of metastasis requires invasion, which is enabled by EMT.[36][37] Carcinoma cells in a primary tumor lose cell-cell ... and the mesenchymal cells derived from pancreatic islets can undergo the reverse of EMT - MET - to generate islet-like cell ... The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells lose their cell polarity and cell-cell ... "The epithelial-mesenchymal transition generates cells with properties of stem cells". Cell. 133 (4): 704-15. doi:10.1016/j.cell ...
1999). „Subtype-selective expression of the five somatostatin receptors (hSSTR1-5) in human pancreatic islet cells: a ... receptor subtypes 2 and 5 differentially affect proliferation in vitro of the human medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line tt ... 1997). „Expression of somatostatin receptor subtype 2 mRNA in human lymphoid cells.". Cell. Immunol. 181 (1): 44-9. PMID ... 1994). „Gene expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes, SSTR1 and SSTR2, in human lung cancer cell lines.". Life Sci. 55 (23 ...
Papilloma/carcinoma. (8010-8139). *Small cell carcinoma. *Combined small cell carcinoma. *Verrucous carcinoma ... In 1953 Underdahl et al. reported a case series of 8 patients with a syndrome of pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreatic islet ... that occurs in the predisposed endocrine cell as loss of the remaining wild-type allele and gives cells the survival advantage ... Sipple JH (1961). "The association of pheochromocytoma with carcinoma of the thyroid gland". Am. J. Med. 31: 163-6. doi:10.1016 ...
... germ cell tumors, hydatidiform mole, teratoma with elements of choriocarcinoma, and islet cell tumor. For this reason, a ... 2) Known or possible androgen-dependent tumors for example male breast carcinoma or prostatic carcinoma. ... For example, hCG-treated endometrial cells induce an increase in T cell apoptosis (dissolution of T cells). These results ... Combined with alpha-fetoprotein, β-HCG is an excellent tumor marker for the monitoring of germ cell tumors.[citation needed] ...
... or nesidioblastoma is an uncommon cancer of the endocrine pancreas. For more ... Islet cell carcinoma or nesidioblastoma is an uncommon cancer of the endocrine pancreas. For more information, see ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Islet_cell_carcinoma". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. ...
Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma Completed Phase 2 Trials for Temsirolimus (DB06287). Back to Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma ...
... carcinosarcoma is considered a poorly differentiated carcinoma]), hepatocellular carcinoma, carcinoid or islet cell ( ... or islet cell cancer. Temsirolimus may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. ... Pancreatic Alpha Cell Adenoma Pancreatic Beta Cell Adenoma Pancreatic Delta Cell Adenoma Pancreatic G-Cell Adenoma Pancreatic ... Carcinoma, Islet Cell. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Endocrine ...
... of the structure of hamster pancreatic insulin and the insulin extracted from a transplantable hamster islet-cell carcinoma. ... of the structure of hamster pancreatic insulin and the insulin extracted from a transplantable hamster islet-cell carcinoma, ... of the structure of hamster pancreatic insulin and the insulin extracted from a transplantable hamster islet-cell carcinoma. ... of the structure of hamster pancreatic insulin and the insulin extracted from a transplantable hamster islet-cell carcinoma. / ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Phase II trial dacarbazine (DTIC) in advanced pancreatic islet cell carcinoma. ... Phase II trial dacarbazine (DTIC) in advanced pancreatic islet cell carcinoma. Study of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group- ... Phase II trial dacarbazine (DTIC) in advanced pancreatic islet cell carcinoma. Study of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group- ... Phase II trial dacarbazine (DTIC) in advanced pancreatic islet cell carcinoma. Study of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group- ...
Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] ... Kvols LK, Buck M, Moertel CG, et al.: Treatment of metastatic islet cell carcinoma with a somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995). ... Islet Cell Tumors). Table 1. Endocrine Tumors of the Pancreas. Islet Cells. Secreted Active Agent. Tumor and Syndrome. ... streptozocin-fluorouracil or chlorozotocin in the treatment of advanced islet-cell carcinoma. N Engl J Med 326 (8): 519-23, ...
Carcinoma of the pancreas. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloffs Clinical Oncology ... islet cell tumor; Hypoglycemia - islet cell tumor. Causes. In the healthy pancreas, cells called islet cells produce hormones ... A pancreatic islet cell tumor is a rare tumor of the pancreas that starts from a type of cell called the islet cell. ... Cancer - pancreas; Cancer - pancreatic; Pancreatic cancer; Islet cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors ...
Wilms tumor, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma in a child. Juan E Sola, Juan C. Gutierrez, William R. ... Wilms tumor, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma in a child. / Sola, Juan E; Gutierrez, Juan C.; Thompson, ... Wilms tumor, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma in a child. In: Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 2008 ; Vol. ... Sola JE, Gutierrez JC, Thompson WR, Alvarez OA, Casillas V, Rodriguez M. Wilms tumor, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and ...
... islet cell tumor explanation free. What is islet cell tumor? Meaning of islet cell tumor medical term. What does islet cell ... Looking for online definition of islet cell tumor in the Medical Dictionary? ... islet cell tumor. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.. Related to islet cell tumor: Acinar cell carcinoma ... islet cell tumor. Islet of Langerhans tumor Endocrinology A benign or malignant tumor of the pancreatic islet cells which may ...
