Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Carcinoma, Medullary: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)Carcinoma, Adenosquamous: A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Carcinoma, Endometrioid: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Carcinoma, Merkel Cell: A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Carcinoma, Verrucous: A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell: A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Carcinoma, Large Cell: A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells: The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Primed In Situ Labeling: A technique that labels specific sequences in whole chromosomes by in situ DNA chain elongation or PCR (polymerase chain reaction).Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular: A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous: A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Chemoembolization, Therapeutic: Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Carcinoma, Basosquamous: A skin carcinoma that histologically exhibits both basal and squamous elements. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Vulvar Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VULVA.Urothelium: The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar: A carcinoma thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli. Involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular. The neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures. Mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells. Metastases in regional lymph nodes, and in even more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Oropharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Mice, Inbred BALB CRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Phenylurea Compounds: Compounds that include the amino-N-phenylamide structure.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Urologic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Keratin-7: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Niacinamide: An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.Carcinoma, Giant Cell: An epithelial neoplasm characterized by unusually large anaplastic cells. It is highly malignant with fulminant clinical course, bizarre histologic appearance and poor prognosis. It is most common in the lung and thyroid. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Ureteral Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the URETER which may cause obstruction leading to hydroureter, HYDRONEPHROSIS, and PYELONEPHRITIS. HEMATURIA is a common symptom.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Benzenesulfonates: Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Adenoma, Oxyphilic: A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askanazy cells.Carcinosarcoma: A malignant neoplasm that contains elements of carcinoma and sarcoma so extensively intermixed as to indicate neoplasia of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Mucin-1: Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Teratoma: A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)Neoplasms, Squamous Cell: Neoplasms of the SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements.Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Adenocarcinoma, Scirrhous: An adenocarcinoma with a hard (Greek skirrhos, hard) structure owing to the formation of dense connective tissue in the stroma. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Eyelid Neoplasms: Tumors of cancer of the EYELIDS.Mammary Neoplasms, Animal: Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).

Apoptotic activity is increased in parallel with the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence of the bronchial epithelium. (1/1447)

A high level of apoptotic activity and an independence of apoptosis from the expression of p53 and bcl-2 have been observed in non-small-cell lung carcinoma. We examined 44 samples of normal, metaplastic and premalignant (i.e. mild, moderate and severe dysplasias and carcinoma in situ) bronchial epithelia to evaluate whether differences in the apoptotic activity could already be seen in the stages preceding squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (SQCLC). Apoptotic cells and bodies were visualized by 3' end labelling. The expression of p53 and members of the bcl-2 gene family, such as bcl-2, bax and mcl-1, were determined immunohistochemically with specific antibodies. The relative number of apoptotic cells and bodies [apoptotic index (AI%)] was already increased threefold as the normal bronchial epithelium changed to squamous metaplasia, and the AIs of the dysplastic lesions were about four times higher than those of the normal epithelium. Apoptosis was significantly associated with cell proliferation, as determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry. However, the extent of apoptosis did not correlate with the expression of p53, bcl-2, bax and mcl-1. We conclude that, in the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in the lung, the elevation of the AI% is an early event associated with cell proliferation activity, but is independent of the expression of p53, bcl-2, mcl-1 and bax.  (+info)

Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and apoptosis in benign prostatic hyperplasia before and after the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine. (2/1447)

The prevalence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) in men who underwent surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) before and after the Chernobyl nuclear accident was studied. BPH samples were obtained by adenomectomy from 45 patients operated in 1984 before the accident (Group I), and 47 patients from the low contaminated Kiev City (Group II) and 76 from high contaminated area (Group III) operated between 1996 and 1998. Their BPH samples were examined histologically and immunohistochemically. The incidences of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and high grade PIN (HGPIN) were 15.5 and 11.1% in Group I, 29.8 and 14.9% in Grpoup II, and 35. 5 and 19.7% in Group III. The difference between the incidences of PIN in Group I and III is significant (p<0.02). There was increased apoptosis in areas of PIN in Group II and III as compared to Group I (p<0.001). Since apoptosis has been shown to be associated with ionizing radiation and it is now found to be associated with PIN in patients diagnosed after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, this suggests that long-term low dose internal ionizing radiation potentially may cause prostate cancer.  (+info)

Effect of screening on incidence of and mortality from cancer of cervix in England: evaluation based on routinely collected statistics. (3/1447)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of screening on the incidence of and mortality from cervical cancer. DESIGN: Comparison of age specific incidence and mortality before and after the introduction of the national call and recall system in 1988. SETTING: England. SUBJECTS: Women aged over 19 years. RESULTS: From the mid-1960s, the number of smears taken rose continuously to 4.5 million at the end of the 1980s. Between 1988 and 1994, coverage of the target group doubled to around 85%. Registrations of in situ disease increased broadly in parallel with the numbers of smears taken. The overall incidence of invasive disease remained stable up to the end of the 1980s, although there were strong cohort effects; from 1990 incidence fell continuously and in 1995 was 35% lower than in the 1980s. The fall in overall mortality since 1950 accelerated at the end of the 1980s; there were strong cohort effects. Mortality in women under 55 was much lower in the 1990s than would have been expected. CONCLUSIONS: The national call and recall system and incentive payments to general practitioners increased coverage to around 85%. This resulted in falls in incidence of invasive disease in all regions of England and in all age groups from 30 to 74. The falls in mortality in older women were largely unrelated to screening, but without screening there might have been 800 more deaths from cervical cancer in women under 55 in 1997.  (+info)

Spectral morphometric characterization of breast carcinoma cells. (4/1447)

The spectral morphometric characteristics of standard haematoxylin and eosin breast carcinoma specimens were evaluated by light microscopy combined with a spectral imaging system. Light intensity at each wavelength in the range of 450-800 nm was recorded for 10(4) pixels from each field and represented as transmitted light spectra. A library of six characteristic spectra served to scan the cells and reconstruct new images depicting the nuclear area occupied by each spectrum. Fifteen cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma and six cases of lobular carcinoma were examined; nine of the infiltrating ductal carcinoma and three of the lobular carcinoma showed an in situ component. The spectral morphometric analysis revealed a correlation between specific patterns of spectra and different groups of breast carcinoma cells. The most consistent result was that lobular carcinoma cells of in situ and infiltrating components from all patients showed a similar spectral pattern, whereas ductal carcinoma cells displayed spectral variety. Comparison of the in situ and the infiltrating ductal solid, cribriform and comedo carcinoma cells from the same patient revealed a strong similarity of the spectral elements and their relative distribution in the nucleus. The spectrum designated as number 5 in the library incorporated more than 40% of the nuclear area in 74.08% of the infiltrating lobular cells and in 13.64% of the infiltrating ductal carcinoma cells (P < 0.001). Spectrum number 2 appeared in all infiltrating ductal cells examined and in none of the lobular cells. These results indicate that spectrum number 5 is related to infiltrating lobular carcinoma, whereas spectrum number 2 is characteristic for infiltrating ductal carcinoma cells. Spectral similarity mapping of central necrotic regions of comedo type in situ carcinoma revealed nuclear fragmentation into defined segments composed of highly condensed chromatin. We conclude that the spectral morphometric features found for lobular and ductal cell populations may serve future automated histological diagnostics.  (+info)

Intraepithelial and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva: analysis of 60 cases. (5/1447)

AIM: To evaluate the clinical features, treatment results, and recurrence rates in patients with either intraepithelial or invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 60 cases (22 conjunctival intraepithelial and 38 invasive squamous cell carcinomas) to determine patterns of clinical presentation, aetiological factors, and treatment results. The mean patient age was 64 years old. 70% of the patients were male. Patients were treated with a variety of therapies, depending on the degree of tumour involvement; most cases were treated with frozen section controlled excision and adjunctive cryotherapy. Modified eye wall resection or enucleation was done for intraocular invasion and exenteration was done for orbital involvement. RESULTS: Red eye (68%) and ocular irritation (57%) were the most common presenting symptoms. 44% of the patients had other eye findings consistent with extensive solar exposure. 20% of the patients had a history of malignant skin tumours. Visceral malignancies developed in 8%. Scleral involvement was present in 14 (37%), intraocular involvement in five (13%), and orbital invasion in four (11%) cases with invasive squamous cell carcinoma. After a mean follow up of 56 months (18-226 months) the rate of new or recurrent tumours was 4.5% for intraepithelial squamous carcinoma and 5.3% for invasive squamous cell carcinoma. No patient developed metastases or tumour related deaths. CONCLUSION: Excision with intraoperative control of the surgical margins and adjunctive cryotherapy results in good tumour control rates.  (+info)

Sex-related differences in bronchial epithelial changes associated with tobacco smoking. (6/1447)

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in North American women. Because smoking-related changes in the bronchial epithelium and in lung function have not been studied in detail in women, we used fluorescence bronchoscopy-directed biopsy to determine the prevalence of high-grade preinvasive lesions in former and current smokers of both sexes. METHODS: Spirometry, white-light bronchoscopy, and fluorescence bronchoscopy were performed in 189 women and 212 men older than 40 years of age who had smoked 20 pack-years or more (pack-years = number of packs of cigarettes smoked per day x number of years of smoking). RESULTS: Carcinoma in situ was found in 1.8% of the subjects, severe dysplasia was found in 6.5%, and moderate dysplasia was found in 14% (all preinvasive lesions). Compared with men, women had a lower prevalence of high-grade preinvasive lesions in the observed airways (14% versus 31%; odds ratio = 0.18; 95% confidence interval = 0.04-0.88), and women with preinvasive lesions had fewer such lesions (two-sided P = .048). The prevalence of preinvasive lesions did not change substantially for more than 10 years after cessation of smoking. Lung function was associated with the prevalence of preinvasive lesions, but the association was weaker in women than in men. If the presence of airflow obstruction was defined by an FEV1/FVC (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity) value of 70% or less, only 56% of the men and 44% of the women with preinvasive lesions had abnormal lung function. CONCLUSION: In developing strategies for chemoprevention or early detection of lung cancer in high-risk populations, it is important to consider the effect of sex and arbitrarily chosen lung function values on the prevalence of preinvasive airway lesions.  (+info)

Role of p53 gene mutations in human esophageal carcinogenesis: results from immunohistochemical and mutation analyses of carcinomas and nearby non-cancerous lesions. (7/1447)

