Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Adenoma, Islet Cell: A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Islet Cell: A primary malignant neoplasm of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the non-INSULIN-producing cell types, the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and the pancreatic delta cells (SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS) in GLUCAGONOMA and SOMATOSTATINOMA, respectively.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Islet Amyloid Polypeptide: A pancreatic beta-cell hormone that is co-secreted with INSULIN. It displays an anorectic effect on nutrient metabolism by inhibiting gastric acid secretion, gastric emptying and postprandial GLUCAGON secretion. Islet amyloid polypeptide can fold into AMYLOID FIBRILS that have been found as a major constituent of pancreatic AMYLOID DEPOSITS.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Insulinoma: A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Glucagon-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 5-20% of the islet cells. Alpha cells secrete GLUCAGON.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Glucagonoma: An almost always malignant GLUCAGON-secreting tumor derived from the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS. It is characterized by a distinctive migratory ERYTHEMA; WEIGHT LOSS; STOMATITIS; GLOSSITIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; hypoaminoacidemia; and normochromic normocytic ANEMIA.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Pancreatic Ducts: Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Pancreatic Polypeptide: A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.Carcinoma, Medullary: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Glutamate Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Pancreatectomy: Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Somatostatin-Secreting Cells: Endocrine cells found throughout the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and in islets of the PANCREAS. D cells secrete SOMATOSTATIN that acts in both an endocrine and paracrine manner. Somatostatin acts on a variety of tissues including the PITUITARY GLAND; gastrointestinal tract; pancreas; and KIDNEY by inhibiting the release of hormones, such as GROWTH HORMONE; GASTRIN; INSULIN; and RENIN.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase: A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative demethylation of dimethylglycine to SARCOSINE and FORMALDEHYDE.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Proinsulin: A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 8: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular RDGS-adhesion recognition motif and a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain.Carcinoma, Endometrioid: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carcinoma, Merkel Cell: A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Carcinoma, Verrucous: A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Pancreatic Hormones: Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell: A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Dwarfism: A genetic or pathological condition that is characterized by short stature and undersize. Abnormal skeletal growth usually results in an adult who is significantly below the average height.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mice, Inbred C57BLCarcinoma, Large Cell: A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Neurotensin: A biologically active tridecapeptide isolated from the hypothalamus. It has been shown to induce hypotension in the rat, to stimulate contraction of guinea pig ileum and rat uterus, and to cause relaxation of rat duodenum. There is also evidence that it acts as both a peripheral and a central nervous system neurotransmitter.Subrenal Capsule Assay: In vivo method of screening investigative anticancer drugs and biologic response modifiers for individual cancer patients. Fresh tumor tissue is implanted under the kidney capsule of immunocompetent mice or rats; gross and histological assessments follow several days after tumor treatment in situ.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Rats, Inbred BB: A strain of Rattus norvegicus which is a model for spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, INSULIN-DEPENDENT).Apudoma: A general term collectively applied to tumors associated with the APUD CELLS series, irrespective of their specific identification.Periploca: A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE. It is a source of periplocosides (pregnane steroid glycosides).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Vipoma: A tumor that secretes VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE, a neuropeptide that causes VASODILATION; relaxation of smooth muscles; watery DIARRHEA; HYPOKALEMIA; and HYPOCHLORHYDRIA. Vipomas, derived from the pancreatic ISLET CELLS, generally are malignant and can secrete other hormones. In most cases, Vipomas are located in the PANCREAS but can be found in extrapancreatic sites.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Diazoxide: A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Niacinamide: An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells: The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Diphenylamine: In humans it may be irritating to mucous membranes. Methemoglobinemia has been produced experimentally. In veterinary use, it is one of active ingredients in topical agents for prevention and treatment of screwworm infestation. An indicator in tests for nitrate poisoning.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Transplantation, Isogeneic: Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.Mice, Inbred BALB CGallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Tolbutamide: A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)4-Hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a reduction product of 4-NITROQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE. It binds with nucleic acids and inactivates both bacteria and bacteriophage.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous: A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Loa: A genus of parasitic nematodes found throughout the rain-forest areas of the Sudan and the basin of the Congo. L. loa inhabits the subcutaneous tissues, which it traverses freely.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Rats, Inbred WFMice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Endocrine Cells: Secretory cells of the ductless glands. They secrete HORMONES directly into the blood circulation (internal secretion) to be carried to the target cells. The secreted chemicals can be PEPTIDES; STEROIDS; NEUROPEPTIDES; or BIOGENIC AMINES.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Glucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cell SeparationSensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Winged-Helix Transcription Factors: A subfamily of HELIX-TURN-HELIX DNA-binding proteins that contain a variable length loop adjacent to the HTH motif. The loop connects two anti-parallel strands and forms a wing when bound to DNA.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Cucurbitaceae: The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.Receptors, Somatostatin: Cell surface proteins that bind somatostatin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Activated somatostatin receptors on pituitary cells inhibit the release of growth hormone; those on endocrine and gastrointestinal cells regulate the absorption and utilization of nutrients; and those on neurons mediate somatostatin's role as a neurotransmitter.Mannoheptulose: A 7-carbon keto sugar having the mannose configuration.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Prolyl Hydroxylases: Enzymes that specifically hydroxylate PROLINE residues on proteins.

Effects of angiogenesis inhibitors on multistage carcinogenesis in mice. (1/51)

Solid tumors depend on angiogenesis for their growth. In a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic islet cell carcinogenesis (RIP1-Tag2), an angiogenic switch occurs in premalignant lesions, and angiogenesis persists during progression to expansive solid tumors and invasive carcinomas. RIP1-Tag2 mice were treated so as to compare the effects of four angiogenesis inhibitors at three distinct stages of disease progression. AGM-1470, angiostatin, BB-94, and endostatin each produced distinct efficacy profiles in trials aimed at preventing the angiogenic switch in premalignant lesions, intervening in the rapid expansion of small tumors, or inducing the regression of large end-stage cancers. Thus, anti-angiogenic drugs may prove most efficacious when they are targeted to specific stages of cancer.  (+info)

Cellular composition and anatomic distribution in nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumors: immunohistochemical study of 30 cases. (2/51)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cytological pattern and distribution in nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumors. METHODS: Using labeled streptavidin-biotin (LSAB), immunohistochemical staining for insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide and gastrin was performed on 30 nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumors from 30 patients. The cellular composition and anatomic distribution in these tumors were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 30 tumor tissues, 22 (73.3%) were found to contain cells immunoreactive to 1-4 kinds of peptide hormones; 17 (56.7%) showed positive staining for more than one peptide and up to 4 peptides; and 8 (26.7%) showed negative immunoreaction to all antiserum applied. No tumor was found to contain immunoreactive gastrin. Among 17 multihormonal tumors, 4 contained 2 kinds of peptide hormones, 8 had 3 kinds, and 5 harbored 4 kinds of peptide hormones. In addition, the difference in the number and type of positive endocrine cells between the tumors arising from the head of the pancreas and those arising from the body and tail of the pancreas were statistically significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemically, the high positive rate to peptide hormones suggests that the nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumors are actually not nonfunctioning; they are asymptomatic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Moreover, an uneven distribution of positive endocrine cells in the nonfunctioning pancreas endocrine tumors within the pancreas was identified.  (+info)

Induction of pancreatic islet cell tumors in rats by repeated intravenous administration of 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide. (3/51)

The inducibility of pancreatic islet cell tumors by administration of 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide (4HAQO) was investigated in male 6-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were given 4HAQO intravenously at a weekly dose of 5 mg/kg 4 times (group 1) or a single dose of 10 mg/kg (group 2). Control rats received the vehicle alone (group 3). Fifty-six weeks after the first 4HAQO administration, all surviving animals were killed and the pancreas was examined histopathologically, immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. The incidences and multiplicities of islet cell tumors in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 52.3% (p < 0.05 vs group 2, p < 0.01 vs group 3), 19.2% and 0%, and 0.70/animal (p < 0.05 vs group 2, p < 0.01 vs group 3), 0.23 and 0, respectively. Islet cell carcinomas were induced only in group 1, accounting for 6/44 (26%) tumors. Islet cell hyperplasias were found in 61.4% (p < 0.05 vs group 3), 42.3% and 10.0% of groups 1, 2, and 3, with multiplicities of 0.95 (p < 0.05 vs groups 2 and 3), 0.54 and 0.20, respectively. As compared with normal islets from control subjects, islet cell tumors showed an increase in the number of insulin positive cells associated with cytological features indicative of enhanced insulin synthesis and secretion, and a decrease in the number of glucagon positive cells without ultrastructural signs of modified secretory activity. Thus our results indicate that repeated intravenous administration of 4HAQO to rats is useful for the induction of islet cell tumors at high incidence.  (+info)

