A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.
A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.
Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)
A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.
Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.
A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
A technique that labels specific sequences in whole chromosomes by in situ DNA chain elongation or PCR (polymerase chain reaction).
A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)
Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.
Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
A skin carcinoma that histologically exhibits both basal and squamous elements. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Tumors or cancer of the VULVA.
The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.
A carcinoma thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli. Involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular. The neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures. Mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells. Metastases in regional lymph nodes, and in even more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Compounds that include the amino-N-phenylamide structure.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.
An epithelial neoplasm characterized by unusually large anaplastic cells. It is highly malignant with fulminant clinical course, bizarre histologic appearance and poor prognosis. It is most common in the lung and thyroid. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Cancer or tumors of the URETER which may cause obstruction leading to hydroureter, HYDRONEPHROSIS, and PYELONEPHRITIS. HEMATURIA is a common symptom.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Excision of kidney.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askanazy cells.
A malignant neoplasm that contains elements of carcinoma and sarcoma so extensively intermixed as to indicate neoplasia of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)
Neoplasms of the SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An adenocarcinoma with a hard (Greek skirrhos, hard) structure owing to the formation of dense connective tissue in the stroma. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors of cancer of the EYELIDS.
Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).
A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.

Apoptotic activity is increased in parallel with the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence of the bronchial epithelium. (1/1447)

A high level of apoptotic activity and an independence of apoptosis from the expression of p53 and bcl-2 have been observed in non-small-cell lung carcinoma. We examined 44 samples of normal, metaplastic and premalignant (i.e. mild, moderate and severe dysplasias and carcinoma in situ) bronchial epithelia to evaluate whether differences in the apoptotic activity could already be seen in the stages preceding squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (SQCLC). Apoptotic cells and bodies were visualized by 3' end labelling. The expression of p53 and members of the bcl-2 gene family, such as bcl-2, bax and mcl-1, were determined immunohistochemically with specific antibodies. The relative number of apoptotic cells and bodies [apoptotic index (AI%)] was already increased threefold as the normal bronchial epithelium changed to squamous metaplasia, and the AIs of the dysplastic lesions were about four times higher than those of the normal epithelium. Apoptosis was significantly associated with cell proliferation, as determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry. However, the extent of apoptosis did not correlate with the expression of p53, bcl-2, bax and mcl-1. We conclude that, in the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in the lung, the elevation of the AI% is an early event associated with cell proliferation activity, but is independent of the expression of p53, bcl-2, mcl-1 and bax.  (+info)

Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and apoptosis in benign prostatic hyperplasia before and after the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine. (2/1447)

The prevalence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) in men who underwent surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) before and after the Chernobyl nuclear accident was studied. BPH samples were obtained by adenomectomy from 45 patients operated in 1984 before the accident (Group I), and 47 patients from the low contaminated Kiev City (Group II) and 76 from high contaminated area (Group III) operated between 1996 and 1998. Their BPH samples were examined histologically and immunohistochemically. The incidences of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and high grade PIN (HGPIN) were 15.5 and 11.1% in Group I, 29.8 and 14.9% in Grpoup II, and 35. 5 and 19.7% in Group III. The difference between the incidences of PIN in Group I and III is significant (p<0.02). There was increased apoptosis in areas of PIN in Group II and III as compared to Group I (p<0.001). Since apoptosis has been shown to be associated with ionizing radiation and it is now found to be associated with PIN in patients diagnosed after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, this suggests that long-term low dose internal ionizing radiation potentially may cause prostate cancer.  (+info)

Effect of screening on incidence of and mortality from cancer of cervix in England: evaluation based on routinely collected statistics. (3/1447)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of screening on the incidence of and mortality from cervical cancer. DESIGN: Comparison of age specific incidence and mortality before and after the introduction of the national call and recall system in 1988. SETTING: England. SUBJECTS: Women aged over 19 years. RESULTS: From the mid-1960s, the number of smears taken rose continuously to 4.5 million at the end of the 1980s. Between 1988 and 1994, coverage of the target group doubled to around 85%. Registrations of in situ disease increased broadly in parallel with the numbers of smears taken. The overall incidence of invasive disease remained stable up to the end of the 1980s, although there were strong cohort effects; from 1990 incidence fell continuously and in 1995 was 35% lower than in the 1980s. The fall in overall mortality since 1950 accelerated at the end of the 1980s; there were strong cohort effects. Mortality in women under 55 was much lower in the 1990s than would have been expected. CONCLUSIONS: The national call and recall system and incentive payments to general practitioners increased coverage to around 85%. This resulted in falls in incidence of invasive disease in all regions of England and in all age groups from 30 to 74. The falls in mortality in older women were largely unrelated to screening, but without screening there might have been 800 more deaths from cervical cancer in women under 55 in 1997.  (+info)

Spectral morphometric characterization of breast carcinoma cells. (4/1447)

The spectral morphometric characteristics of standard haematoxylin and eosin breast carcinoma specimens were evaluated by light microscopy combined with a spectral imaging system. Light intensity at each wavelength in the range of 450-800 nm was recorded for 10(4) pixels from each field and represented as transmitted light spectra. A library of six characteristic spectra served to scan the cells and reconstruct new images depicting the nuclear area occupied by each spectrum. Fifteen cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma and six cases of lobular carcinoma were examined; nine of the infiltrating ductal carcinoma and three of the lobular carcinoma showed an in situ component. The spectral morphometric analysis revealed a correlation between specific patterns of spectra and different groups of breast carcinoma cells. The most consistent result was that lobular carcinoma cells of in situ and infiltrating components from all patients showed a similar spectral pattern, whereas ductal carcinoma cells displayed spectral variety. Comparison of the in situ and the infiltrating ductal solid, cribriform and comedo carcinoma cells from the same patient revealed a strong similarity of the spectral elements and their relative distribution in the nucleus. The spectrum designated as number 5 in the library incorporated more than 40% of the nuclear area in 74.08% of the infiltrating lobular cells and in 13.64% of the infiltrating ductal carcinoma cells (P < 0.001). Spectrum number 2 appeared in all infiltrating ductal cells examined and in none of the lobular cells. These results indicate that spectrum number 5 is related to infiltrating lobular carcinoma, whereas spectrum number 2 is characteristic for infiltrating ductal carcinoma cells. Spectral similarity mapping of central necrotic regions of comedo type in situ carcinoma revealed nuclear fragmentation into defined segments composed of highly condensed chromatin. We conclude that the spectral morphometric features found for lobular and ductal cell populations may serve future automated histological diagnostics.  (+info)

Intraepithelial and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva: analysis of 60 cases. (5/1447)

AIM: To evaluate the clinical features, treatment results, and recurrence rates in patients with either intraepithelial or invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 60 cases (22 conjunctival intraepithelial and 38 invasive squamous cell carcinomas) to determine patterns of clinical presentation, aetiological factors, and treatment results. The mean patient age was 64 years old. 70% of the patients were male. Patients were treated with a variety of therapies, depending on the degree of tumour involvement; most cases were treated with frozen section controlled excision and adjunctive cryotherapy. Modified eye wall resection or enucleation was done for intraocular invasion and exenteration was done for orbital involvement. RESULTS: Red eye (68%) and ocular irritation (57%) were the most common presenting symptoms. 44% of the patients had other eye findings consistent with extensive solar exposure. 20% of the patients had a history of malignant skin tumours. Visceral malignancies developed in 8%. Scleral involvement was present in 14 (37%), intraocular involvement in five (13%), and orbital invasion in four (11%) cases with invasive squamous cell carcinoma. After a mean follow up of 56 months (18-226 months) the rate of new or recurrent tumours was 4.5% for intraepithelial squamous carcinoma and 5.3% for invasive squamous cell carcinoma. No patient developed metastases or tumour related deaths. CONCLUSION: Excision with intraoperative control of the surgical margins and adjunctive cryotherapy results in good tumour control rates.  (+info)

Sex-related differences in bronchial epithelial changes associated with tobacco smoking. (6/1447)

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in North American women. Because smoking-related changes in the bronchial epithelium and in lung function have not been studied in detail in women, we used fluorescence bronchoscopy-directed biopsy to determine the prevalence of high-grade preinvasive lesions in former and current smokers of both sexes. METHODS: Spirometry, white-light bronchoscopy, and fluorescence bronchoscopy were performed in 189 women and 212 men older than 40 years of age who had smoked 20 pack-years or more (pack-years = number of packs of cigarettes smoked per day x number of years of smoking). RESULTS: Carcinoma in situ was found in 1.8% of the subjects, severe dysplasia was found in 6.5%, and moderate dysplasia was found in 14% (all preinvasive lesions). Compared with men, women had a lower prevalence of high-grade preinvasive lesions in the observed airways (14% versus 31%; odds ratio = 0.18; 95% confidence interval = 0.04-0.88), and women with preinvasive lesions had fewer such lesions (two-sided P = .048). The prevalence of preinvasive lesions did not change substantially for more than 10 years after cessation of smoking. Lung function was associated with the prevalence of preinvasive lesions, but the association was weaker in women than in men. If the presence of airflow obstruction was defined by an FEV1/FVC (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity) value of 70% or less, only 56% of the men and 44% of the women with preinvasive lesions had abnormal lung function. CONCLUSION: In developing strategies for chemoprevention or early detection of lung cancer in high-risk populations, it is important to consider the effect of sex and arbitrarily chosen lung function values on the prevalence of preinvasive airway lesions.  (+info)

Role of p53 gene mutations in human esophageal carcinogenesis: results from immunohistochemical and mutation analyses of carcinomas and nearby non-cancerous lesions. (7/1447)

In order to characterize p53 alterations in esophageal cancer and to study their roles in carcinogenesis, we performed gene mutation and immunohistochemical analysis on 43 surgically resected human esophageal specimens, which contain squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adjacent non-cancerous lesions, from a high-incidence area of Linzhou in Henan, China. A newly developed immunohisto-selective sequencing (IHSS) method was used to enrich the p53 immunostain-positive cells for mutation analysis. p53 gene mutations were detected in 30 out of 43 (70%) SCC cases. Among 29 SCC cases that were stained positive for p53 protein, 25 (86%) were found to contain p53 mutations. In five cases of SCC with homogeneous p53 staining, the same mutation was observed in samples taken from four different positions of each tumor. In a well differentiated cancer nest, p53 mutation was detected in only the peripheral p53-positive cells. In tumor areas with heterogeneous p53 staining, either the area stained positive for p53 had an additional mutation to the negatively stained area or both areas lacked any detectable p53 mutation. In the p53-positive non-cancerous lesions adjacent to cancer, p53 mutations were detected in seven out of 16 (47%) samples with basal cell hyperplasia (BCH), eight out of 12 (67%) samples with dysplasia (DYS), and six out of seven (86%) samples with carcinoma in situ (CIS). All mutations found in lesions with DYS and CIS were the same as those in the nearby SCC. In seven cases of BCH containing mutations, only three had the same mutations as the nearby SCC. The results suggest that p53 mutation is an early event in esophageal carcinogenesis occurring in most of the DYS and CIS lesions, and cells with such mutations will progress to carcinoma, whereas the role of p53 mutations in BCH is less clear.  (+info)

The influence of margin width on local control of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. (8/1447)

BACKGROUND: Ductal carcinoma in situ is a non-invasive carcinoma that is unlikely to recur if completely excised. Margin width, the distance between the boundary of the lesion and the edge of the excised specimen, may be an important determinant of local recurrence. METHODS: Margin widths, determined by direct measurement or ocular micrometry, and standardized evaluation of the tumor for nuclear grade, comedonecrosis, and size were performed on 469 specimens of ductal carcinoma in situ from patients who had been treated with breast-conserving surgery with or without postoperative radiation therapy, according to the choice of the patient or her physician. We analyzed the results in relation to margin width and whether the patient received postoperative radiation therapy. RESULTS: The mean (+/-SE) estimated probability of recurrence at eight years was 0.04+/-0.02 among 133 patients whose excised lesions had margin widths of 10 mm or more in every direction. Among these patients there was no benefit from postoperative radiation therapy. There was also no statistically significant benefit from postoperative radiation therapy among patients with margin widths of 1 to <10 mm. In contrast, there was a statistically significant benefit from radiation among patients in whom margin widths were less than 1 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative radiation therapy did not lower the recurrence rate among patients with ductal carcinoma in situ that was excised with margins of 10 mm or more. Patients in whom the margin width is less than 1 mm can benefit from postoperative radiation therapy.  (+info)

