A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.
Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.
A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.
Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)
A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.
An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)
Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)
Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)
A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
A skin carcinoma that histologically exhibits both basal and squamous elements. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
A carcinoma thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli. Involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular. The neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures. Mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells. Metastases in regional lymph nodes, and in even more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.
Tumors or cancer of the VULVA.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
Compounds that include the amino-N-phenylamide structure.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
An epithelial neoplasm characterized by unusually large anaplastic cells. It is highly malignant with fulminant clinical course, bizarre histologic appearance and poor prognosis. It is most common in the lung and thyroid. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.
An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.
Cancer or tumors of the URETER which may cause obstruction leading to hydroureter, HYDRONEPHROSIS, and PYELONEPHRITIS. HEMATURIA is a common symptom.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Excision of kidney.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askanazy cells.
A malignant neoplasm that contains elements of carcinoma and sarcoma so extensively intermixed as to indicate neoplasia of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
An adenocarcinoma with a hard (Greek skirrhos, hard) structure owing to the formation of dense connective tissue in the stroma. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors of cancer of the EYELIDS.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)
An adenocarcinoma in which the tumor elements are arranged as finger-like processes or as a solid spherical nodule projecting from an epithelial surface.
A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Neoplasms of the SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements.
A malignant tumor of the skin appendages, which include the hair, nails, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and the mammary glands. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Variation in a population's DNA sequence that is detected by determining alterations in the conformation of denatured DNA fragments. Denatured DNA fragments are allowed to renature under conditions that prevent the formation of double-stranded DNA and allow secondary structure to form in single stranded fragments. These fragments are then run through polyacrylamide gels to detect variations in the secondary structure that is manifested as an alteration in migration through the gels.
Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Tumors or cancer of the HYPOPHARYNX.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.

Anticoagulant heparan sulfate precursor structures in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells. (1/312)

To understand the mechanisms that control anticoagulant heparan sulfate (HSact) biosynthesis, we previously showed that HSact production in the F9 system is determined by the abundance of 3-O-sulfotransferase-1 as well as the size of the HSact precursor pool. In this study, HSact precursor structures have been studied by characterizing [6-3H]GlcN metabolically labeled F9 HS tagged with 3-O-sulfates in vitro by 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho-35S and purified 3-O-sulfotransferase-1. This later in vitro labeling allows the regions of HS destined to become the antithrombin (AT)-binding sites to be tagged for subsequent structural studies. It was shown that six 3-O-sulfation sites exist per HSact precursor chain. At least five out of six 3-O-sulfate-tagged oligosaccharides in HSact precursors bind AT, whereas none of 3-O-sulfate-tagged oligosaccharides from HSinact precursors bind AT. When treated with low pH nitrous or heparitinase, 3-O-sulfate-tagged HSact and HSinact precursors exhibit clearly different structural features. 3-O-Sulfate-tagged HSact hexasaccharides were AT affinity purified and sequenced by chemical and enzymatic degradations. The 3-O-sulfate-tagged HSact hexasaccharides exhibited the following structures, DeltaUA-[6-3H]GlcNAc6S-GlcUA-[6-3H]GlcNS3(35)S+/-6S-++ +IdceA2S-[6-3H]Glc NS6S. The underlined 6- and 3-O-sulfates constitute the most critical groups for AT binding in view of the fact that the precursor hexasaccharides possess all the elements for AT binding except for the 3-O-sulfate moiety. The presence of five potential AT-binding precursor hexasaccharides in all HSact precursor chains demonstrates for the first time the processive assembly of specific sequence in HS. The difference in structures around potential 3-O-sulfate acceptor sites in HSact and HSinact precursors suggests that these precursors might be generated by different concerted assembly mechanisms in the same cell. This study permits us to understand better the nature of the HS biosynthetic pathway that leads to the generation of specific saccharide sequences.  (+info)

Differential expression of mouse Disabled 2 gene in retinoic acid-treated F9 embryonal carcinoma cells and early mouse embryos. (2/312)

Using a differential display PCR, we identified a differentially expressed cDNA fragment which was detectable in retinoic acid (RA) treated F9 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells but not in untreated F9 cells. A homology search of the Gene Bank indicated that the cDNA fragment is part of the mouse homolog of the Drosophila Disabled (mDab2) gene. Aggregate cultures of F9 EC cells grown in the presence of the RA differentiated into nonmalignant cells resembling the visceral endoderm of the mouse embryo. Upon induction of endodermal differentiation with 10(-7) M RA, the gene expression of mDab2 was increased gradually during the first 96 h. Neither undifferentiated F9 cells, nor the undifferentiated aggregate cells without RA expressed mDab2. Whole-mount in situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR also showed that the temporal expression pattern of the mDab2 gene coincides with the initiation pattern of RA synthesis that occurs during mouse embryogenesis. Also, two alternative splicing messages of mDab2 were detected in a tissue specific manner. All the data indicate that mDab2 may play an important role in RA-induced signal transduction during mouse development.  (+info)

Tyrosine phosphorylation of C-Cbl facilitates adhesion and spreading while suppressing anchorage-independent growth of V-Abl-transformed NIH3T3 fibroblasts. (3/312)

The protooncogenic protein c-Cbl becomes tyrosine phosphorylated in normal cells in response to a variety of external stimuli, as well as in cells transformed by oncogenic protein tyrosine kinases. Tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Cbl upregulates its binding to multiple crucial signaling molecules. However, the biological consequences of c-Cbl-mediated signaling are insufficiently understood. To analyse the biological functions of c-Cbl, we overexpressed wild-type c-Cbl and its tyrosine phosphorylation-defective mutant form in v-Abl-transformed NIH3T3 fibroblasts. In this system, wild-type c-Cbl facilitated adhesion and spreading of v-Abl-transformed fibroblasts on the extracellular matrix, while reducing anchorage independence of these cells, as measured by their colony-forming efficiency in soft agar. Therefore, overexpression of wild-type c-Cbl exhibits an overall transformation-suppressing effect. By contrast, overexpression of a tyrosine phosphorylation-defective form of c-Cbl increases neither adhesion nor anchorage dependence of v-Abl-transformed fibroblasts. Analysis of the role of individual tyrosine phosphorylation sites of c-Cbl in these phenomena indicates that both phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase and the CrkL adaptor protein may be involved in the observed effects of c-Cbl. To summarize, the results presented in this report indicate that c-Cbl is involved in regulation of cell adhesion and cytoskeletal rearrangements, and that these effects of c-Cbl are dependent on its tyrosine phosphorylation.  (+info)

Retinoic acid promotes ubiquitination and proteolysis of cyclin D1 during induced tumor cell differentiation. (4/312)

Mechanisms by which differentiation programs engage the cell cycle are poorly understood. This study demonstrates that retinoids promote ubiquitination and degradation of cyclin D1 during retinoid-induced differentiation of human embryonal carcinoma cells. In response to all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) treatment, the human embryonal carcinoma cell line NT2/D1 exhibits a progressive decline in cyclin D1 expression beginning when the cells are committed to differentiate, but before onset of terminal neuronal differentiation. The decrease in cyclin D1 protein is tightly associated with the accumulation of hypophosphorylated forms of the retinoblastoma protein and G(1) arrest. In contrast, retinoic acid receptor gamma-deficient NT2/D1-R1 cells do not growth-arrest or accumulate in G(1) and have persistent cyclin D1 overexpression despite RA treatment. Notably, stable transfection of retinoic acid receptor gamma restores RA-mediated growth suppression and differentiation to NT2/D1-R1 cells and restores the decline of cyclin D1. The proteasome inhibitor LLnL blocks this RA-mediated decline in cyclin D1. RA treatment markedly accelerates ubiquitination of wild-type cyclin D1, but not a cyclin D1 (T286A) mutant. Transient expression of cyclin D1 (T286A) in NT2/D1 cells blocks RA-mediated transcriptional decline of a differentiation-sensitive reporter plasmid and represses induction of immunophenotypic neuronal markers. Taken together, these findings strongly implicate RA-mediated degradation of cyclin D1 as a means of coupling induced differentiation and cell cycle control of human embryonal carcinoma cells.  (+info)

The role of chemotherapy in intracranial germinoma: a case report. (5/312)

BACKGROUND: The case of a 29-year-old man with histologically proven simultaneous germinoma (seminoma) of the pineal gland and a stage I embryonal carcinoma of the testis is reported. An intradural metastatic lesion from the pineal germinoma was diagnosed at the level of the first thoracic vertebra. Treatment, after inguinal orchiectomy, was chemotherapy only, rather than conventional radiotherapy for the pineal germinoma. METHODS: Therapy consisted of bleomycin (B), etoposide (E) and cisplatin (P). MRI was used to assess the effectiveness of BEP chemotherapy. RESULTS: A complete remission of the pineal gland germinoma and the epidural metastasis was documented after two cycles of BEP chemotherapy and after 15 months of follow-up the patient remains free of relapse. DISCUSSION: The pathogenesis of simultaneously occurring germinoma of the pineal gland and embryonal cell carcinoma of the testis is discussed. The choice of therapy in these circumstances is a matter of debate and the good result of chemotherapy alone in this patient suggest that primary chemotherapy may be the therapy of choice in patients with pineal germinomas.  (+info)

Interdependent action of RalGEF and Erk in Ras-induced primitive endoderm differentiation of F9 embryonal carcinoma cells. (6/312)

Previous work by us and others has implicated a role for Ral guanine exchange factors (RalGEFs) in Ras-induced cell growth and oncogenic transformation. Here we show for the first time that RalGEFs are involved in Ras-induced differentiation as well. Expression of oncogenic Ras in F9 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells is known to induce differentiation to a primitive endoderm (PrE)-like phenotype, but the downstream signal transduction mechanisms involved are unclear. We found that PrE differentiation is induced by the Ras effector domain mutants, RasV12G37 and RasV12E38, but not by RasV12C40. Accordingly, expression of constitutively active forms of RalGEF (Rlf-CAAX) or Rafl (Raf-CAAX) is sufficient to induce differentiation. Inhibition of RalGEF activity by expression of dominant negative Ral completely abolishes Rlf-CAAX- and RasV12G37-induced differentiation, while it reduces differentiation by RasV12 and Raf-CAAX. Finally, while Rlf-CAAX does not increase Erk activity, inhibition of MEK blocks both Ras- as well as Rlf-CAAX-induced differentiation, suggesting that RalGEFs induce PrE differentiation in a manner depending on basal MEK or Erk activity. Based on these results we conclude that Ras induces PrE differentiation of F9 EC cells via an interplay of Erk-and RalGEF-mediated pathways.  (+info)

Volume of liquid below the epithelium of an F9 cell as a signal for differentiation into visceral endoderm. (7/312)

When retinoic acid-primed F9 cells are allowed to aggregate, they form embryoid bodies with an outer layer of (&agr;)-fetoprotein-producing visceral endoderm cells and an internal cavity. I show that maturation of the visceral endoderm is dependent on the size of F9 aggregates. Size fractionation of aggregates of retinoic acid-primed F9 cells on Percoll density gradients revealed that only aggregates with diameters larger than 180 microm developed into embryoid bodies with an endoderm layer secreting (&agr;)-fetoprotein. Size dependent alpha-fetoprotein-secretion was also observed when retinoic acid-primed F9 cells were cultured on porous microcarrier beads larger than 185 microm. Retinoic acid-primed F9 cells on flat microporous membranes did not differentiate and secrete alpha-fetoprotein unless exposed to a limited volume of medium at their basolateral surface. This suggested that maturation of the visceral endoderm is signaled by the volume of liquid phase below the epithelium. I postulate that the epithelial layer of an F9 aggregate encloses liquid and forms a barrier to diffusion of some critical factor(s). The concentration of such a factor may reach a threshold due to enlargement of the liquid phase during growth of the F9 aggregate and thereby signal maturation of the outer layer of cells into visceral endoderm.  (+info)

