Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Carcinoma, Medullary: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)Carcinoma, Adenosquamous: A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.Carcinoma, Endometrioid: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Carcinoma, Merkel Cell: A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Carcinoma, Verrucous: A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell: A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Carcinoma, Large Cell: A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells: The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular: A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous: A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Chemoembolization, Therapeutic: Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Carcinoma, Basosquamous: A skin carcinoma that histologically exhibits both basal and squamous elements. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar: A carcinoma thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli. Involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular. The neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures. Mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells. Metastases in regional lymph nodes, and in even more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Urothelium: The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.Vulvar Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VULVA.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Oropharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Phenylurea Compounds: Compounds that include the amino-N-phenylamide structure.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Carcinoma, Giant Cell: An epithelial neoplasm characterized by unusually large anaplastic cells. It is highly malignant with fulminant clinical course, bizarre histologic appearance and poor prognosis. It is most common in the lung and thyroid. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Urologic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.Niacinamide: An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Keratin-7: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Benzenesulfonates: Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.Ureteral Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the URETER which may cause obstruction leading to hydroureter, HYDRONEPHROSIS, and PYELONEPHRITIS. HEMATURIA is a common symptom.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Mice, Inbred BALB CUp-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Adenoma, Oxyphilic: A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askanazy cells.Carcinosarcoma: A malignant neoplasm that contains elements of carcinoma and sarcoma so extensively intermixed as to indicate neoplasia of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Adenocarcinoma, Scirrhous: An adenocarcinoma with a hard (Greek skirrhos, hard) structure owing to the formation of dense connective tissue in the stroma. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Eyelid Neoplasms: Tumors of cancer of the EYELIDS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.Mucin-1: Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Teratoma: A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma in which the tumor elements are arranged as finger-like processes or as a solid spherical nodule projecting from an epithelial surface.Ampulla of Vater: A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Neoplasms, Squamous Cell: Neoplasms of the SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements.Carcinoma, Skin Appendage: A malignant tumor of the skin appendages, which include the hair, nails, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and the mammary glands. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Common Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Mammary Neoplasms, Animal: Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational: Variation in a population's DNA sequence that is detected by determining alterations in the conformation of denatured DNA fragments. Denatured DNA fragments are allowed to renature under conditions that prevent the formation of double-stranded DNA and allow secondary structure to form in single stranded fragments. These fragments are then run through polyacrylamide gels to detect variations in the secondary structure that is manifested as an alteration in migration through the gels.Pharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the HYPOPHARYNX.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.

Anticoagulant heparan sulfate precursor structures in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells. (1/312)

To understand the mechanisms that control anticoagulant heparan sulfate (HSact) biosynthesis, we previously showed that HSact production in the F9 system is determined by the abundance of 3-O-sulfotransferase-1 as well as the size of the HSact precursor pool. In this study, HSact precursor structures have been studied by characterizing [6-3H]GlcN metabolically labeled F9 HS tagged with 3-O-sulfates in vitro by 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho-35S and purified 3-O-sulfotransferase-1. This later in vitro labeling allows the regions of HS destined to become the antithrombin (AT)-binding sites to be tagged for subsequent structural studies. It was shown that six 3-O-sulfation sites exist per HSact precursor chain. At least five out of six 3-O-sulfate-tagged oligosaccharides in HSact precursors bind AT, whereas none of 3-O-sulfate-tagged oligosaccharides from HSinact precursors bind AT. When treated with low pH nitrous or heparitinase, 3-O-sulfate-tagged HSact and HSinact precursors exhibit clearly different structural features. 3-O-Sulfate-tagged HSact hexasaccharides were AT affinity purified and sequenced by chemical and enzymatic degradations. The 3-O-sulfate-tagged HSact hexasaccharides exhibited the following structures, DeltaUA-[6-3H]GlcNAc6S-GlcUA-[6-3H]GlcNS3(35)S+/-6S-++ +IdceA2S-[6-3H]Glc NS6S. The underlined 6- and 3-O-sulfates constitute the most critical groups for AT binding in view of the fact that the precursor hexasaccharides possess all the elements for AT binding except for the 3-O-sulfate moiety. The presence of five potential AT-binding precursor hexasaccharides in all HSact precursor chains demonstrates for the first time the processive assembly of specific sequence in HS. The difference in structures around potential 3-O-sulfate acceptor sites in HSact and HSinact precursors suggests that these precursors might be generated by different concerted assembly mechanisms in the same cell. This study permits us to understand better the nature of the HS biosynthetic pathway that leads to the generation of specific saccharide sequences.  (+info)

Differential expression of mouse Disabled 2 gene in retinoic acid-treated F9 embryonal carcinoma cells and early mouse embryos. (2/312)

Using a differential display PCR, we identified a differentially expressed cDNA fragment which was detectable in retinoic acid (RA) treated F9 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells but not in untreated F9 cells. A homology search of the Gene Bank indicated that the cDNA fragment is part of the mouse homolog of the Drosophila Disabled (mDab2) gene. Aggregate cultures of F9 EC cells grown in the presence of the RA differentiated into nonmalignant cells resembling the visceral endoderm of the mouse embryo. Upon induction of endodermal differentiation with 10(-7) M RA, the gene expression of mDab2 was increased gradually during the first 96 h. Neither undifferentiated F9 cells, nor the undifferentiated aggregate cells without RA expressed mDab2. Whole-mount in situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR also showed that the temporal expression pattern of the mDab2 gene coincides with the initiation pattern of RA synthesis that occurs during mouse embryogenesis. Also, two alternative splicing messages of mDab2 were detected in a tissue specific manner. All the data indicate that mDab2 may play an important role in RA-induced signal transduction during mouse development.  (+info)

Tyrosine phosphorylation of C-Cbl facilitates adhesion and spreading while suppressing anchorage-independent growth of V-Abl-transformed NIH3T3 fibroblasts. (3/312)

The protooncogenic protein c-Cbl becomes tyrosine phosphorylated in normal cells in response to a variety of external stimuli, as well as in cells transformed by oncogenic protein tyrosine kinases. Tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Cbl upregulates its binding to multiple crucial signaling molecules. However, the biological consequences of c-Cbl-mediated signaling are insufficiently understood. To analyse the biological functions of c-Cbl, we overexpressed wild-type c-Cbl and its tyrosine phosphorylation-defective mutant form in v-Abl-transformed NIH3T3 fibroblasts. In this system, wild-type c-Cbl facilitated adhesion and spreading of v-Abl-transformed fibroblasts on the extracellular matrix, while reducing anchorage independence of these cells, as measured by their colony-forming efficiency in soft agar. Therefore, overexpression of wild-type c-Cbl exhibits an overall transformation-suppressing effect. By contrast, overexpression of a tyrosine phosphorylation-defective form of c-Cbl increases neither adhesion nor anchorage dependence of v-Abl-transformed fibroblasts. Analysis of the role of individual tyrosine phosphorylation sites of c-Cbl in these phenomena indicates that both phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase and the CrkL adaptor protein may be involved in the observed effects of c-Cbl. To summarize, the results presented in this report indicate that c-Cbl is involved in regulation of cell adhesion and cytoskeletal rearrangements, and that these effects of c-Cbl are dependent on its tyrosine phosphorylation.  (+info)

Retinoic acid promotes ubiquitination and proteolysis of cyclin D1 during induced tumor cell differentiation. (4/312)

Mechanisms by which differentiation programs engage the cell cycle are poorly understood. This study demonstrates that retinoids promote ubiquitination and degradation of cyclin D1 during retinoid-induced differentiation of human embryonal carcinoma cells. In response to all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) treatment, the human embryonal carcinoma cell line NT2/D1 exhibits a progressive decline in cyclin D1 expression beginning when the cells are committed to differentiate, but before onset of terminal neuronal differentiation. The decrease in cyclin D1 protein is tightly associated with the accumulation of hypophosphorylated forms of the retinoblastoma protein and G(1) arrest. In contrast, retinoic acid receptor gamma-deficient NT2/D1-R1 cells do not growth-arrest or accumulate in G(1) and have persistent cyclin D1 overexpression despite RA treatment. Notably, stable transfection of retinoic acid receptor gamma restores RA-mediated growth suppression and differentiation to NT2/D1-R1 cells and restores the decline of cyclin D1. The proteasome inhibitor LLnL blocks this RA-mediated decline in cyclin D1. RA treatment markedly accelerates ubiquitination of wild-type cyclin D1, but not a cyclin D1 (T286A) mutant. Transient expression of cyclin D1 (T286A) in NT2/D1 cells blocks RA-mediated transcriptional decline of a differentiation-sensitive reporter plasmid and represses induction of immunophenotypic neuronal markers. Taken together, these findings strongly implicate RA-mediated degradation of cyclin D1 as a means of coupling induced differentiation and cell cycle control of human embryonal carcinoma cells.  (+info)