The long-lasting phase of precursors of invasive cancer, i.e. dysplasia or intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN), is particularly relevant among risk determinants. At present, about 15-20% of all breast cancers are diagnosed in a non-invasive phase. Despite their good prognosis, women with breast IEN (lobular and ductal intraepithelial neoplasia, LIN and DIN) have a 10-15/1000 annual risk of invasive disease (8-10 times the same age general population), and thus represent an important target for chemoprevention. In the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP-P1 trial), tamoxifen use at 20 mg/day was associated with a 86% reduction of invasive breast cancer in women with previous atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) (RR=0.14, 95% IC, 0.03-0.47) and with a 56% risk reduction in women with previous Lobular Carcinoma in situ (LCIS) (RR=0.44, 95% IC, 0.16-1.06). However, tamoxifen use in this setting is hampered by serious adverse events attributable to its partial estrogenic activity, such ...
In this study, three different groups of lesions have been identified by using immunohistochemical profiling for MIB-1, p53 and Bcl-2. The first group contains florid and atypical ductal and lobular hyperplasias, well-differentiated ductal carcinoma in situ and lobular carcinoma in situ. The second group contains poorly differentiated ductal carcinoma in situ, whereas the third group shows heterogeneous staining and contains intermediate ductal carcinoma in situ. Two possible models of neoplastic progression could explain these results. In the first model, progression could occur from the group containing the well-differentiated ductal carcinoma in situ to intermediate and finally to poorly differentiated ductal carcinoma in situ with a progressive increase in both proliferation and p53 expression and loss of Bcl-2 expression. An alternative model suggests that low grade ductal carcinomas and lobular carcinomas in situare derived from the florid and atypical hyperplasias as they share a common ...
Introduction: With the emerging importance of the tumor immune environment in both invasive and preinvasive breast cancer, vaccine therapy may provide a well-tolerated, durable therapy for preinvasive breast cancer by preventing both recurrent preinvasive disease and progression to invasive disease. Preinvasive breast cancer is ideal for vaccines because the disease is slow growing and the patients are not immunosuppressed. However, design of the vaccines are critical including consideration of appropriate antigens, selecting Th1 stimulating epitopes, and using multiantigen vaccines to address tumor heterogeneity.. ...
Squamous microcarcinomas of the uterine cervix represent a focus of controversy regarding a useful clinical definition. The confusion of terminology and numerous pathological definitions have led to a great variety of surgical treatments from the con
Information that explains what Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) is, and how it is diagnosed and treated. This page also recommends other sources of information.
In situ cancers and invasive cancers often are treated in the same way but for different reasons. After all, we dont have too many options. We can save the breast, we can save the breast and then radiate it or we can do mastectomies. And in selected circumstances, each of these treatments is applicable to patients with in situ cancers and with invasive cancers.
Heterologous prime-boost vaccination schedules employing TA-HPV, a vaccinia virus encoding HPV 16/18 E6 and E7, in combination with TA-CIN, an HPV 16 L2E6E7 fusion protein, may offer advantages over the use of either agent alone for the immunotherapy of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16-associated vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). In the present study, 10 women with HPV 16-positive high grade VIN, previously primed with TA-HPV, received three booster immunisations with TA-CIN. All but one demonstrated HPV 16-specific proliferative T-cell and/or serological responses following vaccination. Three patients additionally showed lesion shrinkage or symptom relief, but no direct correlation between clinical and immunological responses was seen.. ...
The occurance and clinical course of human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced lesions is largely determined by the nature of the cellular immune defense generated. Even tough both genital warts and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) are HPV-associated genital lesions they differ in their risk of malignant progression. Imiquimod (IMQ) is a topically applied Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 agonist that has been approved for the treatment of superficial (pre-) carcinomas of the skin (basal cell carcinomas, actinic keratosis) and HPV-associated lesions (genital warts). It acts by activation of the immune system exerting anti-tumor and anti-viral properties. The aim of the study is to evaluate the mechanisms of IMQ treatment and to analyze the differences in HPV-affected and non affected tissue at cellular and molecular level as determined by immunofluorescence stainings and real time PCR, respectively ...
Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)-associated vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is frequently a chronic, multifocal high-grade condition with an appreciable risk of progression to vulval cancer. The requirement to treat women with VIN has recently stimulated the use of immunotherapy with E6/E7 oncogene vaccines. Animal models have shown that E2 may also be a useful vaccine target for HPV-associated disease; however, little is known about E2 immunity in humans. This study investigated the prevalence of HPV-16 E2-specific serological and T-cell responses in 18 women with HPV-16-associated VIN and 17 healthy volunteers. E2 responses were determined by full-length E2-GST ELISA with ELISPOT and proliferation assays using E2 C-terminal protein. As positive controls, HPV-16 L1 responses were measured using virus-like particles (VLPs) and L1-GST ELISA with ELISPOT and proliferation using VLPs as antigen. The VIN patients all showed a strong serological response to L1 compared with the healthy ...
We immunohistochemically examined material from 36 pancreata (adenocarcinomas, 30 lesions; pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia [PanIN], 65; normal pancreatic ducts, 30) for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) with an automated platform. We analyzed 7 to 10 discrete foci and generated an average percentage of …
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Concordant loss of MTAP and p16/CDKN2A expression in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: Evidence of homozygous deletion in a noninvasive precursor lesion. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Natural history of bronchial preinvasive lesions. AU - Ishizumi, Taichiro. AU - McWilliams, Annette. AU - MacAulay, Calum. AU - Gazdar, Adi. AU - Lam, Stephen. PY - 2010/3. Y1 - 2010/3. N2 - Preinvasive bronchial lesions defined as dysplasia and carcinoma in situ (CIS) have been considered as precursors of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The risk and rate of progression of preinvasive lesions to invasive squamous cell carcinoma as well as the mechanism of progression or regression are incompletely understood. While the evidence for the multistage, stepwise progression model is weak with relatively few documented lesions that progress through various grades of dysplasia to CIS and then to invasive carcinoma, the concept of field carcinogenesis is strongly supported. The presence of high-grade dysplasia or CIS is a risk marker for lung cancer both in the central airways and peripheral lung. Genetic alterations such as loss of heterozygosity in chromosome 3p or chromosomal ...
The American Cancer Society estimates that more than 62,000 news cases of carcinoma in situ will be diagnosed this year. A common type of c
Vulvar cancer is a malignant persistent growth in the vulva. It is reported for about 4 % of all type of gynecological cancers as well as affects usually women in later life. It is guessed that in 2006, in the United States, about 3,740 new instances of Vulvar cancer will be diagnosed. About 880 women will pass away as a consequence of vulvar cancer. Vulvar carcinoma is detached from a non-invasive lesion of the epithelium, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia(VIN), which can improve through carcinoma-in-situ to squamous cell cancer. Even, Paget disease of the vulva can be formed. It is caused by the squamous cell carcinoma that creates from the epidermis of vulva tissue.. ...
There is dysplastic squamous epithelium with coarse chromatin, nuclear hyperchromasia, nuclear enlargement, irregular nuclear membranes, and an increase nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio. Mitotic activity is abundant. Several atypical mitoses are identified. The dysplastic squamous epithelium shows minimal maturation toward the surface (AIN 3). A sizable portion of the lesion show some maturation to the surface (AIN 2). Inflammation at the dermal-epidermal interface is minimal and the dermal-epidermal interface is well-demarcated. Focal ulceration is present. The margin of the biopsy has severely dysplastic epithelium (AIN 3). ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is not breast cancer as we commonly understand it, because it has not spread outside the milk ducts into other parts of the breast, or to other parts of the body.Without treatment, DCIS may develop into invasive breast cancer, which can spread outside the ducts and possibly to other parts of the body. The pathology report After a biopsy or
Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is an uncommon condition where benign (non-cancer) change is seen within the lobules of the breast.
Human samples. Surgically resected human samples of PDAC (n = 14), noninvasive IPMNs (n = 10), and invasive IPMNs (n = 13) were obtained from pancreatectomy specimens.. Histology and IHC. Specimens were fixed overnight in 10% formalin/PBS. Histological analysis was performed on 4 μm paraffin-embedded sections. IHC was performed using the antibodies shown in Supplemental Table 2. The sections were incubated overnight at 4°C with each primary antibody and incubated for 1 hour at room temperature with secondary antibodies. Proteins were visualized using EnVision Detection Systems (Dako). Slides were counterstained with hematoxylin.. Cell culture. Human pancreatic cancer cell lines (panc1, MiaPaca2, KLM1, KP4, PK8, PK9, PK45h, and PK59) were obtained from the Cell Resource Center for Biomedical Research (Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Japan). All cell lines were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium (Invitrogen, Life Technologies), except for MiaPaca2, which was cultured in ...
The current best hope for the successful treatment of pancreatic cancer is the removal of pre-invasive lesions before they become malignant. The early detection...
Feline Bowenoid in situ carcinoma (BISC) is a rare disease that presents as multiple discrete plaques of epidermal hyperplasia and dysplasia
The diagnosis of any of the listed below conditions must be established by histological evidence and be confirmed by a specialist in the relevant field.. Carcinoma-in-situ (CIS):. Carcinoma-in-situ means the presence of malignant cancer cells that remain within the cell group from which they arose. It must involve the full thickness of the epithelium but does not cross basement membranes and it does not invade the surrounding tissue or organ. The diagnosis of which must be positively established by microscopic examination of fixed tissues.. Prostate Cancer - early stage:. Early Prostate Cancer that is histologically described using the TNM classification as T1N0M0 with a Gleason Score 2 (two) to 6(six).. Thyroid Cancer - early stage:. All thyroid cancers that are less than 2.0 cm and histologically classified as T1N0M0 according to TNM classification. Bladder Cancer - early stage:. All tumors of the urinary bladder histologically classified as TaNoMo according to TNM classification.. Chronic ...
Very sorry for the necessity that drew you here. This link is compiled by the Am Cancer Soc and its pretty comprehensive. Print it out. There is room to write the answers if you print it out. If possible, have someone come with you to take notes. If you miss something or dont quite understand what they say, ask them to repeat it in plain English. If you think of it after the appt, dont worry. Call the office back with the question. The drs. nurse will call back with the info. If you have to have lung cancer, this is the slowest growing cancer which is fairly good news. There are fewer options for treatment at this time but with the advent of the newer targeted therapies in clinical trial, chances are very good that they will have several options in use before you need it. If they recommend lobectomies or wedges or both, you may never need further intervention. This may be overwhelming at first, but, it is survivable. Please let us know what the drs say. Dont be afraid to get a second opinion. ...
A 33-year-old woman with a 2.7 cm high grade, comedo type DCIS, which was accurately assessed by both MRI and mammography.A. Spot-magnification mediolateral obl
Номер такой: WVWZZZ3BZ3P093310 Помнится, у кого-то были выходы на ВИНопробойник. Посмотреть бы че за комплектация, че за зверь такой. :-k Кажется, у Axla. Спасибо! Жду :gaz:
Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) has produced complete response rates of ,90% for nonmelanoma skin carcinomas, which are mostly human papillomavirus (HPV) negative. Using a similar treatment protocol, we observed a short-term response in only one third (10 of 32) of high-grade vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN 2-3) lesions. Unifocal lesions were found more responsive than multifocal and pigmented lesions. Animal model studies have suggested that long-term PDT response involves an immune reaction in which CTLs play a crucial role. In this study, we have assessed: (a) HPV infection; (b) HLA expression; and (c) immune infiltrating cells in VIN biopsies from responders and nonresponders to determine whether these factors may limit response to topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-based PDT. Tissues from normal vulva (n = 9), vulval carcinoma (n = 11), and VIN (32 patients from which 19 pre- and 43 post-PDT biopsies were taken) were investigated for immune cell infiltration ...