Alternative promoters direct tissue-specific expression of the mouse protein phosphatase 2Cbeta gene. (8/312)

Type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), a class of ubiquitous and evolutionally conserved serine/threonine protein phosphatases, are encoded in at least four distinct genes and implicated in the regulation of various cellular functions. Of these four PP2C genes, the expression of the PP2Cbeta gene has been reported to be tissue-specific and development-dependent. To understand more precisely the regulatory mechanism of this expression, we have isolated and characterized overlapping mouse genomic lambda clones. A comparison of genomic sequences with PP2Cbeta cDNA sequences provided information on the structure and localization of intron/exon boundaries and indicated that PP2Cbeta isoforms with different 5' termini were generated by alternative splicing of its pre-mRNA. The 5'-flanking region of exon 1 had features characteristic of a housekeeping gene: it was GC-rich, lacked TATA boxes and CAAT boxes in the standard positions, and contained potential binding sites for the transcription factor SP1. In the 5'-flanking region of exon 2, several consensus sequences were found, such as a TATA-like sequence and negative regulatory element box-1, -2 and -3. Subsequent analysis by transient transfection assay with a reporter gene showed that these regions act as distinct promoters. Analysis of PP2Cbeta transcripts by reverse transcriptase-PCR showed that exon-1 transcripts were expressed ubiquitously in all of the tissues examined, whereas exon-2 transcripts were predominantly expressed in the testis, intestine and liver. These results suggest that the alternative usage of two promoters within the PP2Cbeta gene regulates tissue-specific expression of PP2Cbeta mRNA.  (+info)