This study randomized patients with advanced pancreatic islet cell tumors to receive either sunitinib or placebo. Patients who ... Carcinoma, Islet Cell. *Carcinoma, Pancreas. *Carcinoma. *Adenoma, Islet Cell. *Carcinoma, Islet Cell ... Well-differentiated advanced/metastatic pancreatic islet cell tumor. - Tumor has shown progression within the past year.. ... Versus Placebo In Patients With Progressive Advanced/Metastatic Well-Differentiated Pancreatic Islet Cell Tumors. Trial Phase: ...
804G rat bladder carcinoma cell-line. Available upon request. to make conditioned medium. ... Stem cells to insulin secreting cells: two steps forward and now a time to pause. Cell Stem Cell. 15, (5), 535-536 (2014). ... Leprdb Mouse Model of Type 2 Diabetes: Pancreatic Islet Isolation and Live-cell 2-Photon Imaging Of Intact Islets… ... Serup, P., et al. The homeodomain protein IPF-1/STF-1 is expressed in a subset of islet cells and promotes rat insulin 1 gene ...
ClinicalTrials.gov: Carcinoma, Islet Cell (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Pancreatic Neoplasms (National ... Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors / Islet Cell Tumors) (National Cancer Institute) Also in Spanish ... General Information about Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) (National Cancer Institute) Also in Spanish ... Targeted therapy uses drugs or other substances that attack specific cancer cells with less harm to normal cells. ...
Islet cell cancer. *Laryngeal papillomatosis. *Melanoma. *Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary gland ... in combination with erlotinib for non-clear cell histology in selected patients with advanced papillary renal cell carcinoma ... Renal Cell Carcinoma. A randomized, double-blind, phase II trial was conducted comparing placebo with bevacizumab at doses of 3 ... Patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung were excluded from in the study because previous clinical experience ...
Adenoma, Islet Cell. Carcinoma. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Neoplasms. Neuroectodermal ... Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma or small cell carcinoma.. *Prior treatment with everolimus, other mTOR ... Experimental: PK Expansion Renal Cell Carcinoma - Group A *Everolimus 10 mg by mouth once daily for each cycle (MUST BE TAKEN ... Experimental: PK Expansion Renal Cell Carcinoma - Group B *Everolimus 10 mg by mouth once daily for each cycle (MUST BE TAKEN ...
Carcinoma, Islet Cell. Adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Pancreatic ...
Also the improvement of methods that require smaller amounts of cells has opened the possibility to use this approach on ... Selection directed to tumoral cells surfaces lead to the identification of unknown tumoral markers. ... technique for screening billions of random fusion antibodies against virtually any target on the surface or inside cancer cells ... Adrenocortical carcinoma; breast cancer; colorectal cancer; HNC; islet cell cancer; liver cancer; Malignant Fibrous ...
When this occurs, it is called neuroendocrine carcinoma.. Islet Cells in the Pancreas. Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc. ... Cancer is when cells in the body split without control or order. These cells go on to form a growth or tumor. The term cancer ... Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. It may given by mouth, shots, or IV. The drugs enter the bloodstream and ... Radiation therapy is the use of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. radiation may be used before surgery to ...
Islet Cell Carcinoma see Pancreatic Cancer * Kaposi Sarcoma * Kidney Cancer * Laryngeal Cancer see Throat Cancer ...
Islets of Langerhans / Adolescent / Carcinoma, Islet Cell / Adenoma, Islet Cell Language: Korean Journal: Korean Journal of ... Islets of Langerhans / Adolescent / Carcinoma, Islet Cell / Adenoma, Islet Cell Language: Korean Journal: Korean Journal of ... A Case of Nonfunctioning Pancreatic Islet Cell Carcinomas in Adolescence A Case of Nonfunctioning Pancreatic Islet Cell ... Abdomen , Abdominal Pain , Adenoma, Islet Cell , Adolescent , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Islet Cell , Child , Decarboxylation , ...
Streptozotocin is used in islet cell carcinomas which produce excessive insulin. Combination chemotherapy is used, either ... "islet cell adenoma". Beta cells secrete insulin in response to increases in blood glucose. The resulting increase in insulin ... The first report of a surgical cure of hypoglycemia by removing an islet cell tumour was in 1929. An insulinoma removed from a ... Insulinoma is one of the most common types of tumors arising from the islets of Langerhans cells (pancreatic endocrine tumors ...
In healthy individuals, insulin has a suppressive effect on alpha-cell function and on glucagon secretion. ... Islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas. World J Surg. 1996 Sep. 20(7):878-83; discussion 884. [Medline]. ... alpha cell hyperplasia, and islet cell tumor. Pancreas. 2009 Nov. 38(8):941-6. [Medline]. [Full Text]. ... Spiral CT localization of pancreatic functioning islet cell tumors. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2004 Nov. 3(4):616-9. [ ...
Islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas. World J Surg. 1996;20:878-84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Population-based study of islet cell carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007;14:3492-500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma presenting bleeding gastric varices and splenomegaly. Jpn J Surg. 1984;14:244-7.PubMed ... Molecular targeted therapy for carcinoid and islet-cell carcinoma. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;21:163-72.PubMed ...
ATCC offers a vast collection of cell lines derived from pancreas, representing the normal and diseased tissue of multiple ... Pancreatic Islet Cell Tumor; Insulinoma (2) * Cystic Fibrosis (1) * Pancreatic Acinar Cell Tumor; Carcinoma (1) ... Cell Culture Media. Keep your cells healthy, happy and behaving as expected. ...
Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma. *Recurrent Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin. *Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer ... RATIONALE: Temsirolimus may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Drugs used ... RATIONALE: Temsirolimus may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Drugs used ... Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer, Hereditary Paraganglioma, Male Breast Cancer, Malignant Paraganglioma, Metastatic ...