UK national survey of the management of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2019 Oct 14;:1-5 Authors: Gurumurthy M, Leeson S, Tidy J, Cruickshank ME Abstract Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VaIN) is less common than intraepithelial neoplasia at other non-cervical sites and can be challenging to manage. This survey describes current clinical practice by col...
Background: The detection of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) in cervical samples is not a common finding. Therefore, we aimed to report VAINs detected in liquid-based cytology (LBC) from women examined at Hospital das Clínicas of Faculty of Medicine, Sao Paulo State University. Materials and Methods: We evaluated LBC samples from women referred to gynecology examination for different reasons (previous abnormal PapTest, follow up of treated cervical lesion, ecc) and women examined for regular screening proposals, and compared with biopsy diagnoses, including the controversial diagnoses of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN). Results: From 1866 patients, 1423 (76.3%) cases were negative and 443 (23.7%) were positive for any cellular alteration. Age of patients ranged from 12 to 86 years. We detected 25 histologically confirmed VAIN (1.3% p = 0.0002 by Fishers exact test IC 95% 0.0090 - 0.0198) and 1.1% VAIN (p = 0.0031 by Fishers exact test IC 95% 0.0077 - 0.0179). Conclusion
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantitative DNA methylation analysis detects cervical intraepithelial neoplasms type 3 and worse. AU - Lai, Hung Cheng. AU - Lin, Ya Wen. AU - Huang, Rui Lan. AU - Chung, Ming Tzeung. AU - Wang, Hui Chen. AU - Liao, Yu Ping. AU - Su, Po Hsuan. AU - Liu, Yung Liang. AU - Yu, Mu Hsien. PY - 2010/9/15. Y1 - 2010/9/15. N2 - BACKGROUND: DNA methylation may be used a potential biomarker for detecting cervical cancer. The authors of this report used quantitative methylation analysis of 4 genes in a full spectrum of cervical lesions to test its potential clinical application. METHODS: This hospital-based, retrospective, case-control study was conducted in 185 patients and included patients who had a normal uterine cervix (n = 53), cervical intraepithelial neoplasm type 1 (CIN1) (n = 37), CIN2 (n = 22), CIN3 (n = 24), carcinoma in situ (CIS) (n = 22), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, n = 20), and adenocarcinoma (AC) (n = 7). Methylation levels of the genes sex-determining region Y, box 1 ...
Introduction: Endometrial hyperplasia produces a continuum of lesions that may be precursor to endometrial carcinoma of endometrioid histology. The World Health Organization (WHO) classification is currently the most commonly accepted system of classifying endometrial hyperplasias, the problems with which have prompted the development of an alternative system based on Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia (EIN).Materials and Methods: We undertook the study using revised EIN criteria to differentiate EIN lesions from lookalikes. EIN diagnostic criterias, such as gland area,stromal area, cytologic change in focus of altered architecture, lesion size,1 mm and exclusion of cancer and mimics were applied on two hundred endometrial biopsies that were initially classified as hyperplasia using WHO classification system.Results: Out of total two hundred cases, 41.5% were diagnosed as simple typical hyperplasia, 19% cases as complex typical hyperplasia, 9.5% cases as simple atypical hyperplasia and 30% ...
Histologic criteria of low-grade vulvar/vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN1/VAIN1) are well established; however, a significant interobserver variability in diagnosing VIN1/VAIN1 has been reported. The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of MIB-1 immunostaining as an adjunct test to increase the diagnostic accuracy in equivocal cases of VIN1/VAIN1. The second goal was to examine the distribution of low- and high-oncogenic risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in VIN1/VAIN1 lesions. Consecutive vulvar/vaginal biopsies originally diagnosed as VIN1/VAIN1 (n = 43) or benign (n = 20) were reviewed by two pathologists to obtain a consensus diagnosis. The diagnosis was further confirmed with HPV testing using Short PCR Fragment 10 and Line Probe Assay. MIB-1 immunostaining was performed, and positive staining was defined as a cluster of two or more stained nuclei in the upper two thirds of the epithelial thickness. After verification of the diagnosis using the consensus histologic review and HPV
Results Normal epidermis showed parabasal Ki67 and cyclin D1 staining while fascin labelled cells in the lower one-third of the epithelium. Reactive and dVIN specimens demonstrated mildly increased Ki67 and cyclin D1 expression that maintained parabasal polarity, whereas uVIN and p16-positive SCC were characterised by loss of cyclin D1 staining. However, in 14 of 20 p16-positive SCC small infiltrative tumour groups and single infiltrating cells at the invasive front showed a cyclin D1-positive/ Ki67-negative phenotype. In contrast, p16-negative SCC generally showed diffuse and concordant cyclin D1 and Ki67 labelling, including at the invasive margin. Fascin expression was increased in all VIN and SCC lesions.. ...
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Sirolimus in Preventing Invasive Breast Cancer in Patients with Ductal Carcinoma In Situ, Lobular Carcinoma In Situ, Atypical Lobular Hyperplasia, or Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia - NCT02642094
Pathology Histologic Classification of Vaginal Neoplasia. VAIN (VAginal Intraepithelial Neoplasms). These are pre-malignant lesions of the vaginal squamous epithelium that can develop primarily in the vagina or as an extension from the cervix. Histologically, VAIN is defined in the same way as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Classification includes three grades: Grade 1 (VAIN I = mild dysplasia); Grade 2 (VAIN II = moderate dysplasia); and Grade 3 (VAIN III = severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ). Invasive carcinoma:. ...
Introduction: Breast cancer in situ (BCIS) diagnoses, a precursor lesion for invasive breast cancer, comprise about 20 % of all breast cancers (BC) in countries with screening programs. Family history of BC is considered one of the strongest risk factors for BCIS.. Methods: To evaluate the association of BC susceptibility loci with BCIS risk, we genotyped 39 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), associated with risk of invasive BC, in 1317 BCIS cases, 10,645 invasive BC cases, and 14,006 healthy controls in the National Cancer Institutes Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). Using unconditional logistic regression models adjusted for age and study, we estimated the association of SNPs with BCIS using two different comparison groups: healthy controls and invasive BC subjects to investigate whether BCIS and BC share a common genetic profile.. Results: We found that five SNPs (CDKN2BAS-rs1011970, FGFR2-rs3750817, FGFR2-rs2981582, TNRC9-rs3803662, 5p12-rs10941679) were ...
This study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of imiquimod in HIV-infected patients with high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. The primary measure of
Doctors and the general public are increasingly recognising diseases of the vulva and vagina as a cause of sexual dysfunction, morbidity and death, yet the wide but sometimes rare range of conditions involving this area are poorly represented in most textbooks of pathology. As the first volume in the Essentials of Diagnostic Gynecological Pathology series sponsored by the British Association of Gynecological Pathologists, Pathology of the Vulva and Vagina is one of the very few dealing wholly with this subject.Pathology of the Vulva and Vagina introduces the topic with a stylishly illustrated description of the embryology and development which is fundamental to understanding the pathogenesis and symptomatology. Subsequent chapters cover infections and non-infectious dermatoses, specifying those that can predispose to cancer. The precancerous conditions of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia, melanocytic proliferations and extra-mammary Pagets disease are integrated respectively with accounts of ...
Description of disease Breast, infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the. Treatment Breast, infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the. Symptoms and causes Breast, infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the Prophylaxis Breast, infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the
Melissas Rap: When I was 21, I discovered a lump in my breast. After multiple doctors appointments, mammograms and ultrasounds, my doctor decided I should have it surgically removed. Before the surgery, doctors found another lump in my other breast. So, I had bilateral biopsies. Thankfully, both were benign. Ever since that year, I have…
AstraZeneca announced recently that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved use of its breast cancer drug tamoxifen (Nolvadex) to reduce the risk of invasive breast cancer in women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) following breast surgery and radiation.
Although anal cancer is a rare disease, its incidence is increasing in men and women worldwide. The most important risk factors are behaviors that predispose individuals to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or immunosuppression. Anal cancer is generally preceded by high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), which is most prevalent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men. There is a general consensus that high-risk individuals may benefit from screening. Meta-analysis suggests that 80% of anal cancers could be avoided by vaccination against HPV 16/18. Nearly half of all patients with anal cancer present with rectal bleeding. Pain or sensation of a rectal mass is experienced in 30% of patients, whereas 20% have no tumor-specific symptoms. According to the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, 50% of patients with anal cancer have disease localized to the anus, 29% have regional lymph node involvement or direct spread beyond the primary, and
It seems like every year, a new recommendation is coming down the pipeline about the best ways to prevent and diagnose breast cancer. Navigating all of the confusion can be difficult, so Ive got a …. Continue Reading about New Annual Mammogram Guidelines-Some Things Every Woman Should Know → ...
Characteristics of lobular carcinoma and LCIS. Pictures showing the difference, and mentioning possible symptoms, mammogram findings and treatment.
The genetic landscape of pancreatic cancer shows nearly ubiquitous mutations of Kras. However, expression of mutant Kras alone is not sufficient to drive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in adult mice. Obesity is a metabolic disorder and is a risk factor for PDAC. One of the main factors that contributes to the development of obesity is high-fat consumption. Recent studies have demonstrated that High-Fat-Diet (HFD) can promote oncogenic Kras mediated development of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and PDAC. However, it is not clear why mice with oncogenic KrasG12D expression are predisposed to HFD mediated pancreatic carcinogenesis. Here, we report that Ras activity dramatically reduces the expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). FGF21 is a key mediator of fatty acid oxidation and lipid metabolism. Pharmacological doses of FGF21 lower serum free fatty acids and lead to weight loss in obese mice. FGF21 is highly expressed in pancreatic acinar cells and is a potential ...
As expected the US Food and Drug Administration has opened the door to Merck & Cos Gardasil vaccine for the prevention of anal cancer anal intraepithelial neoplasia. - News - PharmaTimes
Vaginal Cancer, In a recent study, the incidence of vulval, vaginal or anal intraepithelial neoplasia was 1.96 per 100 person-years for the HIV-infected women and 0.26 per 100 person-years fo... ...
To compare the lesion distribution and the extent of the disease in ductal and lobular carcinomas of the breast, we studied 586 ductal and 133 lobular consecutive cancers. All cases were documented on large-format histology slides. The invasive component of ductal carcinomas was unifocal in 63.3% (371/586), multifocal in 35.5% (208/586), and diffuse in 1.2% (7/586) of the cases. The corresponding figures in the lobular group were 27.8% (37/133), 45.9% (61/586), and 26.3% (35/133), respectively. When the distribution of the in situ and invasive component in the same tumors was combined to give an aggregate pattern, the ductal carcinomas were unifocal in 41.6% (244/586), multifocal in 31.6% (185/586), and diffuse in 26.8% (157/586) of the cases. The corresponding figures in the lobular category were 15.0% (20/133), 54.2% (72/133), and 30.8% (41/133), respectively. Ductal cancers were extensive in 45.7% (268/586), lobular in 65.4% (87/133) of the cases. All these differences were statistically ...
Answers from trusted physicians on what are the treatment options for lcis. First: Lcis is somewhat of a misnomer in that it is not a cancer, but a pre-malignant condition in which there are abnormal cells present in the glands (lobules) of the breast. Therefore patients with a diagnosis of lcis are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer than the general population and require closer observation and screening. Hormonal therapy may be used in those with very high risk.
The United States remained a net exporter of fuel ethanol for the sixth consecutive year and exported to 35 different countries in 2015.
Baktearjen (wittenskiplike namme: Bacteria, iental Bacterium) binne (iensellige) mikro-organismen, dyt sa lyts binne dat se allinnich ûnder in mikroskoop te sjen binne. In wichtige eigenskip fan baktearjen is, dat se har hurd fermearderje kinne. In baktearje is in prokaryoat en hat dus gjin selkearn. It erflike materiaal sweeft om yn it sytoplasma. It DNA bestiet meastal út mar ien ringfoarmich gromosoam, faak beselskippe troch ien of mear plasmiden, dyt ek genetyske ynformaasje befetsje. Baktearjen kinne ûnderling plasmiden útwikselje (konjugaasje), wêrtrocht se rekombinearje. Sa ûntsteane allegeduerigen nije bacterievariëteiten. De Bakteria waarden eartiids Eubakteria neamd. Yn it algemiene spraakgebrûk wurdt meastal gjin ûnderskied makke tusken Bacteria (gewoane baktearjen) en Archaea (oerbaktearjen), dyt tegearre de groep prokaryoaten foarmje. Yn de taksonomy foarmje de Bakteria lykwols in ôfsûnderlik Ryk of Domein. Blaualgen of blauwieren, dyt gjin echte algen of wieren ...
Intímny sprchový gél na hygienu žien vo fertilnom veku, vhodný po športovaní, počas menštruácie, pri gynekologických problémoch a zápachu intímnych partií