Embryonic stem cells and embryonal carcinoma P19 cells produce erythropoietin (Epo) in an oxygen-independent manner, although lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) is hypoxia-inducible. To explore this paradox, we studied the operation of cis-acting sequences from these genes in P19 and Hep3B cells. The Epo gene promoter and 3 enhancer from P19 cells conveyed hypoxia-inducible responses in Hep3B cells but not in P19 cells. Together with DNA sequencing and the normal transcription start site of P19 Epo gene, this excluded the possibility that the noninducibility of Epo gene in P19 cells was due to mutation in these sequences or unusual initiation of transcription. In contrast, reporter constructs containing LDHA enhancer and promoter were hypoxia inducible in P19 and Hep3B cells, and mutation of a hypoxia- inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) binding site abolished the hypoxic inducibility in both cells, indicating that HIF-1 activation operates normally in P19 cells. Neither forced expression of hepatocyte nuclear
TY - JOUR. T1 - Apoptosis of human embryonal carcinoma cells with in vitro differentiation. AU - Yamada, Taketo. AU - Suzuki, Nao. AU - Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi. AU - Matsuoka, Kentaroh. AU - Fukushima, Sachiko. AU - Hashiguchi, Akinori. AU - Hata, Jun Ichi. PY - 1996/2. Y1 - 1996/2. N2 - An in vitro model of apoptosis and differentiation in human embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells was developed to study the mode of cell death and mechanisms of cell death in early development. Death of these cells was induced by treatment with retinoic acid (RA) under the same conditions as those for induction of differentiation. The manner of this cell death was apoptosis, not necrosis, with the morphological criterion for apoptosis. Serum deprivation likewise caused apoptosis in both undifferentiated and differentiated EC cells. In differentiated EC cells, DNA fragmentation was observed in a smear pattern lacking the ladder pattern typically associated with apoptosis. However, in differentiated EC cells, DNA ...
The lamin complement of nuclear matrix isolated from F9 embryonal carcinoma cells was studied during retinoic acid-induced differentiation in culture. Differentiation of the original cells into parietal endoderm-like cells was accompanied by the gradual appearance of lamins A and C while lamin B was present throughout all stages. Lamins were identified by their molecular masses, isoelectric points, recognition by a monoclonal antibody and a polyclonal antiserum, and by peptide mapping. The increase in the amounts of lamins A and C found in the matrix was due to de novo synthesis as no extranuclear pools of these lamins were detected in the undifferentiated cells. These results provide biochemical evidence that, as in amphibian embryogenesis, there are variations in nuclear lamina composition during mammalian development. ...
Adult human male germ cell tumors are unique in their display of histopathologies that resemble different stages of human development, and thus comprise a model system for the study of molecular mechanisms involved in human ES3 cell development (1) . Cell lines derived from such tumors, in particular, EC, have provided an invaluable in vitro resource in which molecular events regulating cell fate/lineage decision can be studied (2) . The EC cell lines can be maintained in an undifferentiated state in vitro, and undergo spontaneous or morphogen-induced differentiation programs. Some display the ability to differentiate along both somatic and extra-embryonic lineages placing them as equivalents of cells in the inner cell mass of the developing embryo (3 , 4) , whereas others exhibit a more restricted pluripotential differentiation program (5 , 6) . Global perspectives of the expression patterns of such cell lines during different differentiation programs may lead to the identification of genes ...
Two distinct murine heat shock transcription factors, HSF1 and HSF2, have been identified. HSF1 mediates the transcriptional activation of heat shock genes in response to environmental stress, while the function of HSF2 is not understood. Both factors can bind to heat shock elements (HSEs) but are maintained in a non-DNA-binding state under normal growth conditions. Mouse embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are the only mammalian cells known to exhibit HSE-binding activity, as determined by gel shift assays, even when maintained at normal physiological temperatures. We demonstrate here that the constitutive HSE-binding activity present in F9 and PCC4.aza.R1 EC cells, as well as a similar activity found to be present in mouse embryonic stem cells, is composed predominantly of HSF2. HSF2 in F9 EC cells is trimerized and is present at higher levels than in a variety of nonembryonal cell lines, suggesting a correlation of these properties with constitutive HSE-binding activity. Surprisingly, ...
Substantial multiplication in vitro of cloned cells from a human embryonal carcinoma cell line, Tera 2, has been obtained in a basal medium (DMEM/Hams F12,50:50, v/v) supplemented with 10 micrograms low density lipoprotein/ml, 100 micrograms high density lipoprotein/ml, 100 ng multiplication stimulating activity/ml, 100 ng insulin/ml and 1 microgram transferrin/ml. The growth rate appears to be similar to that obtained in 10% serum. Furthermore, studies on the expression of cell surface receptors revealed that cloned Tera 2 cells express high-affinity receptors for IGF-II but not for insulin. The cells also express receptors for Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) even though the addition of EGF does not stimulate their proliferation in serum-free medium. These results suggest that the expression of specific growth factor receptors is not an absolute determinant of hormone responsiveness. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Disabled-2 Mediates c-Fos Suppression and the Cell Growth Regulatory Activity of Retinoic Acid in Embryonic Carcinoma Cells. AU - Smith, Elizabeth R.. AU - Capo-Chichi, Callinice D.. AU - He, Junqi. AU - Smedberg, Jennifer L.. AU - Yang, Dong Hua. AU - Prowse, Amanda H.. AU - Godwin, Andrew K.. AU - Hamilton, Thomas C.. AU - Xu, Xiang Xi. PY - 2001/12/14. Y1 - 2001/12/14. N2 - F9 embryonic stem cell-like teratocarcinoma cells are widely used to study early embryonic development and cell differentiation. The cells can be induced by retinoic acid to undergo endodermal differentiation. The retinoic acid-induced differentiation accompanies cell growth suppression, and thus, F9 cells are also often used as a model for analysis of retinoic acid biological activity. We have recently shown that MAPK activation and c-Fos expression are uncoupled in F9 cells upon retinoic acid-induced endodermal differentiation. The expression of the candidate tumor suppressor Disabled-2 is induced and ...
Changes to cell cycle-regulating machinery that occur during differentiation of cells are thought to be responsible mostly for withdrawal from cycling. Here, embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell lines were found that differ in their basal levels of p27 inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases but not in their growth rates, distribution of cells in phases of cell cycle, and their ability to differentiate. High basal levels of p27 did not substitute for up-regulation of p27 that in EC cells normally occurs early after entering a differentiation pathway. Under both standard and differentiation-supporting culture conditions, variances in the levels of p27 were strictly followed by variances in the levels of cyclins D2 and D3. In EC cells genetically manipulated to overexpress p27 protein, cyclin D3 became up-regulated and vice versa. Supposedly, titration of p27 by D-type cyclins, which prevents its inhibitory action toward cyclin-dependent kinase 2, allows for the maintenance of elevated p27 in proliferating ...
Overall survival of 425 advanced renal-cell carcinoma patients treated with outpatient s.c. IL-2/INF-α2a therapy (A). Overall survival of 163 low-risk patients
Mcburney, M W. and Strutt, B, Fusion of embryonal carcinoma cells to fibroblast cells, cytoplasts, and karyoplasts. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 1089 ...
An embryonal carcinoma is a malignant growth that develops in germ cells. Common types of embryonal carcinomas include teratomas...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Understanding the roles of growth factors in carcinogenesis. T2 - Modulation of autocrine growth control by differentiation. AU - Rizzino, A.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - It is widely believed that abnormal proliferation of tumor cells is due, at least in part, to the production of autocrine growth factors that are not produced by their normal counterparts. However, direct support for this belief is seriously lacking. The normal counterparts of the vast majority of tumor cells have not been identified adequately and, thus, the growth factors produced by the normal counterparts of tumor cells have not been described. This review summarizes the remarkable similarity in the types of growth factors and growth factor receptors produced by early mouse embryos and by mouse embryonal carcinoma cells, the stem cells of teratocarcinomas. Based on these similarities and the likelihood that embryonal carcinoma cells are derived from the totipotent cells of the mammalian embryo, it is argued ...
Embryonal carcinoma is a germ cell tumor characterized by primitive epithelial cells with marked pleomorphism and various histologic patterns. It may present in pure form but often is part of a mixed germ cell tumor.
T-cell factor 3 (TCF3), a downstream effector of Wnt signaling in embryonic stem (ES) cells, plays an important role in pluripotent self-renewal and proliferation. Loss of TCF3 delays the differentiation of mouse ES cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of TCF3 on embryonal carcinoma (EC). The mouse F9 EC cell line and a tumor-bearing mouse model were used to evaluate the anti-EC tumor effects of TCF3 in vitro and in vivo, respectively. The overexpression of TCF3 significantly inhibited proliferation, colony-forming and migration in F9 EC cells by approximately 30, 45 and 30%, respectively. The in vivo mouse model showed that the overexpression of TCF3 significantly reduced tumor volume (36.4%) and tumor weight (34.8%), malignancy progression and local infiltration and prolonged the life span of tumor-bearing mice. Overexpression of TCF3 significantly down-regulated Oct4 expression in the F9 EC cells. The results indicate that TCF3 is an inhibitor of the malignant ...
Oshima, R, Stimulation of the clonal growth and differentiation of feeder layer dependent mouse embryonal carcinoma cells by beta-mercaptoethanol. (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 2177 ...
Cell lines. Human AML lines carrying FLT3ITD mutations were kindly donated by Yoshinobu Matsuo (MOLM-13, Fujisaki Cell Center, Hayashibara Biochemical Labs, and the Kurashiki Medical Center, Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan), Neill Giese (MOLM-14; Calistoga Pharmaceuticals, Inc.), Stefan Heinrichs (MV4;11, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, USA), and David Sternberg (Ba/F3-FLT3ITD, OSI Pharmaceuticals). MOLM-13, MOLM-14 (50), and MV4;11 (CRL 9591; ATCC) as well as U937 (CRL 1593; ATCC) were grown in RPMI 1640 with 10% FBS. The murine bone marrow-derived IL-3-dependent Ba/F3 cell line (51) was cultured in RPMI with 10% FBS and 10% WEHI-3B conditioned medium. A Ba/F3 stable line expressing the FLT3ITD mutant N51 (24) was maintained in RPMI/10% FBS/10% WEHI-3B conditioned medium and 750 μg/ml active G418. Human Embryonal Carcinoma 293T (HEK 293T; CRL 11268, ATCC) and Phoenix-Ampho Packaging (Orbigen) cell lines were cultured in DMEM with 10% FBS. Patient ...
Neuronal and mesodermal differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells is characterized by expression of specific marker genes and modulated by activin and fibroblast growth factors ...
Historically, only few chemicals have been identified as neurodevelopmental toxicants, however, concern remains, and has recently increased, based upon the association between chemical exposures and increased developmental disorders. Diminution in motor speed and latency has been reported in preschool children from agricultural communities. Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are pesticides due to their acute insecticidal effects mediated by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, although other esterases as neuropathy target esterase (NTE) can also be inhibited. Other neurological and neurodevelopmental toxic effects with unknown targets have been reported after chronic exposure to OPs in vivo. We studied the initial stages of retinoic acid acid-triggered differentiation of pluripotent cells towards neural progenitors derived from human embryonal carcinoma stem cells to determine if neuropathic OP, mipafox, and non-neuropathic OP, paraoxon, are able to alter differentiation of neural precursor cells in
The expression of the E2A transcription unit of the adenovirus E1A deletion mutant d 312 in murine embryonal carcinoma (EC) stem cells suggests that they contain an activity that will complement viral E1A. We have prepared from these cells in vitro transcription extracts that use E1A-inducible promoters more efficiently than do extracts from a differentiated cell line. Mixing experiments demonstrate that the EC phenotype is dominant. Gel retardation assays using the E2A promoter detect a binding activity present in F9 and PCC4 EC cells but not in differentiated cells. Our data indicate that EC stem cells contain a transcription factor that is analogous to viral E1A and is likely to be involved in the control of cellular gene expression during differentiation. © 1987.
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Genome wide profiling of human embryonic stem cells (hescs), their derivatives and embryonal carcinoma cells to develop base profiles of u.S. Federal government approved hesc lines ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of a murine cellular SV40 T antigen in SV40-transformed cells and uninfected embryonal carcinoma cells. AU - Linzer, D. I H. AU - Maltzman, W.. AU - Levine, A. J.. PY - 1979/12/1. Y1 - 1979/12/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018692275&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0018692275&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 6253135. AN - SCOPUS:0018692275. VL - 44. SP - 215. EP - 224. JO - Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. JF - Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. SN - 0091-7451. IS - 1. ER - ...