The role of chemotherapy in intracranial germinoma: a case report. (5/312)

BACKGROUND: The case of a 29-year-old man with histologically proven simultaneous germinoma (seminoma) of the pineal gland and a stage I embryonal carcinoma of the testis is reported. An intradural metastatic lesion from the pineal germinoma was diagnosed at the level of the first thoracic vertebra. Treatment, after inguinal orchiectomy, was chemotherapy only, rather than conventional radiotherapy for the pineal germinoma. METHODS: Therapy consisted of bleomycin (B), etoposide (E) and cisplatin (P). MRI was used to assess the effectiveness of BEP chemotherapy. RESULTS: A complete remission of the pineal gland germinoma and the epidural metastasis was documented after two cycles of BEP chemotherapy and after 15 months of follow-up the patient remains free of relapse. DISCUSSION: The pathogenesis of simultaneously occurring germinoma of the pineal gland and embryonal cell carcinoma of the testis is discussed. The choice of therapy in these circumstances is a matter of debate and the good result of chemotherapy alone in this patient suggest that primary chemotherapy may be the therapy of choice in patients with pineal germinomas.  (+info)

Interdependent action of RalGEF and Erk in Ras-induced primitive endoderm differentiation of F9 embryonal carcinoma cells. (6/312)

Previous work by us and others has implicated a role for Ral guanine exchange factors (RalGEFs) in Ras-induced cell growth and oncogenic transformation. Here we show for the first time that RalGEFs are involved in Ras-induced differentiation as well. Expression of oncogenic Ras in F9 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells is known to induce differentiation to a primitive endoderm (PrE)-like phenotype, but the downstream signal transduction mechanisms involved are unclear. We found that PrE differentiation is induced by the Ras effector domain mutants, RasV12G37 and RasV12E38, but not by RasV12C40. Accordingly, expression of constitutively active forms of RalGEF (Rlf-CAAX) or Rafl (Raf-CAAX) is sufficient to induce differentiation. Inhibition of RalGEF activity by expression of dominant negative Ral completely abolishes Rlf-CAAX- and RasV12G37-induced differentiation, while it reduces differentiation by RasV12 and Raf-CAAX. Finally, while Rlf-CAAX does not increase Erk activity, inhibition of MEK blocks both Ras- as well as Rlf-CAAX-induced differentiation, suggesting that RalGEFs induce PrE differentiation in a manner depending on basal MEK or Erk activity. Based on these results we conclude that Ras induces PrE differentiation of F9 EC cells via an interplay of Erk-and RalGEF-mediated pathways.  (+info)

Volume of liquid below the epithelium of an F9 cell as a signal for differentiation into visceral endoderm. (7/312)

When retinoic acid-primed F9 cells are allowed to aggregate, they form embryoid bodies with an outer layer of (&agr;)-fetoprotein-producing visceral endoderm cells and an internal cavity. I show that maturation of the visceral endoderm is dependent on the size of F9 aggregates. Size fractionation of aggregates of retinoic acid-primed F9 cells on Percoll density gradients revealed that only aggregates with diameters larger than 180 microm developed into embryoid bodies with an endoderm layer secreting (&agr;)-fetoprotein. Size dependent alpha-fetoprotein-secretion was also observed when retinoic acid-primed F9 cells were cultured on porous microcarrier beads larger than 185 microm. Retinoic acid-primed F9 cells on flat microporous membranes did not differentiate and secrete alpha-fetoprotein unless exposed to a limited volume of medium at their basolateral surface. This suggested that maturation of the visceral endoderm is signaled by the volume of liquid phase below the epithelium. I postulate that the epithelial layer of an F9 aggregate encloses liquid and forms a barrier to diffusion of some critical factor(s). The concentration of such a factor may reach a threshold due to enlargement of the liquid phase during growth of the F9 aggregate and thereby signal maturation of the outer layer of cells into visceral endoderm.  (+info)

Alternative promoters direct tissue-specific expression of the mouse protein phosphatase 2Cbeta gene. (8/312)

Type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), a class of ubiquitous and evolutionally conserved serine/threonine protein phosphatases, are encoded in at least four distinct genes and implicated in the regulation of various cellular functions. Of these four PP2C genes, the expression of the PP2Cbeta gene has been reported to be tissue-specific and development-dependent. To understand more precisely the regulatory mechanism of this expression, we have isolated and characterized overlapping mouse genomic lambda clones. A comparison of genomic sequences with PP2Cbeta cDNA sequences provided information on the structure and localization of intron/exon boundaries and indicated that PP2Cbeta isoforms with different 5' termini were generated by alternative splicing of its pre-mRNA. The 5'-flanking region of exon 1 had features characteristic of a housekeeping gene: it was GC-rich, lacked TATA boxes and CAAT boxes in the standard positions, and contained potential binding sites for the transcription factor SP1. In the 5'-flanking region of exon 2, several consensus sequences were found, such as a TATA-like sequence and negative regulatory element box-1, -2 and -3. Subsequent analysis by transient transfection assay with a reporter gene showed that these regions act as distinct promoters. Analysis of PP2Cbeta transcripts by reverse transcriptase-PCR showed that exon-1 transcripts were expressed ubiquitously in all of the tissues examined, whereas exon-2 transcripts were predominantly expressed in the testis, intestine and liver. These results suggest that the alternative usage of two promoters within the PP2Cbeta gene regulates tissue-specific expression of PP2Cbeta mRNA.  (+info)

