Giant Cells: Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Giant Cell Arteritis: A systemic autoimmune disorder that typically affects medium and large ARTERIES, usually leading to occlusive granulomatous vasculitis with transmural infiltrate containing multinucleated GIANT CELLS. The TEMPORAL ARTERY is commonly involved. This disorder appears primarily in people over the age of 50. Symptoms include FEVER; FATIGUE; HEADACHE; visual impairment; pain in the jaw and tongue; and aggravation of pain by cold temperatures. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed)Giant Cell Tumors: Tumors of bone tissue or synovial or other soft tissue characterized by the presence of giant cells. The most common are giant cell tumor of tendon sheath and GIANT CELL TUMOR OF BONE.Granuloma, Giant Cell: A non-neoplastic inflammatory lesion, usually of the jaw or gingiva, containing large, multinucleated cells. It includes reparative giant cell granuloma. Peripheral giant cell granuloma refers to the gingiva (giant cell epulis); central refers to the jaw.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Giant Cell: An epithelial neoplasm characterized by unusually large anaplastic cells. It is highly malignant with fulminant clinical course, bizarre histologic appearance and poor prognosis. It is most common in the lung and thyroid. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Polymyalgia Rheumatica: A syndrome in the elderly characterized by proximal joint and muscle pain, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a self-limiting course. Pain is usually accompanied by evidence of an inflammatory reaction. Women are affected twice as commonly as men and Caucasians more frequently than other groups. The condition is frequently associated with GIANT CELL ARTERITIS and some theories pose the possibility that the two diseases arise from a single etiology or even that they are the same entity.Giant Cells, Langhans: Multinucleated cells (fused macrophages) seen in granulomatous inflammations such as tuberculosis, syphilis, sarcoidosis, and deep fungal infections. They resemble foreign-body giant cells (GIANT CELLS, FOREIGN BODY) but Langhans giant cells contain less chromatin and their nuclei are arranged peripherally in a horseshoe-shaped pattern. Langhans giant cells occur frequently in delayed hypersensitivity.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Curettage: A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Carcinoma, Medullary: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Foreign-Body Reaction: Chronic inflammation and granuloma formation around irritating foreign bodies.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Chondroblastoma: A usually benign tumor composed of cells which arise from chondroblasts or their precursors and which tend to differentiate into cartilage cells. It occurs primarily in the epiphyses of adolescents. It is relatively rare and represents less than 2% of all primary bone tumors. The peak incidence is in the second decade of life; it is about twice as common in males as in females. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1846)Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)Carcinoma, Adenosquamous: A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Carcinoma, Endometrioid: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Carcinoma, Merkel Cell: A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cherubism: A fibro-osseous hereditary disease of the jaws. The swollen jaws and raised eyes give a cherubic appearance; multiple radiolucencies are evident upon radiographic examination.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Giant Cells, Foreign-Body: Multinucleated cells (fused macrophages), characteristic of granulomatous inflammation, which form around exogenous material in the skin. They are similar in appearance to Langhans giant cells (GIANT CELLS, LANGHANS), but foreign-body giant cells have more abundant chromatin and their nuclei are scattered in an irregular pattern in the cytoplasm.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Femoral NeoplasmsGingival DiseasesDecapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Carcinoma, Verrucous: A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell: A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Myocarditis: Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Carcinoma, Large Cell: A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Tuberous Sclerosis: Autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome classically characterized by MENTAL RETARDATION; EPILEPSY; and skin lesions (e.g., adenoma sebaceum and hypomelanotic macules). There is, however, considerable heterogeneity in the neurologic manifestations. It is also associated with cortical tuber and HAMARTOMAS formation throughout the body, especially the heart, kidneys, and eyes. Mutations in two loci TSC1 and TSC2 that encode hamartin and tuberin, respectively, are associated with the disease.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal: Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.Arteritis: INFLAMMATION of any ARTERIES.Granuloma, Foreign-Body: Histiocytic, inflammatory response to a foreign body. It consists of modified macrophages with multinucleated giant cells, in this case foreign-body giant cells (GIANT CELLS, FOREIGN-BODY), usually surrounded by lymphocytes.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Histiocytes: Macrophages found in the TISSUES, as opposed to those found in the blood (MONOCYTES) or serous cavities (SEROUS MEMBRANE).Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Epithelioid Cells: Characteristic cells of granulomatous hypersensitivity. They appear as large, flattened cells with increased endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to be activated macrophages that have differentiated as a result of prolonged antigenic stimulation. Further differentiation or fusion of epithelioid cells is thought to produce multinucleated giant cells (GIANT CELLS).Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mandibular DiseasesCombined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells: The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular: A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous: A benign tumor composed, wholly or in part, of cells with the morphologic characteristics of HISTIOCYTES and with various fibroblastic components. Fibrous histiocytomas can occur anywhere in the body. When they occur in the skin, they are called dermatofibromas or sclerosing hemangiomas. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p1747)Maxillary DiseasesMandibular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Tylenchoidea: A superfamily of nematodes whose members are free-living saprophytes or parasites of plants. Ova are sometimes found in human feces after ingestion of infected plants.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous: A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)Synovitis, Pigmented Villonodular: Outgrowths of synovial membrane composed of villi and fibrous nodules characterized histologically by hemosiderin- and lipid-containing macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. It usually occurs in the knee.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Muscle Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Placental Lactogen: A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Sarcoidosis: An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Blood Sedimentation: Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.Spinal NeoplasmsBone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Jaw Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE unspecified. For neoplasms of the maxilla, MAXILLARY NEOPLASMS is available and of the mandible, MANDIBULAR NEOPLASMS is available.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Sacrum: Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous: The most commonly diagnosed soft tissue sarcoma. It is a neoplasm with a fibrohistiocytic appearance found chiefly in later adult life, with peak incidence in the 7th decade.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Skull Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Chemoembolization, Therapeutic: Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Fibula: The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.Tenosynovitis: Inflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath. Causes include trauma, tendon stress, bacterial disease (gonorrhea, tuberculosis), rheumatic disease, and gout. Common sites are the hand, wrist, shoulder capsule, hip capsule, hamstring muscles, and Achilles tendon. The tendon sheaths become inflamed and painful, and accumulate fluid. Joint mobility is usually reduced.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Placentation: The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Mollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Carcinoma, Basosquamous: A skin carcinoma that histologically exhibits both basal and squamous elements. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic: Ischemic injury to the OPTIC NERVE which usually affects the OPTIC DISK (optic neuropathy, anterior ischemic) and less frequently the retrobulbar portion of the nerve (optic neuropathy, posterior ischemic). The injury results from occlusion of arterial blood supply which may result from TEMPORAL ARTERITIS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; COLLAGEN DISEASES; EMBOLISM; DIABETES MELLITUS; and other conditions. The disease primarily occurs in the sixth decade or later and presents with the sudden onset of painless and usually severe monocular visual loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy also features optic disk edema with microhemorrhages. The optic disk appears normal in posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (Glaser, Neuro-Ophthalmology, 2nd ed, p135)Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.