The effects of ad libitum overfeeding and moderate and marked dietary restriction on age-related spontaneous pancreatic islet pathology in Sprague-Dawley rats. (4/51)

This study compared the effects of ad libitum (AL) overfeeding and moderate or marked dietary restriction (DR) on aged-related degenerative and proliferative changes of the endocrine pancreas in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. SD rats were fed Purina Certified Rodent Diet AL (group 1), DR at 72-79% of AL (group 2), DR at 68-72% of AL (group 3) or DR at 47-48% of AL (group 4) for 106 weeks. Interim necropsies were performed at 13, 26, and 53 weeks, after a 7-day 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-filled minipump implantation. Before each necropsy, glucose and serum insulin levels were measured. In addition to the routine histopathologic examination performed in both sexes, determination of 9 pancreatic islet stereologic parameters was done in males at 13, 26, and 53 weeks. In AL-fed rats, early changes in the islet morphology occurred, which resulted in a high incidence of islet fibrosis, focal hyperplasias and adenomas by two years. DR was dose-proportionally associated with decreased glucose and serum insulin levels, and delayed the onset, and decreased the incidence and severity of islet fibrosis and hyperplasia. Results of the stereology supported the histopathologic and clinical chemistry findings. It demonstrated that, compared to AL-fed rats, DR-fed rats had smaller pancreas, smaller pancreatic islets, smaller insulin secreting cell volumes, a lower degree of islet fibrosis and a lower islet cell BrdU labeling index, which correlated with a lower incidence of islet adenoma and carcinoma at study termination. Moderate and marked degrees of DR delayed the onset and severity of islet hyperplasia and fibrosis in a temporal- and dose-related manner. In contrast to marked DR, which dramatically prevented these changes, moderate DR delayed but not prevented onset of islet tumors. These findings support the concept that moderate DR results in a better-controlled animal model with a lower incidence or delayed onset of chronic spontaneous endocrine diseases in the rat bioassay.  (+info)

Elevated levels of IGF-1 receptor convey invasive and metastatic capability in a mouse model of pancreatic islet tumorigenesis. (5/51)

In a prototypical model of multistage tumorigenesis involving pancreatic islets in RIP1-Tag2 transgenic mice, activation of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) was previously shown to serve as a survival factor that inhibited apoptosis. Now IGF-1R, the receptor tyrosine kinase for IGF-II, has been found to be variably upregulated, first uniformly in dysplastic and angiogenic progenitors and then focally at the margins and in invasive regions of carcinomas. When the levels of IGF-1R were forcibly elevated throughout islet tumorigenesis, progression was accelerated at all stages in the pathway, although apoptosis was not differentially suppressed. Notably, encapsulated tumors were absent; instead, invasive carcinomas with downregulated E-cadherin were prevalent, and the majority of mice had local lymph node metastasis.  (+info)

Benefits of targeting both pericytes and endothelial cells in the tumor vasculature with kinase inhibitors. (6/51)

Functions of receptor tyrosine kinases implicated in angiogenesis were pharmacologically impaired in a mouse model of pancreatic islet cancer. An inhibitor targeting VEGFRs in endothelial cells (SU5416) is effective against early-stage angiogenic lesions, but not large, well-vascularized tumors. In contrast, a kinase inhibitor incorporating selectivity for PDGFRs (SU6668) is shown to block further growth of end-stage tumors, eliciting detachment of pericytes and disruption of tumor vascularity. Importantly, PDGFRs were expressed only in perivascular cells of this tumor type, suggesting that PDGFR(+) pericytes in tumors present a complimentary target to endothelial cells for efficacious antiangiogenic therapy. Therapeutic regimes combining the two kinase inhibitors (SU5416 and SU6668) were more efficacious against all stages of islet carcinogenesis than either single agent. Combination of the VEGFR inhibitor with another distinctive kinase inhibitor targeting PDGFR activity (Gleevec) was also able to regress late-stage tumors. Thus, combinatorial targeting of receptor tyrosine kinases shows promise for treating multiple stages in tumorigenesis, most notably the often-intractable late-stage solid tumor.  (+info)

Octreotide-sensitive ectopic ACTH production by islet cell carcinoma with multiple liver metastases. (7/51)

We report a 21-year-old woman with ectopic ACTH syndrome due to islet cell carcinoma with multiple liver metastases. On admission, she showed Cushingoid appearance (moon face, central obesity etc.) and had acute respiratory distress syndrome due to pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Laboratory examination revealed marked elevations of plasma ACTH (735 pg/ml) and cortisol (145 microg/dl) with a profound hypokalemia (2.0 mEq/l). She was found to have multiple masses in the liver and a solid mass in the tail of pancreas by abdominal computerized tomography scanning. Treatment with octreotide successfully reduced elevated plasma ACTH and cortisol levels, and she received frequent transhepatic arterial embolization and chemotherapy. The primary pancreatic tumor was surgically removed, revealing islet cell carcinoma which contained high content of ACTH (100 microg/g wet weight) and abundantly expressed proopiomelanocortin and somatostatin receptor subtype-2 mRNAs as determined by Northern blot analysis. Postoperatively, she was free from symptoms for almost one year. However, progressive enlargement of multiple liver metastases refractory to chemotherapy led her to decide on total hepatectomy and liver transplantation from her father. After liver transplantation, she remained almost free from symptoms for almost one year. However, metastases developed to the mediastinal and paraaortic lymph nodes as detected by 111[In] pentetreotide scintigraphy. Eleven months after liver transplantation, she was again treated with octreotide and, 16 months after, with metyrapone, both of which were effective in reducing ACTH and cortisol levels, respectively, until she died of acute respiratory failure. This case of a young female patient with ectopic ACTH-producing islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas was quite unique in that she survived for 5 years despite the acute onset and rapid progression of the multiple liver metastases at least in part due to the long-lasting favorable response to octreotide and living-related liver transplantation.  (+info)

Liver metastases arising from well-differentiated pancreatic endocrine neoplasms demonstrate increased VEGF-C expression. (8/51)