ATCC offers a vast collection of cell lines derived from pancreas, representing the normal and diseased tissue of multiple ... Pancreatic Carcinoma (2) * Pancreatic Tumor (2) * Pancreatic Islet Cell Tumor; Insulinoma (2) ... Cell Culture Media. Keep your cells healthy, happy and behaving as expected. ...
Treatment of Metastatic Islet Cell Carcinoma with a Somatostatin Analogue (SMS 201-995) Annals of Internal Medicine; 107 (2): ... The Management of Patients with Advanced Carcinoid Tumors and Islet Cell Carcinomas Annals of Internal Medicine; 120 (4): 302- ... Observations on Steatorrhea Associated with Gastric Hypersecretion and Pancreatic Islet Cell Neoplasm WILLIAM S. HAUBRICH, M.D ... Observations on Steatorrhea Associated with Gastric Hypersecretion and Pancreatic Islet Cell Neoplasm. Annals of Internal ...
Pancreatic cancer describes the formation of malignant cancer cells in the pancreas, which makes juices to help digest food and ... Islet cell tumors. These tumors are not common in children and can be benign or malignant. Islet cell tumors may occur in ... Pancreatic carcinoma. Pancreatic carcinoma is very rare in children. The two types of pancreatic carcinoma are acinar cell ... Treatment of islet cell tumors in children may include drugs to treat symptoms caused by hormones and the following:. *Surgery ...
islet cell carcinoma. A tumor of the islands of Langerhans; such tumors may result in hyperinsulinism (and hypoglycemia). ... islets of Langerhans. cell clusters in the pancreas that form the endocrine part of that organ. ... the substance in the red blood cells that carries oxygen to the cells of the body. The A1C test is important in diabetes as a ... thyroid carcinoma. Malignant tumor of the thyroid gland. A1c. A test that measures how much glucose has been sticking during ...
and should not be confused with invasion of an islet cell carcinoma. ... If there several islets greater than 300 micrometers in diameter, a diagnosis of islet cell hyperplasia should be made. Also, ... It is often age associated and typically involves multiple islets. In rats, islet cell hyperplasia occurs more frequently in ... However, mice are reported to have a relatively constant 1,000 islets per pancreas. Islet cell hyperplasia occurs spontaneously ...
A and D: Large pancreatic islet cell tumor in RIP-Tag2 transgenic mouse. B and E: Implanted MCa-IV mammary carcinoma. C and F: ... islet cell tumors in RIP-Tag2 mice, MCa-IV breast carcinomas, and Lewis lung carcinomas. Frequency of tumor vessels with ... Bar graph comparing the percentage of blood vessels covered by desmin in normal pancreatic islets and islet cell tumors in RIP- ... whereas desmin immunoreactive cells are present on most vessels in islets (B). C-E: Desmin-immunoreactive cells are associated ...
  • Islet cell carcinoma or nesidioblastoma is an uncommon cancer of the endocrine pancreas . (bionity.com)
  • Tumors of the endocrine pancreas are a collection of tumor cell types collectively referred to as pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). (cigna.com)
  • Most islet cell cancers are functional, but about 15% are nonfunctional, with presentations similar to the far more common exocrine adenocarcinomas of the pancreas. (cigna.com)
  • tumor is a rare tumor of the pancreas that starts from a type of cell called the islet cell. (floridahealthfinder.gov)
  • In the healthy pancreas, cells called islet cells produce hormones that regulate a several bodily functions. (floridahealthfinder.gov)
  • Tumors that arise from islet cells of the pancreas can also produce a variety of hormones, which can lead to specific symptoms. (floridahealthfinder.gov)
  • Carcinoma of the pancreas. (floridahealthfinder.gov)
  • An ultrasound-guided core biopsy confirmed an pancreatoblastoma or pancreas islet cell tumor . (bvsalud.org)
  • Section of pancreas represents mild islet hyperplasia in a control male B6C3F1 mouse from the same chronic study as in Figure 1. (nih.gov)
  • Three large hyperplastic islets are present in the pancreas in a male B6C3F1 mouse from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
  • Several adjacent coalescing hyperplastic islets are present in the pancreas in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
  • Hyperplastic islet tissue with an irregular border is present in the pancreas in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
  • However, mice are reported to have a relatively constant 1,000 islets per pancreas. (nih.gov)
  • Also, if the overall area occupied by the islets in a section of pancreas is greater than that of the controls, a diagnosis of islet cell hyperplasia may be appropriate. (nih.gov)
  • Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant ( cancer ) cells form in the tissues of the pancreas. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • eye-let) cancer arising from cells in the islets of langerhans, which are found in the pancreas. (icd9data.com)
  • An aggressive, high-grade and poorly differentiated carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation that arises from the pancreas. (icd9data.com)
  • Pancreatic cancer happens when uncontrolled cell growth begins in a part of the pancreas. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Tumors that affect the endocrine functions of the pancreas are called neuroendocrine or islet-cell tumors. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Scientists do not know exactly why uncontrolled cell growth happens in the pancreas, but they have identified some possible risk factors. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Syndrome and Carcinoma of Pancreas with Demonstration of Tumor Antidiuretic Activity. (annals.org)
  • Mixed exocrine (ductal and acinar tumors) and endocrine (islet cell tumor) tumors of the pancreas are rare. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Herein we report an extremely rare case of a combination intraductal papillary mucinous hyperplasia (IPMH) and endocrine neoplasm (islet cell tumor) of the pancreas. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Coexistence of endocrine and exocrine tumors of the pancreas with nesidioblastosis is of particular interest because of the direct implication as to the origin and histogenesis of pancreatic endocrine cells and the relationship between endocrine and exocrine cells. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Islets are tiny clusters of cells that sit in your pancreas. (transplant.org.au)
  • When the islets in your pancreas do not function, the production of insulin is either reduced/ ceases or the body is unable to use the insulin effectively or both. (transplant.org.au)
  • Pancreatic allo Transplant is a procedure where the islets from the pancreas of a deceased organ donor are purified, processed, and transferred into your body. (transplant.org.au)
  • 1992 ) Onset of cell-specific gene expression in the developing mouse pancreas. (biologists.org)