Study on the metastatic mechanisms of human giant-cell lung carcinoma comparison between the strains C and D. (1/25)

The biologic characteristics of the two human giant-cell lung carcinoma strains with high (strain D) and low metastatic potential (strain C) were studied, including karyotype of chromosome, intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i), morphologic changes of cell surface and the expression of nm23-H1, p53, ras, c-myc, c-erbB2, bcl-2 genes and PCNA. The correlation between different biologic features and the metastatic potential of the two strains was analyzed. We found: 1) Both strains had the karyotypic abnormality of -13, -14, -15, +20, +21 with seven same marker chromosomes. Only strain D had the karyotypic abnormality of +7, -17, -18, +X, 7p+; 2) [Ca2+]i of the strain C (984.7 +/- 573.8) and D (517.6 +/- 216.6) was significantly different (p < 0.05). The amplitude of intracellular calcium oscillations of strain C was lower than the one of strain D; 3) strain C had more villous-like protrusions on the cell surface, whereas strain D had more bubble-like protrusions; 4) The expression of nm23-H1 and p53 protein of strain C was all higher than that of strain D. The expression of PCNA of strain C was lower than strain D; 5) nm23-H1 mRNA levels of strain C was lower than that of strain D. We consider that the karyotype of chromosomes, intracellular free calcium, the structure of cell membrane and the expression of nm23-H1 gene, p53 gene, PCNA could be closely related to the metastatic potential of human giant-cell lung carcinoma. They could be used as the sign for judging whether the tumor will metastasize in clinical practice as well as in judging the prognoses of patients.  (+info)

Effect of interleukin-6 on the growth of human lung cancer cell line. (2/25)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of interleukin-6 (IL-6) on the growth of human lung cancer in vivo as well as in vitro. METHODS: To examine the mRNA level of IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) in high-metastatic human lung giant cell carcinoma cell line PG by means of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). To assess the existence of IL-6 receptor complex (including IL-6R and gp130) with the treatment of PG cells by use of recombinant human IL-6 (rhIL-6), recombinant human oncostatin M (rhOSM), and recombinant human leukemia inhibitory factor (rhLIF), respectively. To detect the expression of IL-6 by Northern blotting hybridization and bioactive assay. To identify the effect of IL-6 secreted by PG cells by use of IL-6 and IL-6R antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), and specific neutralizing antibody to IL-6. To document the influence of IL-6 on PG cells growth in vivo through the strategy of the transfection of expression vector inserted antisense IL-6 cDNA. RESULTS: RT-PCR analysis revealed that PG cells expressed IL-6R mRNA. Any one of the recombinant cytokine IL-6, OSM and LIF stimulated the growth of PG cells in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. These results demonstrated IL-6 receptor complex exist in PG cells. At the same time, PG cells expressed IL-6 mRNA and secreted bioactive IL-6. Both IL-6 antisense ODNs and IL-6R ODNs inhibited PG cells proliferation. Treatment of PG cells with IL-6 antibodies reduced the growth of PG cells in vitro. PG cells transfected with IL-6 antisense expression vector showed a decreased growth in nude mice. CONCLUSION: IL-6 functions as an autocrine growth stimulator for PG cells in vivo as well as in vitro.  (+info)

Pleomorphic carcinoma: report of a case with massive pleural effusion and asbestos particles. (3/25)

Pleomorphic (spindle/giant cell) carcinoma (PC) is one subset of large cell carcinoma. It is well known that PC patients have a poor survival rate. This report describes a 68-year-old man with PC. The patient's tumor had a massive pleural effusion. A left lower lobectomy and partial resection of the left diaphragm, peritoneum, and parietal pleura were performed to remove the tumor. Numerous asbestos particles were found in the left lower lobe. This is the first reported case of PC which may have been caused by asbestos particles. Further investigation is needed into whether asbestos exposure causes PC.  (+info)

Effective asymmetry in gap junctional intercellular communication between populations of human normal lung fibroblasts and lung carcinoma cells. (4/25)

The dysfunction of homologous and/or heterologous gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) has been implicated in tumorigenesis of many kinds of cells. Here we have characterized GJIC and the expression of connexins in six human lung carcinoma cell lines and normal lung fibroblasts (HLF). Compared with HLF, all the carcinoma cells showed reduced or little homologous GJIC. They expressed remarkably reduced connexin(Cx)43 mRNA and variable levels of Cx45 mRNA, but neither Cx43 nor Cx45 protein could be detected. However, using a preloading assay, transfer of calcein was observed between donor HLF cells and first order neighboring recipient tumor cells (recipient cells in 1000-fold excess). Transfer from tumor to HLF cells under the same conditions was not seen, although increasing the ratio of donor tumor cells to recipient HLF cells and plating the cells at low density did reveal weak transfer from tumor cells to HLF. Transfection of Cx43 into giant cell carcinoma PG cells increased homologous communication and eliminated the rectifying behavior of heterologous communication. This indicates that the apparent rectification of dye transfer between normal and tumor cells was a product of low rates of heterologous transfer linked to (i) rapid dilution of the dye to below detectable limits through a very well coupled cell population (tumor to HLF) and (ii) concentration of dye in immediate neighbors in a poorly coupled cell population (HLF to tumor cells). These results suggest that the coupling levels may need to exceed a certain threshold to allow propagation of signals over a sufficient distance to affect behavior of a cell population. We propose that the relative rates of heterologous and homologous coupling of cell populations and the 'pool size' of shared metabolites in tumor cells and the surrounding normal tissue are likely to be very important in the regulation of their growth.  (+info)

Clinicopathological features of giant cell carcinoma of the pancreas. (5/25)

BACKGROUND: Giant cell carcinoma of the pancreas (GCCP) as a tumor of high malignancy, large size, and inflammatory reaction occupies 2.1%-12.8% of all cases of pancreatic malignancies. This study was to analyze cases of GCCP collected in 8 years at our hospital in an attempt to describe some features of GCCP in Chinese people. METHODS: The clinicopathological features of 19 patients who had been pathologically diagnosed as having GCCP from 1021 patients with pancreatic malignancies collected by Pancreatic Disease Research Group (PDRG) of Changhai Hospital were retrospectively analyzed compared with those of 96 patients with common pancreatic carcinoma (PC) who were randomly selected from 1002 patients with pancreatic carcinoma. The differences of location, clinical symptoms, imagings, laboratory test, operation and the prognosis of these two groups were defined. RESULTS: Tumors in the head of the pancreas were found in 8 patients (42.1%), and those in the body or tail of the pancreas in 11 (57.9%). The initial symptom was abdominal pain in most patients (57.9%). Abdominal pain (73.7%), dyspepsia (63.2%), weight loss (36.8%) but jaundice were common at the time of diagnosis. The abnormal rates of routine laboratory tests in the GCCP group were lower than those in the common PC group. The assay of tumor markers between the groups of GCCP and common PC was approximately the same. The sensitivity and accuracy of ultrasonography, spiral computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were considerably high. Large carcinoma in stage IV was seen in 9 patients or 47.4% of the GCCP group, a rate higher than that in the common PC group. Osteoid formation was found microscopically in some patients, and poorly differentiated tumor cells were found in most patients. The 1-year survival rate was 17.6%, which was lower than that in the common PC group. CONCLUSION: The clinicopathological features of GCCP are different from those of common PC. Imaging tests can be used together with the assay of tumor markers to diagnose GCCP as early as possible and to improve the prognosis of GCCP patients.  (+info)