Pancreatic endocrine neoplasms (PENs) are uncommon, generally well-differentiated neoplasms that demonstrate prominent endocrine differentiation. Although the majority of PENs remain localized, malignant spread may occur via lymphatic or hematogenous routes. Angiogenic growth factors, including the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, have been implicated in new vessel growth and hematogenous metastases, although this has not been studied in PENs. We therefore examined 19 primary well-differentiated PENs and 7 liver metastases to determine the expression of VEGF-A and its family member VEGF-C by immunolabeling analysis. VEGF-A immunoreactivity was evident only in scattered cells throughout all lesions. VEGF-C, however, demonstrated low-to-moderate expression in primary PENs by semiquantitative histoscore analysis (factor of labeling intensity by percentage of positive cells), with significantly increased expression in liver metastases (mean histoscore indices: primary PEN, 4.7 versus liver metastases, 9.5; Student's t test; P =.002773). Microvascular density of primary PENs and liver metastases did not appear to linearly correlate with VEGF-C expression. Examination of the VEGF-C-specific receptors VEGFR-2/KDR/Flk-1 and VEGFR-3/Flt-4 demonstrated intense endothelial immunoreactivity for VEGFR-2, as well as VEGFR-2 and -3 expression on the majority of neoplastic cells, suggesting a possible role in autocrine/paracrine neoplastic growth regulation. We postulate that the upregulation of VEGF-C may be involved in PEN progression and metastases, although not via a direct proangiogenic mechanism.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Wilms tumor, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma in a child. AU - Sola, Juan E. AU - Gutierrez, Juan C.. AU - Thompson, William R.. AU - Alvarez, Ofelia A. AU - Casillas, Victor. AU - Rodriguez, Maria. PY - 2008/3/1. Y1 - 2008/3/1. N2 - We present the first case of Wilms tumor, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma affecting the same individual. This case underscores the importance of repeat biopsies in patients with multiple neoplasms to confirm the diagnosis and guide management.. AB - We present the first case of Wilms tumor, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma affecting the same individual. This case underscores the importance of repeat biopsies in patients with multiple neoplasms to confirm the diagnosis and guide management.. KW - Multiple endocrine neoplasia. KW - Pancreatic islet cell carcinoma. KW - Pediatric. KW - Pheochromocytoma. KW - Wilms tumor. UR - ...
Organic hyperinsulinism has been recognized with increasing frequency in the last few years. It is most commonly due to adenomata of the islands of Langerhans. More and more case reports appear of successful surgical removal of these tumors with consequent alleviation of symptoms. At times there seems to be a general hypersecretion of insulin by the islet cells without discernible tumor in which resection of varying amounts of pancreatic tissue has been found effective. Carcinoma of islet cells occurs much less frequently. In these cases the tumor is often slow to grow and slow to metastasize. In a few instances ...
... or nesidioblastoma is an uncommon cancer of the endocrine pancreas. For more information, see neuroendocrine tumor.
Glucose determination is useful in the detection and management of Diabetes mellitus.Glucose levels are used to diagnose and manage diabetes mellitus and other carbohydrate metabolism disorders including gestational diabetes, neonatal hypoglycemia, idiopathic hypoglycemia, and pancreatic islet cell carcinoma. ...
Most pancreatic cancers are aggressive and always terminal, but Steve was lucky (if you can call it that) and had a rare form called an islet cell neuroendocrine tumor, which is actually quite treatable with excellent survival rates - if caught soon enough. The median survival is about a decade, but it depends on how soon its removed surgically. Steve caught his very early, and should have expected to survive much longer than a decade. Unfortunately Steve relied on a diet instead of early surgery. There is no evidence that diet has any effect on islet cell carcinoma. As he dieted for nine months, the tumor progressed, and took him from the high end to the low end of the survival rate ...
Most pancreatic endocrine neoplasms are non-syndromic, that is they do not produce a clinical syndrome caused by excess hormone production by the tumor. A growing number of these are asymptomatic, discovered when a patient is imaged for a different indication. When the patients do have symptoms, the symptoms typically include abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, weight loss, or rarely jaundice (a yellowing of the skin caused by blockage of the bile duct). The diagnosis can often be suggested on CT scan, as most pancreatic endocrine neoplasms have a rich blood supply (they are hypervascular), and, as a result, they "enhance" when contrast is used in CT scanning.. The treatment of choice is usually surgical removal. When removed, most pancreatic endocrine neoplasms can be seen to be well-demarcated, soft tan to reddish masses. This appearance is very different from the more common pancreatic cancer (ductal adenocarcinoma) of the pancreas, which forms firm, sometimes rock-hard, white to yellow ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Liver transplantation for metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. T2 - Outcomes and prognostic variables. AU - Sher, Linda S.. AU - Levi, David M.. AU - Wecsler, Julie S.. AU - Lo, Mary. AU - Petrovic, Lydia M.. AU - Groshen, Susan. AU - Ji, Lingyun. AU - Uso, Teresa Diago. AU - Tector, A. Joseph. AU - Hamilton, Ann S.. AU - Marsh, J. Wallis. AU - Schwartz, Myron E.. PY - 2015/8/1. Y1 - 2015/8/1. N2 - Background Patient selection for liver transplantation for metastatic neuroendocrine tumors remains a topic of debate. There is no established MELD exception, making it difficult to obtain donor organs. Methods A multicenter database was created assessing outcomes for liver and multivisceral transplantation for metastatic neuroendocrine tumors and identifying prognostic factors for survival. Demographic, transplant, primary tumor site and management, pathology, recurrent disease and survival data were collected and analyzed. Survival probabilities were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier ...
Endocrine cancers arise in cells of the endocrine system and include Adrenocortical Carcinoma, Carcinoid Tumor, Gastrointestinal, Islet Cell Carcinoma (Endocrine Pancreas), Parathyroid Cancer, Pheochromocytoma, Pituitary Tumor, and Thyroid Cancer.
Nuclear medicine octreotide scans reveal focal radiotracer accumulation which corresponds to the known pancreatic mass. No other foci of abnormal accumulation are seen to suggest metastatic disease.
Materials and methods: The study includes a total of 57 patients who were treated at the Royal Brisbane and Womens Hospital in the last 5 years with PRRT. Data were collected by studying individual patient records and charts. The factors studied include presence or absence of liver metastases, GE vs. pancreatic histology, Ki 67, number of cycles and dose of PRRT, adverse effects, delays in treatment and improvement of QOL and PFS. In addition OS is being calculated using historical controls ...
Author(s): Zoran Erlic, Ursula Ploeckinger, Alberto Cascon, Michael M Hoffmann, Laura von Duecker, Aurelia Winter, Gerit Kammel, Janina Bacher, Maren Sullivan, Berend Isermann, Lars Fischer, Andreas Raffel, Wolfram Trudo Knoefel, Matthias Schott, Tobias Baumann, Oliver Schaefer, Tobias Keck, Richard P Baum, Ioana Milos, Mihaela Muresan, Mariola Peczkowska, Andrzej Januszewicz, Kenko Cupisti, Anke Tönjes, Mathias Fasshauer, Jan Langrehr, Peter von Wussow, Abbas Agaimy, Günter Schlimok, Regina Lamberts, Thorsten Wiech, Kurt Werner Schmid, Alexander Weber, Mercedes Nunez, Mercedes Robledo, Charis Eng, Hartmut P H Neumann, , Journal: ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. (Onkologisk endokrinologi, Kjell Öberg) ...
Mixed ductal-endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas are extremely rare and show morphologically separate ductal adenocarcinoma and endocrine components. Prognostically, they are more aggressive than pure endocrine neoplasms. These are true mixed neoplasms and are distinct from ductal adenocarcinomas with scattered endocrine cells (in which the endocrine component is non-neoplastic). A mixed ductal endocrine carcinoma in a 73-year-old male is reported.
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE:. I. To determine the objective response rate (ORR) (complete and partial response) of GW786034 (pazopanib hydrochloride) 800 mg administered orally once daily in patients with advanced low or intermediate grade carcinoid tumors (in carcinoid cohort).. II. To determine the objective response rate (ORR) (complete response and partial response) of GW786034 800mg administered orally once daily in patients with advanced low or intermediate grade pancreatic islet cell carcinoma (in islet cell cohort).. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine the progression free survival (PFS) duration of GW786034 800mg administered orally once daily in patients with low grade neuroendocrine carcinoma.. II. To determine the safety and tolerability of GW786034 800mg administered orally once daily in patients with low grade neuroendocrine carcinoma.. III. To explore the effect on tumor blood flow as determined by functional computed tomography (CT) of GW786034 800 mg orally once daily in patients with ...
Pancreatic islet cell tumors (ICTs) occur as sporadic neoplasias or as a manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). Molecular classification of ICTs is mandatory for timely diagnosis and surveillance. Systematic comparison of VHL-ICTs and sporadic ICTs has been lacking. Our registry-based approaches used the German NET-Registry with 259 patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), who were primarily diagnosed with NETs, and the German VHL-Registry with 485 molecular genetically confirmed patients who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography of the abdomen. All patients provided blood DNA for testing of the MEN1 and VHL genes for intragenic mutations and large deletions. In the NET-Registry, 9/101 patients (8.9%) with ICTs had germline mutations, 8 in MEN1 and 1 in VHL. In the VHL-Registry, prevalence of NETs was 52/487 (10.6%), and all were ICTs. Interestingly, of those with VHL p.R167W, 47% developed ICTs, compared to ...