Embryonic stem cells and embryonal carcinoma P19 cells produce erythropoietin (Epo) in an oxygen-independent manner, although lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) is hypoxia-inducible. To explore this paradox, we studied the operation of cis-acting sequences from these genes in P19 and Hep3B cells. The Epo gene promoter and 3 enhancer from P19 cells conveyed hypoxia-inducible responses in Hep3B cells but not in P19 cells. Together with DNA sequencing and the normal transcription start site of P19 Epo gene, this excluded the possibility that the noninducibility of Epo gene in P19 cells was due to mutation in these sequences or unusual initiation of transcription. In contrast, reporter constructs containing LDHA enhancer and promoter were hypoxia inducible in P19 and Hep3B cells, and mutation of a hypoxia- inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) binding site abolished the hypoxic inducibility in both cells, indicating that HIF-1 activation operates normally in P19 cells. Neither forced expression of hepatocyte nuclear
The lamin complement of nuclear matrix isolated from F9 embryonal carcinoma cells was studied during retinoic acid-induced differentiation in culture. Differentiation of the original cells into parietal endoderm-like cells was accompanied by the gradual appearance of lamins A and C while lamin B was present throughout all stages. Lamins were identified by their molecular masses, isoelectric points, recognition by a monoclonal antibody and a polyclonal antiserum, and by peptide mapping. The increase in the amounts of lamins A and C found in the matrix was due to de novo synthesis as no extranuclear pools of these lamins were detected in the undifferentiated cells. These results provide biochemical evidence that, as in amphibian embryogenesis, there are variations in nuclear lamina composition during mammalian development. ...
Adult human male germ cell tumors are unique in their display of histopathologies that resemble different stages of human development, and thus comprise a model system for the study of molecular mechanisms involved in human ES3 cell development (1) . Cell lines derived from such tumors, in particular, EC, have provided an invaluable in vitro resource in which molecular events regulating cell fate/lineage decision can be studied (2) . The EC cell lines can be maintained in an undifferentiated state in vitro, and undergo spontaneous or morphogen-induced differentiation programs. Some display the ability to differentiate along both somatic and extra-embryonic lineages placing them as equivalents of cells in the inner cell mass of the developing embryo (3 , 4) , whereas others exhibit a more restricted pluripotential differentiation program (5 , 6) . Global perspectives of the expression patterns of such cell lines during different differentiation programs may lead to the identification of genes ...
Two distinct murine heat shock transcription factors, HSF1 and HSF2, have been identified. HSF1 mediates the transcriptional activation of heat shock genes in response to environmental stress, while the function of HSF2 is not understood. Both factors can bind to heat shock elements (HSEs) but are maintained in a non-DNA-binding state under normal growth conditions. Mouse embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are the only mammalian cells known to exhibit HSE-binding activity, as determined by gel shift assays, even when maintained at normal physiological temperatures. We demonstrate here that the constitutive HSE-binding activity present in F9 and PCC4.aza.R1 EC cells, as well as a similar activity found to be present in mouse embryonic stem cells, is composed predominantly of HSF2. HSF2 in F9 EC cells is trimerized and is present at higher levels than in a variety of nonembryonal cell lines, suggesting a correlation of these properties with constitutive HSE-binding activity. Surprisingly, ...
Substantial multiplication in vitro of cloned cells from a human embryonal carcinoma cell line, Tera 2, has been obtained in a basal medium (DMEM/Hams F12,50:50, v/v) supplemented with 10 micrograms low density lipoprotein/ml, 100 micrograms high density lipoprotein/ml, 100 ng multiplication stimulating activity/ml, 100 ng insulin/ml and 1 microgram transferrin/ml. The growth rate appears to be similar to that obtained in 10% serum. Furthermore, studies on the expression of cell surface receptors revealed that cloned Tera 2 cells express high-affinity receptors for IGF-II but not for insulin. The cells also express receptors for Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) even though the addition of EGF does not stimulate their proliferation in serum-free medium. These results suggest that the expression of specific growth factor receptors is not an absolute determinant of hormone responsiveness. ...
Changes to cell cycle-regulating machinery that occur during differentiation of cells are thought to be responsible mostly for withdrawal from cycling. Here, embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell lines were found that differ in their basal levels of p27 inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases but not in their growth rates, distribution of cells in phases of cell cycle, and their ability to differentiate. High basal levels of p27 did not substitute for up-regulation of p27 that in EC cells normally occurs early after entering a differentiation pathway. Under both standard and differentiation-supporting culture conditions, variances in the levels of p27 were strictly followed by variances in the levels of cyclins D2 and D3. In EC cells genetically manipulated to overexpress p27 protein, cyclin D3 became up-regulated and vice versa. Supposedly, titration of p27 by D-type cyclins, which prevents its inhibitory action toward cyclin-dependent kinase 2, allows for the maintenance of elevated p27 in proliferating ...
Overall survival of 425 advanced renal-cell carcinoma patients treated with outpatient s.c. IL-2/INF-α2a therapy (A). Overall survival of 163 low-risk patients
Mcburney, M W. and Strutt, B, "Fusion of embryonal carcinoma cells to fibroblast cells, cytoplasts, and karyoplasts." (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 1089 ...
An embryonal carcinoma is a malignant growth that develops in germ cells. Common types of embryonal carcinomas include teratomas...
Embryonal carcinoma is a germ cell tumor characterized by primitive epithelial cells with marked pleomorphism and various histologic patterns. It may present in pure form but often is part of a mixed germ cell tumor.
T-cell factor 3 (TCF3), a downstream effector of Wnt signaling in embryonic stem (ES) cells, plays an important role in pluripotent self-renewal and proliferation. Loss of TCF3 delays the differentiation of mouse ES cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of TCF3 on embryonal carcinoma (EC). The mouse F9 EC cell line and a tumor-bearing mouse model were used to evaluate the anti-EC tumor effects of TCF3 in vitro and in vivo, respectively. The overexpression of TCF3 significantly inhibited proliferation, colony-forming and migration in F9 EC cells by approximately 30, 45 and 30%, respectively. The in vivo mouse model showed that the overexpression of TCF3 significantly reduced tumor volume (36.4%) and tumor weight (34.8%), malignancy progression and local infiltration and prolonged the life span of tumor-bearing mice. Overexpression of TCF3 significantly down-regulated Oct4 expression in the F9 EC cells. The results indicate that TCF3 is an inhibitor of the malignant ...
Oshima, R, "Stimulation of the clonal growth and differentiation of feeder layer dependent mouse embryonal carcinoma cells by beta-mercaptoethanol." (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 2177 ...
Neuronal and mesodermal differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells is characterized by expression of specific marker genes and modulated by activin and fibroblast growth factors ...
Historically, only few chemicals have been identified as neurodevelopmental toxicants, however, concern remains, and has recently increased, based upon the association between chemical exposures and increased developmental disorders. Diminution in motor speed and latency has been reported in preschool children from agricultural communities. Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are pesticides due to their acute insecticidal effects mediated by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, although other esterases as neuropathy target esterase (NTE) can also be inhibited. Other neurological and neurodevelopmental toxic effects with unknown targets have been reported after chronic exposure to OPs in vivo. We studied the initial stages of retinoic acid acid-triggered differentiation of pluripotent cells towards neural progenitors derived from human embryonal carcinoma stem cells to determine if neuropathic OP, mipafox, and non-neuropathic OP, paraoxon, are able to alter differentiation of neural precursor cells in
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Genome wide profiling of human embryonic stem cells (hescs), their derivatives and embryonal carcinoma cells to develop base profiles of u.S. Federal government approved hesc lines ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of a murine cellular SV40 T antigen in SV40-transformed cells and uninfected embryonal carcinoma cells. AU - Linzer, D. I H. AU - Maltzman, W.. AU - Levine, A. J.. PY - 1979/12/1. Y1 - 1979/12/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018692275&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0018692275&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 6253135. AN - SCOPUS:0018692275. VL - 44. SP - 215. EP - 224. JO - Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. JF - Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. SN - 0091-7451. IS - 1. ER - ...
INTRODUCTION Cancer of the testes is currently the most frequent neoplasm and a leading cause of morbidity in men 15-35 years of age. Its incidence is increasing. Embryonal carcinoma is its most malignant form, which either may be resistant or may develop resistance to therapies, which results in relapses. Cancer stem cells are hypothesized to be drivers of these phenomena. SPECIFIC AIM The specific aim of this work was identification and isolation of spectra of single, living cancer stem cells, which were acquired directly from the patients biopsies, followed by testing of their pluripotency. PATIENTS METHODS Biopsies were obtained from the patients with the clinical and histological diagnoses of the primary, pure embryonal carcinomas of the testes. The magnetic and fluorescent antibodies were genetically engineered. The SSEA-4 and TRA-1-60 cell surface display was analyzed by multiphoton fluorescence spectroscopy (MPFS), flow cytometry (FCM), immunoblotting (IB), nuclear magnetic resonance