Structure analysis and expressions of a novel tetratransmembrane protein, lysosoma-associated protein transmembrane 4 beta associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. (6/25)

AIM: To analyze the structure and expressions of the protein encoded by an HCC-associated novel gene, lysosome-associated protein transmembrane 4 beta (LAPTM4B). METHODS: Primary structure and fundamental characteristics of LAPTM4B protein were analysed with bioinformatics. Expressions of LAPTM4B in HCC tissues and various cell lines were detected using polyclonal antibodies and Western blot. RESULTS: LAPTM4B encoded two isoforms of proteins with molecular masses 35-ku and 24-ku, respectively. The expression level of LAPTM4B-35 protein in HCC tissues was dramatically upregulated and related to the differentiation status of HCC tissues, and it was also high in some cancer cell lines. Computer analysis showed LAPTM4B was an integral membrane protein with four transmembrane domains. LAPTM4B showed relatively high homology to LAPTM4A and LAPTM5 in various species. CONCLUSION: LAPTM4B gene encoded two isoforms of tetratransmembrane proteins, LAPTM4B-35 and LAPTM4B-24. The expression of LAPTM4B-35 protein is upregulated and associated with poor differentiation in human HCC tissues, and also at high levels in some cancer cell lines. LAPTM4B is an original and conserved protein.  (+info)

Combined osteoclastic giant cell and pleomorphic giant cell tumor of the pancreas: a rarity. An immunohistochemical analysis and review of the literature. (7/25)

CONTEXT: The combination of an osteoclastic giant cell tumor and a pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma of the pancreas is distinctly unusual and is associated with an adverse outcome. The origin of these two components within a tumor has long been debated based on the immunohistochemical and ultra-structural analysis. CASE REPORT: Herein we describe a tumor with amalgamation of these two distinct histomorphologies along with a minute focus of well-differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma (on multiple sections) in a 50-year male. On immunohistochemical analysis, osteoclastic giant cells were reactive for CD68 and vimentin confirming histiocytic/mesenchymal derivation whereas pleomorphic giant cells and mononuclear cells were reactive for cytokeratin which proved their epithelial nature. CONCLUSIONS: Although the present case had an equal proportion of both components, it is very important to correctly assess the predominant histology since osteoclastic giant cell tumor has a better prognosis as compared to the more aggressive pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma component.  (+info)

Aggressive giant cell tumour of bone. (8/25)

INTRODUCTION: The surgical treatment of Stage III or aggressive giant cell tumour of the bone, whether to perform intralesional or en-bloc resection, remains controversial. The aim of this study is to identify the effectiveness of en-bloc resection for local control and final oncological outcome of the disease. METHODS: The data of 20 consecutive patients with Stage III giant cell tumour were retrospectively reviewed to determine the local control and oncological outcome after treatment with wide resection. RESULTS: The majority of the patients presented late with mean duration of symptoms of 24 months, and four patients presented with recurrences. All patients were treated with wide resection except for two patients who underwent ablative surgery due to major neurovascular involvement. Ten patients required free vascularised tissue transfer to cover massive soft tissue defect. Local recurrence occurred in one patient who was again treated with wide resection and vascularised flap. Six patients had pulmonary metastases. Two patients with resectable disease were treated with thoracoscopic surgery and they remained disease-free 36 months after surgery. Two patients with multiple lung metastases were treated with chemotherapy and the disease remained non-progressive. The remaining two patients who refused chemotherapy showed radiological progression, and one succumbed to the disease with massive haemoptysis. CONCLUSION: Aggressive giant cell tumour of bone should be treated with wide resection for better local control, and treatment of pulmonary metastases is mandatory for overall prognosis.  (+info)

*Giant-cell carcinoma of the lung

Small-cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Large-cell carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Sarcomatoid carcinoma ... "giant-cell carcinoma" should be limited strictly to neoplasms containing only malignant giant cells (i.e. "pure" giant-cell ... Giant-cell carcinoma of the lung (GCCL) is a rare histological form of large-cell lung carcinoma, a subtype of undifferentiated ... The cells from giant-cell carcinomas are anaplastic, and show no evidence of cell maturation or differentiation, lacking the ...

*Pleomorphism (cytology)

... neuroendocrine cells, Arias-Stella reaction. Anaplasia Cytopathology Giant cell carcinoma of the lung Nuclear atypia. ... Pleomorphism is a term used in histology and cytopathology to describe variability in the size, shape and staining of cells and ... Certain benign cell types may have pleomorphism, e.g. ...

*Combined small-cell lung carcinoma

... spindle cell carcinoma, and giant cell carcinoma. Giant cell carcinoma components are seen much more commonly in patients who ... Squamous cell carcinoma Small cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Large cell carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Sarcomatoid carcinoma ... Combined small cell lung carcinoma (or c-SCLC, and rarely rendered as "small-cell lung carcinoma") is a form of multiphasic ... December 1982). "The clinical behavior of "mixed" small cell/large cell bronchogenic carcinoma compared to "pure" small cell ...

*CD68

"Undifferentiated pancreatic carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells: Report of a case with osteochondroid differentiation". ... giant cells, Kupffer cells, and osteoclasts. This allows it to be used to distinguish diseases of otherwise similar appearance ... However, in some cell types it is detectable only when up-regulated, such as activated but not quiescent microglia, and can ... CD68 (Cluster of Differentiation 68) is a protein highly expressed by cells in the monocyte lineage (e.g., monocytic phagocytes ...

*Alkaline phosphatase

One study tested the structural comparison between the alkaline phosphatase proteins found in liver giant-cell carcinoma and ... embryonic stem cells or embryonal carcinoma cells). Current researchers are looking into the increase of tumor necrosis factor- ... that was immunochemically similar to placental alkaline phosphatase was purified from metastases of giant-cell carcinoma of the ... "Appendix E: Stem Cell Markers". Stem Cell Information. National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human ...

*Invasive carcinoma of no special type

In this group are: pleomorphic carcinoma, carcinoma with osteoclast-like stromal giant cells, carcinoma with ... Cells with too much or too little DNA are called aneuploid. Aneuploid cells are more likely to spread than diploid cells. DNA ... Histopathology of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. H&E stain. The presence of cancer cell in small blood vessels is ... Invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) also known as invasive ductal carcinoma or ductal NOS and previously known as ...

*Large-cell neuroendocrine cancer

They can be benign or malignant, and can occur: in the lung, with one rare form known as giant-cell carcinoma of the lung, for ... Large-cell neuroendocrine cancer refers to the large-cell type of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) that arise from cells of the ...

*International Classification of Diseases for Oncology

Pleomorphic carcinoma M8030/3 Giant cell and spindle cell carcinoma M8031/3 Giant cell carcinoma M8032/3 Spindle cell carcinoma ... NOS Reserve cell carcinoma Round cell carcinoma Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma M8042/3 Oat cell carcinoma (C34._) M8043/3 ... fusiform cell M8044/3 Small cell carcinoma, intermediate cell M8045/3 Combined small cell carcinoma Mixed small cell carcinoma ... cell-large cell carcinoma Combined small cell-adenocarcinoma Combined small cell-squamous cell carcinoma M8046/3 Non-small cell ...