Clinical trial for Gastric Neuroendocrine Carcinoma | Islet cell carcinoma | Intestinal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma , Cisplatin Carboplatin and Etoposide or Temozolomide and Capecitabine in Treating Patients With Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Gastrointestinal Tract or Pancreas That Is Metastatic or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery
Clinical trial for Gastric Neuroendocrine Carcinoma | Islet cell carcinoma | Intestinal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma , Cisplatin Carboplatin and Etoposide or Temozolomide and Capecitabine in Treating Patients With Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Gastrointestinal Tract or Pancreas That Is Metastatic or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinicopathological features of pancreatic endocrine tumors. T2 - A prospective multicenter study in italy of 297 sporadic cases. AU - Zerbi, Alessandro. AU - Falconi, Massimo. AU - Rindi, Guido. AU - Fave, Gianfranco Delle. AU - Tomassetti, Paola. AU - Pasquali, Claudio. AU - Capitanio, Vanessa. AU - Boninsegna, Letizia. AU - Di Carlo, Valerio. PY - 2010/6. Y1 - 2010/6. N2 - Objectives: Information on pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) comes mostly from small, retrospective, uncontrolled studies conducted on highly selected patients. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical and pathological features of PETs in a prospective, multicenter study.Methods: Newly diagnosed, histologically proven, sporadic PETs observed from June 2004 to March 2007 in 24 Italian centers were included in a specific data set.Results: Two hundred ninety-seven patients (mean age 58.614.7 years, females 51.2%, males 48.8%) were analyzed. In 73 cases (24.6%), the tumor was functioning (F) (53 ...
Gastrinomas are islet cell tumors / pancreatic endocrine neoplasms that release large quantities of the hormone gastrin into the blood stream leading to stomach/duodenal ulcers. In 1955 Zollinger and Ellison described two patients with severe peptic ulcer disease and pancreatic endocrine tumors, postulating that an ulcerogenic agent originated from the pancreatic tumor (9, 63). At present it is estimated that one in 1,000 patients with primary duodenal ulcer disease and two in 100 patients with recurrent ulcer following ulcer surgery harbor a gastrinoma (64). Seventy-five percent of gastrinomas occur sporadically, whereas 25% are associated with the MEN-1 syndrome (see below). In the past, the majority of gastrinomas had already metastasized at the time of diagnosis. More recently, with increased awareness and earlier screening, the diagnosis of gastrinoma is being made earlier, leading to the discovery of a higher percentage of curable neoplasms (65, 66).. Peptic ulceration of the upper GI ...
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Looking for online definition of acinar cell carcinoma in the Medical Dictionary? acinar cell carcinoma explanation free. What is acinar cell carcinoma? Meaning of acinar cell carcinoma medical term. What does acinar cell carcinoma mean?
Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) presenting as metastatic cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) are suspected to confer poorer prognosis compared to metastatic NETs of known primary site. We performed a retrospective, single centre study to determine the prognostic indicators in CUP-NETs compared to metastatic small intestinal NET (SiNET), before and after adjusting for factors known to affect overall survival. Subjects were selected from a departmental database of 1050 NET patients discussed by the Oxford neuroendocrine service between 2011 and 2019. Inclusion criteria were histologically proven NET with radiological evidence of metastatic disease at diagnosis. Survival time began from the date of histological diagnosis until the last known follow-up. The primary end-point was death. Patients were divided into 3 cohorts: 1) CUP-NET, no primary identified; 2) likely SiNET, radiological evidence of mesenteric/SiNET, and 3) histologically confirmed SiNET. Cox proportional hazards models were ...
|i|Background:|/i| To assess prospectively the safety and efficacy of Yttrium-90 microspheres in patients with unresectable liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumors. |i|Materials
Context Acinar cell carcinoma is rare disease of exocrine pancreas with an indolent course and favorable tumor biology. It usually occurs in elderly m..
A Syrian gentleman 58 years came to the clinic 05-11-2004 with complaining of right oculomotor plegia. He was referred as a case of meningioma and he was sent for more MRI and MRA investigations, which confirmed the diagnosis of right posterior clinoid meningioma. The patient start to complain of Diplopea for 2 days then the last 2 weeks progressed complete right oculomotor plegia. The patient was admitted to Al-Shmaisani hospital 09-11-2004 and was operated the same day: Wide right fronto-temporal approach with tranzygomatic route was achieved and the tumor was morphologically identical for meningioma with matrix and carpet of meningial involvement. It was engulfing the supraclinoid ICA and pushing the M1 and the solitary A1 upward. The tumor was radically removed with preservation of all even tiny anatomical structures, including the anterior choroidal artery, the right PcoA, the right ICA, right optic nerve and the compressed right oculomotor nerve. The Liliquist membrane was opened for 2 mm ...
Recently, the therapeutic possibilities for the locally invasive or metastatic neuroendocrine tumors developed signifi cantly, although we have no widely accepted predictive or prognostic factors, which could help to design the most effective sequential therapy. To make therapeutic strategy the internationally accepted clinical guidelines should be considered. The therapeutic activity has to be performed in oncological centers with the support of a multidisciplinary team.. ...
The pancreatic Islet Cell Biology Core is located on the 12 floor (12-169 to 12-171) of the Smilow Center for Translation Research, 3400 Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia, PA 19104. A Core is well equipped for physiological, biochemical and biophysical studies ...
Since acinar cell carcinoma(ACC)of pancreas is rare, we sometimes meet a case hard to make diagnosis before surgery. We here reported a case of ACC of pancreas with extensive intraductal growth to the main pancreatic duct and the branch of the pancreatic duct. A 43-year-old man visit a clinic with a concern of uncomfortable feeling on left side abdomen. CT/MRI examination showed a ischemic tumor, 38×25 mm, in the body-tail of the pancreas, and the tumor infiltrated to left renal capsule. ERCP showed the interruption and stenosis of the pancreatic duct at the point adjacent to tumor. Cytological diagnosis of the pancreatic juice was performed, but malignant cells were not detected(Class III ). The tumor abnormally accumulated FDGin PET-CT examination(SUVmax 3.3). We diagnosed the tumor PDAC with infiltrating to the left renal capsule, and the distal pancreatectomy was performed. The pathological examination of the resected specimen showed that the tumor progressed into main pancreatic duct and ...
ecancermedicalscience is the peer-reviewed open access cancer journal founded by the European Institute of Oncology in Milan. We consider articles on all aspects of research relating to cancer, including molecular biology, genetics, pathophysiology, epide
Pancreatic Endocrine Tumor - Pipeline Insight, 2017 is a market research report available at US $1250 for a Single User PDF License from RnR Market Research Reports Library.
The report summarizes all the dormant and discontinued pipeline projects - A review of the Pancreatic Endocrine Tumor products under development by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources
Ekeblad S, Skogseid B. Ekeblad S, Skogseid B Ekeblad, Sara, and Britt Skogseid.Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors. In: Boyiadzis MM, Frame JN, Kohler DR, Fojo T. Boyiadzis M.M., Frame J.N., Kohler D.R., Fojo T Eds. Michael M. Boyiadzis, et al.eds. Hematology-Oncology Therapy, 2e New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; . http://hemonc.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1611§ionid=126324630. Accessed December 12, 2017 ...
A thoracotomy combined with laparotomy may be required. To ensure blood supply to the gastric remnant, the right gastroepiploic vessels are preserved. ♦ For lesions in the body of the stomach, total gastrectomy with esophagojejunostomy is typically performed (Figure 6â 1B). ♦ For antral lesions, subtotal gastrectomy with gastrojejunal reconstruction is performed (Figure 6â 1C). • Figure 6â 2: Surgical anatomy of the stomach. ♦ The esophagus terminates in the stomach after penetrating the diaphragm at the esophageal hiatus. 30 drain, replacement of lost fluid and electrolytes, adequate nutrition, and consideration of octreotide therapy for high-output fistulas. • Postoperative hemorrhage, most commonly resulting from a bleeding short gastric vessel or a gastroduodenal or pancreaticoduodenal pseudoaneurysm. • Delayed gastric emptying. Pearls and Tips • Most clinically recognized pancreatic endocrine neoplasms are functional, producing clinically recognizable syndromes. • ...
Looking for medication to treat increased+growth+of+islet+cells+of+pancreas? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when used to treat or reduce the symptoms of increased+growth+of+islet+cells+of+pancreas
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Mutations of the MEN1 gene located on chromosome 11q13 are associated with the development of a variety of endocrine neoplasms, including parathyroid hyperplasia and adenomas, pituitary adenomas, and pancreatic islet cell tumors. Tumor development is associated with deletion or mutation of the remaining MEN1 allele (1, 2). MEN1 mutations have also been reported in a variety of sporadic endocrine tumors including those commonly seen in multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1) as well as gastric and pulmonary carcinoid tumors (3). Men1 knockout mice have provided many insights into the role of menin in endocrine homeostasis and tumor suppression (4-7). Although Men1 knockout mice are embryonic lethal, heterozygous mice develop a variety of endocrine tumors similar to those in MEN1 patients. In this model, tumors arising from pancreatic islet cells have been most intensively studied. Heterozygous Men1 knockout mice develop progressive islet cell hyperplasia associated with loss of the ...