INTRODUCTION Cancer of the testes is currently the most frequent neoplasm and a leading cause of morbidity in men 15-35 years of age. Its incidence is increasing. Embryonal carcinoma is its most malignant form, which either may be resistant or may develop resistance to therapies, which results in relapses. Cancer stem cells are hypothesized to be drivers of these phenomena. SPECIFIC AIM The specific aim of this work was identification and isolation of spectra of single, living cancer stem cells, which were acquired directly from the patients biopsies, followed by testing of their pluripotency. PATIENTS METHODS Biopsies were obtained from the patients with the clinical and histological diagnoses of the primary, pure embryonal carcinomas of the testes. The magnetic and fluorescent antibodies were genetically engineered. The SSEA-4 and TRA-1-60 cell surface display was analyzed by multiphoton fluorescence spectroscopy (MPFS), flow cytometry (FCM), immunoblotting (IB), nuclear magnetic resonance
A heparin binding mitogenic protein isolated from bovine uterus shares NH2-terminal amino acid sequence with a protein isolated from newborn rat brain. The cDNAs of the bovine, human, and rat genes have been isolated and encode extraordinarily conserved proteins unrelated to known growth or neurotrophic factors, although identity of nearly 50 percent has been found with the predicted sequence of a retinoic acid induced transcript in differentiating mouse embryonal carcinoma cells. Lysates of COS-7 cells transiently expressing this protein were mitogenic for NRK cells and initiated neurite outgrowth from mixed cultures of embryonic rat brain cells. RNA transcripts encoding this protein were widely distributed in tissues and were developmentally regulated. This protein, previously designated as heparin binding growth factor (HBGF)-8, is now renamed pleiotrophin (PTN) to reflect its diverse activities. PTN may be the first member of a family of developmentally regulated cytokines.
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Pao, P.C., Huang, N.K., Liu, Y.W., Yeh, S.H., Lin, S.T., Hsieh, C.P., Huang, A.M., Huang, H.S., Tseng, J.T., Chang, W.C., Lee, Y.C. (2011) A novel RING finger protein, Znf179, modulates cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. Cell Death and Differentiation 18:1791-1804 ...
Current clinical judgment in bladder cancer (BC) relies primarily on pathological stage and grade. We investigated whether a molecular classification of tumor cell differentiation, based on a developmental biology approach, can provide additional prognostic information. Exploiting large preexisting gene-expression databases, we developed a biologically supervised computational model to predict markers that correspond with BC differentiation. To provide mechanistic insight, we assessed relative tumorigenicity and differentiation potential via xenotransplantation. We then correlated the prognostic utility of the identified markers to outcomes within gene expression and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue datasets. Our data indicate that BC can be subclassified into three subtypes, on the basis of their differentiation states: basal, intermediate, and differentiated, where only the most primitive tumor cell subpopulation within each subtype is capable of generating xenograft tumors and ...
Data Availability StatementThe datasets used and/or analyzed during the present study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. human EC cell line Eca109. The level of cell radiosensitivity was determined by colony formation assay, and the localization of Gli1 was detected using immunofluorescence. Western blotting was used to determine the protein expression levels of Gli1, Shh, patched 1 (Ptch) and smoothened frizzled class receptor (Smo) in the two cell lines. Significantly higher levels of Gli1 were identified in the Eca109R cell line compared with those inEca109 cells (P 0.05). Additionally, western blotting analysis exhibited an increased expression level of the Gli1, Shh, Ptch and Smo proteins in Eca109R, compared with Eca109 cells (P 0.05). Overexpression of Gli1 in the parental cell line led to decreased levels of radiosensitivity and radiosensitivity of the radioresistant cell line was restored through knockdown of Gli1. The present study exhibited that Gli1 ...
Detailed information about the celline expression of FKBP5 in NTERA-2 stained with HPA031092. The antibody showed a High level of staining
Boer B, KNopp J, Mallanna S, Desler M, Chakravarthy H, Wilder PJ, Bernadt C, Rizzino A.Elevating the levels of Sox2 in embryonal carcinoma cells and embryonic stem cells inhibits the expression of Sox2:Oct-3/4 target genes. Nucleic Acids Res 2007 35(6):1773-1786 Abstract ...
Tumorigenesis is often described while a result of accumulated mutations that business lead to development benefit and clonal growth of mutated cells. mouse-human cell blend. To our understanding this is usually the 1st proof that human being malignancy cells of embryonic or somatic roots react to developing indicators produced by the mouse mammary gland microenvironment during gland regeneration by intramuscular shots of the computer virus in the wings of hatchling hens [6]. Fast developing tumors created in nearly 100% of the shot hens [6]. Nevertheless, when the labeled pp60src computer virus was utilized to infect poultry arm or leg embryo cells in 1975 exhibited that the blastocyst was capable to suppress tumorigenesis just when the quantity of embryonal carcinoma cells was lower than 20 cells per shot [19,20]. Further 211555-04-3 manufacture research by McCullough and collagues recommended that adjustments that affect a growth nonpermissive microenvironment framework and/or signaling such ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differentiation of mouse P19 embryonic carcinoma stem cells injected into an empty zebrafish egg chorion in a microfluidic device. AU - Lee, Jin Woo. AU - Na, Dae Seok. AU - Kang, Ji Yoon. AU - Lee, Sang Ho. AU - Ju, Byeong Kwon. N1 - Funding Information: This research was supported by the Intelligent Micro-system Center (IMC, http://www.microsystem.re.kr), which is carrying out one of the 21st Centurys Frontier R&D Projects sponsored by the Korea Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Energy. Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - Mouse P19 embryonic carcinoma (EC) stem cells were xenotransplanted into the emptied chorion, the transparent envelope of a fertilized zebrafish egg (rather than mouse native zona pellucida) combined with a microfluidic device to study P19 EC cell differentiation in the chorion biomaterial. A distilled-water jet was used to remove the innate yolk and perivitelline inner mass from the chorion. P19 EC ...
The retinoids exert potent growth and differentiation effects on normal, embryonic and neoplastic cells. Although retinoids are known to regulate gene transcription through activation of retinoid receptors, the direct target genes of retinoid receptors remain largely unknown. A human embryonal carcinoma (EC) model was employed to determine the importance of p53 in retinoid-mediated differentiation and signaling. The hypothesis was that one mechanism by which retinoids regulate gene expression and mediate beneficial anti-tumor effects is by activation of p53 transactivation activity. RA was found to enhance the transactivation function of p53 in the human EC line NT2/D1. A derived RA-resistant line, NT2/D1-R1, was deficient in this activity, and also exhibited cross-resistance to cisplatin. This suggested a model in which RA and cisplatin signaling pathways impinge upon p53 in human EC cells. Further evidence generated to support this model is the following: (1) RA-induced p53 activity could be ...
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PRAD-1 is a putative oncogene localized on chromosome 11q13 which encodes cyclin D1, a novel cyclin involved in cell cycle regulation. Amplification of this gene has recently been reported in several human tumors including breast and head and neck carcinomas. In this study we have analyzed the presence of PRAD-1/cyclin D1 gene amplification and mRNA overexpression in a series of 46 matched normal mucosas and squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx. PRAD-1/cyclin D1 was found to be amplified 2- to 12-fold in 17 carcinomas (37%). DNA amplification correlated with advanced local invasion (P = 0.0015), presence of lymph node metastases (P = 0.0078), and stage IV of the tumors (P = 0.0021). mRNA overexpression was found in 15 of the 43 (35%) cases examined and it was also significantly associated with advanced local invasion (P = 0.0025) and stage IV carcinomas (P = 0.0032). A significant association was observed between gene amplification and mRNA overexpression (P , 0.0001) with only 3 discordant ...
Vertebrate Hox and Otx genes encode homeodomain-containing transcription factors thought to transduce positional information along the body axis in the segmental portion of the trunk and in the rostral brain, respectively. Moreover, Hox and Otx2 genes show a complementary spatial regulation during embryogenesis. A 1821-base pair (bp) upstream DNA fragment of the Otx2 gene is positively regulated by co-transfection with expression vectors for the human HOXB1, HOXB2, and HOXB3 proteins in an embryonal carcinoma cell line (NT2/D1) and a shorter fragment of only 534 bp is able to drive this regulation. The HOXB1, HOXB2, and HOXB3 DNA-binding region on the 534-bp Otx2 genomic fragment has been demonstrated using nuclear extracts from Hox-transfected COS cells and 12.5 days postcoitum mouse embryos or HOXB3 homeodomain-containing bacterial extracts. HOXB1, HOXB3, and nuclear extracts from 12.5 day mouse embryos bind to a sequence containing two palindromic TAATTA sites, which bear four copies of the ...
The number of down regulated genes ranged from 4. 7% in NTERA 2 R NTERA 2 to 37. 7% in NCCIT R NCCIT and 53. 3% in 2102EP R 2102EP cell line pairs. Thirty four overlapping genes were found in the two pairs NTERA 2 R NTERA 2 and NCCIT R NCCIT. The overlap ping number of differentially expressed genes was only 5 between cell line blog of sinaling pathways pairs NTERA 2 R NTERA 2 and 2102EP R 2102EP, and 6 between NCCIT R NCCIT and 2102EP R 2102EP. Only hsa miR 10b cell lines exposed to increasing concentrations of cisplatin resulted in a 2. 7 11. 3 increase in IC50 to the substance, as measured by the MTT assay 2,5 Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide. Whereas the IC50 values of the sensitive parental cell lines were 0. 45 uM, 0. 75 uM, and 1. 75 uM, respectively, the three cisplatin resistant sublines exhibited IC50 values of 5.. 1 uM in NTERA 2R, 4. 9 uM Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries in 2102EP R, and 4. 7 uM in NCCIT R. Results of the cytotoxicity experiments have been reported else where. and has miR ...
Figure 3: The cells were biopsied directly from the primary tumors of the patients diagnosed with the embryonal carcinoma of the testes (huECT bio) (in the figure 3, the patients encoded 001-009), the mononuclear cells from bone marrow (huBMMC) and from peripheral blood (huPBMC), the cultured human embryonic stem cell lines (H1, H13, H14) (huESC cc), and the cultured cells from metastasis to lungs of the testicular embryonal carcinoma (NT2D1) (huECT cc), labeled with the superparamagnetic Fvs targeting TRA-1-6- and SSEA-4, and isolated with magnetic sorter to enrich the samples purity better than 99.5% with the statistical significance accepted at p , 0.001 ...
Many studies over the past 10 years, culminating in the recent report of the International Stem Cell Initiative (ISCI, 2011) have shown that hPSC acquire genetic and epigenetic changes during their time in culture. Many of the genetic changes are non-random and recurrent, probably because they provide a selective growth advantage to the undifferentiated cells. Some are shared by embryonal carcinoma cells, the malignant counterparts of ES cells. The origins of these growth advantages are poorly understood, but may come from altered cell cycle dynamics, resistance to apoptosis or altered patterns of differentiation. Less is known about the nature and consequences of epigenetic changes, but it is likely that these similarly affect hPSC behaviour; e.g., enhanced expression of DLK1, an imprinted gene, is associated with altered hPSC growth (Enver et al 2005). Inevitably, these genetic and epigenetic changes will impact on our ability to use hPSC for regenerative medicine, either because malignant ...
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common neurodegenerative disease that is caused by mutations in the survival of motor neuron gene (SMN), leading to reduced levels of the SMN protein in affected individuals. In SMA, motor neurons selectively degenerate, however, the mechanism of cell death and the precise role of SMN in this process are not completely understood. In this study, we apply RNA interference (RNAi) to knockdown Smn gene expression in the murine embryonal carcinoma stem cell line P19, which can be differentiated into neuronal cells. A direct effect of Smn loss on apoptotic cell death in differentiated P19 neuronal cells, and to a lesser extent in undifferentiated cells was observed. Apoptosis could be partly reversed by expression of an SMN rescue construct, was reversible by the addition of the caspase-inhibitor ZVAD-fmk and involved the cytochrome c pathway. This study shows for the first time that knockdown of SMN results in apoptosis in mammalian neuronal cells and has implications for
ERV can be put to physiological use by their hosts, either at the gene regulatory level or as proteins. Tissue-specific enhancers in the ERV LTR are an example of transcriptional control. All mammals express amylase in the pancreas, but rodents and Old World primates also express amylase in salivary glands. In both the cases, ERV elements play a role in salivary expression in remarkably convergent evolution. The activation of salivary amylase in the human parotid gland is controlled by a retroviral insertion, which occurred during Old World primate evolution [54]. Then gene triplication of the amylase gene and its LTR enhancer to further enhance amylase secretion occurred after hominids split from chimpanzees. It may have provided selective advantage to the hominid lineage when, like rodents, they adopted a diet containing complex carbohydrates.. Many years ago, it was noted that MLV is not transcriptionally active in murine embryonal carcinoma stem cells, but that during differentiation into ...