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Pao, P.C., Huang, N.K., Liu, Y.W., Yeh, S.H., Lin, S.T., Hsieh, C.P., Huang, A.M., Huang, H.S., Tseng, J.T., Chang, W.C., Lee, Y.C. (2011) A novel RING finger protein, Znf179, modulates cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. Cell Death and Differentiation 18:1791-1804 ...
Current clinical judgment in bladder cancer (BC) relies primarily on pathological stage and grade. We investigated whether a molecular classification of tumor cell differentiation, based on a developmental biology approach, can provide additional prognostic information. Exploiting large preexisting gene-expression databases, we developed a biologically supervised computational model to predict markers that correspond with BC differentiation. To provide mechanistic insight, we assessed relative tumorigenicity and differentiation potential via xenotransplantation. We then correlated the prognostic utility of the identified markers to outcomes within gene expression and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue datasets. Our data indicate that BC can be subclassified into three subtypes, on the basis of their differentiation states: basal, intermediate, and differentiated, where only the most primitive tumor cell subpopulation within each subtype is capable of generating xenograft tumors and ...
Detailed information about the celline expression of FKBP5 in NTERA-2 stained with HPA031092. The antibody showed a High level of staining
Boer B, KNopp J, Mallanna S, Desler M, Chakravarthy H, Wilder PJ, Bernadt C, Rizzino A.Elevating the levels of Sox2 in embryonal carcinoma cells and embryonic stem cells inhibits the expression of Sox2:Oct-3/4 target genes. Nucleic Acids Res 2007 35(6):1773-1786 Abstract ...
The retinoids exert potent growth and differentiation effects on normal, embryonic and neoplastic cells. Although retinoids are known to regulate gene transcription through activation of retinoid receptors, the direct target genes of retinoid receptors remain largely unknown. A human embryonal carcinoma (EC) model was employed to determine the importance of p53 in retinoid-mediated differentiation and signaling. The hypothesis was that one mechanism by which retinoids regulate gene expression and mediate beneficial anti-tumor effects is by activation of p53 transactivation activity. RA was found to enhance the transactivation function of p53 in the human EC line NT2/D1. A derived RA-resistant line, NT2/D1-R1, was deficient in this activity, and also exhibited cross-resistance to cisplatin. This suggested a model in which RA and cisplatin signaling pathways impinge upon p53 in human EC cells. Further evidence generated to support this model is the following: (1) RA-induced p53 activity could be ...
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Vertebrate Hox and Otx genes encode homeodomain-containing transcription factors thought to transduce positional information along the body axis in the segmental portion of the trunk and in the rostral brain, respectively. Moreover, Hox and Otx2 genes show a complementary spatial regulation during embryogenesis. A 1821-base pair (bp) upstream DNA fragment of the Otx2 gene is positively regulated by co-transfection with expression vectors for the human HOXB1, HOXB2, and HOXB3 proteins in an embryonal carcinoma cell line (NT2/D1) and a shorter fragment of only 534 bp is able to drive this regulation. The HOXB1, HOXB2, and HOXB3 DNA-binding region on the 534-bp Otx2 genomic fragment has been demonstrated using nuclear extracts from Hox-transfected COS cells and 12.5 days postcoitum mouse embryos or HOXB3 homeodomain-containing bacterial extracts. HOXB1, HOXB3, and nuclear extracts from 12.5 day mouse embryos bind to a sequence containing two palindromic TAATTA sites, which bear four copies of the ...
The number of down regulated genes ranged from 4. 7% in NTERA 2 R NTERA 2 to 37. 7% in NCCIT R NCCIT and 53. 3% in 2102EP R 2102EP cell line pairs. Thirty four overlapping genes were found in the two pairs NTERA 2 R NTERA 2 and NCCIT R NCCIT. The overlap ping number of differentially expressed genes was only 5 between cell line blog of sinaling pathways pairs NTERA 2 R NTERA 2 and 2102EP R 2102EP, and 6 between NCCIT R NCCIT and 2102EP R 2102EP. Only hsa miR 10b cell lines exposed to increasing concentrations of cisplatin resulted in a 2. 7 11. 3 increase in IC50 to the substance, as measured by the MTT assay 2,5 Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide. Whereas the IC50 values of the sensitive parental cell lines were 0. 45 uM, 0. 75 uM, and 1. 75 uM, respectively, the three cisplatin resistant sublines exhibited IC50 values of 5.. 1 uM in NTERA 2R, 4. 9 uM Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries in 2102EP R, and 4. 7 uM in NCCIT R. Results of the cytotoxicity experiments have been reported else where. and has miR ...
... : The cells were biopsied directly from the primary tumors of the patients diagnosed with the embryonal carcinoma of the testes (huECT bio) (in the figure 3, the patients encoded 001-009), the mononuclear cells from bone marrow (huBMMC) and from peripheral blood (huPBMC), the cultured human embryonic stem cell lines (H1, H13, H14) (huESC cc), and the cultured cells from metastasis to lungs of the testicular embryonal carcinoma (NT2D1) (huECT cc), labeled with the superparamagnetic Fvs targeting TRA-1-6- and SSEA-4, and isolated with magnetic sorter to enrich the samples purity better than 99.5% with the statistical significance accepted at p , 0.001 ...
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common neurodegenerative disease that is caused by mutations in the survival of motor neuron gene (SMN), leading to reduced levels of the SMN protein in affected individuals. In SMA, motor neurons selectively degenerate, however, the mechanism of cell death and the precise role of SMN in this process are not completely understood. In this study, we apply RNA interference (RNAi) to knockdown Smn gene expression in the murine embryonal carcinoma stem cell line P19, which can be differentiated into neuronal cells. A direct effect of Smn loss on apoptotic cell death in differentiated P19 neuronal cells, and to a lesser extent in undifferentiated cells was observed. Apoptosis could be partly reversed by expression of an SMN rescue construct, was reversible by the addition of the caspase-inhibitor ZVAD-fmk and involved the cytochrome c pathway. This study shows for the first time that knockdown of SMN results in apoptosis in mammalian neuronal cells and has implications for
ERV can be put to physiological use by their hosts, either at the gene regulatory level or as proteins. Tissue-specific enhancers in the ERV LTR are an example of transcriptional control. All mammals express amylase in the pancreas, but rodents and Old World primates also express amylase in salivary glands. In both the cases, ERV elements play a role in salivary expression in remarkably convergent evolution. The activation of salivary amylase in the human parotid gland is controlled by a retroviral insertion, which occurred during Old World primate evolution [54]. Then gene triplication of the amylase gene and its LTR enhancer to further enhance amylase secretion occurred after hominids split from chimpanzees. It may have provided selective advantage to the hominid lineage when, like rodents, they adopted a diet containing complex carbohydrates.. Many years ago, it was noted that MLV is not transcriptionally active in murine embryonal carcinoma stem cells, but that during differentiation into ...
Human tissue samples. Fresh frozen human nonneoplastic brain tissue and human tumor samples were obtained from the Department of Pathology at Brigham and Womens Hospital. All human materials were used in accordance with the policies of institutional review board at Brigham and Womens Hospital.. Cell lines and culturing conditions. Early-passage (passage 3) cultures from four independent human high-grade gliomas were a generous gift from Dr. David Louis (Massachusetts General Hospital). From each of the four high-grade gliomas, three cultures were established to give a total of 12 early-passage cultures (passage 3) used in our studies. Human glioblastoma cell lines A172, U87, LN229, U373, LN428, and LN308 were kindly donated by Drs. Azad Bonni and Rosalind Segal (Harvard University). All glioblastoma cell lines were maintained in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Undifferentiated P19 mouse embryonal carcinoma cells were cultured in αMEM supplemented with 10% FBS and were ...
Background: Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) is involved in Wnt-5a-induced migration of gastric and breast cancer cells. We investigated the roles of RhoA and Wnt-5a in ovarian carcinoma. Methods: RhoA and Wnt-5a mRNA and protein expression in normal fallopian tube epithelium, benign tumors, primary ovarian carcinomas, and metastatic omentum were quantified. RhoA or Wnt-5a was knocked down in OVCAR3 ovarian carcinoma cells using siRNAs and cell phenotype and expression of relevant molecules were assayed. Results: RhoA and Wnt-5a mRNA and protein expression were found to be significantly higher in metastatic omentum than in ovarian carcinomas, benign tumors, and normal fallopian tube epithelium (p < 0.05), and positively associated with differentiation and FIGO staging (stage I/II vs. stage III/IV) in ovarian carcinoma (p < 0.05). RhoA and Wnt-5a expression were positively correlated in ovarian carcinoma (p = 0.001, R2 = 0.1669). RhoA or Wnt-5a knockdown downregulated RhoA and Wnt-5a
In contrast to many other genes containing a CpG island, the testis-specific H2B (TH2B) histone gene exhibits tissue-specific methylation patterns in correlation with gene activity. Characterization of the methylation patterns within a 20-kb segment containing the TH2A and TH2B genes in comparison with that in a somatic histone cluster revealed that: (i) the germ cell-specific unmethylated domain of the TH2A and TH2B genes is defined as a small region surrounding the CpG islands of the TH2A and TH2B genes and (ii) somatic histone genes are unmethylated in both liver and germ cells, like other genes containing CpG islands, whereas flanking sequences are methylated. Transfection of in vitro-methylated TH2B, somatic H2B, and mouse metallothionein I constructs into F9 embryonal carcinoma cells revealed that the CpG islands of the TH2A and TH2B genes were demethylated like those of the somatic H2A and H2B genes and the metallothionein I gene. The demethylation of those CpG islands became ...