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Hajdu, Steven I.; Tang, Ping (Autumn 2009). "Lobular Carcinoma in Situ". Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science. 39 (4): 413 ...
Tis: Carcinoma in situ. Ta: Noninvasive verrucous carcinoma. T1a: Tumor invades subepithelial connective tissue without lymph ... carcinoma in situ-Bowen's disease, Erythroplasia of Queyrat and bowenoid papulosis (BP)); Invasive carcinoma of the penis. ... Anatomic Stage or Prognostic Groups of penile cancer are as follows: Stage 0-Carcinoma in situ. Stage I-The cancer is ... Other types of penile cancer such as Merkel cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and melanoma are generally rare. In 2018, it ...
... lumpectomy may be performed for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma, or other conditions. DCIS, or ... "Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS)". PubMed Health Glossary. DeSantis C, Siegel R, Bandi P, Jemal A (2011). "Breast cancer ... "Ductal carcinoma in situ". Getglue.com. Retrieved 19 March 2013. "About 20% of Women Need More Surgery After Lumpectomy". ... Zujewski J, Eng-Wong J (August 2005). "Sentinel lymph node biopsy in the management of ductal carcinoma in situ". Clinical ...
Tis: Carcinoma in situ; Cancer cells are found only in the epithelium or lamina propria T1: Growth into the submucosa T2: ... Br J Surg 23:395-413, 1935 Grinnell RS: The grading and prognosis of carcinoma of the colon and rectum. Ann Surg 109:500-33, ... p.107 (ISBN 9780340972359) Astler VB, Coller FA: The prognostic significance of direct extension of carcinoma of the colon and ... Definitive staging can only be done after surgery and histopathology of colorectal carcinoma. An exception to this principle ...
... either ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Stages 1-3 are within the breast or regional lymph ... and these cancers are classified as ductal or lobular carcinoma. Carcinoma in situ is growth of low-grade cancerous or ... For example, Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) involving the entire breast will still be stage zero and consequently an excellent ... Some, such as ductal carcinoma in situ, develop from pre-invasive lesions. The diagnosis of breast cancer is confirmed by ...
Presence of lobular carcinoma in situ. Having dense breasts or breasts with diffuse microcalcification, as the screening for ...
Also called carcinoma in situ (CIS). The carcinoma has grown into the cervix, but has not spread beyond it (extension to the ... cancer Stage 2B cervical cancer Stage 3B cervical cancer Stage 4A cervical cancer Stage 4B cervical cancer The carcinoma is ... corpus would be disregarded). Stage One is subdivided as follows: IA: Invasive carcinoma which can be diagnosed only by ...
Invasive potentiality of cervical carcinoma in situ. Green GH. Int J Obstet Gynecol 1969; 7; 157-171. Vaginal carcinoma in situ ... Cervical Carcinoma in situ: True cancer or non-invasive lesion? Green GH Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1964 Dec;4:165-73. Ovarian ... Is cervical carcinoma in situ a significant lesion? Green GH. Int Surg 1967;47; 511-517. Maori maternal mortality in New ... Cervical cytology and carcinoma in situ. Green GH J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1965 Feb;72:13-22. Uterine rupture following ...
Some neoplasms do not form a tumor - these include leukemia and most forms of carcinoma in situ. Tumor is also not synonymous ... Not all types of neoplasms cause a tumorous overgrowth of tissue, however (such as leukemia or carcinoma in situ) and ... Potentially-malignant neoplasms include carcinoma in situ. They are localised, do not invade and destroy but in time, may ... Tawfik HM, El-Maqsoud NM, Hak BH, El-Sherbiny YM (2011). "Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: mismatch repair ...
Carcinoma in situ is categorized stage 0; often tumors localized to the organ of origin are staged as I or II depending on the ... T: size or direct extent of the primary tumor Tx: tumor cannot be assessed Tis: carcinoma in situ T0: no evidence of tumor T1, ...
"Improved gene expression signature of testicular carcinoma in situ". International Journal of Andrology. 30 (4): 292-302, ...
According to the migratory theory, ductal carcinoma in situ cells migrate into the lactiferous sinuses and the nipple skin. ... Invasive cancer or extensive ductal carcinoma in situ is primarily treated with modified radical mastectomies. The procedure ... even in patients after ductal carcinoma in situ surgery. Eczema tends to affect the areola first, and then the nipple, whereas ... The death rate of metastatic breast carcinoma in patients with mammary Paget's disease and underlying cancer is 61.3%, with a ...
The rate at which breast cancer (ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive mammary carcinoma (all breast cancer except DCIS and LCIS ... ADH, cytologically, architecturally and on a molecular basis, is identical to a low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); ... There is no single definite cutoff that separates atypical ductal hyperplasia from ductal carcinoma in situ, but the following ... Ductal carcinoma in situ Breast cancer Collagenous spherulosis "Understanding Breast Changes - National Cancer Institute". ...
Claus EB, Stowe M, Carter D (December 2001). "Breast carcinoma in situ: risk factors and screening patterns". Journal of the ... A study of the influence of alcohol intake on tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with type C cirrhosis ... Madsen BS, Jensen HL, van den Brule AJ, Wohlfahrt J, Frisch M (June 2008). "Risk factors for invasive squamous cell carcinoma ... Pelucchi C, La Vecchia C, Negri E, Talamini R, Franceschi S (December 2002). "Alcohol drinking and renal cell carcinoma in ...
... these include leukemia and most forms of carcinoma in situ. Tumor is also not synonymous with cancer. While cancer is by ... Squamous cell carcinoma not otherwise specified Basal cell carcinoma Squamous intraepithelial neoplasia Benign squamous lesions ... There are four main groups of vaginal neoplasms: benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of ... Paget disease Bartholin gland Tumors: carcinomas, adenoma and adenomyoma Tumor arising from specialized ano-genital mammary- ...
2007). "In situ adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma of uterine cervix. Pathological and immunohistochemical analysis with ...
The invasive potential of carcinoma in situ of the cervix. Obstetric Gynecology. 1984 Oct;64(4):451-8. Wright TC Jr; Massad LS ... indicates moderate or severe cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or carcinoma in situ. It is usually diagnosed following a Pap ... Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) The results are calculated differently following a Pap smear of the cervix. A low-grade squamous ... Squamous cell carcinoma Atypical Glandular Cells not otherwise specified (AGC-NOS) Atypical Glandular Cells, suspicious for AIS ...
Choi BB, Kim SH, Park CS, Cha ES, Lee AW (February 2011). "Radiologic findings of lobular carcinoma in situ: mammography and ... to diagnose invasive ductal carcinoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma with the same accuracy. DATG can be strategic for ...
... carcinoma of the cervix, Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 2018: 58: 321-329. Jones, McLean 1986. Carcinoma in situ of the vulva: A ... The Minutes recorded that Green stated that 'his aim was to attempt to prove that carcinoma-in-situ is not a pre-malignant ... Green G H, 1970 'The natural history of cervical carcinoma in situ' J Obstet & Gynaecol Brit Comm, 77: 1-9. Green G H, 1970 ' ... W McIndoe, M McLean, R Jones & P Mullins, 'The Invasive Potential of Carcinoma in situ of the Cervix' Obstetrics & Gynecology, ...
"Lobular carcinoma in situ: a rare form of mammary cancer." The American Journal of Pathology, 1941 The Fundamental Pathology of ...
... these include leukemia and most forms of carcinoma in situ. Tumor is also not synonymous with cancer. While cancer is by ... Vaginal tumors also can be found in domesticated animals: Sarcoma botryoides Squamous cell carcinoma Condyloma acuminatum ... in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behavior. Malignant neoplasms are also simply ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Ductal carcinoma in situ: mammary gland". GEO Profiles. National Center for ... PRP36 Protein Presence in cells of a Ductal Carcinoma of the Mammary Gland. PRP36 has no known paralogs in humans, but a number ... PRP36 appears to be over-expressed in cell samples taken from patients with ductal carcinomas of the mammary gland, suggesting ...
"The influence of margin width on local control of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast". The New England Journal of Medicine ... "A prognostic index for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast". Cancer. John Wiley & Sons. 77 (11): 2267-2274. doi:10.1002/( ...
Non-papillary carcinoma includes carcinoma in situ (CIS), microinvasive carcinoma and frankly invasive carcinoma. Carcinoma in ... carcinoma in situ lesion are flat and obscure. Detection of carcinoma in situ lesions requires multiple biopsies from different ... TX Primary tumour cannot be assessed T0 No evidence of primary tumour Ta Non-invasive papillary carcinoma Tis Carcinoma in situ ... If invasive or high grade (includes carcinoma in situ) cancer is detected on TURBT, an MRI and/or CT scan of the abdomen and ...
Thomas DB, Ye Z, Ray RM (January 1995). "Cervical carcinoma in situ and use of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). WHO ... and risk of invasive adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas of the uterine cervix. WHO Collaborative Study of Neoplasia ...
... carcinoma in situ) is listed as stage 0. TNM staging, in combination with histopathology, grade and genomic profiling, is used ...
... lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) exhibits perinuclear staining with 34βE12. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) does not stain for ... It can be used to differentiate in situ cancers of the breast; ...
Carcinoma-in-situ is a precursor lesion of squamous cell cancer that does not invade through the basement membrane. There are ... VIN may progress to carcinoma-in-situ and, eventually, squamous cell cancer. Chronic inflammatory conditions of the vulva that ... A verrucous carcinoma of the vulva is a rare subtype of squamous cell cancer and tends to appear as a slowly growing wart. ... Basal cell carcinoma account for approximately 8% of all vulvar cancers. It typically affects women in the 7th and 8th decade ...
Presence and degree of dysplasia (mild, moderate or severe/carcinoma in situ). While the degree of dysplasia has been shown to ... Severe dysplasia is synonymous with the term carcinoma in situ, denoting the presence of neoplastic cells which have not yet ... Leukoplakia of the floor of the mouth and tongue accounts for over 90% of leukoplakias showing dysplasia or carcinoma on biopsy ... There is a very high risk of dysplasia and transformation to OSCC or to verrucous carcinoma. Erythroleukoplakia (also termed ...
ASAP, generally, is not considered a pre-malignancy, or a carcinoma in situ; it is an expression of diagnostic uncertainty, and ...
Some studies found phimosis to be a risk factor for urinary retention[37] and carcinoma of the penis.[38] ... September 2005). "Penile cancer: importance of circumcision, human papillomavirus and smoking in in situ and invasive disease ...
"කාසිනෝමා ඉන් සිටු" (carcinoma in situ) හෙවත් "එකතැන්හි පිළිකාව පැවතීම"[සංස්කරණය]. අසාමාන්‍ය පිළිකා සෛල ඒවා උපන් මුල් ස්ථානයට ... කාසිනෝමාවන් (carcinomas)[සංස්කරණය]. කාසිනෝමාවන් (carcinomas) යනු ශරීරය මතුපිට හෝ ග්‍රන්ථි ආස්තරනය කරනු ලබන සෛලවලින් හටගන්නා ...
Germ cell neoplasia in situ. NG. *Embryonal carcinoma. *Endodermal sinus tumor. *Gonadoblastoma ...
Instead, the in situ delivery of a very high dose at the molecular level using AT aims for in situ molecular modifications ... 2005). "Cervix carcinoma". In Gerbaulet A, Pötter R, Mazeron J, Limbergen EV. The GEC ESTRO handbook of brachytherapy. Belgium ... Auger therapy (AT) makes use of a very high dose[62] of ionizing radiation in situ that provides molecular modifications at an ... In the treatment of nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas VMAT provides equivalent or better OAR ...
... a condition known as carcinoma in situ or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Although there is no proof that PIN is a ... Zeegers MP, Jellema A, Ostrer H (2003). "Empiric risk of prostate carcinoma for relatives of patients with prostate carcinoma: ... Small cell carcinoma is a very rare (1%[77]) type of prostate cancer that cannot be diagnosed using the PSA.[77][78] As of 2009 ... "Immunohistochemical differentiation of high-grade prostate carcinoma from urothelial carcinoma". Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 31 (8): ...
In oncology: for a carcinoma, in situ means that malignant cells are present as a tumor but have not metastasized, or invaded, ... In situ (/ɪn ˈsɪtjuː, - ˈsaɪtjuː, - ˈsiː-/; often not italicized in English)[1][2][3] is a Latin phrase that translates ... In Situ Leach (ISL) Mining of Uranium. world-nuclear.org *^ Huchzermeyer, Marie (2009). "The struggle for in situ upgrading of ... In situ leaching or in situ recovery refers to the mining technique of injecting water underground to dissolve ore and bringing ...
Carcinoma in situ. *Cancer. *Metastasis. Topography. *Head/Neck (Oral, Nasopharyngeal). *Digestive system ...
Poon, Kelvin Weng Chun (2008), In situ chemical analysis of tattooing inks and pigments: modern organic and traditional ... Other documented conditions caused by tattoo pigments have been carcinoma, hyperplasia, tumours, and vasculitis. ...
Tis: Carcinoma in situ; Cancer cells are found only in the epithelium or lamina propria ... Definitive staging can only be done after surgery and histopathology of colorectal carcinoma. An exception to this principle ... Astler VB, Coller FA: The prognostic significance of direct extension of carcinoma of the colon and rectum. Ann Surg 139:846, ... Grinnell RS: The grading and prognosis of carcinoma of the colon and rectum. Ann Surg 109:500-33, 1939 ...
Lobular carcinoma. *Lobular carcinoma in situ. *Invasive lobular carcinoma. Medullary carcinoma. *Medullary carcinoma of the ... The term 'crypt cell carcinoma' has been used for them, and though perhaps more accurate than considering them carcinoids, has ... "carcinoma-like", to describe the unique feature of behaving like a benign tumor despite having a malignant appearance ...