*Hepatocellular carcinoma

... of hepatocellular carcinoma: fibrolamellar, pseudoglandular (adenoid), pleomorphic (giant cell) and clear cell. In well- ... In poorly differentiated forms, malignant epithelial cells are discohesive, pleomorphic, anaplastic, giant. The tumor has a ... "Blockade of IGF-1 receptor tyrosine kinase has antineoplastic effects in hepatocellular carcinoma cells". Biochemical ... apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human HCC cell lines without accompanying cytotoxicity. Thus, IGF-1R-TK inhibition may be a ...

*Large cell

The phrase giant cell is also frequently used, especially with carcinoma. Giant cell tumors include giant cell tumor of bone ... Overview at Mayo Clinic Large Cell and Giant Cell Carcinoma, Giant Cell at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... and giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. Medicine portal Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma Buttock cell Nosology Giant Cell ... Large cell is a term used in oncology. It does not refer to a particular type of cell; rather it refers to cells that are ...

*Mitotic catastrophe

... analysis of the fate of giant cells produced by X-irradiating EJ30 human bladder carcinoma cells". Radiat Res. 159 (6): 705-12 ... Cells that do not immediately die are likely to create aneuploid cells following subsequent attempts at cell division posing a ... Mitotic catastrophe is unrelated to programmed cell death or apoptosis and is observed in cells lacking functional apoptotic ... Mitotic catastrophe is the primary mechanism underlying reproductive cell death in cancer cells treated with ionizing radiation ...

*Cancer

... such as giant cell carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma and small-cell carcinoma. An invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast (pale ... In order for a normal cell to transform into a cancer cell, the genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation must be ... A squamous-cell carcinoma (the whitish tumor) near the bronchi in a lung specimen A large invasive ductal carcinoma in a ... hepatocellular carcinoma) and human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (T-cell leukemias). Bacterial infection may also increase the risk ...

*Michael Stifelman

Osteoclast-like Giant Cell Tumor of the Renal Pelvis Associated With Urothelial Carcinoma: Computed Tomography, Gross, and ... Prospective multi-center study of oncologic outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy for pT1 renal cell carcinoma. BMC ... open nephroureterectomy for the treatment of transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. J. Endourol., 14(4):391-5 ... The detection of renal Carcinoma cells in the peripheral blood with an enhanced reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction ...

*Ovarian cancer

Syncytiotrophoblast giant cells also occur in polyembryomas. Primary ovarian squamous cell carcinomas are rare and have a poor ... Clear-cell adenocarcinomas are histopathologically similar to other clear cell carcinomas, with clear cells and hobnail cells. ... The most common malignancy is squamous cell carcinoma, but adenocarcinoma, basal-cell carcinoma, carcinoid tumor, ... it must have Brenner tumor foci and transitional cell carcinoma. The transitional cell carcinoma component is typically poorly ...

*Sarcomatoid carcinoma

... giant cell carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma, and pulmonary blastoma.. ... Sarcomatoid carcinoma is a relatively uncommon form of cancer whose malignant cells have histological, cytological, or ... Histological variants of lung cancer classified as sarcomatoid carcinoma include pleomorphic carcinoma, ... molecular properties of both epithelial tumors ("carcinoma") and mesenchymal tumors ("sarcoma"). ...

*Gingival enlargement

neoplasm benign neoplasms, such as fibromas, papillomas and giant cell granulomas malignant neoplasms, such as a carcinoma or ... Hyperplasia refers to an increased number of cells, and hypertrophy refers to an increase in the size of individual cells. As ... Subramani, T; Rathnavelu, V; Yeap, SK; Alitheen, NB (Feb 2013). "Influence of mast cells in drug-induced gingival overgrowth". ...

*MTOR inhibitors

In recent study of patients with Renal cell carcinoma, resistance to Temsirolimus was associated with low levels of p-AKT and p ... subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) associated with tuberous sclerosis (TS), and progressive neuroendocrine tumors of ... From March 30, 2009 to May 5, 2011 the U.S. FDA approved everolimus for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma after ... A G0-G1 cell-cycle blockage can be the consequence of inactivation of mTOR in hypoxia-activated pericytes and endothelial cells ...

*Pancreatic cancer

... colloid carcinomas, undifferentiated carcinomas, and undifferentiated carcinomas with osteoclast-like giant cells. Solid ... Other exocrine cancers include adenosquamous carcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, hepatoid carcinomas, ... The next most common type, acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas, arises in the clusters of cells that produce these enzymes, ... Like the 'functioning' endocrine cancers described below, acinar cell carcinomas may cause over-production of certain molecules ...

*Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung

... pleomorphic carcinoma, (2) spindle cell carcinoma, (3) giant cell carcinoma, (4) carcinosarcoma, or (5) pulmonary blastoma. ... Squamous cell carcinoma Small cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Large cell carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Sarcomatoid carcinoma ... Approximately 98% of lung cancers are carcinoma, a term for malignant neoplasms derived from cells of epithelial lineage, and/ ... Carcinoid tumor Salivary gland-like carcinoma Sarcomatoid carcinomas are unique among lung carcinomas in that, although they ...

*List of cancer types

... such as giant cell carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, and small-cell carcinoma.[citation needed] Chondrosarcoma Ewing's sarcoma ... cell lymphoma Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma Mast cell leukemia Mediastinal large B cell lymphoma Multiple myeloma/plasma cell ... Ovarian germ cell tumor Penile cancer Renal cell carcinoma Renal pelvis and ureter, transitional cell cancer Prostate cancer ... carcinoma Medullary carcinoma Male breast cancer Phyllodes tumor Inflammatory Breast Cancer Adrenocortical carcinoma Islet cell ...

*Large-cell lung carcinoma

Giant-cell carcinoma of the lung Basaloid large cell carcinoma of the lung Clear cell carcinoma of the lung Lymphoepithelioma- ... like carcinoma of the lung Large-cell lung carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung ... LCC is categorized as a type of NSCLC (Non-Small Cell Carcinoma) which originates from epithelial cells of the lung. In most ... LCC is differentiated from small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) primarily by the larger size of the anaplastic cells, a higher ...

*Brain tumor

Giant cells - considerably larger than their neighbors - may form and possess either one enormous nucleus or several nuclei ( ... Choroid plexus carcinoma, Choroid plexus papilloma, Choroid plexus tumor, Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour, Ependymal ... Anaplastic cells have lost total control of their normal functions and many have deteriorated cell structures. Anaplastic cells ... Necrotic cells send the wrong chemical signals which prevent phagocytes from disposing of the dead cells, leading to a buildup ...

*High-grade serous carcinoma

However, as HGSC tends to have the same clinical behaviour, regardless of its primary cell origin, determining cell origin is ... Distinguishing between LGSC and HGSC: Necrosis is common in HGSC and absent in LGSC, as are giant (multi- or mononucleated) ... Technically a 'serous carcinoma' can occur anywhere on these membranes, but high-grade serous carcinoma is generally limited to ... tumour cells. Psammoma bodies are more frequent in low-grade serous carcinoma. Tp53 expression is assessed for mutations, ...