gp200 renal cell carcinoma marker, 0.1 mg. |p|gp200 is a surface membrane glycoprotein expressed on human embryonal carcinoma and is a malignant stem cell of testicular tumors.
Downregulation of miR-320a/383-sponge-like long non-coding RNA NLC1-C (narcolepsy candidate-region 1 genes) is associated with male infertility and promotes testicular embryonal carcinoma cell proliferation. Lü M, et al. Cell Death and Disease, 2015 ...
The human cultures described here satisfy the criteria used to define pluripotent stem cells. These include presentation of a series of markers commonly used to identify pluripotent stem cells, morphological similarity to mouse ES and EG cells, normal and stable karyotype maintained over at least 10 passages, and demonstrated ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types.. The histological profile of these human cells (AP+, SSEA-1+, SSEA-3+, SSEA-4+, TRA-1-60+, and TRA-1-81+) differs from undifferentiated human embryonal carcinoma (EC) and rhesus ES cells, which are SSEA-1 negative (15, 38). The fact that differentiation of the human EC line NTERA2 leads to increased expression of SSEA-1 may suggest that this marker is indicative of differentiation in the human PGC-derived cultures. However, NTERA2 differentiation is accompanied by the loss of the other markers (39, 40), which we do not observe. A second possibility is that SSEA-1 reactivity reflects an intrinsic difference between ...
The lack of an inducible differentiation or lineage system for smooth muscle has been a major limitation in studies of smooth muscle development and has impeded efforts to identify genetic elements involved in the regulation of smooth muscle lineage determination and/or differentiation. The positive identification of smooth muscle lineages has also been problematic for several reasons. First, SMCs do not undergo terminal differentiation or cell fusion and therefore are not readily identifiable by morphological criteria. Second, many markers of differentiated smooth muscle such as SM α-actin, h-caldesmon, (α, β)-metavinculin, and γ-vinculin are or can be expressed by non-SMCs, including developing skeletal and cardiac muscle28 29 and other contractile cells in vivo53 54 55 and in a variety of cultured cell lines.30 31 32 33 Additionally, it is well established that the differentiated state of SMCs is extremely plastic40 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 and appears to be dependent on ...
The high mobility group (HMG) of nuclear proteins regulates expression of many genes through architectural remodelling of the chromatin structure, and formation of multiprotein complexes on promoter/enhancer regions. This leads to the active transcription of their target genes. Here we show that HMGA2, a member of the HMGA sub-family of HMG proteins, has a critical function in cardiogenesis. Overexpression of HMGA2 enhanced, whereas siRNA-mediated knockdown of HMGA2 blocked, cardiomyocyte differentiation of the embryonal carcinoma cell line P19CL6. Moreover, overexpression of a dominant-negative HMGA2 or morpholino-mediated knockdown of HMGA2 expression blocked normal heart formation in Xenopus laevis embryos, suggesting that HMGA2 has an important role in cardiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, HMGA2 associated with Smad1/4 and showed synergistic trans-activation of the gene for a cardiac transcription factor Nkx2.5; a conserved HMGA2 binding site was required for the promoter ...
Charles C Chung, Peter A Kanetsky, Zhaoming Wang, Michelle A T Hildebrandt, Roelof Koster, Rolf I Skotheim, Christian P Kratz, Clare Turnbull, Victoria K Cortessis, Anne C Bakken, D Timothy Bishop, Michael B Cook, R Loren Erickson, Sophie D Fosså, Kevin B Jacobs, Larissa A Korde, Sigrid M Kraggerud, Ragnhild A Lothe, Jennifer T Loud, Nazneen Rahman, Eila C Skinner, Duncan C Thomas, Xifeng Wu, Meredith Yeager, Fredrick R Schumacher, Mark H Greene, Stephen M Schwartz, Katherine A McGlynn, Stephen J Chanock, Katherine L Nathanson, Meta-analysis identifies four new loci associated with testicular germ cell tumor, Nature Genetics, 2013, 45, 6, ...
Incidence and survival for testicular germ cell tumor in young males: A report from the Northern Region Young Persons Malignant Disease Registry, United ...
Clone REA157 recognizes the TRA-1-60 antigen, a neuraminidase-resistant carbohydrate epitope expressed on podocalyxin, which is a transmembrane glycoprotein. Podocalyxin is a member of the CD34-related family of sialomucins and is recognized as a stem cell and tumor marker. TRA-1-60 antigen is expressed on the surface of human embryonic stem cells (ESC), embryonic germ cells (EG), and embryonic carcinoma cells (EC). Expression of TRA-1-60 is lost upon differentiation and thus it can be used to assess the differentiation stage of the cells. TRA-1-60 can be detected in the serum of patients with germ cell tumors which contain an EC component. Additional information: Clone REA157 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Liechtenstein
Learn about this Germ Cell Tumor and Extragonadal Embryonal Carcinoma study at UC Health (now recruiting people ages up to 49 years!)
Clone REA1085 recognizes the human CD30 antigen, a cell membrane protein, which is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, and also known as Ki-1. CD30 is used as a tumor marker and is found on Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (H/RS) cells, embryonal carcinoma cells, and on activated T and B lymphocytes. It functions as a receptor for TNFSF8/CD30L and is involved in the regulation of cellular growth and transformation of activated lymphoblasts and regulates signal transduction by activation of NF-κB. Additional information: Clone REA1085 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - USA
MATERIAL ŞI METODĂ Am efectuat un studiu retrospectiv, unicentric, observaţional, al pacienţilor. Rate it * You Rated it * 0. Memorator pentru calcule in industria alimentara. აშშ- ის ელჩის კულტურული. Moved Permanently. Google PR- Yandex CY. Tell readers what you thought by rating and reviewing this book. 00% of search traffic. Remission in some cases of lymphoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, embryonal carcinoma of the testis, colon cancer, liver cancer and disseminated mesothelioma. Pacienţii operaţi pentru cancer de rect mediu şi inferior. Subscribe to our newsletter for being the first to receive information on those articles and the offers posted on the website. Brazilian Keratin Treatment Advanced yet fast and simple to use treatment that instantly straightens, smoothes, repairs, conditions and strengthens the hair using an intense conditioning remedy which restores vitality by repairing the hair from the inside out ...
Midkine (MK or MDK) also known as neurite growth-promoting factor 2 (NEGF2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MDK gene. Midkine is a basic heparin-binding growth factor of low molecular weight, and forms a family with pleiotrophin (NEGF1, 46% homologous with MK). It is a nonglycosylated protein, composed of two domains held by disulfide bridges. It is a developmentally important retinoic acid-responsive gene product strongly induced during mid-gestation, hence the name midkine. Restricted mainly to certain tissues in the normal adult, it is strongly induced during oncogenesis, inflammation and tissue repair. MK is pleiotropic, capable of exerting activities such as cell proliferation, cell migration, angiogenesis and fibrinolysis. A molecular complex containing receptor-type tyrosine phosphatase zeta (PTPζ), low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP1), anaplastic leukemia kinase (ALK) and syndecans is considered to be its receptor. MK appears to enhance the angiogenic ...
Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells have served as a model to study the relationship between cancer and cellular differentiation given their potential to produce tumors and, to varying degrees, participate in embryonic development. Here, nuclear transplantation was used to assess the extent to which the tumorigenic and developmental potential of EC cells is governed by epigenetic as opposed to genetic alterations. Nuclei from three independent mouse EC cell lines (F9, P19, and METT-1) with differing developmental and tumorigenic potentials all were able to direct early embryo development, producing morphologically normal blastocysts that gave rise to nuclear transfer (NT)-derived embryonic stem (ES) cell lines at a high efficiency. However, when tested for tumor or chimera formation, the resulting NT ES cells displayed an identical potential as their respective donor EC cells, in stark contrast to previously reported NT ES cells derived from transfer of untransformed cells. Consi stent with this ...
A series of human germ cell-derived tumors were examined for the presence of nucleoli which persist through mitosis. Embryonal carcinomas, seminomas, and the cytotrophoblasts of choriocarcinomas had persistent nucleoli in more than 70% of mitoses. The differentiated cells derived from embryonal carcinomas, endodermal sinus tumors, and the more differentiated elements of choriocarcinomas only rarely had persistent nucleoli. These nucleoli appeared to remain transcriptionally active.. ...
Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine Shanghai 200025 China 3 Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of Chinese Ministry of Education Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine Shanghai 200025 China 4 Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100000 China Correspondence Ying Jin Tel 86 21 63852591 E mail yjin sibs ac cn Transcription factor Oct4 plays critical roles in maintaining pluripotency and controlling lineage commitment of embryonic stem cells ESCs Our previous study indicates that Wwp2 a mouse HECT type E3 ubiquitin ligase ubiquitinates Oct4 and promotes its degradation in a heterologous system However roles of Wwp2 in regulating endogenous Oct4 protein levels as well as molecular characteristics of the function of Wwp2 have not been determined Here we report that Wwp2 plays an important role in Oct4 ubiquitination and degradation during differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells ECCs although it does not appear to affect Oct4 protein levels ...