  • 1999 ) Pancreas dorsal lobe agenesis and abnormal islets of Langerhans in Hlxb9-deficient mice. (biologists.org)
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas (islet cell tumors) and of the luminal gastrointestinal tract (carcinoids) are a heterogeneous group of epithelial neoplasms that share certain common characteristics. (cancernetwork.com)
  • C) Normal zebrafish adult pancreas, showing well-organized acinar cells in the exocrine pancreas (I: islet). (nih.gov)
  • Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors form in hormone-making cells (islet cells) of the pancreas. (nkch.org)
  • Endocrine pancreas cells make several kinds of hormones (chemicals that control the actions of certain cells or organs in the body), such as insulin to control blood sugar. (nkch.org)
  • They cluster together in many small groups (islets) throughout the pancreas. (nkch.org)
  • Endocrine pancreas cells are also called islet cells or islets of Langerhans. (nkch.org)
  • Exocrine pancreas cells make enzymes that are released into the small intestine to help the body digest food. (nkch.org)
  • Most of the pancreas is made of ducts with small sacs at the end of the ducts, which are lined with exocrine cells. (nkch.org)
  • This summary discusses islet cell tumors of the endocrine pancreas. (nkch.org)
  • Islet cells are specialized cells of the pancreas. (cancerquest.org)
  • dePeyster FA: Planning the appropriate operations for islet cell tumors of the pancreas. (springer.com)
  • Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas , a glandular organ behind the stomach , begin to multiply out of control and form a mass . (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] One to two percent of cases of pancreatic cancer are neuroendocrine tumors , which arise from the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pancreas has many functions, served by the endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans and the exocrine acinar cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1991) Metastatic carcinoid and islet cell tumours of the pancreas: a phase II trial of the efficacy of combination chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin and Cisplatin. (springer.com)
  • Glucagonoma is an alpha-islet cell tumour of the pancreas. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cancer arising from cells in the islets of Langerhans (hormone-producing cells in the pancreas). (lifeworkpotential.com)
  • GGT enzymes are located in a variety of tissues, including the heart, brain, kidney, pancreas, spleen, and the biliary ductule cells of the liver [77]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited tumor syndrome, phenotypically characterised by the development of multiple endocrine tumors or hypersecretory states of the parathyroid, anterior pituitary, or islet cells of the pancreas. (ajnr.org)
  • To expect them to accurately and conclusively explain to shareholders what the consequences are of having islet cell tumors growing on your pancreas is in my opinion unreasonable. (blogspot.com)
  • Temsirolimus may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Some block the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Others find tumor cells and help kill them or carry tumor-killing substances to them. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Giving temsirolimus together with bevacizumab may kill more tumor cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Insulin has been isolated from pancreases of the Syrian hamster and from a transplantable islet-cell tumor of the hamster. (elsevier.com)
  • The clinical manifestations in functional tumors may result from the distinctive metabolic effects of the polypeptide(s) secreted by the cancer cells rather than from tumor bulk or metastatic disease. (cigna.com)
  • its cells also show a lesser degree of anaplasia than those of a malignant tumor do. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • brown tumor a giant-cell granuloma produced in and replacing bone, occurring in osteitis fibrosa cystica and due to hyperparathyroidism. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We present the first case of Wilms' tumor, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma affecting the same individual. (elsevier.com)
  • These cells go on to form a growth or tumor. (epnet.com)
  • Medical treatment of glucagonoma syndrome includes therapy for NME, treatment of diabetes, treatment of hyperglucagonemia, and treatment of islet cell tumor. (medscape.com)
  • The most commonly used treatment for islet cell tumor is combination chemotherapy with streptozocin and 5-fluorouracil, which is reported to cause tumor shrinkage in as many as 10% of patients. (medscape.com)
  • Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as vinorelbine ditartrate, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. (pfizer.com)
  • Endothelial cells of tumor vessels have well-documented alterations, but it is less clear whether pericytes on these vessels are abnormal or even absent. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, pericytes in RIP-Tag2 tumors, as well as those in MCa-IV breast carcinomas and Lewis lung carcinomas, had an abnormally loose association with endothelial cells and extended cytoplasmic processes deep into the tumor tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Large pancreatic islet cell tumor in RIP-Tag2 transgenic mouse. (nih.gov)
  • Tumor types included were carcinoid (n = 55), pancreatic islet cell (n = 23), and medullary thyroid cancer (n = 11). (nih.gov)
  • Nesidioblastosis coexisting with islet cell tumor and intraductal papillary mucinous hyperplasia. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 3) Although this tumor usually shows a slow evolution and a low malignancy rate, all gradations--from benign-appearing epithelium to in situ or invasive carcinoma--may be encountered. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A procedure to find malignant tumor cells in the body. (cancer.gov)
  • Malignant tumor cells show up brighter in the picture because they are more active and take up more glucose than normal cells do. (cancer.gov)
  • D) A tumor with acinar cell differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • The periphery of acinar cell carcinoma is generally circumscribed with minimal stroma within the tumor. (nih.gov)
  • Acinar cell differentiation of the tumor can be further confirmed by the presence of pancreatic exocrine enzymes, such as trypsin and elastase. (nih.gov)
  • It inhibits the mTOR protein, a central regulator of tumor cell division and blood vessel growth in cancer cells. (mdanderson.org)
  • A tumor that forms in cells that make gastrin. (nkch.org)
  • A tumor that forms in cells that make insulin. (nkch.org)
  • It's a rare tumor but definitely a health care issue," said Dr. Bhoomi Mehrotra, section head of the medical oncology and stem cell transplantation program at North Shore-Long Island Jewish Medical Center in New Hyde Park, N.Y. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Aoyagi T, Summerskill WHJ: Gastric secretion with ulcerogenic islet cell tumor: Importance of basal acid output. (springer.com)