*Osteitis fibrosa cystica

Giant Cell Tumor of Hyperparathyroidism)". University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. Retrieved 2008-11-17. Delmez, James ( ... Parathyroid carcinoma Parathyroid carcinoma (cancer of the parathyroid gland) is the rarest cause of OFC, accounting for about ... These cells are characteristically benign, feature a dense, granular cytoplasm, and a nucleus that tends to be ovular in shape ... Parathyroid carcinoma accounts for less than 1% of all cases, occurring most frequently in individuals around 50 years of age ( ...

*CD34

... giant cell fibroblastoma, granulocytic sarcoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, liposarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, malignant ... and papillary thyroid carcinoma. A negative CD34 may exclude Ewing's sarcoma/PNET, myofibrosarcoma of the breast, and ... in a cell surface glycoprotein and functions as a cell-cell adhesion factor. It may also mediate the attachment of stem cells ... Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally found in the umbilical cord and bone marrow as hematopoietic cells, or in ...

*Politicization of science

Revealed: how oil giant influenced Bush, White House sought advice from Exxon on Kyoto stance John Vidal. The Guardian, June 8 ... "In contrast, abortion is associated with increased risk of carcinomas of the breast. The explanation for these epidemiological ... accused the administration in July 2007 of political interference and muzzling him on key issues like embryonic stem cell ... findings is not known, but the parallelism between the DMBA-induced rat mammary carcinoma model and the human situation is ...
Definition of giant cell carcinoma of thyroid gland. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
UCOCGC; poorly differentiated carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells Images Poorly differentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells (...)
The mean age of patients was 56.8 years (range, 46-73 years). The CT appearance of the tumor was similar for all our patients: Large mass, peripheral, heterogeneous density, with massive necrotic tissue component that strongly heightened after contrast injection; tumor had a locoregional extension with parietal and bone invasion (n = 5) and a distance extension (n = 4) to the adrenal glands. Pathological examination found a pleomorphic carcinoma (n = 3), a giant cell carcinoma (n = 1) and a carcinosarcoma (n = 2). Sarcomatoid carcinoma diagnosis was increased for the remaining patients without precision of histological subtype. ...
We also analyzed the latency and "jitter" (the SD of the latency) of responses to ON stimulation. Across the entire GAD65+ PG cell population latencies ranged from 1.8 to 8.2 ms (mean: 3.61 ± 0.22 ms; Fig. 3D) and jitter ranged from 30 to 2,616 μs (mean: 470 ± 70 μs; Fig. 3E). However, cells with spontaneous and ON-evoked single EPSCs had significantly lower latency (2.63 ± 0.06 ms, range: 1.79-4.08 ms) and jitter (173 ± 9 μs, range: 31-298 μs) than cells with spontaneous and ON-evoked EPSC bursts (latency: 4.62 ± 0.3 ms, P , 0.000001, range: 2.16-8.20 ms; jitter 774 ± 119 μs, P , 0.000001; range: 309-2,616 μs).. ET cells provide monosynaptic burst input to ∼70% of PG cells (Hayar et al. 2004b). Thus the burst-sEPSC PG cell responses to ON input may derive from the disynaptic, ON→ET→PG circuit. However, mitral/tufted (M/T) cells could also contribute to this burst response: Back propagation of action potentials initiated near the M/T cell soma into the apical dendrites might ...
CBC Normal Adult Values WBC 5,000 - 10,000/mm3 RBC 4.5 - 5.5 million/mm3 (4 - 5 females) Hgb 14 - 17 g/dl (12 - 16 females) Hct 42 - 52% (36 - 48 females) MCV 84 - 96 fL MCH 28 - 34 pg/cell MCHC 32 - 36 g/dl Platelets 140,000 - 400,000/mm3 RDW 11.5 - 14.5% MPV 7.4 - 10.4 fL
A rare case of aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) located in the mandibular condyle in a 10-year-old boy is presented. The patient came to our attention for a sudden swelling in the right temporomandibular region, the mouth opening was not reduced. A rapid growing mass, depicting soft tissue invasion, in the right condyle of the mandible was found. Clinically and radiographically it resembled to a malignant lesion. The surgical excision of the mandibular condyle allowed a complete removal of the lesion. The histological examination revealed a pseudocystic expanding osteolytic lesion containing blood-filled space separated by connective tissue and many osteoclastic giant cells, which was a conventional vascular ABC. The ABC is an infrequent bone lesion which can only be found very rarely at the craniofacial skeleton. There have been described about 160 cases of ABC originated in the molar region or in upper maxilla and even more rare is the location of this cyst in the mandibular condyle. Only 6 cases were
NGC 6940 is an open cluster in the constellation Vulpecula. It was discovered by William Herschel in 1784. The cluster is nearly a billion years old and it is located 2,500 light years away. It is considered the finest open cluster in the constellation. It is located a bit more than two degrees south-southeast of 41 Cygni and three and a half degrees southwest from 52 Cygni. The cluster is bright enough to be seen even with small binoculars, which can partially resolve it. NGC 6940 is included in the Herschel 400 Catalogue. NGC 6940 has hundreds of members. The cluster is quite scattered and in between its members are also visible field stars. For example, two bright stars, a 8.6 mag B8III giant star at the NE edge and a 9.1 mag A0III giant at the SW corner of the cluster are too young to be true members of NGC 6940 and are probably background stars. The brightest star (lucida) of NGC 6940 is the red giant VG Vulpeculae, a semiregular variable star whose magnitude ranges from 9.0 to 9.5 every 80 ...
Mouden C, de Tayrac M, Dubourg C, Rose S, Carré W, Hamdi-Rozé H, Akloul L, Héron B, Odent S, Dupé V, Giet R, David V. PLoS One. 2015 Feb.. Mechanisms of endoderm formation in a cartilaginous fish reveal ancestral and homoplastic traits in jawed vertebrates. Godard BG, Coolen M, Le Panse S, Gombault A, Ferreiro-Galve S, Laguerre L, Lagadec R, Wincker P, Poulain J, Da Silva C, Kuraku S, Carre W, Boutet A, Mazan S. Biol. Open. 2014 Oct.. Bacterial protein signals are associated with Crohns disease. Juste C, Kreil DP, Beauvallet C, Guillot A, Vaca S, Carapito C, Mondot S, Sykacek P, Sokol H, Blon F, Lepercq P, Levenez F, Valot B, Carré W, Loux V, Pons N, David O, Schaeffer B, Lepage P, Martin P, Monnet V, Seksik P, Beaugerie L, Ehrlich SD, Gibrat JF, Van Dorsselaer A, Doré J. Gut. 2014 Oct.. Dietary intervention impact on gut microbial gene richness. Cotillard A, Kennedy SP, Kong LC, Prifti E, Pons N, Le Chatelier E, Almeida M, Quinquis B, Levenez F, Galleron N, Gougis S, Rizkalla S, Batto ...
A giant cell tumor is one that is made up of a large number of benign (noncancerous) cells that form an aggressive tumor, usually near the end of the bone near a joint. The location of a giant cell tumor is often in the knee, but can also involve the bones of the arms and the legs, or the flat bones such as the sternum (breastbone) or pelvis.. Giant cell tumors most often occur in young adults when skeletal bone growth is complete. Most occur in the long bones of the legs and arms.. ...
Giant Cell Tumor A giant cell tumor is one that is made up of a large number of benign (noncancerous) cells that form an aggressive tumor. It usually develops near a joint at the end of the bone. The location of a giant cell tumor is often in the knee, .... ...
Health and wellness is a very popular topic. There are numbers of businesses, books, movies and websites dedicated to the topic. Each doctor or wellness expert has their own research and opinions on how to achieve optimum health which can be overwhelming. Good health doesnt have to mean expensive treatments and supplements, it can be…
Giant Cell tumors (GCT) are benign tumors with potential for aggressive behavior and capacity to metastasize. Although rarely lethal, benign bone tumors may be associated with a substantial disturbance of the local bony architecture that can be particularly troublesome in peri-articular locations. Its histogenesis remains unclear. It is characterized by a proliferation of mononuclear stromal cells and the presence of many multi- nucleated giant cells with homogenous distribution. There is no widely held consensus regarding the ideal treatment method selection. There are advocates of varying surgical techniques ranging from intra-lesional curettage to wide resection. As most giant cell tumors are benign and are located near a joint in young adults, several authors favor an intralesional approach that preserves anatomy of bone in lieu of resection. Although GCT is classified as a benign lesion, few patients develop progressive lung metastases with poor outcomes. Treatment is mainly surgical. Options of
TY - JOUR. T1 - In situ cell cycle analysis in giant cell tumor of bone reveals patients with elevated risk of reduced progression-free survival. AU - Mate, Maros E.. AU - Sven, Schnaidt. AU - Peter, Balla. AU - Zoltan, Kelemen. AU - Zoltan, Sapi. AU - Szendrői, M.. AU - Tamas, Laszlo. AU - Ramses, Forsyth. AU - Piero, Picci. AU - Krenács, T.. PY - 2019/10/1. Y1 - 2019/10/1. N2 - Objective: Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a frequently recurring locally aggressive osteolytic lesion, where pathological osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction are driven by neoplastic stromal cells. Here, we studied if cell cycle fractions within the mononuclear cell compartment of GCTB can predict its progression-free survival (PFS). Methods: 154 cases (100 primaries and 54 recurrent) from 139 patients of 40 progression events, was studied using tissue microarrays. Ploidy and in situ cell cycle progression related proteins including Ki67 and those linked with replication licensing (mcm2), G1-phase (cyclin D1, ...
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From UniProt:. Porokeratosis 8, disseminated superficial actinic type (POROK8): A form of porokeratosis, a disorder of faulty keratinization characterized by one or more atrophic patches surrounded by a distinctive hyperkeratotic ridgelike border called the cornoid lamella. The keratotic lesions can progress to overt cutaneous neoplasms, typically squamous cell carcinomas. Multiple clinical variants of porokeratosis are recognized, including porokeratosis of Mibelli, linear porokeratosis, disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis, palmoplantar porokeratosis, and punctate porokeratosis. Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP) is the most common subtype. It is characterized by multiple small, annular, anhidrotic, keratotic lesions that are located predominantly on sun-exposed areas of the skin, such as the face, neck, and distal limbs. The lesions typically begin to develop in adolescence and reach near-complete penetrance by the third or fourth decade of life. ...
Cooper and Travers first described giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone in 1818. GCTs of bone have been described as the most challenging benign bone tumors.
(HealthDay)-Xgeva (denosumab) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat giant cell tumor of the bone (GCTB), a rare tumor thats most often non-cancerous.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Topical cholesterol/lovastatin for the treatment of porokeratosis. T2 - A pathogenesis-directed therapy. AU - Atzmony, Lihi. AU - Lim, Young H.. AU - Hamilton, Claire. AU - Leventhal, Jonathan S.. AU - Wagner, Annette. AU - Paller, Amy S.. AU - Choate, Keith A.. PY - 2020/1. Y1 - 2020/1. N2 - Background: Porokeratosis is associated with mevalonate pathway gene mutations. Therapeutic options are few and often limited in efficacy. We hypothesized that topical therapy that aims to replenish cholesterol, an essential mevalonate pathway end-product, and block the accumulation of mevalonate pathway toxic metabolites could alleviate porokeratosis. Objective: To study the efficacy of topical cholesterol/lovastatin in different variants of porokeratosis. Methods: We enrolled a series of 5 porokeratosis patients,1 with disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis, 2 with porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata, and 2 with linear porokeratosis. Patients were genotyped before ...
Understanding Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone has been described as the most challenging benign bone tumors. The majority of these tumors, classically, are involved in the epiphysis of long bones. Although this disorder is benign, GCTs show a tendency of bone destruction, local recurrence and, occasionally, pulmonary metastasis. But axillary lymohnode metastasis is very very rare. Herein, we present an extremely rare case of axillary mets even after below elbow amputation in a case of recurrent giant cell tumor in a 45 yers male residing at Kolkat,.West Bengal. We treat him by radical axillary lumph node dissection.Lymph node histopatho;ogical report shows Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity.. ...
Definition of porokeratosis - Originally (more fully porokeratosis of Mibelli): an inherited (autosomal dominant) disorder of the skin characterized by the pr