Case Report: 59-year-old man was admitted with an infiltrative, solid lesion in pancreatic tail diagnosed as PACC. Lymph nodes in the hepatic hilum were enlarged, and many metastatic liver nodules were observed. After partial pancreatectomy, the left and right lobes of the liver were separately treated with Y-90 resin microspheres. Follow-up imaging revealed that all hepatic nodules shrank by at least 50%, and 3 nodules disappeared completely. Lipase concentration was 8407 U/L at baseline, rose to 12,705 U/L after pancreatectomy, and declined to 344 U/L after SIRT. Multiple rounds of chemotherapy in the subsequent year shrank the hepatic tumors further; disease then progressed, but a third line of chemotherapy shrank the tumors again, 16 months after SIRT treatment ...
acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Functional endocrine neoplasms in the pediatric patient are rare; however, these lesions are the most frequent indication for surgical resection of endocrine glands. Oftentimes, the surgeon may need to perform a resection not only to alleviate symptoms due to hormone hypersecretion but to distinguish between benign and malignant neoplastic processes as well, particularly in this age where advanced radiographic imaging is bringing more incidental lesions to the clinicians attention. Other disorders of the endocrine glands may come to the surgeons attention due to pathologic hyperfunction, enlargement, or for risk reduction. The surgeon should feel comfortable in the technical aspects of the surgical management of endocrine neoplasms and other endocrinopathies. In this chapter we focus on operative techniques for the management of thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal neoplasms and endocrinopathies. ...
SAN FRANCISCO-Two agents dramatically delayed the time to disease progression in metastatic neuroendocrine tumors, according to reports at the 2009 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium. 1
Common causes of acromegaly include pituitary adenoma and acidophil stem cell adenomas. Less common causes of acromegaly include GHRH secreting tumors as hypothalamic tumors, small cell lung cancer, adrenal adenoma, and pheochromocytoma. Other causes include GH secreting tumors as lymphoma and pancreatic islet cell tumor. ...
Well, my device is only slightly mechanical, but should do the trick. Its modeled after Sernovas islet cell pouch system, but takes it a bit further. My device is a patch that is similar to a nicotine patch. It is removable and discreet. It is easily applied to any area of the skin. It holds an incredible amount of islet cells (pig), that were created to be able to elude the bodys immune system. No immunosuppression is necessary. Its only electronic function is to perform a weekly C-peptide. When the C-peptide value decreases to a minimal value, the patch will be removed and replace with another. Glucose monitoring would not be necessary because there would be no significant fluctuations in blood sugar anyway ...
This week in Lab Notes, discover how milk may rejuvenate pancreatic islet cells to help manage diabetes. Plus the dumbing effects of anesthesia and curing well groomed mice with OCD.
1. Although most areas of decreased function do not repre- sent malignancies, lack of function increases the likelihood of malignancy, particularly if only omeprazle nonfunctioning area is present.
Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas, also acinar cell carcinoma, is a rare malignant exocrine tumour of the pancreas. It represents 5% of all exocrine tumours of the pancreas, making it the second most common type of pancreatic cancer. It is abbreviated ACC. It typically has a guarded prognosis. The disease is more common in men than women and the average age at diagnosis is about 60. Symptoms are often non-specific and include weight loss. A classic presentation, found in around 15% of cases includes subcutaneous nodules (due to fat necrosis) and arthralgias, caused by release of lipase. ACC are associated with increased serum lipase and manifest in the classic presentation as the Schmid triad (subcutaneous fat necrosis, polyarthritis, eosinophilia). ACC are typically large, up to 10 cm, and soft compared to pancreatic adenocarcinoma, lacking its dense stroma. They can arise in any part of the pancreas. Histomorphologically, the tumour resembles the cells of the pancreatic acini and, ...
Learn more about Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®) (Patients) from the National Cancer Institute at Siteman Cancer Center.
Introduction: Small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise well-differentiated NET (benign carcinoid), well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (malignant carcinoid) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). The majority of NET patients have developed liver metastases at the time of diagnosis and surgery is then seldom curative. Novel predictive, diagnostic and prognostic markers are thus needed to improve our capabilities to diagnose and cure these tumors. We have previously identified six novel marker genes for neuroendocrine tumor cells by using Affymetrix microarrays and advanced bioinformatics. One of this markers, the paraneoplastic antigen Ma2 (PNMA2), which is normally expressed only in nervous tissue, can in the process of carcinogenesis be detected in tumors located outside the nervous system. The finding that Ma2 is expressed in small intestine neuroendocrine primary tumors and their metastases made it interesting to screen whether antibodies against Ma2 ...
Purpose: Most patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have preserved hepatic synthetic function, and their providers may seek increased waitlist priority via MELD exception points. The roles of transplantation and MELD exceptions in these patients are controversial and gained national interest during the transplantation of Steve Jobs. In this study, we evaluate the association between receipt of MELD exception points and waiting list and post-transplantation outcomes in adult patients waitlisted for liver transplantation for metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs).. Methods: We analyzed all adult patients waitlisted for liver transplantation for metastatic NETs between February 27, 2002 and June 4, 2014 through the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). Waitlist outcomes (transplantation or waitlist removal for death or clinical deterioration) and post-transplantation survival were assessed based on primary exposure of receipt of MELD exception points. A multivariable model was ...
Discussion:. Pancreatic endocrine neoplasms (PENs) are relatively uncommon lesions, accounting for 1-2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. 1 Since the advent of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), lesions of the pancreas can be better visualized and appropriately sampled with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. In most cases, diagnosis of PENs can be rendered without difficulty based on cytomorphologic and immunophenotypic features. 2-6 The classical cytomorphologic features of PENs include single to loosely cohesive monotonous polygonal cells with finely granular cytoplasm and stippled (salt and pepper) chromatin. The nuclei are eccentrically located, giving a plasmacytoid appearance. However, uncommon cytomorphologic features may impose a diagnostic challenge. Within the cytoplasm, oncocytic changes, rhabdoid features, clear cells and lipid-rich variant have been documented in the literature of surgical pathology. 7-11 Recently there are two case reports demonstrating prominnet cytoplasmic vacuoles in ...
Incidence and Mortality They are uncommon cancers with about 1,000 new cases per year in the United States.[1] They account for 3% to 5% of pancreatic malignancies and overall have a better prognosis than the more common pancreatic exocrine tumors.[1,2] Five-year survival is about 55% when the tumors are localized and...
Incidence and Mortality They are uncommon cancers with about 1,000 new cases per year in the United States.[1] They account for 3% to 5% of pancreatic malignancies and overall have a better prognosis than the more common pancreatic exocrine tumors.[1,2] Five-year survival is about 55% when the tumors are localized and...
Metaplasia is the replacement of one differentiated somatic cell type with another differentiated somatic cell type in the same tissue. Typically, metaplasia is triggered by environmental stimuli, which may act in concert with the deleterious effects of microorganisms and inflammation. The cell of origin for intestinal metaplasia in the oesophagus and stomach and for pancreatic acinar-ductal metaplasia has been posited through genetic mouse models and lineage tracing but has not been identified in other types of metaplasia, such as squamous metaplasia. A hallmark of metaplasia is a change in cellular identity, and this process can be regulated by transcription factors that initiate and/or maintain cellular identity, perhaps in concert with epigenetic reprogramming. Universally, metaplasia is a precursor to low-grade dysplasia, which can culminate in high-grade dysplasia and carcinoma. Improved clinical screening for and surveillance of metaplasia might lead to better prevention or early ...
Definition of islet cells in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is islet cells? Meaning of islet cells as a finance term. What does islet cells mean in finance?
Henquin, Jean-Claude. Opposite effects of intracellular Ca2+ and glucose on K+ permeability of pancreatic islet cells.. In: Nature, Vol. 280, no. 5717, p. 66-8 (1979 ...
Looking for islet cell? Find out information about islet cell. see pancreas pancreas , glandular organ that secretes digestive enzymes and hormones. In humans, the pancreas is a yellowish organ about 7 in. Explanation of islet cell