Human tissue samples. Fresh frozen human nonneoplastic brain tissue and human tumor samples were obtained from the Department of Pathology at Brigham and Womens Hospital. All human materials were used in accordance with the policies of institutional review board at Brigham and Womens Hospital.. Cell lines and culturing conditions. Early-passage (passage 3) cultures from four independent human high-grade gliomas were a generous gift from Dr. David Louis (Massachusetts General Hospital). From each of the four high-grade gliomas, three cultures were established to give a total of 12 early-passage cultures (passage 3) used in our studies. Human glioblastoma cell lines A172, U87, LN229, U373, LN428, and LN308 were kindly donated by Drs. Azad Bonni and Rosalind Segal (Harvard University). All glioblastoma cell lines were maintained in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Undifferentiated P19 mouse embryonal carcinoma cells were cultured in αMEM supplemented with 10% FBS and were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression and functional significance of HtrA1 loss in endometrial cancer. AU - Mullany, Sally A.. AU - Moslemi-Kebria, Mehdi. AU - Rattan, Ramandeep. AU - Khurana, Ashwani. AU - Clayton, Amy. AU - Ota, Takayo. AU - Mariani, Andrea. AU - Podratz, Karl C.. AU - Chien, Jeremy. AU - Shridhar, Viji. PY - 2011/2/1. Y1 - 2011/2/1. N2 - Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if loss of serine protease HtrA1 in endometrial cancer will promote the invasive potential of EC cell lines. Experimental design: Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry methods were used to determine HtrA1 expression in EC cell lines and primary tumors, respectively. Migration, invasion assays and in vivo xenograft experiment were performed to compare the extent of metastasis between HtrA1 expressing and HtrA1 knocked down clones. Results: Western blot analysis of HtrA1 in 13 EC cell lines revealed complete loss of HtrA1 expression in all seven papillary serous EC cell lines. Downregulation of ...
The development of tumor cell differentiation agents is new initiative in cancer treatment research. The goal of this project was to identify breast cancer differentiation agents by screening quinoline ring-containing compounds obtained form National Cancer Institute Compound Library. Of six differentiation-inducing quinolines NSC3852 was chosen as a lead compound. Our results demonstrate that NSC3852 is an inhibitor of HDAC activity in HeLa and MCF-7 cells nuclear extracts. NSC3852 caused superoxide generation in MCF-7 cells in a NADPH oxidase-dependent fashion, and NSC3852-induced oxidative stress led to the shift in a redox potential of the cells to a more oxidized state. This change in redox status of the cells was accompanied by the accumulation of hypophosphorylated pRb, downregulation of E2F-1 and Myc transcription factor protein levels, and cell differentiation. Superoxide formation in response to NSC3852 exposure caused DNA damage and subsequently apoptosis. MCF-7 cells growth was inhibited.
1. National Cancer Institute. NCI Thesaurus Version 18.11d. https://ncit.nci.nih.gov/ncitbrowser/ [2018-08-28]. [2018-09-21].. 2. The AACR Project GENIE Consortium. AACR Project GENIE: powering precision medicine through an international consortium. Cancer Discovery. 2017;7(8):818-831. Dataset Version 8. This dataset does not represent the totality of the genetic landscape; see paper for more information.. 3. All assertions and clinical trial landscape data are curated from primary sources. You can read more about the curation process here.. ...
Background: Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) is involved in Wnt-5a-induced migration of gastric and breast cancer cells. We investigated the roles of RhoA and Wnt-5a in ovarian carcinoma. Methods: RhoA and Wnt-5a mRNA and protein expression in normal fallopian tube epithelium, benign tumors, primary ovarian carcinomas, and metastatic omentum were quantified. RhoA or Wnt-5a was knocked down in OVCAR3 ovarian carcinoma cells using siRNAs and cell phenotype and expression of relevant molecules were assayed. Results: RhoA and Wnt-5a mRNA and protein expression were found to be significantly higher in metastatic omentum than in ovarian carcinomas, benign tumors, and normal fallopian tube epithelium (p < 0.05), and positively associated with differentiation and FIGO staging (stage I/II vs. stage III/IV) in ovarian carcinoma (p < 0.05). RhoA and Wnt-5a expression were positively correlated in ovarian carcinoma (p = 0.001, R2 = 0.1669). RhoA or Wnt-5a knockdown downregulated RhoA and Wnt-5a
In contrast to many other genes containing a CpG island, the testis-specific H2B (TH2B) histone gene exhibits tissue-specific methylation patterns in correlation with gene activity. Characterization of the methylation patterns within a 20-kb segment containing the TH2A and TH2B genes in comparison with that in a somatic histone cluster revealed that: (i) the germ cell-specific unmethylated domain of the TH2A and TH2B genes is defined as a small region surrounding the CpG islands of the TH2A and TH2B genes and (ii) somatic histone genes are unmethylated in both liver and germ cells, like other genes containing CpG islands, whereas flanking sequences are methylated. Transfection of in vitro-methylated TH2B, somatic H2B, and mouse metallothionein I constructs into F9 embryonal carcinoma cells revealed that the CpG islands of the TH2A and TH2B genes were demethylated like those of the somatic H2A and H2B genes and the metallothionein I gene. The demethylation of those CpG islands became ...
We previously discovered a pericellular matrix keratan sulphate/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan present about the surface of human being embryonal carcinoma stem cells, cells whose differentiation mimics early development. sulphate glycosaminoglycans (analyzed in Funderburgh, 2000). Within an previous research, we reported the purification from the matrix-associated proteoglycan from individual EC Epothilone B cells (Cooper et al. 1992). A lot of the materials therefore isolated was within an aggregated type. While keratan chondroitin and sulphate sulphate accounted for every one of the glycosaminoglycan articles from the pericellular matrix type, just chemical deglycosylation attained comprehensive removal of glucose residues, to reveal primary protein rings of Mr 55 and 48 kDa. Weve observed previously which the proteoglycan could possibly be discovered in culture moderate by immunoassay (Pera et al. 1988). Therefore, a fresh purification protocol originated to review the secreted type of ...
gp200 renal cell carcinoma marker, 0.1 mg. |p|gp200 is a surface membrane glycoprotein expressed on human embryonal carcinoma and is a malignant stem cell of testicular tumors.
Clone REA157 recognizes the TRA-1-60 antigen, a neuraminidase-resistant carbohydrate epitope expressed on podocalyxin, which is a transmembrane glycoprotein. Podocalyxin is a member of the CD34-related family of sialomucins and is recognized as a stem cell and tumor marker. TRA-1-60 antigen is expressed on the surface of human embryonic stem cells (ESC), embryonic germ cells (EG), and embryonic carcinoma cells (EC). Expression of TRA-1-60 is lost upon differentiation and thus it can be used to assess the differentiation stage of the cells. TRA-1-60 can be detected in the serum of patients with germ cell tumors which contain an EC component.Additional information: Clone REA157 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Belgique
Downregulation of miR-320a/383-sponge-like long non-coding RNA NLC1-C (narcolepsy candidate-region 1 genes) is associated with male infertility and promotes testicular embryonal carcinoma cell proliferation. Lü M, et al. Cell Death and Disease, 2015 ...
Because embryonal carcinoma can differentiate into cells of all three germ layers, P19 cells can also differentiate into those ... When embryonal carcinoma cells are cultured at high density, they start to differentiate. By aggregating the cells into an ... van der Heyden, MA; Defize, LH (2003-05-01). "Twenty one years of P19 cells: what an embryonal carcinoma cell line taught us ... For developmental biologists, embryonal carcinoma, which is derived from teratocarcinoma, is a good object for developmental ...
Gerard, Smith, Austin (1986). "Genetic analysis of embryonal carcinoma cells". hdl:1842/20194. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal ...
... embryonal carcinoma, teratocarcinoma, and choriocarcinoma; clinical and microscopical analysis (20 min; color). PMF 5316 (1957 ...
Schopperle WM, Kershaw DB, DeWolf WC (Jan 2003). "Human embryonal carcinoma tumor antigen, Gp200/GCTM-2, is podocalyxin". ...
Boulter CA, Wagner EF (March 1988). "The effects of v-src expression on the differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells". ... Przyborski SA (2001). "Isolation of human embryonal carcinoma stem cells by immunomagnetic sorting". Stem Cells. 19 (6): 500-4 ... "The small heat shock protein hsp25 is accumulated in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells and embryonic stem cells of line BLC6 during ... acid represses a cassette of candidate pluripotency chromosome 12p genes during induced loss of human embryonal carcinoma ...
Zhang L, Yoshida K, Liu J, Rosenberg RD (1999). "Anticoagulant heparan sulfate precursor structures in F9 embryonal carcinoma ...
When Piccolo died in 1970, embryonal cell carcinoma was 100% fatal. With advances in medicine over the years, more than 50% of ... He was then diagnosed with embryonal cell carcinoma, an aggressive form of testicular cancer that had already spread to his ...
The most common specific subtypes are intratubular embryonal carcinoma and intratubular seminoma.[citation needed] GCNIS is ... unspecified variant of the entity was once considered to be a carcinoma in situ, although the term "carcinoma in situ" is now ... Carcinoma in situ Germ cell tumor ITGCN. H&E stain. Williamson, Sean R; Delahunt, Brett; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Algaba, ... Dieckmann KP, Skakkebaek NE (December 1999). "Carcinoma in situ of the testis: review of biological and clinical features". Int ...
"Switched alternative splicing of oncogene CoAA during embryonal carcinoma stem cell differentiation". Nucleic Acids Research. ...
Jones-Villeneuve EM, McBurney MW, Rogers KA, Kalnins VI (1982). "Retinoic acid induces embryonal carcinoma cells to ... Historically, embryonic carcinoma (EC) cells have also been used. Fibroblasts or other differentiated cell types have been used ...
"The secreted glycoprotein CREG enhances differentiation of NTERA-2 human embryonal carcinoma cells". Oncogene. 19 (17): 2120-8 ...
Aizawa T, Maruyama K, Kondo H, Yoshikawa K (1992). "Expression of necdin, an embryonal carcinoma-derived nuclear protein, in ...
1984). "Pluripotent embryonal carcinoma clones derived from the human teratocarcinoma cell line Tera-2. Differentiation in vivo ... NTERA-2 cells were originally isolated from a lung metastasis from a 22-year-old male patient with primary embryonal carcinoma ... The NTERA-2 (also designated NTERA2/D1, NTERA2, or NT2) cell line is a clonally derived, pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma ... Andrews PW (1984). "Retinoic acid induces neuronal differentiation of a cloned human embryonal carcinoma cell line in vitro". ...
Schoorlemmer J, Kruijer W (December 1991). "Octamer-dependent regulation of the kFGF gene in embryonal carcinoma and embryonic ... knockdown of Oct4 and beta2-microglobulin expression by RNA interference in human embryonic stem cells and embryonic carcinoma ...
... embryonal carcinoma) cell line". Developmental Brain Research. 84 (1): 130-41. doi:10.1016/0165-3806(94)00166-W. PMID 7720212. ...
"Gap junction blockage interferes with neuronal and astroglial differentiation of mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma cells". Dev. ...
In pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells, LIN28 is localized in the ribosomes, P-bodies and stress granules. LIN28 is thought ... "Micro-RNA regulation of the mammalian lin-28 gene during neuronal differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells". Molecular and ...
"Renal cell carcinoma antigen is expressed by yolk sac tumors and yolk sac elements of embryonal carcinomas". Applied ... "A new gene coding for an antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on a human renal carcinoma". Immunogenetics. ... of RAGE-1 and MAGE-9 peptide-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte lines for transfer in patients with renal cell carcinoma". ...
"AP-1 and Krox-24 transcription factors activate the neurofilament light gene promoter in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells". Cell ...
It is the most common testicular tumor in children under three, and is also known as infantile embryonal carcinoma. This age ... particularly teratoma and embryonal carcinoma. While pure teratoma is usually benign, endodermal sinus tumor is malignant. ...
... embryonal carcinoma & yolk sac tumor (11%), seminoma & embryonal carcinoma (16%), and teratoma & embryonal carcinoma (26%). The ... embryonal carcinoma, gonadoblastoma, teratoma & yolk sac tumor Mixed GCTs: a combination of EGCTs. Common combinations include ...
"Downregulation of microRNA-383 is associated with male infertility and promotes testicular embryonal carcinoma cell ...
... of a 54K Dalton cellular SV40 tumor antigen present in SV40-transformed cells and uninfected embryonal carcinoma cells". Cell. ... naturally infects humans and is associated with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare form of skin cancer originating from Merkel ... "Clonal Integration of a Polyomavirus in Human Merkel Cell Carcinoma". Science. 319 (5866): 1096-1100. Bibcode:2008Sci... ...
The potential role for human JADE1 in the renewal of embryonic stem cell and embryonal carcinoma cell cultures was suggested in ... "A data integration approach to mapping OCT4 gene regulatory networks operative in embryonic stem cells and embryonal carcinoma ... In a handful of pilot studies JADE1 expression was examined in colon cancers and renal carcinomas. The results in these studies ... The human pVHL is mutated in von Hippel-Lindau hereditary disease, and in majority of sporadic clear cell renal carcinomas. ...
"The TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81 human pluripotent stem cell markers are expressed on podocalyxin in embryonal carcinoma". Stem Cells ... Thomas SN, Schnaar RL, Konstantopoulos K (Mar 2009). "Podocalyxin-like protein is an E-/L-selectin ligand on colon carcinoma ... Sialylated, O-glycosylated glycoforms of podocalyxin expressed by colon carcinoma cells possess L-selectin and E-selectin ... binding activity, and the affinity of the binding may be pivotal to the metastatic spread of colon carcinoma cells. At the ...
... and HOXB3 proteins and the upstream sequence of the Otx2 gene in embryonal carcinoma cells". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (18): 11092-9. ...
"A heparin binding protein whose expression increases during differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells to parietal endoderm ...
... and HOXB3 proteins and the upstream sequence of the Otx2 gene in embryonal carcinoma cells". The Journal of Biological ...
... embryonal carcinoma). The cancer had spread to his lymph nodes, lungs, brain, and abdomen. He visited urologist Jim Reeves in ...
This kind of mixed germ cell tumor may be known simply as a teratoma with elements of embryonal carcinoma or choriocarcinoma, ... Teratocarcinoma refers to a germ cell tumor that is a mixture of teratoma with embryonal carcinoma, or with choriocarcinoma, or ... embryonal carcinoma and/or choriocarcinoma. They can present in the anterior mediastinum.[citation needed] Some investigators ...
CNS embryonal tumors. *Medulloblastoma. *Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor. *Embryonal tumour with multilayered rosettes ...
CNS embryonal tumors. *Medulloblastoma. *Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor. *Embryonal tumour with multilayered rosettes ...