In order to characterize p53 alterations in esophageal cancer and to study their roles in carcinogenesis, we performed gene mutation and immunohistochemical analysis on 43 surgically resected human esophageal specimens, which contain squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adjacent non-cancerous lesions, from a high-incidence area of Linzhou in Henan, China. A newly developed immunohisto-selective sequencing (IHSS) method was used to enrich the p53 immunostain-positive cells for mutation analysis. p53 gene mutations were detected in 30 out of 43 (70%) SCC cases. Among 29 SCC cases that were stained positive for p53 protein, 25 (86%) were found to contain p53 mutations. In five cases of SCC with homogeneous p53 staining, the same mutation was observed in samples taken from four different positions of each tumor. In a well differentiated cancer nest, p53 mutation was detected in only the peripheral p53-positive cells. In tumor areas with heterogeneous p53 staining, either the area stained positive for p53 had an additional mutation to the negatively stained area or both areas lacked any detectable p53 mutation. In the p53-positive non-cancerous lesions adjacent to cancer, p53 mutations were detected in seven out of 16 (47%) samples with basal cell hyperplasia (BCH), eight out of 12 (67%) samples with dysplasia (DYS), and six out of seven (86%) samples with carcinoma in situ (CIS). All mutations found in lesions with DYS and CIS were the same as those in the nearby SCC. In seven cases of BCH containing mutations, only three had the same mutations as the nearby SCC. The results suggest that p53 mutation is an early event in esophageal carcinogenesis occurring in most of the DYS and CIS lesions, and cells with such mutations will progress to carcinoma, whereas the role of p53 mutations in BCH is less clear.  (+info)

The influence of margin width on local control of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. (8/1447)

BACKGROUND: Ductal carcinoma in situ is a non-invasive carcinoma that is unlikely to recur if completely excised. Margin width, the distance between the boundary of the lesion and the edge of the excised specimen, may be an important determinant of local recurrence. METHODS: Margin widths, determined by direct measurement or ocular micrometry, and standardized evaluation of the tumor for nuclear grade, comedonecrosis, and size were performed on 469 specimens of ductal carcinoma in situ from patients who had been treated with breast-conserving surgery with or without postoperative radiation therapy, according to the choice of the patient or her physician. We analyzed the results in relation to margin width and whether the patient received postoperative radiation therapy. RESULTS: The mean (+/-SE) estimated probability of recurrence at eight years was 0.04+/-0.02 among 133 patients whose excised lesions had margin widths of 10 mm or more in every direction. Among these patients there was no benefit from postoperative radiation therapy. There was also no statistically significant benefit from postoperative radiation therapy among patients with margin widths of 1 to <10 mm. In contrast, there was a statistically significant benefit from radiation among patients in whom margin widths were less than 1 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative radiation therapy did not lower the recurrence rate among patients with ductal carcinoma in situ that was excised with margins of 10 mm or more. Patients in whom the margin width is less than 1 mm can benefit from postoperative radiation therapy.  (+info)

*Carcinoma in situ

The term carcinoma in situ may be used interchangeably with high-grade SIL. Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast is the most ... ductal carcinoma in situ or lobular carcinoma in situ). Many forms of CIS have a high probability of progression into cancer, ... Carcinoma in situ (CIS), also known as in situ neoplasm, is a group of abnormal cells. While they are a form of neoplasm there ... These abnormal cells grow in their normal place, thus "in situ" (from Latin for "in its place"). For example, carcinoma in situ ...

*Lobular carcinoma in situ

Breast cancer Carcinoma in situ "Lobular Carcinoma in situ (LCIS)". Breast Cancer. Stanford Cancer Center. "Lobular carcinoma ... Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is a condition caused by unusual cells in the lobules of the breast. Many do not consider it ... Unlike ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), LCIS is not associated with calcification, and is typically an incidental finding in a ... Afonso N, Bouwman D (August 2008). "Lobular carcinoma in situ". Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 17 (4): 312-6. doi:10.1097/CEJ. ...

*Ductal carcinoma in situ

... (DCIS), also known as intraductal carcinoma, is a pre-cancerous or non-invasive cancerous lesion of ... "Intraductal Carcinoma of the Breast". Retrieved 2010-06-28. "Ductal Carcinoma In Situ". cancer.gov. January 9, 2015. Retrieved ... Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS), Johns Hopkins Medicine Goodwin A, Parker S, Ghersi D, Wilcken N (2013). "Post-operative ... "Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: Treatment Options for Patients With DCIS". National Cancer Institute at NIH. National Institutes of ...

*John Birkett (surgeon)

Hajdu, Steven I.; Tang, Ping (Autumn 2009). "Lobular Carcinoma in Situ". Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science. 39 (4): 413 ...

*Penile cancer

Tis: Carcinoma in situ. Ta: Noninvasive verrucous carcinoma. T1a: Tumor invades subepithelial connective tissue without lymph ... carcinoma in situ-Bowen's disease, Erythroplasia of Queyrat and bowenoid papulosis (BP)); D. Invasive Carcinoma of the Penis. ... Anatomic Stage or Prognostic Groups of penile cancer are as follows: Stage 0-Carcinoma in situ. Stage I-The cancer is ... Other types of penile cancer such as Merkel cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, melanoma and other are generally rare. Around ...

*Lumpectomy

"Ductal carcinoma in situ". Retrieved 19 March 2013. Additional Sources: Bleicher RJ. Ductal Carcinoma in Situ. Surg Clin N Am ... lumpectomy may be performed for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), for invasive ductal carcinoma, or for other conditions. DCIS, ... "Ductal carcinoma in situ". Retrieved 19 March 2013. Desantis C, Siegel R, Bandi P, et al. (2011). "Breast cancer statistics". ... "Sentinel lymph node biopsy in the management of ductal carcinoma in situ". Clin Breast Cancer. 6: 216-222. doi:10.3816/cbc.2005 ...

*Cancer staging

Stage 0: carcinoma in situ. Stage I: cancers are localized to one part of the body. Stage I cancer can be surgically removed if ...

*PRP36

"Ductal carcinoma in situ: mammary gland". GEO Profiles. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 9 May 2015. " ...

*Preventive mastectomy

Presence of lobular carcinoma in situ. Having dense breasts or breasts with diffuse microcalcification, as the screening for ...

*Cervical cancer staging

Also called carcinoma in situ (CIS). Stage I The carcinoma has grown deeper into the cervix, but has not spread beyond it ( ... 4.0 cm in greatest dimension Stage II Cervical carcinoma invades beyond the uterus, but not to the pelvic wall or to the lower ... Treatment according to the FIGO stages of cervical carcinoma: Stage Ia1: therapeutic conization in young individuals, ... Stage 0 The carcinoma is confined to the surface layer (cells lining) of the cervix. ...

*Herb Green

Invasive potentiality of cervical carcinoma in situ. Green GH. Int J Obstet Gynecol 1969; 7; 157-171. Vaginal carcinoma in situ ... Cervical Carcinoma in situ: True cancer or non-invasive lesion? Green GH Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1964 Dec;4:165-73. Ovarian ... Is cervical carcinoma in situ a significant lesion? Green GH. Int Surg 1967;47; 511-517. Maori maternal mortality in New ... Cervical cytology and carcinoma in situ. Green GH J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1965 Feb;72:13-22. Uterine rupture following ...

*Neoplasm

Some neoplasms do not form a tumor; these include leukemia and most forms of carcinoma in situ. Tumor is also not synonymous ... Not all types of neoplasms cause a tumorous overgrowth of tissue, however (such as leukemia or carcinoma in situ). Recently, ... Potentially-malignant neoplasms include carcinoma in situ. They are localised, do not invade and destroy but in time, may ... Tawfik HM, El-Maqsoud NM, Hak BH, El-Sherbiny YM (2011). "Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: mismatch repair ...

*Germ cell neoplasia in situ

... unspecified variant of the entity was once considered to be a carcinoma in situ although the term "carcinoma in situ" is now ... Carcinoma in situ Germ cell tumor ITGCN. H&E stain. Bettocchi C, Coker CB, Deacon J, Parkinson C, Pryor JP (1994). "A review of ... Dieckmann KP, Skakkebaek NE (December 1999). "Carcinoma in situ of the testis: review of biological and clinical features". Int ... Germ cell neoplasia in situ, abbreviated GCNIS, represents the precursor lesion for many types of testicular germ cell tumors. ...

*Erythroplasia of Queyrat

Steffen C (2007). "Squamous cell carcinoma in situ: a historical note". Skinmed. 6 (1): 7-10. doi:10.1111/j.1540-9740.2007. ... however generally speaking Bowen's disease refers to carcinoma in situ of any location on the skin such as the lower leg. Like ... Erythroplasia of Queyrat is a squamous-cell carcinoma of the glans penis (head of the penis) or inner prepuce (foreskin) in ... erythroplasia of Queyrat is associated with human papillomavirus 16 and is a precursor for invasive squamous-cell carcinoma. It ...

*Dock11

"Improved gene expression signature of testicular carcinoma in situ". International Journal of Andrology. 30 (4): 292-302; ...

*Paget's disease of the breast

According to the migratory theory, ductal carcinoma in situ cells migrate into the lactiferous sinuses and the nipple skin. ... Invasive cancer or extensive ductal carcinoma in situ is primarily treated with modified radical mastectomies. The procedure ... even in patients after ductal carcinoma in situ surgery. Eczema tends to affect the areola first, and then the nipple, whereas ... The death rate of metastatic breast carcinoma in patients with mammary Paget's disease and underlying cancer is 61.3%, with a ...

*Alcohol and cancer

Claus EB, Stowe M, Carter D (December 2001). "Breast carcinoma in situ: risk factors and screening patterns". Journal of the ... A study of the influence of alcohol intake on tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with type C cirrhosis ... Pelucchi C, La Vecchia C, Negri E, Talamini R, Franceschi S (December 2002). "Alcohol drinking and renal cell carcinoma in ... A systematic review found evidence that light drinking may decrease the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma whereas high intake of ...

*Comedocarcinoma

"Infiltrating ductal carcinoma breast with central necrosis closely mimicking ductal carcinoma in situ (comedo type): a case ... It is usually a type of ductal carcinoma in situ. Comedo carcinomas are usually non-infiltrating and intraductal tumors. ... "Prognostic factors in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: results of a retrospective study of 575 cases". Eur J Obstet ... Comedo carcinoma entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms Images[dead link] comedocarcinoma [1] [2]. ...

*Precancerous condition

Not all carcinoma in situ will progress to invasive disease. Premalignant lesions are morphologically atypical tissue which ... Examples of premalignant conditions include: actinic keratosis Barrett's esophagus atrophic gastritis ductal carcinoma in situ ... is used to describe carcinoma in situ, which is a noninvasive cancer that has not progressed to an aggressive, invasive stage. ...

*Bethesda system

The invasive potential of carcinoma in situ of the cervix. Obstetric Gynecology. 1984 Oct;64(4):451-8. Wright TC Jr; Massad LS ... indicates moderate or severe cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or carcinoma in situ. It is usually diagnosed following a Pap ... Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) The results are calculated differently following a Pap smear of the cervix. Low-grade squamous ... Squamous cell carcinoma Atypical Glandular Cells not otherwise specified (AGC-NOS) Atypical Glandular Cells, suspicious for AIS ...

*Dynamic angiothermography

Choi BB, Kim SH, Park CS, Cha ES, Lee AW (February 2011). "Radiologic findings of lobular carcinoma in situ: mammography and ... to diagnose invasive ductal carcinoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma with the same accuracy. DATG can be strategic for ...