The shortage of islet cells limits the development of islet transplantation. One new approach was reported in the October 21 issue of the World Journal of Gastroenterology because of its great significance in enhancing the output of islet cells.
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors form in hormone-making cells (islet cells) of the pancreas. The pancreas is a gland about 6 inches long that is shaped like a thin pear lying on its side. The wider end of the pancreas is called the head, the middle section is called the body, and the narrow end is called the tail. The...
Yttrium-90 Microsphere Radioembolotherapy of Hepatic Metastatic Neuroendocrine Carcinomas after Hepatic Arterial Embolization. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. 2008 ...
Results Non-neoplastic acinar cells were stained diffusely, but epithelial cells of the pancreatic duct and the islets of Langerhans were not stained. In pancreatic tumours, all the seven ACCs were diffusely positive for the 2P-1-2-1 antibody. However, no positive staining was found in other pancreatic tumours including NETs, SPNs and ductal adenocarcinomas. The sensitivity and specificity of the 2P-1-2-1 antibody for ACCs were both 100%. In other organs studied, positive staining was observed only in the ectopic pancreas. ...
Spleen cells may develop into insulin-producing pancreatic islet cells in adult animals, a breakthrough finding that could yield a potential cure for
Less than 5% of pancreatic tumors are Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (also called PNETs or islet cell tumors). Learn about PNETs and our patient services.
Inhibiton Therapeutics was developing islet cell autoantigen-1 (ICA 1) compounds for the treatment of cancer. This programme was being conducted under a
Monday night, we met another group for dinner. We met Camille and Deb who are my JDRF government relations friends, Debs husband Randy, and Scott Johnson a fellow blogger. We all shared what we had been doing and how all of these things intersect. I must have been talking too much, because I looked down and noticed that everyone was through eating and I hadnt even begun. The meal was good, but almost cold. Camille has convinced me to try to set a Promise meeting with John Boehner. I have been working on setting that up today. Scott recommended some good places to kayak and we all hoped to get together again. With friends like all of these, I wont need my arm twisted too hard to return to my special place up north ...
Aggressive PanNET tumors have traditionally been termed "islet cell carcinoma". PanNETs are quite distinct from the usual form ... "islet cell carcinoma". Some PanNETs do not cause any symptoms, in which case they may be discovered incidentally on a CT scan ... "islet cell tumors", or "pancreatic endocrine tumors" are neuroendocrine neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine ( ... Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®) Incidence and Mortality [3] Öberg K, Knigge U, Kwekkeboom ...
Streptozotocin is used in islet cell carcinomas which produce excessive insulin. Combination chemotherapy is used, either ... "islet cell adenoma". Beta cells secrete insulin in response to increases in blood glucose. The resulting increase in insulin ... The first report of a surgical cure of hypoglycemia by removing an islet cell tumour was in 1929. An insulinoma removed from a ... Insulinoma is one of the most common types of tumors arising from the islets of Langerhans cells (pancreatic endocrine tumors ...
... synonymous with islet cell carcinoma) is more aggressive. Up to 60% of PanNETs are nonsecretory or nonfunctional, which either ... small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung (LCNEC) Extrapulmonary small cell carcinomas ( ... neuroendocrine carcinomas, which are the large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinomas. Additionally, the WHO scheme ... islet cell tumors of the pancreas, gastrointestinal carcinoids, Merkel cell tumors and pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma. Even if ...
The Medical Subject Headings indexing system refers to "islet cell carcinoma", which is subdivided into gastrinoma, glucagonoma ... Other exocrine cancers include adenosquamous carcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, hepatoid carcinomas, colloid carcinomas, ... "islet cell cancers",[28] even though it is now known that they do not actually arise from islet cells as previously thought.[27 ... The next most common type, acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas, arises in the clusters of cells that produce these enzymes, ...
Aggressive PanNET tumors have traditionally been termed "islet cell carcinoma". PanNETs are quite distinct from the usual form ... "islet cell tumors",[1][2] or "pancreatic endocrine tumors"[3][4] are neuroendocrine neoplasms that arise from cells of the ... "islet cell tumors". The high grade subtype, termed neuroendocrine cancer (NEC) in the WHO scheme, is synonymous with "islet ... a b Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ) Health Professional Version. National Cancer Institute ...
TTC39B is expressed in a multitude of tissues: testis, lung, islets of langerhans, pancreas, kidney, pooled germ cell tumors, ... breast carcinoma, etc. There are five different transcript variants for the TTC39B gene. Isoform 1 is the longest transcript ... Conjugation of ubiquitin monomers or polymers leads to different effects within a cell. Ubiquitination has been associated with ... protein degradation, DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, kinase modification, endocytosis, and regulation of other cell ...
... successful extraction of gastrin-like activity from metastases and primary pancreatico-duodenal islet cell carcinoma. Annals of ... successful extraction of gastrin-like activity from metastases and primary pancreatico-duodenal islet cell carcinoma" (PDF). ...
The Medical Subject Headings indexing system refers to "islet cell carcinoma", which is subdivided into gastrinoma, glucagonoma ... adenosquamous carcinoma)、印戒細胞癌、肝樣細胞癌(英語:hepatoid carcinoma)、膠狀癌、未分化腺癌和具有蝕骨細胞(英語:osteoclast)樣巨大細胞(英語:giant cell)的未分化腺癌。固狀偽乳頭狀腫瘤( ... 胰臟內的腫瘤也可能來自身體的其他地方,但這種狀
... and increased pancreatic islet-cell adenoma in male rats. In reproductive toxicity studies performed in rats and rabbits, no ... These include the induction of positive trends in the incidence of renal tubule carcinoma and haemangiosarcoma in male mice, ... Workers exposed to glyphosate were about twice as likely to get B cell lymphoma. A 2015 systematic review of observational ... A 2014 review article reported a significant association between B-cell lymphoma and glyphosate occupational exposure. In March ...
... of mammary adenocarcinomas and of pancreatic islet cell adenomas and carcinomas. An increase in the incidence of mammary ... An increase in the incidence of pancreatic islet cell tumours has been observed for some other D2 antagonists. The ... increases in the incidence of thyroid parafollicular carcinomas and, in females, ...
... small-cell carcinoma, medulloblastoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma, among others. Diagnostically, it is often used in ... including cells of the adrenal medulla and pancreatic islets. As a specific marker for these tissues, it can be used to ... "Ultrastructural localization of synaptophysin to the secretory granules of normal glucagon and insulin cells in human islets of ... Cell. Neurosci. 21 (3): 454-62. doi:10.1006/mcne.2002.1191. PMID 12498786. Wheeler TC, Chin LS, Li Y, Roudabush FL, Li L (March ...
... islet cell MeSH C19.344.421.249.500 --- insulinoma MeSH C19.344.421.500 --- carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C19.344.421.500.124 --- ... carcinoma, endometrioid MeSH C19.391.630.705.398 --- granulosa cell tumor MeSH C19.391.630.705.464 --- luteoma MeSH C19.391. ... granulosa cell tumor MeSH C19.344.410.464 --- luteoma MeSH C19.344.410.531 --- meigs syndrome MeSH C19.344.410.648 --- sertoli- ... sertoli-leydig cell tumor MeSH C19.344.894.800 --- thyroid nodule MeSH C19.391.482.293 --- eunuchism MeSH C19.391.482.600 --- ...
... islet cell MeSH C06.301.761.249.500 --- insulinoma MeSH C06.301.761.500 --- carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C06.301.761.500.124 --- ... islet cell MeSH C06.689.667.249.500 --- insulinoma MeSH C06.689.667.500 --- carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C06.689.667.500.124 --- ... liver cell MeSH C06.301.623.160 --- carcinoma, hepatocellular MeSH C06.301.623.460 --- liver neoplasms, experimental MeSH ... liver cell MeSH C06.552.697.160 --- carcinoma, hepatocellular MeSH C06.552.697.580 --- liver neoplasms, experimental MeSH ...
Islet cell adenoma or adenomatosis Islet cell carcinoma Adult nesidioblastosis Autoimmune insulin syndrome Noninsulinoma ... Streptozotocin is a specific beta cell toxin and has been used to treat insulin-producing pancreatic carcinoma. Hyperinsulinism ... due to diffuse overactivity of beta cells, such as in many of the forms of congenital hyperinsulinism, and more rarely in ...
... familial Pancreatic diseases Pancreatic islet cell neoplasm Pancreatic islet cell tumors Pancreatic lipomatosis duodenal ... divisum Pancreatic adenoma Pancreatic beta cell agenesis with neonatal diabetes mellitus Pancreatic cancer Pancreatic carcinoma ... Peanut hypersensitivity Pearson's marrow/pancreas syndrome Pediatric T-cell leukemia Pediculosis Peeling skin syndrome ... stenosis with Café au lait spot Punctate acrokeratoderma freckle like pigmentation Punctate inner choroidopathy Pure red cell ...
2002). "Neuropilin-2 is a novel marker expressed in pancreatic islet cells and endocrine pancreatic tumours". J. Pathol. 198 (1 ... 2 co-expression is significantly correlated with increased vascularity and poor prognosis in nonsmall cell lung carcinoma". ... 2001). "Neuroendocrine cells along the digestive tract express neuropilin-2". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 284 (2): 395-403. ... 1997). "Neuropilin is a semaphorin III receptor". Cell. 90 (4): 753-62. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80535-8. PMID 9288754. Giger ...
... of microRNAs expressed highly in pancreatic islet-like cell clusters differentiated from human embryonic stem cells". Cell ... Tang, N.; Zhang, J.; Du, Y. (2010). "Curcumin promoted the apoptosis of cisplain-resistant human lung carcinoma cells A549/DDP ... "Profiling of 95 MicroRNAs in Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines and Surgical Specimens by Real-Time PCR Analysis". World Journal of ... "Comparative Expression Profiles of mRNAs and microRNAs Among Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Breast, Face, and ...