We are recruiting two groups of men: men with TGCT and men without TGCT. These two groups of men will be very much the same in other respects. Studying two groups of men who are similar except for their cancer diagnosis will help us to identify differences between men who do and do not have TGCT.. We are recruiting men with testicular cancer (our cases) from hospitals in Philadelphia and the surrounding counties. We are recruiting men without TGCT (our controls) from the same area using random address based sampling. Given the possible genetic and environmental components of TGCT, we are also interested in gathering data from the parents of our cases. ...
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm of young men 15-45 years of age, and incidence of these tumors has been increasing in recent decades for reasons currently unknown. Histologic type of TGCT can be divided into the broad categories of seminomas and non-seminomas. It currently remains to be elucidated if these histologic types share a common etiology. In this study we analyzed the largest set of bilateral cases of TGCT ever assembled, 550, to determine if the histologic type of the first tumor predicts that of the second. Presuming an individual with a history of two primary tumors has the same risk factors for both tumors, a concordance of histologic types in the same individual would suggest that the risk factors for seminomas and non-seminomas differ. The data show no association between the histologic type of the first and second tumors when the analysis is adjusted for the age at first diagnosis (odds ratio (OR)=0.95) This finding suggests that the ...
A group of 2,739 infertile men whose testes were biopsied during the investigation of infertility in the period from January 1955 to December 1992 have been reviewed. Unilateral intratubular germ cell neoplasia was seen in the testicular biopsies of 16 patients and was always associated with testicular atrophy (Johnsen score lower than 4). Germ cell tumors of the testis occurred in 50% of untreated patients within 6 years and the longest period of tumor-free follow-up was 10 years. A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the incidence of tumors in a subset of 1,639 infertile men biopsied between 1955 and 1982. Three of the patients, without intratubular germ cell neoplasia on the biopsy, were found to have developed a germ cell tumor. The incidence and management of intratubular germ cell neoplasia in infertile men is discussed.. ...
1998 Thomson et al., derive human ES cells from the inner cell mass of normal human blastocysts donated by couples undergoing treatment for infertility. The cells are cultured through many passages, retain their normal karyotypes, maintain high levels of telomerase activity, and express a panel of markers typical of human EC cells non-human primate ES cells. Several (non-clonal) cell lines are established that form teratomas when injected into immune-deficient mice. The teratomas include cell types derived from all three primary germ layers, demonstrating the pluripotency of human ES cells. Gearhart and colleagues derive human embryonic germ (EG) cells from the gonadal ridge and mesenchyma of 5- to 9-week fetal tissue that resulted from elective abortions. They grow EG cells in vitro for approximately 20 passages, and the cells maintain normal karyotypes. The cells spontaneously form aggregates that differentiate spontaneously, and ultimately contain derivatives of all three primary germ ...
Yolk sac tumors (YST) are also known as endodermal sinus tumors (EST) and infantile embryonal carcinoma. They are a type of germ cell tumor that can be found in infants and adults.
Site: ovarian; stage: COG stage II and III, FIGO stage IC, II and III; histology: must contain at least one of the following: yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma, or choriocarcinoma (pure or mixed); age (years) ,= 11 and - Site: testicular; stage: COG stage II-IV, AJCC stage II, III, International Germ Cell Consensus Classification (IGCCC) good risk; histology: must contain at least one of the following: yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma, or choriocarcinoma (pure or mixed); tumor markers: for IGCCC good risk: alpha-FP = 11 and - Site: extragonadal; stage: COG stage II; histology: must contain at least one of the following: yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma, or choriocarcinoma (pure or mixed) age (years) ,= 11 and 10. Patients must have a performance status corresponding to Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) scores of 0, 1 or 2; use Karnofsky for patients , 16 years of age and Lansky for patients =11. Serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) (aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) or ...
Inactivation from the (mouse stress leads to depletion of primordial germ cells (PGCs) in order that mice become sterile. and for that reason its reduction in mice results in PGC depletion, germ cell tumor development and partial embryonic lethality in the 129 strain. mouse strain evolves testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) much like congenital tumors which happen in the testes of human being babies (testicular type I germ cell tumors) [1; 2; 3]. Tumors in the 129-strain develop from primordial germ cells (PGCs) during embryonic development [4; 5; 6; 7]. A progressive loss of PGCs is definitely observed in buy AZD2014 mice starting at embryonic day time (E) 8.5 [8]. As a result mice are sterile at birth. However, in males, some of the PGCs escape death and become transformed to embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells. Clusters of proliferating EC cells are 1st recognized at E15.5 within the embryonic gonads [9; 10]. The proliferating EC cells disrupt the normal architecture of the gonads. Soon after ...
Chromosomal imbalances associated with carcinoma in situ and associated testicular germ cell tumours of adolescents and adults. Carcinoma in situ (CIS) or intratubular germ cell neoplasia is generally considered the precursor lesion of adult testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT). The chromosomal imbalances associated with CIS and the corresponding seminoma (SE) or nonseminoma (NS) have been determined by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis of microdissected material from seven cases. Significantly, the CIS showed no gain of 12p material whereas in the invasive components of all cases gain of 12p was found, in 2 cases associated with amplification of the 12p11.2-12.1 region. Interphase fluorescence in situ analysis was consistent with this and provided evidence for the i(12p) or 12p11.2-12.1 amplification in the SE and NS but not in the corresponding CIS. This suggests a role for these changes in progression of CIS to invasive testicular cancer or progression of the invasive disease. ...
Aksoy, Irene,Giudice, Vincent,Delahaye, Edwige,et al. Klf4 And Klf5 Differentially Inhibit Mesoderm And Endoderm Differentiation In Embryonic Stem Cells[J]. Nature Communications,2014,5 ...
The synapsin family consists of three neuronal-specific phosphoproteins associated with dynamic reorganization of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Synapsin I and II are implicated in axonal and synaptic differentiation, formation and maintenance, whereas the function of synapsin III is not as well defined …
Relative overrepresentation of the short of chromosome 12, mostly as isochromosomes (i(12p)), is considered to be characteristic for testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs). Here we show that gain of...
Piulats JM, Vidal A, García-Rodríguez FJ, Muñoz C, Nadal M, Moutinho C, Martínez-Iniesta M, Mora J, Figueras A, Guinó E, Padullés L, Aytés À, Molleví DG, Puertas S, Martínez-Fernández C, Castillo W, Juliachs M, Moreno V, Muñoz P, Stefanovic M, Pujana MA, Condom E, Esteller M, Germà JR, Capella G, Farré L, Morales A, Viñals F, García-Del-Muro X, Cerón J, Villanueva A. Orthoxenografts of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors Demonstrate Genomic Changes Associated with Cisplatin Resistance and Identify PDMP as a Resensitizing Agent. Clin Cancer Res. 2018 Apr 4. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-1898 ...
Mixed germ cell tumors arise from the primordial germ cells located in the developing gonads. The various morphological patterns of germ cell tumors fall under the category of germinomatous or dysgerminomatous. Dysgerminomatous germ cell tumors comprise extraembryonic re yolk sac and placenta, and embryonic differentiation. Subtypes include embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor (extraembryonic), choriocarcinoma (extraembryonic), teratoma (immature and/or mature), polyembryoma and gonadoblastoma. Mixed germ cell tumors include both categories, and may be benign or malignant.. Malignant mixed germ cell tumors comprise ,10% of all malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. The majority of tumors arise in women of reproductive age (,30 years), and clinical presentation varies from nonspecific abdominopelvic pain and fullness to vaginal bleeding. Physical examination of a unilateral or bilateral mass and imaging techniques are important for clinical diagnosis. Tumor markers are also used to help direct the ...
Purpose To discuss the expression of S100A4 and E-cad in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and their significance.Methods Expression of S100A4 and E-cad was detected by using immunohistochemical SP method in oral squamous cell carcinoma.Correlation between the expression and clinicopathological features was analyzed.Results Expression of S100A4 had positive correlation with lymph node metastasis (P0.05), and no correlation with histological grade(P0.05). Expression of E-cad had positive correlation with histological grade and negative correlation with lymph node metastasis(P0.05). Inverse relationship between S100A4 and E-cad expression was observed in oral squamous cell carcinoma(P0.05).Conclusions E-cad plays an important role in differentiation of OSCC. E-cad and S100A4 is closely related to invasion and metastasis of OSCC. Expression of S100A4 and E-cadherin is significantly associated with tumor progression in oral squamous cell carcinoma,which are valuable markers in predicting biological