Benign - Premalignant - Carcinoma in situ - Malignant Topography Anus - Bladder - Bone - Brain - Breast - Cervix - Colon/rectum ... Papilloma/carcinoma - Cholangiocarcinoma - Choriocarcinoma - Adenoma/adenocarcinoma - Soft tissue sarcoma - Melanoma - Fibroma/ ...
Carcinoma in situ. *Cancer. *Metastasis. *Primary tumor. *Sentinel lymph node. Topography. *Head/Neck (Oral, Nasopharyngeal) ...
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): Paget's disease of the breast. *Comedocarcinoma. *Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) ...
... to 18q23 by in situ hybridization". Genomics. 30 (3): 629-30. PMID 8825658. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1292.. ... "Galanin receptor 1 has anti-proliferative effects in oral squamous cell carcinoma". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 ( ...
In some types of carcinomas, Stage 0 carcinoma has been used to describe carcinoma in situ, and occult carcinomas detectable ... Carcinoma In situ[edit]. The term carcinoma in situ (or CIS) is a term for cells that are significantly abnormal but not cancer ... Some carcinomas are named for their or the putative cell of origin, (e.g.hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma). ... and sarcomatoid carcinoma (mixtures of spindle and giant cell carcinoma). Pleomorphic carcinoma contains spindle cell and/or ...
About half of patients receiving treatment for invasive cancer (excluding carcinoma in situ and non-melanoma skin cancers) die ... Cancers are usually named using -carcinoma, -sarcoma or -blastoma as a suffix, with the Latin or Greek word for the organ or ... For example, the most common type of breast cancer is called ductal carcinoma of the breast. Here, the adjective ductal refers ... Carcinoma: Cancers derived from epithelial cells. This group includes many of the most common cancers and include nearly all ...
"Expression of cloned sequences in biopsies of human colonic tissue and in colonic carcinoma cells induced to differentiate in ... a novel linker for oligonucleotide synthesis and hybridization properties of oligonucleotides synthesised in situ". Nucleic ...
"Simultaneous loss of E-cadherin and catenins in invasive lobular breast cancer and lobular carcinoma in situ". The Journal of ... Inactivation of CDH1 (accompany with loss of the wild-type allele) in 56% of lobular breast carcinomas.[54][55] ... Inactivation of CDH1 in 50% of diffuse gastric carcinomas.[56]. *Complete loss of E-cadherin protein expression in 84% of ... Wang HD, Ren J, Zhang L (November 2004). "CDH1 germline mutation in hereditary gastric carcinoma". World Journal of ...
அத்துடன் கேடுதருவதற்கு முதல் நிலையிலுள்ள, அதாவது புற்று நோயாக மாறக்கூடிய கட்டிகளும் (en:Carcinoma in situ) உண்டு. இவை தவிர, ...
A pathologist will use immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in-situ hybridization to detect markers which determine the optimal ... This mastectomy specimen contains an infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast. ...
Newman, D. (1890). "A case of adeno-carcinoma of the left inferior turbinated body, and perforation of the nasal septum, in the ... 55Mn ratio that suggests Mn-Cr isotopic composition must result from in-situ decay of 53Mn in differentiated planetary bodies. ...
The first is to react iminodiacetic acid with phosphorous acid and hydrochloric acid (sometimes formed in situ by addition of ... These include the induction of positive trends in the incidence of renal tubule carcinoma and haemangiosarcoma in male mice, ...
"Induction of mammary gland ductal hyperplasias and carcinoma in situ following fetal bisphenol A exposure". Reprod. Toxicol. 23 ...
Basal and squamous cell carcinomas[edit]. The most common forms of skin cancer in humans, basal and squamous cell carcinomas, ... hole was detected only in satellite data when the raw data was reprocessed following evidence of ozone depletion in in situ ... These cancers are relatively mild and rarely fatal, although the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma sometimes requires ...
Carcinoma in situ. T1. Tumor size less than or equal to 3 cm across, surrounded by lung or visceral pleura, without invasion ... Non-small-cell lung carcinoma[edit]. Micrograph of squamous-cell carcinoma, a type of non-small-cell carcinoma, FNA specimen, ... are carcinomas.[12] The two main types are small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).[3] The ... For therapeutic purposes, two broad classes are distinguished: non-small-cell lung carcinoma and small-cell lung carcinoma.[66] ...
非小細胞癌(NSCLC)可粗分為三大類:肺腺癌、鱗狀上皮癌(英语:squamous-cell lung carcinoma),和大細胞癌(英语:large-cell lung carcinoma)[1]。 ... Adenocarcinoma in situ of the lung)(AIS),或微侵犯型肺腺癌(英语:Minimally invasive adenocarcinoma of the lung)(MIA),以及鱗屑樣為主型肺腺癌(lepidic- ... 非小细胞肺癌(英语:Non-small-cell lung carcinoma). *肺鳞癌(英语:
Lobular carcinoma. *Lobular carcinoma in situ. *Invasive lobular carcinoma. Medullary carcinoma. *Medullary carcinoma of the ...
... versus maintenance mitomycin C instillation therapy in frequently recurrent TaT1 tumours without carcinoma in situ: a subgroup ... CD56+ cells for inducing antihepatocellular carcinoma and antihepatitis C virus activity". J. Immunother. 34 (2): 129-38. doi: ...
2005). „Galanin receptor 1 has anti-proliferative effects in oral squamous cell carcinoma.". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (24): 22564-71 ... 1997). „Assignment of the gene encoding human galanin receptor (GALNR) to 18q23 by in situ hybridization.". Genomics. 30 (3): ...
Newman, D. (1890). "A case of adeno-carcinoma of the left inferior turbinated body, and perforation of thenasal septum, in the ... 55Mn yang mengarah pada komposisi isotopik Mn-Cr seharusnya merupakan hasil peluruhan in situ 53Mn dalam badan planet yang ...
Diseases : Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer: Ductal Carcinoma In Situ, Breast Cancer: Lobular Carcinoma in Situ (LCIS) ... Diseases : Breast Cancer: Ductal Carcinoma In Situ, Ductal Carcinoma: Invasive. Anti Therapeutic Actions : Biopsy: Various ... Diseases : Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer: Ductal Carcinoma In Situ, Breast Cancer: MMTV-Associated, Ductal Carcinoma: Invasive ... Diseases : Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer: Ductal Carcinoma In Situ, Breast Cancer: MMTV-Associated, Ductal Carcinoma: Invasive ...
Carcinoma in situ (CIS), also known as in situ neoplasm, is a group of abnormal cells.[1][2] While they are a form of neoplasm[ ... ductal carcinoma in situ or lobular carcinoma in situ). Many forms of CIS have a high probability of progression into cancer,[6 ... These abnormal cells grow in their normal place, thus "in situ" (from Latin for "in its place"). For example, carcinoma in situ ... High-grade dysplasia (carcinoma in situ) in the uterine cervix: The abnormal epithelium is extending into a mucus gland to the ...
... differs from that of papillary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Endoscopic surgery, which is the initial treatment of ... Drugs & Diseases , Urology , Treatment of Bladder Carcinoma In Situ Q&A How is bladder carcinoma in situ treated?. Updated: Oct ... Treatment of carcinoma in situ (CIS) differs from that of papillary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Endoscopic surgery, ... Morales A, Phadke K, Steinhoff G. Intravesical mycobacterial cell wall-DNA complex in the treatment of carcinoma in situ of the ...
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is noninvasive breast cancer that is limited to the inside of the ducts of the breast. ... encoded search term (What is ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)?) and What is ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)? What to Read Next ... What is ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)?. Updated: May 24, 2018 * Author: Peter Abdelmessieh, DO, MSc; Chief Editor: Marie ... Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is noninvasive breast cancer that is limited to the inside of the ducts of the breast. ...
Lobular carcinoma in situ means abnormal cells are in the breast. LCIS is not cancer but can signal a higher risk of breast ... Lobular Carcinoma in Situ (LCIS). Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) may also be called lobular neoplasia. In this breast change ... Chapter 22: Lobular carcinoma in situ: Biology and management. In: Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK, eds. Diseases ... Long term clinical follow-up of atypical ductal hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ in breast core needle biopsies. ...
Breast cancer Carcinoma in situ "Lobular Carcinoma in situ (LCIS)". Breast Cancer. Stanford Cancer Center. Wen, Hannah Y. (1 ... Lobular Carcinoma In Situ may mimic low grade Ductal Carcinoma In Situ histologically. In these scenarios, pathologists may ... Lobular Carcinoma In-situ is both a risk factor and precursor of invasive carcinoma. Furthermore, it is a non-obligate ... This process coincides with the progression of ductal neoplasia to ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma. Rarely, ...
Carcinoma in situ of the contralateral testis. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987; 294 :121 ... Carcinoma in situ of the contralateral testis.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987; 294 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.294.6564.121- ...
... will help you understand medical language you might find in the pathology report from a breast biopsy for ductal carcinoma in ... What does it mean if my in-situ carcinoma is called ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), intraductal carcinoma, or in-situ ... There are 2 main types of in-situ carcinoma of the breast: ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS ... Nearly all breast cancers are carcinomas.. What is in-situ carcinoma (or carcinoma in situ) of the breast?. This term is used ...
Carcinoma in situ definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ... carcinoma in situ in Medicine Expand. carcinoma in situ n. A neoplasm whose cells are localized in the epithelium and show no ...
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is non-invasive breast cancer, which means it hasnt spread beyond the milk duct into any ... Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is non-invasive breast cancer. Ductal means that the cancer starts inside the milk ducts, ... and in situ means "in its original place." DCIS is called "non-invasive" because it hasnt spread beyond the milk duct into any ... carcinoma refers to any cancer that begins in the skin or other tissues (including breast tissue) that cover or line the ...
The ductal carcinoma in situ specialists at Moffitt Cancer Center are dedicated to diagnosing and treating this common form of ... Since ductal carcinoma in situ is noninvasive, typically a breast-preserving surgery such as a lumpectomy is recommended. In ... If youd like to meet with one of our ductal carcinoma in situ specialists, call 1-888-MOFFITT or fill out a new patient ... Thats why the multispecialty team of ductal carcinoma in situ specialists at Moffitt work together and meet regularly as a ...
Ductal carcinoma in situ treatment can be highly effective. Because this cancer is noninvasive, its often possible to remove ... Even though many cases of ductal carcinoma in situ will not develop into an invasive cancer, treatment is still necessary for ... At Moffitt Cancer Center, we offer a wide range of ductal carcinoma in situ treatment options. This includes surgery to remove ... No referral is required to receive ductal carcinoma in situ treatment at Moffitt Cancer Center. To request an appointment, call ...
... , Penile Cancer in Situ, Penile Erythroplasia of Queyrat, Bowen Disease of the Penis, Carcinoma in Situ ... Penile Carcinoma in Situ. Penile Carcinoma in Situ Aka: Penile Carcinoma in Situ, Penile Cancer in Situ, Penile Erythroplasia ... Carcinoma in situ del pene. Dutch. peniscarcinoom in situ, Carcinoma in situ van penis, Queyrat erytroplasie, carcinoom in situ ... Carcinoma in situ: Penis, Carcinoma im situ des Penis, Queyrat Erythroplasie. Spanish. Carcinoma de pene in situ, enfermedad de ...
... and Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) breast cancers are types that start in the milk ducts. Learn more about how they are ... What is Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS)?. Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS), also known as intraductal carcinoma, accounts for ... How Is Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Treated? What Is Ductal Carcinoma?. Ductal carcinoma is a common type of breast cancer that ... Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) & Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS). In this Article. In this Article In this Article * What Is ...
M. Lippman, "Why study ductal carcinoma in-situ?" in Ductal Carcinoma In-situ of the Breast, M. J. Silverstein, A. Recht, and M ... B. Fowble, "Overview of conservative surgery and radiation therapy: ductal carcinoma in-situ," in Ductal Carcinoma In-situ of ... M. Aubele, A. Mattis, H. Zitzelsberger et al., "Extensive ductal carcinoma in-situ with small foci of invasive ductal carcinoma ... Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: Recent Advances and Future Prospects. Kelly Lambert,1 Neill Patani,2 and Kefah Mokbel2 ...
Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast.. Burstein HJ1, Polyak K, Wong JS, Lester SC, Kaelin CM. ... Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. [N Engl J Med. 2004] ... Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. [N Engl J Med. 2004] ... Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. [N Engl J Med. 2004] ... Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. [N Engl J Med. 2004] ...
Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), also known as lobular neoplasia, is a rare condition in which abnormal cells develop in the ... Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), also known as lobular neoplasia, is a rare condition in which abnormal cells develop in the ...
Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is an uncommon condition where benign (non-cancer) change is seen within the lobules of the ... On this page: What is lobular carcinoma in situ? , Finding lobular carcinoma in situ , Lobular carcinoma in situ and the risk ... What is lobular carcinoma in situ?. Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is an uncommon condition where benign (non-cancer) change ... Finding lobular carcinoma in situ. LCIS doesnt usually form a lump or show up on a mammogram. Its found by chance when a ...
Re: [MOL] carcinoma in situ indcervic. *To: ,[email protected], ... http://alltheweb.com/cgi-bin/search?type=all&query=cervical+carcinoma+in+situ+&exec=FAST+Search ...