Several forms of cancer (see below) including elevation of miR-184 levels in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. All-trans- ... showed miR-184 reduced Argonaute 2 levels in the MIN6 mouse pancreatic beta islet cell line. Furthermore, miR-184 has multiple ... Wong TS, Ho WK, Chan JY, Ng RW, Wei WI (2009). "Mature miR-184 and squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue". ... miR-184 has been found to be significantly increased in the tumor cells in comparison with the normal epithelial cells of the ...
... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells. PAX8 and other transcription factors play a role in binding to DNA and regulating ... almost all subtypes of renal cell carcinoma, nephrogenic adenomas, ovarian cancer cells, bladder, prostate, and endometrial ... PAX8/PPARy rearrangement account for 30-40% of conventional type follicular carcinomas and less than 5% of oncocytic carcinomas ... cell polarity and transport, cell motility and adhesion. Expression of PAX8 is increased in neoplastic renal tissues, Wilms ...
Adrenocortical carcinoma. *Islet cell carcinoma (endocrine pancreas). *Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome. *Parathyroid ... such as giant cell carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, and small-cell carcinoma.[citation needed] ... cancers are additionally classified by the type of cell that the tumor cells originated from. These types include: *Carcinoma: ... Germ cell tumor: Cancers derived from pluripotent cells, most often presenting in the testicle or the ovary (seminoma and ...
The islet cell autoantibodies are absent in MODY in at least some populations (Japanese, Britons). Persistence of a low insulin ... Liver adenoma or hepatocellular carcinoma in MODY type 3 Renal cysts, rudimentary or bicornuate uterus, vaginal aplasia, ... found that about one quarter of Central European MODY patients are positive for islet cell autoantibodies (GADA and IA2A). ... Urbanova J, Rypackova B, Prochazkova Z, Kucera P, Cerna M, Andel M, Heneberg P (2014). "Positivity for islet cell ...
T cell leukemia, choriocarcinoma, and carcinoma. HLA-F is expressed on the cell surface of activated lymphocytes, HeLa cells, ... "Islet cell hyperexpression of HLA class I antigens: a defining feature in type 1 diabetes". Diabetologia. 59 (11): 2448-58. doi ... and from the cell surface. HLA-F has been observed only in a subset of cell membranes, mostly B cells and activated lymphocytes ... Upon immune cell activation, HLA-F binds free forms of HLA class I molecules and reaches the cell surface as heterodimer. In ...
Another factor that will support the activation of MMP-2 is cell-cell clustering. A wild-type activated leukocyte cell adhesion ... For instance, when studying carcinogenesis of pancreatic islets in transgenic mice, Bergers et al. showed that MMP-2 and MMP-9 ... Furthermore, increased expression and activity of MMP-2 has been tied to increased vascularization of lung carcinoma metastases ... Massagué J (July 2008). "TGFbeta in Cancer". Cell. 134 (2): 215-30. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.07.001. PMC 3512574 . PMID 18662538 ...
2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. ... 1988). "Secretory protein 7B2 is associated with pancreatic hormones within normal islets and some experimentally induced ... and rat thyroid gland and in human medullary carcinoma". Endocrinology. 123 (2): 866-73. doi:10.1210/endo-123-2-866. PMID ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.032. PMID 16713569. Dasgupta I, Sanglas L, Enghild JJ, Lindberg I (2012). "The neuroendocrine ...
... expression was associated with poor prognosis in uterine endometrial cancer and uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma. ... Their data demonstrates that CBR1 expression level and enzyme activity are decreased in pancreatic islets isolated from db/db ... Recent study demonstrates that CBR1 attenuates apoptosis and promotes cell survival in pancreatic β cell lines under glucotoxic ... These results suggest that CBR1 may play a role in protecting pancreatic β-cells against oxidative stress under glucotoxic or ...
... subtype 1-selective activation reduces cell growth and calcitonin secretion in a human medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line". ... in human pancreatic islet cells: a quantitative double-label immunohistochemical analysis". Diabetes. 48 (1): 77-85. doi: ... receptor subtypes 2 and 5 differentially affect proliferation in vitro of the human medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line tt". ... in human lung cancer cell lines". Life Sciences. 55 (23): 1797-806. doi:10.1016/0024-3205(94)90090-6. PMID 7968260. Kaupmann K ...
Oral carcinoma[edit]. Patients after HSCT are at a higher risk for oral carcinoma. Post-HSCT oral cancer may have more ... who have lost their stem cells after birth. Other conditions[13] treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease ... Peripheral blood stem cells[26] are now the most common source of stem cells for HSCT. They are collected from the blood ... Sources and storage of cells[edit]. To limit the risks of transplanted stem cell rejection or of severe graft-versus-host ...
... and increased pancreatic islet-cell adenoma in male rats.[8] In reproductive toxicity studies performed in rats and rabbits, no ... These include the induction of positive trends in the incidence of renal tubule carcinoma and haemangiosarcoma in male mice, ... Workers exposed to glyphosate were about twice as likely to get B cell lymphoma.[7] A 2016 systematic review and meta-analysis ... of the same studies found a correlation between occupational exposure to glyphosate formulations and increased risk of B cell ...
Wilms tumor, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma in a child. Juan E Sola, Juan C. Gutierrez, William R. ... Wilms tumor, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma in a child. / Sola, Juan E; Gutierrez, Juan C.; Thompson, ... Wilms tumor, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma in a child. In: Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 2008 ; Vol. ... Sola JE, Gutierrez JC, Thompson WR, Alvarez OA, Casillas V, Rodriguez M. Wilms tumor, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and ...
Amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation cells are known to give rise to islet cell tumors of the pancreas, medullary ... carcinomas of the thyroid, phaeochromocytomas, melanomas and carcinoid tumors. As such, symptoms and histology of pancreatic ... These cells, which are derived from neural crest cells, are from structures such as the prostate, pancreas and ampulla of Vater ... islet cell tumors and apudoma have striking similarities. ". Ty Bollinger "Cancer Truths" and Alternative Treatments for Cancer ...
... or nesidioblastoma is an uncommon cancer of the endocrine pancreas. For more ... Islet cell carcinoma or nesidioblastoma is an uncommon cancer of the endocrine pancreas. For more information, see ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Islet_cell_carcinoma". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. ...
Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma Completed Phase 2 Trials for Temsirolimus (DB06287). Back to Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma ...
A pancreatic islet cell tumor is a rare tumor of the pancreas that starts from a type of cell called the islet cell. ... Carcinoma of the pancreas. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloffs Clinical Oncology ... Islet cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors; Peptic ulcer - islet cell tumor; Hypoglycemia - islet cell ... A pancreatic islet cell tumor is a rare tumor of the pancreas that starts from a type of cell called the islet cell. ...
... carcinosarcoma is considered a poorly differentiated carcinoma]), hepatocellular carcinoma, carcinoid or islet cell ( ... or islet cell cancer. Temsirolimus may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. ... Pancreatic Alpha Cell Adenoma Pancreatic Beta Cell Adenoma Pancreatic Delta Cell Adenoma Pancreatic G-Cell Adenoma Pancreatic ... Carcinoma, Islet Cell. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Endocrine ...
Islet Cell Carcinoma see Pancreatic Cancer * Islet Cell Transplantation * Juvenile Diabetes see Diabetes Type 1 ...
Adenoma, Islet Cell. Carcinoma. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Neoplasms. Neuroectodermal ... Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma or small cell carcinoma.. *Prior treatment with everolimus, other mTOR ... Experimental: PK Expansion Renal Cell Carcinoma - Group A *Everolimus 10 mg by mouth once daily for each cycle (MUST BE TAKEN ... Experimental: PK Expansion Renal Cell Carcinoma - Group B *Everolimus 10 mg by mouth once daily for each cycle (MUST BE TAKEN ...
Carcinoma, Islet Cell. Adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Pancreatic ...
Also the improvement of methods that require smaller amounts of cells has opened the possibility to use this approach on ... Selection directed to tumoral cells surfaces lead to the identification of unknown tumoral markers. ... technique for screening billions of random fusion antibodies against virtually any target on the surface or inside cancer cells ... Adrenocortical carcinoma; breast cancer; colorectal cancer; HNC; islet cell cancer; liver cancer; Malignant Fibrous ...
Islet cell cancer. *Laryngeal papillomatosis. *Melanoma. *Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary gland ... in combination with erlotinib for non-clear cell histology in selected patients with advanced papillary renal cell carcinoma ... Renal Cell Carcinoma. A randomized, double-blind, phase II trial was conducted comparing placebo with bevacizumab at doses of 3 ... Patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung were excluded from in the study because previous clinical experience ...
Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] ... Kvols LK, Buck M, Moertel CG, et al.: Treatment of metastatic islet cell carcinoma with a somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995). ... Islet Cell Tumors). Table 1. Endocrine Tumors of the Pancreas. Islet Cells. Secreted Active Agent. Tumor and Syndrome. ... streptozocin-fluorouracil or chlorozotocin in the treatment of advanced islet-cell carcinoma. N Engl J Med 326 (8): 519-23, ...