F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... Catenin and EMT interactions may also play a role in hepatocellular carcinoma. VEGF-B treatment of hepatoma carcinoma cells can ... Kobielak A, Fuchs E (February 2006). "Links between alpha-catenin, NF-kappaB, and squamous cell carcinoma in skin". Proc. Natl ... In another example, Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been identified as activating microRNA-181s in hepatocellular carcinoma that ...
... signaling and they are implicated as potent oncogenes in the embryonal carcinoma cell. The protein encoded by this gene ... "Expression of the GLI2 oncogene and its isoforms in human basal cell carcinoma". The British Journal of Dermatology. 148 (5): ... resembling those of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Unlike Gli1 transgenic mice, Gli2 transgenic mice only developed BCC-like ...
... of all-trans retinoic acid dependent expression of HOXB and HOXC homeogenes in human embryonal and small-cell lung carcinoma ...
It plays an important role during embryonal development as programmed cell death and accompanies a variety of normal ... In particular, overexpression of HSP72 has been linked to the development some cancers, such as hepatocellular carcinoma, ... Therefore, the vaccine holds promise for treating hepatocellular carcinoma. Alternatively, overexpression of Hsp70 can mitigate ...
... embryonic stem cells or embryonal carcinoma cells). There is a positive correlation between serum bone alkaline phosphatase ... One study compared the enzymes of liver metastases of giant-cell lung carcinoma and nonmalignant placental cells. The two were ...
... is highly expressed in the embryonal brain, and in numerous tissues in the embryo and adult organism. Elevated expression ... and renal cell carcinoma cells. A non-coding RNA, named B2, extending from 10 kb upstream of NEDD9 exon 1 to exon 4 has been ... in renal cell carcinoma". J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 140 (3): 387-97. doi:10.1007/s00432-013-1577-z. PMID 24384875. S2CID ... "Human enhancer of filamentation 1 Is a mediator of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha-mediated migration in colorectal carcinoma ...
... may refer to: The NTERA-2 human embryonal carcinoma cell line The Nam Theun 2 Dam, a hydroelectric dam located on the Nam ...
... hepatocellular carcinomas, bladder cancers, ovarian serous epithelial cancers, head and neck carcinomas, endometrial cancer, ... Embryonal precursors of Wilms tumor. Science 366(6470):1247-1251 Ayesh S, Matouk I, Schneider T, Ohana P, Laster M, Al-Sharef W ... In hepatocellular carcinoma, the expression of H19 and IGF2 usually changes from monoallelic to biallelic. In in vitro studies ... While the functions of the H19 RNA in the cell are still unclear, its presence in the many types of carcinoma cells suggest ...
It is expressed in embryonal carcinoma but not in seminoma and is thus a useful marker in distinguishing between these germ ...
... such as breast carcinoma and osteosarcoma. In these wild-type PAX3-expressing cancers, PAX3 function impacts on the control of ... embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma). However, PAX3 is also expressed in other cancer types without a clear relationship to a PAX3- ...
Squamous cell carcinoma not otherwise specified Basal cell carcinoma Squamous intraepithelial neoplasia Benign squamous lesions ... of other types Adenoma of minor vestibular glands Mixed Tumors of the vulva Tumors of skin appendage origin Embryonal ... these include leukemia and most forms of carcinoma in situ. Tumor is also not synonymous with cancer. While cancer is by ... Paget disease Bartholin gland Tumors: carcinomas, adenoma and adenomyoma Tumor arising from specialized ano-genital mammary- ...
... nuclear factor/retinoid receptor-related testis-associated receptor and its differential regulation during embryonal carcinoma ...
... carcinoma, embryonal MeSH C04.557.465.220 - chordoma MeSH C04.557.465.280 - dermoid cyst MeSH C04.557.465.330 - germinoma MeSH ... carcinoma, ehrlich tumor MeSH C04.557.470.200.220 - carcinoma, giant cell MeSH C04.557.470.200.240 - carcinoma in situ MeSH ... carcinoma, large cell MeSH C04.557.470.200.280 - carcinoma, lewis lung MeSH C04.557.470.200.300 - carcinoma, non-small-cell ... carcinoma, bronchogenic MeSH C04.588.894.797.520.230 - carcinoma, non-small-cell lung MeSH C04.588.894.797.520.235 - carcinoma ...
... known as embryonal carcinoma, [EC] cells) from which all the differentiated cell types in the tumor arise. During the two years ...
Amplification of the FGFR1 gene (four or more copies) is present in 9 to 22% of patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma ( ... The tumor cases included 6 cases of Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, 2 cases of Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and 2 cases of ... Acquired abnormalities if the FGFR1 gene are found in: ~14% of urinary bladder Transitional cell carcinomas (almost all are ...
Antisense in colon carcinoma cells blocks perlecan translation, leading to decreased tumor growth and angiogenesis. A similar ... The first study of perlecan expression during embryonal development found that the protein was first expressed during ... This result has been corroborated in such tissues as human colon carcinoma cells. and murine uterine epithelium by in vitro ... Since the basement membrane is the first obstacle in the way of extravasating carcinoma cells, the functions of perlecan in ...
... including prostate carcinoma (PCa), keratinocyte carcinoma, basal cell carcinomas, and squamous cell carcinomas. It is ... It plays an important role during embryonal development as programmed cell death and accompanies a variety of normal ... Both the protein and mRNA of PTPIP51 have been implicated in various carcinomas, ... "The novel protein PTPIP51 is expressed in human keratinocyte carcinomas and their surrounding stroma". Journal of Cellular and ...
Sayers' ensuing friendship with Piccolo and Piccolo's struggle with cancer (embryonal cell carcinoma, which was diagnosed after ...
... familial Renal cell carcinoma Renal dysplasia diffuse autosomal recessive Renal dysplasia diffuse cystic Renal dysplasia limb ... embryonal Rheumatic fever Rheumatism Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid purpura Rheumatoid vasculitis Rhinotillexomania Rhizomelic ... bilateral Renal agenesis Renal artery stenosis Renal calculi Renal caliceal diverticuli deafness Renal cancer Renal carcinoma, ...
Embryonal carcinoma is a germ cell tumor characterized by primitive epithelial cells with marked pleomorphism and various ... Intratubular embryonal carcinoma is commonly associated with embryonal carcinoma (see the image below). Intratubular embryonal ... Pathology of embryonal carcinoma. High-magnification view of embryonal carcinoma with papillary pattern. View Media Gallery ... Pathology of embryonal carcinoma. Mixed germ cell tumor. Visible on the right side of the image is embryonal carcinoma, ...
Males with pure embryonal carcinoma tend to have a normal amount of the protein alpha-fetoprotein in the fluid component of ... Embryonal carcinoma is a relatively uncommon type of germ cell tumour that occurs in the ovaries and testes. The presenting ... The clinical features associated with metastasising embryonal carcinoma may include low back pain, dyspnoea, cough, haemoptysis ...
Embryonic stem (ES) cells and embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells: opposite sides of the same coin P.W. Andrews; P.W. Andrews 1 ... blastocyst, embryonal carcinoma cell, embryonic stem cell, germ cell tumour, pluripotentcy, teratocarcinoma ... Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are the stem cells of teratocarcinomas, and the malignant counterparts of embryonic stem (ES) ... P.W. Andrews, M.M. Matin, A.R. Bahrami, I. Damjanov, P. Gokhale, J.S. Draper; Embryonic stem (ES) cells and embryonal carcinoma ...
TERA2.cl.SP12 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are a robust caricature of human embryogenesis and an accepted model of neural ... Pan, Chendong (2007) Neural differentiation from human embryonal carcinoma stem cells. Doctoral thesis, Durham University. ...
Posttranscriptional control of human homeobox gene expression in induced NTERA-2 embryonal carcinoma cells. In: Molecular ... Posttranscriptional control of human homeobox gene expression in induced NTERA-2 embryonal carcinoma cells. / Simeone, A.; ... Posttranscriptional control of human homeobox gene expression in induced NTERA-2 embryonal carcinoma cells. Molecular ... title = "Posttranscriptional control of human homeobox gene expression in induced NTERA-2 embryonal carcinoma cells", ...
Embryonal carcinoma. *Teratoma. *Yolk sac tumor. A stromal tumor is a rare type of testicular tumor. They are usually not ...
Embryonal carcinomas have proven to be invaluable models for studying the mechanisms that control differentiation of cells ... Transfection Reagent for NTERA-2 Cells (Embryonal Carcinoma Cells, CRL-1973). * Two component formulation enhances lipid ... the parental NTERA-2 cell line after a xenograft of a 22-year-old Caucasian male with malignant pluripotent embryonic carcinoma ...
MURINE EMBRYONAL CARCINOMA CELLS EXPRESS CLASS I MHC‐LIKE ANTIGENS. P. L. Stern, N. Beresford, S. M. Bell, S. Thompson, K. ... MURINE EMBRYONAL CARCINOMA CELLS EXPRESS CLASS I MHC‐LIKE ANTIGENS. / Stern, P. L.; Beresford, N.; Bell, S. M. et al. ... MURINE EMBRYONAL CARCINOMA CELLS EXPRESS CLASS I MHC‐LIKE ANTIGENS. In: International Journal of Immunogenetics. 1986 ; Vol. 13 ... title = "MURINE EMBRYONAL CARCINOMA CELLS EXPRESS CLASS I MHC‐LIKE ANTIGENS",. abstract = "Previous work has concluded that ...
Embryonal carcinomas constitute about 2% of all testicular germ cell tumors but are the histological type in 85% of mixed germ ... Increased risk of carcinoma in situ in patients with testicular germ cell cancer with ultrasonic microlithiasis in the ... Concentrations above 10,000 ng/ml are seen exclusively in germ cell tumor and hepatocellular carcinoma ... A. Embryonal carcinoma and teratoma with or without seminoma.. B. Embryonal carcinoma and yolk sac tumor with or without ...
Embryonal carcinomas constitute about 2% of all testicular germ cell tumors but are the histological type in 85% of mixed germ ... Increased risk of carcinoma in situ in patients with testicular germ cell cancer with ultrasonic microlithiasis in the ... Concentrations above 10,000 ng/ml are seen exclusively in germ cell tumor and hepatocellular carcinoma ... A. Embryonal carcinoma and teratoma with or without seminoma.. B. Embryonal carcinoma and yolk sac tumor with or without ...
Stay informed about the latest cancer treatments. Read the stories of cancer survivors. Get tips on cancer nutrition and fitness.. ...
Do you qualify for these Embryonal Carcinoma studies? Were researching new and effective treatments. ... Embryonal Carcinoma clinical trials at University of California Health 1 research study open to eligible people ... Our lead scientists for Embryonal Carcinoma research studies include Alyssa T. Reddy. ...
OCT4 regulated transcription networks in human embryonic stem cells and human embryonal carcinoma cells. Title: OCT4 regulated ... OCT4 regulated transcription networks in human embryonic stem cells and human embryonal carcinoma cells. *Login ... transcription networks in human embryonic stem cells and human embryonal carcinoma cells ... and human embryonal cancer cells (ECs), is essential for possible future therapies in medicine. Connecting the expression ...
Embryonal carcinoma. Under a microscope, these cells look like tissues from embryos. ... Yolk sac carcinoma. These cells look like the sac around an embryo. This is the most common form of testicular cancer in ... Germ cell cancer may start as another form called carcinoma in situ or intratubular germ cell neoplasia. This doesnt always ...
... it difficult to distinguish between seminoma and non-seminomatous components of germ cell tumors such as embryonal carcinoma ( ...
Optimizing the Management of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck With Immunotherapeutic Strategies 0.5 CME / ABIM MOC ... Low-dose craniospinal irradiation and ifosfamide, cisplatin and etoposide for non-metastatic embryonal tumors in the central ... Optimizing the Management of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck With Immunotherapeutic Strategies ...
Embryonal Carcinoma, Choriocarcinoma and Mixed Germ Cell Tumours Ovarian embryonal carcinomas, non-gestational choriocarcinomas ... Primary carcinoma of the Fallopian Tube Primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube is one of the rarest gynecological malignancies ... and are often diagnosed at an earlier stage than invasive carcinomas. ...
Factors that alter the differentiation of the primordial germ cell, resulting in the presence of an embryonal stem cell, can ... Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for clinical stage I nonseminomatous testicular carcinoma: long-term outcome ... NSGCTs are germ cell tumors that contain embryonal stem cells. These may be differentiated into extraembryonic tissues or ...
Dai SK, Hao RB, Shen F. Decoding the dynamic H3K9cr landscapes during neural commitment of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. ...
Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue. Adenocarcinoma. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms ... Carcinoma. Pheochromocytoma. Paraganglioma. Adrenocortical Carcinoma. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplasms by ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Pheochromocytoma Paragangliomas 1 Adrenocortical Carcinoma ... Three to 12 evaluable patients with adrenal carcinoma or progressive malignant pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma will be included ...
embryonal carcinomas. Symptoms. Symptoms might include:. *pain in your tummy (abdomen) or lower part of your abdomen that ...
Optimizing the Management of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck With Immunotherapeutic Strategies 0.5 CME / ABIM MOC ... Low-dose craniospinal irradiation and ifosfamide, cisplatin and etoposide for non-metastatic embryonal tumors in the central ... Optimizing the Management of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck With Immunotherapeutic Strategies ...
... embryonal carcinomas, choriocarcinomas, and mixed tumors containing one or more of these elements has improved dramatically.[1 ... Ovary, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal carcinoma. In: Amin MB, Edge SB, Greene FL, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging ...
Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Neoplasms. Neuroendocrine Tumors. Neuroectodermal Tumors. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. ...
... together with the Mitchell Ross symposium on anaplastic and other high risk embryonal tumors of childhood, 8-10th April 1999, ... Carcinoma, Embryonal / genetics* * Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology * Carcinoma, Embryonal / therapy * Child * Heparan Sulfate ... together with the Mitchell Ross symposium on anaplastic and other high risk embryonal tumors of childhood, 8-10th April 1999, ...