Concurrent CIS: Identified on bladder mucosa with concomitant papillary neoplasm or invasive carcinoma. ... Urothelial Carcinoma of the Prostate * Carcinoma With Squamous Differentiation * Basal Cell Carcinoma (Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma ...
Find out about ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), non-invasive breast cancer, from experts at Cleveland Clinic. Learn more about ... What is ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)?. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a type of breast cancer. This is also called non- ... How is ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) diagnosed?. The sooner this type of cancer is found, the sooner it can be treated. The ... Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) DCIS, also called non-invasive or pre-invasive breast cancer, is found only within the milk ...
Purchase Handbook of Immunohistochemistry and in situ Hybridization of Human Carcinomas - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ... 1 Liver Carcinoma Hepatocellular Carcinoma Genetics of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Biomarkers for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Aldose ... Molecular Features of Non-B, Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma References III Pancreatic Carcinoma 1 Pancreatic Carcinoma: An ... Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen Use of cDNA Microarray Use of Proteomics Role of Virus in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Hepatitis B ...
Purchase Handbook of Immunohistochemistry and in situ Hybridization of Human Carcinomas - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ... Ovarian Carcinoma Specimen Preparation. Ovarian Carcinoma Chromosome and Gene Analysis with Fluorescence in situ Hybridization ... Molecular Genetics, Gastrointestinal Carcinoma, and Ovarian Carcinoma. 0 star rating Write a review ... Handbook of Immunohistochemistry and in situ Hybridization of Human Carcinomas 1st Edition. ...
Lobular carcinoma in situ isnt cancer. LCIS means that some cells lining the lobules of the breast tissue have started to turn ... Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Find out what lobular carcinoma in situ is, how it is diagnosed and treated, and about follow ... Is carcinoma in situ a precursor lesion of invasive breast cancer?. T To and others. International Journal of Cancer, 2014, ... Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) means that cells inside some of the breast lobules have started to become abnormal. The ...
... N. Thao T. Nguyen,1 Theresa R. Harring,1 Laurie Holley,2 John ... "Biliary Adenofibroma with Carcinoma In Situ: A Rare Case Report," Case Reports in Hepatology, vol. 2012, Article ID 793963, 3 ...
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): Diagnosis to first treatment (adult). Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education ... Breast ductal carcinoma in situ: Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search ...
... Beskow, Anna Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of ... each with at least three cases diagnosed with cervical carcinoma in situ. Other potential risk factors tested were HPV 16 E6 ... genetic risk factors we have typed the HLA class II DRB1 and DQB1 loci in 478 women diagnosed with cervical carcinoma in situ ... risk factors for persistent HPV infection and thereby also contribute to the risk of development of cervical carcinoma in situ. ...
Vacuum assisted stereotactic needle core biopsy of the right breast 11:00 microcalcifications reveals ductal carcinoma in situ. ... which led to a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). There has been some conflicting information in the literature ...
To model ductal carcinoma in situ MCF10aDCIS.com cells were added to the center of MCF10alined lumens after 24 hours. Volume- ... Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive form of breast cancer that is thought to be a precursor to most invasive and ... Microfluidic model of ductal carcinoma in situ with 3D, organotypic structure.. Bischel LL1,2, Beebe DJ3,4, Sung KE5,6. ...
  • What is ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)? (medscape.com)
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is noninvasive breast cancer that is limited to the inside of the ducts of the breast. (medscape.com)
  • Increased use of screening mammography has resulted in a dramatic increase in the detection of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). (medscape.com)
  • What does it mean if my in-situ carcinoma is called ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), intraductal carcinoma, or in-situ carcinoma with duct and lobular features? (cancer.org)
  • There are 2 main types of in-situ carcinoma of the breast: ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). (cancer.org)
  • In-situ carcinoma with duct and lobular features means that the in-situ carcinoma looks like DCIS in some ways and LCIS in some ways (when looked at under the microscope), and so the pathologist can't call it one or the other. (cancer.org)
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is non-invasive breast cancer. (breastcancer.org)
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a type of breast cancer . (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Who is affected by ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)? (clevelandclinic.org)
  • What are the symptoms of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)? (clevelandclinic.org)
  • How is ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) diagnosed? (clevelandclinic.org)
  • This case demonstrates the benefit of multimodality imaging including digital mammography and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in this patient, which led to a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). (diagnosticimaging.com)
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive form of breast cancer that is thought to be a precursor to most invasive and metastatic breast cancers. (nih.gov)
  • It is usually treated in a similar way to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) . (macmillan.org.uk)
  • For the 62,000 women who will be diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) this year, the good news is far more important than the bad. (harvard.edu)
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is an overgrowth of abnormal cells in the milk ducts of the breast. (harvard.edu)
  • A common type of carcinoma in situ called DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ or intraductal carcinoma). (imaginis.com)
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (or DCIS) refers to the most common type of noninvasive breast cancer in women. (imaginis.com)
  • The term, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), refers to a family of cancers that occur in the breast ducts. (imaginis.com)
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is the most common precursor to invasive carcinoma (IC), the second-leading cause of death in women in USA. (springer.com)
  • PHILADELPHIA - Six factors were associated with invasive recurrence of breast cancer after a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), according to data from a meta-analysis published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention , a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. (aacr.org)
  • The ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) Score quantifies the risk of ipsil. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) Score quantifies the risk of ipsilateral breast event (IBE) and invasive IBE risk, complements both traditional clinical and pathologic factors, and helps provide a new clinical tool to improve the process of selecting individualized treatment for women with DCIS who meet the criteria, according to a study published May 2 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute . (bio-medicine.org)
  • However, findings on an association between hormone use and ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast (DCIS), a possible precursor lesion of invasive breast cancer, are sparse and inconsistent. (healthpartners.com)
  • I. Determine whether lapatinib (lapatinib ditosylate) therapy at the dose of 1000 mg results in a statistically significantly lower rate of proliferation in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) breast cancer cells as measured by Ki67 when compared to placebo. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Estrogens have important roles in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. (nature.com)
  • These findings indicate the importance of oestrogen actions in DCIS, and aromatase inhibitors might be effective for postmenopausal women with ER-positive DCIS as well as invasive carcinoma. (nature.com)
  • Although epidemiological studies propose aggressive and non-aggressive forms of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), they cannot be identified with conventional histopathology. (nature.com)
  • BRIM identified subpopulations of DCIS lesions with ratiometric properties resembling either benign fibroadenoma or invasive carcinoma samples. (nature.com)
  • The transition of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive carcinoma is a poorly understood key event in breast tumor progression. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we analyzed the role of myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts in the progression of in situ carcinomas using a model of human DCIS and primary breast tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) occurs when some of the cells that line a group of milk ducts within your breast have started to become cancer cells. (bci.org.au)
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), once a rare entity, now comprises up to 30% of newly diagnosed breast cancers detected on mammography. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was once an uncommon breast lesion, but now comprises 20% to 30% of new breast cancer diagnoses detected on mammography. (cancernetwork.com)
  • This is a slim but meaty monograph on ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and microinvasive breast cancer. (waterstones.com)
  • The increasing incidence and biological heterogeneity of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast have made the management of this entity challenging and controversial. (annals.org)
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is not breast cancer as we commonly understand it, because it has not spread outside the milk ducts into other parts of the breast, or to other parts of the body.Without treatment, DCIS may develop into invasive breast cancer, which can spread outside the ducts and possibly to other parts of the body. (canceraustralia.gov.au)
  • A representative example (tumor 2) of HER2 + invasive ductal breast carcinoma with adjacent DCIS displaying a high degree of diversity for the expression of HER2, CD44, and CD24 and for copy number gain of ERBB2 and 8q24 based on immunohistochemical staining and iFISH, respectively. (jci.org)
  • Provides a summary on Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) derived from the State and Territory cancer registries and the BreastScreen Australia Program. (aihw.gov.au)
  • Management of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) or Pure Micro-invasive (DCIS-MI) Extended Breast, Axillary Node Sentinel Site (GAS) When the Diagnosis is Made by Biopsy and Treatment by Mastectomy Immediately. (knowcancer.com)
  • Assess the contribution of MRI in accurately determining tumor size in women with ductal breast carcinoma in situ (DCIS). (knowcancer.com)
  • AbstractPurpose of ReviewBreast Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) is an increasingly common diagnosis and already accounts for ~20% of screen-detected breast cancers. (medworm.com)
  • Mittal Miller The mechanisms that drive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) progression to invasive cancer are not clear. (medworm.com)
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is an early, localized cluster of cancer cells that start in the milk passages (ducts) but have not penetrated the duct walls into the surrounding tissue. (medifocus.com)
  • That's why we created the Medifocus Guidebook on Ductal Carcinoma in Situ of the Breast , a comprehensive 146 page patient Guidebook that contains vital information about DCIS that you won't find anywhere in a single source. (medifocus.com)
  • The relationship between DCIS and other adenocarcinomas of the breast, such as lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). (medifocus.com)
  • I. Reduction of mammary stem/progenitor cells (MaSC) in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) or atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) in patients receiving sirolimus (rapamycin). (cancer.gov)
  • Purpose: To assess the cosmetic impact of breast conserving surgery (BCS), whole breast irradiation (WBI) fractionation and tumour bed boost (TBB) use in a phase III trial for women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. (rug.nl)
  • D uctal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is "a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells within the breast parenchymal structures with no evidence of invasion across the basement membrane. (jnccn.org)
  • As the incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has increased, so has the number of DCIS survivors. (jnccn.org)
  • Importance of lymphatic mapping in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): Why map DCIS? (jnccn.org)
  • Background Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a premalignant breast lesion that has been increasingly diagnosed in the era of screening mammography, 1 and accounts for 20% to 25% of all new breast cancer diagnoses. (jnccn.org)
  • In both the medical literature and lay press, a flurry of controversy has arisen surrounding the treatment and, more specifically, the potential overtreatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). (jnccn.org)
  • Background Women with a history of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are at increased risk for developing a second breast cancer (SBC) in either the ipsilateral or contralateral breast. (jnccn.org)
  • Leveraging the variable natural history of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to select optimal therapy. (medifocus.com)
  • There is controversy and confusion regarding therapy for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. (uni-bonn.de)
  • PURPOSE: Local recurrence is a major concern in patients who have undergone surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). (koreamed.org)