Abstract Background SOX2 is a core component of the transcriptional network responsible for maintaining embryonal carcinoma cells (ECCs) in a pluripotent, undifferentiated state of self-renewal. As such, SOX2 is an oncogenic transcription factor and crucial cancer stem cell (CSC) biomarker in embryonal carcinoma and, as more recently found, in the stem-like cancer cell component of many other malignancies. SOX2 is furthermore a crucial factor in the maintenance of adult stem cell phenotypes and has additional roles in cell fate determination. The SOX2-linked microRNA (miRNA) transcriptome and regulome has not yet been fully defined in human pluripotent cells or CSCs. To improve our understanding of the SOX2-linked miRNA regulatory network as a contribution to the phenotype of these cell types, we used high-throughput differential miRNA and gene expression analysis combined with existing genome-wide SOX2 chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data to map the SOX2 miRNA transcriptome in two human ...
The MSCV (Murine Stem Cell Virus) Retroviral Expression System contains vectors that are optimized for introducing & expressing target genes in pluripotent cell lines, including human hematopoietic, embryonic stem and embryonal carcinoma cells.
The MSCV (Murine Stem Cell Virus) Retroviral Expression System contains vectors that are optimized for introducing & expressing target genes in pluripotent cell lines, including human hematopoietic, embryonic stem and embryonal carcinoma cells.
Seminoma is the most common pure germ cell tumor (GCT) of the testis, accounting for up to 50% of cases. Among mixed GCTs, seminoma is also commonly present, in which the combination of teratoma, seminoma, yolk sac tumor, and embryonal carcinoma represent about one third of mixed cases.
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GATA-6, a zinc finger transcription factor, is important in the endodermal differentiation of organ tissues.[4] It is also indicated in proper lung development by controlling the late differentiation stages of alveolar epithelium and aquaporin-5 promoter activation. Furthermore, GATA-6 has been linked to the production of LIF, a cytokine that encourages proliferation of endodermal embryonic stem cells and blocks early epiblast differentiation. If left unregulated in the developing embryo, this cytokine production and chemical signal contributes to the phenotypes discussed further below.[5] Upon the disruption of GATA-6 in an embryo, the distal lung epithelial development is stunted in transgenic mice models[4] The progenitor cells, or stem cells, for alveolar epithelial tissues develop and are specified appropriately, however further differentiation does not occur. Also the distal-proximal bronchiole development is affected, resulting in a reduced quantity of airway exchange sites.[4] This ...
... - Many testicular cancers contain both seminoma and non-seminoma cells. These mixed germ cell tumors are treated as non-seminomas. In this stage, the cancer
Since embryonal carcinoma can differentiate into cells of all three germ layers, P19 cells can also differentiate into those ... When embryonal carcinoma cells are cultured at high density, they would start differentiation process. By aggregating the cells ... van der Heyden, MA; Defize, LH (2003-05-01). "Twenty one years of P19 cells: what an embryonal carcinoma cell line taught us ... For developmental biologists, embryonal carcinoma, which is derived from teratocarcinoma, is a good object for developmental ...
Gerard, Smith, Austin (1986). "Genetic analysis of embryonal carcinoma cells". "Stage set for world-leading stem cell research ...
metaplastic carcinoma [18] Sarcoma botryoides no botryoid sarcoma, botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma; subtype of embryonal ... Micrograph of a small-cell carcinoma showing cells with nuclear moulding, minimal amount of cytoplasm and stippled chromatin. ... these include leukemia and most forms of carcinoma in situ. Tumor is also not synonymous with cancer. While cancer is by ...
embryonal carcinoma, ICD-O 9070/3). *mieszany rak gruczołowy (ang. mixed adenocarcinoma, ICD-O 8255/3) ... high grade neuroendocrine carcinoma, ICD-O 8246/3) *z dużych komórek (ang. large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, ICD-O 8013/3) ... squamous cell carcinoma, ICD-O 8070/3). *rak z limfoidnym podścieliskiem (rdzeniasty) (ang. carcinoma with lymphoid stroma ( ... signet ring cell carcinoma and other variants; poorly cohesive carcinoma, ICD-O 8490/3) ...
Schopperle WM, Kershaw DB, DeWolf WC (Jan 2003). "Human embryonal carcinoma tumor antigen, Gp200/GCTM-2, is podocalyxin". ...
Boulter CA, Wagner EF (March 1988). "The effects of v-src expression on the differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells". ... Przyborski SA (2001). "Isolation of human embryonal carcinoma stem cells by immunomagnetic sorting". Stem Cells. 19 (6): 500-4 ... "The small heat shock protein hsp25 is accumulated in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells and embryonic stem cells of line BLC6 during ... acid represses a cassette of candidate pluripotency chromosome 12p genes during induced loss of human embryonal carcinoma ...
Zhang L, Yoshida K, Liu J, Rosenberg RD (1999). "Anticoagulant heparan sulfate precursor structures in F9 embryonal carcinoma ...
Piccolo was a running back for the Bears from 1966 until his untimely death from embryonal cell carcinoma on June 16, 1970, at ... When Piccolo died in 1970, embryonal cell carcinoma was 100% fatal. With advances in medicine over the years, more than 50% of ... He was then diagnosed with embryonal cell carcinoma, an aggressive form of testicular cancer that had already spread to his ...
The most common specific subtypes are intratubular embryonal carcinoma and intratubular seminoma. GCNIS is seen in the ... unspecified variant of the entity was once considered to be a carcinoma in situ although the term "carcinoma in situ" is now ... Carcinoma in situ Germ cell tumor ITGCN. H&E stain. Bettocchi C, Coker CB, Deacon J, Parkinson C, Pryor JP (1994). "A review of ... Dieckmann KP, Skakkebaek NE (December 1999). "Carcinoma in situ of the testis: review of biological and clinical features". Int ...
"Switched alternative splicing of oncogene CoAA during embryonal carcinoma stem cell differentiation". Nucleic Acids Research. ...
Jones-Villeneuve EM, McBurney MW, Rogers KA, Kalnins VI (1982). "Retinoic acid induces embryonal carcinoma cells to ... Historically, embryonic carcinoma (EC) cells have also been used. Fibroblasts or other differentiated cell types have been used ...
Embryonal cell carcinoma Embryonal cell carcinomas, a more aggressive tumor than seminoma usually occurs in men in their 30s. ... Twenty percent of embryonal cell carcinomas have cystic components. The tumor may invade into the tunica albuginea resulting in ... At ultrasound, embryonal cell carcinomas are predominantly hypoechoic lesions with ill defined margins and an inhomogeneous ... Although it is the second most common testicular tumor after seminoma, pure embryonal cell carcinoma is rare and constitutes ...
"The secreted glycoprotein CREG enhances differentiation of NTERA-2 human embryonal carcinoma cells". Oncogene. 19 (17): 2120-8 ...
Aizawa T, Maruyama K, Kondo H, Yoshikawa K (1992). "Expression of necdin, an embryonal carcinoma-derived nuclear protein, in ...
1984). "Pluripotent embryonal carcinoma clones derived from the human teratocarcinoma cell line Tera-2. Differentiation in vivo ... NTERA-2 cells were originally isolated from a lung metastasis from a 22-year-old male patient with primary embryonal carcinoma ... The NTERA-2 (also designated NTERA2/D1, NTERA2, or NT2) cell line is a clonally derived, pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma ... Andrews PW (1984). "Retinoic acid induces neuronal differentiation of a cloned human embryonal carcinoma cell line in vitro". ...
Schoorlemmer J, Kruijer W (Dec 1991). "Octamer-dependent regulation of the kFGF gene in embryonal carcinoma and embryonic stem ... knockdown of Oct4 and beta2-microglobulin expression by RNA interference in human embryonic stem cells and embryonic carcinoma ...
... embryonal carcinoma) cell line". Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 84 (1): 130-41. doi:10.1016/0165-3806(94)00166-W. PMID 7720212. ...
"Gap junction blockage interferes with neuronal and astroglial differentiation of mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma cells". Dev. ...
... cells and embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells: opposite sides of the same coin". 》Biochemical Society Transactions》 33 (Pt 6): 1526- ... "MULTIPOTENTIALITY OF SINGLE EMBRYONAL CARCINOMA CELLS". 》Cancer Research》 24: 1544-1551. ISSN 0008-5472. PMID 14234000.. ...
In pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells, LIN28 is localized in the ribosomes, P-bodies and stress granules. LIN28 is thought ... "Micro-RNA regulation of the mammalian lin-28 gene during neuronal differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells". Molecular and ...
Andrews P, Matin M, Bahrami A, Damjanov I, Gokhale P, Draper J (2005). "Embryonic stem (ES) cells and embryonal carcinoma (EC) ... isolated from the teratocarcinoma replicated and grew in cell culture as a stem cell and are now known as embryonal carcinoma ( ... Kleinsmith LJ, Pierce GB Jr (1964). "Multipotentiality of Single Embryoncal Carcinoma Cells". Cancer Res. 24: 1544-51. PMID ...
"Renal cell carcinoma antigen is expressed by yolk sac tumors and yolk sac elements of embryonal carcinomas". Applied ... "A new gene coding for an antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on a human renal carcinoma". Immunogenetics. ... of RAGE-1 and MAGE-9 peptide-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte lines for transfer in patients with renal cell carcinoma". ...
"AP-1 and Krox-24 transcription factors activate the neurofilament light gene promoter in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells". Cell ...
It is the most common testicular tumor in children under 3, and is also known as infantile embryonal carcinoma. This age group ... particularly teratoma and embryonal carcinoma. While pure teratoma is usually benign, endodermal sinus tumor is malignant. The ...
"Downregulation of microRNA-383 is associated with male infertility and promotes testicular embryonal carcinoma cell ...
F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... Catenin and EMT interactions may also play a role in hepatocellular carcinoma. VEGF-B treatment of hepatoma carcinoma cells can ... Kobielak A, Fuchs E (February 2006). "Links between alpha-catenin, NF-kappaB, and squamous cell carcinoma in skin". Proc. Natl ... In another example, Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been identified as activating microRNA-181s in hepatocellular carcinoma that ...