Giant cell carcinoma of thyroid gland definition | Drugs.comGiant cell carcinoma of thyroid gland definition | Drugs.com

Definition of giant cell carcinoma of thyroid gland. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical ... giant cell carcinoma of thyroid gland. Definition: a rapidly progressive undifferentiated carcinoma observed in the thyroid ... gland, characterized by numerous, unusually large, anaplastic cells derived from glandular epithelium of the thyroid gland. ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/giant-cell-carcinoma-of-thyroid-gland.html

Current Concepts and Occurrence of Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors: II. Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor Versus Ghost Cell...Current Concepts and Occurrence of Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors: II. Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor Versus Ghost Cell...

... dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT), and ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC), in which many ghost cells emerge. However, ... or peripheral giant cell granulomas. They appear as variably sized odontogenic epithelial islands in a fibrous stroma composed ... Yoon JH, Ahn SG, Kim SG, Kim J. Odontogenic ghost cell tumour with clear cell components: clear cell odontogenic ghost cell ... Odontogenic ghost cell carcinoma: a case report with reference to the relation between apoptosis and ghost cells. Oral Surg ...
more infohttp://jpatholtm.org/journal/view.php?number=3259

Giant-cell carcinoma of the lung - WikipediaGiant-cell carcinoma of the lung - Wikipedia

Small-cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Large-cell carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Sarcomatoid carcinoma ... "giant-cell carcinoma" should be limited strictly to neoplasms containing only malignant giant cells (i.e. "pure" giant-cell ... Giant-cell carcinoma of the lung (GCCL) is a rare histological form of large-cell lung carcinoma, a subtype of undifferentiated ... The cells from giant-cell carcinomas are anaplastic, and show no evidence of cell maturation or differentiation, lacking the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giant-cell_carcinoma_of_the_lung

Giant cell carcinoma | Article about giant cell carcinoma by The Free DictionaryGiant cell carcinoma | Article about giant cell carcinoma by The Free Dictionary