  • Glucagonoma is a rare, slowly growing, frequently malignant pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) arising from alpha-cells of the islets of the Langerhans. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • No ductal formation was seen, but some tumor cells revealed a vague condensation reminiscent of ductule formation, albeit without true ductal lumina (Figure 3). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the present report, the IPMH and islet cell tumors were topographically separated, but the islet cell tumor had a ductule component. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The endocrine glands are small clusters of cells known as the islets of Langerhans. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 1. a type of cell found in the periphery of the islets of Langerhans that secretes glucagon . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1. a type of basophilic cell that makes up most of the bulk of the islets of Langerhans and secretes insulin . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Recent clinical trials introducing new immunosuppressive regimens and improved islet preparation techniques have shown that transplantation of islets of Langerhans into the liver of type 1 diabetic patients could represent an alternative to exogenous insulin treatment and allows for the normalization of metabolic control, which cannot be achieved by administration of exogenous insulin alone ( 1 - 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • If there is evidence of treatment-related effect and/or the presence of islet adenomas in a given study, the pathology narrative should provide the diagnostic features used to distinguish between hyperplasia and adenoma (e.g., lack of compression, atypia, or necrosis in hyperplasia) and address the magnitude of any treatment-related response. (nih.gov)
  • Lebovitz, Harold E. / A comparison of the structure of hamster pancreatic insulin and the insulin extracted from a transplantable hamster islet-cell carcinoma . (elsevier.com)
  • Nesidioblastosis is a hyperfunctional disorder of pancreatic insulin-producing cells characterized by hypertrophic [beta] cells within enlarged or normal-appearing islets, small scattered endocrine cell clusters, and ductuloinsular complexes. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Provision of insulin or replacement of islets is mandatory and a primary goal in T1D. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 7.0%, C-peptide positivity, and use of minimal insulin at bedtime) in 409 recipients of islet autotransplantation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), exert a number of actions that improve glucose homeostasis, including potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), promotion of β-cell proliferation and survival, and inhibition of glucagon secretion ( 1 - 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The islets are made up of several types of cells including beta cells that make and secrete the hormone called insulin. (transplant.org.au)
  • Type 1 Diabetes: occurs when the body's immune system attacks and destroys the islets and insulin can no longer be produced. (transplant.org.au)
  • When the Islet cells in your body are destroyed and resulting in Type 1 diabetes, your treatment will involve insulin injections several times a day or treatment with an insulin pump, following a healthy lifestyle and engaging in regular physical activity. (transplant.org.au)
  • Once the islet cells are transferred, the beta cells in the islets start functions to make and release insulin. (transplant.org.au)
  • The transplant is a treatment option if your body's islet cells have been destroyed leading to Type 1 Diabetes, you are insulin dependent and your blood glucose is difficult to control. (transplant.org.au)
  • The prolyl isomerase Pin1 increases β-cell proliferation and enhances insulin secretion. (semanticscholar.org)
  • PPARβ/δ affects pancreatic β cell mass and insulin secretion in mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Of note, islets from type 2 diabetes donors display decreased JAZF1 expression, and higher levels of islet JAZF1 are correlated with higher insulin secretion and higher glycemic control ( 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Hepatocarcinogenesis is independent from additional genotoxic compounds (i.e., streptozotocin), but is primarily triggered by increased intracellular insulin signaling via pathways associated with cell growth and proliferation, such as the Ras-Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and the IGF system, and secondarily involves other growth factors, such as TGF-α. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sole high number (i.e., 1,000-2,000 islets) transplantation in streptozotocin-diabetic Lewis rats, in which the β-cells of the grafts are not maximally stimulated to secrete insulin and the resulting local hyperinsulinemia is relatively slight, does not suffice to induce the carcinogenic process ( 19 , 21 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Carcinogenesis starts with hepatocellular alterations, which, on the one hand, correspond to known insulin effects and, on the other hand, resemble the so-called clear cell focus (CCF) of preneoplastic hepatocytes, known from many other models of hepatocarcinogenesis ( 27 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The recognised forms of MODY are all due to ineffective insulin production or release by pancreatic beta cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two types of pancreatic carcinoma are acinar cell carcinoma and ductal adenocarcinoma . (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Also known as islet cell carcinoma, this type of pancreatic cancer represents a small proportion of all such malignancies but has a better prognosis than adenocarcinoma, the more common and deadlier form. (bio-medicine.org)
  • An alkylating agent used to prevent graft rejection in stem cell transplantation and to treat a variety of malignancies including certain types of adenocarcinoma and superficial bladder carcinomas. (drugbank.ca)
  • Twelve regions containing type 2 diabetes-associated variants were tested for enhancer activity in 832/13 and MIN6 insulinoma cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This phase II trial studies how well temsirolimus and bevacizumab work in treating patients with advanced endometrial, ovarian, liver, carcinoid, or islet cell cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If cancer cells spread to the liver, a part of the liver may also be removed, if possible. (floridahealthfinder.gov)
  • Cancer is when cells in the body split without control or order. (epnet.com)
  • Radiation therapy is the use of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. (epnet.com)
  • Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. (epnet.com)
  • Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce the juices. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Targeted therapy uses drugs or other substances that attack specific cancer cells with less harm to normal cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Phage display represents a high-throughput technique for screening billions of random fusion antibodies against virtually any target on the surface or inside cancer cells, or even soluble markers found in patient serum. (mdpi.com)
  • PRRT combines a drug that targets cancer cells with a small amount of a radioactive substance. (mayoclinic.org)
  • It allows radiation to be delivered directly to the cancer cells. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The name comes from the type of hormone-producing cell where the cancer starts. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • After cancer is diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread from where the cancer began to other parts of the body. (cancer.gov)
  • The process used to find out if cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body is called staging. (cancer.gov)
  • Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is cancer of the thyroid gland that starts in cells that release a hormone called calcitonin. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a fast-growing type of lung cancer. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • It spreads much more quickly than non-small cell lung cancer. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • When pancreatic NETs are malignant, they are called pancreatic endocrine cancer or islet cell carcinoma. (nkch.org)
  • Also known as islet cell carcinoma this type of pancreatic cancer rep. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Smoking appears to be associated with an increased risk of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma skin cancer, according to a report of a meta-analysis and review of available medical literature published Online First by Archives of Dermatology . (medicalxpress.com)
  • About 97 percent of skin cancers are epithelial (cells that cover the skin) in origin and are either basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) or squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), which are collectively known as nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). (medicalxpress.com)
  • Dacarbazine is also used to treat Hodgkin's lymphoma (a type of cancer that begins in a type of white blood cells that normally fights infection). (rxwiki.com)
  • These work by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells in your body. (rxwiki.com)
  • [6] Several other types of cancer, which collectively represent the majority of the non-adenocarcinomas, can also arise from these cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A type of thyroid cancer affecting the follicular cells which make thyroid hormone. (lifeworkpotential.com)
  • A cancer of the adrenal glands in which the cells are large and look abnormal under a microscope. (lifeworkpotential.com)
  • A possible explanation for the relationship of diabetes mellitus and liver cancer is provided by our previous studies in an animal model of hormonally induced hepatocarcinogenesis in which intrahepatic low number (i.e., 350-450 islets) pancreatic islet transplantation in streptozotocin-diabetic Lewis rats seemed to be the primary trigger for carcinogenesis ( 19 - 26 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • An alkylating and immunosuppressive agent used in chemotherapy for the treatment of cancers, including testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, osteocarcinoma, bladder cancer, small cell lung cancer, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (drugbank.ca)
  • In the context of islet studies and transplantation, 1 islet equivalent (IEQ) is often considered as a size of 150 mm, consisting of an average 2,500 cells. (omicsonline.org)
  • Unlike whole organ transplantation where revascularization occurs through surgical anastomosis of vessels, the revascularization of islets requires the formation of vessel patencies either through inosculation of host and recipient microvessels or through neo-vessel penetration into the islet. (omicsonline.org)
  • Islet Transplantation for Type 1 Diabetes, 2015: What Have We Learned From Alloislet and Autoislet Successes? (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESULTS- Treatment of NOD mice with MK0431 before and after islet transplantation resulted in prolongation of islet graft survival, whereas treatment after transplantation alone resulted in small beneficial effects compared with nontreated controls. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In Australia, Islet transplantation is carried out primarily in patients with Type 1 diabetes. (transplant.org.au)
  • In many cases where the islets are damaged causing Type 1, Pancreatic Islet allo - transplantation can assist in the treatment of the condition. (transplant.org.au)
  • Each islet transplant programme allocates islets to the patient who has been waiting for the longest time on the islet transplant list and is deemed suitable for the islet preparation made available for transplantation. (transplant.org.au)
  • Using beta-cell growth factors to enhance human pancreatic Islet transplantation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It has been shown that combined high local hyperinsulinism and hyperglycemia after low-number islet transplantation into the livers of streptozotocin-diabetic rats lead to the development of hepatocellular neoplasms but a substantial cocarcinogenic effect of genotoxic streptozotocin could not be ruled out completely. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Treosulfan is under investigation in Allogeneic Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. (drugbank.ca)
  • Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a diverse group of epithelial tumors that can originate from almost any organ derived from the primitive endoderm, including pancreatic islet cells (pancreatic NETs), diffuse neuroendocrine cells distributed throughout the gut (gastrointestinal carcinoids), the respiratory epithelium (bronchial carcinoids), the thymus (thymic carcinoids), and parafollicular cells distributed within the thyroid gland (medullary thyroid carcinoma). (cancernetwork.com)
  • Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing tumors that originate in cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system. (uwhealth.org)
  • Individual carcinoid tumors have specific histologic and immunohistochemical features based on their anatomic location and endocrine cell type. (uwhealth.org)
  • The once-daily oral therapy was approved in March 2009 for advanced renal cell carcinoma, and is currently being tested in a host of other disease sites, including lymphomas, breast, skin, gastric, liver, colon and prostate cancers. (mdanderson.org)