*Cartwright Inquiry

Rosier, P The Speculum Bites Back:Feminists Spark An Inquiry Into The Treatment of Carcinoma In Situ At Auckland's National ... McIndoe, WA; McLean, MR; Jones, RW; Mullins, PR (October 1984). "The invasive potential of carcinoma in situ of the cervix". ... carcinoma in situ) in Metro Magazine in June 1987, taking the title from a 1986 letter in the New Zealand Medical Journal by ... described a study of 948 women who had been diagnosed with carcinoma in situ (CIS) at New Zealand's National Women's Hospital ...

*Atypical ductal hyperplasia

The rate at which breast cancer (ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive mammary carcinoma (all breast cancer except DCIS and LCIS ... Ductal carcinoma in situ Breast cancer Collagenous spherulosis Low mag. High mag. "Understanding Breast Changes - National ... ADH, cytologically, architecturally and on a molecular basis, is identical to a low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); ... Histomorphologically, it has architectural changes seen in low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), e.g. cribriform ...

*Fred W. Stewart

"Lobular carcinoma in situ: a rare form of mammary cancer." The American Journal of Pathology, 1941 The Fundamental Pathology of ...

*Bernard Lewinsky

"The influence of margin width on local control of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast". The New England Journal of Medicine ... "A prognostic index for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast". Cancer. John Wiley & Sons. 77 (11): 2267-2274. doi:10.1002/( ...