In healthy individuals, insulin has a suppressive effect on alpha-cell function and on glucagon secretion. ... Islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas. World J Surg. 1996 Sep. 20(7):878-83; discussion 884. [Medline]. ... alpha cell hyperplasia, and islet cell tumor. Pancreas. 2009 Nov. 38(8):941-6. [Medline]. [Full Text]. ... Spiral CT localization of pancreatic functioning islet cell tumors. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2004 Nov. 3(4):616-9. [ ...
Islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas. World J Surg. 1996;20:878-84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Population-based study of islet cell carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007;14:3492-500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma presenting bleeding gastric varices and splenomegaly. Jpn J Surg. 1984;14:244-7.PubMed ... Molecular targeted therapy for carcinoid and islet-cell carcinoma. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;21:163-72.PubMed ...
ATCC offers a vast collection of cell lines derived from pancreas, representing the normal and diseased tissue of multiple ... Pancreatic Islet Cell Tumor; Insulinoma (2) * Cystic Fibrosis (1) * Pancreatic Acinar Cell Tumor; Carcinoma (1) ... Cell Culture Media. Keep your cells healthy, happy and behaving as expected. ...
Carcinoma of the pancreas. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloffs Clinical Oncology ... islet cell tumor; Hypoglycemia - islet cell tumor. Causes. In the healthy pancreas, cells called islet cells produce hormones ... A pancreatic islet cell tumor is a rare tumor of the pancreas that starts from a type of cell called the islet cell. ... Cancer - pancreas; Cancer - pancreatic; Pancreatic cancer; Islet cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors ...
islet cell carcinoma. A tumor of the islands of Langerhans; such tumors may result in hyperinsulinism (and hypoglycemia). ... islets of Langerhans. cell clusters in the pancreas that form the endocrine part of that organ. ... the substance in the red blood cells that carries oxygen to the cells of the body. The A1C test is important in diabetes as a ... thyroid carcinoma. Malignant tumor of the thyroid gland. A1c. A test that measures how much glucose has been sticking during ...
A and D: Large pancreatic islet cell tumor in RIP-Tag2 transgenic mouse. B and E: Implanted MCa-IV mammary carcinoma. C and F: ... islet cell tumors in RIP-Tag2 mice, MCa-IV breast carcinomas, and Lewis lung carcinomas. Frequency of tumor vessels with ... Bar graph comparing the percentage of blood vessels covered by desmin in normal pancreatic islets and islet cell tumors in RIP- ... whereas desmin immunoreactive cells are present on most vessels in islets (B). C-E: Desmin-immunoreactive cells are associated ...
... islet cell tumor explanation free. What is islet cell tumor? Meaning of islet cell tumor medical term. What does islet cell ... Looking for online definition of islet cell tumor in the Medical Dictionary? ... islet cell tumor. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.. Related to islet cell tumor: Acinar cell carcinoma ... islet cell tumor. Islet of Langerhans tumor Endocrinology A benign or malignant tumor of the pancreatic islet cells which may ...
This study randomized patients with advanced pancreatic islet cell tumors to receive either sunitinib or placebo. Patients who ... Carcinoma, Islet Cell. *Carcinoma, Pancreas. *Carcinoma. *Adenoma, Islet Cell. *Carcinoma, Islet Cell ... Well-differentiated advanced/metastatic pancreatic islet cell tumor. - Tumor has shown progression within the past year.. ... Versus Placebo In Patients With Progressive Advanced/Metastatic Well-Differentiated Pancreatic Islet Cell Tumors. Trial Phase: ...
... squamous cell carcinoma antigen-1, serpin3a; NAP-125, NCK-associated protein 1; LGN-1, leucine-rich repeat LGI family, member 1 ... islet cell autoantigen p69).. Bioinformatics-. Approximately 40,000 uninterpreted mass spectra were acquired and used for ... Crabtree, G. R., and Olson, E. N. (2002) NFAT signaling: Choreographing the social lives of cells. Cell 109, (suppl.)S67- S79. ... squamous cell carcinoma antigen-1), Michael Greenberg (ephexin N-GEF), Sharon Eden (NCK-associated protein 1-NAP125 and Wave1 ...
Islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas. Am Surg 1989; 55: 325- 332.. * Cited Here... , ... The tumor cells showed histological features common to all pancreatic endocrine tumors, with cells forming mastoid and acinar ... Furthermore, there is no direct evidence as to whether post-transplant immunosuppression stimulates the growth of tumor cells. ... The transfusion required 10 U red blood cells and 10 U plasma during the surgery. ...
804G rat bladder carcinoma cell-line. Available upon request. to make conditioned medium. ... Stem cells to insulin secreting cells: two steps forward and now a time to pause. Cell Stem Cell. 15, (5), 535-536 (2014). ... Leprdb Mouse Model of Type 2 Diabetes: Pancreatic Islet Isolation and Live-cell 2-Photon Imaging Of Intact Islets… ... Serup, P., et al. The homeodomain protein IPF-1/STF-1 is expressed in a subset of islet cells and promotes rat insulin 1 gene ...
No islet cell or acinar cell carcinoma or cystadenocarcinoma. *No invasion of adjacent organs (i.e., duodenum or stomach) or ... No other malignancy within the past 5 years except basal cell or squamous cell skin cancer, carcinoma in situ of the cervix, or ... Some block the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Others find tumor cells and help kill them or carry tumor-killing ... duct cell adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. recurrent pancreatic cancer. stage IV pancreatic cancer. ...
Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Pancreatic cancer, particularly islet cell tumors (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome). ... Crypt cell wall necrosis can be observed 12 to 24 hours after a daily dose of 1.5 to 3 Gy. Progressive loss of cells, villous ... The white blood cell (WBC) count may be slightly elevated in the presence of a fever. If the WBC count is extremely elevated ... A complete blood cell count, appropriate blood chemistries, chest x-ray, and an electrocardiogram can be performed. If the ...
  • A synchronous incidence of eccrine porocarcinoma of the forearm and facial squamous cell carcinoma: A case report. (annals.org)
  • Afinitor is also approved in the EU for the treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) whose disease has progressed on or after treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted therapy. (webwire.com)
  • In islet cell adenomas, there may be some cellular atypia or pleomorphism, which is not typically seen in hyperplastic lesions. (nih.gov)
  • Malonaldehyde administered to rats produced an increased incidence of adenomas and carcinomas of the thyroid gland and pancreatic islet cell adenomas. (cdc.gov)
  • Anorexia/ early satiety may be the result of gastric outlet obstruction, diabetic or other form of autonomic neuropathy, gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), duodenal or gastric ulcer, as well as other forms of neoplasia (ovarian, gallbladder, intrahepatic bile duct, ampulla of Vater, duodenal mucosal carcinoma). (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • T or F) 75% of gallbladder carcinomas occur in women. (studystack.com)
  • Definition of the Response to Initial Therapy with Radioiodine in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Basal or Stimulated Thyroglobulin? (annals.org)
  • 2. a new growth of tissue in which cell multiplication is uncontrolled and progressive. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This higher magnification of Figure 7 shows coalesced hyperplastic islets with occasional trapped acinar cells within the hyperplastic islet tissue in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
  • 1. any of the protoplasmic masses making up organized tissue, consisting of a nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm enclosed in a cell or plasma membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Arias-Stella cells columnar cells in the endometrial epithelium which have a hyperchromatic enlarged nucleus and which appear to be associated with chorionic tissue in an intrauterine or extrauterine site. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Using pancreatic islets as a model for vascularized tissue, this review will present a general overview of EC behaviour dynamics in sprouting angiogenesis, particularly focusing on the interplay between VEGF and Notch pathways. (omicsonline.org)
  • Pancreatic islets are highly vascularized and receive 10% of the pancreatic blood flow despite comprising of only 1-2% of the overall tissue mass [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • This hormone also acts as a mitogenic factor for gastrointestinal epithelial cells. (genecards.org)
  • Bevacizumab binds to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inhibits the interaction of VEGF to Flt1 and KDR receptors on the surface of endothelial cells. (aetna.com)
  • Endothelial cells (ECs) are central to the angiogenic process, with recent insights establishing how these cells communicate with each other and with their microenvironment to form branched vascular networks. (omicsonline.org)
  • Vascular endothelial cells represent a major cell type present in islets and these cells are organized into a highly regulated and morphologically unique microcirculation. (omicsonline.org)
  • At the same time, the therapeutic potential of total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) (in which one's own islets are used) as a preventive treatment for diabetes in patients who undergo total pancreatectomy for chronic, painful pancreatitis has received relatively less attention. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In preclinical studies, the DPP-IV inhibitor isoleucine thiazolidide was shown to improve glucose tolerance in both streptozotocin (STZ)-induced ( 18 , 19 ) and BioBreeding (BB) ( 19 ) diabetic rats, associated with increased β-cell survival and possibly islet neogenesis ( 18 ). (diabetesjournals.org)