What is carcinoma ex mixed tumor? Meaning of carcinoma ex mixed tumor medical term. What does carcinoma ex mixed tumor mean? ... Looking for online definition of carcinoma ex mixed tumor in the Medical Dictionary? carcinoma ex mixed tumor explanation free ... Clear cell carcinoma, Collecting duct carcinoma, Colloid carcinoma, Ductal carcinoma in situ, Duct cell carcinoma, Embryonal ... In situ carcinoma, Intraductal carcinoma, Intramucosal carcinoma, Juvenile carcinoma, Krebs carcinoma, Large cell carcinoma, ...
MicroRNA-302a sensitizes testicular embryonal carcinoma cells to cisplatin-induced cell death. J. Cell. Physiol. 228, 2294-2304 ... Heterogeneous subtype of testicular germ cell tumours that can be composed of embryonal carcinoma, teratoma, yolk sac tumour ... Screening for carcinoma in situ in the contralateral testicle in patients with testicular cancer: a population-based study. Ann ... MicroRNA expression profiling of carcinoma in situ cells of the testis. Endocr. Relat. Cancer 19, 365-379 (2012). ...
Lymphovascular invasion and presence of embryonal carcinoma as risk factors for occult metastatic disease in clinical stage I ... Dive into the research topics of Lymphovascular invasion and presence of embryonal carcinoma as risk factors for occult ... Lymphovascular invasion and presence of embryonal carcinoma as risk factors for occult metastatic disease in clinical stage I ... Lymphovascular invasion and presence of embryonal carcinoma as risk factors for occult metastatic disease in clinical stage I ...
  • Embryonal carcinoma is one of the most common germ cell tumors. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 , 3 ] About 3-10% of pure germ cell tumors are embryonal carcinomas, and embryonal carcinomas are present in more than 80% of mixed germ cell tumors. (medscape.com)
  • As with other germ cell tumors, with the exception of spermatocytic seminoma , embryonal carcinomas are believed to originate from intratubular malignant germ cells. (medscape.com)
  • [ 8 ] In the vast majority of cases, IGCNU occurs adjacent to invasive germ cell tumors, including embryonal carcinomas. (medscape.com)
  • Embryonal carcinomas are aggressive germ cell tumors. (medscape.com)
  • Although serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) has been reported in association with embryonal carcinomas, most of those cases were probably misclassified as such and in truth represented mixed cases of embryonal carcinomas and yolk sac tumors . (medscape.com)
  • A panel of circulating microRNAs from these clusters (miR-371a-3p, miR-372-3p, miR-373-3p, and miR-367-3p) is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing malignant germ cell tumors, including embryonal carcinoma and seminoma. (medscape.com)
  • Further, poor fixation or thick sections distorting the typical cytologic features can make it difficult to distinguish between seminoma and non-seminomatous components of germ cell tumors such as embryonal carcinoma (EC) or yolk sac tumor (YST). (cap.org)
  • Ovarian embryonal carcinomas, non-gestational choriocarcinomas and malignant mixed germ cell tumors are rare malignant germ cell tumors. (isuog.org)
  • These tumors occur in younger women, with almost 30% of patients younger than 40 years, and are often diagnosed at an earlier stage than invasive carcinomas. (isuog.org)
  • Cytokeratin 7 in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Junctional Biomarker for Human Papillomavirus-Related Tumors. (tcd.ie)
  • Childhood CNS embryonal tumors form in brain and spinal cord cells when the fetus is beginning to develop. (onlymyhealth.com)
  • Overexpression of SOX2 is found in testicular germ cell tumors, teratomas, astrocytic tumors, melanomas, various squamous cell carcinomas, and breast cancers with a basal cell phenotype. (sakuraus.com)
  • According to the present World Health Organization (WHO) classification of the lung, neuroendocrine tumors are subdivided into four categories: (1) typical carcinoid, (2) atypical carcinoid, (3) small cell and (4) large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) [1]. (termedia.pl)
  • Small cell carcinoma with foci of glandular or squamous differentiation seems to be restricted to tumors that arise from the renal pelvis, but not from renal parenchyma [8, 13]. (termedia.pl)
  • Embryonal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) include a heterogeneous group of immature-appearing neoplasms that are highly cellular and mitotically active, thus having a superficial resemblance to the developing nervous system. (medscape.com)
  • This article addresses neoplasms that are designated by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "other CNS embryonal tumors" and includes atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs) and some less common CNS embryonal tumors that can arise outside of the cerebellum. (medscape.com)
  • The histologic spectrum of AT/RT overlaps significantly with other forms of CNS neoplasia, including medulloblastomas, germ cell tumors, sarcomas, and choroid plexus carcinomas. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] It is important to distinguish AT/RT from other CNS embryonal tumors because of the relatively poor prognosis of AT/RT and because of the need for accurate stratification of patients for therapeutic protocols. (medscape.com)
  • A rare group of embryonal CNS neoplasms that arise outside of the cerebellum and pineal gland were previously called "central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors" (CNS PNETs). (medscape.com)
  • [ 11 ] as well as other CNS embryonal tumors without a defined molecular alterations. (medscape.com)
  • An increased risk of about 10-15% for solid malignant tumors (embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma in early childhood and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in adolescence) is reported. (orpha.net)
  • Among the types of cancer that commonly develop in the testes are seminoma and various nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT), such as teratoma, embryonal carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, and yolk sac tumor. (msdmanuals.com)
  • OCT4 staining in testicular tumors: a sensitive and specific marker for seminoma and embryonal carcinoma. (qxmd.com)
  • SALL4 is a novel sensitive and specific marker of ovarian primitive germ cell tumors and is particularly useful in distinguishing yolk sac tumor from clear cell carcinoma. (biocare.net)
  • See Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors Treatment for information on medulloblastoma and nonmedulloblastomas. (cancerhelpessentiahealth.org)
  • LM can be divided into three different categories based on the origin of the primary tumor: 1) carcinoma or solid tumor, 2) hematological malignancy, such as leukemia or lymphoma, and 3) primary CNS tumors, notably medulloblastoma. (medscape.com)
  • Medulloblastoma and other central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors may begin in embryonic (fetal) cells that remain in the brain after birth. (cancer.gov)
  • There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. (cancer.gov)
  • Certain genetic conditions increase the risk of childhood medulloblastoma and other CNS embryonal tumors. (cancer.gov)
  • Signs and symptoms of childhood medulloblastoma and other CNS embryonal tumors depend on the child's age and where the tumor is. (cancer.gov)
  • Tests that examine the brain and spinal cord are used to diagnose childhood medulloblastoma and other CNS embryonal tumors. (cancer.gov)
  • A biopsy may be done to be sure of the diagnosis of medulloblastoma and other CNS embryonal tumors. (cancer.gov)
  • Most CNS embryonal tumors are medulloblastomas. (cancer.gov)
  • Nonmedulloblastoma embryonal tumors are fast-growing tumors that usually form in brain cells in the cerebrum. (cancer.gov)
  • Nonmedulloblastoma embryonal tumors may also form in the brain stem or spinal cord. (cancer.gov)
  • Embryonal tumors with multilayered rosettes (ETMR) are rare tumors that form in the brain and spinal cord. (cancer.gov)
  • Central nervous system embryonal tumor, not otherwise specified (NOS) was previously called primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET). (cancer.gov)
  • Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a disorder characterized by prenatal and/or postnatal overgrowth, neonatal hypoglycemia, congenital malformations, and an increased risk for embryonal tumors. (parkview.com)
  • Non-seminoma: There are four main sub-types of non-seminoma tumors: embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, and teratoma. (rockypointrx.com)
  • The CD30 antigen is also expressed in some hematopoietic neoplasms such as embryonal carcinomas and rarely in poorly differentiated tumors of epithelial origin or melanin. (anacrom.com)
  • The first operational aircraft, christened Spirit of Missouri, was delivered to Whiteman Air Force BaseMissouriwhere the fleet is based, on 17 December These unusual tumors, which include teratomas, embryonal carcinomas, and teratocarcinomas, develop from the germ cells in the testes or ovaries. (hazemagmaroc.com)
  • The study population will be high-risk patients (non-Wnt and non-Shh sub-groups) with medulloblastoma, and for all patients with central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors completing "Head Start 4" Induction. (centerwatch.com)
  • Changes in hESCs at the genomic level, such as gains of chromosomes 12, 17, and X, resemble germ cell tumors [4,5,10] providing a malignancy model of embryonic carcinoma development [5]. (cylch.org)
  • chorionic carcinoma choriocarcinoma . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We identified 34 yolk sac tumours, eight embryonal carcinomas, one choriocarcinoma, and one dysgerminoma by histology analysis. (lemmo.com)
  • Rates of embryonal carcinoma [-40%] and choriocarcinoma [-22%] also declined, suggesting that the code for MGCT is now being used for any mixed histology. (qxmd.com)
  • The declines in incidence of teratoma (excluding MGCT), embryonal carcinoma and choriocarcinoma in the US data since 1988 are likely in part because of increases in classifying any TGCT with mixed histology as MGCT. (qxmd.com)
  • Here is some relevant information: My son Tim (age 30) was diagnosed on 6/11/22, right O/I 6/23/22, non-seminoma, 80% embryonal carcinoma, 19% yolk sac, 1% choriocarcinoma AFP 365 (6/11), 113 (7/3, after. (testicularcancersociety.org)
  • Components consisted of 60% teratoma, 30% yolk sac tumor, and 10% embryonal carcinoma. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Essentially, any admixture of the germ cell tumours as seen in pure form may be seen, one of the most common admixtures being embryonal carcinoma and teratoma. (who.int)
  • Apart from seminoma, embryonal carcinoma (12%), teratoma (3%) and lymphoma (3%) were observed in the descending order of frequency. (jcytol.org)
  • When both teratoma and embryonal carcinoma are present, the name teratocarci-noma is used. (brainkart.com)
  • Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are the stem cells of teratocarcinomas, and the malignant counterparts of embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst-stage embryos, whether human or mouse. (portlandpress.com)
  • The NTERA-2 cl.D1 cell line was established from the parental NTERA-2 cell line after a xenograft of a 22-year-old Caucasian male with malignant pluripotent embryonic carcinoma of the testis. (altogen.com)
  • Primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube is one of the rarest gynecological malignancies, accounting for 0.18% to 1.6% of all malignant neoplasms of the female reproductive tract, and typically presents in the 5th and the 6th decades of life. (isuog.org)
  • This is a multicenter, Phase 1/2, First-In-Human study to assess the safety, tolerability, immunogenicity, and preliminary efficacy of EO2401 in Metastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma, or Malignant Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • EO2401 is an innovative cancer peptide therapeutic vaccine based on the homologies between Tumor Associated Antigens and microbiome-derived peptides that will be administered in combination with nivolumab to generate preliminary safety and efficacy data in patients with Metastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma, or Malignant Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Three to 12 evaluable patients with adrenal carcinoma or progressive malignant pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma will be included depending on the safety profile of the administered treatments. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • giant cell carcinoma a poorly differentiated, highly malignant, epithelial neoplasm containing many large multinucleated tumor cells, such as occurs in the lungs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hürthle cell carcinoma a malignant Hürthle cell tumor . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These classifications stayed there for quite a long while and people tried to explain how these different types of differentiation can occur and it was obvious that there must be a primitive germ cell or a totipotential embryonal cell which can go into the different directions and somehow they merge to these mixed malignant germ cell tumours. (ecancer.org)
  • These changes parallel similar genomic amplifications in embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, a cancer counterpart of ES cells, which highlights the potential link of culture adaptation in ES cells to the development of a malignant phenotype. (ukri.org)
  • Through theoretical and hands-on practical skills training you'll explore this fast moving field, covering techniques such as how to grow and culture human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) and their malignant equivalent, embryonal carcinoma cells. (findamasters.com)
  • Trials with EPCAM status in the inclusion eligibility criteria most commonly target malignant solid tumor, central nervous system neoplasm, colorectal carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and lymphoma [ 4 ]. (mycancergenome.org)
  • Furthermore, we tested whether Compact disc200 was involved with EMT and invasiveness in NTERA-2 cells produced from a malignant embryonal carcinoma and endogenously overexpressing Compact disc200. (scienceonstageturkey.com)
  • All cases of embryonal carcinoma and pure seminoma were negative for both NKX3.1 and P501S. (lww.com)
  • D2-40 immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of seminoma and embryonal carcinoma: a comparative immunohistochemical study with KIT (CD117) and CD30. (qxmd.com)
  • Differential diagnosis of testicular lymphoma is made with seminoma of classic or spermatocytic type, embryonal carcinoma, viral and granulomatous orchitis. (allresearchjournal.com)
  • Non-seminomas (such as teratomas, embryonal carcinomas and choriocarcinomas) are often made up of more than one cell type and tend to grow more quickly and spread. (beatcancer.org)