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) the most common non-invasive lesion o. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Despite the connotations associated with the term carcinoma DCIS is a. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the most common non-invasive lesion of the breast, presents unique challenges for patients and providers largely because the natural course of the untreated disease is not well understood. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Despite the connotations associated with the term carcinoma, DCIS is associated with ten-year survival rates close to 100% when treated with currently available therapies. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Molecular mechanisms mediating the progression of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive breast cancer remain largely unknown. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In 2016, breast cancer incidence in the United States was of 231,840 cases, and 60,290 (21.7%) were diagnosed as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). (scielo.br)
  • It is noteworthy that, when left untreated, DCIS poses a risk between 30 and 50% of progressing to invasive carcinoma within 10 years. (scielo.br)
  • There is evidence that the activity mentioned is significantly more marked in DCIS lesions than in invasive carcinoma. (scielo.br)
  • Risk stratification and outcomes can be improved for women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), according to two studies presented at the 2012 ASCO Annual Meeting. (ascopost.com)
  • Eun-Sil Shelley Hwang, MD, MPH , of Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, who discussed both papers on ductal carcinoma in situ at the ASCO Annual Meeting, noted that better risk stratification and treatments are substantially changing the outlook for DCIS. (ascopost.com)
  • Observed prevalence of occult invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in which the number of women who were given a diagnosis was the numerator and the number of women examined was the denominator. (annals.org)
  • The S100A7 (psoriasin) gene is highly expressed in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast and can be downregulated in invasive carcinoma. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In order to investigate the relationship between S100A7 and progression from DCIS to invasive carcinoma, we studied S100A7 expression in 136 patients with DCIS (including 46 patients with associated invasive carcinoma) by immunohistochemistry. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • S100A7 status was no different between DCIS with and DCIS without an invasive component, but higher levels of S100A7 were present in DCIS associated with invasive carcinoma (P (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The findings reported here suggest that, although S100A7 may not be a marker for recurrence of DCIS, it is associated with poor prognostic markers in DCIS and may influence progression of breast carcinoma through its interaction with and influence on Jab1. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The identification of markers associated with progression to invasive breast cancer (IBC) is a major factor that can guide physicians in the initial therapeutic decision and the management of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast to the dramatic improvement in our ability to detect ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), our understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease and the factors involved in its progression to invasive breast carcinoma (IBC) is limited ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) may also be called lobular neoplasia . (cancer.org)
  • You can learn more about pathology reports showing LCIS in Understanding Your Pathology Report: Lobular Carcinoma In Situ . (cancer.org)
  • Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), also known as lobular neoplasia, is a rare condition in which abnormal cells develop in the milk glands, known as lobules, in the breast. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is an uncommon condition where benign (non-cancer) change is seen within the lobules of the breast. (cancervic.org.au)
  • Although the term 'carcinoma in situ' can arouse anxiety and thoughts of cancer, LCIS is considered a benign condition that doesn't usually require treatment. (cancervic.org.au)
  • Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) means that cells inside some of the breast lobules have started to become abnormal. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is not a cancer. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is an incidental microscopic finding with characteristic cellular morphology and multifocal tissue patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • LCIS often have the same genetic alterations (such as loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 16q, the locus for the e-cadherin gene) as the adjacent area of invasive carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • LCIS is often found concurrently with foci of invasive carcinoma and multiple studies have shown, using genetic sequencing techniques, that synchronous LCIS and ILC share clonal cell populations, or originate from the same line of mutated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the cells of atypical lobular hyperplasia and invasive lobular carcinoma, the abnormal cells of LCIS consist of small cells with oval or round nuclei and small nucleoli detached from each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • The treatment of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is somewhat controversial. (texasoncology.com)
  • Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is a non-invasive multicentric proliferation of atypical epithelial cells in the lobules and terminal ducts of the breast. (canceraustralia.gov.au)
  • I. To compare the frequency of chemoprevention informed choice at 6 months after registration among women with atypical hyperplasia (AH) or lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) between the intervention (RealRisks decision aid/breast cancer risk navigation [BNAV] + standard educational materials) and control (standard educational materials alone) arms. (centerwatch.com)
  • Do you have any of these conditions: LCIS or Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ or Pleomorphic Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ or Lobular Carcinoma In Situ or Atypical Hyperplasia of the B. (centerwatch.com)
  • Other forms require major surgery, the best known being intraductal carcinoma of the breast (also treated with radiotherapy ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Intraductal carcinoma, comedo type. (medscape.com)
  • Intraductal carcinoma is another name for ductal carcinoma in-situ. (cancer.org)
  • Our aim was to evaluate and compare lymph node involvement, as well as disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), between infiltrating ductal carcinoma with (group 1) and without (group 2) intraductal carcinoma component in order to determine the prognostic value of the intraductal component. (springer.com)
  • The successful diagnosis and treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ may involve many different types of medical professionals who specialize in breast cancer. (moffitt.org)
  • This book discusses all aspects of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization technologies and the important role they play in reaching a cancer diagnosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Intracystic papillary carcinoma of the male breast: Dilemmas in diagnosis and management. (medworm.com)
  • This randomized phase I/II trial studies the side effects and best dose of lapatinib ditosylate and to see how well it works in treating patients with ductal breast carcinoma in situ. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To evaluate the change in endoxifen levels after an increase in tamoxifen citrate dose from 20 mg to 40 mg in women with breast cancer or ductal breast carcinoma in situ with intermediate-metabolizing CYP2D6 genotypes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Coexisting ductal carcinoma in situ independently predicts lower tumor aggressiveness in node-positive luminal breast cancer. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In a study on in situ breast cancer no lymph node involvement was seen. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Exceptions include CIS of the colon (polyps), the bladder (preinvasive papillary cancer), or the breast ( ductal carcinoma in situ or lobular carcinoma in situ ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Invasive carcinoma, usually simply called cancer , has the potential to invade and spread to surrounding tissues and structures, and may eventually be lethal. (wikipedia.org)
  • This disease can progress to invasive cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) of the cervix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carcinoma in situ is, by definition, a localized phenomenon, with no potential for metastasis unless it progresses into cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer starts in the cells lining the ducts or lobules, when a normal cell becomes a carcinoma cell. (cancer.org)
  • Ductal means that the cancer starts inside the milk ducts, carcinoma refers to any cancer that begins in the skin or other tissues (including breast tissue) that cover or line the internal organs, and in situ means "in its original place. (breastcancer.org)
  • The ductal carcinoma in situ specialists at Moffitt Cancer Center are dedicated to diagnosing and treating this common form of breast cancer. (moffitt.org)
  • Even though many cases of ductal carcinoma in situ will not develop into an invasive cancer, treatment is still necessary for essentially every patient. (moffitt.org)
  • At Moffitt Cancer Center, we offer a wide range of ductal carcinoma in situ treatment options. (moffitt.org)
  • No referral is required to receive ductal carcinoma in situ treatment at Moffitt Cancer Center. (moffitt.org)
  • Ductal carcinoma is a common type of breast cancer that starts in cells that line the milk ducts, which carry breast milk to the nipple. (webmd.com)
  • Is carcinoma in situ a precursor lesion of invasive breast cancer? (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • P. Gaye and A. Kassé, "Overview of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ of the Breast," Journal of Cancer Therapy , Vol. 5 No. 2, 2014, pp. 222-224. (scirp.org)
  • Detection of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ in Women Undergoing Screening Mammography," Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 94, No. 20, 2002, pp. 1546-1554. (scirp.org)
  • Objective: To characterize the incidence of vulvar carcinoma in situ and vulvar cancer over time. (cdc.gov)
  • In situ carcinoma incidence increases until the age of 40-49 years and then decreases, whereas invasive vulvar cancer risk increases as a woman ages, increasing more quickly after 50 years of age. (cdc.gov)
  • The American Cancer Society estimates that more than 62,000 news cases of carcinoma in situ will be diagnosed this year. (imaginis.com)
  • In situ , or 'in place,' describes a cancer that has not moved out of the area of the body where it originally developed. (imaginis.com)
  • The presence of intraductal component in the infiltrating carcinoma seems to increase DFS and may be an independent and favorable prognostic factor for breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • The molecular journey from ductal carcinoma in situ to invasive breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • The standardised incidence rates for invasive breast cancer were estimated in a cohort of 3455 women with a primary lobular or ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. (nih.gov)
  • Carcinoma in situ" is a general term that refers to a cancer that is still confined to the cells in which it initially started and has not spread into any nearby tissue. (bladdercancersupport.org)
  • Biopsy specimens from the contralateral testicle in 50 consecutive patients with germinal testicular cancer were examined for carcinoma in situ. (bmj.com)
  • Three out of 21 men with seminomas and one out of 29 with other types of germinal cancer (8%) had carcinoma in situ in the contralateral testicle without any clinical signs. (bmj.com)
  • One of these men developed early invasive germ-cell cancer 46 months after carcinoma in situ was first diagnosed. (bmj.com)
  • Additionally, molecular similarities found between in situ and invasive cancers within histologic grades have shaped the theory that breast cancer develops by progressive accumulation of genetic abnormalities along two parallel pathways. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Written by experts in the field, Ductal Carcinoma In Situ and Microinvasive/Borderline Breast Cancer is a comprehensive, state-of-the art review of the field, and serves as a valuable resource for clinicians, surgeons and researchers with an interest in breast cancer. (waterstones.com)
  • Using Autopsy Series To Estimate the Disease "Reservoir" for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ of the Breast: How Much More Breast Cancer Can We Find? (annals.org)
  • In carcinoma in situ, cancer cells are confined to the epithelium , in contrast to invasive oral cancer ( squamous cell carcinoma, SCC). (dermnetnz.org)
  • It is not yet known whether tamoxifen is more effective than anastrozole in preventing breast cancer after surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Cancer that remains in its place of origin, either in the ducts or the lobules, is considered "in situ," or "in place. (thebreastcaresite.com)
  • Also, here is something from Mayo Clinic, 'Most women with Paget's disease of the breast have underlying ductal breast cancer, either in situ - meaning in its original place - or, less commonly, invasive breast cancer. (aapc.com)
  • The five most differentially targeted antigens were selected to generate an autoantibody signature for the in situ to invasive breast cancer transition. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This study shows the clinical relevance of a combination of 5 antigens, identified by protein microarrays and validated in an independent cohort of 120 samples by ELISA, as a blood-screening signature for the in situ to invasive breast cancer transition determination. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane. (umassmed.edu)