*Cervical cancer

... or severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ (CIS). The term, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was developed to place ... adenosquamous carcinoma small cell carcinoma neuroendocrine tumour glassy cell carcinoma villoglandular adenocarcinoma ... Histologic subtypes of invasive cervical carcinoma include the following: Though squamous cell carcinoma is the cervical cancer ... Dürst M, Gissmann L, Ikenberg H, zur Hausen H (1983). "A papillomavirus DNA from a cervical carcinoma and its prevalence in ...
The long-lasting phase of precursors of invasive cancer, i.e. dysplasia or intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN), is particularly relevant among risk determinants. At present, about 15-20% of all breast cancers are diagnosed in a non-invasive phase. Despite their good prognosis, women with breast IEN (lobular and ductal intraepithelial neoplasia, LIN and DIN) have a 10-15/1000 annual risk of invasive disease (8-10 times the same age general population), and thus represent an important target for chemoprevention. In the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP-P1 trial), tamoxifen use at 20 mg/day was associated with a 86% reduction of invasive breast cancer in women with previous atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) (RR=0.14, 95% IC, 0.03-0.47) and with a 56% risk reduction in women with previous Lobular Carcinoma in situ (LCIS) (RR=0.44, 95% IC, 0.16-1.06). However, tamoxifen use in this setting is hampered by serious adverse events attributable to its partial estrogenic activity, such ...
Introduction: With the emerging importance of the tumor immune environment in both invasive and preinvasive breast cancer, vaccine therapy may provide a well-tolerated, durable therapy for preinvasive breast cancer by preventing both recurrent preinvasive disease and progression to invasive disease. Preinvasive breast cancer is ideal for vaccines because the disease is slow growing and the patients are not immunosuppressed. However, design of the vaccines are critical including consideration of appropriate antigens, selecting Th1 stimulating epitopes, and using multiantigen vaccines to address tumor heterogeneity.. ...
Squamous microcarcinomas of the uterine cervix represent a focus of controversy regarding a useful clinical definition. The confusion of terminology and numerous pathological definitions have led to a great variety of surgical treatments from the con
In situ cancers and invasive cancers often are treated in the same way but for different reasons. After all, we dont have too many options. We can save the breast, we can save the breast and then radiate it or we can do mastectomies. And in selected circumstances, each of these treatments is applicable to patients with in situ cancers and with invasive cancers.
The occurance and clinical course of human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced lesions is largely determined by the nature of the cellular immune defense generated. Even tough both genital warts and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) are HPV-associated genital lesions they differ in their risk of malignant progression. Imiquimod (IMQ) is a topically applied Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 agonist that has been approved for the treatment of superficial (pre-) carcinomas of the skin (basal cell carcinomas, actinic keratosis) and HPV-associated lesions (genital warts). It acts by activation of the immune system exerting anti-tumor and anti-viral properties. The aim of the study is to evaluate the mechanisms of IMQ treatment and to analyze the differences in HPV-affected and non affected tissue at cellular and molecular level as determined by immunofluorescence stainings and real time PCR, respectively ...
Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)-associated vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is frequently a chronic, multifocal high-grade condition with an appreciable risk of progression to vulval cancer. The requirement to treat women with VIN has recently stimulated the use of immunotherapy with E6/E7 oncogene vaccines. Animal models have shown that E2 may also be a useful vaccine target for HPV-associated disease; however, little is known about E2 immunity in humans. This study investigated the prevalence of HPV-16 E2-specific serological and T-cell responses in 18 women with HPV-16-associated VIN and 17 healthy volunteers. E2 responses were determined by full-length E2-GST ELISA with ELISPOT and proliferation assays using E2 C-terminal protein. As positive controls, HPV-16 L1 responses were measured using virus-like particles (VLPs) and L1-GST ELISA with ELISPOT and proliferation using VLPs as antigen. The VIN patients all showed a strong serological response to L1 compared with the healthy ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Natural history of bronchial preinvasive lesions. AU - Ishizumi, Taichiro. AU - McWilliams, Annette. AU - MacAulay, Calum. AU - Gazdar, Adi. AU - Lam, Stephen. PY - 2010/3. Y1 - 2010/3. N2 - Preinvasive bronchial lesions defined as dysplasia and carcinoma in situ (CIS) have been considered as precursors of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The risk and rate of progression of preinvasive lesions to invasive squamous cell carcinoma as well as the mechanism of progression or regression are incompletely understood. While the evidence for the multistage, stepwise progression model is weak with relatively few documented lesions that progress through various grades of dysplasia to CIS and then to invasive carcinoma, the concept of field carcinogenesis is strongly supported. The presence of high-grade dysplasia or CIS is a risk marker for lung cancer both in the central airways and peripheral lung. Genetic alterations such as loss of heterozygosity in chromosome 3p or chromosomal ...
The American Cancer Society estimates that more than 62,000 news cases of carcinoma in situ will be diagnosed this year. A common type of c
Vulvar cancer is a malignant persistent growth in the vulva. It is reported for about 4 % of all type of gynecological cancers as well as affects usually women in later life. It is guessed that in 2006, in the United States, about 3,740 new instances of Vulvar cancer will be diagnosed. About 880 women will pass away as a consequence of vulvar cancer. Vulvar carcinoma is detached from a non-invasive lesion of the epithelium, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia(VIN), which can improve through carcinoma-in-situ to squamous cell cancer. Even, Paget disease of the vulva can be formed. It is caused by the squamous cell carcinoma that creates from the epidermis of vulva tissue.. ...
There is dysplastic squamous epithelium with coarse chromatin, nuclear hyperchromasia, nuclear enlargement, irregular nuclear membranes, and an increase nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio. Mitotic activity is abundant. Several atypical mitoses are identified. The dysplastic squamous epithelium shows minimal maturation toward the surface (AIN 3). A sizable portion of the lesion show some maturation to the surface (AIN 2). Inflammation at the dermal-epidermal interface is minimal and the dermal-epidermal interface is well-demarcated. Focal ulceration is present. The margin of the biopsy has severely dysplastic epithelium (AIN 3). ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is an uncommon condition where benign (non-cancer) change is seen within the lobules of the breast.
The current best hope for the successful treatment of pancreatic cancer is the removal of pre-invasive lesions before they become malignant. The early detection...
Feline Bowenoid in situ carcinoma (BISC) is a rare disease that presents as multiple discrete plaques of epidermal hyperplasia and dysplasia
The diagnosis of any of the listed below conditions must be established by histological evidence and be confirmed by a specialist in the relevant field.. Carcinoma-in-situ (CIS):. Carcinoma-in-situ means the presence of malignant cancer cells that remain within the cell group from which they arose. It must involve the full thickness of the epithelium but does not cross basement membranes and it does not invade the surrounding tissue or organ. The diagnosis of which must be positively established by microscopic examination of fixed tissues.. Prostate Cancer - early stage:. Early Prostate Cancer that is histologically described using the TNM classification as T1N0M0 with a Gleason Score 2 (two) to 6(six).. Thyroid Cancer - early stage:. All thyroid cancers that are less than 2.0 cm and histologically classified as T1N0M0 according to TNM classification. Bladder Cancer - early stage:. All tumors of the urinary bladder histologically classified as TaNoMo according to TNM classification.. Chronic ...
Very sorry for the necessity that drew you here. This link is compiled by the Am Cancer Soc and its pretty comprehensive. Print it out. There is room to write the answers if you print it out. If possible, have someone come with you to take notes. If you miss something or dont quite understand what they say, ask them to repeat it in plain English. If you think of it after the appt, dont worry. Call the office back with the question. The drs. nurse will call back with the info. If you have to have lung cancer, this is the slowest growing cancer which is fairly good news. There are fewer options for treatment at this time but with the advent of the newer targeted therapies in clinical trial, chances are very good that they will have several options in use before you need it. If they recommend lobectomies or wedges or both, you may never need further intervention. This may be overwhelming at first, but, it is survivable. Please let us know what the drs say. Dont be afraid to get a second opinion. ...
A 33-year-old woman with a 2.7 cm high grade, comedo type DCIS, which was accurately assessed by both MRI and mammography.A. Spot-magnification mediolateral obl
Номер такой: WVWZZZ3BZ3P093310 Помнится, у кого-то были выходы на ВИНопробойник. Посмотреть бы че за комплектация, че за зверь такой. :-k Кажется, у Axla. Спасибо! Жду :gaz:
Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) has produced complete response rates of ,90% for nonmelanoma skin carcinomas, which are mostly human papillomavirus (HPV) negative. Using a similar treatment protocol, we observed a short-term response in only one third (10 of 32) of high-grade vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN 2-3) lesions. Unifocal lesions were found more responsive than multifocal and pigmented lesions. Animal model studies have suggested that long-term PDT response involves an immune reaction in which CTLs play a crucial role. In this study, we have assessed: (a) HPV infection; (b) HLA expression; and (c) immune infiltrating cells in VIN biopsies from responders and nonresponders to determine whether these factors may limit response to topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-based PDT. Tissues from normal vulva (n = 9), vulval carcinoma (n = 11), and VIN (32 patients from which 19 pre- and 43 post-PDT biopsies were taken) were investigated for immune cell infiltration ...
... J Obstet Gynaecol. 2019 Oct 14;:1-5 Authors: Gurumurthy M, Leeson S, Tidy J, Cruickshank ME Abstract Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VaIN) is less common than intraepithelial neoplasia at other non-cervical sites and can be challenging to manage. This survey describes current clinical practice by col...
Background: The detection of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) in cervical samples is not a common finding. Therefore, we aimed to report VAINs detected in liquid-based cytology (LBC) from women examined at Hospital das Clínicas of Faculty of Medicine, Sao Paulo State University. Materials and Methods: We evaluated LBC samples from women referred to gynecology examination for different reasons (previous abnormal PapTest, follow up of treated cervical lesion, ecc) and women examined for regular screening proposals, and compared with biopsy diagnoses, including the controversial diagnoses of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN). Results: From 1866 patients, 1423 (76.3%) cases were negative and 443 (23.7%) were positive for any cellular alteration. Age of patients ranged from 12 to 86 years. We detected 25 histologically confirmed VAIN (1.3% p = 0.0002 by Fishers exact test IC 95% 0.0090 - 0.0198) and 1.1% VAIN (p = 0.0031 by Fishers exact test IC 95% 0.0077 - 0.0179). Conclusion
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Sirolimus in Preventing Invasive Breast Cancer in Patients with Ductal Carcinoma In Situ, Lobular Carcinoma In Situ, Atypical Lobular Hyperplasia, or Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia - NCT02642094
Pathology Histologic Classification of Vaginal Neoplasia. VAIN (VAginal Intraepithelial Neoplasms). These are pre-malignant lesions of the vaginal squamous epithelium that can develop primarily in the vagina or as an extension from the cervix. Histologically, VAIN is defined in the same way as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Classification includes three grades: Grade 1 (VAIN I = mild dysplasia); Grade 2 (VAIN II = moderate dysplasia); and Grade 3 (VAIN III = severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ). Invasive carcinoma:. ...
Introduction: Breast cancer in situ (BCIS) diagnoses, a precursor lesion for invasive breast cancer, comprise about 20 % of all breast cancers (BC) in countries with screening programs. Family history of BC is considered one of the strongest risk factors for BCIS.. Methods: To evaluate the association of BC susceptibility loci with BCIS risk, we genotyped 39 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), associated with risk of invasive BC, in 1317 BCIS cases, 10,645 invasive BC cases, and 14,006 healthy controls in the National Cancer Institutes Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). Using unconditional logistic regression models adjusted for age and study, we estimated the association of SNPs with BCIS using two different comparison groups: healthy controls and invasive BC subjects to investigate whether BCIS and BC share a common genetic profile.. Results: We found that five SNPs (CDKN2BAS-rs1011970, FGFR2-rs3750817, FGFR2-rs2981582, TNRC9-rs3803662, 5p12-rs10941679) were ...
This study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of imiquimod in HIV-infected patients with high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. The primary measure of
Doctors and the general public are increasingly recognising diseases of the vulva and vagina as a cause of sexual dysfunction, morbidity and death, yet the wide but sometimes rare range of conditions involving this area are poorly represented in most textbooks of pathology. As the first volume in the Essentials of Diagnostic Gynecological Pathology series sponsored by the British Association of Gynecological Pathologists, Pathology of the Vulva and Vagina is one of the very few dealing wholly with this subject.Pathology of the Vulva and Vagina introduces the topic with a stylishly illustrated description of the embryology and development which is fundamental to understanding the pathogenesis and symptomatology. Subsequent chapters cover infections and non-infectious dermatoses, specifying those that can predispose to cancer. The precancerous conditions of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia, melanocytic proliferations and extra-mammary Pagets disease are integrated respectively with accounts of ...
Description of disease Breast, infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the. Treatment Breast, infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the. Symptoms and causes Breast, infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the Prophylaxis Breast, infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the
Melissas Rap: When I was 21, I discovered a lump in my breast. After multiple doctors appointments, mammograms and ultrasounds, my doctor decided I should have it surgically removed. Before the surgery, doctors found another lump in my other breast. So, I had bilateral biopsies. Thankfully, both were benign. Ever since that year, I have…
Although anal cancer is a rare disease, its incidence is increasing in men and women worldwide. The most important risk factors are behaviors that predispose individuals to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or immunosuppression. Anal cancer is generally preceded by high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), which is most prevalent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men. There is a general consensus that high-risk individuals may benefit from screening. Meta-analysis suggests that 80% of anal cancers could be avoided by vaccination against HPV 16/18. Nearly half of all patients with anal cancer present with rectal bleeding. Pain or sensation of a rectal mass is experienced in 30% of patients, whereas 20% have no tumor-specific symptoms. According to the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, 50% of patients with anal cancer have disease localized to the anus, 29% have regional lymph node involvement or direct spread beyond the primary, and
It seems like every year, a new recommendation is coming down the pipeline about the best ways to prevent and diagnose breast cancer. Navigating all of the confusion can be difficult, so Ive got a …. Continue Reading about New Annual Mammogram Guidelines-Some Things Every Woman Should Know → ...
Characteristics of lobular carcinoma and LCIS. Pictures showing the difference, and mentioning possible symptoms, mammogram findings and treatment.
The genetic landscape of pancreatic cancer shows nearly ubiquitous mutations of Kras. However, expression of mutant Kras alone is not sufficient to drive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in adult mice. Obesity is a metabolic disorder and is a risk factor for PDAC. One of the main factors that contributes to the development of obesity is high-fat consumption. Recent studies have demonstrated that High-Fat-Diet (HFD) can promote oncogenic Kras mediated development of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and PDAC. However, it is not clear why mice with oncogenic KrasG12D expression are predisposed to HFD mediated pancreatic carcinogenesis. Here, we report that Ras activity dramatically reduces the expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). FGF21 is a key mediator of fatty acid oxidation and lipid metabolism. Pharmacological doses of FGF21 lower serum free fatty acids and lead to weight loss in obese mice. FGF21 is highly expressed in pancreatic acinar cells and is a potential ...
As expected the US Food and Drug Administration has opened the door to Merck & Cos Gardasil vaccine for the prevention of anal cancer anal intraepithelial neoplasia. - News - PharmaTimes
Vaginal Cancer, In a recent study, the incidence of vulval, vaginal or anal intraepithelial neoplasia was 1.96 per 100 person-years for the HIV-infected women and 0.26 per 100 person-years fo... ...
To compare the lesion distribution and the extent of the disease in ductal and lobular carcinomas of the breast, we studied 586 ductal and 133 lobular consecutive cancers. All cases were documented on large-format histology slides. The invasive component of ductal carcinomas was unifocal in 63.3% (371/586), multifocal in 35.5% (208/586), and diffuse in 1.2% (7/586) of the cases. The corresponding figures in the lobular group were 27.8% (37/133), 45.9% (61/586), and 26.3% (35/133), respectively. When the distribution of the in situ and invasive component in the same tumors was combined to give an aggregate pattern, the ductal carcinomas were unifocal in 41.6% (244/586), multifocal in 31.6% (185/586), and diffuse in 26.8% (157/586) of the cases. The corresponding figures in the lobular category were 15.0% (20/133), 54.2% (72/133), and 30.8% (41/133), respectively. Ductal cancers were extensive in 45.7% (268/586), lobular in 65.4% (87/133) of the cases. All these differences were statistically ...
Answers from trusted physicians on what are the treatment options for lcis. First: Lcis is somewhat of a misnomer in that it is not a cancer, but a "pre-malignant" condition in which there are abnormal cells present in the glands (lobules) of the breast. Therefore patients with a diagnosis of lcis are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer than the general population and require closer observation and screening. Hormonal therapy may be used in those with very high risk.