  • The medical subject Headings indexing system refers to "islet cell carcinoma", which is subdivided into gastrinoma, glucagonoma , somatostatinoma and VIPoma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma results from chronic cyclin D1 overexpression in transgenic mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • After 12 to 15 and 15 to 18 months, 52% and 100% of the animals showed one or multiple hepatocellular adenomas or hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • On the other hand, diabetes mellitus has been identified as a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans in Western Europe and the United States ( 9 - 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A better understanding of molecular mechanisms associated with intra-islet EC cross-talk and its micro-environment may present exciting new perspectives on islet graft to host revascularization and in supporting islet graft survival. (omicsonline.org)
  • In the process, it prevents the proliferation of endothelial cells and formation of new blood vessels .Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important signaling protein involved in angiogenesis (the growth of blood vessels from pre‐existing vasculature). (aetna.com)
  • 6) A spectrum of proliferation from nesidioblastosis to islet cell hyperplasia to multiple adenomas to metastases has previously been reported. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Cyclin D1 can stimulate proliferation by driving cells from the G1 into the S-phase of the mammalian cell cycle. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Previous animal studies have implicated the G1-S transition as a key regulatory checkpoint governing the proliferation of pancreatic islet cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Induction of beta-cell proliferation and retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation in rat and human islets using adenovirus-mediated transfer of cyclin-dependent kinase-4 and cyclin D1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hepatocyte growth factor overexpression in the islet of transgenic mice increases beta cell proliferation, enhances islet mass, and induces mild hypoglycemia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Our findings suggest that the perturbation of EGF-R-mediated signalling can lead to a generalized proliferation defect of the pancreatic epithelia associated with a delay in beta cell development and disturbed migration of the developing islet cells as they differentiate from their precursors. (biologists.org)
  • The transgenic mouse models express growth factors which cause pancreatic phenotypic changes, including pancreatic duct cell proliferation, differentiation of certain pancreatic cells into other endodermal derivatives, increased islet and ductule development and intra islet ductule formation and proliferation of pancreatic cells generally. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tumors that form in islet cells are called islet cell tumors, pancreatic endocrine tumors, or pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pancreatic NETs). (nkch.org)
  • Pancreatic islet - hyperplasia. (nih.gov)
  • Islet cell hyperplasia occurs spontaneously in mice and rats and may be dramatic in mice. (nih.gov)
  • In rats, islet cell hyperplasia occurs more frequently in males than females. (nih.gov)
  • If there several islets greater than 300 micrometers in diameter, a diagnosis of islet cell hyperplasia should be made. (nih.gov)
  • Islet cell hyperplasia should be documented when present and given a severity grade. (nih.gov)
  • A diverse spectrum of intraductal epithelial changes (ie, nonpapillary hyperplasia, papillary hyperplasia, atypical hyperplasia/severe dysplasia) has been described around invasive pancreatic carcinomas. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 5) Mucinous cell hyperplasia has been reported to be the most important precursor in the histogenesis of human pancreatic duct carcinoma. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Overexpression of cyclin D1 in pancreatic beta-cells in vivo results in islet hyperplasia without hypoglycemia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Metastatic Pancreatic Islet Cell Carcinoma with Ectopic Adrenocorticotrophic hormone Production Manifesting as Severe Recalcitrant Hypokalemia. (uthsc.edu)
  • A nitrosourea antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of metastatic pancreatic islet cell carcinoma. (drugbank.ca)
  • Islets represent endocrine "island" clusters, embedded and scattered within large amounts of exocrine acinar tissue [ 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • The capillary network within islets is about five times denser in comparison with exocrine tissue [ 16 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Scattered endocrine cells have been reported to be present in exocrine pancreatic carcinomas, including ductal, mucinous cystic, and acinar cell carcinomas. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In islet cell adenomas, there may be some cellular atypia or pleomorphism, which is not typically seen in hyperplastic lesions. (nih.gov)
  • Malonaldehyde administered to rats produced an increased incidence of adenomas and carcinomas of the thyroid gland and pancreatic islet cell adenomas. (cdc.gov)
  • A long-term gavage study of malonaldehyde produced adenomas and carcinomas of the thyroid gland and adenomas of the pancreatic islet cells in rats. (cdc.gov)
  • This hormone also acts as a mitogenic factor for gastrointestinal epithelial cells. (genecards.org)
  • Although the cellular origin of NETs of the GI tract is uncertain, consistent expression of cytokeratins in NETs and the expression of the caudal-related homeodomain protein 2 (CdX2 protein), an intestinal transcription factor in endocrine tumors of the small intestine, suggests an origin from an epithelial precursor cell. (uwhealth.org)
  • The most striking feature of the EGF-R (−/−) islets was that instead of forming circular clusters, the islet cells were mainly located in streak-like structures directly associated with pancreatic ducts. (biologists.org)
  • Vessels in pancreatic islets ( arrows ) and acini stained for CD31 and α-SMA or desmin immunoreactivity. (nih.gov)
  • acinar cell , acinic cell , acinous cell any of the cells lining an acinus, especially the zymogen-secreting cells of the pancreatic acini. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pancreatic acini and islets are believed to differentiate from common ductal precursors through a process requiring various growth factors. (biologists.org)