Normal tissue is growth-limited, i.e., cell reproduction is equal to... Explanation of giant cell carcinoma ... Find out information about giant cell carcinoma. see neoplasm neoplasm or tumor, tissue composed of cells that grow in an ... Giant cell carcinoma is a non-small cell carcinoma solely comprising anaplastic, giant tumor cells (Figure 2, D).. Sarcomatoid ... Histologic features that allow for separation of pleomorphic carcinoma from spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/giant+cell+carcinoma

undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells - Humpath.com - Human pathologyundifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells - Humpath.com - Human pathology

UCOCGC; poorly differentiated carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells Images Poorly differentiated carcinoma with osteoclast- ... undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells. undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells. Thursday 29 ... Undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells (UCOCGC) of the pancreas associated with the familial atypical ... Poorly differentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells of pan.tail. * https://twitter.com/sam_albadri/status/ ...
more infohttp://www.humpath.com/spip.php?article19004

Osteoclastic Giant Cell Rich Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: A Case Report and Review of the LiteratureOsteoclastic Giant Cell Rich Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

... Lucía ... "Osteoclastic Giant Cell Rich Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: A Case Report and Review of the Literature," Case ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripa/2014/415328/cta/

Pleomorphic Giant Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas with Hepatic Metastases-Initially Presenting as a Benign Serous Cystadenoma: A...Pleomorphic Giant Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas with Hepatic Metastases-Initially Presenting as a Benign Serous Cystadenoma: A...

... osteoclast-like giant cell and pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma of the pancreas. Although a number of reviews have shown ... Pleomorphic giant cell pancreatic cancer is a very rare and aggressive pancreatic neoplasm. A case of pleomorphic giant cell ... Giant cell pancreatic cancer is a rare neoplasm, characterised by the presence of giant cells, hypervascularity, and an ... whereas pleomorphic giant cell pancreatic neoplasms have more pleomorphic multinucleated giant-cells and mononuclear cells [19 ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2010/627360/

Lung giant cell carcinomaLung giant cell carcinoma

Build: Sat Nov 17 23:53:08 EST 2018 (commit: a759bb7). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
more infohttps://pharos.nih.gov/idg/diseases/DOID:5583

Recognizing giant basal cell carcinomas | CutisRecognizing giant basal cell carcinomas | Cutis

Basal cell carcinoma: Electrodessication and curettage. Take Quiz. Does indoor tanning affect an individuals sun protection ... Basal cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 80% of all skin cancers in the United States. ... Recognizing giant basal cell carcinomas. Take Quiz. ... Managing giant basal cell carcinomas Take Quiz. ... Recognizing & treating cutaneous myoepithelial carcinoma, Pt 1. Take Quiz. Recognizing rare forms of protoporphyria. Take Quiz ...
more infohttps://www.mdedge.com/cutis/quiz/4735/nonmelanoma-skin-cancer/recognizing-giant-basal-cell-carcinomas?channel=245

Carcinoma, Giant Cell - Medical DictionaryCarcinoma, Giant Cell - Medical Dictionary

define Carcinoma, Giant Cell. Explain Carcinoma, Giant Cell. What is Carcinoma, Giant Cell? Carcinoma, Giant Cell FAQ. ... Carcinoma, Giant Cell. Medical Dictionary -> Carcinoma, Giant Cell. Search: Carcinoma, Giant Cell. An epithelial neoplasm ... characterized by unusually large anaplastic cells. It is highly malignant with fulminant clinical course, bizarre histologic ...
more infohttp://medicaldictionaryweb.com/Carcinoma,+Giant+Cell-definition/

Atypical hip pain origin in a young athletic woman: A case report of giant cell Carcinoma<...Atypical hip pain origin in a young athletic woman: A case report of giant cell Carcinoma<...

... for this lesion was found to be giant cell carcinoma - a diagnosis contrary to the original diagnosis of clear cell ... for this lesion was found to be giant cell carcinoma - a diagnosis contrary to the original diagnosis of clear cell ... for this lesion was found to be giant cell carcinoma - a diagnosis contrary to the original diagnosis of clear cell ... for this lesion was found to be giant cell carcinoma - a diagnosis contrary to the original diagnosis of clear cell ...
more infohttps://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/atypical-hip-pain-origin-in-a-young-athletic-woman-a-case-report-

A giant polypoid basal cell carcinoma of the lower extremity.  - PubMed - NCBIA giant polypoid basal cell carcinoma of the lower extremity. - PubMed - NCBI

Less than 1% of basal cell carcinomas are giant basal cell carcinomas. Giant basal cell carcinomas are rare. They ... Giant basal cell carcinomas of 10 cm or greater are associated with a high rate of metastasis. We report a case of giant basal ... A giant polypoid basal cell carcinoma of the lower extremity.. Handjani F1, Shahbaz S, Sari-Aslani F, Aghaei S, Ali-Zadeh AA. ... cell carcinoma of the leg which is not associated with neglect and no signs of metastasis, despite being more than 10 cm in ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20187672

Rare Giant cell carcinoma | Article about Rare Giant cell carcinoma by The Free DictionaryRare Giant cell carcinoma | Article about Rare Giant cell carcinoma by The Free Dictionary

Like benign tumors, malignant tumors do not respond to body mechanisms... Explanation of Rare Giant cell carcinoma ... Find out information about Rare Giant cell carcinoma. cancer cancer, in medicine, common term for neoplasms, or tumors, that ... Related to Rare Giant cell carcinoma: giant cell tumor, giant cell sarcoma ... Rare Giant cell carcinoma , Article about Rare Giant cell carcinoma by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2. ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Rare+Giant+cell+carcinoma

Two cases of breast carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells: Are the osteoclastic giant cells pro-tumoural differentiation of...Two cases of breast carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells: Are the osteoclastic giant cells pro-tumoural differentiation of...

A 44-year-old woman (Case 1) had OGCs accompanying invasive ductal carcinoma, and an 83-year-old woman (Case 2) with ... Immunohistochemically, in both cases, tumoural and non-tumoural cells strongly expressed VEGF and MMP12, which promote ... Breast carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells (OGCs) is characterized by multinucleated OGCs, and usually displays ... Two cases of breast carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells: Are the osteoclastic giant cells pro-tumoural differentiation of ...
more infohttps://diagnosticpathology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1746-1596-5-55

Download PDF Primary Peritoneal Anaplastic Giant Cell Carcinoma: Case Report of an Unusual and Highly Malignant Mullerian...Download PDF Primary Peritoneal Anaplastic Giant Cell Carcinoma: Case Report of an Unusual and Highly Malignant Mullerian...

Primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC) is a rare tumor and tends to occur in elderly women. (1) Like its ovarian counterpart, the ... endometrioid carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, and carcinosarcoma. Primary anaplastic giant cell carcinomas have been described in ... Anaplastic, Carcinoma, Case, Cell, Giant, Highly, Malignant, Mullerian, Neoplasm, Peritoneal, Primary, Report, study, Unusual ... Primary Peritoneal Anaplastic Giant Cell Carcinoma: Case Report of an Unusual and Highly Malignant Mullerian Neoplasm (Case ...
more infohttps://ebooksmd.com/primary-peritoneal-anaplastic-giant-cell-carcinoma-case-report-of-an-unusual-and-highly-malignant-mullerian-neoplasm-case-study/

An indeterminate mucin-producing cystic neoplasm containing an undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells: a...An indeterminate mucin-producing cystic neoplasm containing an undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells: a...