  • Treatment of carcinoma in situ (CIS) differs from that of papillary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). (medscape.com)
  • Multicentric study comparing intravesical chemotherapy alone and with local microwave hyperthermia for prophylaxis of recurrence of superficial transitional cell carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • My husband was recently diagnosed with PT2 muscle invasive high-grade transitional cell carcinoma with carcinomas in situ. (bladdercancersupport.org)
  • As long as the carcinoma cells are still confined to the breast ducts or lobules, and do not break out and grow into surrounding tissue, it is considered in-situ carcinoma (also known as carcinoma in situ, or CIS). (cancer.org)
  • Once the carcinoma cells have grown and broken out of the ducts or lobules, it is called invasive or infiltrating carcinoma. (cancer.org)
  • Carcinoma" indicates a tumor arising in the epithelium, or lining, of the ducts. (harvard.edu)
  • As these cells are contained within the ducts and have not spread into the surrounding breast tissue (in situ), there is very little chance that the cells can spread into the lymph nodes or anywhere else in the body. (bci.org.au)
  • Ductal" means "related to the milk ducts " and "in situ" means "in place. (komen.org)
  • to the ducts and lobules or as carcinoma in situ (CIS). (jnccn.org)
  • Long term clinical follow-up of atypical ductal hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ in breast core needle biopsies. (cancer.org)
  • These lesions are preceded by atypical lobular hyperplasia and may follow a linear progression to invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), with specific genetic aberrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 11q13 in atypical ductal hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma of the breast. (springer.com)
  • The clinical management of ductal carcinoma in situ, lobular carcinoma in situ and atypical hyperplasia of the breast, is designed to assist in decision making by women and their doctors. (canceraustralia.gov.au)
  • This trial studies the implementation of decision support tools integrated into the electronic health record and patient portal for patients with atypical hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ and healthcare providers. (centerwatch.com)
  • Feline Bowenoid in situ carcinoma (BISC) is a rare disease that presents as multiple discrete plaques of epidermal hyperplasia and dysplasia. (vetcontact.com)
  • Yamashita R, Matsuzaki M, Niwakawa M, Ito I. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin treatment of urothelial carcinoma arising in the ileal neobladder after radical cystectomy. (medscape.com)
  • Predictive Factors for Time to Progression after Hyperthermic Mitomycin C Treatment for High-Risk Non-Muscle Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder: An Observational Cohort Study of 97 Patients. (medscape.com)
  • Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is a poor prognostic finding in urothelial carcinoma. (urotoday.com)
  • However, its significance in muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma (MIUC) treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is uncertain. (urotoday.com)
  • Carcinoma in situ ( CIS ), also known as in situ neoplasm , is a group of abnormal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identified on bladder mucosa with concomitant papillary neoplasm or invasive carcinoma. (auanet.org)
  • In an invasive carcinoma , the tumor cells can spread (metastasize) to other parts of your body. (cancer.org)
  • As one example, p53 mutations within in situ tumor cells appear to be an independent marker of tumor invasion [3]. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Side Effects of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in the Treatment of Intermediate- and High-risk Ta, T1 Papillary Carcinoma of the Bladder: Results of the EORTC Genito-Urinary Cancers Group Randomised Phase 3 Study Comparing One-third Dose with Full Dose and 1 Year with 3 Years of Maintenance BCG. (medscape.com)
  • Nearly all breast cancers are carcinomas. (cancer.org)
  • Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) accounts for about 80% of all invasive breast cancers in women and 90% in men. (webmd.com)
  • A large proportion of oral cancers are associated with preceding longstanding carcinoma in situ, especially the proliferative verrucous variant. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ represents 10-15% of all new breast cancers diagnosed in the United States and accounts for 30-50% of cancers detected by screening mammography in women less than age 50 and 15-25% in women over age 50. (medifocus.com)
  • However, for women undergoing mammographic screening, most cancers (70%-80%) are detected only after the basement membrane has been breached and an invasive carcinoma is present. (jnccn.org)
  • Impact of Margin Status on Local Recurrence after Mastectomy for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ," International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics, Vol. 85, No. 4, 2013, pp. (scirp.org)
  • Risk of recurrence after ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. (aacrjournals.org)
  • R. Whitfield, J. Kollias, P. de Silva, J. Turner and G. Maddern, "Management of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ according to Van Nuys Prognostic Index in Australia and New Zealand," ANZ Journal of Surgery, Vol. 82, No. 7-8, 2012, pp. 518-523. (scirp.org)
  • Prognostic classification of breast ductal carcinoma in situ. (springer.com)
  • The prognostic and chemotherapeutic value of miR-296 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Prognostic significance of cathepsin V (CTSV/CTSL2) in breast ductal carcinoma in situ. (medworm.com)
  • Objective: To report prognostic factors and follow-up data for an unselected group of patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the urinary bladder treated with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). (diva-portal.org)
  • Bankhead III A, Magnuson NS, Heckendorn RB (2007) Cellular automaton simulation examining progenitor heirarchy structure effects on mammary ductal carcinoma in situ. (springer.com)
  • In addition, dietary limonene has been shown to be capable of preventing the development and causing the regression of chemically induced mammary carcinomas, many of which contain activated ras oncogenes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the first study, we asked whether dietary limonene was able to prevent the development of mammary carcinomas which were induced using direct retroviral gene transfer of v-Ha- ras into the mammary parenchyma in situ . (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, limonene did greatly inhibit the formation of mammary carcinomas induced by the insertion of activated ras . (aacrjournals.org)
  • In a follow-up study, we asked whether chemoprevention by limonene was preferentially effective against a subset of chemically induced mammary carcinomas with activated ras . (aacrjournals.org)
  • As expected, limonene administration increased the latency period and lowered the frequency of mammary carcinoma development as compared to controls. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These studies are consistent with the above studies in that limonene is effective in preventing mammary carcinomas with activated ras . (aacrjournals.org)
  • How is bladder carcinoma in situ treated? (medscape.com)
  • Morales A, Phadke K, Steinhoff G. Intravesical mycobacterial cell wall-DNA complex in the treatment of carcinoma in situ of the bladder after standard intravesical therapy has failed. (medscape.com)
  • Bladder carcinoma in situ (abbreviated "CIS") is always high grade and requires immediate treatment. (bladdercancersupport.org)
  • Lamm describes a success story in oncology that he helped create, namely, the favorable therapeutic effect of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) against carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the bladder. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ usually appears on mammography as an area of microcalcification (groups of small calcifications clustered together within the breast). (medifocus.com)
  • Progression to invasive carcinoma is not definite, and this process is thought to be the result of biologic interplay between the accumulation of genetic events and a permissive microenvironment. (cancernetwork.com)
  • High-grade dysplasia may also be referred to as carcinoma in situ . (wikipedia.org)
  • High-grade dysplasia (carcinoma in situ ) in the uterine cervix: The abnormal epithelium is extending into a mucus gland to the left of center. (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine the maximum tolerated dose in the oral cavity of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using HPPH and 665 nm light in patients with recurrent dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, or stage I squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To determine response of dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and selected patients with T1 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity using PDT with HPPH and 665 nm light. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In addition, in situ and invasive lesions exhibit loss of cellular adhesion, considered a characteristic histologic feature, due to the fact that e-cadherin expression is lost (transmembrane protein involved in epithelial cell adhesion). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001). In the literature, there are reports of middle-to-old aged cats showing typical lesions of squamous cell carcinoma in situ (SCCS). (scielo.br)
  • Abnormal expression of p53, Ki67 and iNOS in human esophageal carcinoma in situ and pre-malignant lesions]. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This process coincides with the progression of ductal neoplasia to ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adamovich TL, Simmons RM (2003) Ductal carcinoma in situ with microinvasion. (springer.com)
  • To investigate potential genetic risk factors we have typed the HLA class II DRB1 and DQB1 loci in 478 women diagnosed with cervical carcinoma in situ and in 608 age-matched controls. (diva-portal.org)
  • Carcinoma in situ of the oral cavity is also called o ral intraepithelial carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma in situ. (dermnetnz.org)
  • The scanning power view of squamous cell carcinoma in situ (SCCIS) reveals epidermal alteration (Figure 1). (dermnetnz.org)
  • one was homologous with a papillomavirus from a human patient with multiple cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas and the other five showed weak homology to human papillomavirus type 17. (vetcontact.com)
  • Carcinoma in situ of the oral cavity is found in less than 1% of men under 30 years of age. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Up to 8% of men over 70 years of age and 2% of women over 70 years of age have carcinoma in situ of the oral cavity. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Carcinoma in situ of the contralateral testis. (bmj.com)
  • Incidence of carcinoma in situ of germ cells in contralateral testis of men with testicular tumours. (bmj.com)
  • Berthelsen J G , Skakkebaek N E , Mogensen P , Sørensen B L . Incidence of carcinoma in situ of germ cells in contralateral testis of men with testicular tumours. (bmj.com)
  • I have a past history of carcinoma in situ of the cervix which was frozen off last April and the carcinoma in situ reoccured again in another area of my cervix several months ago which was just recently treated with the LEEP procedure over Christmas break. (doctorslounge.com)
  • Modem RR, Otis CN, Florence RR, Pantanowitz L. Intestinal type adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix. (umassmed.edu)
  • The term carcinoma in situ may be used interchangeably with high-grade SIL. (wikipedia.org)
  • That's why the multispecialty team of ductal carcinoma in situ specialists at Moffitt work together and meet regularly as a tumor board to create an individualized treatment plan for each patient. (moffitt.org)
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ treatment can be highly effective. (moffitt.org)
  • Biology and a treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ. (springer.com)
  • However, tumor characterization revealed that limonene treatment did not alter the percentage of carcinomas with activated ras . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Half of patients develop invasive carcinoma within 5 years. (auanet.org)
  • Oestrogen actions are mediated through oestrogen receptor (ER), and endocrine therapies, such as aromatase inhibitors (i.e., letrozole, anastrozole and exemestane) and tamoxifen, are used in patients with ER-positive invasive carcinoma to block the oestrogen actions. (nature.com)
  • AIMS: To assess the presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and to see if the number of biopsy sites facilitates detection of CIS. (bmj.com)
  • The frequency of expression of survivin was significantly higher in the group of patients with high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ compared to those in the low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ group. (scielo.br)
  • We did not find any linkage to this locus in a set of 77 families, each with at least three cases diagnosed with cervical carcinoma in situ. (diva-portal.org)
  • These results show that alleles at HLA class II loci represents risk factors for persistent HPV infection and thereby also contribute to the risk of development of cervical carcinoma in situ . (diva-portal.org)
  • Trends in the incidence of invasive and in situ vulvar carcinoma. (cdc.gov)
  • The incidence rates for in situ and invasive vulvar carcinomas are distributed differently across the age groups. (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusion: The incidence of in situ vulvar carcinoma is increasing. (cdc.gov)
  • Incidence of carcinoma. (bmj.com)
  • Vulvar carcinoma in situ increased 411% from 1973 to 2000. (cdc.gov)
  • Radiotherapy and Tamoxifen in Women with Completely Excised Ductal Carcinoma in Situ of the Breast in the UK, Australia, and New Zealand: Randomised Controlled Trial," Lancet, Vol. 362, No. 9378, 2003, pp. 95-102. (scirp.org)
  • Ductal Carcinoma in Situ of the Breast," International Journal of Surgical Oncology, Vol. 2012, 2012, Article ID 123549. (scirp.org)
  • Infiltrating ductal carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • Data from 389 cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast were included in the study by means of reviewing medical charts and pathology slides. (springer.com)