  • Askanazy cells large eosinophilic cells found in the thyroid gland in autoimmune thyroiditis and Hürthle cell tumors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In preclinical studies, the DPP-IV inhibitor isoleucine thiazolidide was shown to improve glucose tolerance in both streptozotocin (STZ)-induced ( 18 , 19 ) and BioBreeding (BB) ( 19 ) diabetic rats, associated with increased β-cell survival and possibly islet neogenesis ( 18 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucagonoma are rare slow-growing tumours of the pancreatic alpha cells that cause hypersecretion of glucagon with an incidence estimated to be one in 20 million people per annum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Moertel CG, Kvols LK, O'Connell MJ, Rubin J (1991) Treatment of neuroendocrine carcinomas with combined etoposide and cisplatin. (springer.com)
  • Data regarding carcinoids and other NETs, such as poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, may be combined in some epidemiologic and clinical studies, rendering separate consideration difficult. (uwhealth.org)
  • These tumors are composed of embryonic, primitive, or poorly differentiated cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The therapeutic potential of pancreatic islet allotransplantation, in which human donor islets are used, as a treatment for type 1 diabetes (T1D) has fascinated diabetes researchers and clinicians for decades. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • DPP-IV inhibitor treatment has also been shown to preserve islet mass in rodent models of type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The current study was initiated to define the effects of the DPP-IV inhibitor sitagliptin (MK0431) on transplanted islet survival in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, an autoimmune type 1 diabetes model. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the current study, we show that MK0431 pretreatment resulted in the prolongation of islet graft survival in an autoimmune type 1 diabetes model, the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, through a mechanism that includes modulation of CD4 + T-cell migration. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Rodent islets are primarily composed of β-cells located in the center with other cell types in the periphery, human islets exhibit interconnected α- and β-cells [ 3 - 13 , 14 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • These diseases usually respond to therapy and thus it is essential to confirm the radiologic diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma with biopsy, particularly if surgery is not planned or if chemoradiation therapy is anticipated. (uptodate.com)
  • the term should not be used to describe pancreatic NETs or islet cell tumors. (uwhealth.org)
  • Most NETs of the small and large intestines occur sporadically, while others may occur within the background of an inherited neoplasia syndrome such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) or neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) (e.g., gastrin-producing G-cell tumors and somatostatin-producing D-cell tumors of the duodenum, respectively). (uwhealth.org)
  • Of the reported cases of pancreatic islet cell neoplasm associated with gastric hypersecretion (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome), about one-third include diarrhea as a prominent symptom. (annals.org)
  • Islet tumors may either be functional (produce one or more active hormones) or nonfunctional. (cigna.com)
  • Functioning islet cell tumors continue to make hormones. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • APUD cells [ a mine p recursor u ptake and d ecarboxylation] a group of cells that manufacture polypeptides and biogenic amines serving as hormones or neurotransmitters. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Also called islet cell carcinoma, pNET involves cells that secrete a variety of hormones. (mdanderson.org)
  • Pancreatic islet cell tumors arise from this system and are capable of secreting virtually any of the known polypeptide hormones. (springer.com)
  • Occurring nonrandomly throughout the GI tract are more than 14 cell types, which produce different hormones. (uwhealth.org)
  • Streptozocin (Zanosar®) is thought to inhibit DNA synthesis and thus prevent cell division though the exact mechanism by which it causes cell death is not known. (cancerquest.org)
  • Bevacizumab binds to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inhibits the interaction of VEGF to Flt1 and KDR receptors on the surface of endothelial cells. (aetna.com)
  • Indeed, pericyte sleeves were significantly longer than the CD31-immunoreactive endothelial cell sprouts themselves in all three types of tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Endothelial cells (ECs) are central to the angiogenic process, with recent insights establishing how these cells communicate with each other and with their microenvironment to form branched vascular networks. (omicsonline.org)
  • Vascular endothelial cells represent a major cell type present in islets and these cells are organized into a highly regulated and morphologically unique microcirculation. (omicsonline.org)
  • 2. a new growth of tissue in which cell multiplication is uncontrolled and progressive. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This higher magnification of Figure 7 shows coalesced hyperplastic islets with occasional trapped acinar cells within the hyperplastic islet tissue in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
  • 1. any of the protoplasmic masses making up organized tissue, consisting of a nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm enclosed in a cell or plasma membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Arias-Stella cells columnar cells in the endometrial epithelium which have a hyperchromatic enlarged nucleus and which appear to be associated with chorionic tissue in an intrauterine or extrauterine site. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Using pancreatic islets as a model for vascularized tissue, this review will present a general overview of EC behaviour dynamics in sprouting angiogenesis, particularly focusing on the interplay between VEGF and Notch pathways. (omicsonline.org)
  • Pancreatic islets are highly vascularized and receive 10% of the pancreatic blood flow despite comprising of only 1-2% of the overall tissue mass [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Phase II trial dacarbazine (DTIC) in advanced pancreatic islet cell carcinoma. (elsevier.com)
  • A primary malignant neoplasm of the pancreatic islet cells. (icd9data.com)
  • The cellular components of the islet include β-cells with the remainder of the islet comprised of other endocrine cells (including glucagon-secreting α- cells, somatostatin secreting δ-cells, pancreatic polypeptide-secreting γ-cells, and ghrelin-producing ε-cells), as well as ECs and support cells such as pericytes [ 3 - 12 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Analysis of embryonic pancreata revealed impaired branching morphogenesis and delayed islet cell differentiation in the EGF-R (−/−) mice. (biologists.org)
  • 0.01), indicating delayed differentiation of the beta cells. (biologists.org)