... osteoclast-like giant cell carcinoma (OGCC) and pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma (PGCC) [1]. PGCC shows a sarcomatoid growth ... Mucinous cystic neoplasmIntraductal papillary mucinous neoplasmOsteoclast-like giant cells carcinomaPleomorphic giant cell ... cystic neoplasm and the presence of pleomorphic giant cells in an undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells ... the mixed giant cell carcinoma as a different histopathological entity containing both osteoclastic and pleomorphic giant cells ...
more infohttps://bmcgastroenterol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12876-015-0391-2

Osteosarcomatous differentiation in carcinoma of the breast: a case of metaplastic carcinoma with osteoclasts and osteoclast...Osteosarcomatous differentiation in carcinoma of the breast: a case of 'metaplastic' carcinoma with osteoclasts and osteoclast...

... carcinoma with osteoclasts and osteoclast-like giant cells",. keywords = "Metaplastic carcinoma, Osteoclasts, Osteosarcoma, ... T2 - a case of metaplastic carcinoma with osteoclasts and osteoclast-like giant cells ... carcinoma with osteoclasts and osteoclast-like giant cells. In: Histopathology. 1994 ; Vol. 24, No. 3. pp. 282-285. ... carcinoma with osteoclasts and osteoclast-like giant cells. / Herrington, C. S.; Tarin, D.; Buley, I.; Athanasou, N. ...
more infohttps://discovery.dundee.ac.uk/en/publications/osteosarcomatous-differentiation-in-carcinoma-of-the-breast-a-cas

Giant basal cell carcinoma of the scalpGiant basal cell carcinoma of the scalp

We still observe on the 21st century cases of giant basal cell carcinoma. In our case multiple factors could explain the size ... Final diagnosis: Giant basal cell carcinoma of the scalp. ... biopsy specimen confirmed the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma ... Giant basal cell carcinoma of the scalp. Monia Youssef, Hichem Belhadjali The Pan African Medical Journal. 2014;19:142. doi: ... Giant basal cell carcinoma of the scalp Cite this: The Pan African Medical Journal. 2014;19:142. doi:10.11604/pamj.2014.19. ...
more infohttp://www.panafrican-med-journal.com/content/article/19/142/full/

Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma of the Pancreas with Osteoclast-Like Giant Cells Showing Various Degree of Pancreas...Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma of the Pancreas with Osteoclast-Like Giant Cells Showing Various Degree of Pancreas...

... carcinoma of the pancreas with osteoclast-like giant cells is exceedingly rare. The prognosis of undifferentiate.. ... carcinoma of the pancreas with osteoclast-like giant cells is exceedingly rare. The prognosis of undifferentiated carcinoma is ... Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma of the Pancreas with Osteoclast-Like Giant Cells Showing Various Degree of Pancreas ... Case report We report the case of undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas with osteoclast-like giant cells, showing an ...
more infohttp://pancreas.imedpub.com/abstract/undifferentiated-anaplastic-carcinoma-of-the-pancreas-with-osteoclastlike-giant-cells-showing-various-degree-of-pancreas-duct-invo-1643.html

Giant basal cell carcinoma: clinical-histological characteristics of 115 casesGiant basal cell carcinoma: clinical-histological characteristics of 115 cases

... of basal cell carcinomas (BCC), and studies regarding it are scarce. Our objective was to investigate the clinical- ... AbstractIntroductionGiant basal cell carcinoma (GBCC) is a tumor ≥5 cm in size, with aggressive biological behavior, that ... IntroductionGiant basal cell carcinoma (GBCC) is a tumor ≥5 cm in size, with aggressive biological behavior, that represents 1 ... of basal cell carcinomas (BCC), and studies regarding it are scarce. Our objective was to investigate the clinical- ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/international-dermatology/ijderm/9000/00/000/giant-basal-cell-carcinoma-clinical-histological/98045/00004342

Undifferentiated (anaplastic) Carcinoma - Giant tumor cell with rhabdoid appearance. - IMAGE ATLASUndifferentiated (anaplastic) Carcinoma - Giant tumor cell with rhabdoid appearance. - IMAGE ATLAS

These images are intended for educational purposes and may be freely used for such as long as the Papanicolaou Society and the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology is credited.. ...
more infohttp://www.papsociety.org/atlas/displayimage.php?album=47&pid=171

Giant Acinar Cell Carcinoma of Pancreas Presenting In a Young Patient | AbstractGiant Acinar Cell Carcinoma of Pancreas Presenting In a Young Patient | Abstract

Context Acinar cell carcinoma is rare disease of exocrine pancreas with an indolent course and favorable tumor biology. It ... Giant Acinar Cell Carcinoma of Pancreas Presenting In a Young Patient Context Acinar cell carcinoma is rare disease of exocrine ... Conclusion Differential diagnosis of acinar cell carcinoma of pancreas should be considered in young patient with large tumor ... Histopathological examination with immunohistochemistry revealed acinar cell carcinoma of pancreas. ...
more infohttp://pancreas.imedpub.com/abstract/giant-acinar-cell-carcinoma-of-pancreas-presenting-in-a-young-patient-21717.html

BCC | definition of BCC by Medical dictionaryBCC | definition of BCC by Medical dictionary

giant cell carcinoma. Carcinoma marked by the presence of unusually large cells. ... scirrhous carcinoma. Hard cancer.. small cell carcinoma. Oat cell carcinoma.. SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA ... thymic carcinoma. A carcinoma found in the anterior mediastinum, usually a squamous cell carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, or ... See: papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. renal cell carcinoma. A carcinoma that arises from the proximal tubular cells of the ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/bcc

A giant squamous cell carcinoma of the skin of the thoracic wall: a case report and review of the literature | Journal of...A giant squamous cell carcinoma of the skin of the thoracic wall: a case report and review of the literature | Journal of...

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma can reach a huge size if left untreated. Surgery is the primary mode of treatment, followed ... histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed a well-differentiated infiltrative cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma ... Wollina U, Bayyoud Y, Kronert C, Nowak A. Giant epithelial malignancies (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma): a ... Lagerholm B, Skog E. Squamous cell carcinoma in psoriasis vulgaris. Three cases of squamous cell carcinoma developing in ...
more infohttps://jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13256-017-1281-8
  • Like nearly all lung carcinomas, however, GCCs are exceedingly rare in very young people: in the US SEER program, only 2 cases were recorded to occur in persons younger than 30 years of age between 1983 and 1987. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain benign cell types may have pleomorphism, e.g. neuroendocrine cells, Arias-Stella reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although a number of reviews have shown possible prognostic differences between these two subtypes, the most recent World Health Organisation (WHO) classification places the neoplams in the same category, undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast like giant cells [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is released from several cell types in response to an inflammatory stimulus. (abcam.com)
  • Wakeshima, Y & Ellen, M 2001, ' Atypical hip pain origin in a young athletic woman: A case report of giant cell Carcinoma ', Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation , vol. 82, no. 10, pp. 1472-1475. (elsevier.com)