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Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 and proto-oncogene PIK3CA and alterations of p53 and PIK3CA AKT mTOR pathways are common events in several human cancers. We focused on the analysis of TP53 and PIK3CA gene variations in adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma as well as in intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 of the cervix. DNA samples from 28 cervical adenocarcinoma, 55 squamous cell carcinoma and 31 intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3), previously characterized in terms of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and genotype distribution, were analyzed for TP53 and PIK3CA mutations in the exons 4-9 and exon 9, respectively. Single nucleotide substitutions in TP53 and PIK3CA genes were detected in 36% and 11% of adenocarcinoma, in 16% and in 5% of squamous cell carcinoma, and in 13% and none of CIN 3, respectively. Nucleotide changes in TP53 were significantly more frequent in adenocarcinoma cases than in squamous cell carcinoma and CIN3 (P = 0.035) and were independent from HPV infection
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of antiretroviral therapy on the incidence of genital warts and vulvar neoplasia among women with the human immunodeficiency virus. AU - Massad, L. Stewart. AU - Silverberg, Michael J.. AU - Springer, Gayle. AU - Minkoff, Howard. AU - Hessol, Nancy. AU - Palefsky, Joel M.. AU - Strickler, Howard D.. AU - Levine, Alexandra M.. AU - Sacks, Henry S.. AU - Moxley, Michael. AU - Watts, D. Heather. PY - 2004/5. Y1 - 2004/5. N2 - Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and predictors of genital warts and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia among women with the human immunodeficiency virus. Study design: This was a multicenter prospective cohort study comprised of women without warts or vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia at baseline who underwent CD4 count, human immunodeficiency virus RNA measurement, examination, Papanicolaou test, and biopsy, as indicated, every 6 months. Human papillomavirus DNA typing was examined at baseline. Results: The incidence of ...
Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), sometimes called infiltrating lobular carcinoma, is the second most common type of breast cancer after invasive ductal carcinoma. About 10% of all invasive breast cancers are invasive lobular carcinomas. Learn about the diagnosis and treatment of invasive lobular carcinoma.
Cancer occurs when abnormal tissue cells reproduce uncontrollably. Cancer can develop anywhere in the body, and the symptoms and treatment depend on the type of cancer and its location. There are various types of cancer that can affect the female reproductive organs, including vulvar cancer.. Vulvar cancer is a cancer of the vulva, or a females external genitals. The vulva includes the inner and outer lips of the vagina, the clitoris, and the opening of the vagina, which is called the introitus. Glands near the vaginal opening are also part of the vulva. Vulvar cancer typically affects the outer lips of the vagina, but other parts of the vulva may also be affected, especially as the cancer enlarges.. This type of cancer usually develops slowly. It often begins as vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, which occurs when healthy skin cells around the vulva undergo abnormal changes. Without treatment, the abnormal cells can turn into cancer.. ...
Genital infection with low-risk types of HPV is associated with genital warts in men. Infection with high-risk types of HPV is associated with a proportion of preinvasive squamous lesions of the penis (penile intraepithelial neoplasia or PIN) and with penile cancer, as well as with preinvasive squamous lesions of the anus (anal intraepithelial neoplasia or AIN) and with anal cancer.. Invasive penile cancer is quite uncommon, especially in circumcised men.. In 2002, the age-adjusted incidence rate for penile cancer in the U.S. was 0.8 per 100,000 men (985 new cases). The age-adjusted incidence rate for anal cancer was 1.2 per 100,000 men (1,453 new cases). However, the risk of anal cancer for MSM is significantly higher.. Because of the increased incidence of anal cancer in MSM, especially HIV-infected MSM, some specialists recommend screening for AIN by cytology in this population. However, there are limited data on the natural history of AIN, the reliability of screening methods, the safety and ...
The progression from precursor lesions of pancreatic cancer, including pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), to invasive disease is characterized by stepwise accumulation of genetic alterations. However, it remains unclear whether additional alterations are required for the progression of high-grade neoplasms to invasive pancreatic carcinoma. We compared the genomic profiles of paired noninvasive and invasive carcinoma tissues collected from patients with IPMN. We demonstrate that the frequency of genomic copy-number aberrations significantly increased during the course of invasion, and the loss of 8p11.22-ter was more often associated with invasive tissues. Expression profiling in pancreatic cancer cell lines with and without 8p11.22-ter revealed that DUSP4, an MAPK phosphatase, was significantly downregulated in cells lacking 8p11.22-ter as well as in invasive carcinomas due to genomic loss. Restoration of DUSP4 expression in pancreatic cancer ...
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the UK, accounting for a third of all female cancer cases, and the second most common cause of cancer death: in England in 2010, the age-standardised rate per 100,000 women-years was 125.7 for incidence and 24.3 for mortality; in addition, in situ breast cancer, that is Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) and Lobular Carcinoma In Situ (LCIS), was diagnosed at a rate of 18 per 100,000 women in 2010 (CRUK, Accessed 28 March 2013 [1]).. In the early nineties, meta-analyses of the randomised controlled trials (RCTs) confirmed the efficacy of mammographic screening for reducing primary breast cancer mortality, and led to the implementation of breast screening programmes in several regions of Europe. One of the most mature and comprehensive of those is the English National Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) which has been in place in England since 1988. A major issue to be addressed by the Department of Healths (England) Policy Research ...
Here, also, nausea and vomiting in about 36% of patients and their treatment options. 39. Couples do not classify problems on the part usually carried out in this venture (his wife made the appointment and he spontaneously ejaculates during the first reports of large well-controlled trials to have ed, but it was suggested by a plaque may be clinically problematic. Rhoa is a negative-feedback manner. Fourth, although many technological advances such as hiv-related illness, enhanced erythropoiesis in the management of motor impulses from the vulva (vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia), cervix (cervical epithelial neoplasia), or penis into the corpora to the childs and the parasympathetic nervous system and the. Montgomery sa, baldwin ds, riley a. Antidepressant medications: A review of the cavernosal artery occlusive pressures in your abdomen. Otherwise stated and similarly shown in figures 26 and 23. The therapist first needs a carefully detailed problem description documenting the level of ...
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Widespread screening mammography programmes mean that ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a pre-invasive breast lesion, is now more frequently diagnosed. However, not all diagnosed DCIS lesions progress to invasive breast cancer, which presents a dilemma for clinicians. As such, there is much interest in studying DCIS in the laboratory, in order to help understand more about its biology and determine the characteristics of those that progress to invasion. Greater knowledge would lead to targeted and better DCIS treatment. Here, we outline some of the models available to study DCIS, with a particular focus on animal-free systems.. ...
Most DCIS arises in the larger ducts and LCIS arises within the lobules of the breast. However, the ducts and lobules are connected which means that DCIS may travel into the lobules and LCIS may travel up the ducts. For this reason, pathologists rely on the type of cells and pattern of growth to determine the diagnosis of DCIS vs. LCIS. Only a pathologist can make this distinction. In some cases, both DCIS and LCIS are present in the same biopsy.. DCIS and LCIS both increase a patients relative risk for developing invasive breast cancer and that risk applies to both breasts. However, DCIS is also thought to be a "precursor" to invasive carcinoma based upon numerous research studies. This is why your surgeon tries to remove all areas of DCIS from your breast and why many patients subsequently receive radiation therapy to that breast.. LCIS, on the other hand, has not traditionally been considered to be a "precursor" to invasive carcinoma, therefore complete removal of LCIS and radiation therapy ...
Evidence suggests that PDA results from the successive accumulation of mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (6, 11). A summary of current concepts in PDA genetics is provided by Iacobuzio-Donahue and colleagues in this CCR Focus section (12). The cancer likely originates in the ductal epithelium and evolves from premalignant lesions to fully invasive cancer. A lesion called pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia is the best characterized histologic precursor of PDA (13). It has been recently shown that these lesions harbor mutations in the same genes as invasive PDA, further supporting its role as a premalignant lesion (14). Fully established PDA almost universally carries 1 or more of 4 genetic defects (15). Ninety percent of tumors have activating mutations in the KRAS2 oncogene. Transcription of the mutant KRAS gene produces an abnormal Ras protein that is "locked" in its activated form, resulting in aberrant activation of proliferative and survival signaling pathways. Likewise, ...
Invasive lobular carcinoma has a much lower incidence than infiltrating ductal carcinoma, constituting less than 15% of cases of invasive breast cancer. It is characterized histologically by the &ldqu... more
Pancreatic cancer is characterized by an often dramatic outcome (five year survival | 5%) related to a late diagnosis and a lack of efficient therapy. Therefore, clinicians desperately need new biomarkers and new therapeutic tools to develop new efficient therapies. Mucins belong to an ever increasing family of O-glycoproteins. Secreted mucins are the main component of mucus protecting the epithelia whereas membrane-bound mucins are thought to play important biological roles in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, in cell signaling and in modulating biological properties of cancer cells. In this review, we will focus on the altered expression pattern of mucins in pancreatic cancer, from the early neoplastic lesion Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PanIN) to invasive pancreatic carcinomas, and the molecular mechanisms (including genetic and epigenetic regulation) and signaling pathways known to control their expression. Moreover, we will discuss the recent advances about the biology of both
Pancreatic cancer is characterized by an often dramatic outcome (five year survival | 5%) related to a late diagnosis and a lack of efficient therapy. Therefore, clinicians desperately need new biomarkers and new therapeutic tools to develop new efficient therapies. Mucins belong to an ever increasing family of O-glycoproteins. Secreted mucins are the main component of mucus protecting the epithelia whereas membrane-bound mucins are thought to play important biological roles in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, in cell signaling and in modulating biological properties of cancer cells. In this review, we will focus on the altered expression pattern of mucins in pancreatic cancer, from the early neoplastic lesion Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PanIN) to invasive pancreatic carcinomas, and the molecular mechanisms (including genetic and epigenetic regulation) and signaling pathways known to control their expression. Moreover, we will discuss the recent advances about the biology of both
The widespread adoption of screening mammography has led to an increase in the diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. While it is estimated that 55,000 women in the US will be diagnosed with DCIS in 2013, only a small fraction of these women (~15%) will subsequently develop invasive breast cancer. However, most women with DCIS are treated as if they will develop invasive cancer. Almost a third of these women opt for a full mastectomy. In a majority of remaining women, the DCIS lesion is surgically excised with lumpectomy and, in over half of these women, additional radiation or tamoxifen treatment is provided. Thus, many women are receiving unnecessary adjuvant therapy to prevent invasive cancers that will not occur. Additionally, ~ 15% of women are not receiving adequate intervention because they will subsequently develop a subsequent invasive tumor even after receiving lumpectomy and adjuvant therapy. Identifying molecular markers that can accurately predict subsequent ...
jeannief - Patient: Breast Cancer > Invasive Lobular Carcinoma Patient Info: Newly diagnosed (has not begun treatment), Diagnosed: about 2 years ago, Female, Age: 71, Stage I, HER2 Positive: No, ER Positive: Yes, PR Positive: Yes
Lobular carcinoma in situ isnt cancer. LCIS means that some cells lining the lobules of the breast tissue have started to turn into cancer cells.
Get natural cures for Invasive Lobular Carcinoma that can make a difference in your life or the life of someone you love with alternative treatments.
AIM: The traditional architecture based classification system of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has been criticised on the grounds that individual lesions often show more than one pattern resulting in a large mixed category. New DCIS classification systems have emphasised the importance of cytological grade, which is reputed to be more uniformly expressed throughout a lesion. This study investigates the hypothesis that cytological heterogeneity is less common than architectural heterogeneity within DCIS lesions. METHODS: 121 cases of DCIS were graded as poorly, intermediately, or well differentiated according to a recently developed classification system that employs cytonuclear morphology as the major diagnostic criterion. Cases were categorised as pure when only one grade was present and as mixed if more than one grade was observed. Architecturally the cases were classified as solid, cribriform, micropapillary, or papillary and were described as pure if only one architectural pattern was ...
We have previously demonstrated that vascular count significantly increases in the preneoplastic lesions of the bronchial tree, starting from very low levels in the normal epithelium to a significantly higher number of microvessels in moderate dysplastic lesions and in situ carcinomas. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein expression has shown to be strictly associated with neovascularization both in human cancer and in various type of preinvasive lesions. A number of studies have demonstrated that mutant p53 is involved in the regulation of angiogenesis, and immunohistochemical detection of the p53 protein is associated with p53 gene mutations. In this study we looked for possible correlation between p53 protein detection, VEGF expression and vascular count in a series of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the bronchial tree in order to investigate the angiogenic pattern and its genetic control in the early steps of bronchial cancer development. Twenty-four retrospective ...
There are few data on the long-term outcome of patients with microinvasive (T1mi) breast cancer. Moreover, predictors of lym ph node involvement and the im pact of multifocal microinvasion are not wel
Hi Olga, We are a rare breed! I had infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Stage 1, grade 1. I had a lumpectomy. My margins were clear and so was my sentinal lobe. I had six weeks of radiation therapy and I just finished my first month on Tamoxifin. From what I understand, bc in the lobes is not as common as that found in the ducts. So far, I feel blessed. My recovery from surgery went well and radiation just wore me out a little. Starting to feel a few side effects from tamoxifen, but if it is beneficial to take it, I will suffer through the side effects! Good luck to you and Nancy! Make your list of questions for the surgeon, Radiation Oncologist, Oncologist, Gynocoloist...and anyone else you can think of! Keep in touch and I will be thinking of you both ...
Another name for Anal Carcinoma is Anal Cancer. To better understand anal cancer, it helps to understand the anatomy of the colon, rectum and anus. The ...
Zamecnik, M. Atypical cystic lobules: an advancing edge of low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ?. Virchows Archiv 437, 469 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1007/s004280000253. Download ...
RATIONALE: Diagnostic procedures, such as MRI, may help find ductal carcinoma in situ and find out how far the disease has spread.PURPOSE: This
Most women usually opt for a lumpectomy with or without additional treatments such as for example radiation, hormonal therapy or chemotherapy. However, since the most DCIS lesions arent associated with formation of subsequent invasive tumors, chances are that many women identified as having DCIS are becoming over treated. Approximately 12-15 % of ladies diagnosed with DCIS create a subsequent invasive tumor within a decade after undergoing medical lumpectomy. Related StoriesCornell biomedical engineers develop very natural killer cells to destroy cancer cells in lymph nodesViralytics enters into scientific trial collaboration agreement with MSDMeat-rich diet may increase kidney tumor riskAs noted in the study, it is well known that normal cellular responses to stress are essential barriers to cancer development and therefore provide researchers with molecular candidates to greatly help identify lesions that wont progress to a malignancy.It is necessary that the very best use is made from ...
carcinoma - MedHelps carcinoma Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for carcinoma. Find carcinoma information, treatments for carcinoma and carcinoma symptoms.
This question continues to be a vexing one with our definitive answers coming in probably 5 years time. There is increasing evidence that AIN3 is a precursor to anal cancer but the problem is that we can screen for AIN3 (anal cytology, high resoluti
Friendly Reminder to Our Colleagues: Use of VIN content is limited to personal reference by VIN members. No portion of any VIN content may be copied or distributed without the expressed written permission of VIN.. Clinicians are reminded that you are ultimately responsible for the care of your patients. Any content that concerns treatment of your cases should be deemed recommendations by colleagues for you to consider in your case management decisions. Dosages should be confirmed prior to dispensing medications unfamiliar to you. To better understand the origins and logic behind these policies, and to discuss them with your colleagues, click here.. Images posted by VIN community members and displayed via VIN should not be considered of diagnostic quality and the ultimate interpretation of the images lies with the attending clinician. Suggestions, discussions and interpretation related to posted images are only that -- suggestions and recommendations which may be based upon less than diagnostic ...
Friendly Reminder to Our Colleagues: Use of VIN content is limited to personal reference by VIN members. No portion of any VIN content may be copied or distributed without the expressed written permission of VIN.. Clinicians are reminded that you are ultimately responsible for the care of your patients. Any content that concerns treatment of your cases should be deemed recommendations by colleagues for you to consider in your case management decisions. Dosages should be confirmed prior to dispensing medications unfamiliar to you. To better understand the origins and logic behind these policies, and to discuss them with your colleagues, click here.. Images posted by VIN community members and displayed via VIN should not be considered of diagnostic quality and the ultimate interpretation of the images lies with the attending clinician. Suggestions, discussions and interpretation related to posted images are only that -- suggestions and recommendations which may be based upon less than diagnostic ...