  • Seminomas and non-seminomas [embryonal carcinomas, yolk sac tumours, teratomas, choriocarcinomas, mixed germ-cell tumours (MGCT)] are the major histological types of testicular germ-cell tumours (TGCT). (qxmd.com)
  • Thymomas and thymic carcinomas (TCs) are neoplasms of thymic epithelial cells. (molbiol.net)
  • and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. (mcidiagnostics.com)
  • The predisposition for tumor development is associated with specific tumor types such as adrenal carcinoma, nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor), hepatoblastoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. (parkview.com)
  • Coolbeth was diagnosed with a form of uterine cancer very rare in adults called Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma. (insideinvestigator.org)
  • Almost half of childhood cancers are cancers of blood cells (leukaemia and lymphoma), and the most frequent other malignancies are tumours of the central nervous system and tumours that develop from embryonal tissues. (who.int)
  • TERA2.cl.SP12 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are a robust caricature of human embryogenesis and an accepted model of neural differentiation. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Embryonal carcinomas have proven to be invaluable models for studying the mechanisms that control differentiation of cells during embryogenesis in vitro . (altogen.com)
  • basal cell carcinoma the most common form of skin cancer, consisting of an epithelial tumor of the skin originating from neoplastic differentiation of basal cells , rarely metastatic but locally invasive and aggressive. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • MyD88 is an essential component of retinoic acid induced differentiation in human pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells. (tcd.ie)
  • In the current work, differentiation of an embryonal carcinoma cell line, NT2, was ind. (diagenode.com)
  • Switched alternative splicing of oncogene CoAA during embryonal carcinoma stem cell differentiation. (openrepository.com)
  • Embryonal carcinoma is a germ cell tumor characterized by primitive epithelial cells with marked pleomorphism and various histologic patterns. (medscape.com)
  • Association of embryonal carcinomas with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells may cause increases in serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels. (medscape.com)
  • Previous work has concluded that murine embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, the oncogenic stem cells of teratocarcinomas, do not express class‐I, H‐2K or D/L gene encoded products. (elsevier.com)
  • Understanding the network of transcription factors, controlling pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and human embryonal cancer cells (ECs), is essential for possible future therapies in medicine. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Decoding the dynamic H3K9cr landscapes during neural commitment of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. (amedeo.com)
  • adenocystic carcinoma ( adenoid cystic carcinoma ) carcinoma marked by cylinders or bands of hyaline or mucinous stroma separated or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells, occurring in the mammary and salivary glands, and mucous glands of the respiratory tract. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • bronchioalveolar carcinoma ( bronchiolar carcinoma ) ( bronchioloalveolar carcinoma ) ( bronchoalveolar carcinoma ) a variant type of adenocarcinoma of the lung , with columnar to cuboidal epithelial cells lining the alveolar septa and projecting into alveolar spaces in branching papillary formations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • cholangiocellular carcinoma a rare type of hepatocellular carcinoma arising from the cholangioles , consisting of two layers of cells surrounding a minute lumen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • cylindrical cell carcinoma carcinoma in which the cells are cylindrical or nearly so. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • hepatocellular carcinoma primary carcinoma of the liver cells with hepatomegaly, jaundice, hemoperitoneum, and other symptoms of the presence of an abdominal mass. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • large cell carcinoma a type of bronchogenic carcinoma of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size, a variety of squamous cell carcinoma that has undergone further dedifferentiation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To explain the origin of occult carcinoma in situ cells, 2 models have been proposed. (medscape.com)
  • In vitro experiments are performed using primary rat embryo cell cultures for CNS and limb tissues, and embryonal carcinoma cells to investigate mechanisms of developmental toxicity of these agents. (iths.org)
  • He did his postdoctoral work in the laboratory of Gordon M. Tomkins at the University of California, San Francisco working with embryonal carcinoma stem cells. (clu-in.org)
  • Studies have demonstrated that over 90% of tumor cells in intratubular germ-cell neoplasias and embryonal carcinomas show strong SALL4 staining. (biocare.net)
  • Using mass spectrometry, kynurenine levels has been reported to be significantly increased (by 27 Bromocriptin mesylate folds) in primed human embryonic cells in comparison to embryonal carcinoma cells [39]. (sc-scied.org)
  • Embryonal" means that the cancer probably grew from cells early in a fetus' development that didn't change (differentiate) into liver cells properly. (teenshealth.org)
  • Silent infection of murine embryonal carcinoma cells by Moloney murine leukemia virus. (wikidata.org)
  • Post-transcriptional regulation of a murine homeobox gene transcript in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells. (mpg.de)
  • The dose-dependent α-fetoprotein (AFP) reactivity of different types of tumor cells and normal embryonal fibroblasts, which are capable of taking up AFP, was investigated. (scite.ai)
  • Human mammary carcinoma MCF-7 cells also revealed a growth inhibitory response to AFP, although to a lesser extent. (scite.ai)
  • In non-lymphoid tissues CD30 can be detected in embryonal carcinomas, seminomas, mesotheliomas and in decidua cells (Dürkop et al . (anacrom.com)
  • EMT after Compact disc200 Overexpression in MEER Cells As Compact disc200 plays a crucial role in immune system cells, so that as cancers cell metastasis consists of the function of many immune system cells, we additional investigated the function(s) of Compact disc200 during EMT of MEER cells set up being a murine HPV+ tonsil carcinoma model [15]. (scienceonstageturkey.com)
  • Tretinoin stimulated erythropoietin gene transcription in embryonal carcinoma cells via the direct repeat of a steroid/thyroid hormone receptor response component half website inside the hypoxia response enhancer component. (topoisomerasesignaling.com)
  • results on carcinoma cells had been additive in normoxia and in hypoxia. (kw-6002.info)
  • Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver (UESL) is a rare kind of liver cancer that happens mostly in children. (connecticutchildrens.org)
  • What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Undifferentiated Embryonal Sarcoma of the Liver (UESL)? (teenshealth.org)
  • Who Gets Undifferentiated Embryonal Sarcoma of the Liver (UESL)? (teenshealth.org)
  • Most children who get undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver are 6 to 10 years old. (teenshealth.org)
  • How Is Undifferentiated Embryonal Sarcoma of the Liver (UESL) Diagnosed? (teenshealth.org)
  • How Is Undifferentiated Embryonal Sarcoma of the Liver (UESL) Treated? (teenshealth.org)
  • Germ cell cancer may start as another form called carcinoma in situ or intratubular germ cell neoplasia. (webmd.com)
  • [ 3 ] This abnormality is found in occult carcinoma in situ lesions as well as more advanced disease. (medscape.com)
  • Carcinoma in situ (CIS) also called intratubular germ cell neoplasia: The presence of carcinoma in situ in the testicle increases the risk for testicular cancer. (testicularcancersociety.org)
  • In June of the previous year, Coolbeth had been diagnosed with Lobular Carcinoma in situ, a breast condition linked to an increased risk of invasive breast cancer. (insideinvestigator.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature on the prognostic value of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and embryonal carcinoma (EC) for occult metastatic disease in clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumour (CS I NSGCT). (prinsesmaximacentrum.nl)
  • abstract = "OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature on the prognostic value of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and embryonal carcinoma (EC) for occult metastatic disease in clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumour (CS I NSGCT).MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PubMed, Embase (OVID) and SCOPUS databases were searched up to March 2019. (prinsesmaximacentrum.nl)
  • We present a rare case of mixed germ cell tumour with predominant embryonal carcinoma and yolk sac tumour in adolescent patient with multiple metastatic foci at the time of presentation. (who.int)
  • CT directed biopsy of the most prominent pulmonary nodule indicated embryonal cell carcinoma, compatible with metastatic testicular carcinoma. (academicresearchbureau.com)
  • In bone, the small cell variant of osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, metastatic small cell carcinoma, and lymphoma are among the most common possibilities. (cytopathology.org)
  • Primary lesions include epithelial ovarian carcinoma (70% of all ovarian malignancies). (medscape.com)
  • Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM) is a gene that encodes a protein that functions as a carcinoma-associated antigen. (mycancergenome.org)
  • The fusion genes RCC1-HENMT1 and RCC1-ABHD12B were highly expressed in testicular cancers with poorly differentiated histological subtypes (seminomas and embryonal carcinomas). (ous-research.no)
  • An embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes (ETMR) is shown on histology. (medscape.com)
  • Anatomic pathology reported a diagnosis of embryonal cell sarcoma with tumor free surgical margins and negative abdominal lymph node biopsies. (pediatriceducation.org)
  • Pathology was compatible with embryonal cell carcinoma. (academicresearchbureau.com)
  • Embryonal carcinoma is a relatively uncommon type of germ cell tumour that occurs in the ovaries and testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • adenocarcinoma of the lung , large cell carcinoma , small cell carcinoma , and squamous cell carcinoma . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2. renal cell carcinoma . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • epidermoid carcinoma squamous cell carcinoma . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It was established from a human cervical carcinoma cell line in 1951 by Gey and his colleagues and it played an important role in the production of polio antigens. (rsc.org)
  • Small cell carcinoma (SmCC) predominantly occurs in the lung, but may arise in a wide variety of organs. (termedia.pl)
  • Cavallo F, Caggiano C, Jasin M, Barchi M. Assessing Homologous Recombination and Interstrand Cross-Link Repair in Embryonal Carcinoma Testicular Germ Cell Tumor Cell Lines. (sloankettering.edu)
  • Cytotoxic plant lectins have been used for the single-step selection of mouse embryonal carcinoma cell mutants with altered expression of surface glycoconjugates. (elsevier.com)
  • A growth-stimulative activity in normal embryonal fibroblasts and certain tumor cell lines exhibited by low AFP concentrations is supposed to result from the synergistic effects of AFP and various other secreted growth factors. (scite.ai)
  • The most common pathological classification is the squamous cell carcinoma. (indianjcancer.com)
  • To go after this notion we looked into whether SexHs are likely involved in regulating the biology from the murine embryonic ES-D3 cell range aswell as the murine P19 teratocarcinoma cell range and the individual embryonal carcinoma NTera2 cell range. (nationalbonehealthalliance.org)
  • Advantages: The lower cheek flap is elevated in embryonal cell carcinoma of the inferior orbital fissure that connects the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the. (berea.edu)
  • Open in another window Open up in another window Body 1 Compact disc200 was upregulated in mind and throat squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) sufferers and induced EMT. (scienceonstageturkey.com)
  • Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare and highly aggressive tumor. (iiarjournals.org)
  • This study was undertaken to investigate p53 expression in a large series of small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder and to correlate the findings with clinicopathologic parameters and clinical outcome. (iiarjournals.org)
  • Our data indicate that p53 is frequently expressed in small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. (iiarjournals.org)
  • In order to describe these controversial outcomes we examined TH588 in two different carcinoma cell lines. (kw-6002.info)
  • The most common CNS embryonal tumor is the medulloblastoma , which is discussed in a separate article. (medscape.com)
  • Cohorts 2A (previously treated patients) and 2B (previously untreated patients): evaluation of EO2401 at the recommended dose found in Cohort 1 in combination with nivolumab in 30 evaluable patients (15 each for Cohorts 2A and 2B) with adrenal carcinoma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • bronchogenic carcinoma any of a large group of carcinomas of the lung, so called because they arise from the epithelium of the bronchial tree. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Methotrexate is a component of combination regimens used to treat non-Hodgkin and Burkitt lymphomas and breast, lung, bladder, cervical, gastric, and ovarian carcinomas. (mcidiagnostics.com)
  • Carcinomas, which are the predominant type in adults (breast, lung, or stomach cancer), are extremely rare in children. (who.int)
  • EPCAM is altered in 0.59% of all cancers with lung adenocarcinoma, prostate adenocarcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, breast invasive ductal carcinoma, and high grade ovarian serous adenocarcinoma having the greatest prevalence of alterations [ 3 ]. (mycancergenome.org)
  • An enlarged ovary with a papillary serous carcinoma on the surface. (medscape.com)
  • The etiology of fallopian tube carcinoma is unknown. (isuog.org)
  • All patients with tumor lesions underwent a complete resection in en bloc or piecemeal resection. (indianjcancer.com)
  • EPCAM is altered in 0.89% of bladder carcinoma patients [ 3 ]. (mycancergenome.org)
  • EPCAM is an inclusion criterion in 1 clinical trial for bladder carcinoma, of which 1 is open and 0 are closed. (mycancergenome.org)
  • Of the trial that contains EPCAM status and bladder carcinoma as inclusion criteria, 1 is phase 2 (1 open) [ 4 ]. (mycancergenome.org)
  • Most are embryonal with a favorable prognosis with alveolar having a worse outcome. (jhu.edu)