Definition of embryonal carcinoma. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... embryonal carcinoma. Definition: a malignant neoplasm of the testis or ovary, composed of anaplastic cells with indistinct ...
Males with embryonal carcinoma tend to have a normal range serum AFP. The finding of elevated AFP is more suggestive of a mixed ... Embryonal carcinoma is a relatively uncommon type of germ cell tumour that occurs in the ovaries and testes. In the ovary, ... In the testis pure embryonal carcinoma is also uncommon, and accounts for approximately ten percent of testicular germ cell ... One fifth to two thirds of patients with tumours composed predominantly of embryonal carcinoma have metastases at diagnosis. ...
Embryonal carcinoma is a germ cell tumor characterized by primitive epithelial cells with marked pleomorphism and various ... Intratubular embryonal carcinoma is commonly associated with embryonal carcinoma (see the image below). Intratubular embryonal ... encoded search term (Pathology of Embryonal Carcinoma) and Pathology of Embryonal Carcinoma What to Read Next on Medscape. ... About 3-10% of pure germ cell tumors are embryonal carcinomas, and embryonal carcinomas are present in more than 80% of mixed ...
An embryonal carcinoma is a malignant growth that develops in germ cells. Common types of embryonal carcinomas include ... An embryonal carcinoma is a malignant growth which develops in germ cells. These types of cancers can be seen in men, women, ... Treatment for an embryonal carcinoma can be supervised by an oncologist, who will work with other members of a medical team ... In men, embryonal carcinomas such as seminomas are often responsible for testicular cancer. If the cancer is allowed to grow, ...
Fifteen of the 54 germ cell tumors containing embryonal carcinoma were also examined with antibodies to CD30. These embryonal ... The embryonal carcinoma of the testis is a germ cell neoplasm. Clinically, these tumors present much like other testicular ... OCT4 Staining in Testicular Tumors: A Sensitive and Specific Marker for Seminoma and Embryonal Carcinoma.. Jones TD, Ulbright ... It has been detected in primary testicular germ cell tumors with pluripotent potential, seminoma, and embryonal carcinoma. We ...
Disease relevance of Carcinoma, Embryonal. *Mouse teratocarcinoma stem cells (embryonal carcinoma, or EC cells) bind very small ... Biological context of Carcinoma, Embryonal. *Murine embryonal carcinoma cells (ECCs) do not express antigens of the major ... High impact information on Carcinoma, Embryonal. *All of these properties are induced in undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma ... Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Carcinoma, Embryonal. *Indirect immunofluorescence on embryonal carcinoma ...
The mouse embryonal carcinoma lines PCC4-F and F9 have played important roles in the isolation and characterization of the two ... Previous Document: P19 embryonal carcinoma cells.. Next Document: Midkine (MK), the product of a retinoic acid responsive gene ... The mouse embryonal carcinoma lines PCC4-F and F9 have played important roles in the isolation and characterization of the two ...
Using NTera2/clone D1 (NT2/D1) human embryonal carcinoma cells as a model, we report that the RA induced terminal ... Overexpression of the retinoic acid receptor gamma directly induces terminal differentiation of human embryonal carcinoma cells ...
... and infantile embryonal carcinoma. They are a type of germ cell tumor that can be found in infants and adults. ... Yolk sac tumors (YST) are also known as endodermal sinus tumors (EST) and infantile embryonal carcinoma. ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject areas.
... *Authors: *Guimiao Lin ... The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of TCF3 on embryonal carcinoma (EC). The mouse F9 EC cell line and a ... Lin, G., Zhao, L., Yin, F., Lan, R., Li, L., Zhang, X., Zhang, H., Yang, B.TCF3 inhibits F9 embryonal carcinoma growth by the ... Lin, G., Zhao, L., Yin, F., Lan, R., Li, L., Zhang, X., Zhang, H., Yang, B.TCF3 inhibits F9 embryonal carcinoma growth by the ...
... acid acid-triggered differentiation of pluripotent cells towards neural progenitors derived from human embryonal carcinoma stem ... Tegenge, M.A.; Roloff, F.M.; Bicker, G. Rapid differentiation of human embryonal carcinoma stem cells (NT2) into neurons for ... Genomic and Phenotypic Alterations of the Neuronal-Like Cells Derived from Human Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells (NT2) Caused by ... neurodifferentiation; neurodevelopmental toxicity; NT2; organophosphorus pesticides; NTE; human embryonal carcinoma stem cells ...
... Choroid plexus carcinoma. *High grade glioma (including anaplastic astrocytoma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, anaplastic ... Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue. Neoplasms by Site. Nervous System Diseases. Cyclophosphamide. ...
The Human Embryonal Carcinoma Marker Antigen TRA-1-60 Is a Sialylated Keratan Sulfate Proteoglycan. Graeme Badcock, Christine ... Human embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are the stem cells of teratocarcinomas, and they are key components of germ cell tumors ( ... The Human Embryonal Carcinoma Marker Antigen TRA-1-60 Is a Sialylated Keratan Sulfate Proteoglycan ... The Human Embryonal Carcinoma Marker Antigen TRA-1-60 Is a Sialylated Keratan Sulfate Proteoglycan ...
Proviral sequences that restrict retroviral expression in mouse embryonal carcinoma cells.. T P Loh, L L Sievert, R W Scott ... Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are nonpermissive for retrovirus replication. Restriction of retroviral expression in EC cells ... Proviral sequences that restrict retroviral expression in mouse embryonal carcinoma cells. Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
Characterization of constitutive HSF2 DNA-binding activity in mouse embryonal carcinoma cells.. S P Murphy, J J Gorzowski, K D ... Mouse embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are the only mammalian cells known to exhibit HSE-binding activity, as determined by gel ... Characterization of constitutive HSF2 DNA-binding activity in mouse embryonal carcinoma cells. ... Characterization of constitutive HSF2 DNA-binding activity in mouse embryonal carcinoma cells. ...
Mesodermal differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells in coculture with visceral endoderm cell lines PIERSMA A. H. ... Retinoic acid resistance of the variant embryonal carcinoma cell line rac65 is caused by expression of a truncated rar alpha ... ggregation and cell cycle dependent retinoic acid receptor mRNA expression in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells JONK L. J. C. ... Isolation of male embryonal carcinoma cells and their chromosome replication patterns MCBURNEY M. W. ...
... and human embryonal carcinoma cells (ECs) if we are to exploit these cells in regenerative medicine regimes. Correlating gene ...
Defective expression of adenovirus genes during early infection of undifferentiated OTF963 embryonal carcinoma cells.. C C ... These results suggest limits to the generality and explanatory power of the hypothesis that F9 embryonal carcinoma cells ... Defective expression of adenovirus genes during early infection of undifferentiated OTF963 embryonal carcinoma cells. ... Defective expression of adenovirus genes during early infection of undifferentiated OTF963 embryonal carcinoma cells. ...
... an embryonal carcinoma cell line derived from a human testicular cancer. We evaluated their dose- and time-dependent effects on ... appear to be potent inhibitors of cell viability and inducers of apoptosis in NTERA-2 human embryonal carcinoma cells. Our ... Epigenetic targeting by histone deacetylase inhibitors reduces viability and induces apoptosis in human embryonal carcinoma ... Epigenetic targeting by histone deacetylase inhibitors reduces viability and induces apoptosis in human embryonal carcinoma ...
DNMT3L Is a Novel Marker and Is Essential for the Growth of Human Embryonal Carcinoma. Kahori Minami, Tokuhiro Chano, Takahiro ... embryonal carcinoma, EC), embryonal-like somatic differentiated (teratoma), and extraembryonally differentiated ( ... Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is regularly expressed by tumor cells of embryonal carcinoma. Am J Pathol 1988;133:446-50. ... We then studied the role of DNMT3L in TGCTs by the treatment of two embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell lines with a small ...
Demethylation of somatic and testis-specific histone H2A and H2B genes in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells.. Y C Choi, C B Chae ... Transfection of in vitro-methylated TH2B, somatic H2B, and mouse metallothionein I constructs into F9 embryonal carcinoma cells ... Demethylation of somatic and testis-specific histone H2A and H2B genes in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells. ... Demethylation of somatic and testis-specific histone H2A and H2B genes in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells. ...
Inhibition of proliferation and induction of differentiation of pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma cells by osteogenic ... of recombinant human OP-1 on the proliferation and differentiation of an established pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma (EC ...
Differentiation of human embryonal carcinoma cells induces human immunodeficiency virus permissiveness which is stimulated by ... Over-expression of the retinoic acid receptor gamma directly induces the terminal differentiation of human embryonal carcinoma ... Differentiation of tera 2 human embryonal carcinoma cells into neurons and human cytomegalovirus permissive cells induction by ... Heat shock induces differentiation of human embryonal carcinoma cells into trophectoderm lineages. Experimental Cell Research. ...
Human embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells comprise the pluripotent stem cells of malignant non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (GCTs) ... Ectopic activation of WNT signaling in human embryonal carcinoma cells and its effects in short- and long-term in vitro culture ... Ectopic activation of WNT signaling in human embryonal carcinoma cells and its effects in short- and long-term in vitro culture ...

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