Habib F, Syriac S, Wang D, Liu S, Karabakhtsian R, Tan D, Khoury T. High Grade Lobular Carcinoma In Situ in Breast Excision: Potential for Misdiagnosis as Solid Type DCIS or Classical LCIS. Laboratory investigation 2012; 92(Suppl. 1): ...
The ICD-10 Code D09.19 is the code used for Carcinoma in situ of other urinary organs .An alternative description for this code is Carcinoma in situ of other urinary ...
Estradiol p.o. 1 mg, Filmom obalená tableta, ATC G03CA03, SPC (Súhrn údajov o prípravku) Terapeutické indikácie: Hormonálna substitučná liečba (HSL) príznakov nedostatku estrogénov u žien v postmenopauze. Na prevenciu osteoporózy u žien v postmenopauze, so zvýšeným rizikom vzniku fraktúr, ktoré netolerujú, alebo sú pre ne kontraindikované iné lieky schválené na prevenciu osteoporózy. Estrofem sa hlavne indikuje u žien po hysterektómii, ktoré z tohto dôvodu nevyžadujú kombinovanú liečbu estrog...
Efficacy of Poly-Gamma-Glutamic Acid in Women with High-Risk Human Papillomavirus-Positive Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia: an Observational Pilot Study;kpubs;kpubs.org
AIMS--To determine if allelic loss on chromosomes 16q and 17p, commonly encountered in in situ and invasive ductal carcinomas, is present in atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH); to determine whether ADH is a neoplastic (clonal) or hyperplastic (polyclonal) proliferation. METHODS--Fourteen cases of ADH were examined for allele loss at loci on chromosome 16q and 17p using a microdissection technique, polymorphic DNA markers and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS--Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was detected in five of nine informative cases on chromosome 16q at the microsatellite D16S413 and two of eight informative cases on chromosome 17p at D17S796. CONCLUSIONS--The incidence of LOH at these loci is similar to that previously observed in ductal carcinoma in situ and in invasive ductal carcinoma. Because of the nature of the technique used, our findings also demonstrate that ADH is a monoclonal, and hence, neoplastic proliferation rather than a hyperplastic (polyclonal) condition as its name ...
Abstract. Lobular carcinoma in situ is a form of in situ neoplasia that develops within the terminal lobules of the breast. It is an extremely rare finding in males due to the lack of lobular development in the male breast. The authors herein report an unusual case of incidentally discovered lobular carcinoma in situ in a male patient with recurrent bilateral gynecomastia who was subsequently diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast. The pathology of lobular carcinoma in situ in a male as well as screening MRI surveillance of male patients at high risk for breast cancer are discussed, emphasizing the importance of screening and imaging follow up in men who are at high risk for breast cancer.. Keywords: Lobular carcinoma in situ, male, breast cancer, MRI, screening and imaging ...
Atypical ductal hyperplasia is a condition that can occur in the lining of the milk ducts in the breast. ADH is not a form of breast cancer.
New research from Amsterdam shows that women over the age of 50 who have been diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ have a higher chance of being alive ten years after their diagnosis than women in the general population, according to Science Daily. Ductal carcinoma in situ is considered a disease separate from breast cancer because it is at stage 0 and does not spread around the body. However, ductal carcinoma in situ can progress into full-blown breast cancer, which is why it is still treated with surgery or surgery in combination with radiation therapy.. The researcher Dr. Lotte Elshof presented findings at the European Cancer Congress 2017. Women who have been diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ should feel better about their future because of these findings, which show their longevity will not be impacted by this condition.. Dr. Jelle Wesseling and her team at the Netherlands Cancer Institute followed approximately 10,000 Dutch women with ductal carcinoma in situ between the years ...
A role for microbes has been suspected in prostate cancer but difficult to confirm in human patients. We show here that a gastrointestinal (GI) tract bacterial infection is sufficient to enhance prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and microinvasive carcinoma in a mouse model. We found that animals with a genetic predilection for dysregulation of wnt signaling, ApcMin/+ mutant mice, were significantly susceptible to prostate cancer in an inflammation-dependent manner following infection with Helicobacter hepaticus. Further, early neoplasia observed in infected ApcMin/+ mice was transmissible to uninfected mice by intraperitoneal injection of mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells alone from H. hepaticus-infected mutant mice. Transmissibility of neoplasia was preventable by prior neutralization of inflammation using anti-TNF-α antibody in infected MLN donor mice. Taken together, these data confirm that systemic inflammation triggered by GI tract bacteria plays a pivotal role in tumorigenesis of the
In rare cases, breast cancer can start in other areas of the breast. It can be invasive or noninvasive. Invasive means it has spread from the milk duct or lobule to other tissues in the breast. Noninvasive means it has not yet invaded other breast tissue. Noninvasive breast cancer is also called "in situ". Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), or intra-ductal carcinoma, is breast cancer in the lining of the milk ducts that has not yet invaded nearby tissues. It may progress to invasive cancer if untreated. Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is a marker for an increased risk of invasive cancer in the same or both breasts. Once a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer, a series of tests will be done to ensure that the stage and classification of the cancer is accurate. Today, breast cancer can be treated in several ways, which will depend on the type and how far it has spread.. ...
Breast intraepithelial neoplasia is a term for a group of noninvasive conditions in which abnormal cells are found in the breast, including ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH)," said Andrea De Censi, MD, director of the medical oncology unit at the National Hospital E.O. Ospedali Galliera - S.C. Oncologia Medica in Genoa, Italy. "These conditions significantly increase a womans risk for invasive breast cancer. Because they are often driven by the hormone estrogen, treatment commonly includes five years of tamoxifen, given at 20 mg per day, after surgery and, if needed, radiotherapy ...
Elsheikh TM, Silverman JF. Follow-up surgical excision is indicated when breast core needle biopsies show atypical lobular hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ: a correlative study of 33 patients with review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol. 2005 Apr;29(4):534-43 ...
Question - Diagnosed with superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma. What should be done next?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Cervical cancer, Ask an Oncologist
In this study we provide a comprehensive clinical characterization of a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed anal carcinoma. According to our analyses, clinical symptoms have predictive value for local staging of anal carcinoma.. Our study fills a gap in our knowledge since no systematic study regarding physical findings in anal carcinoma has been performed. Furthermore, no contemporary study describing the clinical presentation of anal carcinoma is available and the incidence of anal carcinoma, the prevalence of risk factors and medical practice has tremendously changed since the publication of the last paper characterizing anal carcinoma almost 30 years ago [10-14]. In agreement with previous studies, bleeding, anal pain and sensation of an anal mass remain the most frequent symptoms of anal carcinoma. However, the presence of anal pain including painful defecation and perianal pain (63 vs. 20-35 %) as well as anal bleeding (77 vs. 45 %) were more frequent than in historical studies ...
A cancer that arises in the milk-producing glands of the breast and then breaks through the walls to involve the adjacent fatty tissue. From this site, it may then spread elsewhere in the breast. About 15% of invasive breast cancers are invasive lobular carcinomas. It is often difficult to detect by physical examination or even by mammography.. Tags: Cancer Dictionary, I, Uncategorized. ...
This multicentre retrospective study is characterised by a long period of accrual (median follow-up: 136 months,; range: 16-292 months), which offers the advantage of providing interesting information about the trend of the disease. A certain number of patients (12 patients) enrolled in the first years have died during this long period of observation; other patients (47 patients) didnt return for the planned examination to the Centre of Radiotherapy where they had been treated, and were lost to follow-up. In addition only approximately 20% of patients were treated in the first period (from 1985 to 1990) and the number of cases increased progressively during the following years (Figure 1). Most of the cases belong to the two decades covered by the screening activity. Nevertheless, a large number of cases were also found in the younger age group, between 41 and 50. Increased debate and publicity about breast cancer screening after the introduction of screening programmes could have determined an ...
The goal of this study was to evaluate the preclinical efficacy of VEDT, a naturally occurring dietary product, alone and in combination with gemcitabine, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent against pancreatic cancer, in a highly relevant and aggressive model of pancreatic cancer (KPC mouse model). We recently reported in our chemoprevention study that VEDT prevented pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions and increased survival in the conditional Kras mouse model of pancreatic cancer (14). In the present study, we found that VEDT augmented gemcitabine inhibition of tumor growth (tumor weight and proliferation index) and increased survival in the KPC mouse model.. The mechanisms for the chemopreventive effects of VEDT include a protective role against oxidative stress-induced DNA damage (11), enhancement of the immune response (30), and elimination of cancer stem cells (31). One intriguing finding that has been shown consistently by us and others is the selective killing effect of VEDT ...
Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed breast cancer and has a tendency to metastasize via lymphatics. This lesion, which accounts for 75% of breast cancers, has no specific histolog... more
Breast cancer can be invasive or noninvasive.. Invasive means it has spread from the milk duct or lobule to other tissues in the breast. Noninvasive means it has not yet invaded other breast tissue. Noninvasive breast cancer is called "in situ.". Lobular carcinoma in situ Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is an area (or areas) of abnormal cell growth that increases a persons risk of developing invasive breast cancer later on in life. Lobular means that the abnormal cells start growing in the lobules, the milk-producing glands at the end of breast ducts. Carcinoma refers to any cancer that begins in the skin or other tissues that cover internal organs - such as breast tissue. In situ or "in its original place" means that the abnormal growth remains inside the lobule and does not spread to surrounding tissues. Despite the fact that its name includes the term "carcinoma," LCIS is not a true breast cancer. Rather, LCIS is an indication that a person is at higher-than-average risk for getting breast ...
Ductal or lobular carcinoma in situ (DCIS/LCIS) can rarely arise from sclerosing adenosis (SA). The combination of cytologically malignant cells and the infiltrative growth pattern may make it challenging to distinguish it from an invasive carcinoma. The authors reviewed 50 consecutive cases of CIS involving SA to seek the salient histologic characteristics in order to prevent overdiagnosis. The features commonly seen with CIS were the lobular configuration at low magnification (94%), uninvolved SA in neighboring tissue (84%), at least focally identifiable myoepithelial cells on H&E-stained sections (76%), separate foci of unequivocal CIS (58%), associated microcalcifications (54%), and hyaline basement membrane surrounding tumor cell nests (48 ...
The distribution of ductal carcinoma in situ DCIS grade in 4232 women and its impact on overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Introduction Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a common pre-invasive malignancy of the breast, representing approximately 20% of all breast cancer diagnoses...
What you need to know about anal carcinoma When most people think of carcinoma, they may think of more common forms of the disease, whether it might be the announcement from Rush Limbaugh, who recently made news with his diagnosis of advanced lung cancer,…. ...
I have in me the DNA of both my mother and my father. For a year now I have walked the line where doctors have essentially said "im on the edge" of cells turning to cancer. After my first lumpectomy it was simply one site of abnormal cells (atypical ductal hyperplasia). My second lumpectomy 6 months later after another mass grew in my left breast was now two sites with atypical cells, but this time, the pathologists said it was borderline DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ). At the same I was also struggling with stomach pain, fatigue and weight loss. I lost 34 pounds in a year without trying. After numerous procedures and tests, my GI diagnosed me with pancreatic insufficiency in March of this year. What he does know is that my pancreas no longer produces lipase, an enzyme that digests fats. What he is unable to tell me is why. "Its good we know what is causing your weight loss and that the pancreatic enzymes help. Its not so good we dont know why," my doctor says. He wants to monitor me ...
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) occurs when some of the cells that line a group of milk ducts within your breast have started to become cancer cells.
TY - CHAP. T1 - Anal Carcinoma. AU - Callister, Matthew D.. AU - Haddock, Michael. AU - Martenson, James A.. PY - 2011/10/27. Y1 - 2011/10/27. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84967225557&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84967225557&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/B978-1-4377-1637-5.00050-X. DO - 10.1016/B978-1-4377-1637-5.00050-X. M3 - Chapter. AN - SCOPUS:84967225557. SN - 9781437716375. SP - 1017. EP - 1031. BT - Clinical Radiation Oncology: Third Edition. PB - Elsevier Inc.. ER - ...
For Treatment of Lobular Carcinoma In Situ (LCIS) in New Delhi Gurgaon Noida Faridabad NCR or Online Treatment of Lobular Carcinoma In Situ (LCIS) Contact Us or…. ...
mice. IER3 expression was discrete in healthy acinar cells, becoming highly prominent in peritumoral acini, and particularly high in acinar ductal metaplasia (ADM) and PanIN lesions, where IER3 colocalized with phosphorylated ERK1/2. However, IER3 was absent in undifferentiated PDAC, which suggests that the IER3-dependent pathway is an early event in pancreatic tumorigenesis. IER3 expression was induced by both mild and severe pancreatitis, which promoted PanIN formation and progression to PDAC in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Matrix metalloproteinase-7 is expressed by pancreatic cancer precursors and regulates acinar-to-ductal metaplasia in exocrine pancreas. AU - Crawford, Howard C.. AU - Scoggins, Charles R.. AU - Kay Washington, M.. AU - Matrisian, Lynn M.. AU - Leach, Steven D.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - In gastrointestinal epithelium, metaplastic conversion between predominant cell types is associated with an increased risk of neoplasia. However, the mechanisms regulating metaplastic transitions in adult epithelia are largely undefined. Here we show that matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) is expressed not only in the majority of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma specimens, but also in human pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and metaplastic duct lesions in human and mouse. In a mouse model of pancreatic acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, MMP-7 progressively accumulates during the metaplastic transition, resulting in a concomitant increase in solubilization of Fas ligand (FasL). Under identical ...
The program in leukoplakia and pre-malignant vocal fold changes reflects the many challenges of a vocal lesion that is evolving to cancer. Led by Kenneth W. Altman MD, PhD, aspects of the pathogenesis and physiology are investigated, along with predisposition and optimal management strategies.. Over the course of every otolaryngologists career theyre involved with evaluating hoarseness and encounter surface changes to the vocal folds. Sometimes indistinguishable from stagnant mucus or scar on office laryngoscopy, leukoplakia is a category of epithelial lesions that run a spectrum from benign thickening (keratosis) to carcinoma-in-situ or microinvasive carcinoma. Leukoplakia can arise from the same etiologies as cancer, including caustic carcinogens such as tobacco smoke, Human papilloma virus infection (HPV), laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR), and genetic predisposition. The challenge is to determine the risk factors for malignancy, recognize when the lesion is suspicious, and properly assess the ...
Vulvar cancer is a malignant, invasive growth in the vulva, or the outer portion of the female genitals. The disease accounts for only 0.6% of cancer diagnoses but 5% of gynecologic cancers in the United States. The labia majora are the most common site involved representing about 50% of all cases, followed by the labia minora. The clitoris and Bartholin glands may rarely be involved. Vulvar cancer is separate from vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), a superficial lesion of the epithelium that has not invaded the basement membrane-or a pre-cancer. VIN may progress to carcinoma-in-situ and, eventually, squamous cell cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, in 2014, there were about 4,850 new cases of vulvar cancer and 1,030 deaths from the disease. In the United States, five-year survival rates for vulvar cancer are around 70%. Most vulvar cancer (approximately 90%) is squamous cell carcinoma, which originates from epidermal squamous cells, the most common type of skin cell. ...
Ductal carcinoma in situ is a noninvasive precancer condition. The treatment resembles the treatment of invasive breast cancer. The aim of this exploratory study was to gain knowledge on the level of postoperative pain, sensory disturbances, and distress among a small group of Danish women with ductal carcinoma in situ who had sentinel lymph node biopsy in order to plan a population study. A subgroup of patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 20) was compared to patients with invasive breast cancer (n = 455) at time of diagnosis and after 12 months. Six patients were interviewed on the impact of the diagnosis and life after treatment. We found no significant difference in reported sensory disturbances or pain after 12 months between the groups. More than one-third (39%) of ductal carcinoma in situ patients reported moderate to severe distress (≥ 7 on the Distress Thermometer) at time of diagnosis decreasing to 10% after 12 months. Similarly 36% of breast cancer patients reported distress ...
Imiquimod is a patient-applied cream used to treat certain diseases of the skin, including skin cancers (basal cell carcinoma, Bowens disease,[1]superficial squamous cell carcinoma, some superficial malignant melanomas, and actinic keratosis) as well as genital warts (condylomata acuminata). However, Imiquimod is generally secondary to surgery, because surgery has a better chance to effectively treat at least some forms of skin cancer.[2]. Imiquimod has been tested for treatment of molluscum contagiosum. Two large randomized controlled trials, however, found no evidence of effectiveness of imiquimod in treating children with molluscum contagiosum, and concerning adverse effects were also noted.[3]. Imiquiomd has also been tested for treatment of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, common warts that have proven difficult to treat,[4] and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia.[5]. Outstanding cosmetic result has resulted from the treatment of both large superficial basal cell carcinoma and squamous ...

Breast Cancer: Ductal Carcinoma In Situ | GreenMedInfo | DiseaseBreast Cancer: Ductal Carcinoma In Situ | GreenMedInfo | Disease

Diseases : Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer: Ductal Carcinoma In Situ, Breast Cancer: Lobular Carcinoma in Situ (LCIS) ... Diseases : Breast Cancer: Ductal Carcinoma In Situ, Ductal Carcinoma: Invasive. Anti Therapeutic Actions : Biopsy: Various ... Diseases : Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer: Ductal Carcinoma In Situ, Breast Cancer: MMTV-Associated, Ductal Carcinoma: Invasive ... Diseases : Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer: Ductal Carcinoma In Situ, Breast Cancer: MMTV-Associated, Ductal Carcinoma: Invasive ...
more infohttp://www.greenmedinfo.com/disease/breast-cancer-ductal-carcinoma-situ

Carcinoma in situ - WikipediaCarcinoma in situ - Wikipedia

Carcinoma in situ (CIS), also known as in situ neoplasm, is a group of abnormal cells.[1][2] While they are a form of neoplasm[ ... ductal carcinoma in situ or lobular carcinoma in situ). Many forms of CIS have a high probability of progression into cancer,[6 ... These abnormal cells grow in their normal place, thus "in situ" (from Latin for "in its place"). For example, carcinoma in situ ... High-grade dysplasia (carcinoma in situ) in the uterine cervix: The abnormal epithelium is extending into a mucus gland to the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carcinoma_in_situ

What is ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)?What is ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)?

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is noninvasive breast cancer that is limited to the inside of the ducts of the breast. ... encoded search term (What is ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)?) and What is ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)? What to Read Next ... What is ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)?. Updated: May 24, 2018 * Author: Peter Abdelmessieh, DO, MSc; Chief Editor: Marie ... Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is noninvasive breast cancer that is limited to the inside of the ducts of the breast. ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/answers/1954658-187833/what-is-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-dcis

How is bladder carcinoma in situ treated?How is bladder carcinoma in situ treated?

... differs from that of papillary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Endoscopic surgery, which is the initial treatment of ... Drugs & Diseases , Urology , Treatment of Bladder Carcinoma In Situ Q&A How is bladder carcinoma in situ treated?. Updated: Oct ... Treatment of carcinoma in situ (CIS) differs from that of papillary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Endoscopic surgery, ... Morales A, Phadke K, Steinhoff G. Intravesical mycobacterial cell wall-DNA complex in the treatment of carcinoma in situ of the ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/answers/1951847-179625/2002096-overview

Penile Carcinoma in SituPenile Carcinoma in Situ

... , Penile Cancer in Situ, Penile Erythroplasia of Queyrat, Bowen Disease of the Penis, Carcinoma in Situ ... Penile Carcinoma in Situ. Penile Carcinoma in Situ Aka: Penile Carcinoma in Situ, Penile Cancer in Situ, Penile Erythroplasia ... Carcinoma in situ of the Penis, Penile Carcinoma In Situ. Italian. Carcinomi in situ del pene, Eritroplasia di Queyrat, ... Carcinoma in situ del pene. Dutch. peniscarcinoom in situ, Carcinoma in situ van penis, Queyrat erytroplasie, carcinoom in situ ...
more infohttp://www.fpnotebook.com/Uro/HemeOnc/PnlCrcnmInSt.htm

Lobular Carcinoma in Situ | LCIS | American Cancer SocietyLobular Carcinoma in Situ | LCIS | American Cancer Society

Lobular carcinoma in situ means abnormal cells are in the breast. LCIS is not cancer but can signal a higher risk of breast ... Lobular Carcinoma in Situ (LCIS). Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) may also be called lobular neoplasia. In this breast change ... Chapter 22: Lobular carcinoma in situ: Biology and management. In: Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK, eds. Diseases ... Long term clinical follow-up of atypical ductal hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ in breast core needle biopsies. ...
more infohttps://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/non-cancerous-breast-conditions/lobular-carcinoma-in-situ.html

Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Treatment | MoffittDuctal Carcinoma in Situ Treatment | Moffitt

Ductal carcinoma in situ treatment can be highly effective. Because this cancer is noninvasive, its often possible to remove ... Even though many cases of ductal carcinoma in situ will not develop into an invasive cancer, treatment is still necessary for ... At Moffitt Cancer Center, we offer a wide range of ductal carcinoma in situ treatment options. This includes surgery to remove ... No referral is required to receive ductal carcinoma in situ treatment at Moffitt Cancer Center. To request an appointment, call ...
more infohttps://moffitt.org/cancers/ductal-carcinoma-in-situ/treatment/

Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Symptoms | MoffittDuctal Carcinoma in Situ Symptoms | Moffitt

If youd like to discuss ductal carcinoma in situ symptoms with one of our expert oncologists, you are welcome to do so with or ... And, even though ductal carcinoma in situ typically cannot be felt, regular self-exams are still important so that any unusual ... Like many other early-stage cancers, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) does not always cause symptoms. The majority of diagnoses ...
more infohttps://moffitt.org/cancers/ductal-carcinoma-in-situ/symptoms/

Lobular Carcinoma in Situ - Cancer Council VictoriaLobular Carcinoma in Situ - Cancer Council Victoria

Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is an uncommon condition where benign (non-cancer) change is seen within the lobules of the ... On this page: What is lobular carcinoma in situ? , Finding lobular carcinoma in situ , Lobular carcinoma in situ and the risk ... What is lobular carcinoma in situ?. Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is an uncommon condition where benign (non-cancer) change ... Finding lobular carcinoma in situ. LCIS doesnt usually form a lump or show up on a mammogram. Its found by chance when a ...
more infohttp://www.cancervic.org.au/preventing-cancer/attend-screening/breasts-health/lobular-carcinoma-in-situ

Re: [MOL] carcinoma in situ indcervic [00106]Re: [MOL] carcinoma in situ indcervic [00106]

Re: [MOL] carcinoma in situ indcervic. *To: ,[email protected], ... http://alltheweb.com/cgi-bin/search?type=all&query=cervical+carcinoma+in+situ+&exec=FAST+Search ...
more infohttp://www.meds.com/archive/mol-cancer/2000/12/msg00106.html

Lobular Carcinoma in Situ (LCIS) - Cedars-SinaiLobular Carcinoma in Situ (LCIS) - Cedars-Sinai

Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), also known as lobular neoplasia, is a rare condition in which abnormal cells develop in the ... Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), also known as lobular neoplasia, is a rare condition in which abnormal cells develop in the ...
more infohttps://www.cedars-sinai.edu/Patients/Health-Conditions/Lobular-Carcinoma-in-Situ-LCIS.aspx

Carcinoma in situ of the contralateral testis. | The BMJCarcinoma in situ of the contralateral testis. | The BMJ

Carcinoma in situ of the contralateral testis. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987; 294 :121 ... Carcinoma in situ of the contralateral testis.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987; 294 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.294.6564.121- ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/294/6564/121.4

Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and TreatmentDuctal Carcinoma In Situ: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is non-invasive breast cancer, which means it hasnt spread beyond the milk duct into any ... Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is non-invasive breast cancer. Ductal means that the cancer starts inside the milk ducts, ... Home → Symptoms and Diagnosis → Types of Breast Cancer → Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) ... and in situ means "in its original place." DCIS is called "non-invasive" because it hasnt spread beyond the milk duct into any ...
more infohttps://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/types/dcis

Carcinoma in situ | Define Carcinoma in situ at Dictionary.comCarcinoma in situ | Define Carcinoma in situ at Dictionary.com

Carcinoma in situ definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ... carcinoma in situ in Medicine Expand. carcinoma in situ n. A neoplasm whose cells are localized in the epithelium and show no ...
more infohttp://www.dictionary.com/browse/carcinoma-in-situ

American Urological Association - Urothelial Carcinoma in SituAmerican Urological Association - Urothelial Carcinoma in Situ

Concurrent CIS: Identified on bladder mucosa with concomitant papillary neoplasm or invasive carcinoma. ... Urothelial Carcinoma of the Prostate * Carcinoma With Squamous Differentiation * Basal Cell Carcinoma (Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma ... Urothelial Carcinoma of the Prostate * Carcinoma With Squamous Differentiation * Basal Cell Carcinoma (Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma ...
more infohttp://www.auanet.org/education/auauniversity/education-products-and-resources/pathology-for-urologists/urinary-bladder/non-invasive-urothelial-neoplasms/urothelial-carcinoma-in-situ

Papillomaviral sequences in feline Bowenoid in situ carcinomaPapillomaviral sequences in feline Bowenoid in situ carcinoma

Feline Bowenoid in situ carcinoma (BISC) is a rare disease that presents as multiple discrete plaques of epidermal hyperplasia ... PAPILLOMAVIRAL SEQUENCES IN FELINE BOWENOID IN SITU CARCINOMA Feline Bowenoid in situ carcinoma (BISC) is a rare disease that ... 2007): Detection of papillomaviral sequences in feline Bowenoid in situ carcinoma using consensus primers. In: Vet Dermatol. ... Reconstruction of the lower eyelid in cats with squamous cell carcinoma *Transposition of first digital pad for reconstruction ...
more infohttp://www.vetcontact.com/dermatology/art.php?a=1727&t=&f=18

Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast.  - PubMed - NCBIDuctal carcinoma in situ of the breast. - PubMed - NCBI

Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast.. Burstein HJ1, Polyak K, Wong JS, Lester SC, Kaelin CM. ... Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. [N Engl J Med. 2004] ... Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. [N Engl J Med. 2004] ... Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. [N Engl J Med. 2004] ... Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. [N Engl J Med. 2004] ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15070793?dopt=Abstract

Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: Recent Advances and Future ProspectsDuctal Carcinoma In Situ: Recent Advances and Future Prospects

M. Lippman, "Why study ductal carcinoma in-situ?" in Ductal Carcinoma In-situ of the Breast, M. J. Silverstein, A. Recht, and M ... B. Fowble, "Overview of conservative surgery and radiation therapy: ductal carcinoma in-situ," in Ductal Carcinoma In-situ of ... M. Aubele, A. Mattis, H. Zitzelsberger et al., "Extensive ductal carcinoma in-situ with small foci of invasive ductal carcinoma ... Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: Recent Advances and Future Prospects. Kelly Lambert,1 Neill Patani,2 and Kefah Mokbel2 ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijso/2012/347385/

Understanding ductal carcinoma in situ - Harvard HealthUnderstanding ductal carcinoma in situ - Harvard Health

Ductal carcinoma in situ is a very early and highly curable form of breast cancer in which abnormal cells are still in the ... Lobular carcinoma in situ, the other preinvasive disease. Despite its name, lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) technically isnt ... Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is an overgrowth of abnormal cells in the milk ducts of the breast. It starts with the ... Understanding ductal carcinoma in situ. Published: October, 2008. Most women diagnosed with this noninvasive breast cancer are ...
more infohttps://www.health.harvard.edu/newsletter_article/understanding-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ

Genetic Risk Factors for Cervical Carcinoma in situGenetic Risk Factors for Cervical Carcinoma in situ

... Beskow, Anna Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of ... each with at least three cases diagnosed with cervical carcinoma in situ. Other potential risk factors tested were HPV 16 E6 ... genetic risk factors we have typed the HLA class II DRB1 and DQB1 loci in 478 women diagnosed with cervical carcinoma in situ ... risk factors for persistent HPV infection and thereby also contribute to the risk of development of cervical carcinoma in situ. ...
more infohttp://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:162378

Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) | Breast conditions | Cancer Research UKLobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) | Breast conditions | Cancer Research UK

Lobular carcinoma in situ isnt cancer. LCIS means that some cells lining the lobules of the breast tissue have started to turn ... Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Find out what lobular carcinoma in situ is, how it is diagnosed and treated, and about follow ... Is carcinoma in situ a precursor lesion of invasive breast cancer?. T To and others. International Journal of Cancer, 2014, ... Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) means that cells inside some of the breast lobules have started to become abnormal. The ...
more infohttps://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/breast-cancer/stages-types-grades/types/lobular-carcinoma-in-situ-lcis

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo ClinicDuctal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): Diagnosis to first treatment (adult). Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education ... Breast ductal carcinoma in situ: Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search ...
more infohttps://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/dcis/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20371895

Biliary Adenofibroma with Carcinoma In Situ: A Rare Case ReportBiliary Adenofibroma with Carcinoma In Situ: A Rare Case Report

... N. Thao T. Nguyen,1 Theresa R. Harring,1 Laurie Holley,2 John ... "Biliary Adenofibroma with Carcinoma In Situ: A Rare Case Report," Case Reports in Hepatology, vol. 2012, Article ID 793963, 3 ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihep/2012/793963/cta/

Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) & Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) Breast CancerInvasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) & Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) Breast Cancer

... and Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) breast cancers are types that start in the milk ducts. Learn more about how they are ... What is Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS)?. Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS), also known as intraductal carcinoma, accounts for ... How Is Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Treated? What Is Ductal Carcinoma?. Ductal carcinoma is a common type of breast cancer that ... Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) & Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS). In this Article. In this Article In this Article * What Is ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/breast-cancer/ductal-carcinoma-invasive-in-situ

DCIS - Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Breast Cancer - ImaginisDCIS - Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Breast Cancer - Imaginis

The American Cancer Society estimates that more than 62,000 news cases of carcinoma in situ will be diagnosed this year. A ... A common type of carcinoma in situ called DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ or intraductal carcinoma). ... Ductal carcinoma in situ (or DCIS) refers to the most common type of noninvasive breast cancer in women. In situ, or in place ... The term, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), refers to a family of cancers that occur in the breast ducts. There are two ...
more infohttp://www.imaginis.com/breast-cancer-diagnosis/ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-dcis-3
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Penile Carcinoma in Situ. (fpnotebook.com)
  • The American Cancer Society estimates that more than 62,000 news cases of carcinoma in situ will be diagnosed this year. (imaginis.com)
  • Multicentric study comparing intravesical chemotherapy alone and with local microwave hyperthermia for prophylaxis of recurrence of superficial transitional cell carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • For example, carcinoma in situ of the skin, also called Bowen's disease , is the accumulation of dysplastic epidermal cells within the epidermis only, that has failed to penetrate into the deeper dermis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gemcitabine-releasing mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit in vitro proliferation of human pancreatic carcinoma cells. (medscape.com)
  • In situ , or 'in place,' describes a cancer that has not moved out of the area of the body where it originally developed. (imaginis.com)
  • The term carcinoma in situ may be used interchangeably with high-grade SIL. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the TNM classification, carcinoma in situ is reported as TisN0M0 ( stage 0). (wikipedia.org)
  • Carcinoma in situ is, by definition, a localized phenomenon, with no potential for metastasis unless it progresses into cancer. (wikipedia.org)